Science.gov

Sample records for bornholm model set-up

  1. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, M.; Brügge, B.

    1997-12-01

    A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift trajectories of cod larvae in the Bornholm Basin, thereby aiding in the development of future sampling programs as well as the identification of processes influencing larval retention/dispersion in the Bornholm Basin. Distributions of variables (T, S and larval distribution) were obtained utilizing a three-dimensional eddy-resolving baroclinic model of the Baltic Sea based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code. Larval drift was simulated by the incorporation of a passive tracer into the model utilized to represent individual cod larvae. Additionally, simulated Lagrangian drift trajectories are presented. For model purposes, initial fields of temperature, salinity and cod larvae concentration for the Bornholm Basin were constructed by objective analysis using observations taken during a research survey in early July, 1994. Outside the Bornholm Basin generalized hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were utilized with the baroclinic model forced by wind data for the whole Baltic taken from the Europa-Modell (EM) of the German weather service, Offenbach. Verification of simulations was performed by comparison with field measurements of hydrographic variables and ADCP derived current measurements taken during the surveys. In general, most of the hydrographic features observed during the second research cruise are correctly simulated, with variations mainly attributed to the prescribed initial conditions outside the Bornholm Basin. Results from larval sampling during the second cruise could not entirely confirm the modeled larval distributions due to the low numbers of larvae captured. However, the modeled results based on the agreement of the flow fields and hydrographic properties with

  2. Setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models

    PubMed Central

    Rojek, J.; Karlis, G.F.; Malinowski, L.J.; Beer, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, a methodology for setting up virgin stress conditions in discrete element models is proposed. The developed algorithm is applicable to discrete or coupled discrete/continuum modeling of underground excavation employing the discrete element method (DEM). Since the DEM works with contact forces rather than stresses there is a need for the conversion of pre-excavation stresses to contact forces for the DEM model. Different possibilities of setting up virgin stress conditions in the DEM model are reviewed and critically assessed. Finally, a new method to obtain a discrete element model with contact forces equivalent to given macroscopic virgin stresses is proposed. The test examples presented show that good results may be obtained regardless of the shape of the DEM domain. PMID:27087731

  3. Setting up a model intercomparison project for the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovic, R. F.; Gregoire, L. J.; Valdes, P. J.; Roche, D. M.; Kageyama, M.

    2014-12-01

    The last deglaciation (~ 21-9 ka) presents a series of opportunities to study the underlying mechanisms of abrupt climate changes and long-term trends in the Earth System. Most of the forcings are relatively well constrained and geological archives record responses over a range of timescales. Despite this, large uncertainties remain over the feedback loops that culminated in the collapse of the great Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, and a consensus has yet to be reached on the chains of events that led to rapid surface warming and cooling during this period.Climate models are powerful tools for quantitatively assessing these outstanding issues through their ability to temporally resolve cause and effect, as well as break down the contributions from different forcings. This is well demonstrated by pioneering work; for example by Liu et al. (2009), Roche et al. (2011), Gregoire et al. (2012) and Menviel et al. (2011). However, such work is not without challenges; model-geological data mismatches remain unsolved and it is difficult to compare results from different models with unique experiment designs. Therefore, we have established a multidisciplinary Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project working group to coordinate transient climate model simulations and geological archive compilations of the last deglaciation. Here, we present the plans and progress of the working group in its first phase of activity; the investigation of Heinrich Stadial 1 and the lead into the Bolling warming event. We describe the set-up of the core deglacial experiment, explain our approach for dealing with uncertain climate forcings and outline our solutions to challenges posed by this research. By defining a common experiment design, we have built a framework to include models of different speeds, complexities and resolution, maximising the reward of this varied approach. One of the next challenges is to compile transient proxy records and develop a methodology for dealing with

  4. Setting up a hydrological model based on global data for the Ayeyarwady basin in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Velden, Corine; Sloff, Kees; Nauta, Tjitte

