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Sample records for borna disease virus

  1. Borna disease virus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Wensman, Jonas Johansson; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Holst, Bodil Ström; Berg, Mikael

    2014-08-01

    Bornaviruses are known to cause neurological disorders in a number of animal species. Avian Bornavirus (ABV) causes proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in birds and Borna disease virus (BDV) causes Borna disease in horses and sheep. BDV also causes staggering disease in cats, characterised by ataxia, behavioural changes and loss of postural reactions. BDV-infection markers in cats have been reported throughout the world. This review summarizes the current knowledge of Borna disease viruses in cats, including etiological agent, clinical signs, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics, with comparisons to Bornavirus infections in other species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel Borna Virus in Psittacine Birds with Proventricular Dilatation Disease

    PubMed Central

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Shivaprasad, H.L.; Williams, Brent L.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds. PMID:19046511

  3. Novel borna virus in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease.

    PubMed

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Shivaprasad, H L; Williams, Brent L; Quan, Phenix Lan; Hornig, Mady; Street, Craig; Palacios, Gustavo; Hutchison, Stephen K; Franca, Monique; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian

    2008-12-01

    Pyrosequencing of cDNA from brains of parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), an unexplained fatal inflammatory central, autonomic, and peripheral nervous system disease, showed 2 strains of a novel Borna virus. Real-time PCR confirmed virus presence in brain, proventriculus, and adrenal gland of 3 birds with PDD but not in 4 unaffected birds.

  4. Borna disease virus infection in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Richt, J. A.; Pfeuffer, I.; Christ, M.; Frese, K.; Bechter, K.; Herzog, S.

    1997-01-01

    The geographic distribution and host range of Borna disease (BD), a fatal neurologic disease of horses and sheep, are larger than previously thought. The etiologic agent, Borna disease virus (BDV), has been identified as an enveloped nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with unique properties of replication. Data indicate a high degree of genetic stability of BDV in its natural host, the horse. Studies in the Lewis rat have shown that BDV replication does not directly influence vital functions; rather, the disease is caused by a virus-induced T-cell mediated immune reaction. Because antibodies reactive with BDV have been found in the sera of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, this review examines the possible link between BDV and such disorders. Seroepidemiologic and cerebrospinal fluid investigations of psychiatric patients suggest a causal role of BDV infection in human psychiatric disorders. In diagnostically unselected psychiatric patients, the distribution of psychiatric disorders was found to be similar in BDV seropositive and seronegative patients. In addition, BDV-seropositive neurologic patients became ill with lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. In contrast to others, we found no evidence is reported for BDV RNA, BDV antigens, or infectious B DV in peripheral blood cells of psychiatric patients. PMID:9284379

  5. Detection of Serum Antibodies to Borna Disease Virus in Patients with Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rott, R.; Herzog, S.; Fleischer, B.; Winokur, A.; Amsterdam, J.; Dyson, W.; Koprowski, H.

    1985-05-01

    Borna disease virus causes a rare meningoencephalitis in horses and sheep and has been shown to produce behavioral effects in some species. The possibility that the Borna virus is associated with mental disorders in humans was evaluated by examining serum samples from 979 psychiatric patients and 200 normal volunteers for the presence of Borna virus-specific antibodies. Antibodies were detected by the indirect immunofluorescence focus assay. Antibodies to the virus were demonstrated in 16 of the patients but none of the normal volunteers. The patients with the positive serum samples were characterized by having histories of affective disorders, particularly of a cyclic nature. Further studies are needed to define the possible involvement of Borna virus in human psychiatric disturbances.

  6. Wild birds as a possible natural reservoir of Borna disease virus.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, M.; Johansson, M.; Montell, H.; Berg, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    The natural reservoir of Borna disease virus (BDV) is unknown. In this paper, we show that mallards (Anas platyrhyncos) and jackdaws (Corvus monedula) can be subclinically infected carriers of this virus. From faecal samples collected at a bird pond, we were able to amplify fragments of the BDV p24 and p40 genes. Following cloning and sequencing, a phylogenetic analysis revealed that these birds carry strains of BDV closely related to but distinct from the reference strains BDV V and He/80. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed finding of BDV in wild birds. PMID:11561971

  7. Detection of Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in Patients with First Episode of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Hasan; Mohammadzadeh, Serwa; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Pakseresht, Siroos; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV) may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide. Method: In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR) was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group. Results: In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic. Conclusion: An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia. PMID:28050187

  8. Detection of Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in Patients with First Episode of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Hasan; Mohammadzadeh, Serwa; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Pakseresht, Siroos; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV) may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide. Method: In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR) was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group. Results: In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic. Conclusion: An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia.

  9. Borna disease virus phosphoprotein modulates epigenetic signaling in neurons to control viral replication.

    PubMed

    Bonnaud, Emilie M; Szelechowski, Marion; Bétourné, Alexandre; Foret, Charlotte; Thouard, Anne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Malnou, Cécile E

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the modalities of interaction of neurotropic viruses with their target cells represents a major challenge that may improve our knowledge of many human neurological disorders for which viral origin is suspected. Borna disease virus (BDV) represents an ideal model to analyze the molecular mechanisms of viral persistence in neurons and its consequences for neuronal homeostasis. It is now established that BDV ensures its long-term maintenance in infected cells through a stable interaction of viral components with the host cell chromatin, in particular, with core histones. This has led to our hypothesis that such an interaction may trigger epigenetic changes in the host cell. Here, we focused on histone acetylation, which plays key roles in epigenetic regulation of gene expression, notably for neurons. We performed a comparative analysis of histone acetylation patterns of neurons infected or not infected by BDV, which revealed that infection decreases histone acetylation on selected lysine residues. We showed that the BDV phosphoprotein (P) is responsible for these perturbations, even when it is expressed alone independently of the viral context, and that this action depends on its phosphorylation by protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that BDV P inhibits cellular histone acetyltransferase activities. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating cellular acetylation levels, we observed that inhibiting cellular acetyl transferases reduces viral replication in cell culture. Our findings reveal that manipulation of cellular epigenetics by BDV could be a means to modulate viral replication and thus illustrate a fascinating example of virus-host cell interaction. Persistent DNA viruses often subvert the mechanisms that regulate cellular chromatin dynamics, thereby benefitting from the resulting epigenetic changes to create a favorable milieu for their latent and persistent states. Here, we reasoned that Borna disease virus (BDV), the only RNA virus known to

  10. Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Impairs the Developmental Program Controlling Neurogenesis and Reduces Human GABAergic Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scordel, Chloé; Szelechowski, Marion; Poulet, Aurélie; Richardson, Jennifer; Benchoua, Alexandra; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Eloit, Marc; Coulpier, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that persistent viral infection may impair cellular function of specialized cells without overt damage. This concept, when applied to neurotropic viruses, may help to understand certain neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Borna disease virus (BDV) is an excellent example of a persistent virus that targets the brain, impairs neural functions without cell lysis, and ultimately results in neurobehavioral disturbances. Recently, we have shown that BDV infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and impairs neurogenesis, revealing a new mechanism by which BDV may interfere with brain function. Here, we sought to identify the viral proteins and molecular pathways that are involved. Using lentiviral vectors for expression of the bdv-p and bdv-x viral genes, we demonstrate that the phosphoprotein P, but not the X protein, diminishes human neurogenesis and, more particularly, GABAergic neurogenesis. We further reveal a decrease in pro-neuronal factors known to be involved in neuronal differentiation (ApoE, Noggin, TH and Scg10/Stathmin2), demonstrating that cellular dysfunction is associated with impairment of specific components of the molecular program that controls neurogenesis. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that a viral protein impairs GABAergic human neurogenesis, a process that is dysregulated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. They improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which a persistent virus may interfere with brain development and function in the adult. PMID:25923687

  11. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wuqi; Kao, Wenping; Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fengmin

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  12. Linkage between the leader sequence and leader RNA production in Borna disease virus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Honda, Tomoyuki; Sofuku, Kozue; Kojima, Shohei; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ohtaki, Naohiro; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2017-10-01

    The 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the non-segmented, negative-strand (NNS) RNA viral genome is called the leader sequence, and functions as the promoter for viral replication and transcription. NNS RNA viruses also use the sequence as a template to synthesize leader RNAs (leRNAs) with unknown functions. Borna disease virus (BDV) is unique because it establishes a persistent infection and replicates in the nucleus. No report has yet demonstrated the presence of leRNAs during BDV infection. Here, we report that BDV synthesizes leRNAs from the 3'-UTR of the genome. They started at position 5 in the 3'-UTR and ended by the transcription start signal of the nucleoprotein gene. The level of leRNA production is not correlated with the levels of viral replication and transcription. On the other hand, mutation of the 3'-UTR affects leRNA production. Our findings add a novel viral transcript to the BDV life cycle and shed light on BDV replication and/or transcription. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytokine expression in the rat central nervous system following perinatal Borna disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sauder, C; de la Torre, J C

    1999-04-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) causes central nervous system (CNS) disease in several vertebrate species, which is frequently accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. In the adult rat, intracerebral (i.c.) BDV infection leads to immunomediated meningoencephalitis. In contrast, i.c. infection of neonates causes a persistent infection in the absence of overt signs of brain inflammation. These rats (designated PTI-NB) display distinct behavioral and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. However, the molecular mechanisms for these virally induced CNS disturbances are unknown. Cytokines play an important role in CNS function, both under normal physiological and pathological conditions. Astrocytes and microglia are the primary resident cells of the central nervous system with the capacity to produce cytokines. Strong reactive astrocytosis is observed in the PTI-NB rat brain. We have used a ribonuclease protection assay to investigate the mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in different brain regions of PTI-NB and control rats. We show here evidence of a chronic upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins-1alpha, and -1beta in the hippocampus and cerebellum of the PTI-NB rat brain. These brain regions exhibited only a very mild and transient immune infiltration. In contrast, in addition to reactive astrocytes, a strong and sustained microgliosis was observed in the PTI-NB rat brains. Our data suggest that CNS resident cells, namely astrocytes and microglia, are the major source of cytokine expression in the PTI-NB rat brain. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Loss of connexin36 in rat hippocampus and cerebellar cortex in persistent Borna disease virus infection.

    PubMed

    Köster-Patzlaff, Christiane; Hosseini, Seyed Mehdi; Reuss, Bernhard

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV) infection of the Lewis rat leads to progressive degeneration of dentate gyrus granule cells, and cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Our aim here was to clarify whether BDV interfered with the formation of electrical synapses, and we, therefore, analysed expression of the neuronal gap junction protein connexin36 (Cx36) in the Lewis rat hippocampal formation, and cerebellar cortex, 4 and 8 weeks after neonatal infection. Semiquantitative RT-PCR, revealed a BDV-dependent decrease in Cx36 mRNA in the hippocampal formation 4 and 8 weeks post-infection (p.i.), and in the cerebellar cortex 8 weeks p.i. Correspondingly, immunofluorescent staining revealed reduced Cx36 immunoreactivity in both dentate gyrus, and ammons horn CA3 region, 4 and 8 weeks post-infection. In the cerebellar cortex, Cx36 immunoreactivity was detected only 8 weeks post-infection in the molecular layer, where it was down regulated by BDV. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, distinct BDV-dependent reductions in Cx36 mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampal formation and cerebellar cortex, suggesting altered neuronal network properties to be an important feature of persistent viral brain infections.

  15. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang; and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  16. Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Represses p53-Mediated Transcriptional Activity by Interference with HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoqi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kamitani, Wataru; Komoto, Satoshi; Yamashita, Makiko; Baba, Satoko; Yanai, Hideyuki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2003-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a noncytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that has a broad host range in warm-blooded animals, probably including humans. Recently, it was demonstrated that a 24-kDa phosphoprotein (P) of BDV directly binds to a multifunctional protein, amphoterin-HMGB1, and inhibits its function in cultured neural cells (W. Kamitani, Y. Shoya, T. Kobayashi, M. Watanabe, B. J. Lee, G. Zhang, K. Tomonaga, and K. Ikuta, J. Virol. 75:8742-8751, 2001). This observation suggested that expression of BDV P may cause deleterious effects in cellular functions by interference with HMGB1. In this study, we further investigated the significance of the binding between P and HMGB1. We demonstrated that P directly binds to the A-box domain on HMGB1, which is also responsible for interaction with a tumor suppression factor, p53. Recent works have demonstrated that binding between HMGB1 and p53 enhances p53-mediated transcriptional activity. Thus, we examined whether BDV P affects the transcriptional activity of p53 by interference with HMGB1. Mammalian two-hybrid analysis revealed that p53 and P competitively interfere with the binding of each protein to HMGB1 in a p53-deficient cell line, NCI-H1299. In addition, P was able to significantly decrease p53-mediated transcriptional activation of the cyclin G promoter. Furthermore, we showed that activation of p21waf1 expression was repressed in cyclosporine-treated BDV-infected cells, as well as p53-transduced NCI-H1299 cells. These results suggested that BDV P may be a unique inhibitor of p53 activity via binding to HMGB1. PMID:14581561

  17. The diagnosis of proventricular dilatation disease: use of a Western blot assay to detect antibodies against avian Borna virus.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Itamar; Gray, Patricia; Mirhosseini, Negin; Payne, Susan; Hoppes, Sharman; Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Briese, Thomas; Turner, Debra; Tizard, Ian

    2010-07-14

    Avian Borna virus (ABV) has recently been shown to be the causal agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) a lethal neurologic disease of captive psittacines and other birds. An immunoblot assay was used to detect the presence of antibodies against avian Borna virus in the serum of affected birds. A lysate from ABV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts served as a source of antigen. The assay was used to test for the presence of antibodies to ABV in 117 birds. Thirty of these birds had biopsy or necropsy-confirmed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), while the remaining 87 birds were apparently healthy or were suffering from diseases other than PDD. Sera from 27 of the 30 PDD cases (90%) contained antibodies to ABV. Seventy-three (84%) of the apparently "healthy" birds were seronegative. Additionally, sera from seven macaws and one parrot trapped in the Peruvian Amazon were seronegative. Positive sera recognized the bornaviral nucleoprotein (N-protein). While the presence of antibodies to ABV largely corresponded with the development of clinical PDD, 14 apparently healthy normal birds possessed detectable antibodies to ABV. The existence of a carrier state was confirmed when 13 of 15 apparently healthy cockatiels were shown by PCR to have detectable ABV RNA in their feces. Western blot assays may be of significant assistance in diagnosing proventricular dilatation disease. Many apparently healthy birds may however be seronegative while, at the same time, shedding ABV in their feces.

  18. Primary psychosis and Borna disease virus infection in Lithuania: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Zaliunaite, Violeta; Steibliene, Vesta; Bode, Liv; Podlipskyte, Aurelija; Bunevicius, Robertas; Ludwig, Hanns

    2016-11-03

    The hypothesis that microbial infections may be linked to mental disorders has long been addressed for Borna disease virus (BDV), but clinical and epidemiological evidence remained inconsistent due to non-conformities in detection methods. BDV circulating immune complexes (CIC) were shown to exceed the prevalence of serum antibodies alone and to comparably screen for infection in Europe (DE, CZ, IT), the Middle East (IR) and Asia (CN), still seeking general acceptance. We used CIC and antigen (Ag) tests to investigate BDV infection in Lithuania through a case-control study design comparing in-patients suffering of primary psychosis with blood donors. One hundred and six acutely psychotic in-patients with no physical illness, consecutively admitted to the regional mental hospital, and 98 blood donors from the Blood Donation Centre, Lithuania, were enrolled in the study. The severity of psychosis was assessed twice, prior and after acute antipsychotic therapy, by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). BDV-CIC and Ag markers were tested once after therapy was terminated. What we found was a significantly higher prevalence of CIC, indicating a chronic BDV infection, in patients with treated primary psychosis than in blood donor controls (39.6 % vs. 22.4 %, respectively). Free BDV Ag, indicating currently active infection, did not show significant differences among study groups. Higher severity of psychosis prior to treatment was inversely correlated to the presence of BDV Ag (42.6 vs. 34.1 BPRS, respectively; p = 0.022). The study concluded significantly higher BDV infection rates in psychotic than in healthy Lithuanians, thus supporting similar global trends for other mental disorders. The study raised awareness to consider the integration of BDV infection surveillance in psychiatry research in the future.

  19. The bicolored white-toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon (HERMANN 1780) is an indigenous host of mammalian Borna disease virus.

    PubMed

    Dürrwald, Ralf; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Weissenböck, Herbert; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Borna disease (BD) is a sporadic neurologic disease of horses and sheep caused by mammalian Borna disease virus (BDV). Its unique epidemiological features include: limited occurrence in certain endemic regions of central Europe, yearly varying disease peaks, and a seasonal pattern with higher disease frequencies in spring and a disease nadir in autumn. It is most probably not directly transmitted between horses and sheep. All these features led to the assumption that an indigenous virus reservoir of BDV other than horses and sheep may exist. The search for such a reservoir had been unsuccessful until a few years ago five BDV-infected shrews were found in a BD-endemic area in Switzerland. So far, these data lacked further confirmation. We therefore initiated a study in shrews in endemic areas of Germany. Within five years 107 shrews of five different species were collected. BDV infections were identified in 14 individuals of the species bicolored white-toothed shrew (Crocidura leucodon, HERMANN 1780), all originating from BD-endemic territories. Immunohistological analysis showed widespread distribution of BDV antigen both in the nervous system and in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues without pathological alterations. Large amounts of virus, demonstrated by presence of viral antigen in epithelial cells of the oral cavity and in keratinocytes of the skin, may be a source of infection for natural and spill-over hosts. Genetic analyses reflected a close relationship of the BDV sequences obtained from the shrews with the regional BDV cluster. At one location a high percentage of BDV-positive shrews was identified in four consecutive years, which points towards a self-sustaining infection cycle in bicolored white-toothed shrews. Analyses of behavioral and population features of this shrew species revealed that the bicolored white-toothed shrew may indeed play an important role as an indigenous host of BDV.

  20. Sero-epidemiological analysis of vertical transmission relative risk of Borna disease virus infection in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    ANDO, Tatsuya; TAKINO, Tadashi; MAKITA, Kohei; TAJIMA, Motoshi; KOIWA, Masateru; HAGIWARA, Katsuro

    2016-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a virus that causes a neurological disease in domestic animals, including a variety of animal species in Japan. Few studies have examined the mode of transmission of this virus in cattle, and the exact mechanisms underlying the transmission of the virus need to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the contribution of vertical transmission of the virus, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from the mother to offspring during gestation or birth. We used an epidemiological approach. The relative risk (RR) was calculated for cattle born to BDV sero-positive cows from farms with a higher within-herd prevalence of BDV (56.8%). We tested the sera of 1,122 dairy cattle from 24 dairy herds in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, for BDV infection using the ELISA and western blotting method. The overall level of BDV sero-prevalence was 22.1%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in closed-breeding herds that do not have buying in cows (39.7%) than in farms that restock cattle by buying in cows (4.4%, P<0.01). The overall RR of BDV vertical transmission from infected mothers to their daughters was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54–2.56). Our results show that vertical transmission contributes significantly to BDV transmission in the farms tested in this study. PMID:27498995

  1. Sero-epidemiological analysis of vertical transmission relative risk of Borna disease virus infection in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tatsuya; Takino, Tadashi; Makita, Kohei; Tajima, Motoshi; Koiwa, Masateru; Hagiwara, Katsuro

    2016-12-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a virus that causes a neurological disease in domestic animals, including a variety of animal species in Japan. Few studies have examined the mode of transmission of this virus in cattle, and the exact mechanisms underlying the transmission of the virus need to be elucidated. This study aimed to examine the contribution of vertical transmission of the virus, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from the mother to offspring during gestation or birth. We used an epidemiological approach. The relative risk (RR) was calculated for cattle born to BDV sero-positive cows from farms with a higher within-herd prevalence of BDV (56.8%). We tested the sera of 1,122 dairy cattle from 24 dairy herds in Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan, for BDV infection using the ELISA and western blotting method. The overall level of BDV sero-prevalence was 22.1%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in closed-breeding herds that do not have buying in cows (39.7%) than in farms that restock cattle by buying in cows (4.4%, P<0.01). The overall RR of BDV vertical transmission from infected mothers to their daughters was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.54-2.56). Our results show that vertical transmission contributes significantly to BDV transmission in the farms tested in this study.

  2. Borna disease virus accelerates inflammation and disease associated with transgenic expression of interleukin-12 in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Freude, Susanna; Hausmann, Jürgen; Hofer, Markus; Pham-Mitchell, Ngan; Campbell, Iain L; Staeheli, Peter; Pagenstecher, Axel

    2002-12-01

    Targeted expression of biologically active interleukin-12 (IL-12) in astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) results in spontaneous neuroimmunological disease of aged mice. Borna disease virus (BDV) can readily multiply in the mouse CNS but does not trigger disease in most strains. Here we show that a large percentage of IL-12 transgenic mice developed severe ataxia within 5 to 10 weeks after infection with BDV. By contrast, no disease developed in mock-infected IL-12 transgenic and wild-type mice until 4 months of age. Neurological symptoms were rare in infected wild-type animals, and if they occurred, these were milder and appeared later. Histological analyses showed that the cerebellum of infected IL-12 transgenic mice, which is the brain region with strongest transgene expression, contained large numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as well as lower numbers of B cells, whereas other parts of the CNS showed only mild infiltration by lymphocytes. The cerebellum of diseased mice further showed severe astrogliosis, calcifications and signs of neurodegeneration. BDV antigen and nucleic acids were present in lower amounts in the inflamed cerebellum of infected transgenic mice than in the noninflamed cerebellum of infected wild-type littermates, suggesting that IL-12 or IL-12-induced cytokines exhibited antiviral activity. We propose that BDV infection accelerates the frequency by which immune cells such as lymphocytes and NK cells enter the CNS and then respond to IL-12 present in the local milieu causing disease. Our results illustrate that infection of the CNS with a virus that is benign in certain hosts can be harmful in such normally disease-resistant hosts if the tissue is unfavorably preconditioned by proinflammatory cytokines.

  3. Crystal structure of the Borna disease virus matrix protein (BDV-M) reveals ssRNA binding properties

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Piotr; Lieber, Diana; Meyer, Sylke; Dautel, Philipp; Kerth, Andreas; Kraus, Ina; Garten, Wolfgang; Stubbs, Milton T.

    2009-01-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic enveloped RNA virus that causes a noncytolytic, persistent infection of the central nervous system in mammals. BDV belongs to the order Mononegavirales, which also includes the negative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs) Ebola, Marburg, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, mumps, and measles. BDV-M, the matrix protein (M-protein) of BDV, is the smallest M-protein (16.2 kDa) among the NSVs. M-proteins play a critical role in virus assembly and budding, mediating the interaction between the viral capsid, envelope, and glycoprotein spikes, and are as such responsible for the structural stability and individual form of virus particles. Here, we report the 3D structure of BDV-M, a full-length M-protein structure from a nonsegmented RNA NSV. The BDV-M monomer exhibits structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of the Ebola M-protein (VP40), while the surface charge of the tetramer provides clues to the membrane association of BDV-M. Additional electron density in the crystal reveals the presence of bound nucleic acid, interpreted as cytidine-5′-monophosphate. The heterologously expressed BDV-M copurifies with and protects ssRNA oligonucleotides of a median length of 16 nt taken up from the expression host. The results presented here show that BDV-M would be able to bind RNA and lipid membranes simultaneously, expanding the repertoire of M-protein functionalities. PMID:19237566

  4. Sequence Variability of Borna Disease Virus: Resistance to Superinfection May Contribute to High Genome Stability in Persistently Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Formella, Stephan; Jehle, Christian; Sauder, Christian; Staeheli, Peter; Schwemmle, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The RNA genome of Borna disease virus (BDV) shows extraordinary stability in persistently infected cell cultures. We performed bottleneck experiments in which virus populations from single infected cells were allowed to spread through cultures of uninfected cells and in which RNase protection assays were used to identify virus variants with mutations in a 535-nucleotide fragment of the M-G open reading frames. In one of the cell cultures, the major virus species (designated 2/1) was a variant with two point mutations in the G open reading frame. When fresh cells were infected with a low dose of a virus stock prepared from 2/1-containing cells, only a minority of the resulting persistently infected cultures contained detectable levels of the variant, whereas the others all seemed to contain wild-type virus. The BDV variant 2/1 remained stable in the various persistently infected cell cultures, indicating that the cells were resistant to superinfection by wild-type virus. Indeed, cells persistently infected with prototype BDV He/80 were also found to resist superinfection with strain V and vice versa. Our screen for mutations in the viral M and G genes of different rat-derived BDV virus stocks revealed that only one of four stocks believed to contain He/80 harbored virus with the original sequence. Two stocks mainly contained a novel virus variant with about 3% sequence divergence, whereas the fourth stock contained a mixture of both viruses. When the mixture was inoculated into the brains of newborn mice, the novel variant was preferentially amplified. These results provide evidence that the BDV genome is mutating more frequently than estimated from its invariant appearance in persistently infected cell cultures and that resistance to superinfection might strongly select against novel variants. PMID:10933695

  5. Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by an endogenous bornavirus-like element in the ground squirrel genome

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Kan; Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Merriman, Dana K.; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Animal genomes contain endogenous viral sequences, such as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Recently, we and others discovered that nonretroviral viruses also have been endogenized in many vertebrate genomes. Bornaviruses belong to the Mononegavirales and have left endogenous fragments, called “endogenous bornavirus-like elements” (EBLs), in the genomes of many mammals. The striking features of EBLs are that they contain relatively long ORFs which have high sequence homology to the extant bornavirus proteins. Furthermore, some EBLs derived from bornavirus nucleoprotein (EBLNs) have been shown to be transcribed as mRNA and probably are translated into proteins. These features lead us to speculate that EBLs may function as cellular coopted genes. An EBLN element in the genome of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), itEBLN, encodes an ORF with 77% amino acid sequence identity to the current bornavirus nucleoprotein. In this study, we cloned itEBLN from the ground squirrel genome and investigated its involvement in Borna disease virus (BDV) replication. Interestingly, itEBLN, but not a human EBLN, colocalized with the viral factory in the nucleus and appeared to affect BDV polymerase activity by being incorporated into the viral ribonucleoprotein. Our data show that, as do certain endogenous retroviruses, itEBLN potentially may inhibit infection by related exogenous viruses in vivo. PMID:25157155

  6. Inhibition of Borna disease virus replication by an endogenous bornavirus-like element in the ground squirrel genome.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kan; Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Merriman, Dana K; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2014-09-09

    Animal genomes contain endogenous viral sequences, such as endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons. Recently, we and others discovered that nonretroviral viruses also have been endogenized in many vertebrate genomes. Bornaviruses belong to the Mononegavirales and have left endogenous fragments, called "endogenous bornavirus-like elements" (EBLs), in the genomes of many mammals. The striking features of EBLs are that they contain relatively long ORFs which have high sequence homology to the extant bornavirus proteins. Furthermore, some EBLs derived from bornavirus nucleoprotein (EBLNs) have been shown to be transcribed as mRNA and probably are translated into proteins. These features lead us to speculate that EBLs may function as cellular coopted genes. An EBLN element in the genome of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), itEBLN, encodes an ORF with 77% amino acid sequence identity to the current bornavirus nucleoprotein. In this study, we cloned itEBLN from the ground squirrel genome and investigated its involvement in Borna disease virus (BDV) replication. Interestingly, itEBLN, but not a human EBLN, colocalized with the viral factory in the nucleus and appeared to affect BDV polymerase activity by being incorporated into the viral ribonucleoprotein. Our data show that, as do certain endogenous retroviruses, itEBLN potentially may inhibit infection by related exogenous viruses in vivo.

  7. Evidence for natural Borna disease virus infection in healthy domestic animals in three areas of western China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Zhan, Qunling; Wang, Zhenhai; Xu, Mingming; Zhu, Dan; He, Feng; Liu, Xia; Huang, Rongzhong; Li, Dan; Lei, Yang; Xie, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a non-cytolytic, neurotropic RNA virus that can infect many vertebrate species, including humans. To date, BDV infection has been reported in a range of animal species across a broad global geographic distribution. However, a systematic epidemiological survey of BDV infection in domesticated animals in China has yet to be performed. In current study, BDV RNA and antibodies in 2353 blood samples from apparently healthy animals of eight species (horse, donkey, dog, pig, rabbit, cattle, goat, sheep) from three areas in western China (Xinjiang province, Chongqing municipality, and Ningxia province) were assayed using reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) and ELISA assay. Brain tissue samples from a portion of the BDV RNA- and/or antibody-positive animals were subjected to RT-qPCR and western blotting. As a result, varying prevalence of BDV antibodies and/or RNA was demonstrated in various animal species from three areas, ranging from 4.4 % to 20.0 %. Detection of BDV RNA and/or antibodies in Chongqing pigs (9.2 %) provided the first known evidence of BDV infection in this species. Not all brain tissue samples from animals whose blood was BDV RNA and/or antibody positive contained BDV RNA and protein. This study provides evidence that BDV infection among healthy domestic animal species is more widespread in western China than previously believed.

  8. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xia; Liu, Siwen; Bode, Liv; Liu, Chengyu; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Li, Dan; Lei, Yang; Peng, Xiaojun; Cheng, Zhongyi; and others

    2015-11-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  9. Differential effects of rabies and borna disease viruses on immediate-early- and late-response gene expression in brain tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Z F; Weihe, E; Zheng, Y M; Schäfer, M K; Sheng, H; Corisdeo, S; Rauscher, F J; Koprowski, H; Dietzschold, B

    1993-01-01

    In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis were used to examine expression of the immediate-early-response genes (IEGs) egr-1, junB, and c-fos, and the late response gene encoding enkephalin in the brains of rats infected intranasally with Borna disease virus (BDV) or rabies virus. In both Borna disease and rabies virus infections, a dramatic and specific induction of IEGs was detected in particular regions of the hippocampus and the cortex. Increased IEG mRNA expression overlapped with the characteristic expression patterns of BDV RNA and rabies virus RNA, although relative expression levels of viral RNA and IEG mRNA differed, particularly in the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between viral RNA synthesis and activation of IEG mRNA expression in BDV infection differed markedly from that in rabies virus infection, suggesting that IEG expression is upregulated by different mechanisms. Expression of proenkephalin (pENK) mRNA was also significantly increased in BDV infection, whereas in rabies virus infection, pENK mRNA levels and also the levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA were reduced at terminal stages of the disease, probably reflecting a generalized suppression of cellular protein synthesis due to massive production of rabies virus mRNA. The correlation between activated IEG mRNA expression and the strong increase in viral RNA raises the possibility that IEG products induce some phenotypic changes in neurons that render them more susceptible to viral replication. Images PMID:8411369

  10. Differential effects of rabies and borna disease viruses on immediate-early- and late-response gene expression in brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Fu, Z F; Weihe, E; Zheng, Y M; Schäfer, M K; Sheng, H; Corisdeo, S; Rauscher, F J; Koprowski, H; Dietzschold, B

    1993-11-01

    In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis were used to examine expression of the immediate-early-response genes (IEGs) egr-1, junB, and c-fos, and the late response gene encoding enkephalin in the brains of rats infected intranasally with Borna disease virus (BDV) or rabies virus. In both Borna disease and rabies virus infections, a dramatic and specific induction of IEGs was detected in particular regions of the hippocampus and the cortex. Increased IEG mRNA expression overlapped with the characteristic expression patterns of BDV RNA and rabies virus RNA, although relative expression levels of viral RNA and IEG mRNA differed, particularly in the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between viral RNA synthesis and activation of IEG mRNA expression in BDV infection differed markedly from that in rabies virus infection, suggesting that IEG expression is upregulated by different mechanisms. Expression of proenkephalin (pENK) mRNA was also significantly increased in BDV infection, whereas in rabies virus infection, pENK mRNA levels and also the levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA were reduced at terminal stages of the disease, probably reflecting a generalized suppression of cellular protein synthesis due to massive production of rabies virus mRNA. The correlation between activated IEG mRNA expression and the strong increase in viral RNA raises the possibility that IEG products induce some phenotypic changes in neurons that render them more susceptible to viral replication.

  11. Intracerebral Borna disease virus infection of bank voles leading to peripheral spread and reverse transcription of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Paula Maria; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Heikkilä, Henna Pauliina; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo.We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of

  12. Intracerebral Borna Disease Virus Infection of Bank Voles Leading to Peripheral Spread and Reverse Transcription of Viral RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Paula Maria; Inkeroinen, Hanna; Ilander, Mette; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Heikkilä, Henna Pauliina; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Palva, Airi; Vaheri, Antti; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-01-01

    Bornaviruses, which chronically infect many species, can cause severe neurological diseases in some animal species; their association with human neuropsychiatric disorders is, however, debatable. The epidemiology of Borna disease virus (BDV), as for other members of the family Bornaviridae, is largely unknown, although evidence exists for a reservoir in small mammals, for example bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In addition to the current exogenous infections and despite the fact that bornaviruses have an RNA genome, bornavirus sequences integrated into the genomes of several vertebrates millions of years ago. Our hypothesis is that the bank vole, a common wild rodent species in traditional BDV-endemic areas, can serve as a viral host; we therefore explored whether this species can be infected with BDV, and if so, how the virus spreads and whether viral RNA is transcribed into DNA in vivo. We infected neonate bank voles intracerebrally with BDV and euthanized them 2 to 8 weeks post-infection. Specific Ig antibodies were detectable in 41%. Histological evaluation revealed no significant pathological alterations, but BDV RNA and antigen were detectable in all infected brains. Immunohistology demonstrated centrifugal spread throughout the nervous tissue, because viral antigen was widespread in peripheral nerves and ganglia, including the mediastinum, esophagus, and urinary bladder. This was associated with viral shedding in feces, of which 54% were BDV RNA-positive, and urine at 17%. BDV nucleocapsid gene DNA occurred in 66% of the infected voles, and, surprisingly, occasionally also phosphoprotein DNA. Thus, intracerebral BDV infection of bank vole led to systemic infection of the nervous tissue and viral excretion, as well as frequent reverse transcription of the BDV genome, enabling genomic integration. This first experimental bornavirus infection in wild mammals confirms the recent findings regarding bornavirus DNA, and suggests that bank voles are capable of

  13. Persistent Borna Disease Virus infection changes expression and function of astroglial gap junctions in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Köster-Patzlaff, Christiane; Hosseini, Seyed Mehdi; Reuss, Bernhard

    2007-12-12

    Neonatal Borna Disease Virus (BDV) infection of the Lewis rat brain leads to dentate gyrus (DG) degeneration, underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Since astroglial gap junction (GJ) coupling is known to influence neurodegenerative processes, the question arose whether persistent BDV infection influences astroglial connexins (Cx) Cx43 and Cx30 in the hippocampal formation (HiF) of Lewis rats. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis of forebrain (FB) samples revealed a virus dependent reduction of both Cx types 8 but not 4 weeks post infection (p.i.). Immunohistochemistry revealed an increase of Cx43 in the DG and a decrease in the CA3 region 4 and 8 weeks p.i. Cx30, which was detectable only 8 weeks p.i., revealed a BDV dependent increase in DG and CA3 regions. BDV dependent astrogliosis as revealed by immunodetection of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) correlated not with astroglial connexin expression. With regard to functional coupling as revealed by scrape loading, BDV infection resulted in increased spreading of the GJ permeant dye Lucifer yellow in primary hippocampal astroglial cultures, and in increased expression of Cx43 and Cx30 as revealed by immunocytochemistry. In conclusion, persistent BDV infection of the Lewis rat brain leads to changes in astroglial Cx expression both in vivo and in vitro and of functional coupling in vitro. Distribution and time course of these changes suggest them to be a direct result of neurodegeneration in the DG and an indirect effect of neuronal deafferentiation in the CA3 region.

  14. Layer specific changes of astroglial gap junctions in the rat cerebellar cortex by persistent Borna Disease Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Köster-Patzlaff, Christiane; Hosseini, Seyed Mehdi; Reuss, Bernhard

    2008-07-11

    Neonatal Borna Disease Virus (BDV) infection of the Lewis rat brain, leads to Purkinje cell degeneration, in association with astroglial activation. Since astroglial gap junctions (GJ) are known to influence neuronal degeneration, we investigated BDV dependent changes in astroglial GJ connexins (Cx) Cx43, and Cx30 in the Lewis rat cerebellum, 4, and 8 weeks after neonatal infection. On the mRNA level, RT-PCR demonstrated a BDV dependent increase in cerebellar Cx43, and a decrease in Cx30, 8, but not 4 weeks p.i. On the protein level, Western blot analysis revealed no overall upregulation of Cx43, but an increase of its phosphorylated forms, 8 weeks p.i. Cx30 protein was downregulated. Immunohistochemistry revealed a BDV dependent reduction of Cx43 in the granular layer (GL), 4 weeks p.i. 8 weeks p.i., Cx43 immunoreactivity recovered in the GL, and was induced in the molecular layer (ML). Cx30 revealed a BDV dependent decrease in the GL, both 4, and 8 weeks p.i. Changes in astroglial Cxs correlated not with expression of the astrogliotic marker GFAP, which was upregulated in radial glia. With regard to functional coupling, primary cerebellar astroglial cultures, revealed a BDV dependent increase of Cx43, and Cx30 immunoreactivity and in spreading of the GJ permeant dye Lucifer Yellow. These results demonstrate a massive, BDV dependent reorganization of astroglial Cx expression, and of functional GJ coupling in the cerebellar cortex, which might be of importance for the BDV dependent neurodegeneration in this brain region.

  15. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence of the Borna disease virus X protein improves its mitochondrial targeting and neuroprotective potential.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Cécile A; Davezac, Noélie; Thouard, Anne; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Belenguer, Pascale; Miquel, Marie-Christine; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Szelechowski, Marion

    2016-04-01

    To favor their replication, viruses express proteins that target diverse mammalian cellular pathways. Due to the limited size of many viral genomes, such proteins are endowed with multiple functions, which require targeting to different subcellular compartments. One salient example is the X protein of Borna disease virus, which is expressed both at the mitochondria and in the nucleus. Moreover, we recently demonstrated that mitochondrial X protein is neuroprotective. In this study, we sought to examine the mechanisms whereby the X protein transits between subcellular compartments and to define its localization signals, to enhance its mitochondrial accumulation and thus, potentially, its neuroprotective activity. We transfected plasmids expressing fusion proteins bearing different domains of X fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and compared their subcellular localization to that of eGFP. We observed that the 5-16 domain of X was responsible for both nuclear export and mitochondrial targeting and identified critical residues for mitochondrial localization. We next took advantage of these findings and constructed mutant X proteins that were targeted only to the mitochondria. Such mutants exhibited enhanced neuroprotective properties in compartmented cultures of neurons grown in microfluidic chambers, thereby confirming the parallel between mitochondrial accumulation of the X protein and its neuroprotective potential.-Ferré C. A., Davezac, N., Thouard, A., Peyrin, J. M., Belenguer, P., Miquel, M.-C., Gonzalez-Dunia, D., Szelechowski, M. Manipulation of the N-terminal sequence of the Borna disease virus X protein improves its mitochondrial targeting and neuroprotective potential. © FASEB.

  16. TNF-Overexpression in Borna Disease Virus-Infected Mouse Brains Triggers Inflammatory Reaction and Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Herzog, Sibylle; Richt, Jürgen A.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Herden, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Proinflammatory state of the brain increases the risk for seizure development. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV)-infection of mice with neuronal overexpression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) was used to investigate the complex relationship between enhanced cytokine levels, neurotropic virus infection and reaction pattern of brain cells focusing on its role for seizure induction. Viral antigen and glial markers were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Different levels of TNF in the CNS were provided by the use of heterozygous and homozygous TNF overexpressing mice. Transgenic TNF, total TNF (native and transgenic), TNF-receptor (TNFR1, TNFR2), IL-1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) mRNA values were measured by real time RT-PCR. BDV-infection of TNF-transgenic mice resulted in non-purulent meningoencephalitis accompanied by epileptic seizures with a higher frequency in homozygous animals. This correlated with lower weight gain, stronger degree and progression of encephalitis and early, strong microglia activation in the TNF-transgenic mice, most obviously in homozygous animals. Activation of astroglia could be more intense and associated with an unusual hypertrophy in the transgenic mice. BDV-antigen distribution and infectivity in the CNS was comparable in TNF-transgenic and wild-type animals. Transgenic TNF mRNA-expression was restricted to forebrain regions as the transgene construct comprised the promoter of NMDA-receptor subunit2B and induced up-regulation of native TNF mRNA. Total TNF mRNA levels did not increase significantly after BDV-infection in the brain of transgenic mice but TNFR1, TNFR2 and IL-1 mRNA values, mainly in the TNF overexpressing brain areas. NR2B mRNA levels were not influenced by transgene expression or BDV-infection. Neuronal TNF-overexpression combined with BDV-infection leads to cytokine up-regulation, CNS inflammation and glial cell activation and confirmed the presensitizing effect of elevated cytokine

  17. Central Nervous System Infection with Borna Disease Virus Causes Kynurenine Pathway Dysregulation and Neurotoxic Quinolinic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Simone; Hornig, Mady; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Vasishtha, Mansi; Parsons, Loren H; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W Ian; Williams, Brent L

    2017-07-15

    Central nervous system infection of neonatal and adult rats with Borna disease virus (BDV) results in neuronal destruction and behavioral abnormalities with differential immune-mediated involvement. Neuroactive metabolites generated from the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation have been implicated in several human neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report that brain expression of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway are significantly, but differentially, altered in neonatal and adult rats with BDV infection. Gene expression analysis of rat brains following neonatal infection showed increased expression of kynurenine amino transferase II (KATII) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) enzymes. Additionally, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression was only modestly increased in a brain region- and time-dependent manner in neonatally infected rats; however, its expression was highly increased in adult infected rats. The most dramatic impact on gene expression was seen for KMO, whose activity promotes the production of neurotoxic quinolinic acid. KMO expression was persistently elevated in brain regions of both newborn and adult BDV-infected rats, with increases reaching up to 86-fold. KMO protein levels were increased in neonatally infected rats and colocalized with neurons, the primary target cells of BDV infection. Furthermore, quinolinic acid was elevated in neonatally infected rat brains. We further demonstrate increased expression of KATII and KMO, but not IDO, in vitro in BDV-infected C6 astroglioma cells. Our results suggest that BDV directly impacts the kynurenine pathway, an effect that may be exacerbated by inflammatory responses in immunocompetent hosts. Thus, experimental models of BDV infection may provide new tools for discriminating virus-mediated from immune-mediated impacts on the kynurenine pathway and their relative contribution to neurodegeneration.IMPORTANCE BDV causes persistent, noncytopathic infection in vitro yet still elicits

  18. Central Nervous System Infection with Borna Disease Virus Causes Kynurenine Pathway Dysregulation and Neurotoxic Quinolinic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Formisano, Simone; Hornig, Mady; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Vasishtha, Mansi; Parsons, Loren H.; Briese, Thomas; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Central nervous system infection of neonatal and adult rats with Borna disease virus (BDV) results in neuronal destruction and behavioral abnormalities with differential immune-mediated involvement. Neuroactive metabolites generated from the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation have been implicated in several human neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we report that brain expression of key enzymes in the kynurenine pathway are significantly, but differentially, altered in neonatal and adult rats with BDV infection. Gene expression analysis of rat brains following neonatal infection showed increased expression of kynurenine amino transferase II (KATII) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) enzymes. Additionally, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) expression was only modestly increased in a brain region- and time-dependent manner in neonatally infected rats; however, its expression was highly increased in adult infected rats. The most dramatic impact on gene expression was seen for KMO, whose activity promotes the production of neurotoxic quinolinic acid. KMO expression was persistently elevated in brain regions of both newborn and adult BDV-infected rats, with increases reaching up to 86-fold. KMO protein levels were increased in neonatally infected rats and colocalized with neurons, the primary target cells of BDV infection. Furthermore, quinolinic acid was elevated in neonatally infected rat brains. We further demonstrate increased expression of KATII and KMO, but not IDO, in vitro in BDV-infected C6 astroglioma cells. Our results suggest that BDV directly impacts the kynurenine pathway, an effect that may be exacerbated by inflammatory responses in immunocompetent hosts. Thus, experimental models of BDV infection may provide new tools for discriminating virus-mediated from immune-mediated impacts on the kynurenine pathway and their relative contribution to neurodegeneration. IMPORTANCE BDV causes persistent, noncytopathic infection in vitro yet still

  19. Dual function of the nuclear export signal of the Borna disease virus nucleoprotein in nuclear export activity and binding to viral phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Mako; Sakai, Madoka; Makino, Akiko; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2017-07-11

    Borna disease virus (BoDV), which has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, causes persistent infection in the cell nucleus. The nuclear export signal (NES) of the viral nucleoprotein (N) consisting of leucine at positions 128 and 131 and isoleucine at positions 133 and 136 overlaps with one of two predicted binding sites for the viral phosphoprotein (P). A previous study demonstrated that higher expression of BoDV-P inhibits nuclear export of N; however, the function of N NES in the interaction with P remains unclear. We examined the subcellular localization, viral polymerase activity, and P-binding ability of BoDV-N NES mutants. We also characterized a recombinant BoDV (rBoDV) harboring an NES mutation of N. BoDV-N with four alanine-substitutions in the leucine and isoleucine residues of the NES impaired its cytoplasmic localization and abolished polymerase activity and P-binding ability. Although an alanine-substitution at position 131 markedly enhanced viral polymerase activity as determined by a minigenome assay, rBoDV harboring this mutation showed expression of viral RNAs and proteins relative to that of wild-type rBoDV. Our results demonstrate that BoDV-N NES has a dual function in BoDV replication, i.e., nuclear export of N and an interaction with P, affecting viral polymerase activity in the nucleus.