    2017-04-01

    The use of global datasets in local hydrological modelling can be of great value. It opens up the possibility to include data for areas where local data is not or only sparsely available. In hydrological modelling the existence of both static physical data such as elevation and land use, and dynamic meteorological data such as precipitation and temperature, is essential for setting up a hydrological model, but often such data is difficult to obtain at the local level. For the Ayeyarwady catchment in Myanmar a distributed hydrological model (Wflow: https://github.com/openstreams/wflow) was set up with only global datasets, as part of a water resources study. Myanmar is an emerging economy, which has only recently become more receptive to foreign influences. It has a very limited hydrometeorological measurement network, with large spatial and temporal gaps, and data that are of uncertain quality and difficult to obtain. The hydrological model was thus set up based on resampled versions of the SRTM digital elevation model, the GlobCover land cover dataset and the HWSD soil dataset. Three global meteorological datasets were assessed and compared for use in the hydrological model: TRMM, WFDEI and MSWEP. The meteorological datasets were assessed based on their conformity with several precipitation station measurements, and the overall model performance was assessed by calculating the NSE and RVE based on discharge measurements of several gauging stations. The model was run for the period 1979-2012 on a daily time step, and the results show an acceptable applicability of the used global datasets in the hydrological model. The WFDEI forcing dataset gave the best results, with a NSE of 0.55 at the outlet of the model and a RVE of 8.5%, calculated over the calibration period 2006-2012. As a general trend the modelled discharge at the upstream stations tends to be underestimated, and at the downstream stations slightly overestimated. The quality of the discharge measurements

  5. Setting up a groundwater recharge model for an arid karst system using time lapse camera data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Stephan; de Rooij, Gerrit H.; Michelsen, Nils; Rausch, Randolf; Siebert, Christian; Schüth, Christoph; Merz, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is the principal water resource in most dryland areas. Therefore, its replenishment rate is of great importance for water management. The amount of groundwater recharge depends on the climatic conditions, but also on the geological conditions, soil properties and vegetation. In dryland areas, outcrops of karst aquifers often receive enhanced recharge rates compared to other geological settings. Especially in areas with exposed karst features like sinkholes or open shafts rainfall accumulates in channels and discharges directly into the aquifer. Using the example of the As Sulb plateau in Saudi Arabia this study introduces a cost-effective and robust method for recharge monitoring and modelling in karst outcrops. The measurement of discharge of a small catchment (4.0 x 104 m2) into a sinkhole, and hence the direct recharge into the aquifer, was carried out with a time lapse camera observing a v-notch weir. During the monitoring period of two rainy seasons (autumn 2012 to spring 2014) four recharge events were recorded. Afterwards, recharge data as well as proxy data about the drying of the sediment cover are used to set up a conceptual water balance model. This model was run for 17 years (1971 to 1986 and 2012 to 2014). Simulation results show highly variable seasonal recharge-precipitation-ratios, which underlines the nonlinearity between recharge and precipitation in dryland areas. Besides the amount of precipitation this ratio is strongly influenced by the interannual distribution of rainfall events.

  6. Consequences of artificial deepwater ventilation in the Bornholm Basin for oxygen conditions, cod reproduction and benthic biomass - a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigebrandt, A.; Rosenberg, R.; Råman Vinnå, L.; Ödalen, M.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and use a circulation model to estimate hydrographical and ecological changes in the isolated basin water of the Bornholm Basin. By pumping well-oxygenated so-called winter water to the greatest depth, where it is forced to mix with the resident water, the rate of deepwater density reduction increases as well as the frequency of intrusions of new oxygen-rich deepwater. We show that pumping 1000 m3 s-1 should increase the rates of water exchange and oxygen supply by 2.5 and 3 times, respectively. The CRV (cod reproduction volume), the volume of water in the isolated basin meeting the requirements for successful cod reproduction (S > 11, O2 > 2 mL L-1), should every year be greater than 54 km3, which is an immense improvement, since it has been much less in certain years. Anoxic bottoms should no longer occur in the basin, and hypoxic events will become rare. This should permit extensive colonization of fauna on the earlier periodically anoxic bottoms. Increased biomass of benthic fauna should also mean increased food supply to economically valuable demersal fish like cod and flatfish. In addition, re-oxygenation of the sediments should lead to increased phosphorus retention by the sediments.

  7. Consequences of artificial deepwater ventilation in the Bornholm Basin for oxygen conditions, cod reproduction and benthic biomass - a model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigebrandt, A.; Rosenberg, R.; Råman Vinnå, L.; Ödalen, M.

    2014-07-01

    We develop and use a circulation model to estimate hydrographical and ecological changes in the isolated basin water of the Bornholm Basin. By pumping well oxygenated so-called winter water, residing beneath the level of the summer thermocline, to the greatest depth of the basin, where it is forced to mix with the resident water, the rate of density reduction should increase and thereby the frequency of intrusions of new oxygen-rich deepwater. We show that pumping 1000 m3 s-1 should increase the rates of water exchange and oxygen supply by 2.5 and 3 times, respectively. The CRV (Cod Reproduction Volume), the volume of water in the isolated basin meeting the requirements for successful cod reproduction (S > 11, O2 > 2 mL L-1), should every year be greater than 54 km3, which is an immense improvement since it in certain years is currently much less. Anoxic bottoms should no longer occur in the basin and hypoxic events will become rare. This should permit extensive colonization of fauna on the earlier periodically anoxic bottoms. Increased biomass of benthic fauna should also mean increased food supply to economically valuable demersal fish like cod and flatfish. In addition, the bioturbation activity and re-oxygenation of the sediments should lead to increased phosphorus retention by the sediments.

  8. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  9. Modeling and Simulations in Time Domain of a Stimulation Set-up for Cortical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Schweigmann, Michael; Kirchhoff, Frank; Koch, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is used for example to treat neuronal disorders and depression with deep brain stimulation or transcranial electrical stimulation. Depending on the application, different electrodes are used and thus different electrical characteristics exist, which have to be handled by the stimulator. Without a measuring device the user would have to rely on the stimulator being able to deliver the needed stimulation signal. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a method to increase the level of confidence with characterization and modelling of the electrical behavior by using the example of one channel of our stimulation device for experimental use. In several simulation studies with an electrode model with values in a typical range for cortical applications the influence of the load onto the stimulator and the possibility to pre-estimate measuring signals in complex networks are shown. PMID:27478564

  10. Setting up The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service for EPOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellet, Sylvain; Häner, Rainer; Pedersen, Mikael; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Robida, François

    2017-04-01

    Geological data and models are key assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed as an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, borehole associated observations (borehole log data, groundwater level, groundwater quality…) and archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geological models (3D, 4D), geohazards, geophysical data such as active seismic data and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals. The services will be implemented based on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). We present the implementation of the thematic core services for geology and modelling, including scheduling of the development of the different components. The activity with the OGC groups already started in 2016 through an ad-hoc meeting on Borehole and 3D/4D and the way both will be interlinked will also be introduced. This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will

  11. Simplest stick-slip experimental set up to model a seismic fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Marquez, Leticia; Vargas, Carlos; Ramirez-Rojas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    In order to model the seismicity produced by the tectonic plate's interaction, we present an experimental device to mimic these phenomena. The experimental device is characterized by the interface of two sandpapers, one of them is stick in a solid block and the other is fixed in a track. This track has a free friction suspension. The solid block is pulled with constant and slow velocity by a rope connected to a DC motor. As the friction between the two sandpapers is opposed to the displacement of the block, the potential energy is accumulated till the force driven by the motor is able to pull, producing a suddenly displacement, that is the stick-slip phenomenon. Some statistical analysis of the experimental data series has been already published, displaying some dynamical features analogous to the natural seismicity.