  20. Borna disease virus-induced neuronal degeneration dependent on host genetic background and prevented by soluble factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan-Ju; Schulz, Herbert; Lin, Chia-Ching; Saar, Kathrin; Patone, Giannino; Fischer, Heike; Hübner, Norbert; Heimrich, Bernd; Schwemmle, Martin

    2013-01-29

    Infection of newborn rats with Borne disease virus (BDV) results in selective degeneration of granule cell neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG). To study cellular countermechanisms that might prevent this pathology, we screened for rat strains resistant to this BDV-induced neuronal degeneration. To this end, we infected hippocampal slice cultures of different rat strains with BDV and analyzed for the preservation of the DG. Whereas infected cultures of five rat strains, including Lewis (LEW) rats, exhibited a disrupted DG cytoarchitecture, slices of three other rat strains, including Sprague-Dawley (SD), were unaffected. However, efficiency of viral replication was comparable in susceptible and resistant cultures. Moreover, these rat strain-dependent differences in vulnerability were replicated in vivo in neonatally infected LEW and SD rats. Intriguingly, conditioned media from uninfected cultures of both LEW and SD rats could prevent BDV-induced DG damage in infected LEW hippocampal cultures, whereas infection with BDV suppressed the availability of these factors from LEW but not in SD hippocampal cultures. To gain further insights into the genetic basis for this rat strain-dependent susceptibility, we analyzed DG granule cell survival in BDV-infected cultures of hippocampal neurons derived from the F1 and F2 offspring of the crossing of SD and LEW rats. Genome-wide association analysis revealed one resistance locus on chromosome (chr) 6q16 in SD rats and, surprisingly, a locus on chr3q21-23 that was associated with susceptibility. Thus, BDV-induced neuronal degeneration is dependent on the host genetic background and is prevented by soluble protective factors in the disease-resistant SD rat strain.

  1. Borna disease virus in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Katsuro; Matoba, Youhei; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2009-08-01

    We have examined the seroprevalence of BDV in wild Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan. Serum samples from raccoons were examined using ELISA and Western blot assays to detect the presence of serum antibodies that react specifically to BDV antigens. Among 549 investigated individuals, eleven (2.0%) showed a positive reaction to BDV antigens. Brain tissue samples from five individuals were subjected to RT-PCR, which detected BDV sequences in three of them. Sequence analysis revealed a high degree of genetic conservation between BDV sequences derived from raccoons and previously published sequences derived from other animal species.

  2. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Ebola virus disease Fact sheet Updated January 2016 Key ... for survivors of Ebola virus disease Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  3. Diseases caused by viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn viruses are important disease agents worldwide that can be difficult to identify and diagnose. Previously undescribed viruses of corn also emerge periodically and their distributions and importance changes over time. The Compendium of Corn Diseases is a valuable tool for pre-diagnosis of diseas...

  4. Zika Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Slenczka, Werner

    2016-06-01

    The history of Zika virus disease serves as a paradigm of a typical emerging viral infection. Zika virus disease, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was first isolated in 1947 in the Zika forest of Uganda. The same virus was also isolated from jungle-dwelling mosquitoes (Aedes [Stegomyia] africanus). In many areas of Africa and South Asia human infections with Zika virus were detected by both serology and virus isolation. About 80% of infections are asymptomatic, and in 20% a mostly mild disease with fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis may occur. Fetal infections with malformations were not recorded in Africa or Asia. Zika virus was imported to northern Brazil possibly during the world soccer championship that was hosted by Brazil in June through July 2014. A cluster of severe fetal malformations with microcephaly and ocular defects was noted in 2015 in the northeast of Brazil, and intrauterine infections with Zika virus were confirmed. The dramatic change in Zika virus pathogenicity upon its introduction to Brazil has remained an enigma.

  5. [Ebola virus disease].

    PubMed

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  6. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  9. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  10. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  11. Virus diseases of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    The degenerative or non-neoplastic diseases of possible virus origin give the fish-culturist the most concern because of the severe mortalities resulting from infection. Epizootics of this nature have been reported in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Europe, in acara (Geophagus brasiliensis) in South America, in kokanee, (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka nerka) in the State of Washington. It has been demonstrated that each epizootic was caused by an infectious filterable agent, probably a virus.

  12. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    PubMed

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  13. [Ebola virus disease].

    PubMed

    Karwowska, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a zoonosis causing high mortality epidemics in both human and animal populations. The virus belongs to the Filoviride family. It is composed of a single-strand of RNA. Morbidity foci appear in sub-Saharan Africa. The most probable reservoir are fruit bats, which are local delicacy. The most common route of infection is via mucosa or damaged skin. The spread of disease is rapid due to dietary habits, funeral rites and the insufficient supply of disposable equipment in hospitals. The incubation period of the disease ranges from 2 to 21 days. The beginning is abrupt, dominated by influenza-like symptoms. The disease is staggering with the predominant multi-organ failure and shock. Present-day epidemic symptoms from digestive system in the form of vomiting and diarrhoea are dominant. Currently, the research on vaccine and experimental drug is in progress. The virus is damaged by standard disinfectants used in health care units. Epidemic, which broke out in February 2014, caused by the most dangerous type Zaire, is the greatest of the existing. Morbidity and mortality is underestimated due to numerous unreported cases.

  14. Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kourtis, Athena P.; Appelgren, Kristie; Chevalier, Michelle S.; McElroy, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is one of the most deadly pathogens known to infect humans. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in magnitude and duration and, as of November 30, 2014, shows no signs of abating. For the first time, cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in the US, originating from patients who traveled during the incubation period. The outbreak has generated worldwide concern. It is clear that U.S. physicians need to be aware of this disease, know when to consider Ebola and how to care for the patient as well as protect themselves. Children comprise a small percentage of all cases globally, likely because of their lower risk of exposure given social and cultural practices. Limited evidence is available on pediatric disease course and prognosis. In this article, we present an overview of the pathogen, its epidemiology and transmission, clinical and laboratory manifestations, treatment and infection control procedures, with an emphasis on what is known about Ebola virus disease in the pediatric population. PMID:25831417

  15. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    PubMed

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease.

  16. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  17. Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    Ebola is an unfamiliar disease with a high mortality rate. Until recently, it occurred only in rural tropical regions and most health care providers had only read about it in epidemiology classes. With globalization, international travel, and foreign medical missions, it is possible that a patient with Ebola exposure and/or symptoms may present in any emergency department. All health care providers must be familiar with identifying the signs and symptoms of Ebola and capable of initiating an appropriate response. This article presents an overview of Ebola virus disease for health care providers, covering pathophysiology, identification, treatment, and general considerations for hospitals and providers to consider when developing policies and procedures.

  18. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  19. Viability of Teschen Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. P.; Girard, Andre

    1963-01-01

    A portion of spinal cord taken from a pig infected with the Konratice strain of Teschen Disease virus was found to be infectious for swine after an eleven year period of storage at dry ice temperature. The virus was recovered in tissue culture from the brains of two experimentally infected pigs, titrated, and a serum-virus neutralization test performed. PMID:17649419

  20. Viability of Teschen Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Gray, D P; Girard, A

    1963-01-01

    A portion of spinal cord taken from a pig infected with the Konratice strain of Teschen Disease virus was found to be infectious for swine after an eleven year period of storage at dry ice temperature. The virus was recovered in tissue culture from the brains of two experimentally infected pigs, titrated, and a serum-virus neutralization test performed.

  1. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Introduce a Vaccine against Ebola Ebola Virus Ecology and Transmission About Ebola Signs and Symptoms Symptoms ... Resources Videos Audio Infographics & Illustrations Factsheets Posters Virus Ecology Graphic File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  2. The pathogenesis of bornaviral diseases in mammals.

    PubMed

    Tizard, Ian; Ball, Judith; Stoica, George; Payne, Susan

    2016-12-01

    Natural bornavirus infections and their resulting diseases are largely restricted to horses and sheep in Central Europe. The disease also occurs naturally in cats, and can be induced experimentally in laboratory rodents and numerous other mammals. Borna disease virus-1 (BoDV-1), the cause of most cases of mammalian Borna disease, is a negative-stranded RNA virus that replicates within the nucleus of target cells. It causes severe, often lethal, encephalitis in susceptible species. Recent events, especially the discovery of numerous new species of bornaviruses in birds and a report of an acute, lethal bornaviral encephalitis in humans, apparently acquired from squirrels, have revived interest in this remarkable family of viruses. The clinical manifestations of the bornaviral diseases are highly variable. Thus, in addition to acute lethal encephalitis, they can cause persistent neurologic disease associated with diverse behavioral changes. They also cause a severe retinitis resulting in blindness. In this review, we discuss both the pathological lesions observed in mammalian bornaviral disease and the complex pathogenesis of the neurologic disease. Thus infected neurons may be destroyed by T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. They may die as a result of excessive inflammatory cytokine release from microglia. They may also die as a result of a 'glutaminergic storm' due to a failure of infected astrocytes to regulate brain glutamate levels.

  3. Viruses: Bystanders of periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Titiksha; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Faraz, Farrukh; Tandon, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial etiology of periodontal disease is an established fact today. However, despite advances in the field of pharmacology with advent of newer and better antibiotics prevalence of the disease could not be abated. Moreover, unpredictable remissions and indefinite pattern in a single host force us to go back to the exact etiology of the disease. Present is a short review highlighting the role and plausible mechanisms by which viruses can affect the development of periodontal disease. This broadens our concept and will help establish a better treatment protocol for periodontal disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuro-Immune Mechanisms in Response to Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 125 (HTLV- 1 ) Tax: Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and...1987), Visna virus (Stowring et al., 1985), Borna virus (Carbone et al., 1991), as well as Human Immunodeficiency virus type- 1 (Tornatore et al., 1994...nick end labeling VEE Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus VSV Vesicular stomatitis virus WEE Western equine encephalitis virus 1 CHAPTER 1

  5. Broad tissue and cell tropism of avian bornavirus in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease.

    PubMed

    Rinder, Monika; Ackermann, Andreas; Kempf, Hermann; Kaspers, Bernd; Korbel, Rüdiger; Staeheli, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV), representing a new genus within the family Bornaviridae, were recently discovered in parrots from North America and Israel with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). We show here that closely related viruses are also present in captive European parrots of various species with PDD. The six ABV strains that we identified in clinically diseased birds are new members of the previously defined ABV genotypes 2 and 4. Viruses of both genotypes readily established persistent, noncytolytic infections in quail and chicken cell lines but did not grow in cultured mammalian cells in which classical Borna disease virus strains replicate very efficiently. ABV antigens were present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of infected cells, suggesting nuclear replication of ABV. The genome organization of avian and mammalian bornaviruses is highly conserved except that ABV lacks a distinct control element in the 5' noncoding region of the bicistronic mRNA encoding the viral proteins X and P. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of virus in many, if not all, organs of birds with PDD. Viral nucleic acid was also found in feces of diseased birds, suggesting virus transmission by the fecal-oronasal route. Immunohistochemical analysis of organs from birds with PDD revealed that infection with ABV is not restricted to cells of the nervous system. Thus, ABV exhibits a broad tissue and cell tropism that is strikingly different from classical Borna disease virus.

  6. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    PubMed

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community.

  7. Evolutionary Genomics of Marek's Disease Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. The virus is classified as a member of the genus Mardivirus in the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of Herpesviridae. The disease (Marek's Disease...

  8. Treatment of ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Kilgore, Paul E; Grabenstein, John D; Salim, Abdulbaset M; Rybak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In March 2014, the largest Ebola outbreak in history exploded across West Africa. As of November 14, 2014, the World Health Organization has reported a total of 21,296 Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases, including 13,427 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases reported from the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). As the outbreak of EVD has spread, clinical disease severity and national EVD case-fatality rates have remained high (21.2-60.8%). Prior to 2013, several EVD outbreaks were controlled by using routine public health interventions; however, the widespread nature of the current EVD outbreak as well as cultural practices in the affected countries have challenged even the most active case identification efforts. In addition, although treatment centers provide supportive care, no effective therapeutic agents are available for EVD-endemic countries. The ongoing EVD outbreak has stimulated investigation of several different therapeutic strategies that target specific viral structures and mechanisms of Ebola viruses. Six to eight putative pharmacotherapies or immunologically based treatments have demonstrated promising results in animal studies. In addition, agents composed of small interfering RNAs targeting specific proteins of Ebola viruses, traditional hyperimmune globulin isolated from Ebola animal models, monoclonal antibodies, and morpholino oligomers (small molecules used to block viral gene expression). A number of EVD therapeutic agents are now entering accelerated human trials in EVD-endemic countries. The goal of therapeutic agent development includes postexposure prevention and EVD cure. As knowledge of Ebola virus virology and pathogenesis grows, it is likely that new therapeutic tools will be developed. Deployment of novel Ebola therapies will require unprecedented cooperation as well as investment to ensure that therapeutic tools become available to populations at greatest risk for EVD and its complications. In this article, we

  9. Marek’s disease virus genomics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is one of the most oncogenic herpesviruses known and induces a rapid onset T-cell lymphoma and demyelinating disease in chickens. It represents the first of three neoplastic diseases (including hepatocellular carcinoma: hepatitis B virus; and cervical carcinoma: human pap...

  10. Blackberry (Rubus spp.)-Virus Diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many viruses have been found in blackberries in the Pacific Northwest. Blackberry calico virus (a carlavirus) is universally present in older commercial 'Thornless Loganberry' fields. Similar calico diseases occur in field-run 'Marion', 'Chehalem', 'Olallie', and 'Waldo' blackberries. Other virus di...

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic disease, and a disease resembling mucosal disease that is apparently caused solely by noncytopathic virus. Although a good understanding of the roles of the 2 biotypes in the production of persistent infections and the precipitation of mucosal disease has been obtained, there are still unanswered questions regarding the origin of cytopathic viruses and the mechanism by which they cause pathological changes in cells. It is apparent, however, that cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses arise by mutation of noncytopathic viruses, and it is known that p80 is the marker protein for cytopathic viruses. The previous distinction between mild bovine viral diarrhea and fatal mucosal disease has been eroded with the emergence of new virulent bovine viral diarrhea viruses. The new diseases pose a threat to the cattle industry and present a new challenge for investigators. Index Veterinarius (1984-1994) and Medline (1985-1994) databases and personal files updated since 1987 from BIOSIS Previews and Biosciences Information Services were used to search the literature. Images Figure 1. PMID:7648541

  12. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    PubMed

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

  13. Cotton leaf curl virus disease.

    PubMed

    Briddon, R W; Markham, P G

    2000-11-01

    Cotton is one of the most important crops of Pakistan, accounting for over 60% of foreign exchange earnings. The present epidemic of cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) originated in the Punjab region near the city of Multan and was first reported in 1985, although it was noted in this region as early as 1967. By the early 1990s, CLCuD had become the major limitation to cotton production in Pakistan and it has now spread into India and, more recently, south and west into other provinces of Pakistan. The very characteristic symptoms include leaf curling, darkened veins, vein swelling and enations that frequently develop into cup-shaped, leaf-like structures on the undersides of leaves. Identification of the vector of CLCuD as the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) quickly led to the suggestion that the causative agent of the disease is a geminivirus. Researchers soon confirmed the presence of such a virus that is currently ascribed to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae, However, in 1999, the aetiology of the disease was shown to be more complex than was originally assumed. Despite the identification of both a begomovirus and a so-called nanovirus-like component, the precise causal agent of CLCuD remains uncertain.

  14. Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masayuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Daito, Takuji; Oshida, Tatsuo; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Jern, Patric; Gojobori, Takashi; Coffin, John M; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2010-01-07

    Retroviruses are the only group of viruses known to have left a fossil record, in the form of endogenous proviruses, and approximately 8% of the human genome is made up of these elements. Although many other viruses, including non-retroviral RNA viruses, are known to generate DNA forms of their own genomes during replication, none has been found as DNA in the germline of animals. Bornaviruses, a genus of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA virus, are unique among RNA viruses in that they establish persistent infection in the cell nucleus. Here we show that elements homologous to the nucleoprotein (N) gene of bornavirus exist in the genomes of several mammalian species, including humans, non-human primates, rodents and elephants. These sequences have been designated endogenous Borna-like N (EBLN) elements. Some of the primate EBLNs contain an intact open reading frame (ORF) and are expressed as mRNA. Phylogenetic analyses showed that EBLNs seem to have been generated by different insertional events in each specific animal family. Furthermore, the EBLN of a ground squirrel was formed by a recent integration event, whereas those in primates must have been formed more than 40 million years ago. We also show that the N mRNA of a current mammalian bornavirus, Borna disease virus (BDV), can form EBLN-like elements in the genomes of persistently infected cultured cells. Our results provide the first evidence for endogenization of non-retroviral virus-derived elements in mammalian genomes and give novel insights not only into generation of endogenous elements, but also into a role of bornavirus as a source of genetic novelty in its host.

  15. Control of virus diseases in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, one of the world's most important sources of animal feed and vegetable oil, can be infected by numerous viruses. However, only a small number of the viruses that can potentially infect soybean are considered as major economic problems to soybean production. Therefore, we consider management options available to control diseases caused by eight viruses that cause, or have the potential to cause, significant economic loss to producers. We summarize management tactics in use and suggest direction for the future. Clearly, the most important tactic is disease resistance. Several resistance genes are available for three of the eight viruses discussed. Other options include use of virus-free seed and avoidance of alternative virus hosts when planting. Attempts at arthropod vector control have generally not provided consistent disease management. In the future, disease management will be considerably enhanced by knowledge of the interaction between soybean and viral proteins. Identification of genes required for soybean defense may represent key regulatory hubs that will enhance or broaden the spectrum of basal resistance to viruses. It may be possible to create new recessive or dominant negative alleles of host proteins that do not support viral functions but perform normal cellular function. The future approach to virus control based on gene editing or exploiting allelic diversity points to necessary research into soybean-virus interactions. This will help to generate the knowledge needed for rational design of durable resistance that will maximize global production.

  16. Persistent RNA virus infections: do PAMPS drive chronic disease?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mary K; Morrison, Thomas E

    2017-02-16

    Chronic disease associated with persistent RNA virus infections represents a key public health concern. While human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis C virus are perhaps the most well-known examples of persistent RNA viruses that cause chronic disease, evidence suggests that many other RNA viruses, including re-emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus, Ebola virus and Zika virus, establish persistent infections. The mechanisms by which RNA viruses drive chronic disease are poorly understood. Here, we discuss how the persistence of viral RNA may drive chronic disease manifestations via the activation of RNA sensing pathways.

  17. Tobacco against Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as a hemorrhagic fever and discovered in 1976, is dangerous, highly infectious disease with very high mortality. There are no licensed therapeutics against EVD, although a range of medicines and therapies are currently being evaluated. During the 2014 Ebola outbreak, an experimental drug named ZMapp was administered on an emergency basis to seven patients of which five were recovered. Currently, since February 2015, ZMapp is tested in clinical trials. ZMapp is a mixture (named a cocktail) of three chimaeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of IgG class, which bind to three different epitopes on Ebola surface glycoprotein (GP). ZMapp was created by systematic selection of antibodies from two other three-component cocktails--MB-003 and ZMab the components of which were produced by rapid transient expression method in tobacco species of Australian origin--Nicotiana benthamiana. The ZMapp antibodies of pharmaceutical grade are manufactured in green-house grown N.benthamiana according to the cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practice), using RAMP platform (Rapid Antibody Manufacturing Platform) and MagnICON system, which utilizes transient expression by magnifection method using viral vectors delivered to plant tissue by a bacterium--Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The applied glycosylation mutant of N.benthamiana (delta XTFT) synthesizes human-like, biantennary N-glycans, with terminal N-acetylglucoseamine and without typical of plants, immunogenic sugar epitopes-beta1,2-linked xylose and alpha1,3-linked fucose. Due to an absence of fucose on N-glycans attached to the Fc domains, the plant-produced anti-Ebola mAbs elicited significantly stronger antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) than the analogous anti-Ebola mAbs with fucosylated (alpha1,6-linked fucose) N-glycans produced in a mammalian CHO cell line--the basic expression system for the industrial production of recombinant therapeutical glycoproteins. As far as a

  18. Human disease causing viruses vectored by mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are a number of disease-causing viruses transmitted to people primarily through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Female mosquitoes take blood meals to produce eggs (Fig. 1). A mosquito that bites an infected animal may pick up a virus within the blood meal. If the mosquito is the appropriate s...

  19. Viruses, autophagy genes, and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Vanessa M; Cadwell, Ken

    2011-07-01

    The etiology of the intestinal disease Crohn's disease involves genetic factors as well as ill-defined environmental agents. Several genetic variants linked to this disease are associated with autophagy, a process that is critical for proper responses to viral infections. While a role for viruses in this disease remains speculative, accumulating evidence indicate that this possibility requires serious consideration. In this review, we will examine the three-way relationship between viruses, autophagy genes, and Crohn's disease and discuss how host-pathogen interactions can mediate complex inflammatory disorders.

  20. Cassava virus diseases: biology, epidemiology, and management.

    PubMed

    Legg, James P; Lava Kumar, P; Makeshkumar, T; Tripathi, Leena; Ferguson, Morag; Kanju, Edward; Ntawuruhunga, Pheneas; Cuellar, Wilmer

    2015-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) is the most important vegetatively propagated food staple in Africa and a prominent industrial crop in Latin America and Asia. Its vegetative propagation through stem cuttings has many advantages, but deleteriously it means that pathogens are passed from one generation to the next and can easily accumulate, threatening cassava production. Cassava-growing continents are characterized by specific suites of viruses that affect cassava and pose particular threats. Of major concern, causing large and increasing economic impact in Africa and Asia are the cassava mosaic geminiviruses that cause cassava mosaic disease in Africa and Asia and cassava brown streak viruses causing cassava brown streak disease in Africa. Latin America, the center of origin and domestication of the crop, hosts a diverse set of virus species, of which the most economically important give rise to cassava frog skin disease syndrome. Here, we review current knowledge on the biology, epidemiology, and control of the most economically important groups of viruses in relation to both farming and cultural practices. Components of virus control strategies examined include: diagnostics and surveillance, prevention and control of infection using phytosanitation, and control of disease through the breeding and promotion of varieties that inhibit virus replication and/or movement. We highlight areas that need further research attention and conclude by examining the likely future global outlook for virus disease management in cassava.

  1. Ebola virus disease and the veterinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Gumusova, Semra; Sunbul, Mustafa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2015-05-28

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a potentially fatal haemorrhagic disease of humans. The last and most serious outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) started in December 2013 in West Africa and also affected other continents. Animals such as fruit bats and non-human primates are potential sources of EBOV. This review highlights the clinical features of EVD in humans and animals and addresses the public health implications of EVD outbreaks from the veterinary perspective.

  2. Viruses and virus diseases of marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E

    1979-11-01

    Poxvirus and several serotypes of calicivirus cause recognizable disease in marine mammals. Pox lesions in pinnipeds are raised and proliferative and are seen most frequently after confinement in captivity. In cetaceans, a poxvirus is associated with a much more benign and chronic lesion called a "tattoo." Numerous caliciviruses of differing antigenic types have been isolated from vesicular lesions and aborted fetuses of northern fur seals and California sea lions as well as from clinically normal and orphaned northern elephant seal pups. An adenovirus has been isolated from a sei whale and an enterovirus has been isolated from a gray whale.

  3. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-02

    medical countermeasures. Viruses , 4(10), 2312-2316 (2012). 101. Bradfute SB. Duration of immune responses after Ebola virus vaccination. Lancet Infect Dis...Geisbert JB et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus -based vaccines protect nonhuman primates against aerosol challenge with Ebola and Marburg viruses ...Ebola virus vaccines 1 Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials Keywords: candidate vaccine; clinical trial

  4. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A new permanent cell line derived from the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) as cell culture model for zoonotic viruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Approximately 60% of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, with three-fourths derived from wild animals. Many of these zoonotic diseases are transmitted by rodents with important information about their reservoir dynamics and pathogenesis missing. One main reason for the gap in our knowledge is the lack of adequate cell culture systems as models for the investigation of rodent-borne (robo) viruses in vitro. Therefore we established and characterized a new cell line, BVK168, using the kidney of a bank vole, Myodes glareolus, the most abundant member of the Arvicolinae trapped in Germany. Results BVK168 proved to be of epithelial morphology expressing tight junctions as well as adherence junction proteins. The BVK168 cells were analyzed for their infectability by several arbo- and robo-viruses: Vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, Sindbis virus, Pixuna virus, Usutu virus, Inkoo virus, Puumalavirus, and Borna disease virus (BDV). The cell line was susceptible for all tested viruses, and most interestingly also for the difficult to propagate BDV. Conclusion In conclusion, the newly established cell line from wildlife rodents seems to be an excellent tool for the isolation and characterization of new rodent-associated viruses and may be used as in vitro-model to study properties and pathogenesis of these agents. PMID:21729307

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  7. Alzheimer's disease and infection: do infectious agents contribute to progression of Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Honjo, Kie; van Reekum, Robert; Verhoeff, Nicolaas P L G

    2009-07-01

    Infection with several important pathogens could constitute risk factors for cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in particular. This review summarizes the data related to infectious agents that appear to have a relationship with AD. Infections with herpes simplex virus type 1, picornavirus, Borna disease virus, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and spirochete were reported to contribute to the pathophysiology of AD or to cognitive changes. Based on these reports, it may be hypothesized that central nervous system or systemic infections may contribute to the pathogenesis or pathophysiology of AD, and chronic infection with several pathogens should be considered a risk factor for sporadic AD. If this hypothesis holds true, early intervention against infection may delay or even prevent the future development of AD.

  8. Generation of virus like particles for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Forzan, Mario; Maan, Sushila; Mazzei, Maurizio; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Bonuccelli, Lucia; Calamari, Monica; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Cappello, Valentina; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Mertens, Peter P C; Tolari, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a distinct species within the genus Orbivirus, within the family Reoviridae. The epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus genome comprises ten segments of linear, double stranded (ds) RNA, which are packaged within each virus particle. The EHDV virion has a three layered capsid-structure, generated by four major viral proteins: VP2 and VP5 (outer capsid layer); VP7 (intermediate, core-surface layer) and VP3 (innermost, sub-core layer). Although EHDV infects cattle sporadically, several outbreaks have recently occurred in this species in five Mediterranean countries, indicating a potential threat to the European cattle industry. EHDV is transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, which can travel long distances through wind-born movements (particularly over water), increasing the potential for viral spread in new areas/countries. Expression systems to generate self-assembled virus like particles (VLPs) by simultaneous expression of the major capsid-proteins, have been established for several viruses (including bluetongue virus). This study has developed expression systems for production of EHDV VLPs, for use as non-infectious antigens in both vaccinology and serology studies, avoiding the risk of genetic reassortment between vaccine and field strains and facilitating large scale antigen production. Genes encoding the four major-capsid proteins of a field strain of EHDV-6, were isolated and cloned into transfer vectors, to generate two recombinant baculoviruses. The expression of these viral genes was assessed in insect cells by monitoring the presence of specific viral mRNAs and by western blotting. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the formation and purification of assembled VLPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Flores, Sonia C; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes virus infections, and pulmonary vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Sonia C.; Almodovar, Sharilyn

    2013-01-01

    The following state-of-the-art seminar was delivered as part of the Aspen Lung Conference on Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Diseases held in Aspen, Colorado in June 2012. This paper will summarize the lecture and present results from a nonhuman primate model of infection with Simian (Human) Immunodeficiency Virus - nef chimeric virions as well as the idea that polymorphisms in the HIV-1 nef gene may be driving the immune response that results in exuberant inflammation and aberrant endothelial cell (EC) function. We will present data gathered from primary HIV nef isolates where we tested the biological consequences of these polymorphisms and how their presence in human populations may predict patients at risk for developing this disease. In this article, we also discuss how a dysregulated immune system, in conjunction with a viral infection, could contribute to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both autoimmune diseases and some viruses are associated with defects in the immune system, primarily in the function of regulatory T cells. These T-cell defects may be a common pathway in the formation of plexiform lesions. Regardless of the route by which viruses may lead to PAH, it is important to recognize their role in this rare disease. PMID:23662195

  11. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  12. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  13. [Physicochemical properties of Teschen disease virus RNA].

    PubMed

    Tsybanov, S Zh; Sergeev, V A; Balysheva, V I

    1982-01-01

    The specific infectivity of virion RNA of teschen disease virus in a sensitive PP cell culture was 4-5 lg TCD50/ml per 1 microgram RNA. When virion RNA was inoculated into cell cultures insusceptible to the native virus, the virus replicated to a titre of 2.0-3.5 lg TCD50/ml. The molecular weight of virion RNA determined by two independent methods was 2.7 x 10(6) daltons. Tm calculated from the curve of virion RNA melting temperature was 57 degrees C. The double-stranded replicative form of RNA recovered from virus-infected PP cells was shown to have sucrose gradient sedimentation coefficient of 20 S. The specific infectivity was 2-3 lg TCD50/ml per 1 microgram of RNA.

  14. Coinfecting viruses as determinants of HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid

    2009-02-01

    The human body constitutes a balanced ecosystem of its own cells together with various microbes ("host-microbe ecosystem"). The transmission of HIV-1 and the progression of HIV disease in such an ecosystem are accompanied by de novo infection by other microbes or by activation of microbes that were present in the host in homeostatic equilibrium before HIV-1 infection. In recent years, data have accumulated on the interactions of these coinfecting microbes-viruses in particular-with HIV. Coinfecting viruses generate negative and positive signals that suppress or upregulate HIV-1. We suggest that the signals generated by these viruses may largely affect HIV transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. The study of the mechanisms of HIV interaction with coinfecting viruses may indicate strategies to suppress positive signals, enhance negative signals, and lead to the development of new and original anti-HIV therapies.

  15. Maguari Virus Associated with Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Groseth, Allison; Vine, Veronica; Weisend, Carla; Guevara, Carolina; Watts, Douglas; Russell, Brandy; Tesh, Robert B; Ebihara, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    Despite the lack of evidence for symptomatic human infection with Maguari virus (MAGV), its close relation to Cache Valley virus (CVV), which does infect humans, remains a concern. We sequenced the complete genome of a MAGV-like isolate (OBS6657) obtained from a febrile patient in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru, in 1998. To facilitate its classification, we generated additional full-length sequences for the MAGV prototype strain, 3 additional MAGV-like isolates, and the closely related CVV (7 strains), Tlacotalpan (1 strain), Playas (3 strains), and Fort Sherman (1 strain) viruses. The OBS6657 isolate is similar to the MAGV prototype, whereas 2 of the other MAGV-like isolates are located on a distinct branch and most likely warrant classification as a separate virus species and 1 is, in fact, a misclassified CVV strain. Our findings provide clear evidence that MAGV can cause human disease.

  16. Newcastle Disease Virus and Other Avian Paramyxoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are currently 11 recognized serotypes of avian paramyxovirus. Type 1 is the most important for poultry and includes Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is a form of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) that is highly virulent for chickens and turkeys. NDV is considered to be one of the mos...

  17. Newer insecticides for plant virus disease management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective management of insect and mite vectors of plant pathogens is of crucial importance to minimizing vector-borne diseases in crops. Insecticides play an important role in managing vector populations by reducing the number of individuals that can acquire and transmit a virus, thereby potentiall...

  18. Ebola virus disease in nonendemic countries.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 West African outbreak of Ebola virus disease was unprecedented in its scale and has resulted in transmissions outside endemic countries. Clinicians in nonendemic countries will most likely face the disease in returning travelers, either among healthcare workers, expatriates, or visiting friends and relatives. Clinical suspicion for the disease must be heightened for travelers or contacts presenting with compatible clinical syndromes, and strict infection control measures must be promptly implemented to minimize the risk of secondary transmission within healthcare settings or in the community. We present a concise review on human filoviral disease with an emphasis on issues that are pertinent to clinicians practicing in nonendemic countries.

  19. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges. PMID:8764013

  20. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  1. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  2. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  3. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.212 Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bursal Disease Vaccine... postvaccination, challenge 20 vaccinates and 10 controls by eyedrop with a virulent infectious bursal...

  4. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  5. Newer insecticides for plant virus disease management.

    PubMed

    Castle, Steven; Palumbo, John; Prabhaker, Nilima

    2009-05-01

    Effective management of insect and mite vectors of plant pathogens is of crucial importance to minimize vector-borne diseases in crops. Pesticides play an important role in managing vector populations by reducing the number of individuals that can acquire and transmit a virus, thereby potentially lowering disease incidence. Certain insecticides exhibit properties other than lethal toxicity that affect feeding behaviours or otherwise interfere with virus transmission. To evaluate the potential of various treatments against the Bemisia tabaci-transmitted Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), insecticide field trials were conducted in Yuma, AZ, USA, during spring and autumn growing seasons. Differences in vector-intensity each season led to mixed results, but at least five insecticide treatments showed promise in limiting virus spread during spring 2008. Increasing concern among growers in this region regarding recent epidemics of CYSDV is leading to more intensive use of insecticides that threatens to erupt into unmanageable resistance. Sustainability of insecticides is an important goal of pest management and more specifically resistance management, especially for some of the most notorious vector species such as B. tabaci and Myzus persiscae that are likely to develop resistance.

  6. Ebola Virus Disease: A Review of Its Past and Present.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Ebola virus, the virus responsible for Ebola virus disease, has spawned several epidemics during the past 38 years. In 2014, an Ebola epidemic spread from Africa to other continents, becoming a pandemic. The virus's relatively unique structure, its infectivity and lethality, the difficulty in stopping its spread, and the lack of an effective treatment captured the world's attention. This article provides a brief review of the known history of Ebola virus disease, its etiology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology and a review of the limited information on managing patients with Ebola virus disease.

  7. The evolution of Ebola virus disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Gałas, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents general information regarding descriptive epidemiology of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks. Some observations have shown the decrease in case fatality ratio after several generations of patient-to-patient passage. An increase in the frequency of EVD outbreaks across decades was also noticed. The knowledge about the past outbreaks may provide crucial information about the evolution of EVD epidemic, which may be useful for future preventions.

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Nick J; Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M; Swabey, Katherine G; El-Kholy, Alaa A; Abd El-Rahman, Adel Omar; Soliman, Hatem M; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P; Hutchings, Geoffrey H; Statham, Robert J; King, Donald P; Paton, David J

    2007-10-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype A in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Jemma; Reid, Scott M.; Swabey, Katherine G.; El-Kholy, Alaa A.; El-Rahman, Adel Omar Abd; Soliman, Hatem M.; Ebert, Katja; Ferris, Nigel P.; Hutchings, Geoffrey H.; Statham, Robert J.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East. PMID:18258017

  10. Neuro-Immune Mechanisms in Response to Venezuelan equine encephalitis Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 125 (HTLV- 1 ) Tax: Induction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Suseptibility to Lysis...et al., 1987), Visna virus (Stowring et al., 1985), Borna virus (Carbone et al., 1991), as well as Human Immunodeficiency virus type- 1 (Tornatore et...INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 2 — ASTROCYTES AS TARGETS FOR VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION Title Page 15 Abstract 16 Introduction 17 Material

  11. An overview of Ebola virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Kadanali, Ayten; Karagoz, Gul

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. Ebola virus (EBOV) is transmitted through contact with blood or body fluids of a person who contracted or died from EVD, contaminated objects like needles and infected animals or bush meat. EVD has an incubation period of 2 to 21 days, and the infection has an acute onset without any carrier status. Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD, so it is important to avoid infection or further spreading of the virus. Although historically the mortality of this infection exceeded 80%, modern medicine and public health measures have been able to lower this figure and reduce the impact of EBOV on individuals and communities. Its treatment involves early, aggressive supportive care with rehydration. Clinicians should consider the possibility of EVD in persons with travel or exposure history with the incubation period presenting constitutional symptoms in order to promptly identify diseased patients, and prevent further spreading of the disease. PMID:28058346

  12. Overview of Ebola virus disease in 2014.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Peng; Chan, Yu-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    In late December 2013, a deadly infectious epidemic, Ebola virus disease (EVD), emerged from West Africa and resulted in a formidable outbreak in areas including Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. EVD is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate. Person-to-person transmission occurs through blood or body fluid exposure, which can jeopardize first-line healthcare workers if there is a lack of stringent infection control or no proper personal protective equipment available. Currently, there is no standard treatment for EVD. To promptly identify patients and prevent further spreading, physicians should be aware of travel or contact history for patients with constitutional symptoms.

  13. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  14. Ebola virus disease: preparedness in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Yugo; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Egawa, Shinichi; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-02-01

    The current outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is due to a lack of resources, untrained medical personnel, and the specific contact-mediated type of infection of this virus. In Japan's history, education and mass vaccination of the native Ainu people successfully eradicated epidemics of smallpox. Even though a zoonotic virus is hard to control, appropriate precautions and personal protection, as well as anti-symptomatic treatment, will control the outbreak of EVD. Ebola virus utilizes the antibody-dependent enhancement of infection to seed the cells of various organs. The pathogenesis of EVD is due to the cytokine storm of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the lack of antiviral interferon-α2. Matricellular proteins of galectin-9 and osteopontin might also be involved in the edema and abnormality of the coagulation system in EVD. Anti-fibrinolytic treatment will be effective. In the era of globalization, interviews of travelers with fever within 3 weeks of departure from the affected areas will be necessary. Not only the hospitals designated for specific biohazards but every hospital should be aware of the biology of biohazards and establish measures to protect both patients and the community.

  15. Immunoglobulin classes of Aleutian disease virus antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, D D; Porter, H G; Suffin, S C; Larsen, A E

    1984-01-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV) persistently infects mink and causes marked hypergammaglobulinemia. Immunoglobulin class-specific antisera were used to define the total immunoglobulin of each class by radial immunodiffusion and the immunoglobulin class of ADV-specific antibody by immunofluorescence in experimentally and naturally infected mink. Electrophoretic gamma globulin closely reflects the immunoglobulin G (IgG) level in mink, and the majority of the increased immunoglobulin and ADV antibody in infected mink is IgG. IgM becomes elevated within 6 days after infection, reaches peak levels by 15 to 18 days, and returns to normal by 60 days after infection. The first ADV antibody demonstrable is IgM, and most mink have virus-specific IgM antibody for at least 85 days postinfection. Serum IgA levels in normal mink are not normally distributed, and ADV infection causes a marked elevation of IgA. Low levels of ADV-specific IgA antibody can be shown throughout the course of infection. Failure of large amounts of virus-specific IgG antibody to inhibit the reaction of virus-specific IgM and IgA antibodies suggests that the various classes of antibodies are directed against spatially different antigenic determinants. The IgM and IgA were shown not to be rheumatoid factors. PMID:6319283

  16. Transmission of ebola virus disease: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rewar, Suresh; Mirdha, Dashrath

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is a viral illness of which the initial symptoms can include a sudden fever, intense weakness, muscle pain and a sore throat, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Airborne transmission of Ebola virus has been hypothesized but not demonstrated in humans. Ebola is not spread through the air or by water, or in general, by food. However, in Africa, Ebola may be spread as a result of handling bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food) and contact with infected bats. The disease infects humans through close contact with infected animals, including chimpanzees, fruit bats, and forest antelope. Ebola virus can be transmitted by direct contact with blood, bodily fluids, or skin of patients with or who died of Ebola virus disease. As of late October 2014, the World Health Organization reported 13,567 suspected cases and 4922 deaths, although the agency believes that this substantially understates the magnitude of the outbreak. Experimental vaccines and treatments for Ebola are under development, but they have not yet been fully tested for safety or effectiveness.

  17. Dobrava-Belgrade virus: phylogeny, epidemiology, disease.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) is an Old World hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. With a case fatality rate up to 12%, DOBV infection is the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. The virus was initially identified in the Balkans, but the discovery of new endemic foci have expanded its recognized geographic range. The recent description of novel genetic variants with different degrees of pathogenicity have complicated its taxonomic analysis. The original rodent host of DOBV is Apodemus flavicollis, however additional Apodemus species, such Apodemus agrarius and Apodemus ponticus, have been found to serve as hosts of the various DOBV genotypes. The complex evolution and genetic diversity of the virus are still under investigation. The present review aims to provide an update on the phylogeny of DOBV and the epidemiology of infection in rodents and humans; to describe the clinical characteristics of the disease; to present current knowledge about laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention; discuss the current state of the art in antiviral drug and vaccine development.

  18. Autoimmune diseases co-existing with hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jadali, Zohreh; Alavian, Seyed-Moayed

    2010-12-01

    Autoimmunity and viral infections are closely associated fields, and viruses have been proposed as a likely aetiological, contributory or triggering factors of systemic autoimmune diseases. Hepatitis C virus seems to be the virus usually associated with the appearance of autoimmune diseases, and the relationship between chronic hepatitis C virus infection and some autoimmune disease has been studied. For some of these disorders their association with hepatitis C virus infection is well recognized while for others it remains probable or weak. Examples of autoimmune phenomena observed in chronic hepatitis C virus infection include rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, cryoglobulinaemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus and sjogren syndrome. To date, the etiological role and the pathogenetic involvement of the hepatitis C infection remains unknown.The aim of this study is to assess the presence of different autoimmune manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection reported in literature.

  19. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...

  20. Experimental risk assessment of recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) used as live vaccines were assessed for: 1) the potential for recombinant NDV-vectored vaccines (rNDV) containing the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) H5 gene to recombine with low pathogenicity H5, H6 and H9 AIV strains, and originate a virus with increased vi...

  1. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.212 Section 113.212 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only...

  2. 9 CFR 113.212 - Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bursal Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.212 Section 113.212 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only...

  3. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer

    PubMed Central

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-01-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch’s postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease. PMID:26252390

  4. A Novel Virus Causes Scale Drop Disease in Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    de Groof, Ad; Guelen, Lars; Deijs, Martin; van der Wal, Yorick; Miyata, Masato; Ng, Kah Sing; van Grinsven, Lotte; Simmelink, Bartjan; Biermann, Yvonne; Grisez, Luc; van Lent, Jan; de Ronde, Anthony; Chang, Siow Foong; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-08-01

    From 1992 onwards, outbreaks of a previously unknown illness have been reported in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) kept in maricultures in Southeast Asia. The most striking symptom of this emerging disease is the loss of scales. It was referred to as scale drop syndrome, but the etiology remained enigmatic. By using a next-generation virus discovery technique, VIDISCA-454, sequences of an unknown virus were detected in serum of diseased fish. The near complete genome sequence of the virus was determined, which shows a unique genome organization, and low levels of identity to known members of the Iridoviridae. Based on homology of a series of putatively encoded proteins, the virus is a novel member of the Megalocytivirus genus of the Iridoviridae family. The virus was isolated and propagated in cell culture, where it caused a cytopathogenic effect in infected Asian seabass kidney and brain cells. Electron microscopy revealed icosahedral virions of about 140 nm, characteristic for the Iridoviridae. In vitro cultured virus induced scale drop syndrome in Asian seabass in vivo and the virus could be reisolated from these infected fish. These findings show that the virus is the causative agent for the scale drop syndrome, as each of Koch's postulates is fulfilled. We have named the virus Scale Drop Disease Virus. Vaccines prepared from BEI- and formalin inactivated virus, as well as from E. coli produced major capsid protein provide efficacious protection against scale drop disease.

  5. Ebola Virus Disease Candidate Vaccines Under Evaluation in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Karen A.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Bavari, Sina; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Filoviruses are the etiological agents of two human illnesses: Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease. Until 2013, medical countermeasure development against these afflictions was limited to only a few research institutes worldwide as both infections were considered exotic due to very low case numbers. Together with the high case-fatality rate of both diseases, evaluation of any candidate countermeasure in properly controlled clinical trials seemed impossible. However, in 2013, Ebola virus was identified as the etiological agent of a large disease outbreak in Western Africa including almost 30,000 infections and more than 11,000 deaths, including case exportations to Europe and North America. These large case numbers resulted in medical countermeasure development against Ebola virus disease becoming a global public-health priority. This review summarizes the status quo of candidate vaccines against Ebola virus disease, with a focus on those that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:27160784

  6. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L

    2016-06-15

    Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  7. Shuni virus as cause of neurologic disease in horses.

    PubMed

    van Eeden, Charmaine; Williams, June H; Gerdes, Truuske G H; van Wilpe, Erna; Viljoen, Adrianne; Swanepoel, Robert; Venter, Marietjie

    2012-02-01

    To determine which agents cause neurologic disease in horses, we conducted reverse transcription PCR on isolates from of a horse with encephalitis and 111 other horses with acute disease. Shuni virus was found in 7 horses, 5 of which had neurologic signs. Testing for lesser known viruses should be considered for horses with unexplained illness.

  8. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Use of genomics to identify QTL, genes, and proteins associated with resistance to Marek’s disease. Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the p...

  9. Zika Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Elizabeth K; Nugent, Anne K; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-05-01

    The Zika virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA arbovirus in the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. This virus was initially isolated in Africa and is transmitted to nonhuman primates and humans by mosquitoes. Initial reports describe sporadic mild viral infection with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and conjunctivitis in Africa and Asia. However, its geographic distribution has significantly increased, and it has caused large outbreaks in the Yap Islands in 2007, in French Polynesia in 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Multiple cases of Guillain-Barre´ syndrome occurred in French Polynesia and Columbia during outbreaks, and infections in pregnant women in Brazil have been associated with microcephaly and fetal loss. The viremic phase in humans is short, and diagnosis usually depends on positive immunoglobulin M titers with serum neutralization tests for confirmation. Treatment is directed at symptoms; there are no antiviral drugs available. Transmission can also occur through sexual contact with infected men and through blood transfusion. Prevention is important in women and includes limiting travel to endemic areas when possible, control of mosquito populations and condom use when appropriate. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is actively involved in tracking these infections and providing up-to-date information. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Endemic Viruses and Lethal Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Haley, Sheila A; Atwood, Walter J

    2017-09-29

    In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. In the intervening years it became clear that both viruses were widespread in the human population but only rarely caused disease. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of eleven new human polyomaviruses, two of which cause unusual and rare cancers. We present an overview of the history of these viruses and the evolution of JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy over three different epochs. We review what is currently known about JC polyomavirus, what is suspected, and what remains to be done to understand the biology of how this mostly harmless endemic virus gives rise to lethal disease.

  11. [Physicochemical properties of the Teschen disease virus].

    PubMed

    Balysheva, V I; Rakhimov, A A; Khlebnikov, V S; Sergeev, V A

    1979-01-01

    The physical stability of Teschen disease virus (TDV) was tested. It was found that 8 M urea at 37 degrees C and 0.5% Tween-20 for 1-2 hours destroyed TDV with formation of morphologically distinct subunits. The morphology of TDV virions and its subunits formed under the effect of urea and Tween-20 was studied. Sedimentation constant (120 S) and the polypeptide composition of TDV were determined. In TDV, major polypeptides (VP1 less than or equal to 4) and minor polypeptides (VP1m and VP2m) were found their molecular weights being 82,000, 67,000, 35,000, 30,000, 77,000, and 46,000 daltons respectively.

  12. Clinical Evaluation of Ebola Virus Disease Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guodong; Wong, Gary; Su, Shuo; Bi, Yuhai; Plummer, Frank; Gao, George F; Kobinger, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) was first described over 40 years ago, but no treatment has been approved for humans. The 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa has expedited the clinical evaluation of several candidate therapeutics that act through different mechanisms, but with mixed results. Nevertheless, these studies are important because the accumulation of clinical data and valuable experience in conducting efficacy trials under emergency circumstances will lead to better implementation of similar studies in the future. Here, we summarize the results of EVD clinical trials, focus on the discussion of factors that may have potentially impeded the effectiveness of existing candidate therapeutics, and highlight considerations that may help meet the challenges ahead in the quest to develop clinically approved drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Aleutian disease virus as a parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Wolfinbarger, J B

    1980-01-01

    We characterized a strain of Aleutian disease virus adapted to growth in Crandall feline kidney cells at 31.8 degrees C. When purified from infected cells, Aleutian disease virus had a density in CsCl of 1.42 to 1.44 g/ml and was 24 to 26 nm in diameter. [3H]thymidine could be incorporated into the viral genome, and the viral DNA was then studied. In alkaline sucrose gradients, Aleutian disease virus DNA was a single species that cosedimented at 15.5S with single-stranded DNA from adeno-associated virus. When the DNA was analyzed on neutral sucrose gradients, a single species was again observed, which sedimented at 21S and was clearly distinct from 16S duplex adeno-associated virus DNA. A similar result was obtained even after incubation under annealing conditions, implying that the bulk of Aleutian disease virus virions contained a single non-complementary strand with a molecular weight of about 1.4 X 10(6). In addition, two major virus-associated polypeptides with molecular weights of 89,100 and 77,600 were demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of virus purified from infected cultures labeled with [35S]methionine. These data suggest that Aleutian disease virus is a nondefective parvovirus. Images PMID:6252342

  14. DNA viruses associated with diseases of marine and anadromous fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetrick, F. M.

    1984-03-01

    The association of DNA-containing viruses with diseases of marine and anadromous fish is reviewed. One section of the review describes those diseases with a proven viral etiology. Available information on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the viruses is included. Another section deals with those diseases where a viral etiology is suspected but not established. The primary evidence associating viruses with many of these diseases is the observation of virus particles in electron micrographs of thin sections of tissue samples from diseased fish. Finally, the possible role of pollutants, and other stress factors, in predisposing fish to viral infection is discussed as are the problems associated with studying diseases of wild fish populations.

  15. Preparedness for Zika Virus Disease - New York City, 2016.

    PubMed

    Madad, Syra S; Masci, Joseph; Cagliuso, Nicholas V; Allen, Machelle

    2016-10-28

    The rapid spread of Zika virus across the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas has had a direct effect on the U.S. health care delivery system. Hospitals in New York City (NYC) have been implementing prevention and response efforts consistent with CDC guidance. As of September 21, 2016, a total of 715 cases of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease had been diagnosed in New York state among travelers who returned from affected areas, their sexual contacts, or infants infected in utero. This represents the highest number of reported cases in any state to date, and underscores the importance of health care systems preparing to care for patients with possible Zika virus disease (1). Building upon a framework that was established in 2014 to screen patients for possible exposure to Ebola virus disease (Ebola), NYC Health + Hospitals,* the largest municipal health care delivery system in the United States, implemented a Zika Preparedness and Response Action Plan(†) (Zika Action Plan) to address the threat from Zika and ensure appropriate patient care. The plan developed by NYC Health + Hospitals includes universal travel screening, signage depicting areas with active Zika virus transmission, clinical and epidemiologic evaluation for possible Zika virus exposure, diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and linking of infected patients to appropriate specialists, and education on Zika virus disease and preventive measures (e.g., avoiding travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission).

  16. Newcastle disease virus detection and differentiation from avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Torchetti, Mia Kim

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious and often fatal disease that affects over 250 bird species worldwide, and is caused by infection with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Avulavirus. Infections of poultry with virulent strains of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Vaccination of poultry species is a key measure in the control of ND. Other APMV-1 viruses of low virulence, which are not used as vaccines, are also often isolated from wild bird species. The APMV-1 virus, like avian influenza virus (AIV), is a hemagglutinating virus (HA) and able to agglutinate chicken red blood cells (RBC). Because the clinical presentation of ND can be difficult to distinguish from disease caused by AIV, techniques for differential diagnosis are essential, as well as the ability to detect mixed infections. When an HA positive virus is detected from virus isolation, additional assays can be performed to determine which virus is present. Both antigenic and molecular methods are necessary as some virulent ND viruses from cormorants in the USA after 2002 have lost their ability to hemagglutinate chicken RBC and molecular methods are needed for identification.

  17. [Hepatitis C virus in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Jendro, M C; Hülsemann, J L; Zeidler, H

    1997-10-01

    HCV-infection is an important infectious disease in rheumatology. It is the cause of mixed cryoglobulinemia and other rheumatic manifestations develop frequently during HCV-infection. These comprise: Sicca-syndrome, thromboembolic events associated with anti-cardiolipin antibodies and fibromyalgia. Also associated with HCV-infection is a non-erosive polyarthritis. This synovitis often fulfills the ACR-criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, but the disease course is different with frequent remissions and non-erosive joint involvement. The following autoantibodies are associated with HCV-infection: Cryoglobulins, rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antismooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-phospholipid-antibodies and anti-thyroid-antibodies. In HCV-associated sicca-syndrom, antibodies against Ro (SSA) and La (SSB) are not detected. The course of HCV-infection is often occult, without elevation of liver enzymes. We summarize the clinical and serological signs and symptoms when HCV-infection should be suspected and when HCV-testing should be performed in a rheumatological setting. The identification of HCV-infection in rheumatic patients is important to minimize the risk of aggravating hepatitis by prescription of hepatotoxic drugs and because of the availability of alpha-interferon as a potential virus eradicating agent.

  18. Ganjam virus/Nairobi sheep disease virus induces a pro-inflammatory response in infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Bin Tarif, Abid; Lasecka, Lidia; Holzer, Barbara; Baron, Michael D

    2012-10-19

    Partly due to climate change, and partly due to changes of human habitat occupation, the impact of tick-borne viruses is increasing. Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) and Ganjam virus (GV) are two names for the same virus, which causes disease in sheep and goats and is currently known to be circulating in India and East Africa. The virus is transmitted by ixodid ticks and causes a severe hemorrhagic disease. We have developed a real-time PCR assay for the virus genome and validated it in a pilot study of the pathogenicity induced by two different isolates of NSDV/GV. One isolate was highly adapted to tissue culture, grew in most cell lines tested, and was essentially apathogenic in sheep. The second isolate appeared to be poorly adapted to cell culture and retained pathogenicity in sheep. The real-time PCR assay for virus easily detected 4 copies or less of the viral genome, and allowed a quantitative measure of the virus in whole blood. Measurement of the changes in cytokine mRNAs showed similar changes to those observed in humans infected by the closely related virus Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

  19. Research update: Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory avian tumor viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomics and Immunogenetics Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease caused by the highly oncogenic herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), continues to be a major disease concern to the poultry industry. The fear of MD is further enhanced by unpredictable vaccine breaks that result in ...

  20. Marek's disease virus induced transient paralysis--a closer look

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s Disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include depression, crippling, weight loss, and transient paralysis (TP). TP is a disease of the central nervous system...

  1. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline.

  2. Newcastle Disease Strain F. Virus — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, J. E.

    1962-01-01

    Strain F Newcastle disease virus is a virus of low virulence originally reported by Asplin (1952) in England. Since that date, the use of this virus as an immunizing agent in the form of a live vaccine, has been studied. As a result, Strain F Newcastle disease vaccine has been used in national and experimental control programs in several countries in Europe, Africa and Asia. The published literature is reviewed under the following headings: properties, viability, clinical effects of vaccination, duration of immunity and a simultaneous Newcastle disease fowl pox vaccination. This review includes 24 reports published outside North America. PMID:17649410

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Liver Disease Forum 2010: Conference Proceedings

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Kenneth E.; Thomas, David L.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease continues to represent a critical mediator of morbidity and mortality in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The frequent presence and overlap of concomitant injurious processes, including hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections, hepatoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapeutic agents, alcohol, and other toxins, in the setting of immunosuppression lead to rapid fibrotic progression and early development of end-stage liver disease. This conference summary describes the proceedings of a state-of-the-art gathering of international experts designed to highlight the status of current research in epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis, and treatment of HIV and liver disease. PMID:21898501

  4. West nile virus disease and other arboviral diseases - United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-07-13

    Arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. Symptomatic infections most often manifest as a systemic febrile illness and, less commonly, as neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis). West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause seasonal outbreaks and sporadic cases. In 2011, CDC received reports of 871 cases of nationally notifiable arboviral diseases (excluding dengue); etiological agents included WNV (712 cases), La Crosse virus (LACV) (130), Powassan virus (POWV) (16), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) (six), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (four), and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (three). Of these, 624 (72%) were classified as neuroinvasive disease, for a national incidence of 0.20 per 100,000 population. WNV and other arboviruses continue to cause focal outbreaks and severe illness in substantial numbers of persons in the United States.

  5. Rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases by transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zechmann, Bernd; Zellnig, Günther

    2009-12-01

    A clear and rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases is of great importance for agriculture and scientific experiments in plant phytopathology. Even though negative staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are often used for detection and identification of viral particles and provide rapid and reliable results, it is necessary to examine ultrastructural changes induced by viruses for clear identification of the disease. With conventional sample preparation for TEM it can take several days to obtain ultrastructural results and it is therefore not suitable for rapid diagnosis of virus diseases of plants. The use of microwave irradiation can reduce the time for sample preparation for TEM investigations. Two model virus-plant systems [Nicotiana tabacum plants infected with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Cucurbita pepo plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV)] demonstrate that it is possible to diagnose ultrastructural alterations induced by viruses in less than half a day by using microwave irradiation for preparation of samples. Negative staining of the sap of plants infected with TMV and ZYMV and the examination of ultrastructure and size were also carried out during sample preparation thus permitting diagnosis of the viral agent by TEM in a few hours. These methods will contribute towards a rapid and clear identification of virus diseases of plants and will be useful for diagnostic purposes in agriculture and in plant phytopathology.

  6. Control of virus diseases of citrus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Citrus is thought to have originated in Southeast Asia and horticulturally desirable clonal selections have been clonally cultivated for hundreds of years. While some citrus species have nucellar embryony, most cultivation of citrus has been by clonal propagation to ensure that propagated plants have the same traits as the parent selection. Clonal propagation also avoids juvenility, and the propagated plants produce fruit sooner. Because of the clonal propagation of citrus, citrus has accumulated a large number of viruses; many of these viruses are asymptomatic until a susceptible rootstock and/or scion is encountered. The viruses reported to occur in citrus will be summarized in this review. Methods of therapy to clean selected clones from viruses will be reviewed; the use of quarantine, clean stock, and certification programs for control of citrus viruses and other strategies to control insect spread citrus viruses, such as mild strain cross-protection and the use of pest management areas will be discussed.

  7. Investigation of Marek's disease virus from chickens in central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demeke, Berhan; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Tesfaye, Biruk; Ayelet, Gelagay; Yami, Martha; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Gelaye, Esayas

    2017-02-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative and neuropathic disease of domestic chickens and less commonly, turkeys and quails, caused by a highly contagious, cell-associated, oncogenic herpesvirus. In Ethiopia, MD is believed to be introduced with importation of exotic and crossbred to improve the poultry production and has been reported to be a potential threat to the poultry sector both in backyard and commercial farming systems. This study was aimed at isolation and molecular analysis of MD virus isolates circulating in chicken population in the central part of Ethiopia where commercial farms are populated. From September 2013 to January 2014, clinical and post-mortem examination were conducted on diseased chickens suspected of MD virus infection. Representative spleen and feather follicle samples were collected following sterile procedure, and infectious virus isolation was performed using primary chicken fibroblast cell culture. Cell culture inoculated with suspension of pathological samples developed characteristic MD virus cytopathic effect of rounding of the cells and small plaques. Further analysis of the virus was conducted by conventional PCR amplifying the ICP4 gene fragment from eleven tissue samples using MD virus specific primers. PCR products were further sequenced and analyzed. Nucleotide sequence similarity search of the local isolates resulted a high degree of sequence similarity with Gallid Herpes virus type 2 strain (Marek's disease virus type 1, JN034558). To our knowledge, the present study is the first report conducted on virus isolation and molecular characterization of MD virus isolates circulated in Ethiopia. Eleven ICP4-like gene fragment (318 bp) sequences generated in the present study were uploaded in the public database (KU842366-76). Further research on virus isolation, genetic characterization, and infection dynamics is recommended targeting chickens of all age groups reared in different agro-ecological zones under different

  8. Viruses, Autophagy Genes, and Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Vanessa M.; Cadwell, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of the intestinal disease Crohn’s disease involves genetic factors as well as ill-defined environmental agents. Several genetic variants linked to this disease are associated with autophagy, a process that is critical for proper responses to viral infections. While a role for viruses in this disease remains speculative, accumulating evidence indicate that this possibility requires serious consideration. In this review, we will examine the three-way relationship between viruses, autophagy genes, and Crohn’s disease and discuss how host-pathogen interactions can mediate complex inflammatory disorders. PMID:21994779

  9. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host, especially in areas of the world where both viruses are...

  10. The affect of infectious bursal disease virus on avian influenza virus vaccine efficacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immunosuppressive viruses are known to affect vaccinal immunity, however the impact of virally induced immunosuppression on avian influenza vaccine efficacy has not been quantified. In order to determine the effect of exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on vaccinal immunity to highly ...

  11. Effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine antibodies on the shedding and transmission of challenge viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different genotypes of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 virus (APMV-1) circulate in many parts of the world. Traditionally, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recognized as having two major divisions represented by class I and class II, with class II being further divided into eighteen genotypes. Alth...

  12. Insertion of a Reticuloendotheliosis virus LTR into the Marek's disease virus genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) had previously been co-cultivated in culture with Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). During co-cultivation, a long terminal repeat (LTR) from REV was inserted into the MDV genome. The resulting MDV, designated RM1, was attenuated but still induced severe thymic and bursal...

  13. [Zika Virus and Zika Viral Disease].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Li, Dexin

    2016-01-01

    Since Zika virus (ZIKV) has firstly been isolated in 1947, Uganda, outbreaks of Zika fever have been reported in many areas such as in Africa, Southeast Asia and America. Imported cases in China also have been reported. Zika virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and include Africa subtype and Asia subtype. It is a mosquito-borne virus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Sexual transmission, Blood transmission and mother-to-fetus transmission were also reported. Zika virus can go though blood-brain barrier and infect central nervous system. Symptoms are generally mild and self-limited, but recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly, as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Laboratorial Diagnosis includes nucleic acid detection, Serological test, and isolation of virus. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Preventive measures against Zika virus infection should be taken through prevention of mosquito bites and surveillance in epidemic area.

  14. Control of virus diseases of berry crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virus control in berry crops starts with the development of plants free of targeted pathogens, usually viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and systemic bacteria, through a combination of testing and therapy. These then become the top tier plants in certification programs and are the source from which all...

  15. A hematopoietic virus disease of rainbow trout and sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Yasutake, William T.; Mead, Robert W.

    1969-01-01

    A previously undescribed virus disease epizootic of hatchery rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in British Columbia, Canada is presented. In the same locality, a similar virus disease was experienced among hatchery sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Typical symptoms included flashing, fecal casts, hemorrhagic areas at the base of fins, and petechial hemorrhages on the visceral fat and membranes in the abdominal cavity. Histopathologic changes were typified by extensive degeneration and necrosis in the hematopoietic tissues of the kidney and spleen. A virus was isolated from both species of fish on tissue culture and the viruses showed cross-infectivity. Based upon the pathological changes in the hematopoietic tissue and the demonstration of a vital infection, a tentative descriptive name was designated Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis. The isolated viruses were distinctly different from the infectious pancreatic necrosis or viral hemorrhagic septicemia viruses of trout, but did show similarities to the Oregon sockeye and Sacramento River chinook viruses. Positive identification awaits further tests. The significance of these observations is the reporting of a new viral disease of rainbow trout and the extension of the geographic range of sockeye salmon viruses.

  16. Virus mutations and their impact on vaccination against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    PubMed

    Boudaoud, A; Mamache, B; Tombari, W; Ghram, A

    2016-12-01

    Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity. Various highly sensitive molecular techniques have clarified the viral determinants of antigenicity and pathogenicity of the infectious bursal disease virus. However, these markers are not universally recognised and tend to be considered as evolutionary markers. Antigenic variants of the infectious bursal disease virus possess modified neutralising epitopes that allow them to evade the action of maternally-derived or vaccine-induced antibodies. Autogenous or multivalent vaccines are required to control antigenic variants in areas where classical and variant virus strains coexist. Pathotypic variants (very virulent viruses) remain antigenically related to classical viruses. The difficulty in controlling pathotypic variants is linked to the difficulty of eliciting an early immune response, because of the risk of the vaccine virus being neutralised by maternal antibodies. Mathematical calculation of the optimal vaccination time and the use of vaccines resistant to maternally-derived antibodies have improved the control of very virulent viruses.

  17. Viruses and disease: emerging concepts for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Zika virus: A rapidly emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Roy A

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted to humans via the bite of infected mosquitoes. A recent outbreak in Brazil has spread to several surrounding countries, and the virus also has been reported in the United States. The virus is associated with microcephaly among newborns whose mothers were infected. Because no vaccine or treatment is available, efforts have focused on preventing mosquito bites and advising pregnant women and women trying to get pregnant to avoid active areas of Zika virus transmission. Clinicians should understand the infection, its diagnosis and testing, and monitor pregnant women for travel history to outbreak regions and for the presence of clinical symptoms. Patient education on preventive measures offers the best option to avoid Zika virus infection.

  19. Hepatitis C virus in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed; Hasan, Syed; Giday, Samuel; Alamgir, Laila; Banks, Alpha; Frederick, Winston; Smoot, Duane; Castro, Oswaldo

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV) in patients with sickle cell disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1983 and 2001, 150 patients from the Howard University Hospital Center for Sickle Cell Disease were screened for HCV antibody (52% women, 48% men, mean age 34 years). Frozen serum samples from 56 adult sickle cell patients who had participated in previous surveys (1983-92) of HIV and HTLV-1 serology and who were tested in 1992 for anti-HCV antibody--when commercial ELISA test (Ortho) became available--were included in this paper. Of the 150 patients in the study, 132 had sickle cell anemia genotype (SS), 15 had sickle cell hemoglobin-C disease (SC) and three had sickle beta thalassemia. Clinical charts were reviewed for history of blood transfusion, IV drug abuse, homosexuality, tattooing, iron overload, and alcohol abuse. RESULTS: Antibodies to HCV were detected in 53 patients (35.3%). Of the 55 patients who had frozen serum samples tested in 1992, 32 (58%) were reactive for anti-HCV, while only 21 of the 95 patients (22%) tested after 1992 were positive for HCV antibodies (P<0.001). Thirty-nine of 77 patients (51%) who received more than 10 units of packed red blood cells were positive for HCV antibody, and only 14 of 61 patients (23%) who received less than 10 units of packed red blood cells transfusion were positive for HCV antibodies (P<0.001). None of the 12 patients who never received transfusion were positive for HCV antibody. In the 53 anti-HCV positive patients, the mean alanine amino-transferase (ALT) value was 98- and 81 U/L, respectively, for males and females. These values were normal for the HCV-antibody negative patients. The aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and the total bilirubin were also higher in the anti-HCV positive patients compared to patients in the anti-HCV negative group. Forty-four patients (57.1%) who were transfused more than 10 units developed iron overload defined by a serum ferritin

  20. Studies on entry and egress of poliomyelitic infection. VI. Centrifugal spread of the virus into peripheral nerve with notes on its possible implications.

    PubMed

    FABER, H K; SILVERBERG, R J; DONG, L

    1953-03-01

    We have demonstrated a progressive centrifugal migration of poliomyelitis virus from the CNS into various peripheral ganglia and into peripheral nerves, including their distal portions. This phenomenon appears to be a regular occurrence in experimental animals, and is similar to that found in two other neurotropic infections, rabies and Borna disease. Viremia appears to be secondary to primary neural infection. The presence of virus in the lumen of the alimentary tract appears to be secondary to primary neural infection and not to viremia, and to be associated with the centrifugal spread of virus in peripheral nerves. The presence of virus in "extraneural" tissues is not per se referable to infection of their constituent cells but rather to infection of their supplying nerves or, in some instances, to their content of virus-bearing blood. The finding of virus in the vagus nerve may throw light on some of the electrocardiographic changes noted in certain cases of human poliomyelitis. The presence of virus in peripheral nerves may throw light on the etiology of the most frequent clinical manifestations of human poliomyelitis, localized pain and tenderness.

  1. Analysis of Newcastle disease virus quasispecies and factors affecting the emergence of virulent virus.

    PubMed

    Kattenbelt, Jacqueline A; Stevens, Matthew P; Selleck, Paul W; Gould, Allan R

    2010-10-01

    Genome sequence analysis of a number of avirulent field isolates of Newcastle disease virus revealed the presence of viruses (within their quasispecies) that contained virulent F0 sequences. Detection of these virulent sequences below the ~1% level, using standard cloning and sequence analysis, proved difficult, and thus a more sensitive reverse-transcription real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect both virulent and avirulent NDV F0 sequences. Reverse-transcription real-time PCR analysis of the quasispecies of a number of Newcastle disease virus field isolates, revealed variable ratios (approximately 1:4-1:4,000) of virulent to avirulent viral F0 sequences. Since the ratios of these sequences generally remained constant in the quasispecies population during replication, factors that could affect the balance of virulent to avirulent sequences during viral infection of birds were investigated. It was shown both in vitro and in vivo that virulent virus present in the quasispecies did not emerge from the "avirulent background" unless a direct selection pressure was placed on the quasispecies, either by growth conditions or by transient immunosuppression. The effect of a prior infection of the host by infectious bronchitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus on the subsequent emergence of virulent Newcastle disease virus was examined.

  2. West nile virus and other arboviral diseases - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Lehman, Jennifer A; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc

    2014-06-20

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (i.e., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis). This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC in 2013 for WNV and other nationally notifiable arboviruses, excluding dengue. Forty-seven states and the District of Columbia reported 2,469 cases of WNV disease. Of these, 1,267 (51%) were classified as WNV neuroinvasive disease, for a national incidence of 0.40 per 100,000 population. After WNV, the next most commonly reported cause of arboviral disease was La Crosse virus (LACV) (85 cases), followed by Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), Powassan virus (POWV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) (eight). WNV and other arboviruses continue to cause serious illness in substantial numbers of persons annually. Maintaining surveillance remains important to help direct and promote prevention activities.

  3. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Patti J.; Kim, L. Mia; Ip, Hon S.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2009-08-15

    A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this site that result in changes of virulence may not be favored. The coding sequence of the fusion gene and the genomes of viruses from wild birds displayed higher yearly rates of change in virulent viruses than in viruses of low virulence, suggesting that an increase in virulence may accelerate the rate of NDV evolution.

  4. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthcare Professionals Addressing Ebola Virus Infection Concerns in K-12 Schools Public Health Resources U.S. Healthcare Workers and ... Field Training: Healthcare Workers Going to Africa Continuing Education Toolkit Managing Patient Flow During Triage, Isolation, and ...

  5. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  6. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Dai, Shiyu; Wang, Manli; Hu, Zhihong; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are major threats to human health. Most severe viral disease outbreaks occur in developing regions where health conditions are poor. With increased international travel and business, the possibility of eventually transmitting infectious viruses between different countries is increasing. The most effective approach in preventing viral diseases is vaccination. However, vaccines are not currently available for numerous viral diseases. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are engineered vaccine candidates that have been studied for decades. VLPs are constructed by viral protein expression in various expression systems that promote the selfassembly of proteins into structures resembling virus particles. VLPs have antigenicity similar to that of the native virus, but are non-infectious as they lack key viral genetic material. VLP vaccines have attracted considerable research interest because they offer several advantages over traditional vaccines. Studies have shown that VLP vaccines can stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses, which may offer effective antiviral protection. Here we review recent developments with VLP-based vaccines for several highly virulent emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases. The infectious agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families.

  7. Combination of Two Marek's Disease Virus Vectors Shows Effective Vaccination Against Marek's Disease, Infectious Bursal Disease, and Newcastle Disease.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yukari; Esaki, Motoyuki; Saitoh, Shuji; Yasuda, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) is a widely used vector for poultry vaccines. However, different HVTs expressing different foreign antigens cannot always be used simultaneously because of the risk of recombination and interference. In this study, we inoculated a mixture of an HVT-expressing the antigen of Newcastle disease virus (NDV; HVT/ND) and Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 1 Rispens virus expressing the antigen of infectious bursal disease virus (IBD; Ripens/IBD) into chickens. This mixture showed 94%, 100%, or 94% protection against MDV, IBDV, or NDV challenge, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of Rispens/IBD and HVT/ND is effective for vaccination against MDV, IBDV, and NDV without significant interference.

  8. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-11-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus-host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity.

  9. Control of pome and stone fruit virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Barba, Marina; Ilardi, Vincenza; Pasquini, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    Many different systemic pathogens, including viruses, affect pome and stone fruits causing diseases with adverse effects in orchards worldwide. The significance of diseases caused by these pathogens on tree health and fruit shape and quality has resulted in the imposition of control measures both nationally and internationally. Control measures depend on the identification of diseases and their etiological agents. Diagnosis is the most important aspect of controlling fruit plant viruses. Early detection of viruses in fruit trees or in the propagative material is a prerequisite for their control and to guarantee a sustainable agriculture. Many quarantine programs are in place to reduce spread of viruses among countries during international exchange of germplasm. All these phytosanitary measures are overseen by governments based on agreements produced by international organizations. Also certification schemes applied to fruit trees allow the production of planting material of known variety and plant health status for local growers by controlling the propagation of pathogen-tested mother plants. They ensure to obtain propagative material not only free of "quarantine" organisms under the national legislation but also of important "nonquarantine" pathogens. The control of insect vectors plays an important role in the systemic diseases management, but it must be used together with other control measures as eradication of infected plants and use of certified propagation material. Apart from the control of the virus vector and the use of virus-free material, the development of virus-resistant cultivars appears to be the most effective approach to achieve control of plant viruses, especially for perennial crops that are more exposed to infection during their long life span. The use of resistant or tolerant cultivars and/or rootstocks could be potentially the most important aspect of virus disease management, especially in areas in which virus infections are endemic. The

  10. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  11. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    PubMed

    Patton, Lauren L

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications.

  12. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  13. Molecular basis for the thermostability of Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this stud...

  14. The evolution of newcastle disease virus of low virulence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) are also known as avian paramyxoviruses of serotype-1 (APMV-1). All NDVs (or APMV-1) are in one serotype and, by definition, antibodies produced from an exposure to any NDV will neutralize any other NDV. However, not all NDV (or APMV-1) cause Newcastle disease (ND)...

  15. Variant rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in young rabbits, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Kevin P; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A; Rosell, Joan M; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L; Parra, Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen.

  16. Possible roles of Epstein-Barr virus in Castleman disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Liu, Hung-Chang; Hung, Tzu-Ti; Liu, Tsang-Pai

    2009-01-01

    Background Complete resection seemed to be curative in patients with Castleman disease of any location but the disease is likely to be reactive in its pathogenesis. The relation between Epstein-Barr virus and Castleman disease has not been elucidated. We tried to define the role of Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of Castleman disease. Methods 20 cases of Castleman disease were retrospectively reviewed from 1993 to 2006. At least 2 to 4 representative sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from each patient were obtained to examine the presence of EBV and its localization by hematoxylin-eosin stain, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction and In-situ hybridization Results Hyaline-vascular type was diagnosed in 18 cases, plasma cell type in 1 and mixed type in 1 case. All of them were positive for Epstein-Barr virus confirmed by PCR. For tumors that EBER(Epstein-Barr early region) signals mainly localized in the germinal centers have increased vascularity than cases with EBER detected in inter-follicular areas. Conclusion There is a strong association between Castleman disease and Epstein-Barr virus. EBV may have a potential role in angiogenesis of Castleman disease. For smaller lesion with high activity of angiogenesis but not amenable for curative resection, anti-angiogenesis medications may have a potential role to control the disease. PMID:19589162

  17. Newcastle disease virus from domestic mink, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Panpan; Sun, Lingshuang; Sun, Xiao; Li, Siwen; Zhang, Wen; Pulscher, Laura A; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.

  18. [Virus disease complexes: transmissible pathological entities in invertebrates].

    PubMed

    Odier, F; Vago, M C

    1975-05-21

    Virus disease complexes of Galleria mellonella L. due respectively to a Parvovirus with a Baculovirus and a Parovirus with an Iridovirus have been transmitted to healthy larvae by ingestion of corpses of larvae affected by these disease complexes. The histological and cytological injuries observed are identical to those noted during the study of the initial complexes.

  19. Immune responses of poultry to newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are cont...

  20. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs.

    PubMed

    Sá E Silva, Mariana; Susta, Leonardo; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in the ovary and all segments of the oviduct. Yolk, albumen and eggshell surface from eggs laid at day 4 and 5 post-infection by sham-vaccinated hens were positive for NDV, but eggs from LaSota vaccinated hens lacked virus in internal egg components (i.e. yolk and albumen) and had reduction in the number of positive eggshell surfaces. These results indicate virulent NDV can replicate in the reproductive tract of hens and contaminate internal components of eggs and eggshell surface, but vaccination was able to prevent internal egg contamination, reducing eggshell surface contamination, and reducing shedding from digestive and respiratory tracts in virulent NDV challenged hens.

  1. Neutralising antibodies to lumpy skin disease virus in African wildlife.

    PubMed

    Hedger, R S; Hamblin, C

    1983-01-01

    A total of 3445 sera from 44 different wild species collected between 1963 and 1982 in 11 African countries south of the Sahara, were examined for neutralising antibodies to Lumpy Skin Diseases (LSD) Virus (prototype Neethling). Antibodies were demonstrated in six species but were of low prevalence. It was concluded from the generally negative results, that wildlife in Africa probably does not play a very important part in he perpetuation and spread of LSD Virus.

  2. Foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. During infection with FMDV, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. The largest viral protein in the replication complex,...

  3. Vaccination of hens decreases virus contamination in eggs after challenge with the virulent Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease is an important infectious disease of poultry causing economic losses worldwide. The control is routinely performed by vaccination, however vaccinated birds can shed virus, creating a barrier for trade exports. To determine if vaccination could mitigate these negative outcomes, h...

  4. Reverse genetics of Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reverse genetics allows the generation of recombinant viruses or vectors used in functional studies, vaccine development, and gene therapy. This technique allows genetic manipulation and cloning of viral genomes, mutation through site-directed mutagenesis, and gene insertion or deletion, among othe...

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of Newcastle disease virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, P.J.; Kim, L.M.; Ip, H.S.; Afonso, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this site that result in changes of virulence may not be favored. The coding sequence of the fusion gene and the genomes of viruses from wild birds displayed higher yearly rates of change in virulent viruses than in viruses of low virulence, suggesting that an increase in virulence may accelerate the rate of NDV evolution. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Pollen Transmitted Diseases, Raspberry bushy dwarf virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) occurs naturally worldwide in many Rubus species and cultivars. In North America, it naturally infects many red raspberry, black raspberry, blackberry and blackberry-raspberry hybrid cultivars. RBDV also occurs in wild R. idaeus L. var. strigosus, R. occidentali., ...

  7. Introduction and history of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Mahy, B W J

    2005-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been recognized as a significant epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century, and in the late nineteenth century it was shown by Loeffler and Frosch to be caused by a submicroscopic, filterable transmissible agent, smaller than any known bacteria. The agent causing FMD was thus the first virus of vertebrates to be discovered, soon after the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus of plants. It was not until 1920 that a convenient animal model for the study of FMD virus was established by Waldmann and Pape, using guinea-pigs, and with the later development of in vitro cell culture systems for the virus, the chemical and physical properties of FMD virus were elucidated during the remainder of the twentieth century, culminating in 1989 with a complete description of the three-dimensional structure of the virion. FMD virus is classified as a species in the Aphthovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. The virus is acid labile, and the genome RNA contains a characteristic tract of polyC located about 360 nucleotides from the 5' terminus. Seven main serotypes exist throughout the world, as well as numerous subtypes. The World Reference Laboratory for FMD is located at Pirbright, Surrey, UK and undertakes surveillance of FMD epidemics by serotyping as well as by genotyping isolates of the virus. A major epidemic of FMD occurred in the UK in 2001 and was caused by a virulent strain of FMD virus with origins in Asia. The advantages and some disadvantages of controlling FMD outbreaks by vaccination are discussed.

  8. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus–host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  9. Effect of 2-(a Hydroxybenzyl) Benzimidazole on Teschen Disease Virus, Pig Enteric Viruses, and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Kidney Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Dardiri, A H; Delay, P D; Bachrach, H L

    1964-07-01

    The synthetic compound, 2-((a) hydroxybenzyl) benzimidazole (HBB) partially inhibited the cytopathogenicity and multiplication of Teschen disease virus (TDV) and 6 enteric-cytopathogenic porcine orphan (ECPO) viruses in swine cells but not of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in bovine kidney cells. For FMDV, there appeared to be a slight enhancement in virus yield and in cytopathic effect when HBB was present. The inhibition of the viral cytopathic effect and reproduction of TDV and ECPO viruses was related to the concentration of HBB. At the inhibitory level, the compound did not cause any changes in the microscopic structure of pig kidney or bovine kidney cells. The suppression of TDV multiplication was reversed when HBB was removed. The compound did not inactivate TDV or FMDV.

  10. Effect of 2-(a Hydroxybenzyl) Benzimidazole on Teschen Disease Virus, Pig Enteric Viruses, and Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Kidney Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Dardiri, A. H.; DeLay, P. D.; Bachrach, H. L.

    1964-01-01

    The synthetic compound, 2-(a hydroxybenzyl) benzimidazole (HBB) partially inhibited the cytopathogenicity and multiplication of Teschen disease virus (TDV) and 6 enteric-cytopathogenic porcine orphan (ECPO) viruses in swine cells but not of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in bovine kidney cells. For FMDV, there appeared to be a slight enhancement in virus yield and in cytopathic effect when HBB was present. The inhibition of the viral cytopathic effect and reproduction of TDV and ECPO viruses was related to the concentration of HBB. At the inhibitory level, the compound did not cause any changes in the microscopic structure of pig kidney or bovine kidney cells. The suppression of TDV multiplication was reversed when HBB was removed. The compound did not inactivate TDV or FMDV. Imagesp164-a PMID:17649516

  11. Real-Time Evolution of Zika Virus Disease Outbreak, Roatán, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Trevor; Roy-Burman, Arup; Tuholske, Cascade; Busch, Michael P; Bakkour, Sonia; Stone, Mars; Linnen, Jeffrey M; Gao, Kui; Coleman, Jayleen; Bloch, Evan M

    2017-08-01

    A Zika virus disease outbreak occurred in Roatán, Honduras, during September 2015-July 2016. Blood samples and clinical information were obtained from 183 patients given a clinical diagnosis of suspected dengue virus infection. A total of 79 patients were positive for Zika virus, 13 for chikungunya virus, and 6 for dengue virus.

  12. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2017-07-01

    Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ebolavirus Vaccines: Progress in the Fight Against Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.

  14. A Mouse Model of Chronic West Nile Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jessica B.; Swarts, Jessica L.; Wilkins, Courtney; Thomas, Sunil; Green, Richard; Sekine, Aimee; Voss, Kathleen M.; Mooney, Michael; Choonoo, Gabrielle; Miller, Darla R.; Pardo Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Gale, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Infection with West Nile virus (WNV) leads to a range of disease outcomes, including chronic infection, though lack of a robust mouse model of chronic WNV infection has precluded identification of the immune events contributing to persistent infection. Using the Collaborative Cross, a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains with high levels of standing genetic variation, we have identified a mouse model of persistent WNV disease, with persistence of viral loads within the brain. Compared to lines exhibiting no disease or marked disease, the F1 cross CC(032x013)F1 displays a strong immunoregulatory signature upon infection that correlates with restraint of the WNV-directed cytolytic response. We hypothesize that this regulatory T cell response sufficiently restrains the immune response such that a chronic infection can be maintained in the CNS. Use of this new mouse model of chronic neuroinvasive virus will be critical in developing improved strategies to prevent prolonged disease in humans. PMID:27806117

  15. Immune responses and disease enhancement during respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Peter J M; Tregoning, John S

    2005-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the commonest and most troublesome viruses of infancy. It causes most cases of bronchiolitis, which is associated with wheezing in later childhood. In primary infection, the peak of disease typically coincides with the development of specific T- and B-cell responses, which seem, in large part, to be responsible for disease. Animal models clearly show that a range of immune responses can enhance disease severity, particularly after vaccination with formalin-inactivated RSV. Prior immune sensitization leads to exuberant chemokine production, an excessive cellular influx, and an overabundance of cytokines during RSV challenge. Under different circumstances, specific mediators and T-cell subsets and antibody-antigen immune complex deposition are incriminated as major factors in disease. Animal models of immune enhancement permit a deep understanding of the role of specific immune responses in RSV disease, assist in vaccine design, and indicate which immunomodulatory therapy might be beneficial to children with bronchiolitis.

  16. Histopathological observation of lymphocystis disease and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) detection in cultured diseased Sebastes schlegeli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin; Xu, Songjuan; Cheng, Shunfeng

    2007-10-01

    Lymphocystis nodules occurring in the cultured sting fish Sebastes schlegeli were observed under light and electron microscope. Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) in the tissues of diseased fish was detected with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). Results showed that lymphocystis cells had overly irregular nuclei, basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies with virions budding from the surface, and hyaline capsules outside the cell membrane. Numerous virus particles about 200 nm in diameter scattered in the cytoplasm, electron-dense particles 70 80 nm in diameter filled in perinuclear cisterna, and membrane-enveloped particles with electron-dense core of 70 80 nm appeared around cellular nucleus. IFAT using monoclonal antibody against LCDV from Paralichthys olivaceus revealed that specific green fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells, epithelium of stomach, gill lamellae, and muscular fibers under epidermis of S. schlegeli, just as that in the cytoplasm of lymphocystis cells of P. olivaceus, suggesting the presence of LCDV in these tissues.

  17. Avian Bornavirus Associated with Fatal Disease in Psittacine Birds▿

    PubMed Central

    Staeheli, Peter; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied by encephalomyelitis. Since its discovery, ABV has been detected worldwide in many captive parrots and in one canary with PDD. ABV induced a PDD-like disease in experimentally infected cockatiels, strongly suggesting that ABV is highly pathogenic in psittacine birds. Until the discovery of ABV, the Bornaviridae family consisted of a single species, classical Borna disease virus (BDV), which is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disorder that affects primarily horses, sheep, and some other farm animals in central Europe. Although ABV and BDV share many biological features, there exist several interesting differences, which are discussed in this review. PMID:20219910

  18. Avian bornavirus associated with fatal disease in psittacine birds.

    PubMed

    Staeheli, Peter; Rinder, Monika; Kaspers, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Thanks to new technologies which enable rapid and unbiased screening for viral nucleic acids in clinical specimens, an impressive number of previously unknown viruses have recently been discovered. Two research groups independently identified a novel negative-strand RNA virus, now designated avian bornavirus (ABV), in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a severe lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis of the gastrointestinal tract of psittacine birds that is frequently accompanied by encephalomyelitis. Since its discovery, ABV has been detected worldwide in many captive parrots and in one canary with PDD. ABV induced a PDD-like disease in experimentally infected cockatiels, strongly suggesting that ABV is highly pathogenic in psittacine birds. Until the discovery of ABV, the Bornaviridae family consisted of a single species, classical Borna disease virus (BDV), which is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disorder that affects primarily horses, sheep, and some other farm animals in central Europe. Although ABV and BDV share many biological features, there exist several interesting differences, which are discussed in this review.