  12. Setting up a SPF chicken model for the pathotyping of West Nile virus (WNV) strains.

    PubMed

    Dridi, M; Rauw, F; Muylkens, B; Lecollinet, S; van den Berg, T; Lambrecht, B

    2013-11-01

    Birds play a central role in WNV epidemiology by spreading and amplifying the virus. Increasing numbers of WNV isolates are detected in Europe, and the virulence of these genetically variable isolates is not well characterized for birds. Therefore, we investigated whether SPF chickens could be a valuable avian model for the pathotyping of WNV strains. One-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated subcutaneously (SC) or intracerebrally (IC) with four lineage 1 WNV strains (Is98, It2008, Fr2000 or Kunjin) and were daily clinically monitored for 2 weeks after infection. Additionally, one-day-old SPF chickens were SC inoculated, and one-week-old SPF chickens were SC or IC inoculated with two Euro-Mediterranean isolates, Is98 and Fr2000, to sample blood and feathers at regular time points. These samples were analysed by WN NS2a-specific rRT-PCR and WN NS1 antigen-capture ELISA that were developed for the purpose of this study. Differences in strain virulence were evidenced after IC inoculation of one-day-old SPF chickens, with Is98 eliciting the highest mortality rates and Kunjin the lowest ones, while lethality of Fr2000 and It2008 was intermediate. Neither viral load in sera and feathers nor NS1 antigen in the serum correlated with the differential pathogenicity of Is98 and Fr2000. However, irrespective of the inoculated strain, younger chickens showed higher and longer-lasting viremias than older chickens. In all experimental groups, the detection window for viral RNA in feathers lasted up to 14 dpi. Altogether, the data presented in this study show that WNV strain virulence can be discriminated in a one-day-old SPF chicken model on the basis of mortality rates, while viremia and viral load in feathers appear to be age dependent rather than strain dependent. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Mathematical modeling of vibration processes in reinforced concrete structures for setting up crack initiation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. A.; Matveenko, B. P.; Serovaev, G. S.; Shardakov, I. N.; Shestakov, A. P.

    2015-03-01

    The contemporary construction industry is based on the use of reinforced concrete structures, but emergency situations resulting in fracture can arise in their exploitation. In a majority of cases, reinforced concrete fracture is realized as the process of crack formation and development. As a rule, the appearance of the first cracks does not lead to the complete loss of the carrying capacity but is a fracture precursor. One method for ensuring the safe operation of building structures is based on crack initiation monitoring. A vibration method for the monitoring of reinforced concrete structures is justified in this paper. An example of a reinforced concrete beam is used to consider all stages related to the analysis of the behavior of natural frequencies in the development of a crack-shaped defect and the use of the obtained numerical results for the vibration test method. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by the results of modeling of the physical part of the method related to the analysis of the natural frequency evolution as a response to the impact action in the crack development process.

  14. High resolution numerical simulations at the Reno rivermouth (Italy): model set up and simulations under climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archetti, Renata; Samaras, Achilleas; Gaeta, M. Gabriella; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents some results obtained within the framework activities foreseen by the "RITMARE Phase II" Flagship Project, one of the National Research Programmes funded by the Italian Ministry of University. More specifically, as part of the activities planned by the Research Line "Coastal erosion, vulnerability and adaptation to sea level rise and climate change", the work presents the setup and implementation of high-resolution numerical simulations of the nearshore dynamics of an Adriatic sea test site, under representative and extreme wave events and sea level rise scenarios. The selected study site is the mouth of the Reno river, located along the coast of Emilia Romagna Region, an extremly dymanic area that in the last decated has suffered strong erosion processes and is exposed to several climate change related effects. This first part of the presentation deals with the study site description, while in the second part the coupled wave - 2D hydrodynamics model set up and implementation (using the open-source TELEMAC suite) is dicsussed and presented. In the results discussion, specific attention is devoted to simulations of expected modifications to the area dynamics as a response to expected climate change scenarios.​

  15. Setting up home-based palliative care in countries with limited resources: a model from Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Devi, B. C. R.; Corbex, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The provision of palliative care (PC) and opioids is difficult to ensure in remote areas in low- and middle-income countries. We describe here the set up of a home-care program in Sarawak (the Malaysian part of the Borneo Island), where half the population lives in villages that are difficult to access. Methods: The establishment of this program, initiated in 1994 by the Department of Radiotherapy of Sarawak General Hospital, consisted of training, empowering nurses, simplifying referral, facilitating access to medication, and increasing awareness among public and health professionals about PC. Results: The program has been sustainable and cost efficient, serving 936 patients in 2006. The total morphine usage in the program increased from <200 g in 1993 to >1400 g in 2006. The results show that pain medication can be provided even in remote areas with effective organization and empowerment of nurses, who were the most important determinants for the set up of this program. Education of family was also a key aspect. Conclusion: The authors believe that the experience gained in Sarawak may help other regions with low or middle resources in the set up of their PC program especially for their remote rural population. PMID:18641007

  16. Setting up home-based palliative care in countries with limited resources: a model from Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Devi, B C R; Tang, T S; Corbex, M