  19. Evidence of intrauterine transmission of lumpy skin disease virus.

    PubMed

    Rouby, Sherin; Aboulsoud, Emad

    2016-03-01

    The current study describes the clinical, histopathological, molecular and serological diagnosis of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in a premature 1-day old calf that has been delivered from a cow that exhibited signs of LSD during the seventh month of pregnancy. The calf showed generalized skin lesions accompanied with signs of immaturity and died 36 h after birth. Postmortem and histopathological examinations revealed the involvement of multiple tissues. The presence of Neethling virus DNA in tissues was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing. Results of ELISA and serum neutralization test (SNT) confirmed that the calf had developed precolostral serum antibodies to LSD virus indicating in utero virus transmission. All tested sera collected from animals located in the same area were serologically positive, indicating exposure to LSD virus.

  20. Influence of Viral Envelope on Newcastle Disease Virus Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nancy P.; Ash, Ronald J.

    1974-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) propagated in chicken cells (NDV-C) and in human cells (NDV-H) were examined. Adsorption experiments performed at different temperatures indicated that virus propagated in a particular cell infected that cell type more readily than did virus propagated in a different host. For example, NDV-C was more efficient in initiating infection of chicken cells at 22 C than was NDV-H; the reverse was true when human cells were employed. The results indicate that infection of susceptible cells by NDV is influenced by the host cell in which the virus was propagated. The data also suggest that NDV may be useful in studies on homologous and heterologous membrane-membrane interactions. PMID:4858501

  1. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Ebola virus and Marburg virus By Mayo Clinic Staff Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic ... Africa, where sporadic outbreaks have occurred for decades. Ebola virus and Marburg virus live in animal hosts, ...

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  3. Ebola Virus Disease in Pregnancy: Clinical, Histopathologic, and Immunohistochemical Findings.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; de la Rosa Vázquez, Olimpia; Bausch, Daniel G; Schafer, Ilana J; Paddock, Christopher D; Nyakio, Jean Paul; Lame, Papys; Bergeron, Eric; McCollum, Andrea M; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Bollweg, Brigid C; Prieto, Miriam Alía; Lushima, Robert Shongo; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Nichol, Stuart T; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E; Zaki, Sherif R

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe clinicopathologic features of Ebola virus disease in pregnancy. One woman infected with Sudan virus in Gulu, Uganda, in 2000 had a stillbirth and survived, and another woman infected with Bundibugyo virus had a live birth with maternal and infant death in Isiro, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012. Ebolavirus antigen was seen in the syncytiotrophoblast and placental maternal mononuclear cells by immunohistochemical analysis, and no antigen was seen in fetal placental stromal cells or fetal organs. In the Gulu case, ebolavirus antigen localized to malarial parasite pigment-laden macrophages. These data suggest that trophoblast infection may be a mechanism of transplacental ebolavirus transmission. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S M; Pearson, Caroline R; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R; Lamien, Charles E; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease.

    PubMed

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G; Souza, Flávia O; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or "meleira", is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2.

  6. The dsRNA Virus Papaya Meleira Virus and an ssRNA Virus Are Associated with Papaya Sticky Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sá Antunes, Tathiana Ferreira; Amaral, Raquel J. Vionette; Ventura, José Aires; Godinho, Marcio Tadeu; Amaral, Josiane G.; Souza, Flávia O.; Zerbini, Poliane Alfenas; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2016-01-01

    Papaya sticky disease, or “meleira”, is one of the major diseases of papaya in Brazil and Mexico, capable of causing complete crop loss. The causal agent of sticky disease was identified as an isometric virus with a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome, named papaya meleira virus (PMeV). In the present study, PMeV dsRNA and a second RNA band of approximately 4.5 kb, both isolated from latex of papaya plants with severe symptoms of sticky disease, were deep-sequenced. The nearly complete sequence obtained for PMeV dsRNA is 8,814 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs; the predicted ORF1 and ORF2 display similarity to capsid proteins and RdRp's, respectively, from mycoviruses tentatively classified in the family Totiviridae. The sequence obtained for the second RNA is 4,515 nucleotides long and contains two putative ORFs. The predicted ORFs 1 and 2 display 48% and 73% sequence identity, respectively, with the corresponding proteins of papaya virus Q, an umbravirus recently described infecting papaya in Ecuador. Viral purification in a sucrose gradient allowed separation of particles containing each RNA. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that both PMeV and the second RNA virus (named papaya meleira virus 2, PMeV2) were encapsidated in particles formed by the protein encoded by PMeV ORF1. The presence of both PMeV and PMeV2 was confirmed in field plants showing typical symptoms of sticky disease. Interestingly, PMeV was detected alone in asymptomatic plants. Together, our results indicate that sticky disease is associated with double infection by PMeV and PMeV2. PMID:27166626

  7. Long-term expression of miRNA for RNA interference using a novel vector system based on a negative-strand RNA virus

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Daito, Takuji; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Makino, Akiko; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a promising technique for gene therapy. However, the safe and long-term expression of small RNA molecules is a major concern for the application of RNAi therapies in vivo. Borna disease virus (BDV), a non-segmented, negative-strand RNA virus, establishes a persistent infection without obvious cytopathic effects. Unique among animal non-retroviral RNA viruses, BDV persistently establishes a long-lasting persistent infection in the nucleus. These features make BDV ideal for RNA virus vector persistently expressing small RNAs. Here, we demonstrated that the recombinant BDV (rBDV) containing the miR-155 precursor, rBDV-miR-155, persistently expressed miR-155 and efficiently silenced its target gene. The stem region of the miR-155 precursor in rBDV-miR-155 was replaceable by any miRNA sequences of interest and that such rBDVs efficiently silence the expression of target genes. Collectively, BDV vector would be a novel RNA virus vector enabling the long-term expression of miRNAs for RNAi therapies. PMID:27189575

  8. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  9. Experimental characterization of West African Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four West African strains and one South African strain of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were characterized through a two-phase experiment. Strains investigated were Burkina Faso/2415-580/2008, Nigeria/228-7/2006, Niger/1377/2006, and Goose/South Africa/08100426/2008. Phylogenetic analysis s...

  10. Characterization and phylogenic analysis of Mexican Newcastle disease virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated in Mexico for the first time in 1946 and the last report of a field outbreak caused by a highly virulent strain dates from year 2000, when 13.6 million birds were slaughtered and 93 farms quarantined. Mean Death Time test resulted in velogenic classificati...

  11. Social vulnerability and Ebola virus disease in rural Liberia

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick; Melvin L. Warren; Susan Charnley; Christie M. Stegall

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate...

  12. Not so fast on recombination analysis of Newcastle disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Regarding the letter published in the Journal of Virology Vol. 82 No. 13 p. 6782 indicating that “powerful evidence” of recombination is a call for caution in the use of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) based vaccines, I would like to suggest that evidence for recombination is still weak. The authors ...

  13. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  14. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of § 113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the...

  15. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of § 113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the...

  16. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of § 113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the...

  17. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... eggs or cell cultures. With the exception of § 113.200(c)(2)(iii), each serial shall meet the...

  18. Expressing foreign genes by Newcastle disease virus for cancer therapy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An interesting aspect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the ability to selectively replicate in tumor cells. Recently, using reverse genetics technology to enhance the oncolytic properties and therapeutic potential of NDV for tumor therapy has become popular in immunocompetent carcinoma tumor mod...

  19. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  20. Multifactorial Nature of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Implications for Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1993-11-01

    The immunopathogenic mechanisms underlying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are extremely complex; the disease process is multifactorial with multiple overlapping phases. Viral burden is substantial and viral replication occurs throughout the entire course of HIV infection. Inappropriate immune activation and elevated secretion of certain cytokines compound the pathogenic process. Profound immunosuppression ultimately occurs together with a disruption of the microenvironment of the immune system, which is probably unable to regenerate spontaneously. Thus, therapeutic strategies in HIV disease must not be unidimensional, but rather must be linked to the complex pathogenic components of the disease and must address where feasible each of the recognized pathoclenic processes for the possibility of therapeutic intervention.

  1. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  2. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be

  3. Respiratory viruses in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Parvaiz A; Mir, Hyder; Akram, Shabir; Potdar, Varsha; Chadha, Mandeep S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) cause significant morbidity, mortality, and an inexorable decline of lung function. Data from developed countries have shown viruses to be important causes of AECOPD, but data from developing countries like India are scant. We set out to determine the contribution of viruses in the causation of hospitalized patients with AECOPD. Methods: Twin nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected from 233 patients admitted with an acute AECOPD and tested for respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus A and B, parainfluenza were (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A and B, influenza A and B, enterovirus, corona NL65, OC43, and 229E viruses, adenovirus 2 and 4, rhinovirus, and bocavirus, by duplex real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using CDC approved primers and probes. Samples positive for influenza A were subtyped for A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 whereas influenza B samples were subtyped into B/Yamagata and B/Victoria subtypes, using primers and probes recommended by CDC, USA. Results: Respiratory viruses were detected in 46 (19.7%) cases, influenza A/H3N2 and rhinoviruses being the most common viruses detected. More than one virus was isolated in four cases consisting of hMPV-B + adeno-2 + Inf-B; rhino + H3N2, PIV-1 + rhino; and PIV-1+ hMPV-B in one case each. Ancillary supportive therapeutic measures included bronchodilators, antibiotics, steroids, and ventilation (noninvasive in 42 and invasive in 4). Antiviral therapy was instituted in influenza-positive patients. Three patients with A/H3N2 infection died during hospitalization. Conclusions: We conclude that respiratory viruses are important contributors to AECOPD in India. Our data calls for prompt investigation during an exacerbation for viruses to obviate inappropriate antibiotic use and institute antiviral therapy in viral disease amenable to antiviral therapy. Appropriate

  4. Biology and disease associations of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D H

    2001-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus which infects almost all of the world's population subclinically during childhood and thereafter remains in the body for life. The virus colonizes antibody-producing (B) cells, which, as relatively long-lived resting cells, are an ideal site for long-term residence. Here EBV evades recognition and destruction by cytotoxic T cells. EBV is passed to naive hosts in saliva, but how the virus gains access to this route of transmission is not entirely clear. EBV carries a set of latent genes that, when expressed in resting B cells, induce cell proliferation and thereby increase the chances of successful virus colonization of the B-cell system during primary infection and the establishment of persistence. However, if this cell proliferation is not controlled, or if it is accompanied by additional genetic events within the infected cell, it can lead to malignancy. Thus EBV acts as a step in the evolution of an ever-increasing list of malignancies which are broadly of lymphoid or epithelial cell origin. In some of these, such as B-lymphoproliferative disease in the immunocompromised host, the role of the virus is central and well defined; in others, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, essential cofactors have been identified which act in concert with EBV in the evolution of the malignant clone. However, in several diseases in which the presence of EBV has more recently been discovered, the role of the virus is unclear. This review describes recent views on the EBV life cycle and its interlinks with normal B-cell biology, and discusses how this interrelationship may be upset and result in EBV-associated disease. PMID:11313005

  5. Inhibition of Interferon Induction and Action by the Nairovirus Nairobi Sheep Disease Virus/Ganjam Virus

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Barbara; Bakshi, Siddharth; Bridgen, Anne; Baron, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The Nairoviruses are an important group of tick-borne viruses that includes pathogens of man (Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus) and livestock animals (Dugbe virus, Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)). NSDV is found in large parts of East Africa and the Indian subcontinent (where it is known as Ganjam virus). We have investigated the ability of NSDV to antagonise the induction and actions of interferon. Both pathogenic and apathogenic isolates could actively inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon, and also blocked the signalling pathways of both type 1 and type 2 interferons. Using transient expression of viral proteins or sections of viral proteins, these activities all mapped to the ovarian tumour-like protease domain (OTU) found in the viral RNA polymerase. Virus infection, or expression of this OTU domain in transfected cells, led to a great reduction in the incorporation of ubiquitin or ISG15 protein into host cell proteins. Point mutations in the OTU that inhibited the protease activity also prevented it from antagonising interferon induction and action. Interestingly, a mutation at a peripheral site, which had little apparent effect on the ability of the OTU to inhibit ubiquitination and ISG15ylation, removed the ability of the OTU to block the induction of type 1 and the action of type 2 interferons, but had a lesser effect on the ability to block type 1 interferon action, suggesting that targets other than ubiquitin and ISG15 may be involved in the actions of the viral OTU. PMID:22163042

  6. Hot topics in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Patel, Sanjay; Openshaw, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The 7th International Respiratory Syncytial Virus Symposium took place in Hotel Blijdorp, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The series has been running since 1996; this meeting took place after a 3-year gap, and was attended by approximately 200 clinicians, scientists and industry representatives from all over the world. The conference covered all aspects of respiratory syncytial virus disease, including virology, cell biology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, immunology, vaccines, antivirals and other therapeutic approaches. Reviews by invited keynote speakers were accompanied by oral and poster presentations, with ample opportunity for discussion of unpublished work. This article summarizes a small selection of hot topics from the meeting, focused on pathogenesis, therapeutics and vaccine development.

  7. Ebola virus disease - pathogenesis, clinical presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Piatek, Anna; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    On March 2014 the WHO notified the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, and infection quickly spread to another West African countries including Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. Current outbreak is the largest in the history, since discovery of the virus in 1976. Imported cases and infection among healthcare workers in Europe and United States have elucidated necessity of better education of medical staff. Clinicians must be familiar with clinical picture of EVD, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, as rapid diagnosis and prompt introduction of supportive therapy can have a significant impact on the survival.

  8. Update: Ebola virus disease outbreak--West Africa, October 2014.

    PubMed

    2014-10-31

    CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from situation reports from the Guinea Interministerial Committee for Response Against the Ebola Virus and the World Health Organization, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases and reporting delays that vary from country to country.

  9. Detection of border disease virus in Mexican cattle.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Romero, N; Basurto-Alcántara, F J; Verdugo-Rodríguez, A; Lagunes-Quintanilla, R; Bauermann, F V; Ridpath, J F

    2017-05-04

    The genus Pestivirus within Flaviviridae is comprised of four recognized species, namely, bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). BDV, while primarily infecting sheep and goats, has also been reported in cattle and wild animals. Infections of sheep and goats result in economic loss due to abortions and the birth of persistently infected animals that have poor production and reduced life expectancy. In this study, we report the detection of BDV in cattle serum collected as part of pestivirus surveillance programme from six regions of Mexico, where a 67.1% of BVDV seroprevalence was calculated previously. Phylogenetic analyses based on comparison of the 5'UTR region typed the Mexican strains as BDV-1. Border disease (BD) is listed as an exotic disease in Mexico, and the origin of BDV found in these cattle is unclear. This is the first identification of BDV in Mexican cattle. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

  11. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel E.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas. PMID:26903031

  12. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research. PMID:21571908

  13. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Bem, Reinout A; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2011-08-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research.

  14. Viruses and Salivary Gland Disease (SGD)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffers, L.; Webster-Cyriaque, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Viral infections are often associated with salivary gland pathology. Here we review the pathogenesis of HIV-associated salivary gland disease (HIV-SGD), a hallmark of diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. We investigate the presence and contributions of viral diseases to the pathogenesis of salivary gland diseases, particularly HIV-SGD. We have detected BK viral shedding in the saliva of HIV-SGD patients consistent with viral infection and replication, suggesting a role for oral transmission. For further investigation of BKV pathogenesis in salivary glands, an in vitro model of BKV infection is described. Submandibular (HSG) and parotid (HSY) gland salivary cell lines were capable of permissive BKV infection, as determined by BKV gene expression and replication. Analysis of these data collectively suggests the potential for a BKV oral route of transmission and salivary gland pathogenesis within HIV-SGD. PMID:21441486

  15. Human papilloma virus and cervical preinvasive disease

    PubMed Central

    Bari, M; Iancu, G; Popa, F

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer lesions represent a major threat to the health of the women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 99.7% of cervical cancer cases, the infectious etiology giving the possibility of preventing cervical cancer by vaccination. The most aggressive HPV types are 16 and 18, which cause about 70% of cases of invasive cancer. The vaccination is recommended to the girls aged 11–12. The diagnosis and the treatment of cervical preinvasive disease allow the doctor to prevent the development of the invasive disease. PMID:20108750

  16. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M; Lohse, Ansgar W; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Carroll, Miles W; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-05-05

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus. Here we evaluate the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission to the Ebola Treatment Center in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we identify an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by a high percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, which correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation, despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concomitant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust Ebola-virus-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology.

  17. Emerging virus diseases: can we ever expect the unexpected?

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Colin R; Fletcher, Nicola F

    2012-01-01

    Emerging virus diseases are a major threat to human and veterinary public health. With new examples occurring approximately one each year, the majority are viruses originating from an animal host. Of the many factors responsible, changes to local ecosystems that perturb the balance between pathogen and principal host species is one of the major drivers, together with increasing urbanization of mankind and changes in human behavior. Many emerging viruses have RNA genomes and as such are capable of rapid mutation and selection of new variants in the face of environmental changes in host numbers and available target species. This review summarizes recent work on aspects of virus emergence and the current understanding of the molecular and immunological basis whereby viruses may cross between species and become established in new ecological niches. Emergence is hard to predict, although mathematical modeling and spatial epidemiology have done much to improve the prediction of where emergence may occur. However, much needs to be done to ensure adequate surveillance is maintained of animal species known to present the greatest risk thus increasing general alertness among physicians, veterinarians and those responsible for formulating public health policy. PMID:26038413

  18. [Zika virus infection or the future of infectious diseases].

    PubMed

    Valerio Sallent, Lluís; Roure Díez, Sílvia; Fernández Rivas, Gema

    2016-10-07

    Zika virus belongs to the Flaviridae, an extended phylogenetic family containing dengue or yellow fever, viruses whose shared main vector are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The virus originally came from Central African simian reservoirs and, from there, expanded rapidly across the Pacific to South America. The disease is an example of exantematic fever usually mild. Mortality is very low and mainly limited to secondary Guillain-Barré or fetal microcephaly cases. Diagnostic confirmation requires a RT-PCR in blood up to the 5th day from the onset or in urine up to the 10-14th day. Specific IgM are identifiable from the 5th symptomatic day. Clinically, a suspected case should comply with: a) a journey to epidemic areas; b) a clinically compatible appearance with fever and skin rash, and c) a generally normal blood count/basic biochemistry. There is some evidence that causally relates Zika virus infection with fetal microcephaly. While waiting for definitive data, all pregnant women coming from Central or South America should be tested for Zika virus.

  19. Feline immunodeficiency virus clade C mucosal transmission and disease courses.

    PubMed

    Obert, L A; Hoover, E A

    2000-05-01

    The transmissibility and pathogenicity of a clade C feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-C) was examined via the oral-nasal, vaginal, or rectal mucosa. FIV-C was transmissible by all three mucosal routes. Vaginal transmission was most efficient (100%), oral exposure resulted in a 80% infection rate, and rectal transmission was least effective (44%). In contrast to previous intravenous passage studies, a broader range of host-virus relationships was observed after mucosal exposure. Three categories of FIV-C infection were defined: (1) rapidly progressive infection marked by high virus burdens and rapid CD4+ cell depletion (43% of vaginally exposed animals); (2) conventional (typical) infection featuring slowly progressive CD4+ cell decline (61% of all exposed animals); and (3) regressive (transient) infection marked by low and then barely detectable virus burdens and no CD4+ cell alterations (22% of rectally inoculated cats). These disease courses appear to have parallels in mucosal HIV and SIV infections, emphasizing the importance of the virus-mucosa interface in lentiviral pathogenesis.

  20. Foot and mouth disease virus non structural protein 2C interacts with Beclin1 modulating virus replication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. Replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. The largest viral protein in th...

  1. Epstein–Barr Virus: Diseases Linked to Infection and Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Hem C.; Pei, Yonggang; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was first discovered in 1964, and was the first known human tumor virus now shown to be associated with a vast number of human diseases. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand infection, propagation, and transformation in various cell types linked to human diseases. However, a comprehensive lens through which virus infection, reactivation and transformation of infected host cells can be visualized is yet to be formally established and will need much further investigation. Several human cell types infected by EBV have been linked to associated diseases. However, whether these are a direct result of EBV infection or indirectly due to contributions by additional infectious agents will need to be fully investigated. Therefore, a thorough examination of infection, reactivation, and cell transformation induced by EBV will provide a more detailed view of its contributions that drive pathogenesis. This undoubtedly expand our knowledge of the biology of EBV infection and the signaling activities of targeted cellular factors dysregulated on infection. Furthermore, these insights may lead to identification of therapeutic targets and agents for clinical interventions. Here, we review the spectrum of EBV-associated diseases, the role of the encoded latent antigens, and the switch to latency or lytic replication which occurs in EBV infected cells. Furthermore, we describe the cellular processes and critical factors which contribute to cell transformation. We also describe the fate of B-cells and epithelial cells after EBV infection and the expected consequences which contribute to establishment of viral-associated pathologies. PMID:27826287

  2. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  3. Vaccination of cattle against pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) with homologous virus (herpes suis) and heterologous virus (herpes bovis 1).

    PubMed

    Biront, P; Vandeputte, J; Pensaert, M B; Leunen, J

    1982-05-01

    Study was made to determine whether vaccination of cattle against pseudorabies (PR; Aujeszky's disease) affords protection upon subsequent intranasal challenge exposure with virulent virus. Vaccinations were performed with a commercially available oil-adjuvant PR virus vaccine, in some cases supplemented with A1(OH)3 (given subcutaneously), with the attenuated NIA4 strain of PR virus (given intranasally), and with a commercially available temperature-sensitive mutant of bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis [IBR] virus) given intranasally. Challenge exposure was performed intranasally with 10(3) median lethal doses (LD50) of the virulent PR virus. In earlier experiments, it was found that LD50 median tissue culture infective doses of this virulent PR virus in primary pig kidney cells represented about 1 LD50 for cattle. This LD50 was practically no different for cattle whether or not they had antibodies against PR virus before exposure to virulent PR virus. In the seropositive animals, antibodies were present presumably as a consequence of a previous IBR infection in the field. Vaccination intranasally with NIA4 or IBR virus did not result in serologic response or protection against challenge exposure. The inactivated-virus vaccine induced a good serologic reaction, but there was poor protection against challenge exposure. Consequently, vaccination of cattle at risk of exposure to virulent PR virus cannot be advised. In the present experiments, initiation of infection with virulent PR virus in cattle always resulted in disease and death.

  4. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2016-10-15

    Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such a model for BDBV is

  5. Ferrets Infected with Bundibugyo Virus or Ebola Virus Recapitulate Important Aspects of Human Filovirus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Robert; He, Shihua; Kroeker, Andrea; de La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Audet, Jonathan; Wong, Gary; Urfano, Chantel; Antonation, Kym; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is the etiological agent of a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case-fatality rate ranging from 25 to 36%. Despite having been known to the scientific and medical communities for almost 1 decade, there is a dearth of studies on this pathogen due to the lack of a small animal model. Domestic ferrets are commonly used to study other RNA viruses, including members of the order Mononegavirales. To investigate whether ferrets were susceptible to filovirus infections, ferrets were challenged with a clinical isolate of BDBV. Animals became viremic within 4 days and succumbed to infection between 8 and 9 days, and a petechial rash was observed with moribund ferrets. Furthermore, several hallmarks of human filoviral disease were recapitulated in the ferret model, including substantial decreases in lymphocyte and platelet counts and dysregulation of key biochemical markers related to hepatic/renal function, as well as coagulation abnormalities. Virological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed uncontrolled BDBV replication in the major organs. Ferrets were also infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) to confirm their susceptibility to another filovirus species and to potentially establish a virus transmission model. Similar to what was seen with BDBV, important hallmarks of human filoviral disease were observed in EBOV-infected ferrets. This study demonstrates the potential of this small animal model for studying BDBV and EBOV using wild-type isolates and will accelerate efforts to understand filovirus pathogenesis and transmission as well as the development of specific vaccines and antivirals. IMPORTANCE The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in West Africa has highlighted the threat posed by filoviruses to global public health. Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a member of the genus Ebolavirus and has caused outbreaks in the past but is relatively understudied, likely due to the lack of a suitable small animal model. Such

  6. Immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus vectors expressing Norwalk virus capsid protein in the presence or absence of VP2 protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y; Samal, Siba K

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans.

  7. Immunogenicity of Newcastle Disease Virus Vectors Expressing Norwalk Virus Capsid Protein in the Presence or Absence of VP2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y.; Samal, Siba K.

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirs-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans. PMID:26099695

  8. Ebola Virus Disease: Essential Public Health Principles for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Kristi L.; Majestic, Cassondra; Burns, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes. PMID:25493109

  9. Ebola Virus Disease: essential public health principles for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L; Majestic, Cassondra; Burns, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) has become a public health emergency of international concern. The World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have developed guidance to educate and inform healthcare workers and travelers worldwide. Symptoms of EVD include abrupt onset of fever, myalgias, and headache in the early phase, followed by vomiting, diarrhea and possible progression to hemorrhagic rash, life-threatening bleeding, and multi-organ failure in the later phase. The disease is not transmitted via airborne spread like influenza, but rather from person-to-person, or animal to person, via direct contact with bodily fluids or blood. It is crucial that emergency physicians be educated on disease presentation and how to generate a timely and accurate differential diagnosis that includes exotic diseases in the appropriate patient population. A patient should be evaluated for EVD when both suggestive symptoms, including unexplained hemorrhage, AND risk factors within 3 weeks prior, such as travel to an endemic area, direct handling of animals from outbreak areas, or ingestion of fruit or other uncooked foods contaminated with bat feces containing the virus are present. There are experimental therapies for treatment of EVD virus; however the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. Emergency department personnel on the frontlines must be prepared to rapidly identify and isolate febrile travelers if indicated. All healthcare workers involved in care of EVD patients should wear personal protective equipment. Despite the intense media focus on EVD rather than other threats, emergency physicians must master and follow essential public health principles for management of all infectious diseases. This includes not only identification and treatment of individuals, but also protection of healthcare workers and prevention of spread, keeping in mind the possibility of other more common disease processes.

  10. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  11. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    During July-November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control.

  12. Ebola Virus Disease in Children, Sierra Leone, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Asad; Wing, Kevin; Gbessay, Musa; Ross, J.C.G.; Checchi, Francesco; Youkee, Daniel; Jalloh, Mohammed Boie; Baion, David; Mustapha, Ayeshatu; Jah, Hawanatu; Lako, Sandra; Oza, Shefali; Boufkhed, Sabah; Feury, Reynold; Bielicki, Julia A.; Gibb, Diana M.; Klein, Nigel; Sahr, Foday; Yeung, Shunmay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about potentially modifiable factors in Ebola virus disease in children. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children <13 years old admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, during 2014–2015 to identify factors affecting outcome. Primary outcome was death or discharge after transfer to Ebola treatment centers. All 309 Ebola virus–positive children 2 days–12 years old were included; outcomes were available for 282 (91%). Case-fatality was 57%, and 55% of deaths occurred in Ebola holding units. Blood test results showed hypoglycemia and hepatic/renal dysfunction. Death occurred swiftly (median 3 days after admission) and was associated with younger age and diarrhea. Despite triangulation of information from multiple sources, data availability was limited, and we identified no modifiable factors substantially affecting death. In future Ebola virus disease epidemics, robust, rapid data collection is vital to determine effectiveness of interventions for children. PMID:27649367

  13. Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Chu, H P; Trow, E W; Greenwood, A G; Jennings, A R; Keymer, I F

    1976-01-01

    In the 4 year period 1971-74 11 isolations of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) were made from 44 birds of prey that died in captivity. Three species of Falconiformes were involved, including one red-headed falcon (Falco chicquera), 5 European kestrels (F. tinnunculus), and 2 secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius), also 2 species of Strigiformes, comprising 2 barn owls (Tyto alba) and one little owl (Athene noctua). All NDV isolates were of the velogenic type.

  14. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    PubMed

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy.

  15. Clinical presentation and management of severe Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    West, T Eoin; von Saint André-von Arnim, Amélie

    2014-11-01

    Clinicians caring for patients infected with Ebola virus must be familiar not only with screening and infection control measures but also with management of severe disease. By integrating experience from several Ebola epidemics with best practices for managing critical illness, this report focuses on the clinical presentation and management of severely ill infants, children, and adults with Ebola virus disease. Fever, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia are the most common symptoms of the 2014 West African outbreak. Profound fluid losses from the gastrointestinal tract result in volume depletion, metabolic abnormalities (including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia), shock, and organ failure. Overt hemorrhage occurs infrequently. The case fatality rate in West Africa is at least 70%, and individuals with respiratory, neurological, or hemorrhagic symptoms have a higher risk of death. There is no proven antiviral agent to treat Ebola virus disease, although several experimental treatments may be considered. Even in the absence of antiviral therapies, intensive supportive care has the potential to markedly blunt the high case fatality rate reported to date. Optimal treatment requires conscientious correction of fluid and electrolyte losses. Additional management considerations include searching for coinfection or superinfection; treatment of shock (with intravenous fluids and vasoactive agents), acute kidney injury (with renal replacement therapy), and respiratory failure (with invasive mechanical ventilation); provision of nutrition support, pain and anxiety control, and psychosocial support; and the use of strategies to reduce complications of critical illness. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation may be appropriate in certain circumstances, but extracorporeal life support is not advised. Among other ethical issues, patients' medical needs must be carefully weighed against healthcare worker safety and infection control concerns. However, meticulous attention

  16. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    PubMed

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  17. The Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Baseler, Laura; Chertow, Daniel S; Johnson, Karl M; Feldmann, Heinz; Morens, David M

    2017-01-24

    For almost 50 years, ebolaviruses and related filoviruses have been repeatedly reemerging across the vast equatorial belt of the African continent to cause epidemics of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The 2013-2015 West African epidemic, by far the most geographically extensive, most fatal, and longest lasting epidemic in Ebola's history, presented an enormous international public health challenge, but it also provided insights into Ebola's pathogenesis and natural history, clinical expression, treatment, prevention, and control. Growing understanding of ebolavirus pathogenetic mechanisms and important new clinical observations of the disease course provide fresh clues about prevention and treatment approaches. Although viral cytopathology and immune-mediated cell damage in ebolavirus disease often result in severe compromise of multiple organs, tissue repair and organ function recovery can be expected if patients receive supportive care with fluids and electrolytes; maintenance of oxygenation and tissue perfusion; and respiratory, renal, and cardiovascular support. Major challenges for managing future Ebola epidemics include establishment of early and aggressive epidemic control and earlier and better patient care and treatment in remote, resource-poor areas where Ebola typically reemerges. In addition, it will be important to further develop Ebola vaccines and to adopt policies for their use in epidemic and pre-epidemic situations.

  18. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

  19. Uveitis and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Convalescent Phase of Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, John R; Padmanabhan, Sriranjani P; Greenough, Thomas C; Sacra, Richard; Ellison, Richard T; Madoff, Lawrence C; Droms, Rebecca J; Hinkle, David M; Asdourian, George K; Finberg, Robert W; Stroher, Ute; Uyeki, Timothy M; Cerón, Olga M

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of probable Zaire Ebola virus-related ophthalmologic complications in a physician from the United States who contracted Ebola virus disease in Liberia. Uveitis, immune activation, and nonspecific increase in antibody titers developed during convalescence. This case highlights immune phenomena that could complicate management of Ebola virus disease-related uveitis during convalescence.

  20. Pathogenicity evaluation of different Newcastle disease virus chimeras in 4-week-old chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection with a virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus is considered one of the most important threats to the poultry industry worldwide. The causative virus, Newcastle disease virus, belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Avulavirus, and its genome encodes for 6 structural proteins: nu...

  1. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J; Prescott, Joseph B; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K; Zoon, Kathryn C; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection.

  2. The Merits of Malaria Diagnostics during an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Falzarano, Darryl; Onyango, Clayton; Rosenke, Kyle; Marzi, Andrea; Ochieng, Melvin; Juma, Bonventure; Fischer, Robert J.; Prescott, Joseph B.; Safronetz, David; Omballa, Victor; Owuor, Collins; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Zemtsova, Galina; Self, Joshua; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin; Rowe, Thomas; Emery, Shannon L.; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi; Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James E.; Kobinger, Gary; Stroeher, Ute; Rayfield, Mark; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Zoon, Kathryn C.; Stassijns, Jorgen; Tampellini, Livia; de Smet, Martin; Nichol, Stuart T.; Fields, Barry; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Massaquoi, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health concern in the countries affected by the Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa. We determined the feasibility of using molecular malaria diagnostics during an Ebola virus disease outbreak and report the incidence of Plasmodium spp. parasitemia in persons with suspected Ebola virus infection. PMID:26814608

  3. Rainbow Trout Sleeping Disease Virus Is an Atypical Alphavirus

    PubMed Central

    Villoing, Stéphane; Béarzotti, Monique; Chilmonczyk, Stefan; Castric, Jeannette; Brémont, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Sleeping disease (SD) is currently a matter of concern for salmonid fish farmers in most parts of the world. A viral etiology of SD has recently been suspected, since virus-like particles have been observed in infected rainbow trout cells. In salmonid-derived cell lines, the maximal rate of virus production was observed at 10°C, while little virus was produced at 14°C. Through biochemical, physicochemical, and morphological studies, SD virus (SDV) was shown to be an enveloped virus of roughly 60 nm in diameter. The genome consists of 12 kb of RNA, with the appearance of a 26S subgenomic RNA during the time course of SDV replication. The screening of a random-primed cDNA library constructed from the genomic RNA of semipurified virions facilitated the identification of a specific SDV cDNA clone having an open reading frame related to the alphavirus E2 glycoproteins. To extend the comparison between SDV structural proteins and the alphavirus protein counterparts, the nucleotide sequence of the total 4.1-kb subgenomic RNA has been determined. The 26S RNA encodes a 1,324-amino-acid polyprotein exhibiting typical alphavirus structural protein organization. SDV structural proteins showed several remarkable features compared to other alphaviruses: (i) unusually large individual proteins, (ii) very low homology (ranging from 30 to 34%) (iii) an unglycosylated E3 protein, and (iv) and E1 fusion domain sharing mutations implicated in the pH threshold. Although phylogenetically related to the Semliki Forest virus group of alphaviruses, SDV should be considered an atypical member, able to naturally replicate in lower vertebrates. PMID:10590104

  4. Hemagglutination by psittacine beak and feather disease virus and use of hemagglutination inhibition for detection of antibodies against the virus.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, B W; Niagro, F D; Latimer, K S; Steffens, W L; Pesti, D; Lukert, P D

    1991-11-01

    Conditions for psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) virus hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test reactions are defined. The PBFD virus was found to hemagglutinate cockatoo and some guinea pig erythrocytes. The HI test was used to assay serum antibody titer in birds with active PBFD virus infections and in others that had been exposed to diseased birds. On the basis of HI antibody titers in psittacine birds that had been exposed to PBFD virus, but remained clinically normal, we suggest that some birds exposed to the virus are able to mount an effective immune response. Birds with active PBFD virus infections had lower antibody values than did birds that had been exposed to the virus, but remained clinically normal. On the basis of these findings, the ability to develop a suitable HI antibody response may be crucial in determining the disease status of susceptible birds exposed to the PBFD virus. If HI antibodies are found to have neutralizing activity, then the fact that a high HI titer was induced in birds inoculated with purified PBFD virus might suggest that an immunization program would be effective in preventing PBFD virus infections.

  5. A virus disease of sockeye salmon: Interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, S.W.; Guenther, R.W.; Rucker, R.R.

    1954-01-01

    Since 1951 a disease, usually occurring in late spring or early summer, has caused severe losses in 3- to 12-month-old fingerling sockeye salmon in hatcheries in the State of Washington. The disease is characterized by an explosive outbreak, mortality usually 80 percent or greater, and a residual spinal deformity in a small percentage of the surviving fish, and its specificity for the one species of salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka. (The anadromous strain of this species is commonly known as sockeye, blueback, or red salmon, while the fresh-water strain is called kokanee or silver trout.) The etiological agent is believed to be a virus.

  6. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the infectious bronchitis virus S1 gene protects chickens against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Sun, Junfeng; Qi, Tianming; Zhao, Wen; Han, Zongxi; Yang, Xiaopu; Liu, Shengwang

    2017-04-25

    The recombinant LaSota strain expressing a chimeric IBV S1 gene (rLaSota-S1) was constructed with the S1 gene of the LX4 type IBV ck/CH/LDL/091022. The expression of the S1 protein was detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. The rLaSota-S1 strain was slightly attenuated, and its growth dynamics were similar to that of the parental LaSota strain. Vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced NDV hemagglutination inhibition antibodies, and it protected chickens from challenge with virulent NDV. In addition, vaccination with the rLaSota-S1 strain induced IBV-specific IgG antibodies and cellular immunity; however, a single vaccination provided partial protection with reduced virus shedding. Better protection efficiency was observed after a booster vaccination, which resulted in higher antibody titers, significantly fewer disease symptoms, and reduced virus replication and shedding. Our results suggest that the rLaSota-S1 strain is a bivalent vaccine candidate against both NDV and IBV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Complete genome and clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate from South America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, negatively affecting trade and poultry production worldwide. The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Avulavirus, fam...

  8. Porites white patch syndrome: associated viruses and disease physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, S. A.; Davy, J. E.; Wilson, W. H.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Davy, S. K.

    2015-03-01

    In recent decades, coral reefs worldwide have undergone significant changes in response to various environmental and anthropogenic impacts. Among the numerous causes of reef degradation, coral disease is one factor that is to a large extent still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the physiology of white patch syndrome (WPS), a disease affecting poritid corals on the Great Barrier Reef. WPS manifests as small, generally discrete patches of tissue discolouration. Physiological analysis revealed that chlorophyll a content was significantly lower in lesions than in healthy tissues, while host protein content remained constant, suggesting that host tissue is not affected by WPS. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination, which showed intact host tissue within lesions. TEM also revealed that Symbiodinium cells are lost from the host gastrodermis with no apparent harm caused to the surrounding host tissue. Also present in the electron micrographs were numerous virus-like particles (VLPs), in both coral and Symbiodinium cells. Small (<50 nm diameter) icosahedral VLPs were significantly more abundant in coral tissue taken from diseased colonies, and there was an apparent, but not statistically significant, increase in abundance of filamentous VLPs in Symbiodinium cells from diseased colonies. There was no apparent increase in prokaryotic or eukaryotic microbial abundance in diseased colonies. Taken together, these results suggest that viruses infecting the coral and/or its resident Symbiodinium cells may be the causative agents of WPS.

  9. Reduced Risk of Disease During Postsecondary Dengue Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Olkowski, Sandra; Forshey, Brett M.; Morrison, Amy C.; Rocha, Claudio; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Stoddard, Steven T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Antibodies induced by infection with any 1 of 4 dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV-1–4) may influence the clinical outcome of subsequent heterologous infections. To quantify potential cross-protective effects, we estimated disease risk as a function of DENV infection, using data from longitudinal studies performed from September 2006 through February 2011 in Iquitos, Peru, during periods of DENV-3 and DENV-4 transmission. Methods. DENV infections before and during the study period were determined by analysis of serial serum samples with virus neutralization tests. Third and fourth infections were classified as postsecondary infections. Dengue fever cases were detected by door-to-door surveillance for acute febrile illness. Results. Among susceptible participants, 39% (420/1077) and 53% (1595/2997) seroconverted to DENV-3 and DENV-4, respectively. Disease was detected in 7% of DENV-3 infections and 10% of DENV-4 infections. Disease during postsecondary infections was reduced by 93% for DENV-3 and 64% for DENV-4, compared with primary and secondary infections. Despite lower disease rates, postsecondary infections constituted a significant proportion of apparent infections (14% [for DENV-3 infections], 45% [for DENV-4 infections]). Conclusions. Preexisting heterotypic antibodies markedly reduced but did not eliminate the risk of disease in this study population. These results improve understanding of how preinfection history can be associated with dengue outcomes and DENV transmission dynamics. PMID:23776195

  10. West Nile virus and other arboviral diseases--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-06-28

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States. However, several other arboviruses also cause sporadic cases and seasonal outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis). In 2012, CDC received reports of 5,780 nationally notifiable arboviral disease cases (excluding dengue). A large multistate outbreak of WNV disease accounted for 5,674 (98%) of reported cases, the highest number reported since 2003. Other reported etiologies included Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), Powassan virus (POWV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and California serogroup viruses such as La Crosse virus (LACV) and Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV). Arboviruses continue to cause serious illness in substantial numbers of persons in the United States. Maintaining surveillance remains important to identify outbreaks and guide prevention efforts.

  11. Molecular evolution of American field strains of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent Orbivirus events in the Americas have been investigated using whole genome amplification and sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. These studies utilized an unbiased amplification protocol that allows the whole bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) geno...

  12. Advances in plant virus evolution: Translating evolutionary insights into better disease management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Revolutionary theoretical concepts derived from experimental evolution have reached the realm of plant viruses, and their empirical demonstration is opening new avenues for disease management. From a populational standpoint, plant viruses and viroids constitute dynamic spectra of variants. The frequ...

  13. Common Virus May Be Linked to Heart Disease, Diabetes in Some Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163761.html Common Virus May Be Linked to Heart Disease, Diabetes in ... THURSDAY, Feb. 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A common virus may make some women more susceptible to both ...

  14. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 6 experimentation on adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Breard, Emmanuel; Belbis, Guillaume; Viarouge, Cyril; Riou, Mickael; Desprat, Alexandra; Moreau, Joël; Laloy, Eve; Martin, Guillaume; Sarradin, Pierre; Vitour, Damien; Batten, Carrie; Doceul, Virginie; Sailleau, Corinne; Zientara, Stéphan

    2013-10-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an arthropod-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae), is an emerging pathogen of wild and domestic ruminants closely related to bluetongue virus (BTV). EHDV serotype 6 (EHDV6) has recently caused outbreaks close to Europe in Turkey and Morocco and a recent experimental study performed on calves inoculated with these two EHDV6 strains showed that the young animals have remained clinically unaffected. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenicity of an EHDV6 strain from La Reunion Island in adult Holstein (18-month-old heifers). This EHDV6 strain has induced clinical signs in cattle in the field. Samples taken throughout the study were tested with commercially available ELISA and real-time RT-PCR kits. Very mild clinical manifestations were observed in cattle during the experiment although high levels of viral RNA and virus were found in their blood. EHDV was isolated from the blood of infected animals at 8 dpi. Antibodies against EHDV were first detected by 7 dpi and persisted up to the end of the study. Virus was detected in various tissue samples until 35 dpi, but was not infectious. In view of the recent circulation of different arboviruses in Europe, this study demonstrates what the EHD induces a strong viraemia in adult Holstein cattle and shows that a spread of EHD on European livestock cattle is possible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ruibal, Paula; Oestereich, Lisa; Lüdtke, Anja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Wozniak, David M.; Kerber, Romy; Korva, Miša; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Bore, Joseph A.; Koundouno, Fara Raymond; Duraffour, Sophie; Weller, Romy; Thorenz, Anja; Cimini, Eleonora; Viola, Domenico; Agrati, Chiara; Repits, Johanna; Afrough, Babak; Cowley, Lauren A; Ngabo, Didier; Hinzmann, Julia; Mertens, Marc; Vitoriano, Inês; Logue, Christopher H.; Boettcher, Jan Peter; Pallasch, Elisa; Sachse, Andreas; Bah, Amadou; Nitzsche, Katja; Kuisma, Eeva; Michel, Janine; Holm, Tobias; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; García-Dorival, Isabel; Wölfel, Roman; Stoecker, Kilian; Fleischmann, Erna; Strecker, Thomas; Di Caro, Antonino; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Kurth, Andreas; Meschi, Silvia; Mély, Stephane; Newman, Edmund; Bocquin, Anne; Kis, Zoltan; Kelterbaum, Anne; Molkenthin, Peter; Carletti, Fabrizio; Portmann, Jasmine; Wolff, Svenja; Castilletti, Concetta; Schudt, Gordian; Fizet, Alexandra; Ottowell, Lisa J.; Herker, Eva; Jacobs, Thomas; Kretschmer, Birte; Severi, Ettore; Ouedraogo, Nobila; Lago, Mar; Negredo, Anabel; Franco, Leticia; Anda, Pedro; Schmiedel, Stefan; Kreuels, Benno; Wichmann, Dominic; Addo, Marylyn M.; Lohse, Ansgar W.; De Clerck, Hilde; Nanclares, Carolina; Jonckheere, Sylvie; Van Herp, Michel; Sprecher, Armand; Xiaojiang, Gao; Carrington, Mary; Miranda, Osvaldo; Castro, Carlos M.; Gabriel, Martin; Drury, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Diallo, Boubacar; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N’Faly; Carroll, Miles W.; Günther, Stephan; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-01-01

    Despite the magnitude of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge about the pathophysiology of EVD1. In particular, very little is known about human immune responses to Ebola virus (EBOV)2,3. Here, we have for the first time evaluated the physiology of the human T cell immune response in EVD patients at the time of admission at the Ebola Treatment Center (ETC) in Guinea, and longitudinally until discharge or death. Through the use of multiparametric flow cytometry established by the European Mobile Laboratory in the field, we have identified an immune signature that is unique in EVD fatalities. Fatal EVD was characterized by high percentage of CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), which was correlated with elevated inflammatory markers and high virus load. Conversely, surviving individuals showed significantly lower expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 as well as lower inflammation despite comparable overall T cell activation. Concommittant with virus clearance, survivors mounted a robust EBOV-specific T cell response. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of EVD pathophysiology. PMID:27147028

  16. Isolation and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from raptors.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Naresh; Chander, Yogesh; Primus, Alexander; Redig, Patrick T; Goyal, Sagar M

    2010-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to detect and characterize Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in raptors. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from 60 casualty raptors during January to March 2009 in Minnesota. Inoculation of all these samples (n=120) in 9-day-old embryonated hens' eggs resulted in isolation of haemagglutinating viruses in three samples from two bald eagles and one great horned owl. These three haemagglutinating viruses were confirmed as NDV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fusion gene-specific primers, and were negative for avian influenza virus by RT-PCR. Further characterization revealed that all three possessed (112)GKQGRL(117) at the fusion gene cleavage site, indicating that they were lentogenic strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all three isolates clustered with published class II genotype II NDVs. The nucleotide sequence homology of the three NDV isolates among themselves was 98.4 to 99.6% and the sequence homology with lentogenic strains from wild birds used for comparison varied between 94.5 and 100%. Detection of NDV strains from raptors merits further epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence of different NDV strains in raptors and their impact in relation to transmission to domestic poultry.

  17. The influence of host genetics on Marek's disease virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Henry D; Dunn, John R

    2013-06-01

    Since the first report of a polyneuritis in chickens by Joseph Marek in 1907, the clinical nature of the disease has changed. Over the last five decades, the pathogenicity of the Marek's disease virus (MDV) has continued to evolve from the relatively mild strains observed in the 1960s to the more severe strains labeled very virulent plus currently observed in today's outbreaks. To understand the influence of host genetics, specifically the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), on virus evolution, a bacterial artificial chromosome-derived MDV (Md5B40BAC) was passed in vivo through resistant (MHC-B21) and susceptible (MHC-B13) Line 0 chickens. Criteria for selecting virus isolates for in vivo passage were based on virus replication in white blood cells 21 days after challenge and evaluation of MD pathology at necropsy. In the MHC-B13-susceptible line the Md5B40BAC virulence consistently increased from 18% Marek's disease (MD) after in vivo passage 1 (B13-IVP1 Md5B40BAC) to 94% MD after B13-IVP5 Md5B40BAC challenge. In the MHC-B21-resistant line MD virulence fluctuated from 28% at B21-IVP1 Md5B40BAC to a high of 65% in B21-IVP2 Md5B40BAC back to a low of 23% in B21-IVP5 Md5B40BAC-challenged chicks. Although the B21-IVP5 Md5B40BAC isolates were relatively mild in the MHC-B21 chicken line (56% MDV), they were highly virulent in the MHC-B13 line (100% MDV). From this series of experiments it would appear that MDV evolution toward greater virulence occurs in both susceptible and resistant MHC haplotypes, but the resulting increase in pathogenicity is constrained by the resistant MHC haplotype.

  18. Newcastle disease virus: current status and our understanding.

    PubMed

    Ganar, Ketan; Das, Moushumee; Sinha, Sugandha; Kumar, Sachin

    2014-05-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the highly pathogenic viral diseases of avian species. ND is economically significant because of the huge mortality and morbidity associated with it. The disease is endemic in many third world countries where agriculture serves as the primary source of national income. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and is well characterized member among the avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In recent years, NDV has lured the virologists not only because of its pathogenic potential, but also for its oncolytic activity and its use as a vaccine vector for both humans and animals. The NDV based recombinant vaccine offers a pertinent choice for the construction of live attenuated vaccine due to its modular nature of transcription, minimum recombination frequency, and lack of DNA phase during replication. Our current understanding about the NDV biology is expanding rapidly because of the availability of modern molecular biology tools and high-throughput complete genome sequencing.

  19. Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Tim J. G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care. The unprecedented scope of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic spurred tremendous innovation in this arena, and a variety of new diagnostic platforms that have the potential both to immediately improve ongoing surveillance efforts in West Africa and to transform future outbreak responses have reached the field. In this review, we describe the evolution of Ebola virus disease diagnostic testing and efforts to deploy field diagnostic laboratories in prior outbreaks. We then explore the diagnostic challenges pervading the 2014-2015 epidemic and provide a comprehensive examination of novel diagnostic tests that are likely to address some of these challenges moving forward. PMID:27413095

  20. Analysis of the dengue disease model with two virus strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi-Kusumo, F.; Aini, A. N.; Ridwan, M.

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are the disease caused by the dengue virus which is transmitted to the human by infected female mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in more than 100 countries over the world. Dengue virus has four distinct serotypes which are closely related to each other antigenically. A person who infected by the dengue virus will never be infected again by the same serotype, but he looses immunity from the three other serotypes. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protective immunity against to others. Here we assume that there are two serotypes exist in the population. Someone who has recovered from one serotype become susceptible to the other serotype and can be reinfected. In this paper we analyze the model of dengue fever with two infections from the different serotype by linear analysis. Then we study the effect of vaccination to the model. In numerical simulation, we use Runge-Kutta order 4 to integrate the solution of the system.

  1. An evolutionary insight into Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Soñora, Martin; Moreno, Pilar; Echeverría, Natalia; Fischer, Sabrina; Comas, Victoria; Fajardo, Alvaro; Cristina, Juan

    2015-08-01

    The disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a severe threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, NDV has been isolated in the Antarctic region. Detailed studies on the mode of evolution of NDV strains isolated worldwide are relevant for our understanding of the evolutionary history of NDV. For this reason, we have performed Bayesian coalescent analysis of NDV strains isolated in Antarctica to study evolutionary rates, population dynamics, and patterns of evolution. Analysis of F protein cleavage-site sequences of NDV isolates from Antarctica suggested that these strains are lentogenic. Strains isolated in Antarctica and genotype I reference strain Ulster/67 diverged from ancestors that existed around 1958. The time of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was established to be around 1883 for all class II viruses. A mean rate of evolution of 1.78 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (s/s/y) was obtained for the F gene sequences of NDV strains examined in this study. A Bayesian skyline plot indicated a decline in NDV population size in the last 25 years. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of Antarctica in emerging or re-emerging viruses and the evolution of NDV populations worldwide.

  2. Selective isolation of Avian influenza virus (AIV) from cloacal samples containing AIV and Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Chander, Yogesh; Redig, Patrick T; Abd El Latif, Hemmat K; El Sayed, Mona A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2011-03-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are important zoonotic pathogens whose natural reservoir is waterfowl. In addition to AIV, waterfowl are often coinfected with other viruses, such as the paramyxoviruses, of which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is of particular importance because of the highly virulent nature of certain strains of this virus for domestic poultry. In routine surveillance of waterfowl for AIV, a number of cloacal samples were encountered that were positive for AIV by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), but did not yield AIV by inoculation in embryonated chicken eggs. On further testing, these samples were also positive for NDV by conventional RT-PCR. It was hypothesized that if both NDV and AIV are present in a sample, the former may overgrow AIV yielding false-negative AIV results. Such samples were treated with chicken anti-NDV polyclonal antiserum and then inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs. Several samples were found to be positive for different subtypes of AIV, indicating that, in the presence of mixed infection with NDV and AIV, it is imperative to remove the influence of NDV, so a true picture of AIV prevalence emerges. An additional benefit is that information on the circulation of NDV in these birds sheds light on their epidemiologic and ecologic significance.

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus: virology, reverse genetics, and pathogenesis of disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter L; Fearns, Rachel; Graham, Barney S

    2013-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped, nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus of family Paramyxoviridae. RSV is the most complex member of the family in terms of the number of genes and proteins. It is also relatively divergent and distinct from the prototype members of the family. In the past 30 years, we have seen a tremendous increase in our understanding of the molecular biology of RSV based on a succession of advances involving molecular cloning, reverse genetics, and detailed studies of protein function and structure. Much remains to be learned. RSV disease is complex and variable, and the host and viral factors that determine tropism and disease are poorly understood. RSV is notable for a historic vaccine failure in the 1960s involving a formalin-inactivated vaccine that primed for enhanced disease in RSV naïve recipients. Live vaccine candidates have been shown to be free of this complication. However, development of subunit or other protein-based vaccines for pediatric use is hampered by the possibility of enhanced disease and the difficulty of reliably demonstrating its absence in preclinical studies.

  4. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-09-08

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976-2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past.

  5. Extracorporeal virus elimination for the treatment of severe Ebola virus disease--first experience with lectin affinity plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Stefan; Koch, Benjamin; Dolnik, Olga; Eickmann, Markus; Freiwald, Tilo; Rudolf, Sarah; Engel, Jürgen; Becker, Stephan; Ronco, Claudio; Geiger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic options for Ebola virus disease (EVD) are currently limited to (1) best supportive care, and (2) evolving virus-specific therapies, resulting from decades of analyzing one of the world's deadliest diseases. Supportive care ranges from oral or intravenous rehydration therapy and anti-emetics in developing countries to much more extensive life-support interventions in resource-rich countries. Current EVD-specific therapies attempt to either interfere with the earliest steps of viral replication or to elicit a strong immune response against the virus. An entirely new approach is the extracorporeal elimination of viruses and viral glycoproteins by lectin affinity plasmapheresis. Herein, we report for the first time the successful and safe use of lectin affinity plasmapheresis in a patient with severe Ebola virus disease.

  6. Detection and differentiation of Newcastle disease virus and influenza virus by using duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nidzworski, Dawid; Wasilewska, Edyta; Smietanka, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Minta, Zenon

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), member of the Paramyxoviridae family and avian influenza virus (AIV), member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, are two main avian pathogens causing serious economic problems in poultry health. Both are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses and cause similar symptoms, ranging from sub-clinical infections to severe diseases, including decrease in egg production, acute respiratory syndrome, and high mortality. Similar symptoms hinder the differentiation of infection with the two viruses by standard veterinary procedures like clinical examination or necropsy. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new duplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of these two viruses. Eighteen NDV strains, fourteen AIV strains, and twelve other (negative control) strains viruses were isolated from allantoic fluids of specific pathogen-free (SPF), embryonated eggs. Four-weeks-old SPF chickens were co-infected with both viruses (NDV - LaSota and AIV - H7N1). Swabs from cloaca and trachea were collected and examined. The results obtained in this study show that by using duplex real-time PCR, it was possible to detect and distinguish both viruses within less than three hours and with high sensitivity, even in case a bird was co-infected. Additionally, the results show the applicability of the real-time PCR assay in laboratory practice for the identification and differentiation of Newcastle disease and influenza A viruses in birds.

  7. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  8. Genetic and antigenic variation of shedding viruses from vaccinated chickens after challenge with virulent Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-jeong; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2013-06-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolation was attempted from La Sota-vaccinated or unvaccinated chickens exposed to the virulent NDV variant E347Kmt. Shedding viruses were purified by plaque assay and then were sequenced for HN and F genes. The amino acid sequences of the F gene of all shedding viruses were identical to the sequence of the challenge virus. However, amino acid substitution occurred at four positions (70, 347, 466, and 517) in the HN protein among shedding viruses from vaccinated and challenged chickens but not from unvaccinated and challenged chickens. Amino acid substitution occurred more frequently at position 347 (K to G or V) in the HN protein compared with the other positions. There was minor antigenic variation between some of mutant viruses shed and challenge virus. However, none of mutant viruses had a significantly lower antigenic R value with La Sota virus compared with challenge virus E347Kmt. Our findings indicate that vaccinal immunity might facilitate an evolutional event through antigenic selection, genetic mutation among virulent virus populations shed from vaccinated flocks, or both.

  9. Bioinformatics and molecular analysis of the evolutionary relationship between bovine rhinitis A viruses and foot-and-mouth disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X, formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1, isolated from infected cattle from the United Kingdom in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Phylogeneti...

  10. Further Studies of a Molecular Clone of Marek's Disease Virus with an Insert of Long Terminal Repeat of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, we have reported on the development and pathogenicity of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV) with an insert of long terminal repeat (LTR) of reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). In the current study, we examined whether the REV LTR was retained b...

  11. Pathogenicity of a Molecular Clone of Marek's Disease Virus with an Insert of Long Terminal Repeat of Reticuloendotheliosis Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, we have inserted reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences into strain Md5 of Marek’s disease (MD) virus (MDV) using rMd5 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). The rMd5 BAC with REV LTR insert was passed in duck-embryo fibroblast for 40 passages. Chickens of A...

  12. Genetic Modification of Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xing; Wang, Weijia; Xu, Qi; Harper, James; Carroll, Danielle; Galinski, Mark S; Suzich, JoAnn; Jin, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Clinical development of a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as an oncolytic agent for cancer therapy has been hampered by its select agent status due to its pathogenicity in avian species. Using reverse genetics, we have generated a lead candidate oncolytic NDV based on the mesogenic NDV-73T strain that is no longer classified as a select agent for clinical development. This recombinant NDV has a modification at the fusion protein (F) cleavage site to reduce the efficiency of F protein cleavage and an insertion of a 198-nucleotide sequence into the HN-L intergenic region, resulting in reduced viral gene expression and replication in avian cells but not in mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, except for viral polymerase (L) gene expression, viral gene expression is not negatively impacted or increased by the HN-L intergenic insertion. Furthermore, the virus can be engineered to express a foreign gene while still retaining the ability to grow to high titers in cell culture. The recombinant NDV selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells and is able to drive potent tumor growth inhibition following intratumoral or intravenous administration in a mouse tumor model. The candidate is well positioned for clinical development as an oncolytic virus. Avian paramyxovirus type 1, NDV, has been an attractive oncolytic agent for cancer virotherapy. However, this virus can cause epidemic disease in poultry, and concerns about the potential environmental and economic impact of an NDV outbreak have precluded its clinical development. Here we describe generation and characterization of a highly potent oncolytic NDV variant that is unlikely to cause Newcastle disease in its avian host, representing an essential step toward moving NDV forward as an oncolytic agent. Several attenuation mechanisms have been genetically engineered into the recombinant NDV that reduce chicken pathogenicity to a level that is acceptable worldwide without impacting viral production in

  13. Cardiac Disease Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Leung, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Over the last 2 decades human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease requiring long-term management. Aging, antiretroviral therapy, chronic inflammation, and several other factors contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients infected with HIV. In low-income and middle-income countries where antiretroviral therapy access is limited, cardiac disease is most commonly related to opportunistic infections and end-stage manifestations of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, including HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiovascular screening, prevention, and risk factor management are important factors in the management of patients infected with HIV worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chikungunya virus: epidemiology, replication, disease mechanisms, and prospective intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Silva, Laurie A; Dermody, Terence S

    2017-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a reemerging arbovirus, causes a crippling musculoskeletal inflammatory disease in humans characterized by fever, polyarthralgia, myalgia, rash, and headache. CHIKV is transmitted by Aedes species of mosquitoes and is capable of an epidemic, urban transmission cycle with high rates of infection. Since 2004, CHIKV has spread to new areas, causing disease on a global scale, and the potential for CHIKV epidemics remains high. Although CHIKV has caused millions of cases of disease and significant economic burden in affected areas, no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapies are available. In this Review, we describe CHIKV epidemiology, replication cycle, pathogenesis and host immune responses, and prospects for effective vaccines and highlight important questions for future research.

  15. Ebola virus disease in Africa: epidemiology and nosocomial transmission.

    PubMed

    Shears, P; O'Dempsey, T J D

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. There have been 20 significant outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Sub-Saharan Africa prior to the 2014 outbreak, the largest being that in Uganda in 2000, with 425 cases and a mortality of 53%. Since the first outbreaks in Sudan and Zaire in 1976, transmission within health facilities has been of major concern, affecting healthcare workers and acting as amplifiers of spread into the community. The lack of resources for infection control and personal protective equipment are the main reasons for nosocomial transmission. Local strategies to improve infection control, and a greater understanding of local community views on the disease, have helped to bring outbreaks under control. Recommendations from previous outbreaks include improved disease surveillance to enable more rapid health responses, the wider availability of personal protective equipment, and greater international preparedness.

  16. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049

  17. Laboratory Assays for Epstein-Barr Virus-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Margaret L.; Tang, Weihua

    2008-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects various cell types in a wide spectrum of benign and malignant diseases. Laboratory tests for EBV have improved and are increasingly used in diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and prevention of diseases ranging from infectious mononucleosis to selected subtypes of lymphoma, sarcoma, and carcinoma. Indeed, the presence of EBV is among the most effective tumor markers supporting clinical management of cancer patients. In biopsies, localization of EBER transcripts by in situ hybridization remains the gold standard for identifying latent infection. Other RNA- and protein-based assays detect lytic viral replication and can distinguish carcinoma-derived from lymphocyte-derived EBV in saliva or nasopharyngeal brushings. Analysis of blood using EBV viral load and serology reflects disease status and risk of progression. This review summarizes prior research in the context of basic virologic principles to provide a rational strategy for applying and interpreting EBV tests in various clinical settings. Such assays have been incorporated into standard clinical practice in selected settings such as diagnosis of primary infection and management of patients with immune dysfunction or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. As novel therapies are developed that target virus-infected cells or overcome the adverse effects of infection, laboratory testing becomes even more critical for determining when intervention is appropriate and the extent to which it has succeeded. PMID:18556771

  18. Brief History and Characterization of Enhanced Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Patricio L.; Caballero, Mauricio T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1967, infants and toddlers immunized with a formalin-inactivated vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) experienced an enhanced form of RSV disease characterized by high fever, bronchopneumonia, and wheezing when they became infected with wild-type virus in the community. Hospitalizations were frequent, and two immunized toddlers died upon infection with wild-type RSV. The enhanced disease was initially characterized as a “peribronchiolar monocytic infiltration with some excess in eosinophils.” Decades of research defined enhanced RSV disease (ERD) as the result of immunization with antigens not processed in the cytoplasm, resulting in a nonprotective antibody response and CD4+ T helper priming in the absence of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. This response to vaccination led to a pathogenic Th2 memory response with eosinophil and immune complex deposition in the lungs after RSV infection. In recent years, the field of RSV experienced significant changes. Numerous vaccine candidates with novel designs and formulations are approaching clinical trials, defying our previous understanding of favorable parameters for ERD. This review provides a succinct analysis of these parameters and explores criteria for assessing the risk of ERD in new vaccine candidates. PMID:26677198

  19. Ebola virus disease and social media: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Duke, Carmen Hope; Finch, Kathryn Cameron; Snook, Kassandra Renee; Tseng, Pei-Ling; Hernandez, Ana Cristina; Gambhir, Manoj; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2016-12-01

    We systematically reviewed existing research pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media, especially to identify the research questions and the methods used to collect and analyze social media. We searched 6 databases for research articles pertinent to Ebola virus disease and social media. We extracted the data using a standardized form. We evaluated the quality of the included articles. Twelve articles were included in the main analysis: 7 from Twitter with 1 also including Weibo, 1 from Facebook, 3 from YouTube, and 1 from Instagram and Flickr. All the studies were cross-sectional. Eleven of the 12 articles studied ≥ 1of these 3 elements of social media and their relationships: themes or topics of social media contents, meta-data of social media posts (such as frequency of original posts and reposts, and impressions) and characteristics of the social media accounts that made these posts (such as whether they are individuals or institutions). One article studied how news videos influenced Twitter traffic. Twitter content analysis methods included text mining (n = 3) and manual coding (n = 1). Two studies involved mathematical modeling. All 3 YouTube studies and the Instagram/Flickr study used manual coding of videos and images, respectively. Published Ebola virus disease-related social media research focused on Twitter and YouTube. The utility of social media research to public health practitioners is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction between chicken anaemia virus and live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    De Boer, G F; Van Roozelaar, D J; Moormann, R J; Jeurissen, S H; Wijngaard, J C; Hilbink, F; Koch, G

    1994-06-01

    Three groups of 150 SPF chickens were spray-vaccinated with live Newcastle disease La Sota-type vaccine (clone 30) at one day of age, and another three groups were NDV spray-vaccinated at 10 days of age. In each of the two series of NDV-vaccinated groups, one group also received at day-old 10(5) TCID50 of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) also and another group 10(5) TCID50 of CAV plus a low dose of virulent Marek's disease virus (MDV). After one week, chickens of the groups which had been NDV-vaccinated and CAV-infected at day-old, with or without MDV, showed severe respiratory distress, conjunctivitis, drooping wings and ruffled feathers. After two weeks, wet and inflamed eyes were observed. After three weeks the respiratory problems were overcome, but the entire group showed retarded growth as compared with the group which had received NDV vaccine only. The 'respiratory sounds' were milder in the chickens NDV-vaccinated at 10 days of age, about 10% of the chickens showing retarded growth. Mortality in CAV-infected chickens which had received NDV vaccine at day-old was above 30% at 4 weeks of age, and between 15 and 20% when NDV had been administered at the age of 10 days, and was 5% in the two NDC vaccine control groups. Decreased haematocrit levels were measured in all four CAV-infected groups at 14 days of age. In serum samples collected for 6 weeks at weekly intervals from chickens of the six groups, no differences were observed between HI antibody titres against NDV virus. Thus, dual infection with CAV and live NDV vaccine did not impair the humoral immune response against attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine.

  1. Marek's Disease Virus-Induced Immunosuppression: Array Analysis of Chicken Immune Response Gene Expression Profiling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of chickens induced by a highly cell-associated oncogenic alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latency infection within CD4+ T cells. Host-virus interaction, immune responses to...

  2. Subcellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus proteins and alterations induced in infected cells: A comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Acebes, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Magaldi, Monica; Rosas, Maria F.; Borrego, Belen; Brocchi, Emiliana; Armas-Portela, Rosario; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-05-10

    The intracellular distribution of swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) proteins and the induced reorganization of endomembranes in IBRS-2 cells were analyzed. Fluorescence to new SVDV capsids appeared first upon infection, concentrated in perinuclear circular structures and colocalized to dsRNA. As in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells, a vesicular pattern was predominantly found in later stages of SVDV capsid morphogenesis that colocalized with those of non-structural proteins 2C, 2BC and 3A. These results suggest that assembly of capsid proteins is associated to the replication complex. Confocal microscopy showed a decreased fluorescence to ER markers (calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), and disorganization of cis-Golgi gp74 and trans-Golgi caveolin-1 markers in SVDV- and FMDV-, but not in vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-infected cells. Electron microscopy of SVDV-infected cells at an early stage of infection revealed fragmented ER cisternae with expanded lumen and accumulation of large Golgi vesicles, suggesting alterations of vesicle traffic through Golgi compartments. At this early stage, FMDV induced different patterns of ER fragmentation and Golgi alterations. At later stages of SVDV cytopathology, cells showed a completely vacuolated cytoplasm containing vesicles of different sizes. Cell treatment with brefeldin A, which disrupts the Golgi complex, reduced SVDV ({approx} 5 log) and VSV ({approx} 4 log) titers, but did not affect FMDV growth. Thus, three viruses, which share target tissues and clinical signs in natural hosts, induce different intracellular effects in cultured cells.

  3. The mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus disease.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is the species of choice for most immunological studies, ranging from simple vaccine testing to the intricate dissection of fundamental immunopathogenic mechanisms. Although not fully mouse adapted, some strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replicate in the murine respiratory tract and induce specific T and B cell responses. Passive transfer of neutralising antibody is protective and assist in viral clearance. In addition, many of RSV's complex behaviours are recapitulated in the mouse (including enhancement of disease by vaccination and delayed effects of neonatal infection). However, human studies remain essential to confirm or refute predictions from animal models.

  4. Ebola virus disease outbreak - West Africa, September 2014.

    PubMed

    2014-10-03

    CDC is assisting ministries of health and working with other organizations to control and end the ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. The updated data in this report were compiled from ministry of health situation reports and World Health Organization (WHO) sources. Total case counts include all suspected, probable, and confirmed cases as defined by each country. These data reflect reported cases, which make up an unknown proportion of all actual cases. The data also reflect reporting delays that might vary from country to country.

  5. Seminal transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in heifers.

    PubMed

    Annandale, C H; Holm, D E; Ebersohn, K; Venter, E H

    2014-10-01

    It is known that lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) can be shed in bull semen following infection and also that artificial insemination (AI) poses a biosecurity risk. However, it is not known whether the use of LSDV infected semen in AI poses a biosecurity risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LSDV, transmitted through semen, can infect cows and their embryos. Two controlled trials were performed simultaneously. Eleven young beef heifers, naïve to LSDV, were synchronized using an OvSynch protocol and inseminated on Day 0 with fresh semen spiked with a field strain of LSDV on day 0. Six of the heifers were superovulated on Day 1 using pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and embryos were flushed from these heifers on Day 6. Blood and serum samples were collected from Day 4 until Day 27 to determine the presence of LSDV by PCR and virus isolation, and the presence of antibodies against LSDV by SNT. The first clinical signs of LSD were noticed on Day 10, followed by severe generalized LSD in three heifers and mild LSD in two more heifers. Two heifers were humanely euthanized due to severe unresponsive stranguria. LSDV was detected by PCR, virus isolation or electron microscopy in blood, embryos and organs of experimentally infected animals; and eight heifers had seroconverted by Day 27. Two control animals were not affected. This is the first report of experimental seminal transmission of LSDV in cattle.

  6. Epidemiological situation of Ebola virus disease in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Arima, Yuzo; Shimada, Tomoe

    2015-01-01

    After Guinea reported an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in March 2014, EVD spread to neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa. Since then, the EVD outbreak spread over a wide geographic area among these three countries, and became the largest EVD epidemic ever with unprecedented numbers of confirmed cases and fatalities. As of April 2015, one year past the start of the outbreak, transmission is still ongoing. And, while six other countries, including those outside of the African continent (the United Kingdom, Spain, and the United States), have reported EVD cases, the source of the infection all originated from Guinea, Sierra Leone, or Liberia. As for the pathogen, Ebola virus, the route of transmission and associated prevention measures are well known, and change in the virulence or transmissibility of the virus has not been confirmed. However, there are specific factors that likely contributed to the unprecedented magnitude of the current EVD outbreak. In addition to the limited and poor medical and public health infrastructure in the affected countries, implementing appropriate responses rapidly was challenging for these countries, whose medical community, the general public, and governments had never experienced EVD before.

  7. Ultrastructural Characterization of Genome of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kin-Son; Karstad, Lars

    1973-01-01

    Purified epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus preparations were treated with urea and sodium perchlorate. The viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) released when spread on protein monolayers according to the Kleinschmidt technique was examined by rotary shadow-casting electron microscopy. The viral RNA released by urea treatment had filaments which frequently formed three to five loop-shaped figures of varied length. In 80% of the virus particles the lengths of the viral RNA released were 2.5 to 4.5 μm. The sodium perchlorate-released viral nucleic acid also appeared linear, and about 70% had lengths of 0.1 to 2.0 μm, the longest filament measuring 5.8 μm. Evidence was obtained that EHD virus contains double-stranded RNA as its genetic material and the molecular weight of the EHD viral RNA was calculated to be 12.2 × to 106 to 15.1 × 106 daltons. Images PMID:4354151

  8. Maternal Zika Virus Disease Severity, Virus Load, Prior Dengue Antibodies, and Their Relationship to Birth Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Halai, Umme-Aiman; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Moreira, Maria Lopes; de Sequeira, Patricia Carvalho; Junior, Jose Paulo Pereira; de Araujo Zin, Andrea; Cherry, James; Gabaglia, Claudia Raja; Gaw, Stephanie L; Adachi, Kristina; Tsui, Irena; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Nogueira, Rita Ribeiro; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Brasil, Patricia

    2017-09-15

    Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome is a newly identified condition resulting from infection during pregnancy. We analyzed outcome data from a mother-infant cohort in Rio de Janeiro in order to assess whether clinical severity of maternal ZIKV infection was associated with maternal virus load, prior dengue antibodies, or abnormal pregnancy/infant outcomes. A clinical severity assessment tool was developed based on duration of fever, severity of rash, multisystem involvement, and duration of symptoms during ZIKV infection. ZIKV-RNA load was quantified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycles in blood/ urine. Dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were measured at baseline. Adverse outcomes were defined as fetal loss or a live infant with grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings. Regression models were used to study potential associations. 131 ZIKV-PCR positive pregnant women were scored for clinical disease severity, 6 (4.6%) had mild disease, 98 (74.8%) had moderate disease, and 27 (20.6%) severe manifestations of ZIKV infection. There were 58 (46.4%) abnormal outcomes with 9 fetal losses (7.2%) in 125 pregnancies. No associations were found between: disease severity and abnormal outcomes (P = .961; odds ratio [OR]: 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.796-1.270); disease severity and viral load (P = .994); viral load and adverse outcomes (P = .667; OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.922-1.135); or existence of prior dengue antibodies (88% subjects) with severity score, ZIKV-RNA load or adverse outcomes (P = .667; OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.255-2.397). Congenital ZIKV syndrome does not appear to be associated with maternal disease severity, ZIKV-RNA load at time of infection or existence of prior dengue antibodies.

  9. Industry-Wide Surveillance of Marek's Disease Virus on Commercial Poultry Farms.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David A; Cairns, Christopher; Jones, Matthew J; Bell, Andrew S; Salathé, Rahel M; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal K; Dunn, Patricia A; Read, Andrew F

    2017-06-01

    Marek's disease virus is a herpesvirus of chickens that costs the worldwide poultry industry more than US$1 billion annually. Two generations of Marek's disease vaccines have shown reduced efficacy over the last half century due to evolution of the virus. Understanding where the virus is present may give insight into whether continued reductions in efficacy are likely. We conducted a 3-yr surveillance study to assess the prevalence of Marek's disease virus on commercial poultry farms, determine the effect of various factors on virus prevalence, and document virus dynamics in broiler chicken houses over short (weeks) and long (years) timescales. We extracted DNA from dust samples collected from commercial chicken and egg production facilities in Pennsylvania, USA. Quantitative PCR was used to assess wild-type virus detectability and concentration. Using data from 1018 dust samples with Bayesian generalized linear mixed effects models, we determined the factors that correlated with virus prevalence across farms. Maximum likelihood and autocorrelation function estimation on 3727 additional dust samples were used to document and characterize virus concentrations within houses over time. Overall, wild-type virus was detectable at least once on 36 of 104 farms at rates that varied substantially between farms. Virus was detected in one of three broiler-breeder operations (companies), four of five broiler operations, and three of five egg layer operations. Marek's disease virus detectability differed by production type, bird age, day of the year, operation (company), farm, house, flock, and sample. Operation (company) was the most important factor, accounting for between 12% and 63.4% of the variation in virus detectability. Within individual houses, virus concentration often dropped below detectable levels and reemerged later. These data characterize Marek's disease virus dynamics, which are potentially important to the evolution of the virus.

  10. Genetic reassortants of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: unexpected disease and mechanism of pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Riviere, Y; Oldstone, M B

    1986-01-01

    Reassortant viruses of different strains of lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses cause lethal disease after inoculation into neonatal BALB/c WEHI mice, but, in contrast, parental strains or reciprocal reassortants do not cause lethal disease. The disease is characterized by inhibition of growth and death. The pathogenic mechanism is the induction of interferon combined with higher virus titers and subsequent liver necrosis. The generation of lethal reassortants from nonlethal parent viruses likely has implications for understanding the outbreaks of unanticipated virulent disease within a viral family. Images PMID:2426464

  11. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  12. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  13. Mechanisms of foot-and-mouth disease virus tropism inferred from differential tissue gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) has a characteristic tropism in terms of primary, secondary, and persistent infection and vesicular lesion sites. The virus targets specific tissues for primary replication. From these tissues, the virus spreads via the blood stream to a few preferred secondary in...

  14. Isolation of Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus from Febrile Patient, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Hailin; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanyu; Ni, Daxin; Nasci, Roger; Tang, Qing

    2009-01-01

    We recently determined that Nanjianyin virus, isolated from serum of a patient in Yunnan Province, China, in 1989, is a type of Kyasanur Forest disease virus. Results of a 1987–1990 seroepidemiologic investigation in Yunnan Province had shown that residents of the Hengduan Mountain region had been infected with Nanjianyin virus. PMID:19193286

  15. The growth and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the bovine mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, R.; Mann, J. A.; Greig, A.; Chapman, W. G.; Goodridge, D.

    1971-01-01

    In animals exposed to foot-and-mouth disease virus by indirect contact, virus was recovered from the blood, milk, pharynx, vagina and rectum for variable periods of time before clinical disease was apparent. Virus instilled into the mammary gland multiplied rapidly and virus concentrations greater than 107 p.f.u./ml. were recorded within 8-32 hr., depending on the virus strain and dose inoculated. Virus multiplication was accompanied by clinical signs of mastitis but the classical signs of foot-and-mouth disease did not appear for 52-117 hr. Dissemination of virus from the mammary gland occurred within 4-24 hr. and in some animals samples taken from the pharynx, mouth, nose and vagina contained virus for periods up to 97 hr. before the appearance of vesicular lesions. Virus production in the udder declined with the appearance of virus neutralizing activity in the blood and the milk but persisted in some animals for periods of 3-7 weeks. The ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus to persist in mammary tissue was confirmed by the demonstration of virus multiplication in the udders of immune animals. PMID:4326249

  16. Canarypox virus expressing infectious bursal disease VP2 protein as immunogen for chickens.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Grand, María Daniela Conte; Mitarotonda, Romina Cristina; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) carrying the coding sequence of VP2 protein from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained. These viruses were able to express VP2 protein in vitro and to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies when inoculated in specific pathogen-free chickens demonstrating that CNPV platform is usefulness to develop immunogens for chickens.

  17. The growth and persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Burrows, R; Mann, J A; Greig, A; Chapman, W G; Goodridge, D

    1971-06-01

    In animals exposed to foot-and-mouth disease virus by indirect contact, virus was recovered from the blood, milk, pharynx, vagina and rectum for variable periods of time before clinical disease was apparent. Virus instilled into the mammary gland multiplied rapidly and virus concentrations greater than 10(7) p.f.u./ml. were recorded within 8-32 hr., depending on the virus strain and dose inoculated. Virus multiplication was accompanied by clinical signs of mastitis but the classical signs of foot-and-mouth disease did not appear for 52-117 hr. Dissemination of virus from the mammary gland occurred within 4-24 hr. and in some animals samples taken from the pharynx, mouth, nose and vagina contained virus for periods up to 97 hr. before the appearance of vesicular lesions. Virus production in the udder declined with the appearance of virus neutralizing activity in the blood and the milk but persisted in some animals for periods of 3-7 weeks. The ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus to persist in mammary tissue was confirmed by the demonstration of virus multiplication in the udders of immune animals.

  18. Canarypox virus expressing infectious bursal disease VP2 protein as immunogen for chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Grand, María Daniela Conte; Mitarotonda, Romina Cristina; Taboga, Oscar Alberto; Calamante, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) carrying the coding sequence of VP2 protein from infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were obtained. These viruses were able to express VP2 protein in vitro and to induce IBDV-neutralizing antibodies when inoculated in specific pathogen-free chickens demonstrating that CNPV platform is usefulness to develop immunogens for chickens. PMID:24948937

  19. Risks for Ross River virus disease in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Harley, David; Ritchie, Scott; Bain, Chris; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2005-06-01

    There are no analytical studies of individual risks for Ross River virus (RRV) disease. Therefore, we set out to determine individual risk and protective factors for RRV disease in a high incidence area and to assess the utility of the case-control design applied for this purpose to an arbovirus disease. We used a prospective matched case-control study of new community cases of RRV disease in the local government areas of Cairns, Mareeba, Douglas, and Atherton, in tropical Queensland, from January 1 to May 31, 1998. Protective measures against mosquitoes reduced the risk for disease. Mosquito coils, repellents, and citronella candles each decreased risk by at least 2-fold, with a dose-response for the number of protective measures used. Light-coloured clothing decreased risk 3-fold. Camping increased the risk 8-fold. These risks were substantial and statistically significant, and provide a basis for educational programs on individual protection against RRV disease in Australia. Our study demonstrates the utility of the case-control method for investigating arbovirus risks. Such a risk analysis has not been done before for RRV infection, and is infrequently reported for other arbovirus infections.

  20. Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Reichard, K W; Lorence, R M; Cascino, C J; Peeples, M E; Walter, R J; Fernando, M B; Reyes, H M; Greager, J A

    1992-05-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain 73-T, has previously been shown to be cytolytic to mouse tumor cells. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of NDV to replicate in and kill human tumor cells in culture and in athymic mice. Plaque assays were used to determine the cytolytic activity of NDV on six human tumor cell lines, fibrosarcoma (HT1080), osteosarcoma (KHOS), cervical carcinoma (KB8-5-11), bladder carcinoma (HCV29T), neuroblastoma (IMR32), and Wilm's tumor (G104), and on nine different normal human fibroblast lines. NDV formed plaques on all tumor cells tested as well as on chick embryo cells (CEC), the native host for NDV. Plaques did not form on any of the normal fibroblast lines. To detect NDV replication, virus yield assays were performed which measured virus particles in infected cell culture supernatants. Virus yield increased 10,000-fold within 24 hr in tumor and CEC supernatants. Titers remained near zero in normal fibroblast supernatants. In vivo tumoricidal activity was evaluated in athymic nude Balb-c mice by subcutaneous injection of 9 x 10(6) tumor cells followed by intralesional injection of either live or heat-killed NDV (1.0 x 10(6) plaque forming units [PFU]), or medium. After live NDV treatment, tumor regression occurred in 10 out of 11 mice bearing KB8-5-11 tumors, 8 out of 8 with HT-1080 tumors, and 6 out of 7 with IMR-32 tumors. After treatment with heat-killed NDV no regression occurred (P less than 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Nontumor-bearing mice injected with 1.0 x 10(8) PFU of NDV remained healthy. These results indicate that NDV efficiently and selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells, but not normal cells, and that intralesional NDV causes complete tumor regression in athymic mice with a high therapeutic index.

  1. Therapeutic potential of oncolytic Newcastle disease virus: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Tayeb, Shay; Zakay-Rones, Zichria; Panet, Amos

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) features a natural preference for replication in many tumor cells compared with normal cells. The observed antitumor effect of NDV appears to be a result of both selective killing of tumor cells and induction of immune responses. Genetic manipulations to change viral tropism and arming the virus with genes encoding for cytokines improved the oncolytic capacity of NDV. Several intracellular proteins in tumor cells, including antiapoptotic proteins (Livin) and oncogenic proteins (H-Ras), are relevant for the oncolytic activity of NDV. Defects in the interferon system, found in some tumor cells, also contribute to the oncolytic selectivity of NDV. Notwithstanding, NDV displays effective oncolytic activity in many tumor types, despite having intact interferon signaling. Taken together, several cellular systems appear to dictate the selective oncolytic activity of NDV. Some barriers, such as neutralizing antibodies elicited during NDV treatment and the extracellular matrix in tumor tissue appear to interfere with spread of NDV and reduce oncolysis. To further understand the oncolytic activity of NDV, we compared two NDV strains, ie, an attenuated virus (NDV-HUJ) and a pathogenic virus (NDV-MTH-68/H). Significant differences in amino acid sequence were noted in several viral proteins, including the fusion precursor (F0) glycoprotein, an important determinant of replication and pathogenicity. However, no difference in the oncolytic activity of the two strains was noted using human tumor tissues maintained as organ cultures or in mouse tumor models. To optimize virotherapy in clinical trials, we describe here a unique organ culture methodology, using a biopsy taken from a patient’s tumor before treatment for ex vivo infection with NDV to determine the oncolytic potential on an individual basis. In conclusion, oncolytic NDV is an excellent candidate for cancer therapy, but more knowledge is needed to ensure success in clinical trials. PMID

  2. European brown hare syndrome virus: relationship to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and other caliciviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Wirblich, C; Meyers, G; Ohlinger, V F; Capucci, L; Eskens, U; Haas, B; Thiel, H J

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against the capsid protein of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) were used to identify field cases of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) and to distinguish between RHDV and the virus responsible for EBHS. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of liver extract of an EBHS virus (EBHSV)-infected hare revealed a single major capsid protein species of approximately 60 kDa that shared epitopes with the capsid protein of RHDV. RNA isolated from the liver of an EBHSV-infected hare contained two viral RNA species of 7.5 and 2.2 kb that comigrated with the genomic and subgenomic RNAs of RHDV and were recognized by labeled RHDV cDNA in Northern (RNA) hybridizations. The nucleotide sequence of the 3' 2.8 kb of the EBHSV genome was determined from four overlapping cDNA clones. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame that contains part of the putative RNA polymerase gene and the complete capsid protein gene. This particular genome organization is shared by RHDV but not by other known caliciviruses. The deduced amino acid sequence of the capsid protein of EBHSV was compared with the capsid protein sequences of RDDV and other caliciviruses. The amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that EBHSV is closely related to RHDV and distantly related to other caliciviruses. On the basis of their genome organization, it is suggested that caliciviruses be divided into three groups. Images PMID:7518531

  3. Topography and Dynamics of Synthesis of Structural Proteins of Newcastle Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhdanov, Victor M.; Azadova, Nonna B.; Uryvayev, Leonid V.

    1966-01-01

    Zhdanov, Victor M. (The D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Moscow, USSR), Nonna B. Azadova, and Leonid V. Uryvayev. Topography and dynamics of synthesis of structural proteins of Newcastle disease virus. J. Bacteriol. 91:1902–1906. 1966.—Newcastle disease virus S and V antigens are synthesized in the cytoplasm, as revealed by the immunofluorescence method. In some experiments, S antigen was found also in the nucleoli. Actinomycin D moderately decreased the titer of infectious virus and V antigen and accelerated the time of appearance of mature virus. Proflavine sharply decreased the synthesis of both antigens and the release of mature virus. Images PMID:5327911

  4. Heartland Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  5. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with Brincidofovir

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Jake; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Antierens, Annick; Whitehead, John; Ciglenecki, Iza; Carson, Gail; Kanapathipillai, Rupa; Castle, Lyndsey; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Pardinaz-Solis, Raul; Grove, Jennifer; Scott, Janet; Lang, Trudie; Olliaro, Piero; Horby, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The nucleotide analogue brincidofovir was developed to prevent and treat infections caused by double-stranded DNA viruses. Based on in vitro data suggesting an antiviral effect against Ebola virus, brincidofovir was included in the World Health Organisation list of agents that should be prioritised for clinical evaluation in patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) during the West African epidemic. Methods and Findings In this single-arm phase 2 trial conducted in Liberia, patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD (two months of age or older, enrolment bodyweight ≥50 kg) received oral brincidofovir 200 mg as a loading dose on day 0, followed by 100 mg brincidofovir on days 3, 7, 10, and 14. Bodyweight-adjusted dosing was used for patients weighing <50 kg at enrolment. The primary outcome was survival at Day 14 after the first dose of brincidofovir. Four patients were enrolled between 01 January 2015 and 31 January 2015. The trial was stopped following the decision by the manufacturer to terminate their program of development of brincidofovir for EVD. No Serious Adverse Reactions or Suspected Unexpected Serious Adverse Reactions were identified. All enrolled subjects died of an illness consistent with EVD. Conclusions Due to the small sample size it was not possible to determine the efficacy of brincidofovir for the treatment of EVD. The premature termination of the trial highlights the need to establish better practices for preclinical in-vitro and animal screening of therapeutics for potentially emerging epidemic infectious diseases prior to their use in patients. Trial Registration Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201411000939962 PMID:27611077

  6. The Role of Exosomal VP40 in Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Pleet, Michelle L; DeMarino, Catherine; Lepene, Benjamin; Aman, M Javad; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) can cause a devastating hemorrhagic disease, leading to death in a short period of time. After infection, the resulting EBOV disease results in high levels of circulating cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy, and bystander lymphocyte apoptosis in humans and nonhuman primates. The VP40 matrix protein of EBOV is essential for viral assembly and budding from the host cell. Recent data have shown that VP40 exists in the extracellular environment, including in exosomes, and exosomal VP40 can impact the viability of recipient immune cells, including myeloid and T cells, through the regulation of the RNAi and endosomal sorting complexes required for transport pathways. In this study, we discuss the latest findings of the impact of exosomal VP40 on immune cells in vitro and its potential implications for pathogenesis in vivo.