    2008-12-01

    The provision of palliative care (PC) and opioids is difficult to ensure in remote areas in low- and middle-income countries. We describe here the set up of a home-care program in Sarawak (the Malaysian part of the Borneo Island), where half the population lives in villages that are difficult to access. The establishment of this program, initiated in 1994 by the Department of Radiotherapy of Sarawak General Hospital, consisted of training, empowering nurses, simplifying referral, facilitating access to medication, and increasing awareness among public and health professionals about PC. The program has been sustainable and cost efficient, serving 936 patients in 2006. The total morphine usage in the program increased from <200 g in 1993 to >1400 g in 2006. The results show that pain medication can be provided even in remote areas with effective organization and empowerment of nurses, who were the most important determinants for the set up of this program. Education of family was also a key aspect. The authors believe that the experience gained in Sarawak may help other regions with low or middle resources in the set up of their PC program especially for their remote rural population.

  17. River Modeling in Large and Ungauged Basins: Experience of Setting up the HEC RAS Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, F.; Maswood, M.

    2014-12-01

    River modeling is the processing of setting up a physically-based hydrodynamic model that can simulate the water flow dynamics of a stream network against time varying boundary conditions. Such river models are an important component of any flood forecasting system that forecasts river levels in flood prone regions. However, many large river basins in the developing world such as the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Meghna (GBM), Indus, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Niger are mostly ungauged. Such large basins lack the necessary in-situ measurements of river bed depth/slope, bathymetry (river cross section), floodplain mapping and boundary condition flows for forcing a river model. For such basins, proxy approaches relying mostly on remote sensing data from space platforms are the only alternative. In this study, we share our experience of setting up the widely-used 1-D river model over the entire GBM basin and its stream network. Good quality in-situ measurements of river hydraulics (cross section, slope, flow) was available only for the downstream and flood prone region of the basin, which comprises only 7% of the basin area. For the remaining 93% of the basin area, we resorted to the use of data from the following satellite sensors to build a workable river model: a) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) for deriving bed slope; b) LANDSAT/MODIS for updating river network and flow direction generated by elevation data; c) radar altimetry data to build depth versus width relationship at river locations; d) satellite precipitation based hydrologic modeling of lateral flows into main stem rivers. In addition, we referred to an extensive body of literature to estimate the prevailing baseline hydraulics of rivers in the ungauged region. We measured success of our approach by systematically testing how well the basin-wide river model could simulate river level dynamics at two measured locations inside Bangladesh. Our experience of river modeling was replete with numerous

  18. To Set Up a Logistic Regression Prediction Model for Hepatotoxicity of Chinese Herbal Medicines Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.178 (p < 0.05); also they were related with five flavors (p < 0.05), and the coefficient was 0.145 (p < 0.05); they were not related with channel tropism (p > 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240

  19. Shear-tensile/implosion source model vs. moment tensor: benefit in single-azimuth monitoring. Cotton Valley set-up.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileny, J.

    2012-12-01

    Moment tensor (MT) has become a standard for description of seismic sources, both in earthquake seismology and for various types of induced seismicity. It is a general dipole source, but for practice it may be too general, its generality causing troubles during its reconstruction from noisy data in the inverse process, which may be additionally ill-conditioned due to inexact hypocenter location or availability of a rough velocity/attenuation model only. Then, the retrieved source may be biased. It seems reasonable to assume a simpler and intuitivelly more physical source model directly describing the physical phenomena anticipated in the particular focus. A simple combination of a shear slip with tensile crack or 1D implosion (STI) may be a good model both for natural earthquakes and induced events. The model simplification introduced is crucial in cases of depleted sensor configuration when the moment tensor fails, in single-azimuth monitoring in particular. This is just the case of application in oil and gas industry, where the monitoring of seismicity induced by hydrofracturing is typically performed from single monitoring borehole. Then, MT is able to provide constrained solutions only (e.g. deviatoric), but STI detects also non-shear component correctly, providing important information on increase of permeability of the reservoir.