  7. Self Antigen Prognostic for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Cynthia L.; Patel, Hirenkumar; Arnold, Roland R.

    2001-01-01

    We have recently found that an extracellular protein, α1 proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; α1 antitrypsin), is required for in vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity outcome. We show here in a study of HIV-seropositive patients that decreased viral load is significantly correlated with decreased circulating α1PI. In the asymptomatic category of HIV disease, 100% of patients manifest deficient levels of active α1PI, a condition known to lead to degenerative lung diseases and a dramatically reduced life span. Further, HIV-associated α1PI deficiency is correlated with circulating anti-α1PI immunoglobulin G. These results suggest that preventing HIV-associated α1PI deficiency may provide a strategic target for preventing HIV-associated pathophysiology. PMID:11527807

  8. Being Ready to Treat Ebola Virus Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brett-Major, David M.; Jacob, Shevin T.; Jacquerioz, Frederique A.; Risi, George F.; Fischer, William A.; Kato, Yasuyuki; Houlihan, Catherine F.; Crozier, Ian; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Lawler, James V.; Adachi, Takuya; Hurley, Sara K.; Berry, Louise E.; Carlson, John C.; Button, Thomas. C.; McLellan, Susan L.; Shea, Barbara J.; Kuniyoshi, Gary G.; Ferri, Mauricio; Murthy, Srinivas G.; Petrosillo, Nicola; Lamontagne, Francois; Porembka, David T.; Schieffelin, John S.; Rubinson, Lewis; O'Dempsey, Tim; Donovan, Suzanne M.; Bausch, Daniel G.; Fowler, Robert A.; Fletcher, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    As the outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa continues, clinical preparedness is needed in countries at risk for EVD (e.g., United States) and more fully equipped and supported clinical teams in those countries with epidemic spread of EVD in Africa. Clinical staff must approach the patient with a very deliberate focus on providing effective care while assuring personal safety. To do this, both individual health care providers and health systems must improve EVD care. Although formal guidance toward these goals exists from the World Health Organization, Medecin Sans Frontières, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other groups, some of the most critical lessons come from personal experience. In this narrative, clinicians deployed by the World Health Organization into a wide range of clinical settings in West Africa distill key, practical considerations for working safely and effectively with patients with EVD. PMID:25510724

  9. Effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine antibodies on the shedding and transmission of challenge viruses.

    PubMed

    Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; El Attrache, John; Dorsey, Kristi M; Courtney, Sean C; Guo, Zijing; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2013-12-01

    Different genotypes of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 virus (APMV-1) circulate in many parts of the world. Traditionally, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recognized as having two major divisions represented by classes I and II, with class II being further divided into sixteen genotypes. Although all NDV are members of APMV-1 and are of one serotype, antigenic and genetic diversity is observed between the different genotypes. Reports of vaccine failure from many countries and reports by our lab on the reduced ability of classical vaccines to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding have created renewed interest in developing vaccines formulated with genotypes homologous to the virulent NDV (vNDV) circulating in the field. We assessed how the amount and specificity of humoral antibodies induced by inactivated vaccines affected viral replication, clinical protection and evaluated how non-homologous (heterologous) antibody levels induced by live NDV vaccines relate to transmission of vNDV. In an experimental setting, all inactivated NDV vaccines protected birds from morbidity and mortality, but higher and more specific levels of antibodies were required to significantly decrease viral replication. It was possible to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding with high levels of antibodies and those levels could be more easily reached with vaccines formulated with NDV of the same genotype as the challenge viruses. However, when the levels of heterologous antibodies were sufficiently high, it was possible to prevent transmission. As the level of humoral antibodies increase in vaccinated birds, the number of infected birds and the amount of vNDV shed decreased. Thus, in an experimental setting the effective levels of humoral antibodies could be increased by (1) increasing the homology of the vaccine to the challenge virus, or (2) allowing optimal time for the development of the immune response.

  10. Animal models of disease shed light on Nipah virus pathogenesis and transmission

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    Nipah virus is an emerging virus infection that causes yearly disease outbreaks with high case fatality rates in Bangladesh. Nipah virus causes encephalitis and systemic vasculitis, sometimes in combination with respiratory disease. Pteropus species fruit bats are the natural reservoir of Nipah virus and zoonotic transmission can occur directly or via an intermediate host; human-to-human transmission occurs regularly. In this review we discuss the current state of knowledge on the pathogenesis and transmission of Nipah virus, focusing on dissemination of the virus through its host, known determinants of pathogenicity and routes of zoonotic and human-to-human transmission. Since data from human cases are sparse, this knowledge is largely based on the results of studies performed in animal models that recapitulate Nipah virus disease in humans. PMID:25229234

  11. Intracellular processing of the Newcastle disease virus fusion glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, T.; Ward, L.J.; Semerjian, A.

    1985-03-01

    The fusion glycoprotein (Fo) of Newcastle disease virus is cleaved at an intracellular site into F1 and F2. This result was confirmed by comparing the transit time of the fusion protein to the cell surface with the time course of cleavage of Fo. The time required for cleavage of half of the pulse-labeled Fo protein is ca. 40 min faster than the half time of the transit of the fusion protein to the cell surface. To determine the cell compartment in which cleavage occurs, use was made of inhibitors which block glycoprotein migration at specific points and posttranslational modifications known to occur in specific cell membranes. Cleavage of Fo is inhibited by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; thus, cleavage does not occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Monensin blocks the incorporation of Newcastle disease virus glycoproteins into virions and blocks the cleavage of the fusion glycoprotein. However, Fo cannot be radioactively labeled with (/sup 3/H) fucose, whereas F1 is readily labeled. These results argue that cleavage occurs in the trans Golgi membranes or in a cell compartment occupied by glycoproteins quite soon after their transit through the trans Golgi membranes. The implications of the results presented for the transit times of the fusion protein between subcellular organelles are discussed.

  12. Rapid pathotyping of Newcastle Disease Virus by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    De Battisti, Cristian; Salomoni, Angela; Ormelli, Silvia; Monne, Isabella; Capua, Ilaria; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is the only member of serotype 1 avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-1) that causes respiratory and neurological disease in chickens and other species of birds and can cause severe economic losses in the poultry sector. Due to the relevant variability of the genome and the pathogenicity of NDV isolates, their detection in a specimen is not sufficient to provide and confirm an exact diagnosis, and so the assessment of virus pathotype is required. To diagnose rapidly and pathotype NDV directly in clinical specimens, a method based on RT-PCR and pyrosequencing analysis has been developed and is reported in the present study. A pair of degenerated primers was designed to amplify a portion of the fusion (F) gene responsible for virulence and used to test 315 specimens collected from 2006 to 2011. The subsequent pyrosequencing reaction identified a 30-bp region encompassing the cleavage site. A total of 213 out of 315 samples were pyrosequenced and results were compared and confirmed by the Sanger sequencing procedure, which is traditionally performed for NDV pathotyping. The pyrosequencing reaction provided high quality results in real time and proved to be more rapid and cost-efficient than the classical sequencing procedure, indicating it as a possible valid alternative to the currently used diagnostic assays for NDV.

  13. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in open air conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, A. I.; Ferris, N. P.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the Open Air Factor (OAF) and daylight on the survival of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus held as captured aerosols on spider microthreads has been investigated. Virus inactivation due to OAF was slight. Similarly, the effect of daylight on the survival of virus was not marked. The results are discussed in relation to the airborne spread of FMD virus in nature. PMID:168250

  14. A study on pathogens of Chinese prawn ( Penaeus Chinensis) virus diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Jin-Xing

    1995-09-01

    This pathogenic study shows that the viral diseases of Chinese prawns ( Penaeus chinensis, O'sbeck) is due to three kinds of viruses: epithelium envelope baculovirus of Penaeus chinensis (EEBV-PC, detected by the authors in 1993), infections hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, and hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus, and that the first two viruses seem to be the main pathogens of the epidemic in the northern regions in 1993.

  15. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  16. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Lateral Flow Immunoassays for Ebola Virus Disease Detection in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jill C; Pettitt, James; George, Josiah S; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Taweh, Fahn M; Bateman, Stacey L; Bennett, Richard S; Norris, Sarah L; Spinnler, David A; Pimentel, Guillermo; Sahr, Phillip K; Bolay, Fatorma K; Schoepp, Randal J

    2016-10-15

     Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs) are point-of-care diagnostic assays that are designed for single use outside a formal laboratory, with in-home pregnancy tests the best-known example of these tests. Although the LFI has some limitations over more-complex immunoassay procedures, such as reduced sensitivity and the potential for false-positive results when using complex sample matrices, the assay has the benefits of a rapid time to result and ease of use. These benefits make it an attractive option for obtaining rapid results in an austere environment. In an outbreak of any magnitude, a field-based rapid diagnostic assay would allow proper patient transport and for safe burials to be conducted without the delay caused by transport of samples between remote villages and testing facilities. Use of such point-of-care instruments in the ongoing Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa would have distinct advantages in control and prevention of local outbreaks, but proper understanding of the technology and interpretation of results are important.  In this study, a LFI, originally developed by the Naval Medical Research Center for Ebola virus environmental testing, was evaluated for its ability to detect the virus in clinical samples in Liberia. Clinical blood and plasma samples and post mortem oral swabs submitted to the Liberian Institute for Biomedical Research, the National Public Health Reference Laboratory for EVD testing, were tested and compared to results of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), using assays targeting Ebola virus glycoprotein and nucleoprotein.  The LFI findings correlated well with those of the real-time RT-PCR assays used as benchmarks.  Rapid antigen-detection tests such as LFIs are attractive alternatives to traditional immunoassays but have reduced sensitivity and specificity, resulting in increases in false-positive and false-negative results. An understanding of the strengths, weaknesses

  18. Humanized Mouse Model of Ebola Virus Disease Mimics the Immune Responses in Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Bird, Brian H; Spengler, Jessica R; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Khristova, Marina L; Sealy, Tara K; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Dodd, Kimberly A; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Sanders, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-03-01

    Animal models recapitulating human Ebola virus disease (EVD) are critical for insights into virus pathogenesis. Ebola virus (EBOV) isolates derived directly from human specimens do not, without adaptation, cause disease in immunocompetent adult rodents. Here, we describe EVD in mice engrafted with human immune cells (hu-BLT). hu-BLT mice developed EVD following wild-type EBOV infection. Infection with high-dose EBOV resulted in rapid, lethal EVD with high viral loads, alterations in key human antiviral immune cytokines and chemokines, and severe histopathologic findings similar to those shown in the limited human postmortem data available. A dose- and donor-dependent clinical course was observed in hu-BLT mice infected with lower doses of either Mayinga (1976) or Makona (2014) isolates derived from human EBOV cases. Engraftment of the human cellular immune system appeared to be essential for the observed virulence, as nonengrafted mice did not support productive EBOV replication or develop lethal disease. hu-BLT mice offer a unique model for investigating the human immune response in EVD and an alternative animal model for EVD pathogenesis studies and therapeutic screening. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  20. Effect of Biodiversity Changes in Disease Risk: Exploring Disease Emergence in a Plant-Virus System

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species. PMID:22792068

  1. Light-Addressable Potentiometric (LAP) Sensor Assay of Newcastle Disease Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    biosensor module of the BCD is to have the capability of detecting proteins, viruses and bacteria . It is an immunochemically-based instrument which...UNLIMITEl) DISTRIBUTION LIGHT-ADDRESSABLE POTENTIOMETRIC (LAP) SENSOR ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS by William E. Lee, Jonathan P. Wong and R. Elaine...RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT SUFFIELD RALSTON ALBERTA Suffield Report No. 553 Light-Addressable Potentiometric (LAP) Sensor Assay of Newcastle Disease Virus by

  2. Serological status for Chlamydophila psittaci, Newcastle disease virus, avian polyoma virus, and Pacheco disease virus in scarlet macaws (Ara macao) kept in captivity in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Herrera, I; Khan, S R; Kaleta, E F; Müller, H; Dolz, G; Neumann, U

    2001-12-01

    From 1998 to 1999, a total of 128 blood samples were collected from scarlet macaws (Ara macao), kept in captivity in 11 different aviaries located in six provinces of Costa Rica. The sera were examined for antibodies directed against Chlamydophila psittaci, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian polyoma virus (APV), and Pacheco disease virus (PDV). Testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed 16 (12.39%) of the samples (n = 129) exhibited antibodies directed against C. psittaci. Employing haemagglutination inhibition tests for NDV antibodies, all of the samples were found to be negative. The prevalence of antibodies specific for APV was tested with a blocking ELISA and serum neutralization tests (SNT) and 12 of 128 samples (9.37%) were found to be positive with both tests. In SNT, two out of 128 samples (1.56%) were positive for PDV. This is the first description of the serological status in scarlet macaws in captivity in Costa Rica. The study demonstrates the absence of NDV antibodies in the birds investigated on one hand, but also indicates a health hazard for numerous avian species due to the risk of infections with C. psittaci, APV or PDV.

  3. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  4. Cardiovascular disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus: a review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Luísa Amado; Almeida, Ana G

    2015-01-01

    The cardiovascular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have changed significantly following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. On one hand, HAART has altered the course of HIV disease, with longer survival of HIV-infected patients, and cardiovascular complications of HIV infection such as myocarditis have been reduced. On the other hand, HAART is associated with an increase in the prevalence of both peripheral and coronary arterial disease. As longevity increases in HIV-infected individuals, long-term effects, such as cardiovascular disease, are emerging as leading health issues in this population. In the present review article, we discuss HIV-associated cardiovascular disease, focusing on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, prognosis, management and therapy. Cardiovascular involvement in treatment-naive patients is still important in situations such as non-adherence to treatment, late initiation of treatment, and/or limited access to HAART in developing countries. We therefore describe the cardiovascular consequences in treatment-naive patients and the potential effect of antiretroviral treatment on their regression, as well as the metabolic and cardiovascular implications of HAART regimens in HIV-infected individuals.

  5. Animal Models of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Disease.

    PubMed

    Haese, Nicole N; Broeckel, Rebecca M; Hawman, David W; Heise, Mark T; Morrison, Thomas E; Streblow, Daniel N

    2016-12-15

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness and severe joint pain in humans. Although acute symptoms often resolve within a few days, chronic joint and muscle pain can be long lasting. In the last decade, CHIKV has caused widespread outbreaks of unprecedented scale in the Americas, Asia, and the Indian Ocean island regions. Despite these outbreaks and the continued expansion of CHIKV into new areas, mechanisms of chikungunya pathogenesis and disease are not well understood. Experimental animal models are indispensable to the field of CHIKV research. The most commonly used experimental animal models of CHIKV infection are mice and nonhuman primates; each model has its advantages for studying different aspects of CHIKV disease. This review will provide an overview of animal models used to study CHIKV infection and disease and major advances in our understanding of chikungunya obtained from studies performed in these models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  7. Experimental co-infections of domestic ducks with a virulent Newcastle disease virus and low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections with Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity (LP and HP), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are commonly reported in domestic ducks in parts of the world. However, it’s not clear if co-infections with these viruses affect the severity of the diseases they produce, the ...

  8. Resurgence of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea Linked to a Survivor With Virus Persistence in Seminal Fluid for More Than 500 Days

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Boubacar; Sissoko, Daouda; Loman, Nicholas J.; Bah, Hadja Aïssatou; Bah, Hawa; Worrell, Mary Claire; Conde, lya Saidou; Sacko, Ramata; Mesfin, Samuel; Loua, Angelo; Kalonda, Jacques Katomba; Erondu, Ngozi A.; Dahl, Benjamin A.; Handrick, Susann; Goodfellow, Ian; Meredith, Luke W.; Cotten, Matthew; Jah, Umaru; Guetiya Wadoum, Raoul Emeric; Rollin, Pierre; Magassouba, N'Faly; Malvy, Denis; Anglaret, Xavier; Carroll, Miles W.; Aylward, Raymond Bruce; Djingarey, Mamoudou Harouna; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Formenty, Pierre; Keïta, Sakoba; Günther, Stephan; Rambaut, Andrew; Duraffour, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    We report on an Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivor who showed Ebola virus in seminal fluid 531 days after onset of disease. The persisting virus was sexually transmitted in February 2016, about 470 days after onset of symptoms, and caused a new cluster of EVD in Guinea and Liberia. PMID:27585800

  9. Identification of new sub-genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus with potential panzootic features

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strains of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with epizootic characteristics are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND). Significant illness and mortality in vaccinated poultry caused by highly related viruses of new sub-genotypes within ge...

  10. Genetic characterization of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus strains isolated from cattle in Israel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), an Orbivirus not previously reported in Israel, was isolated from Israeli cattle during a “bluetongue like” disease outbreak in 2006. To ascertain the origin of this new virus, three isolates from the outbreak were fully sequenced and compared with availab...

  11. Host responses are induced in feathers of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Control measures are effective in curtailing Marek’s disease virus (MDV) infection and replication in the feather follicle epithelium (FFE). Therefore, vaccinated birds, which subsequently become infected with MDV, shed the virulent virus although they remain protected against disease. The present...

  12. Molecular evolution of epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses in North America based on historical isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family that has significant impact on wild and captive white-tailed deer. Although closely related to bluetongue virus (BTV) that can cause disease in sheep and cattle, North American EHDV historically has not been associat...

  13. Differential replication of foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a let...

  14. Association of torque teno virus (TTV) and torque teno mini virus (TTMV) with liver disease among patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, M; Berenguer, J; Alvarez, E; Guzmán-Fulgencio, M; Cosín, J; Miralles, P; Catalán, P; López, J C; Rodríguez, J Ma; Micheloud, D; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma A; Resino, S

    2013-02-01

    Torque teno virus (TTV) and torque teno mini virus (TTMV) have been potentially related to liver diseases. The aim of the study was to quantify TTV and TTMV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients to study the relationship between the TTV and TTMV viral loads and the severity of liver disease. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 245 patients coinfected with HIV and HCV (HIV/HCV-group), 114 patients monoinfected with HIV (HIV-group), and 100 healthy blood donors (Control-group). Plasma samples were tested for TTV and TTMV by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalences of TTV and TTMV infections in the HIV/HCV-group and the HIV-group were significantly higher than the Control-group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, TTV and TTMV coinfections were found in 92.2 % (226/245) in the HIV/HCV-group, 84.2 % (96/114) in the HIV-group, and 63 % (63/100 %) in the Control-group (p ≤ 0.05). HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with HIV viral load ≥50 copies/mL and patients with severe activity grade had the highest viral loads of TTV and TTMV (p ≤ 0.05). HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with high TTV load (>2.78 log copies/μL) had increased odds of having advanced fibrosis or severe necroinflammatory activity grade in the liver biopsy. Moreover, HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with high TTMV load (>1.88 log copies/μL) had decreased odds of having no/minimal fibrosis and no/mild activity grade, and increased odds of having a high fibrosis progression rate. In conclusion, TTV and TTMV might play a role in the development of liver disease in immunodeficiency patients, such as the patients coinfected with HIV and HCV.

  15. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Johansson, Michael A.; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M.; Hills, Susan L.; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April–September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters. PMID:27088494

  16. Projecting Month of Birth for At-Risk Infants after Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Reefhuis, Jennita; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Johansson, Michael A; Valencia, Diana; Simeone, Regina M; Hills, Susan L; Polen, Kara; Jamieson, Denise J; Petersen, Lyle R; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    The marked increase in infants born with microcephaly in Brazil after a 2015 outbreak of Zika virus (Zika virus) disease suggests an association between maternal Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly. To project the timing of delivery of infants born to mothers infected during early pregnancy in 1 city in Bahia State, Brazil, we incorporated data on reported Zika virus disease cases and microcephaly cases into a graphical schematic of weekly birth cohorts. We projected that these births would occur through February 2016. Applying similar projections to a hypothetical location at which Zika virus transmission started in November, we projected that full-term infants at risk for Zika virus infection would be born during April-September 2016. We also developed a modifiable spreadsheet tool that public health officials and researchers can use for their countries to plan for deliveries of infants to women who were infected with Zika virus during different pregnancy trimesters.

  17. Multidistrict Outbreak of Marburg Virus Disease-Uganda, 2012.

    PubMed

    Knust, Barbara; Schafer, Ilana J; Wamala, Joseph; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Okot, Charles; Shoemaker, Trevor; Dodd, Kimberly; Gibbons, Aridth; Balinandi, Stephen; Tumusiime, Alex; Campbell, Shelley; Newman, Edmund; Lasry, Estrella; DeClerck, Hilde; Boum, Yap; Makumbi, Issa; Bosa, Henry Kyobe; Mbonye, Anthony; Aceng, Jane Ruth; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E

    2015-10-01

    In October 2012, a cluster of illnesses and deaths was reported in Uganda and was confirmed to be an outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Patients meeting the case criteria were interviewed using a standard investigation form, and blood specimens were tested for evidence of acute or recent Marburg virus infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The total count of confirmed and probable MVD cases was 26, of which 15 (58%) were fatal. Four of 15 laboratory-confirmed cases (27%) were fatal. Case patients were located in 4 different districts in Uganda, although all chains of transmission originated in Ibanda District, and the earliest case detected had an onset in July 2012. No zoonotic exposures were identified. Symptoms significantly associated with being a MVD case included hiccups, anorexia, fatigue, vomiting, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. Contact with a case patient and attending a funeral were also significantly associated with being a case. Average RT-PCR cycle threshold values for fatal cases during the acute phase of illness were significantly lower than those for nonfatal cases. Following the institution of contact tracing, active case surveillance, care of patients with isolation precautions, community mobilization, and rapid diagnostic testing, the outbreak was successfully contained 14 days after its initial detection.

  18. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Henry, Andrew J; Weiss, Daniel J; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz UG; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Bhatt, Samir; Gething, Peter W; Horby, Peter W; Bogoch, Isaac I; Brownstein, John S; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Tatem, Andrew J; Khan, Kamran; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a complex zoonosis that is highly virulent in humans. The largest recorded outbreak of EVD is ongoing in West Africa, outside of its previously reported and predicted niche. We assembled location data on all recorded zoonotic transmission to humans and Ebola virus infection in bats and primates (1976–2014). Using species distribution models, these occurrence data were paired with environmental covariates to predict a zoonotic transmission niche covering 22 countries across Central and West Africa. Vegetation, elevation, temperature, evapotranspiration, and suspected reservoir bat distributions define this relationship. At-risk areas are inhabited by 22 million people; however, the rarity of human outbreaks emphasises the very low probability of transmission to humans. Increasing population sizes and international connectivity by air since the first detection of EVD in 1976 suggest that the dynamics of human-to-human secondary transmission in contemporary outbreaks will be very different to those of the past. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04395.001 PMID:25201877

  19. The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Gatherer, Derek

    2014-08-01

    On 23 March 2014, the World Health Organization issued its first communiqué on a new outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), which began in December 2013 in Guinée Forestière (Forested Guinea), the eastern sector of the Republic of Guinea. Located on the Atlantic coast of West Africa, Guinea is the first country in this geographical region in which an outbreak of EVD has occurred, leaving aside the single case reported in Ivory Coast in 1994. Cases have now also been confirmed across Guinea as well as in the neighbouring Republic of Liberia. The appearance of cases in the Guinean capital, Conakry, and the transit of another case through the Liberian capital, Monrovia, presents the first large urban setting for EVD transmission. By 20 April 2014, 242 suspected cases had resulted in a total of 147 deaths in Guinea and Liberia. The causative agent has now been identified as an outlier strain of Zaire Ebola virus. The full geographical extent and degree of severity of the outbreak, its zoonotic origins and its possible spread to other continents are sure to be subjects of intensive discussion over the next months. © 2014 The Authors.

  20. Naturally occurring reassortant infectious bursal disease virus in northern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhen; Zhang, Lizhou; Wang, Nian; Chen, Yuming; Gao, Li; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Li, Kai; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-05-04

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a bi-segmented, double-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of the family of Birnavirideae. The co-evolution of genome segments is a major evolutionary feature for IBDV. However, in recent years, some strains exhibited markedly different genetic relationships for segments A and B. In this study, we firstly isolated a new type of reassortment IBDV strain named IBD13HeB01 from northern China. The full-length genomes of segments A and B were cloned and identified. Sequence analysis revealed that IBD13HeB01 was a segment-reassortment strain, whose segment A was derived from very virulent strain and segment B from attenuated IBDV. In addition, the virulence of IBD13HeB01 strain was evaluated using SPF chickens. This study is not only beneficial for further understanding of the viral evolution but also suggests the potential risk of application of the live vaccines of IBDV.

  1. Cloned Defective Interfering Influenza RNA and a Possible Pan-Specific Treatment of Respiratory Virus Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, Nigel J.; Easton, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Defective interfering (DI) genomes are characterised by their ability to interfere with the replication of the virus from which they were derived, and other genetically compatible viruses. DI genomes are synthesized by nearly all known viruses and represent a vast natural reservoir of antivirals that can potentially be exploited for use in the clinic. This review describes the application of DI virus to protect from virus-associated diseases in vivo using as an example a highly active cloned influenza A DI genome and virus that protects broadly in preclinical trials against different subtypes of influenza A and against non-influenza A respiratory viruses. This influenza A-derived DI genome protects by two totally different mechanisms: molecular interference with influenza A replication and by stimulating innate immunity that acts against non-influenza A viruses. The review considers what is needed to develop DI genomes to the point of entry into clinical trials. PMID:26184282

  2. Cloned Defective Interfering Influenza RNA and a Possible Pan-Specific Treatment of Respiratory Virus Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dimmock, Nigel J; Easton, Andrew J

    2015-07-08

    Defective interfering (DI) genomes are characterised by their ability to interfere with the replication of the virus from which they were derived, and other genetically compatible viruses. DI genomes are synthesized by nearly all known viruses and represent a vast natural reservoir of antivirals that can potentially be exploited for use in the clinic. This review describes the application of DI virus to protect from virus-associated diseases in vivo using as an example a highly active cloned influenza A DI genome and virus that protects broadly in preclinical trials against different subtypes of influenza A and against non-influenza A respiratory viruses. This influenza A-derived DI genome protects by two totally different mechanisms: molecular interference with influenza A replication and by stimulating innate immunity that acts against non-influenza A viruses. The review considers what is needed to develop DI genomes to the point of entry into clinical trials.

  3. Virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-11-01

    Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4.  Association between hepatitis B virus and chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Donato, Francesca M; Messa, Piergiorgio

     Background. Hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease are prevalent and remain a major public health problem worldwide. It remains unclear how infection with hepatitis B virus impacts on the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.

  5. Experimental Aujeszky's disease in pigs: excretion, survival and transmission of the virus.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, A I; Wardley, R C; Martin, S; Ferris, N P

    1983-11-19

    Airborne Aujeszky's disease virus was recovered from looseboxes containing groups of pigs infected with virus strains from England, Northern Ireland and Denmark from days 1 to 7 after infection. Pigs sampled individually excreted most airborne virus on days 2 and 3 after infection. On a 24 hour basis the maximum amount of airborne virus excreted per pig was log10 5.3 TCID50. Subclinical infection was transmitted from a clinically affected group of pigs to a seronegative group held in separate looseboxes when air was drawn through ducting connecting one box with the other. Tissues taken from pigs killed at varying times after infection showed that the main sites of virus replication were in the head and neck region. Aujeszky's disease virus was detected for up to 40 days in a range of tissues taken from pigs at the acute stage of disease and stored at -20 degrees C.

  6. Rehabilitation in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-related diseases.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, M W; Dillon, M E

    1992-06-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a fatal disorder of cell-mediated immunity caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As many as one million Americans infected with HIV can expect improved survival with more advanced treatment approaches. Complications of HIV infection occur in the brain, spinal cord, muscle, nerve, joints and other organ systems, which lead to extensive impairments. As survival increases, rehabilitation professionals can anticipate a greater number of referrals for the assessment and management of physical disability in persons with HIV infection. This article reviews HIV-related disease, impairment, disability and handicap pertinent to rehabilitation medicine. An agenda for future research is also proposed. Current knowledge and models or rehabilitation care can be applied to HIV-related physical disability in an effort to improve overall quality of life.

  7. Differential Persistence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in African Buffalo Is Related to Virus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Francois; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Gubbins, Simon; Zhang, Fuquan; Seago, Julian; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Reid, Liz; Scott, Katherine; van Schalkwyk, Louis; Bengis, Roy; Juleff, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) circulates as multiple serotypes and strains in many regions of endemicity. In particular, the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes are maintained effectively in their wildlife reservoir, the African buffalo, and individuals may harbor multiple SAT serotypes for extended periods in the pharyngeal region. However, the exact site and mechanism for persistence remain unclear. FMD in buffaloes offers a unique opportunity to study FMDV persistence, as transmission from carrier ruminants has convincingly been demonstrated for only this species. Following coinfection of naive African buffaloes with isolates of three SAT serotypes from field buffaloes, palatine tonsil swabs were the sample of choice for recovering infectious FMDV up to 400 days postinfection (dpi). Postmortem examination identified infectious virus for up to 185 dpi and viral genomes for up to 400 dpi in lymphoid tissues of the head and neck, focused mainly in germinal centers. Interestingly, viral persistence in vivo was not homogenous, and the SAT-1 isolate persisted longer than the SAT-2 and SAT-3 isolates. Coinfection and passage of these SAT isolates in goat and buffalo cell lines demonstrated a direct correlation between persistence and cell-killing capacity. These data suggest that FMDV persistence occurs in the germinal centers of lymphoid tissue but that the duration of persistence is related to virus replication and cell-killing capacity. IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious acute vesicular disease in domestic livestock and wildlife species. African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the primary carrier hosts of FMDV in African savannah ecosystems, where the disease is endemic. We have shown that the virus persists for up to 400 days in buffaloes and that there is competition between viruses during mixed infections. There was similar competition in cell culture: viruses that killed cells quickly

  8. Recombinant capripoxvirus expressing the hemagglutinin protein gene of rinderpest virus: protection of cattle against rinderpest and lumpy skin disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Romero, C H; Barrett, T; Chamberlain, R W; Kitching, R P; Fleming, M; Black, D N

    1994-10-01

    A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence of the hemagglutinin (H) protein gene of the RBOK vaccine strain of rinderpest virus, under the control of the vaccinia late promoter p11, was inserted by homologous recombination into the thymidine kinase gene of the KS-1 strain of capripoxvirus. The recombinant virus produced authentic H protein as judged by its electrophoretic mobility, transport to the cell surface of infected lamb testis cells, and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies specific for the H protein of rinderpest virus. The recombinant virus induced significant levels of rinderpest virus neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated cattle and protected them from clinical rinderpest after challenge with a lethal dose of a highly virulent heterologous strain of the virus. Protection was achieved using vaccine doses lower than those used with a similar recombinant expressing the fusion protein gene of rinderpest. The parental KS-1 virus is widely used as a vaccine against capripox viruses and so the rinderpest recombinant acts as a dual vaccine to protect cattle against both rinderpest and lumpy skin disease.

  9. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector.

  10. Implications of Ebola virus disease on wildlife conservation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Sonibare, Adekayode Olanrewaju; Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Jayeola, Omotola Abiola; Otesile, Ebenezer Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in some West African countries spanning from late 2013 and currently on as of 13th March, 2015 is the most widespread and fatal with human mortality that has surpassed all previous outbreaks. The outbreak has had its toll on conservation of endangered species. This portends danger for the wild fauna of the country if proactive measures are not taken to prepare grounds for evidence-based assertions concerning the involvement of wild species. To this end, there is an urgent need for sweeping census of reserves, national parks and wetlands. As well as the creation of a system involving reportage by sectors like the industries (extractive and construction) including persons and organisations involved with wildlife related activities. This documentation of die offs and unusual events to collaborating institutions, will help in monitoring trends which hitherto would have gone unnoticed. The importance of bats and primates in agriculture and public health via consumption of vermin insects and seed dispersal cannot be over-emphasized. There is the need for caution on the tendencies to destroy indicator species which could be silent pointers to emerging or re-emerging health and environmental issues. Wildlife resources are still reliably useful and caution is advised in the use of blanket destructive policies like fumigation of caves, indiscriminate culling and poisoned baits to destroy supposedly Ebola Disease Virus wildlife reservoirs. This paper highlights the immediate conservation problems and likely future implications of Ebola saga in Nigeria. It tries to identify the gaps in wildlife researches and makes recommendations for probable workable conservation strategies.

  11. Longitudinal study of viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J; Brooks, Harriet W; Brownlie, Joe

    2004-10-01

    In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs.

  12. Implications of Ebola virus disease on wildlife conservation in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Egbetade, Adeniyi Olugbenga; Sonibare, Adekayode Olanrewaju; Meseko, Clement Adebajo; Jayeola, Omotola Abiola; Otesile, Ebenezer Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    The recent Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in some West African countries spanning from late 2013 and currently on as of 13th March, 2015 is the most widespread and fatal with human mortality that has surpassed all previous outbreaks. The outbreak has had its toll on conservation of endangered species. This portends danger for the wild fauna of the country if proactive measures are not taken to prepare grounds for evidence- based assertions concerning the involvement of wild species. To this end, there is an urgent need for sweeping census of reserves, national parks and wetlands. As well as the creation of a system involving reportage by sectors like the industries (extractive and construction) including persons and organisations involved with wildlife related activities. This documentation of die offs and unusual events to collaborating institutions, will help in monitoring trends which hitherto would have gone unnoticed. The importance of bats and primates in agriculture and public health via consumption of vermin insects and seed dispersal cannot be over-emphasized. There is the need for caution on the tendencies to destroy indicator species which could be silent pointers to emerging or remerging health and environmental issues. Wildlife resources are still reliably useful and caution is advised in the use of blanket destructive policies like fumigation of caves, indiscriminate culling and poisoned baits to destroy supposedly Ebola Disease Virus wildlife reservoirs. This paper highlights the immediate conservation problems and likely future implications of Ebola saga in Nigeria. It tries to identify the gaps in wildlife researches and makes recommendations for probable workable conservation strategies. PMID:26740844

  13. Longitudinal Study of Viruses Associated with Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs. PMID:15472304

  14. Serum Biochemistry of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus-Infected Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Oğuzhan; Doğan, Müge; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2016-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease is an economically important poxvirus disease of cattle. Vaccination is the main method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. This study was carried out to determine the changes in serum biochemical values of cattle naturally infected with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). For this study, blood samples in EDTA, serum samples, and nodular skin lesions were obtained from clinically infected animals (n = 15) whereas blood samples in EDTA and serum samples were collected from healthy animals (n = 15). A quantitative real-time PCR method was used to detect Capripoxvirus (CaPV) DNA in clinical samples. A real-time PCR high-resolution melt assay was performed to genotype CaPVs. Serum cardiac, hepatic, and renal damage markers and lipid metabolism products were measured by autoanalyzer. LSDV nucleic acid was detected in all samples which were obtained from clinically infected cattle. The results of serum biochemical analysis showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and creatinine concentrations were markedly increased in serum from infected animals. However, there were no significant differences in the other biochemical parameters evaluated. The results of the current study suggest that liver and kidney failures occur during LSDV infection. These findings may help in developing effective treatment strategies in LSDV infection. PMID:27294125

  15. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Marburg virus disease in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, David M.; Golding, Nick; Mylne, Adrian; Huang, Zhi; Weiss, Daniel J.; Brady, Oliver J.; Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Marburg virus disease (MVD) describes a viral haemorrhagic fever responsible for a number of outbreaks across eastern and southern Africa. It is a zoonotic disease, with the Egyptian rousette (Rousettus aegyptiacus) identified as a reservoir host. Infection is suspected to result from contact between this reservoir and human populations, with occasional secondary human-to-human transmission. Methods Index cases of previous human outbreaks were identified and reports of infection in animals recorded. These data were modelled within a species distribution modelling framework in order to generate a probabilistic surface of zoonotic transmission potential of MVD across sub-Saharan Africa. Results Areas suitable for zoonotic transmission of MVD are predicted in 27 countries inhabited by 105 million people. Regions are suggested for exploratory surveys to better characterise the geographical distribution of the disease, as well as for directing efforts to communicate the risk of practices enhancing zoonotic contact. Conclusions These maps can inform future contingency and preparedness strategies for MVD control, especially where secondary transmission is a risk. Coupling this risk map with patient travel histories could be used to guide the differential diagnosis of highly transmissible pathogens, enabling more rapid response to outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever. PMID:25820266

  16. Serum Biochemistry of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus-Infected Cattle.

    PubMed

    Şevik, Murat; Avci, Oğuzhan; Doğan, Müge; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2016-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease is an economically important poxvirus disease of cattle. Vaccination is the main method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. This study was carried out to determine the changes in serum biochemical values of cattle naturally infected with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). For this study, blood samples in EDTA, serum samples, and nodular skin lesions were obtained from clinically infected animals (n = 15) whereas blood samples in EDTA and serum samples were collected from healthy animals (n = 15). A quantitative real-time PCR method was used to detect Capripoxvirus (CaPV) DNA in clinical samples. A real-time PCR high-resolution melt assay was performed to genotype CaPVs. Serum cardiac, hepatic, and renal damage markers and lipid metabolism products were measured by autoanalyzer. LSDV nucleic acid was detected in all samples which were obtained from clinically infected cattle. The results of serum biochemical analysis showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and creatinine concentrations were markedly increased in serum from infected animals. However, there were no significant differences in the other biochemical parameters evaluated. The results of the current study suggest that liver and kidney failures occur during LSDV infection. These findings may help in developing effective treatment strategies in LSDV infection.

  17. Unusual resistance to ionizing radiation of the viruses of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Latarjet, R

    1978-12-01

    The titers of several preparations of kuru. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and scrapie viruses were reduced by only 1/10th or less by high doses of gamma radiation of 50 kGy and by only 1/10th-1/1000th or less for 200 kGy. This unusual radiation resistance of the two human viruses further links them with the scrapie virus and suggests that the genetic information of all three viruses is considerably smaller than that of any other known viruses of mammals.

  18. Unusual resistance to ionizing radiation of the viruses of kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie.

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Latarjet, R

    1978-01-01

    The titers of several preparations of kuru. Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, and scrapie viruses were reduced by only 1/10th or less by high doses of gamma radiation of 50 kGy and by only 1/10th-1/1000th or less for 200 kGy. This unusual radiation resistance of the two human viruses further links them with the scrapie virus and suggests that the genetic information of all three viruses is considerably smaller than that of any other known viruses of mammals. PMID:104301

  19. Generation, characterization, and application in serodiagnosis of recombinant swine vesicular disease virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wanhong; Goolia, Melissa; Salo, Tim; Zhang, Zhidong; Yang, Ming

    2017-08-31

    Swine vesicular disease (SVD) is a highly contagious viral disease that causes vesicular disease in pigs. The importance of the disease is due to its indistinguishable clinical signs from those of foot-and-mouth disease, which prevents international trade of swine and related products. SVD-specific antibody detection via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most versatile and commonly used method for SVD surveillance and export certification. Inactivated SVD virus is the commonly used antigen in SVD-related ELISA. A recombinant SVD virus-like particle (VLP) was generated by using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. Results of SVD-VLP analyses from electron microscopy, western blotting, immunofluorescent assay, and mass spectrometry showed that the recombinant SVD-VLP morphologically resemble authentic SVD viruses. The SVD-VLP was evaluated as a replacement for inactivated whole SVD virus in competitive and isotype-specific ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against SVD virus. The recombinant SVD-VLP assay produced results similar to those from inactivated whole virus antigen ELISA. The VLP-based ELISA results were comparable to those from the virus neutralization test for antibody detection in pigs experimentally inoculated with SVD virus. Use of the recombinant SVD-VLP is a safe and valuable alternative to using SVD virus antigen in diagnostic assays.

  20. Protective efficacy of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minmin; Ge, Jinying; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Weiye; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Bu, Zhigao

    2016-02-24

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was constructed and its pathogenicity and immune protective efficacy in mouse were evaluated. In pathogenicity evaluation test, the analysis of the viral distribution in mouse organs and body weight change showed that rL-VSV-G was safe in mice. In immune protection assay, the recombinant rL-VSV-G triggered a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against VSV. After challenge, the wild-type (wt) VSV viral load in mouse organs was lower in rL-VSV-G group than that in rLaSota groups. wt VSV was not detected in the blood, liver, or kidneys of mice, whereas it was found in these tissues in control groups. The mice body weight had no significant change after challenge in the rL-VSV-G group. Additionally, suckling mice produced from female mice immunized with rL-VSV-G were partially protected from wt VSV challenge. These results demonstrated that rL-VSV-G may be a suitable candidate vaccine against vesicular stomatitis (VS).

  1. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adokiya, Martin N; Awoonor-Williams, John K

    2016-01-01

    The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public health issue. Thus, disease surveillance

  2. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adokiya, Martin N.; Awoonor-Williams, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. Design This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. Results In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. Conclusion EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public

  3. Properties of a virus causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea L. in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, T A; Taiwo, M A; Thottappilly, G A; Shoyinka, S A; Proll, E; Rabenstein, F

    1998-06-01

    A sap transmissible virus, causing mosaic and leaf curl disease of Celosia argentea, was isolated at vegetable farms in Amuwo Odofin, Tejuoso, and Abule Ado, Lagos, Nigeria. The virus had a restricted host range confined to a few species of the Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Solanaceae families. It failed to infect several other species of the Aizoaceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Tiliaceae families. The virus was transmitted in a non-persistent manner by Aphis spiraecola and Toxoptera citricidus but not by eight other aphid species tested. There was no evidence of transmission by seeds of C. argentae varieties. The viral coat protein had a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of about 30.2 K. Electron microscopy of purified virus preparations revealed flexuous rod shaped particles of about 750 nm in length. Serological studies were performed using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and Western blot analysis. The virus reacted positively with an universal potyvirus group monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and MoAb P-3-3H8 raised against peanut stripe potyvirus. It also reacted with polyclonal antibodies raised against several potyviruses including asparagus virus-1 (AV-1), turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV-2), plum pox virus (PPV), soybean mosaic virus (SoyMV), lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and beet mosaic virus (BMV) in at least one of the serological assays used. On the basis of host range, mode of transmission, and available literature data, the celosia virus seems to be different from potyviruses previously reported to infect vegetables in Nigeria. The name celosia mosaic virus (CIMV) has been proposed for this virus.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique (2011-2016).

    PubMed

    Mapaco, Lourenço P; Monjane, Iolanda V A; Nhamusso, Antonieta E; Viljoen, Gerrit J; Dundon, William G; Achá, Sara J

    2016-10-01

    The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from 11 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all 11 isolates was (112)RRRKRF(117) indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994, 1995 and 2005. The identification of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique.