  20. Set up of a new in vitro model to study dietary fructans fermentation in formula-fed babies.

    PubMed

    Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Chassard, Christophe; Baltzer, Selina; Lacroix, Christophe

    2010-02-01

    A new in vitro fermentation model with immobilised infant faecal microbiota simulating the proximal colon of a formula-fed baby was developed and used to test the effects of known prebiotic fructans. Intestinal fermentation, based on a previously developed colonic fermentation model, using a new feeding medium simulating a formula-fed infant ileal chyme, was carried out for seventy-one consecutive days divided into four stabilisation periods intercalated with four prebiotic treatment periods. At the end of the first stabilisation period, total bacterial concentration in colonised beads and in faecal sample was similar, metabolite concentrations returned to stabilisation values after each treatment period. As expected, the four prebiotic treatments significantly increased the bifidobacterial populations, whereas they decreased bacteroides and clostridia. No difference was observed in the prebiotic effect of these substrates selected. The treatments significantly increased total production of SCFA and decreased ammonia compared to stabilisation periods. Long-term stability of the system together with the reproducibility of the known prebiotic effects highlights the potential of the present model to quantify and compare the effects of different substrates in a formula-fed infant microbiota within the same fermentation experiment.

  1. Setting up crowd science projects.

    PubMed

    Scheliga, Kaja; Friesike, Sascha; Puschmann, Cornelius; Fecher, Benedikt

    2016-11-29

    Crowd science is scientific research that is conducted with the participation of volunteers who are not professional scientists. Thanks to the Internet and online platforms, project initiators can draw on a potentially large number of volunteers. This crowd can be involved to support data-rich or labour-intensive projects that would otherwise be unfeasible. So far, research on crowd science has mainly focused on analysing individual crowd science projects. In our research, we focus on the perspective of project initiators and explore how crowd science projects are set up. Based on multiple case study research, we discuss the objectives of crowd science projects and the strategies of their initiators for accessing volunteers. We also categorise the tasks allocated to volunteers and reflect on the issue of quality assurance as well as feedback mechanisms. With this article, we contribute to a better understanding of how crowd science projects are set up and how volunteers can contribute to science. We suggest that our findings are of practical relevance for initiators of crowd science projects, for science communication as well as for informed science policy making. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Development of a reliable experimental set-up for Dover sole larvae Solea solea L. and exploring the possibility of implementing this housing system in a gnotobiotic model.

    PubMed

    De Swaef, Evelien; Demeestere, Kristof; Boon, Nico; Van den Broeck, Wim; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Decostere, Annemie

    2017-07-24

    Due to the increasing importance of the aquaculture sector, diversification in the number of cultured species imposes itself. Dover sole Solea solea L. is put forward as an important new aquaculture candidate due to its high market value and high flesh quality. However, as for many other fish species, sole production is hampered by amongst others high susceptibility to diseases and larval mortality, rendering the need for more research in this area. In this respect, in first instance, a housing system for Dover sole larvae was pinpointed by keeping the animals individually in 24-well plates for 26days with good survival rates and initiating metamorphosis. This ensures a standardised and reliable experimental set-up in which the possible death of one larva has no effect on the other larvae, rendering experiments adopting such a system more reproducible. In addition to proving valuable in many other applications, this multi well system constitutes a firm basis to enable the gnotobiotic rearing of larvae, which hitherto is non-existing for Dover sole. In this respect, secondly, a large number of disinfection protocols were tested, making use of widely employed disinfectants as hydrogen peroxide, glutaraldehyde and/or ozone whether or not combined with a mixture of antimicrobial agents for 24h. Although none of the tested protocols was sufficient to reproducibly generate a gnotobiotic model, the combination of glutaraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide resulted in hatchable, bacteria-free eggs in some cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Objective Borderline Method (OBM): A Probability-Based Model for Setting up an Objective Pass/Fail Cut-Off Score in Medical Programme Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Turner, Rolf; Poole, Phillippa; Wilkinson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The decision to pass or fail a medical student is a "high stakes" one. The aim of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of a new objective standard-setting method for determining the pass/fail cut-off score from borderline grades. Three methods for setting up pass/fail cut-off scores were compared: the…

  4. The Objective Borderline Method (OBM): A Probability-Based Model for Setting up an Objective Pass/Fail Cut-Off Score in Medical Programme Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Turner, Rolf; Poole, Phillippa; Wilkinson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The decision to pass or fail a medical student is a "high stakes" one. The aim of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of a new objective standard-setting method for determining the pass/fail cut-off score from borderline grades. Three methods for setting up pass/fail cut-off scores were compared: the…