  5. Diagnostic evaluation of a multiplexed RT-PCR microsphere array assay for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus and look-alike disease viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Hindson, B J; Reid, S M; Baker, B R; Ebert, K; Ferris, N P; Bentley Tammero, L F; Lenhoff, R J; Naraghi-Arani, P; Vitalis, E A; Slezak, T R; Hullinger, P J; King, D P

    2007-07-26

    A high-throughput multiplexed assay was developed for the differential laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from viruses which cause clinically similar diseases of livestock. This assay simultaneously screens for five RNA and two DNA viruses using multiplexed reverse transcription PCR (mRT-PCR) amplification coupled with a microsphere hybridization array and flow-cytometric detection. Two of the seventeen primer-probe sets included in this multiplex assay were adopted from previously characterized real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays for FMDV. The diagnostic accuracy of the mRT-PCR was evaluated using 287 field samples, including 248 (true positive n= 213, true negative n=34) from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease collected from 65 countries between 1965 and 2006 and 39 true negative samples collected from healthy animals. The mRT-PCR assay results were compared with two singleplex rRT-PCR assays, using virus isolation with antigen-ELISA as the reference method. The diagnostic sensitivity of the mRT-PCR assay for FMDV was 93.9% [95% C.I. 89.8-96.4%], compared to 98.1% [95% C.I. 95.3-99.3%] for the two singleplex rRT-PCR assays used in combination. In addition, the assay could reliably differentiate between FMDV and other vesicular viruses such as swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Interestingly, the mRT-PCR detected parapoxvirus (n=2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (n=2) in clinical samples, demonstrating the screening potential of this mRT-PCR assay to identify viruses in FMDV-negative material not previously recognized using focused single-target rRT-PCR assays.

  6. Effects of chicken anemia virus and infectious bursal disease virus in commercial chickens.

    PubMed

    Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C

    2009-03-01

    The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.

  7. Advances in plant virus evolution: translating evolutionary insights into better disease management.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Leal, R; Duffy, S; Xiong, Z; Hammond, R W; Elena, S F

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies in plant virus evolution are revealing that genetic structure and behavior of virus and viroid populations can explain important pathogenic properties of these agents, such as host resistance breakdown, disease severity, and host shifting, among others. Genetic variation is essential for the survival of organisms. The exploration of how these subcellular parasites generate and maintain a certain frequency of mutations at the intra- and inter-host levels is revealing novel molecular virus-plant interactions. They emphasize the role of host environment in the dynamic genetic composition of virus populations. Functional genomics has identified host factors that are transcriptionally altered after virus infections. The analyses of these data by means of systems biology approaches are uncovering critical plant genes specifically targeted by viruses during host adaptation. Also, a next-generation resequencing approach of a whole virus genome is opening new avenues to study virus recombination and the relationships between intra-host virus composition and pathogenesis. Altogether, the analyzed data indicate that systematic disruption of some specific parameters of evolving virus populations could lead to more efficient ways of disease prevention, eradication, or tolerable virus-plant coexistence.

  8. Role of virus-encoded microRNAs in Avian viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal

    2014-03-21

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek's disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek's disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs), duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs) and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs). Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek's disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR) miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases.

  9. Role of Virus-Encoded microRNAs in Avian Viral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal

    2014-01-01

    With total dependence on the host cell, several viruses have adopted strategies to modulate the host cellular environment, including the modulation of microRNA (miRNA) pathway through virus-encoded miRNAs. Several avian viruses, mostly herpesviruses, have been shown to encode a number of novel miRNAs. These include the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus-1 (26 miRNAs), avirulent Marek’s disease virus-2 (36 miRNAs), herpesvirus of turkeys (28 miRNAs), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (10 miRNAs), duck enteritis virus (33 miRNAs) and avian leukosis virus (2 miRNAs). Despite the closer antigenic and phylogenetic relationship among some of the herpesviruses, miRNAs encoded by different viruses showed no sequence conservation, although locations of some of the miRNAs were conserved within the repeat regions of the genomes. However, some of the virus-encoded miRNAs showed significant sequence homology with host miRNAs demonstrating their ability to serve as functional orthologs. For example, mdv1-miR-M4-5p, a functional ortholog of gga-miR-155, is critical for the oncogenicity of Marek’s disease virus. Additionally, we also describe the potential association of the recently described avian leukosis virus subgroup J encoded E (XSR) miRNA in the induction of myeloid tumors in certain genetically-distinct chicken lines. In this review, we describe the advances in our understanding on the role of virus-encoded miRNAs in avian diseases. PMID:24662606

  10. [Role of hepatitis A and E viruses in the development of autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Iakimchuk, K S; Malinnikova, E Iu; Poleshchuk, V F; Mikhaĭlov, M I

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of development of autoimmune diseases may be associated with a complex of genetic, immune, hormonal, and infectious factors. Autoimmune diseases include a wide range of systemic and organ-specific diseases, including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). It is currently assumed that the pathogenesis of AIH is due to compromised immune regulation in the presence of an exogenous triggering factor. Exogenous factors, such as viruses, may be triggers of AIH. There may be different ways of initiating an autoimmune response by viruses, which includes nonspecific T-lymphocyte activation and molecular mimicry. There is much evidence supporting the initiating role of hepatitis viruses in the development of AIH and other autoimmune diseases. The development of AIH symptoms during hepatitis A and E virus infections has been described elsewhere. The creation of animal models of viral hepatitis is required to confirm the hypothesis that the viruses trigger the development of AIH and other autoimmune manifestations.

  11. Identification and Genomic Characterization of a New Virus (Tymoviridae Family) Associated with Citrus Sudden Death Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maccheroni, Walter; Alegria, Marcos C.; Greggio, Christian C.; Piazza, João Paulo; Kamla, Rachel F.; Zacharias, Paula R. A.; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Assumpção, Laura C.; Camarotte, Giovana; Cardozo, Jussara; Casagrande, Elaine C.; Ferrari, Fernanda; Franco, Sulamita F.; Giachetto, Poliana F.; Girasol, Alessandra; Jordão, Hamilton; Silva, Vitor H. A.; Souza, Leonardo C. A.; Aguilar-Vildoso, Carlos I.; Zanca, Almir S.; Arruda, Paulo; Kitajima, João Paulo; Reinach, Fernando C.; Ferro, Jesus A.; da Silva, Ana C. R.

    2005-01-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a new disease that has killed approximately 1 million orange trees in Brazil. Here we report the identification of a new virus associated with the disease. RNAs isolated from CSD-affected and nonaffected trees were used to construct cDNA libraries. A set of viral sequences present exclusively in libraries of CSD-affected trees was used to obtain the complete genome sequence of the new virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus is a new member of the genus Marafivirus. Antibodies raised against the putative viral coat proteins allowed detection of viral antigens of expected sizes in affected plants. Electron microscopy of purified virus confirmed the presence of typical isometric Marafivirus particles. The screening of 773 affected and nonaffected citrus trees for the presence of the virus showed a 99.7% correlation between disease symptoms and the presence of the virus. We also detected the virus in aphids feeding on affected trees. These results suggest that this virus is likely to be the causative agent of CSD. The virus was named Citrus sudden death-associated virus. PMID:15709023

  12. Identification and genomic characterization of a new virus (Tymoviridae family) associated with citrus sudden death disease.

    PubMed

    Maccheroni, Walter; Alegria, Marcos C; Greggio, Christian C; Piazza, João Paulo; Kamla, Rachel F; Zacharias, Paula R A; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Kitajima, Elliot W; Assumpção, Laura C; Camarotte, Giovana; Cardozo, Jussara; Casagrande, Elaine C; Ferrari, Fernanda; Franco, Sulamita F; Giachetto, Poliana F; Girasol, Alessandra; Jordão, Hamilton; Silva, Vitor H A; Souza, Leonardo C A; Aguilar-Vildoso, Carlos I; Zanca, Almir S; Arruda, Paulo; Kitajima, João Paulo; Reinach, Fernando C; Ferro, Jesus A; da Silva, Ana C R

    2005-03-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a new disease that has killed approximately 1 million orange trees in Brazil. Here we report the identification of a new virus associated with the disease. RNAs isolated from CSD-affected and nonaffected trees were used to construct cDNA libraries. A set of viral sequences present exclusively in libraries of CSD-affected trees was used to obtain the complete genome sequence of the new virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus is a new member of the genus Marafivirus. Antibodies raised against the putative viral coat proteins allowed detection of viral antigens of expected sizes in affected plants. Electron microscopy of purified virus confirmed the presence of typical isometric Marafivirus particles. The screening of 773 affected and nonaffected citrus trees for the presence of the virus showed a 99.7% correlation between disease symptoms and the presence of the virus. We also detected the virus in aphids feeding on affected trees. These results suggest that this virus is likely to be the causative agent of CSD. The virus was named Citrus sudden death-associated virus.

  13. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... which cause borna disease , an infectious neurological syndrome Mycoplasma, a cause of atypical pneumonia Ross River virus, ... patients and in persons with related disorders like fibromyalgia. Cortisol suppresses inflammation and cellular immune activation, and ...

  14. Comparative proteome analysis of tracheal tissues in response to infectious bronchitis coronavirus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian influenza virus H9 subtype virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junfeng; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Cao, Zhongzan; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2014-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 subtype are major pathogens of chickens causing serious respiratory tract disease and heavy economic losses. To better understand the replication features of these viruses in their target organs and molecular pathogenesis of these different viruses, comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome changes of primary target organ during IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 infections, using 2D-DIGE followed MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. In total, 44, 39, 41, 48, and 38 proteins were identified in the tracheal tissues of the chickens inoculated with IBV (ck/CH/LDL/97I, H120), NDV (La Sota), and AIV H9, and between ck/CH/LDL/97I and H120, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 induced similar core host responses involved in biosynthetic, catabolic, metabolic, signal transduction, transport, cytoskeleton organization, macromolecular complex assembly, cell death, response to stress, and immune system process. Comparative analysis of host response induced by different viruses indicated differences in protein expression changes induced by IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 may be responsible for the specific pathogenesis of these different viruses. Our result reveals specific host response to IBV, NDV, and AIVH9 infections and provides insights into the distinct pathogenic mechanisms of these avian respiratory viruses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Incidence of Alpha-Herpes virus induced ocular disease in Suriname.

    PubMed

    Adhin, Malti R; Grunberg, Meritha G; Labadie-Bracho, Mergiory; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel

    2012-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the corneal stroma is the most prominent cause of scar formation impairing visual acuity and HSV keratitis is the leading cause of corneal opacity throughout the world. Suriname lacked test systems for microbial causes of ocular disease, therefore a polymerase chain reaction-based Herpes virus assay was introduced, enabling prompt recognition, and timely treatment, preventing progressive eye damage. The incidence and epidemiology of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in ocular disease in Suriname was assessed. In a cross-sectional prospective study, ocular swabs were collected from 91 patients with a presumptive α-Herpes virus ocular infection attending the Academic Hospital between November 2008 and August 2010 and were tested by a PCR-based α-Herpes virus assay. Alpha-Herpes virus ophthalmic infections were caused predominantly by HSV-1 with a prevalence of 31%. The prevalences of VZV, HSV-2, and a mixed HSV-1/HSV-2 infection were 4%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. The first reported annual incidence of herpetic induced ocular disease in Suriname was estimated at 11.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 4.8-18.1). No clear age, ethnic or gender dependent difference in incidence was observed. The information obtained on α-Herpes virus positive ocular infections and the distribution of subtypes provided the first insight in the South American situation of α-Herpes virus induced ocular disease.

  16. High Rates of Detection of Respiratory Viruses in Tonsillar Tissues from Children with Chronic Adenotonsillar Disease

    PubMed Central

    Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Pereira Valera, Fabiana Cardoso; Jacob, Marcos Gerhardinger; Buzatto, Guilherme Pietrucci; Saturno, Tamara Honorato; Lopes, Lucia; Souza, Jamila Mendonça; Paula, Flavia Escremim; Silva, Maria Lucia; Carenzi, Lucas Rodrigues; Tamashiro, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR) in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05), and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05) in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:22870291

  17. High rates of detection of respiratory viruses in tonsillar tissues from children with chronic adenotonsillar disease.

    PubMed

    Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Pereira Valera, Fabiana Cardoso; Jacob, Marcos Gerhardinger; Buzatto, Guilherme Pietrucci; Saturno, Tamara Honorato; Lopes, Lucia; Souza, Jamila Mendonça; Escremim Paula, Flavia; Silva, Maria Lucia; Carenzi, Lucas Rodrigues; Tamashiro, Edwin; Arruda, Eurico; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2012-01-01

    Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR) in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05), and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05) in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  18. Primordial Prevention: Promoting Preparedness for Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Meena; Sharma, Ankur; Arora, Kapil; Khari, Puneet Mohan; Jain, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Background: India may face a danger of immediate spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) if it enters the subcontinent. Preparedness for such a condition is a part of its prevention. Dentists form a sizeable chunk of healthcare in India and may help in augmenting the health care team at the time of such outbreaks. This paper details the development and evaluation of a specially tailored program for dental students and faculty for imparting knowledge on EVD and its prevention strategies. Aim: To assess the knowledge score for EVD and its prevention after attending a specially tailored program. Materials and Methods: A multidisciplinary team was selected for content development and providing an insight on the topic. The program was attended by students and faculty members of Manav Rachna Dental College. The knowledge of the attendees about EVD was assessed at the end of the program through a structured questionnaire. The response rate was 96%. Result: According to the knowledge score attained, 52.4% of the participant had good knowledge level and 2.8% had poor knowledge level. There was no significant difference in knowledge scores between the participants having prior knowledge and those having no previous knowledge about the disease (p = 0.135). Conclusion: High response rate and good knowledge level attained by most of the participants established evidence of a successful program. PMID:25954650

  19. Hepatitis B virus infection in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Permin, H; Aldershvile, J; Nielsen, J O

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with different rheumatic diseases were investigated for serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An increased prevalence of anti-HBs was found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The total prevalence of HBV markers in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis, juvenile and adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis was not significantly different from age-matched controls. Remarkably, 6 patients were HBsAg-positive of whom 3 had RA (4%). Two patients with RA were "healthy' HBsAg carriers. The third patient had circulating HBeAg as well and had shown progression from acute hepatitis to cirrhosis during the time of observation. Three of 18 patients with polyarteritis nodosa were HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive, and all 3 were young men. Clinical improvement was seen in one of these patients and was associated with seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe. Our data do not support the theory that HBV is an aetiological factor in rheumatic diseases except in some cases of polyarteritis nodosa. PMID:6127059

  20. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ali, Muhammad; Abbas, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Umer Naveed; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Since the first report of infectious bursal disease in Pakistan in 1987, outbreaks have been common even in vaccinated flocks. Despite appropriate administration of vaccines, concerns arise if the circulating strains are different from the ones used in the vaccine. Here, we sequenced the hypervariable region (HVR) of the VP2 gene of circulating strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) originating from outbreaks (n = 4) in broiler flocks in Pakistan. Nucleotide sequencing followed by phylogeny and deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed the circulating strains to be very virulent (vv) and identified characteristic residues at position 222 (A), 242 (I), 256 (I), 294 (I) and 299 (S). In addition, a substitution at positions 221 (Q→H) was found to be exclusive to Pakistani strains in our analysis, although a larger dataset is required to confirm this finding. Compared to vaccine strains that are commonly used in Pakistan, substitution mutations were found at key amino acid positions in VP2 that may be responsible for potential changes in neutralization epitopes and vaccine failure.

  1. [The wanderings of the communication on the Ebola virus disease].

    PubMed

    Seytre, B

    2016-10-01

    For two reasons, communication is one of the major tools in the fight against any Ebola epidemics. Firstly, because Ebola is one of the most easily preventable of all infectious diseases and the thorough application of health-protection measures by the community of the sick persons is the best tool to fight any Ebola epidemic. Secondly, because during the two dozens of known Ebola epidemics health care workers have often met with people's skepticism, or even hostility. However, our review of Ebola communication, as defined by WHO since 2013, shows that it has been marked by a series of errors, as well from a strategic perspective as in its concrete deployment. The same communication messages and tools have been used in non-epidemic and epidemic countries. A general ban on hunting has been promoted, while only 2% of sub-Saharan Africans live in areas inhabited by the bats that are the reservoir of the Ebola virus and while it is not proven that hunting is a major risk of infection. Erroneous or inappropriate messages have contributed to doubts and created anxiety. To be effective, Ebola communication should be based on education about the disease, meaning explanation of its cause, its transmission and its prevention.

  2. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in Argentina: Burden of chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge R; Estes, Chris; Gadano, Adrián C; Razavi, Homie; Villamil, Federico G; Silva, Marcelo O

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the progression of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic and measure the burden of HCV-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Age- and gender-defined cohorts were used to follow the viremic population in Argentina and estimate HCV incidence, prevalence, hepatic complications, and mortality. The relative impact of two scenarios on HCV-related outcomes was assessed: (1) increased sustained virologic response (SVR); and (2) increased SVR and treatment. RESULTS: Under scenario 1, SVR raised to 85%-95% in 2016. Compared to the base case scenario, there was a 0.3% reduction in prevalent cases and liver-related deaths by 2030. Given low treatment rates, cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis decreased < 1%, in contrast to the base case in 2030. Under scenario 2, the same increases in SVR were modeled, with gradual increases in the annual diagnosed and treated populations. This scenario decreased prevalent infections 45%, liver-related deaths 55%, liver cancer cases 60%, and decompensated cirrhosis 55%, as compared to the base case by 2030. CONCLUSION: In Argentina, cases of end stage liver disease and liver-related deaths due to HCV are still growing, while its prevalence is decreasing. Increasing in SVR rates is not enough, and increasing in the number of patients diagnosed and candidates for treatment is needed to reduce the HCV disease burden. Based on this scenario, strategies to increase diagnosis and treatment uptake must be developed to reduce HCV burden in Argentina. PMID:27239258

  4. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and other forms of JC virus disease.

    PubMed

    Brew, Bruce J; Davies, Nicholas W S; Cinque, Paola; Clifford, David B; Nath, Avindra

    2010-12-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by the JC virus (JCV). PML usually occurs via reactivation of JCV when an immune system becomes compromised. A diagnosis of PML is normally made on the basis of distinguishing neurological features at presentation, characteristic brain MRI changes and the presence of JCV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid. PML has a 3 month mortality rate of 20-50%, so prompt intervention is essential. Currently, reconstitution of the immune system affords the best prognosis for this condition. When PML is first suspected, and where possible, immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory therapy should be suspended or reduced. If PML is associated with a protein therapy that has a long half-life the use of plasma exchange to accelerate the removal of the drug from the circulation may aid the restoration of immune system function. Rapid improvements in immune function, however, might lead to transient worsening of the disease. In this Review, we critically appraise the controversies surrounding JCV infection, and provide practical management guidelines for PML.

  5. Alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Chamorro, Antonio-Javier; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Laso, Francisco-Javier; Marcos, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a synergic hepatotoxic effect, and the coexistence of these factors increases the risk of advanced liver disease. The main mechanisms of this effect are increased viral replication and altered immune response, although genetic predisposition may also play an important role. Traditionally, HCV prevalence has been considered to be higher (up to 50%) in alcoholic patients than in the general population. However, the presence of advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or intravenous drug use (IDU) may have confounded the results of previous studies, and the real prevalence of HCV infection in alcoholic patients without ALD or prior IDU has been shown to be lower. Due to the toxic combined effect of HCV and alcohol, patients with HCV infection should be screened for excessive ethanol intake. Patients starting treatment for HCV infection should be specifically advised to stop or reduce alcohol consumption because of its potential impact on treatment efficacy and adherence and may benefit from additional support during antiviral therapy. This recommendation might be extended to all currently recommended drugs for HCV treatment. Patients with alcohol dependence and HCV infection, can be treated with acamprosate, nalmefene, topiramate, and disulfiram, although baclofen is the only drug specifically tested for this purpose in patients with ALD and/or HCV infection. PMID:26819510

  6. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse. PMID:18050794

  7. [Virus diseases in patients returning from the tropics].

    PubMed

    Hufert, F T; Schmitz, H

    1994-08-01

    The high density of populations and insufficient sanitary conditions increases the risk to acquire viral diseases in tropical areas. This holds true for ubiquitous as well as for regional viral infections. Hepatitis and AIDS are found worldwide, but play a dominant role in tropical areas. Classical tropical viral infections are zoonoses. They are primarily infections of nonhuman vertebrates (e.g. rodents) and of arthropod vectors and can be transmitted to man. According to the clinical outcome these viral infections can be divided into three groups: influenza-like disease with arthralgia, encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers. The majority of infections belong to the first group, followed by encephalitis cases. Viral hemorrhagic fevers are rare in visitors of tropical areas. Antibody detection is the method of choice in the diagnosis of tropical viral infections. In special situations (e.g. Lassa fever) the direct detection of the virus by PCR can be helpful. Tests for the detection of arboviruses, filoviruses and arenaviruses are only performed at a few centers worldwide.

  8. Alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Alvela-Suárez, Lucía; Chamorro, Antonio-Javier; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Laso, Francisco-Javier; Marcos, Miguel

    2016-01-28

    Alcohol consumption and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have a synergic hepatotoxic effect, and the coexistence of these factors increases the risk of advanced liver disease. The main mechanisms of this effect are increased viral replication and altered immune response, although genetic predisposition may also play an important role. Traditionally, HCV prevalence has been considered to be higher (up to 50%) in alcoholic patients than in the general population. However, the presence of advanced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or intravenous drug use (IDU) may have confounded the results of previous studies, and the real prevalence of HCV infection in alcoholic patients without ALD or prior IDU has been shown to be lower. Due to the toxic combined effect of HCV and alcohol, patients with HCV infection should be screened for excessive ethanol intake. Patients starting treatment for HCV infection should be specifically advised to stop or reduce alcohol consumption because of its potential impact on treatment efficacy and adherence and may benefit from additional support during antiviral therapy. This recommendation might be extended to all currently recommended drugs for HCV treatment. Patients with alcohol dependence and HCV infection, can be treated with acamprosate, nalmefene, topiramate, and disulfiram, although baclofen is the only drug specifically tested for this purpose in patients with ALD and/or HCV infection.

  9. Transcriptome variation in response to Marek’s disease virus acute infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease (MD) is an economically significant chicken disease that affects the poultry industry worldwide with estimated annual cost of $2 billion [Morrow and Fehler, 2004]. The disease is caused by the highly oncogenic Marek’s disease virus (MDV), an alphaherpesvirus that induces T-cell lymph...

  10. Pathological and phylogenetic characterization of Newcastle disease viruses from Israel and Pakistan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry worldwide caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). New strains of NDV frequently emerge, creating challenges for disease control. Since 2012, NDV strains of new genotype VIIi have been reported in Israel and Pakistan, b...

  11. Viraemia and Ebola virus secretion in survivors of Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Green, Edward; Hunt, Luke; Ross, J C Gareth; Nissen, Nina Marie; Curran, Tanya; Badhan, Anjna; Sutherland, Katherine A; Richards, Jade; Lee, James S; Allen, Samuel H; Laird, Steven; Blackman, Mandy; Collacott, Ian; Parker, Paul A; Walbridge, Andrew; Phillips, Rebecca; Sellu, Sia Jammie; Dama, Agnes; Sheriff, Alpha Karim; Zombo, Joseph; Ngegba, Doris; Wurie, Alieh H; Checchi, Francesco; Brooks, Timothy J

    2016-09-01

    In survivors of Ebola virus disease, clinical sequelae including uveitis, arthralgia, and fatigue are common and necessitate systematic follow-up. However, the infection risk to health-care providers is poorly defined. Here we report Ebola virus RT-PCR data for body site and fluid samples from a large cohort of Ebola virus survivors at clinic follow-up. In this cross-sectional cohort study, consecutive survivors of Ebola virus disease attending Kerry Town survivor clinic (Freetown, Sierra Leone), who had been discharged from the Kerry Town Ebola treatment unit, were invited to participate. We collected and tested axillary, blood, conjunctival, forehead, mouth, rectal, semen, urine, and vaginal specimens for presence of Ebola virus using RT-PCR. We regarded samples to be positive for Ebola virus disease if the cycle threshold was 40 or lower. We collected demographic data from survivors of their age, sex, time since discharge from the treatment unit, and length of acute admission in the Ebola treatment unit using anonymised standard forms. Between April 2, and June 16, 2015, of 151 survivors of Ebola virus disease invited to participate, 112 (74%) provided consent. The median age of participants was 21·5 years (IQR 14-31·5) with 34 (30%) participants younger than 16 years. 50 (45%) of 112 participants were male. We tested a total of 555 specimens: 103 from the axilla, 93 from blood, 92 from conjunctiva, 54 from forehead, 105 from mouth, 17 from the rectum, one from semen, 69 from urine, and 21 from the vagina. The median time from Ebola treatment unit discharge to specimen collection was 142 days (IQR 127-159). 15 participants had a total of 74 swabs taken less than 100 days from discharge. The semen sample from one participant tested positive for Ebola virus at 114 days after discharge from the treatment unit; specimens taken from the axilla, blood, conjunctiva, forehead, mouth, rectum, and urine of the same participant tested negative. All specimens from the

  12. Rapid detection of Infectious bursal disease virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chunyi; Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Qingfeng; Xu, Cong; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Yongchang

    2009-11-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid identification of Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The RT-LAMP assay used a set of 4 primers to amplify the viral protein 2 gene of IBDV for the detection of IBDV, showing not only high efficiency but also analytic specificity. The data demonstrated that the RT-LAMP assay detected 30 different IBDV isolates, had no cross-reaction with 3 other avian viruses (Infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Avian influenza virus), and obtained a 95.45% sensitivity in 22 positive clinical samples in reference to virus isolation. Therefore, this rapid, specific, sensitive, and convenient RT-LAMP assay could be applicable to the identification of IBDV in less-equipped laboratories as well as in the field.

  13. Plaque Formation by Teschen Disease Virus and the Effect of Certain Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dardiri, A. H.; Delay, P. D.

    1966-01-01

    A plaque assay method was developed for Teschen disease virus using primary pig kidney cultures in which neutral red stain was incorporated in the agar overlay medium. Certain factors associated with the plaque-forming ability of the virus were standardized. Cultures allowed to adsorb the virus for 45-60 minutes at 28 and 37 C, gave maximal plaque count. The virus infected the cellular layer through the agar medium. Plating efficiency of the virus was enhanced by using a small volume of inoculum. Addition of serum to the medium was not required. Neutral red concentration in the agar overlay medium affected the number of plaques. Statistical analysis demonstrated the uniformity of the plaque counts and their linear relationship to virus concentration. Isolation of the virus by the plaque technique from infected spinal cord supernatant fluid was achieved. ImagesFig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:4224291

  14. Plaque formation by Teschen disease virus and the effect of certain associated factors.

    PubMed

    Dardiri, A H; Delay, P D

    1966-07-01

    A plaque assay method was developed for Teschen disease virus using primary pig kidney cultures in which neutral red stain was incorporated in the agar overlay medium. Certain factors associated with the plaque-forming ability of the virus were standardized. Cultures allowed to adsorb the virus for 45-60 minutes at 28 and 37 C, gave maximal plaque count. The virus infected the cellular layer through the agar medium. Plating efficiency of the virus was enhanced by using a small volume of inoculum. Addition of serum to the medium was not required. Neutral red concentration in the agar overlay medium affected the number of plaques. Statistical analysis demonstrated the uniformity of the plaque counts and their linear relationship to virus concentration. Isolation of the virus by the plaque technique from infected spinal cord supernatant fluid was achieved.

  15. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Maganga, Gaël D; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Berthet, Nicolas; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Kabange, Felix; Mbala Kingebeni, Placide; Mondonge, Vital; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques T; Bertherat, Eric; Briand, Sylvie; Cabore, Joseph; Epelboin, Alain; Formenty, Pierre; Kobinger, Gary; González-Angulo, Licé; Labouba, Ingrid; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Dye, Christopher; Leroy, Eric M

    2014-11-27

    The seventh reported outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the equatorial African country of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) began on July 26, 2014, as another large EVD epidemic continued to spread in West Africa. Simultaneous reports of EVD in equatorial and West Africa raised the question of whether the two outbreaks were linked. We obtained data from patients in the DRC, using the standard World Health Organization clinical-investigation form for viral hemorrhagic fevers. Patients were classified as having suspected, probable, or confirmed EVD or a non-EVD illness. Blood samples were obtained for polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnosis, viral isolation, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The outbreak began in Inkanamongo village in the vicinity of Boende town in Équateur province and has been confined to that province. A total of 69 suspected, probable, or confirmed cases were reported between July 26 and October 7, 2014, including 8 cases among health care workers, with 49 deaths. As of October 7, there have been approximately six generations of cases of EVD since the outbreak began. The reported weekly case incidence peaked in the weeks of August 17 and 24 and has since fallen sharply. Genome sequencing revealed Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire species) as the cause of this outbreak. A coding-complete genome sequence of EBOV that was isolated during this outbreak showed 99.2% identity with the most closely related variant from the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit in the DRC and 96.8% identity to EBOV variants that are currently circulating in West Africa. The current EVD outbreak in the DRC has clinical and epidemiologic characteristics that are similar to those of previous EVD outbreaks in equatorial Africa. The causal agent is a local EBOV variant, and this outbreak has a zoonotic origin different from that in the 2014 epidemic in West Africa. (Funded by the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville and others.).

  16. Tropical food legumes: virus diseases of economic importance and their control.

    PubMed

    Hema, Masarapu; Sreenivasulu, Pothur; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Kumar, P Lava; Reddy, Dodla V R

    2014-01-01

    Diverse array of food legume crops (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) have been adopted worldwide for their protein-rich seed. Choice of legumes and their importance vary in different parts of the world. The economically important legumes are severely affected by a range of virus diseases causing significant economic losses due to reduction in grain production, poor quality seed, and costs incurred in phytosanitation and disease control. The majority of the viruses infecting legumes are vectored by insects, and several of them are also seed transmitted, thus assuming importance in the quarantine and in the epidemiology. This review is focused on the economically important viruses of soybean, groundnut, common bean, cowpea, pigeonpea, mungbean, urdbean, chickpea, pea, faba bean, and lentil and begomovirus diseases of three minor tropical food legumes (hyacinth bean, horse gram, and lima bean). Aspects included are geographic distribution, impact on crop growth and yields, virus characteristics, diagnosis of causal viruses, disease epidemiology, and options for control. Effectiveness of selection and planting with virus-free seed, phytosanitation, manipulation of crop cultural and agronomic practices, control of virus vectors and host plant resistance, and potential of transgenic resistance for legume virus disease control are discussed.

  17. Identification of a New Cotton Disease Caused by an Atypical Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Delfosse, Verónica C; Casse, María F; Hopp, Horacio E; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Distéfano, Ana J

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%. The virus was subsequently transmitted to a CBD-resistant cotton variety using Aphis gossypii and symptoms were successfully reproduced. To study the persistence of the virus, we analyzed symptomatic plants from CBD-resistant varieties from different cotton-growing fields between 2013 and 2015 and showed the presence of the same virus strain. In addition, a constructed full-length infectious cDNA clone from the virus caused disease symptoms in systemic leaves of CBD-resistant cotton plants. Altogether, the new leafroll disease in CBD-resistant cotton plants is caused by an atypical cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

  18. Susceptibility of primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells for low pathogenic avian influenza virus and velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Annette; Willer, Thomas; Sid, Hicham; Petersen, Henning; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Steinberg, Pablo; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-10-02

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) share a high tropism for the avian respiratory epithelium and may cause severe clinical disease associated with high mortality. Both viruses have different pathotypes, which may lead to differences in the severity of the disease. Respiratory epithelial cells were shown to be the primary target cells for infection and replication. Nevertheless, intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were also suggested as target cells for both viruses in avian species. Most studies on AIV and NDV focused on the respiratory tract, while information regarding the virus-host interaction at the intestinal epithelial cell interface is lacking. We established a primary chicken IEC culture model. Primary chicken embryo fibroblast cultures (CEFs) were used for comparison. IECs and CEFs were infected with a low infectious dose (LID; multiplicity of infection, MOI, of 0.01) or high infectious dose (HID, MOI of 1), of low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) H9N2 or velogenic viscerotropic NDV (vvNDV) Herts 33/56. Virus replication, mRNA expression pattern of the type I and type III interferon (IFN) and related genes IFIT5 (interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5) and ISG12 (interferon stimulated gene 12) were investigated at four, 16, and 24h post infection (hpi). The results suggest high susceptibility of primary chicken IECs for these AIV and NDV strains. Replication rates and expression pattern of IFNs as well as related genes differed between the infecting viruses as well as cell culture systems. Both viruses induced an IFN λ-increase of more than 30-fold in IECs, while IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA expression was either downregulated or only slightly increased with up to 10fold changes for the latter at 24h post LPAIV-infection. These results suggest a possible role of IFN λ in the control of viruses at the gut epithelial surface. LPAIV induced upregulation of IFIT5 as well as ISG12 expression in a dose and time dependent manner

  19. A Multiplex Real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Bluetongue Virus and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Serogroups

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes disease in domestic and wild ruminants resulting in significant economic loss. The closely related Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. Although US EHDV strains have not been experimentally proven to cau...

  20. Rome consensus conference - statement; human papilloma virus diseases in males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very resistant, ubiquitous virus that can survive in the environment without a host. The decision to analyse HPV-related diseases in males was due to the broad dissemination of the virus, and, above all, by the need to stress the importance of primary and secondary prevention measures (currently available for women exclusively). The objective of the Consensus Conference was to make evidence-based recommendations that were designed to facilitate the adoption of a standard approach in clinical practice in Italy. Methods The Sponsoring Panel put a series of questions to the members of the Scientific Committee who prepared a summary of the currently available information, relevant for each question, after the review and grading of the existing scientific literature. The summaries were presented to a Jury, also called multidisciplinary Consensus Panel, who drafted a series of recommendations. Results The prevalence of HPV in males ranges between 1.3–72.9%;. The prevalence curve in males is much higher than that in females and does not tend to decline with age. Women appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV genotypes associated with a high oncogenic risk, whereas in males the probability of acquiring low- or high-risk genotypes is similar. The HPV-related diseases that affect males are anogenital warts and cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV has proved to be effective in preventing external genital lesions in males aged 16–26 years in 90.4%; (95%; CI: 69.2–98.1) of cases. It has also proved to be effective in preventing precancerous anal lesions in 77.5%; (95%; CI: 39.6–93.3) of cases in a per-protocol analysis and in 91.7%; (95%; CI: 44.6–99.8) of cases in a post-hoc analysis. Early ecological studies demonstrate reduction of genital warts in vaccinated females and some herd immunity in males when vaccine coverage is high, although males who have sex with males

  1. Rome Consensus Conference - statement; human papilloma virus diseases in males.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Andrea; Mirone, Vincenzo; Gentile, Vincenzo; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Foresta, Carlo; Mariani, Luciano; Mazzoli, Sandra; Parisi, Saverio G; Perino, Antonio; Picardo, Mauro; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2013-02-07

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very resistant, ubiquitous virus that can survive in the environment without a host. The decision to analyse HPV-related diseases in males was due to the broad dissemination of the virus, and, above all, by the need to stress the importance of primary and secondary prevention measures (currently available for women exclusively). The objective of the Consensus Conference was to make evidence-based recommendations that were designed to facilitate the adoption of a standard approach in clinical practice in Italy. The Sponsoring Panel put a series of questions to the members of the Scientific Committee who prepared a summary of the currently available information, relevant for each question, after the review and grading of the existing scientific literature. The summaries were presented to a Jury, also called multidisciplinary Consensus Panel, who drafted a series of recommendations. The prevalence of HPV in males ranges between 1.3-72.9%;. The prevalence curve in males is much higher than that in females and does not tend to decline with age. Women appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV genotypes associated with a high oncogenic risk, whereas in males the probability of acquiring low- or high-risk genotypes is similar. The HPV-related diseases that affect males are anogenital warts and cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV has proved to be effective in preventing external genital lesions in males aged 16-26 years in 90.4%; (95%; CI: 69.2-98.1) of cases. It has also proved to be effective in preventing precancerous anal lesions in 77.5%; (95%; CI: 39.6-93.3) of cases in a per-protocol analysis and in 91.7%; (95%; CI: 44.6-99.8) of cases in a post-hoc analysis. Early ecological studies demonstrate reduction of genital warts in vaccinated females and some herd immunity in males when vaccine coverage is high, although males who have sex with males gained no benefit at all. Males with

  2. Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in experimental co-infections in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E; Shepherd, Eric; Smith, Diane; Zsak, Aniko; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary

    2014-01-06

    Low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) are commonly reported causes of respiratory disease in poultry worldwide with similar clinical and pathobiological presentation. Co-infections do occur but are not easily detected, and the impact of co-infections on pathobiology is unknown. In this study chickens and turkeys were infected with a lNDV vaccine strain (LaSota) and a H7N2 LPAIV (A/turkey/VA/SEP-67/2002) simultaneously or sequentially three days apart. No clinical signs were observed in chickens co-infected with the lNDV and LPAIV or in chickens infected with the viruses individually. However, the pattern of virus shed was different with co-infected chickens, which excreted lower titers of lNDV and LPAIV at 2 and 3 days post inoculation (dpi) and higher titers at subsequent time points. All turkeys inoculated with the LPAIV, whether or not they were exposed to lNDV, presented mild clinical signs. Co-infection effects were more pronounced in turkeys than in chickens with reduction in the number of birds shedding virus and in virus titers, especially when LPAIV was followed by lNDV. In conclusion, co-infection of chickens or turkeys with lNDV and LPAIV affected the replication dynamics of these viruses but did not affect clinical signs. The effect on virus replication was different depending on the species and on the time of infection. These results suggest that infection with a heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated, which decreases with time.

  3. Epstein Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases: the virus as a therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) express all EBV latent antigens (type III latency) in immunodeficient patients and limited antigens (type I and II latencies) in immunocompetent patients. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is the prototype exhibiting type III EBV latency. Although EBV antigens are highly immunogenic, PTLD cell proliferation remains unchecked because of the underlying immunosuppression. The restoration of anti-EBV immunity by EBV-specific T cells of either autologous or allogeneic origin has been shown to be safe and effective in PTLDs. Cellular therapy can be improved by establishing a bank of human leukocyte antigen-characterized allogeneic EBV-specific T cells. In EBV+ LPDs exhibiting type I and II latencies, the use of EBV-specific T cells is more limited, although the safety and efficacy of this therapy have also been demonstrated. The therapeutic role of EBV-specific T cells in EBV+ LPDs needs to be critically reappraised with the advent of monoclonal antibodies and other targeted therapy. Another strategy involves the use of epigenetic approaches to induce EBV to undergo lytic proliferation when expression of the viral thymidine kinase renders host tumor cells susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of ganciclovir. Finally, the prophylactic use of antiviral drugs to prevent EBV reactivation may decrease the occurrence of EBV+ LPDs. PMID:25613733

  4. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia.

    PubMed

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  5. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in <80 minutes. Our results illustrate how census and household survey data, when displayed spatially at a sub-county level, may help highlight the location of the most vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere. PMID:26325519

  6. Immunogenicity of a recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (neethling vaccine strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in cattle.

    PubMed

    Aspden, Kate; van Dijk, Alberdina A; Bingham, John; Cox, Dermot; Passmore, Jo-Ann; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2002-06-21

    Rabies virus (RV) readily infects cattle and causes a fatal neurological disease. A stable vaccine, which does not require the maintenance of a cold chain and that is administered once to elicit lifelong immunity to rabies would be advantageous. The present study describes the construction of a live recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) vaccine, expressing the glycoprotein of rabies virus (RG) and assessment of its ability to generate a humoral and cellular immune response against rabies virus in cattle. Cattle inoculated with the recombinant virus (rLSDV-RG) developed humoral immunity that was demonstrated in ELISA and neutralisation assays to RV. High titres of up to 1513IU/ml of RV neutralising antibodies were induced. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from rLSDV-RG-immunised animals demonstrated the ability to proliferate in response to stimulation with inactivated RV, whereas the animal vaccinated with wild type LSDV did not. This recombinant vaccine candidate thus has the potential to be used in ruminants as a cost-effective vaccine against both lumpy skin disease (LSD) and rabies.

  7. Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationship between Bovine Rhinitis A Viruses and Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Rai, Devendra K; Lawrence, Paul; Pauszek, Steve J; Piccone, Maria E; Knowles, Nick J; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRVs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the UK in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Compared to other closely related Aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (L(pro)), P1, 2B, and 3A proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RS3X was a member of the species bovine rhinitis A virus (BRAV). Using different codon-based and branch-site selection models for Aphthoviruses, including BRAV RS3X and foot-and-mouth disease virus, we observed no clear evidence for genomic regions undergoing positive selection. However, within each of the BRV species, multiple sites under positive selection were detected. The results also suggest that the probability (determined by Recombination Detection Program) for recombination events between BRVs and other Aphthoviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus was not significant. In contrast, within BRVs, the probability of recombination increases. The data reported here provide genetic information to assist in the identification of diagnostic signatures and research tools for BRAV.

  8. Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis of the Evolutionary Relationship between Bovine Rhinitis A Viruses and Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Devendra K.; Lawrence, Paul; Pauszek, Steve J.; Piccone, Maria E.; Knowles, Nick J.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRVs) cause mild respiratory disease of cattle. In this study, a near full-length genome sequence of a virus named RS3X (formerly classified as bovine rhinovirus type 1), isolated from infected cattle from the UK in the 1960s, was obtained and analyzed. Compared to other closely related Aphthoviruses, major differences were detected in the leader protease (Lpro), P1, 2B, and 3A proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RS3X was a member of the species bovine rhinitis A virus (BRAV). Using different codon-based and branch-site selection models for Aphthoviruses, including BRAV RS3X and foot-and-mouth disease virus, we observed no clear evidence for genomic regions undergoing positive selection. However, within each of the BRV species, multiple sites under positive selection were detected. The results also suggest that the probability (determined by Recombination Detection Program) for recombination events between BRVs and other Aphthoviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus was not significant. In contrast, within BRVs, the probability of recombination increases. The data reported here provide genetic information to assist in the identification of diagnostic signatures and research tools for BRAV. PMID:27081310

  9. Chronic infection with hepatitis and herpes viruses in patients with Sjogren's disease.

    PubMed

    Yakimchuk, K S

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B, C, E, and G viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, and type 6 herpesvirus was studied in Russian and Norwegian patients with Sjogren's disease. The incidence of HBV, HCV, HEV, and HGV markers in Russian patients was higher than in donors. The incidence of serological markers of Epstein-Barr and type 6 herpesvirus was virtually the same in the patients with Sjogren's disease and donors. Epstein-Barr virus DNA was less frequently detected in patients with Sjogren's disease than in donors, as was shown by blood and salivary DNA testing.

  10. Knowledge of Ebola virus disease among a university population: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Shehzadi, Naureen; Hussain, Khalid; Saleem, Fahad; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Asif, Nauman; Yousaf, Maria; Rafique, Maham; Bedar, Rushda; Tariq, Sonia; AbuBakar, Usman; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of a Pakistani university population (students and employees) regarding Ebola virus disease. A total of 2,200 individuals were approached and 1,647 were enrolled in the study. We observed that the vast majority of study participants (91.8%) had inadequate knowledge of Ebola virus disease (knowledge score ≤ 12). Our findings highlight the need to increase the knowledge of Ebola virus disease by using multidimensional approach involving awareness campaigns, print, electronic, and social media. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of Newcastle disease and avian influenza viruses using oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Chiann; Pan, Chu-Hsiang; Severinghaus, Lucia Liu; Liu, Lu-Yuan; Chen, Chi-Tsong; Pu, Chang-En; Huang, Dean; Lir, Jihn-Tsair; Chin, Shih-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2008-03-18

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are two of the most important zoonotic viral diseases of birds throughout the world. These two viruses often have a great impact upon the poultry industry. Both viruses are associated with transmission from wild to domestic birds, and often display similar signs that need to be differentiated. A rapid surveillance among wild and domestic birds is important for early disease detection and intervention, and is the basis for what measures should be taken. The surveillance, thus, should be able to differentiate the diseases and provide a detailed analysis of the virus strains. Here, we described a fast, simultaneous and inexpensive approach to the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) using oligonucleotide microarrays. The NDV pathotypes and the AIV haemagglutinin subtypes H5 and H7 were determined at the same time. Different probes on a microarray targeting the same gene were implemented in order to encompass the diversified virus strains or provide multiple confirmations of the genotype. This ensures good sensitivity and specificity among divergent viruses. Twenty-four virus isolates and twenty-four various combinations of the viruses were tested in this study. All viruses were successfully detected and typed. The hybridization results on microarrays were clearly identified with the naked eyes, with no further imaging equipment needed. The results demonstrate that the detection and typing of multiple viruses can be performed simultaneously and easily using oligonucleotide microarrays. The proposed method may provide potential for rapid surveillance and differential diagnosis of these two important zoonoses in both wild and domestic birds.