  5. Guide for SDEC Set up

    SciTech Connect

    Bibby, R; Guthrie, E

    2009-01-30

    The instrument has four collection vials that must be filled with ethylene glycol before operation. Each of the four vials should be labeled 1 through 4 and the empty weights recorded. Fill each vial with 80 mL of ethylene glycol and record the weight again. In order for the instrument to operate properly, the collection vials should always have less than 160 mL of total liquid in them. After completing a sample run, remove the collection vials, use a transfer pipette to remove any liquid that might still be on the air paddler, wipe off any condensation from the exterior of the collection vial and record weight. From the instrument, record the ending volume and the time of operation. The solution mixed in the scintillation vial will be 2 ml of a 95% to 50% ethylene glycol to water mixture. To determine the efficiency of counting at all of these concentrations, a series of vials should be set up that consist of 18 ml of Ultima Gold LLT cocktail mixed with standard, regular deionized water and ethylene glycol. The efficiency curve should be counted in the 'Low Level' count mode with the Luminescence Correction ON and the Color Quench Correction ON. Once the tSIE values are determined, chart the cpm against the tSIE numbers and find the best fit for the data. The resulting equation is to be used to converting tSIE values from the collection vials to efficiency. To determine the background cpm value of the ethylene glycol, count a 2 ml sample of ethylene glycol with 18 ml of Ultima Gold for 100 minutes. To determine the total activity of the sample, take two 2 ml aliquots of sample from the first vial and place in separate scintillation vials. Record the weight of each aliquot. Determine the percentage of total sample each aliquot represents by dividing the aliquot weight by the total solution weight from the vial. Also, determine the percentage of ethylene glycol in the sample by dividing the initial solution weight by the final solution weight and multiplying by 100

  6. Setting up an atmospheric-hydrologic model for seasonal forecasts of water flow into dams in a mountainous semi-arid environment (Cyprus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Zittis, Georgios; Hadjinicolaou, Panos

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited rainfall concentrated in the winter months and long dry summers, storage and management of water resources is of paramount importance in Cyprus. For water storage purposes, the Cyprus Water Development Department is responsible for the operation of 56 large dams total volume of 310 Mm3) and 51 smaller reservoirs (total volume of 17 Mm3) over the island. Climate change is also expected to heavily affect Cyprus water resources with a 1.5%-12% decrease in mean annual rainfall (Camera et al., 2016) projected for the period 2020-2050, relative to 1980-2010. This will make reliable seasonal water inflow forecasts even more important for water managers. The overall aim of this study is to set-up the widely used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with its hydrologic extension (WRF-hydro), for seasonal forecasts of water inflow in dams located in the Troodos Mountains of Cyprus. The specific objectives of this study are: i) the calibration and evaluation of WRF-Hydro for the simulation of stream flows, in the Troodos Mountains, for past rainfall seasons; ii) a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters; iii) a comparison of the application of the atmospheric-hydrologic modelling chain versus the use of climate observations as forcing. The hydrologic model is run in its off-line version with daily forcing over a 1-km grid, while the overland and channel routing is performed on a 100-m grid with a time-step of 6 seconds. Model outputs are exported on a daily base. First, WRF-Hydro is calibrated and validated over two 1-year periods (October-September), using a 1-km gridded observational precipitation dataset (Camera et al., 2014) as input. For the calibration and validation periods, years with annual rainfall close to the long-term average and with the presence of extreme rainfall and flow events were selected. A sensitivity analysis is performed, for the following parameters: partitioning of rainfall into runoff and infiltration (REFKDT), the

  7. Mathematical and numerical models for transfer of low-density lipoproteins through the arterial walls: a new methodology for the model set up with applications to the study of disturbed lumenal flow.