  12. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  13. The AIDS dilemma: drug diseases blamed on a passenger virus.

    PubMed

    Duesberg, P; Rasnick, D

    1998-01-01

    Almost two decades of unprecedented efforts in research costing US taxpayers over $50 billion have failed to defeat Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and have failed to explain the chronology and epidemiology of AIDS in America and Europe. The failure to cure AIDS is so complete that the largest American AIDS foundation is even exploiting it for fundraising: 'Latest AIDS statistics-0,000,000 cured. Support a cure, support AMFAR.' The scientific basis of all these unsuccessful efforts has been the hypothesis that AIDS is caused by a sexually transmitted virus, termed Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and that this viral immunodeficiency manifests in 30 previously known microbial and non-microbial AIDS diseases. In order to develop a hypothesis that explains AIDS we have considered ten relevant facts that American and European AIDS patients have, and do not have, in common: (1) AIDS is not contagious. For example, not even one health care worker has contracted AIDS from over 800,000 AIDS patients in America and Europe. (2) AIDS is highly non-random with regard to sex (86% male); sexual persuasion (over 60% homosexual); and age (85% are 25-49 years old). (3) From its beginning in 1980, the AIDS epidemic progressed non-exponentially, just like lifestyle diseases. (4) The epidemic is fragmented into distinct subepidemics with exclusive AIDS-defining diseases. For example, only homosexual males have Kaposi's sarcoma. (5) Patients do not have any one of 30 AIDS-defining diseases, nor even immunodeficiency, in common. For example, Kaposi's sarcoma, dementia, and weight loss may occur without immunodeficiency. Thus, there is no AIDS-specific disease. (6) AIDS patients have antibody against HIV in common only by definition-not by natural coincidence. AIDS-defining diseases of HIV-free patients are called by their old names. (7) Recreational drug use is a common denominator for over 95% of all American and European AIDS patients, including male homosexuals. (8

  14. Association of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus with Multiple Viral Infections in Bovine Respiratory Disease Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Lisette; Marois, Paul; Lamontagne, Lucie

    1988-01-01

    We investigated eleven outbreaks of naturally occurring bovine respiratory diseases in calves and adult animals in the St-Hyacinthe area of Quebec. Specific antibodies to bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza type 3 virus, reovirus type 3, and serotypes 1 to 7 of bovine adenovirus were found in paired sera from diseased animals. Several bovine viruses with respiratory tropism were involved concomitantly in herds during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease. In addition, concomitant fourfold rises of antibody titers were frequently observed to two or more viral agents in seroconverted calves (61%) or adult animals (38%). Bovine viral diarrhea virus was found to be the most frequent viral agent associated with multiple viral infection in calves only (92%). PMID:17423116

  15. Single injection recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines protect ferrets against lethal Nipah virus disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent in the family Paramyxoviridae that is maintained in nature by bats. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India, and Bangladesh and have been associated with 40 to 75% case fatality rates. There are currently no vaccines or postexposure treatments licensed for combating human NiV infection. Methods and results Four groups of ferrets received a single vaccination with different recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing: Group 1, control with no glycoprotein; Group 2, the NiV fusion protein (F); Group 3, the NiV attachment protein (G); and Group 4, a combination of the NiV F and G proteins. Animals were challenged intranasally with NiV 28 days after vaccination. Control ferrets in Group 1 showed characteristic clinical signs of NiV disease including respiratory distress, neurological disorders, viral load in blood and tissues, and gross lesions and antigen in target tissues; all animals in this group succumbed to infection by day 8. Importantly, all specifically vaccinated ferrets in Groups 2-4 showed no evidence of clinical illness and survived challenged. All animals in these groups developed anti-NiV F and/or G IgG and neutralizing antibody titers. While NiV RNA was detected in blood at day 6 post challenge in animals from Groups 2-4, the levels were orders of magnitude lower than animals from control Group 1. Conclusions These data show protective efficacy against NiV in a relevant model of human infection. Further development of this technology has the potential to yield effective single injection vaccines for NiV infection. PMID:24330654

  16. Control of plant virus diseases in cool-season grain legume crops.

    PubMed

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G; van Leur, Joop A G; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    Cool-season grain legume crops become infected with a wide range of viruses, many of which cause serious diseases and major yield losses. This review starts by discussing which viruses are important in the principal cool-season grain legume crops in different parts of the world, the losses they cause and their economic impacts in relation to control. It then describes the main types of control measures available: host resistance, phytosanitary measures, cultural measures, chemical control, and biological control. Examples are provided of successful deployment of the different types of measures to control virus epidemics in cool-season grain legume crops. Next it emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to control because single control measures used alone rarely suffice to adequately reduce virus-induced yield losses in these crops. Development of effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies depends on an interdisciplinary team approach to (i) understand the ecological and climatic factors which lead to damaging virus epidemics and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of individual control measures. In addition to using virus-resistant cultivars, other IDM components include sowing virus-tested seed stocks, selecting cultivars with low seed transmission rates, using diverse phytosanitary or cultural practices that minimize the virus source or reduce its spread, and using selective pesticides in an environmentally responsible way. The review finishes by briefly discussing the implications of climate change in increasing problems associated with control and the opportunities to control virus diseases more effectively through new technologies.

  17. [Several issues on the epidemiology of Zika virus disease].

    PubMed

    Lu, Guiyang; Su, Yingying; Wang, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus belongs to Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus. In response to the current cluster of congenital malformations (microcephaly) and other neurological complications (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) that could be linked to Zika virus infection, WHO declares that Zika virus is of global public health importance. Data sources were from peer review articles and WHO documents. The sources of Zika virus infection would include patients, people with asymptomatic infections and primates. The infectious period of Zika virus remains unclear. However, according to the period that RNA of Zika virus can be positively detected in blood, saliva, urine or semen, we can presume that the communicable period may last for 2 months or even longer. Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans by infected Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Presumptive vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission have been reported. More evidence indicated the existence of a cause-effect relationship between Zika virus infection and congenital microcephaly/Guillain-Barre syndrome. Strategies include successful control the amount of mosquitoes and minimize the contacts between mosquitoes and human beings could effectively prevent the Zika virus transmission. Other preventive measures as cutting off vertical, blood or sexual routes of transmission should also be adopted. The epidemiology of Zika virus remains uncertain which calls for further research.

  18. Critical Care for Multiple Organ Failure Secondary to Ebola Virus Disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Johnson, Daniel W; Weinstein, Gary L; Connor, Michael J; Crozier, Ian; Liddell, Allison M; Franch, Harold A; Wall, Bruce R; Kalil, Andre C; Feldman, Mark; Lisco, Steven J; Sevransky, Jonathan E

    2015-10-01

    This report describes three patients with Ebola virus disease who were treated in the United States and developed for severe critical illness and multiple organ failure secondary to Ebola virus infection. The patients received mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, invasive monitoring, vasopressor support, and investigational therapies for Ebola virus disease. Patient medical records from three tertiary care centers (Emory University Hospital, University of Nebraska Medical Center, and Texas Health Presbyterian Dallas Hospital). Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. In the severe form, patients with Ebola virus disease may require life-sustaining therapy, including mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. In conjunction with other reported cases, this series suggests that respiratory and renal failure may occur in severe Ebola virus disease, especially in patients burdened with high viral loads. Ebola virus disease complicated by multiple organ failure can be survivable with the application of advanced life support measures. This collective, multicenter experience is presented with the hope that it may inform future treatment of patients with Ebola virus disease requiring critical care treatment.

  19. Evaluation of Convalescent Plasma for Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea.

    PubMed

    van Griensven, Johan; Edwards, Tansy; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Semple, Malcolm G; Gallian, Pierre; Baize, Sylvain; Horby, Peter W; Raoul, Hervé; Magassouba, N'Faly; Antierens, Annick; Lomas, Carolyn; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou A; Fransen, Katrien; Buyze, Jozefien; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Tiberghien, Pierre; Claeys, Yves; De Crop, Maaike; Lynen, Lutgarde; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Smith, Peter G; Delamou, Alexandre; De Weggheleire, Anja; Haba, Nyankoye

    2016-01-07

    In the wake of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in several African countries, the World Health Organization prioritized the evaluation of treatment with convalescent plasma derived from patients who have recovered from the disease. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of EVD in Guinea. In this nonrandomized, comparative study, 99 patients of various ages (including pregnant women) with confirmed EVD received two consecutive transfusions of 200 to 250 ml of ABO-compatible convalescent plasma, with each unit of plasma obtained from a separate convalescent donor. The transfusions were initiated on the day of diagnosis or up to 2 days later. The level of neutralizing antibodies against Ebola virus in the plasma was unknown at the time of administration. The control group was 418 patients who had been treated at the same center during the previous 5 months. The primary outcome was the risk of death during the period from 3 to 16 days after diagnosis with adjustments for age and the baseline cycle-threshold value on polymerase-chain-reaction assay; patients who had died before day 3 were excluded. The clinically important difference was defined as an absolute reduction in mortality of 20 percentage points in the convalescent-plasma group as compared with the control group. A total of 84 patients who were treated with plasma were included in the primary analysis. At baseline, the convalescent-plasma group had slightly higher cycle-threshold values and a shorter duration of symptoms than did the control group, along with a higher frequency of eye redness and difficulty in swallowing. From day 3 to day 16 after diagnosis, the risk of death was 31% in the convalescent-plasma group and 38% in the control group (risk difference, -7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -18 to 4). The difference was reduced after adjustment for age and cycle-threshold value (adjusted risk difference, -3 percentage points; 95

  20. Genetic susceptibility to and presence of endogenous avian leukosis viruses impose no significant impact on survival days of chickens challenged with very virulent plus Marek's disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicks of distinct genotypes at the tumor virus B locus (TVB) in combination with presence or absence of endogenous avian leukosis virus ev21 gene in their genomes were examined for survival day patterns after challenge with very virulent plus Marek’s disease virus (vv+MDV) in three consecutive tria...

  1. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham J

    2012-05-24

    The surface exposed capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3, of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) determine its antigenicity and the ability of the virus to interact with host-cell receptors. Hence, modification of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus.In the present study we compared the pathogenicity of different FMDVs in young pigs. In total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell culture adapted (O1K B64), chimeric (O1K/A-TUR and O1K/O-UKG) or field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) viruses. The O1K B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region.Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected with the O1K/O-UKG chimera or the field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) developed fulminant disease. Furthermore, 3 of 4 in-contact pigs exposed to the O1K/O-UKG virus died in the acute phase of infection, likely from myocardial infection. However, in the group exposed to the O1K/A-TUR chimeric virus, only 1 pig showed symptoms of disease within the time frame of the experiment (10 days). All pigs that developed clinical disease showed a high level of viral RNA in serum and infected pigs that survived the acute phase of infection developed a serotype specific antibody response. It is concluded that the capsid coding sequences are determinants of FMDV pathogenicity in pigs.

  2. Molecular cloning of the Aleutian disease virus genome: expression of Aleutian disease virus antigens by a recombinant plasmid.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, L W; Aasted, B; Garon, C F; Bloom, M E

    1983-01-01

    Three nonoverlapping segments representing approximately 80% of the 4.8-kilobase pair Aleutian disease virus (ADV-G) duplex genome were molecularly cloned into either bacteriophage M13mp9 (M13bm2 = 0.07 to 0.15 map unit; M13bm1 = 0.15 to 0.54 map unit) or plasmid pUC8 (pBM1 = 0.54 to 0.88 map units). In addition the 0.54- to 0.88-map unit segment of a Danish isolate of ADV (DK ADV) was also cloned into pUC8 (pBM2). The recombinant plasmids pBM1 and pBM2 induced expression of several polypeptides in Escherichia coli JM103 that were specifically recognized by sera from mink infected with ADV. The same three proteins with approximate molecular weights of 55,000, 34,000, and 27,000 were detected both by immune blotting and by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled JM103 (pBM1). None of these proteins were recognized in JM103 or JM103 (pUC8), nor were they detected by sera from normal mink. Purified pBM1 and pBM2 DNA appeared identical in size by gel analysis and contour length measurement, and electron microscopic heteroduplex mapping revealed no visible areas of heterology. However, restriction endonuclease mapping showed that pBM2 was different from pBM1, indicating that this segment of the ADV genome was similar but not identical for two strains of ADV (ADV-G and DK ADV). Furthermore, when cloned DNA from ADV-G was labeled with [32P]dCTP by nick translation, DNA relatedness to several field strains of ADV (Utah I, Pullman, and DK), but not to mink enteritis virus or cellular DNA, was shown by Southern blot hybridization. Images PMID:6313959

  3. Simple procedure for preparation of bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus antigens for agar gel immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Stott, J L; Osburn, B I

    1983-12-01

    A simplified procedure was developed for preparing soluble antigen from two related orbiviruses, bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses, for agar gel immunodiffusion. The antigens gave excellent results in both micro-agar gel diffusion (agar gel precipitin) and macro-agar gel diffusion (bluetongue immunodiffusion). Minor modification in the spatial arrangement of reference antisera, commonly utilized in the agar gel immunodiffusion tests, was employed to reduce the possible development of false-positive reactions. The procedures for antigen preparation were inexpensive and did not require elaborate filtration or high-speed centrifugation. Stability of antigen preparations at 5 degrees C was excellent (in excess of 3 years for bluetongue virus and 2 years for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus).

  4. Immune mechanisms associated with enhanced influenza A virus disease versus cross-protection in vaccinated pigs.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccine associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) has been described in pigs vaccinated with whole-inactivated influenza virus (WIV) following infection with heterologous influenza A virus (IAV). WIV vaccination elicits production of cross-reactive, non-neutralizing antibody to the challenge I...

  5. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we ...

  6. Evolutionary changes affecting rapid identification of 2008 Newcastle disease viruses isolated from double-crested cormorants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An outbreak of virulent Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in wild double-breasted cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) occurred in North America in the summer of 2008. All ten viruses isolated from cormorants were positively identified by the USDA validated real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chai...

  7. Enhancement or attenuation of disease by deletion of genes from Citrus tristeza virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stem pitting is a common virus-induced disease of perennial woody plants induced by a range of different viruses. The phenotype results from sporadic areas in which normal xylem and phloem development is prevented during growth of stems. These alterations interfere with carbohydrate transport resu...

  8. Evaluation of virus resistant rootstocks to manage watermelon vine decline and diseases caused by other potyviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon vine decline caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) is one of several watermelon-infecting potyviruses long present in the southeastern U.S. L...

  9. Effect of genotype specific live recombinant Newcastle disease vaccines on virus shedding after challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) are part of a single serotype; however, current vaccine strains display between 15 and 18% amino acid differences at the F and HN protein compared with current virulent viruses. Previous studies have shown that increased amino acid similarity between NDV vaccine...

  10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  11. Attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by engineered viral polymerase fidelity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or 3Dpol) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. The 3Dpol is a low fidelity enzyme incapable of proofreading which results in a high mutation frequencies that allow the virus to rapidly adapt to different environments. In this study...

  12. Pathogenesis of virulent and attenuated foot and mouth disease virus in cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The factors defining virulence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cattle were investigated by comparing the pathogenesis of a mutant, attenuated strain (FMDV-Mut) to the parental, virulent virus from which the mutant was derived (FMDV-WT). After simulated-natural, aerosol inoculation, both vi...

  13. Isolation of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus from a Florida panther.

    PubMed

    Glass, C M; McLean, R G; Katz, J B; Maehr, D S; Cropp, C B; Kirk, L J; McKeirnan, A J; Evermann, J F

    1994-04-01

    Pseudorabies virus was isolated in cell culture from the brain tissue of a 3.5-year-old male Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). The virus was not isolated from other tissues collected at necropsy. Based upon a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the virus was determined to have the classical wild-type virulent genotype, glycoprotein I+ (gI+) and thymidine kinase+ (TK+).

  14. RNA Viruses that Cause Hemorrhagic, Encephalitic, and Febrile Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Encephalitis can occur 5-10 days after and treated with ribavirin initially 2 hr after the acute febrile episode, with a presenta- virus inoculation by the...Africa, six of nine inoculation Lassa virus is an enveloped, single- contacts were given ribavirin prophylacti- stranded, bisegmented RNA virus...The mortal- days after inoculation . The six lethally in- 704 CHAPTER 18 fected animals had viremia titers that sig- hospitalized with acute Lassa

  15. Animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Randy E; Durbin, Russell K; Durbin, Joan E

    2015-08-01

    The study of human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis and immunity has been hampered by its exquisite host specificity, and the difficulties encountered in adapting this virus to a murine host. The reasons for this obstacle are not well understood, but appear to reflect, at least in part, the inability of the virus to block the interferon response in any but the human host. This review addresses some of the issues encountered in mouse models of respiratory syncytial virus infection, and describes the advantages and disadvantages of alternative model systems.

  16. Animal Models of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Randy E.; Durbin, Russell K.; Durbin, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    The study of human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis and immunity has been hampered by its exquisite host specificity, and the difficulties encountered in adapting this virus to a murine host. The reasons for this obstacle are not well understood, but appear to reflect, at least in part, the inability of the virus to block the interferon response in any but the human host. This review addresses some of the issues encountered in mouse models of respiratory syncytial virus infection, and describes the advantages and disadvantages of alternative model systems. PMID:26176495

  17. Use of Oral Fluids for Detection of Virus and Antibodies in Pigs Infected with Swine Vesicular Disease Virus.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, C; Bittner, H; Ambagala, A; Lung, O; Babiuk, S; Yang, M; Zimmerman, J; Giménez-Lirola, L G; Nfon, C

    2016-09-15

    The use of swine oral fluid (OF) for the detection of nucleic acids and antibodies is gaining significant popularity. Assays have been developed for this purpose for endemic and foreign animal diseases of swine. Here, we report the use of OF for the detection of virus and antibodies in pigs experimentally infected with swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), a virus that causes a disease clinically indistinguishable from the economically devastating foot-and-mouth disease. Viral genome was detected in OF by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (DPI) to 21 DPI. Virus isolation from OF was also successful at 1-5 DPI. An adapted competitive ELISA based on the monoclonal antibodies 5B7 detected antibodies to SVDV in OF starting at DPI 6. Additionally, using isotype-specific indirect ELISAs, SVDV-specific IgM and IgA were evaluated in OF. IgM response started at DPI 6, peaking at DPI 7 or 14 and declining sharply at DPI 21, while IgA response started at DPI 7, peaked at DPI 14 and remained high until the end of the experiment. These results confirm the potential use of OF for SVD surveillance using both established and partially validated assays in this study.

  18. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our recent study has shown that bovine rhinovirus type 2 (BRV2), a new member of the Aphthovirus genus, shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite low sequence conservation (36percent amino acid identity) and N- and C-terminus folding differences,...

  19. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus replicon particles can induce rapid protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have previously shown that swine pretreated with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (Ad5) containing the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-alpha/Beta) are sterilely protected when challenged one day later with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), but the dose required is relativ...

  20. Ebola Virus Disease--Sierra Leone and Guinea, August 2015.

    PubMed

    Hersey, Sara; Martel, Lise D; Jambai, Amara; Keita, Sakoba; Yoti, Zabulon; Meyer, Erika; Seeman, Sara; Bennett, Sarah; Ratto, Jeffrey; Morgan, Oliver; Akyeampong, Mame Afua; Sainvil, Schabbethai; Worrell, Mary Claire; Fitter, David; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2015-09-11

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa began in late 2013 in Guinea (1) and spread unchecked during early 2014. By mid-2014, it had become the first Ebola epidemic ever documented. Transmission was occurring in multiple districts of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, and for the first time, in capital cities (2). On August 8, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (3). Ministries of Health, with assistance from multinational collaborators, have reduced Ebola transmission, and the number of cases is now declining. While Liberia has not reported a case since July 12, 2015, transmission has continued in Guinea and Sierra Leone, although the numbers of cases reported are at the lowest point in a year. In August 2015, Guinea and Sierra Leone reported 10 and four confirmed cases, respectively, compared with a peak of 526 (Guinea) and 1,997 (Sierra Leone) in November 2014. This report details the current situation in Guinea and Sierra Leone, outlines strategies to interrupt transmission, and highlights the need to maintain public health response capacity and vigilance for new cases at this critical time to end the outbreak.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus association with peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD.

  2. Construction and applications of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus replicon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binbin; Zhe, Mingjia; Chen, Zongyan; Li, Chuanfeng; Meng, Chunchun; Zhang, Miaotao; Liu, Guangqing

    2013-01-01

    The study of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has long been hindered by the absence of an in vitro culture system. In this study, using RHDV as a model, a series of DNA-based reporter replicons were constructed in which the firefly luciferase (Fluc) gene was fused in-frame with the open reading frame of the replicon. In this construct, the Fluc gene was inserted where the coding region of viral structural protein was deleted and was under the control of a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter. Fluc activity analysis showed that these reporter replicons replicate efficiently in mammalian cells. On the basis of the replicon, 5'non-coding regions (5'NCR) and genome-linked protein (VPg) were deleted, and the effect on the expression of replicon was analyzed. The results showed that the expression level of Fluc was reduced in the absence of 5'NCR and VPg, suggesting that the 5'NCR and VPg may play an important role in replication and/or translation of RHDV. To further verify the speculation, we also constructed a replication deficient mutant (pRHDV-luc/Δ3D), and the impact of 5'NCR and VPg deletion on viral translation efficiency was analyzed, our results indicated that both VPg and 5'NCR were involved in RHDV translation.

  3. Local variability in respiratory syncytial virus disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, A.; Jeannet, P.; Steensel-Moll, H.; Ott, A.; Rothbarth, P.; Wunderli, W.; Suter, S.; Neijens, H.; Osterhaus, A.; Siegrist, C.

    1997-01-01

    

 Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infections are considered to be a serious disease in centres such as the Sophia Children's Hospital (Rotterdam, the Netherlands), but as more benign infections in others such as the Geneva Children's Hospital (Switzerland). To assess the clinical severity of RSV infections at the two sites, 151 infants primarily admitted with a virologically confirmed RSV infection were studied prospectively (1994-5) and retrospectively (1993-4) (55 infants in Geneva and 96 in Rotterdam). Parameters of RSV morbidity which were more severe in Rotterdam during the two winter seasons were apnoea (1.8 v 23.9%), the rate of admission to the intensive care unit (3.6 v 28.1%), mechanical ventilation (0 v 7.3%), and length of stay in hospital (6.8 v 9.1 days). In Geneva higher respiratory rates (59.2 v 51.2), more wheezing (65.5 v 28.8%), and more retractions (81.8 v 63.3%) were recorded. Fewer infants younger than 4 months (54.9 v 68.7%), but more breast fed infants (94.1 v 38.5%), were admitted in Geneva, although the morbidity parameters remained different after correction for these two variables in multivariate analyses. Thus unidentified local factors influence the pattern and severity of RSV infection and may affect the results of multicentre prophylactic and therapeutic studies.

 PMID:9487963

  4. Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G.; Torres, Javier; Flores-Luna, Lourdes; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use are considered the main risk to develop peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, PUD also occurs in the absence of HP infection and/or NSAID use. Recently, we have found evidence that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation increases the risk to develop premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. Objective. To study a possible association between EBV and PUD. Methods. Antibodies against an EBV reactivation antigen, HP, and the HP virulence factor CagA were measured in sera from 207 Mexican subjects, controls (healthy individuals, n = 129), and PUD patients (n = 78, 58 duodenal and 20 gastric ulcers). Statistical associations were estimated. Results. Duodenal PUD was significantly associated with high anti-EBV IgG titers (p = 0.022, OR = 2.5), while anti-EBV IgA was positively associated with gastric PUD (p = 0.002, OR = 10.1). Conclusions. Our study suggests that EBV reactivation in gastric and duodenal epithelium increases the risk to develop PUD. PMID:26199856

  5. Potential for large outbreaks of Ebola virus disease.

    PubMed

    Camacho, A; Kucharski, A J; Funk, S; Breman, J; Piot, P; Edmunds, W J

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of Ebola virus can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in affected regions. The largest outbreak of Ebola to date is currently underway in West Africa, with 3944 cases reported as of 5th September 2014. To develop a better understanding of Ebola transmission dynamics, we revisited data from the first known Ebola outbreak, which occurred in 1976 in Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo). By fitting a mathematical model to time series stratified by disease onset, outcome and source of infection, we were able to estimate several epidemiological quantities that have previously proved challenging to measure, including the contribution of hospital and community infection to transmission. We found evidence that transmission decreased considerably before the closure of the hospital, suggesting that the decline of the outbreak was most likely the result of changes in host behaviour. Our analysis suggests that the person-to-person reproduction number was 1.34 (95% CI: 0.92-2.11) in the early part of the outbreak. Using stochastic simulations we demonstrate that the same epidemiological conditions that were present in 1976 could have generated a large outbreak purely by chance. At the same time, the relatively high person-to-person basic reproduction number suggests that Ebola would have been difficult to control through hospital-based infection control measures alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ebola Virus Disease in Health Care Workers--Guinea, 2014.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, Margaret; Dixon, Meredith G; Patton, Monica; Fitter, David; Bilivogui, Pépé; Johnson, Candice; Dotson, Ellen; Diallo, Boubacar; Rodier, Guenael; Raghunathan, Pratima

    2015-10-02

    An outbreak of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) began in Guinea in December 2013 and has continued through September 2015. Health care workers (HCWs) in West Africa are at high risk for Ebola infection owing to lack of appropriate triage procedures, insufficient equipment, and inadequate infection control practices. To characterize recent epidemiology of Ebola infections among HCWs in Guinea, national Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) surveillance data were analyzed for HCW cases reported during January 1–December 31, 2014. During 2014, a total of 162 (7.9%) of 2,210 laboratory-confirmed or probable Ebola cases among Guinean adults aged ≥15 years occurred among HCWs, resulting in an incidence of Ebola infection among HCWs 42.2 times higher than among non-HCWs. The disproportionate burden of Ebola infection among HCWs taxes an already stressed health infrastructure, underscoring the need for increased understanding of transmission among HCWs and improved infection prevention and control measures to prevent Ebola infection among HCWs.

  7. Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Marco; Pedraza, Fernando; Roth, David

    2016-08-01

    Soon after the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was identified in 1989, it was recognized that the prevalence of infection in patients with ESRD far exceeded that in the general population. Infection with HCV predisposes to the hepatic complications of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, important extrahepatic manifestations include immune complex glomerular disease, accelerated progression of CKD, increases in cardiovascular event risk, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Advances in understanding the molecular biology of HCV have ushered in a new era in the treatment of this infection. Second generation direct-acting antiviral agents have revolutionized therapy, with sustained virologic response rates (undetectable viral load 12 weeks after completing therapy) of >90% in most patients. Studies using direct-acting antivirals in patients with CKD and those on dialysis are showing excellent safety and efficacy as well. In this context, it is imperative that nephrologists become familiar with this literature, reviewed here, so that the important decisions, including which patients should be treated and the optimal timing to initiate therapy, are vetted in association with the compounding issues of CKD, ESRD, and kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Plaque morphology of Teschen disease viruses and certain pig enteroviruses in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Dardiri, A H

    1968-04-01

    Plaque patterns and diameters of four virulent strains and one tissue culture mutant of Teschen disease virus were compared with six pig enteroviruses isolated in the United States. They are described as they were produced in primary pig kidney monolayer cultures. Reproducible plaques, with similar characteristics and class-types of each of the viruses tested were obtained with the application of a 45-minute virus adsorption time. Their morphologic characteristics and the proportion in which the plaque types appeared may assist in the differentiation of these virus strains.

  9. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  10. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  11. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  12. Genetic characterization of Aleutian mink disease viruses isolated in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwu; Huang, Juan; Jia, Yun; Du, Yijun; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex mediated disease in minks. To understand the genetic characterization of AMDV in China, the genomic sequences of three isolates, ADV-LN1, ADV-LN2, and ADV-LN3, from different farms in the Northern China were analyzed. The results showed that the lengths of genomic sequences of three isolates were 4,543, 4,566, and 4,566 bp, respectively. They shared only 95.5-96.3 % nucleotide identity with each other. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of genome sequence between the Chinese isolates and European or American strains (ADV-G, ADV-Utah1, and ADV-SL3) were 92.4-95.0 % and 92.1-93.8 %, respectively. The amino acid substitutions randomly distributed in the genome, especially NS gene. ADV-LN1 strain had a 9-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 and 72-79 in the VP1 gene, comparing with ADV-G strain; ADV-LN2 and ADV-LN3 strains had 1-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 in the VP1. Some potential glycosylation site mutations in VP and NS genes were also observed. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that the three strains belonged to two different branches based on the complete coding sequence of VP2 gene. However, they all were in the same group together with the strains from United States based on the NS1 sequence. It indicated that Chinese AMDV isolates had genetic diversity. The origin of the ancestors of the Chinese AMDV strains might be associated with the American strains.

  13. Peri-exposure protection against Nipah virus disease using a single-dose recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine

    PubMed Central

    DeBuysscher, Blair L; Scott, Dana; Thomas, Tina; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Nipah virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease in humans and animals. Due to almost yearly outbreaks in Bangladesh, and a large outbreak in Malaysia that lead to the shutdown of swine export, Nipah virus is both a threat to public health and the economy. Infection is associated with respiratory distress, encephalitis and human-to-human transmission, resulting in high case fatality rates during outbreaks. This study aims to address the amount of time needed until protection from a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine candidate expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein (G), which we have previously shown to protect hamsters and non-human primates when administered 28 days before challenge. We found that a single-dose vaccination, when administered 1 day before challenge, reduced viral load, limited pathology and fully protected hamsters from Nipah virus infection. The vaccine was even partially protective when administered at early time points following challenge with Nipah virus. These data indicate that a single administration of this vaccine to high-risk individuals, such as family members and health-care workers of infected patients, could be protective and useful for reducing human-to-human transmission and curbing an outbreak. PMID:28706736

  14. Characterization of a chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus bearing a bovine rhinitis B virus leader proteinase.

    PubMed

    Uddowla, Sabena; Pacheco, Juan M; Larson, Christopher; Bishop, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Luis L; Rai, Devendra K; Arzt, Jonathan; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) shares many motifs and sequence similarities with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). This study examined if the BRBV leader proteinase (L(pro) ) could functionally replace that of FMDV. A mutant A24LBRV3DYR FMDV engineered with the BRBV L(pro) and an antigenic marker in the 3D polymerase exhibited growth properties and eIF4G cleavage similar to parental A24WT virus. The A24LBRV3DYR type I interferon activity in infected bovine cells resembled that of A24LL virus that lacks L(pro), but this effect was less pronounced for A24LBRV3DYR infected porcine cells. In vivo studies showed that the A24LBRV3DYR virus was attenuated in cattle, and exhibited low virulence in pigs exposed by direct contact. The mutant virus induced protective immunity in cattle against challenge with parental A24WT. These results provide evidence that L(pro) of different Aphthoviruses are not fully functionally interchangeable and have roles that may depend on the nature of the infected host.

  15. Peri-exposure protection against Nipah virus disease using a single-dose recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine.

    PubMed

    DeBuysscher, Blair L; Scott, Dana; Thomas, Tina; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Nipah virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease in humans and animals. Due to almost yearly outbreaks in Bangladesh, and a large outbreak in Malaysia that lead to the shutdown of swine export, Nipah virus is both a threat to public health and the economy. Infection is associated with respiratory distress, encephalitis and human-to-human transmission, resulting in high case fatality rates during outbreaks. This study aims to address the amount of time needed until protection from a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine candidate expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein (G), which we have previously shown to protect hamsters and non-human primates when administered 28 days before challenge. We found that a single-dose vaccination, when administered 1 day before challenge, reduced viral load, limited pathology and fully protected hamsters from Nipah virus infection. The vaccine was even partially protective when administered at early time points following challenge with Nipah virus. These data indicate that a single administration of this vaccine to high-risk individuals, such as family members and health-care workers of infected patients, could be protective and useful for reducing human-to-human transmission and curbing an outbreak.

  16. A metagenomics and case-control study to identify viruses associated with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Kondov, Nikola O; Deng, Xutao; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly L; Delwart, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a common health problem for both dairy and beef cattle, resulting in significant economic loses. In order to identify viruses associated with BRD, we used a metagenomics approach to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of 50 young dairy cattle with symptoms of BRD. Following deep sequencing, de novo assembly, and translated protein sequence similarity searches, numerous known and previously uncharacterized viruses were identified. Bovine adenovirus 3, bovine adeno-associated virus, bovine influenza D virus, bovine parvovirus 2, bovine herpesvirus 6, bovine rhinitis A virus, and multiple genotypes of bovine rhinitis B virus were identified. The genomes of a previously uncharacterized astrovirus and picobirnaviruses were also partially or fully sequenced. Using real-time PCR, the rates of detection of the eight viruses that generated the most reads were compared for the nasal secretions of 50 animals with BRD versus 50 location-matched healthy control animals. Viruses were detected in 68% of BRD-affected animals versus 16% of healthy control animals. Thirty-eight percent of sick animals versus 8% of controls were infected with multiple respiratory viruses. Significantly associated with BRD were bovine adenovirus 3 (P < 0.0001), bovine rhinitis A virus (P = 0.005), and the recently described bovine influenza D virus (P = 0.006), which were detected either alone or in combination in 62% of animals with BRD. A metagenomics and real-time PCR detection approach in carefully matched cases and controls can provide a rapid means to identify viruses associated with a complex disease, paving the way for further confirmatory tests and ultimately to effective intervention strategies. Bovine respiratory disease is the most economically important disease affecting the cattle industry, whose complex root causes include environmental, genetics, and infectious factors. Using an unbiased metagenomics approach, we characterized

  17. Neurological lesions in chickens experimentally infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neuropil reaction was evaluated in chickens inoculated with four different Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates, including Texas GB, Turkey North Dakota, Nevada Cormorant (velogenic neurotropic) and Anhinga (mesogenic). Tissues for this study included archived formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded br...

  18. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  19. Delayed Newcastle disease virus replication using RNA interference to target the nucleoprotein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Each year millions of chickens die from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) worldwide, leading to economic and food losses. Current vaccination campaigns have limitations including cost, administration, and thermostability. These problems are heightened in the developing world where constraints are more...

  20. Biological and phylogenic characterization of virulent Newcastle disease virus circulating in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this report, virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2006 were subjected to biological and phylogenetic assessment. Biological characterization using standard pathogenicity tests and phylogenetic analysis were performed. Chicken embryo mean death time (MDT)...

  1. Novel tubular and crystalline structures in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. Brief report.

    PubMed

    Gowans, E J; McNulty, M S

    1979-01-01

    Hitherto undescribed tubular and crystalline structures were detected by negative contrast electron microscopy in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. It is suggested that these are viral in origin and are composed of aggregates of viral glycoprotein.

  2. Transient lingual papillitis associated with confirmed herpes simplex virus 1 in a patient with kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Andrew C; Kim, Silvia S; Burns, Jane C

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of transient lingual papillitis associated with confirmed herpes simplex virus 1 that developed after a child received intravenous immunoglobulin and infliximab for acute Kawasaki disease.

  3. Ebola Virus Disease (The Killer Virus): Another Threat to Humans and Bioterrorism: Brief Review and Recent Updates

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Dutta, Shubha Ranjan; Dudeja, Pooja; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) described as “one of the world’s most virulent diseases” by WHO was popularly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the past. It is usually considered a severe and deadly illness when humans are concerned. EVD outbreaks have shown to have a very high fatality rate ranging from 50 - 90% with a reported occurrence primarily seen near the tropical rainforests of remote villages in Central and West Africa. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and within the human community through human-to-human contact. Natural host for Ebola virus is not yet conclusively identified but the most probable host appears to be the fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family. Five subspecies of Ebola virus are recognized till date, with Zaire Ebola virus being the most aggressive of all varieties and recording up to 90% mortality. All Ebola forms are highly contagious and hence have been classed as Category A Priority Pathogens by WHO. Severely ill patients warrant intensive support therapy. Medical workers working in affected areas need to undertake extensive measures to prevent contracting the disease. Till date, no particular anti-viral therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in Ebola virus infection. Also, no vaccine for use in humans is yet approved by the regulatory bodies. If Ebola was actually misused as a biological weapon, it could be a serious threat. Idea behind this article is to briefly review the history and present recent updates on Ebola virus, its pathogenesis and possible hopes for treatment. PMID:26266139

  4. Animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection and disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study of human respiratory syncytial virus pathogenesis and immunity has been hampered by its exquisite host specificity, and the difficulties encountered in adapting this virus to a murine host. The reasons for this obstacle are not well understood, but appear to reflect, at least in part, the ...

  5. Emerging and Reemerging Virus Diseases of Blueberry and Cranberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It should be expected that as blueberry cultivation continues to expand into new areas the plants will become exposed to viruses that have not been observed in blueberry previously. Since the last symposium in 2004, Blueberry scorch virus continues to be a major concern in the Pacific Northwest of ...

  6. Evidence of new viruses infecting freesia hybrids showing necrotic disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different cultivars of Freesia plants with necrotic symptoms were collected in the Sanremo area of Northern Italy. Symptomatic foliar tissue was used both for mechanical inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana and for virus purification. Total virus-enriched RNA extract was tested by Sequence-Independe...

  7. A VIRUS DISEASE OF PARROTS AND PARRAKEETS DIFFERING FROM PSITTACOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Thomas M.; Schwentker, Francis F.

    1932-01-01

    The virus of parrots and parrakeets discovered by Pacheco, Bier, and Meyer is unrelated to the agent causing psittacosis either in birds or in man. The virus is fairly species-specific and manifests itself chiefly by the production of areas of focal necrosis in the liver and acidophilic intranuclear inclusions in affected cells. PMID:19870041

  8. Horizontal Transmissible Protection against Myxomatosis and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease by Using a Recombinant Myxoma Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Juan; Morales, Mónica; Vázquez, Belén; Boga, José A.; Parra, Francisco; Lucientes, Javier; Pagès-Manté, Albert; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José M.; Blasco, Rafael; Torres, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new strategy for immunization of wild rabbit populations against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) that uses recombinant viruses based on a naturally attenuated field strain of myxoma virus (MV). The recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV major capsid protein (VP60) including a linear epitope tag from the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleoprotein. Following inoculation, the recombinant viruses induced specific antibody responses against MV, RHDV, and the TGEV tag. Immunization of wild rabbits by the subcutaneous and oral routes conferred protection against virulent RHDV and MV challenges. The recombinant viruses showed a limited horizontal transmission capacity, either by direct contact or in a flea-mediated process, promoting immunization of contact uninoculated animals. PMID:10627521

  9. Horizontal transmissible protection against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease by using a recombinant myxoma virus.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, J; Morales, M; Vázquez, B; Boga, J A; Parra, F; Lucientes, J; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Blasco, R; Torres, J M

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a new strategy for immunization of wild rabbit populations against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) that uses recombinant viruses based on a naturally attenuated field strain of myxoma virus (MV). The recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV major capsid protein (VP60) including a linear epitope tag from the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nucleoprotein. Following inoculation, the recombinant viruses induced specific antibody responses against MV, RHDV, and the TGEV tag. Immunization of wild rabbits by the subcutaneous and oral routes conferred protection against virulent RHDV and MV challenges. The recombinant viruses showed a limited horizontal transmission capacity, either by direct contact or in a flea-mediated process, promoting immunization of contact uninoculated animals.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolates occurring in India during 1989-2013.

    PubMed

    Desingu, P A; Singh, S D; Dhama, K; Karthik, K; Vinodh Kumar, O R; Malik, Y S

    2016-06-01

    The study details characterization of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from commercial poultry flocks (chicken) and wild birds (crane) of India during the time period from 1989 to 2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the NDV isolates belongs to class II, genotype XIIIa and a chicken isolate (108/BAREILLY/AD-IVRI/91) was of genotype VI, where it showed diversity of 3 % from the other viruses belonging to same genotype. Another chicken isolate (75/RAMPUR/AD-IVRI/89) grouped in genotype III and showed 4 % diversity with viruses of genotype III. The crane origin NDV identified as of genotype II corresponding to the vaccine virus. This appears to be the first report about existence of genotype XIIIa and its ancestral viruses are circulating in India for the last two decades in different species of birds. Furthermore, genetically distinct viruses belonging to genotypes II, III and VI are also circulating in India.

  11. Some Surface-Active Agents and Their Virucidal Effect on Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Fellowes, O. N.

    1965-01-01

    Selected cationic and anionic surface-active compounds were tested to determine their virucidal effect on the foot-and-mouth disease virus, type O, strain M11, propagated in primary calf kidney cells. The chemical inactivation of the virus was tested with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0% concentrations of the selected compounds. Virus controls with pH adjusted to cover the expected range of the mixtures of the chemicals and virus were also tested. The absence of virus from the mixtures of chemical and virus after reaction at 28 C for 2 hr was assayed by inoculating suckling mice with the mixtures. One cationic compound, alkyl methyl isoquinilinium chloride, showed considerable antiviral activity due largely to pH effect. The use of the surface-active agents investigated in this study, in the presence of organic material, would not be recommended as virucides. PMID:4286396

  12. Ebola Virus Disease in Mice with Transplanted Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lüdtke, Anja; Oestereich, Lisa; Ruibal, Paula; Wurr, Stephanie; Pallasch, Elisa; Bockholt, Sabrina; Ip, Wing Hang; Rieger, Toni; Gómez-Medina, Sergio; Stocking, Carol; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Günther, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The development of treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD) has been hampered by the lack of small-animal models that mimick human disease. Here we show that mice with transplanted human hematopoetic stem cells reproduce features typical of EVD. Infection with Ebola virus was associated with viremia, cell damage, liver steatosis, signs of hemorrhage, and high lethality. Our study provides a small-animal model with human components for the development of EVD therapies. PMID:25673711

  13. Marek’s disease virus-induced transient cecal tonsil atrophy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens that is caused by a highly cell-associated oncogenic '-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. MD is characterized by bursal/th...

  14. Evaluation and identification of Marek’s disease virus BAC clones as standardized reagents for research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease in chickens. Understanding of MDV gene function advanced significantly following the cloning of the MDV genome as either a series of overlapping cosmids or as a bacterial artificial chr...

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis of Host Immune Response in the Skin of Chickens Infected with Marek's Disease Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus, a highly cell-associated oncogenic 'alpha-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of a T cell lymphoma and neuropathic disease called Marek’s disease. The skin is the only anatomical site where infectious enveloped cell-free virions are produced and shed into the environment. Stud...

  16. Marek’s disease virus induces transient atrophy of cecal tonsils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by an immunosupperessive alpha herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). Clinical signs of MD include bursal/thymic atrophy and neurological disorders. The cecal tonsils (CT) are the largest lymphoid aggregates of avia...

  17. Neuroinvasive Disease and West Nile Virus Infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Paul J.; Borchardt, Stephanie M.; Custer, Brian; Prince, Harry E.; Dunn-Williams, Joan; Winkelman, Valerie; Tobler, Leslie; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Lanciotti, Robert; Petersen, Lyle R.

    2012-01-01

    To determine risk for West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in North Dakota, we tested plasma samples from blood donors for WNV IgG and compared infection rates with reported WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence. We estimate that 1 in 244 WNV infections leads to neuroinvasive disease; risk is substantially increased among men and older persons. PMID:22469465

  18. Pathogenesis of new sub-genotypes of Newcastle disease virus strains from Israel and Pakistan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry worldwide caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). New genotypes and sub-genotypes of NDV frequently emerge. In the past few years, NDV strains belonging to sub-genotype VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asi...

  19. Effectiveness of Ring Vaccination as Control Strategy for Ebola Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Adam J; Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2016-01-01

    Using an Ebola virus disease transmission model, we found that addition of ring vaccination at the outset of the West Africa epidemic might not have led to containment of this disease. However, in later stages of the epidemic or in outbreaks with less intense transmission or more effective control, this strategy could help eliminate the disease.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of chicken gene expression during cytolytic infection of Marek's disease virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disease of chicken is caused by a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, Marek’s disease virus (MDV). MDV replicates in chicken lymphocytes and establishes a latent infection within CD4+ T cells. The expression analysis of limited viral and host transc...