    PubMed

    Prosi, M; Zunino, P; Perktold, K; Quarteroni, A

    2005-04-01

    In this work we introduce and discuss several mathematical models, based on partial differential equations, devised to study the coupled transport of macromolecules as low-density lipoproteins in the blood stream and in the arterial walls. These models are accurate provided that a suitable set of physical parameters characterizing the physical properties of the molecules and of the wall layers are available. Here we turn our attention on this aspect, and propose a new methodology to compute the physical parameters needed for the model set up, starting from available in vivo measurements. Then, we focus on the study of the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins in vascular districts featuring a highly disturbed flow. Our results demonstrate that mathematical models whose set up procedure benefits from an experimental feedback provide reliable information not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively. Their application to geometrically perturbed vascular districts (as for example a severe stenosis) shows that geometrical parameters such as curvature and variations of the lumenal section strongly influence the accumulation of low-density lipoproteins within the wall. For instance, in a stenotic segment with 75% area constriction, the LDL concentration at the lumenal side of the wall is about 10% higher than for the undisturbed segment.

  8. Petroleum geology and play assessment, Bornholm Area, Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Bornholm area is in the easternmost part of the Danish license area of northwest Europe, where it is part of the mobile border zone between the stable Fennoscandian shield and the subsiding Danish-Polish trough. The Bornholm area is dominated by a complicated pattern of grabens and uplift horst blocks, of which the island of Bornholm is one. The horst blocks are parallel with the general northwest-southeast trend of the border zone, but major grabens are perpendicular to this trend. The most prominent one is the Ronne graben, in which up to 2 km of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediment are present. Cambrian-Silurian rocks are present over most of the Bornholm area, whereas substantial thicknesses of Mesozoic sediments are more or less restricted to the southwestern part. Devonian-Early Triassic rocks are not seen in outcrop but may be present in the deeper grabens. During the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary Laramide orogeny, part of the area was uplifted as much as 1-2 km. Source rocks are probably lower Paleozoic, high-TOC, shelf mudstones, and possibly Upper Carboniferous coal measures, and Jurassic coal measures. Due to its proximity to the Fennoscandian shield, clastic sediment has been supplied to the Bornholm area throughout geologic history. A wide range of structural traps resulted from normal extension, strike-slip faulting, and inversion. Although the Bornholm area is virtually unexplored for hydrocarbons, the presence of surrounding, structurally related oil and gas provinces makes the area a logical target for exploration today.

  9. Setting-Up, Calibrating and Validating Hydrodynamic Models on the Basis of Remotely-Sensed Data Only: Are We There Yet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.

    2015-12-01

    The greater availability of remote sensing data stimulates the scientific community to resort to these new data sources in order to pursue a greater spatial coverage of hydraulic models, even in remote and data-sparse areas. However, the accuracy of hydrological and hydraulic models performed in absence of measured topography data suffers from the lack of knowledge of the river bathymetry, which cannot be directly inferred from satellite instruments. This work, adopting the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) for representing the riverbed and floodplain morphology, tests two different procedures for inferring the river bathymetry under the water surface level, thus enhancing the accuracy of space-borne digital elevation model and its suitability for hydraulic applications. Referring to a river stretch of about 140 km of the Po river, the study investigates the suitability of 1) altimetry data (i.e., ERS-2 and ENVISAT) and 2) SRTM-based river cross-sections modified according to two approaches (Channel Bankfull depth (CB) and Slope-Break (SB) approach), for the implementation and calibration of 1D numerical models. Simulation results are compared with those obtained by means of a quasi-2D model implemented with detailed topographical data (i.e. airborne LiDAR), and show that both SRTM-based models based on CB and SB approaches appear accurate enough to reproduce the hydrometric regime of the river stretch. In particular, despite the SB approach does not require any field data, it provides efficiency values (NSs) and errors of the same order of LiDAR-based model. Even though the accuracy of SRTM-based models is still not adequate for detailed analysis (i.e., local flood-risk estimate), the study further emphasizes the suitability of space-borne topography data (e.g. SRTM), combined with remotely sensed altimetry data (i.e., ERS-2 and ENVISAT), for the implementation of large-scale analysis (i.e., global flood risk analysis), even in absence of field measurements.

  10. Diffuse reflectance based inverse Monte Carlo model for the estimation of the dependent scattering of intralipid 20% using a simplified two fiber oblique geometry set up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Michael; Narayanan Unni, Sujatha

    2015-03-01

    Scattering property of Intralipid is widely used for calibration and simulation of turbid media, especially biological tissues, in optical spectroscopic studies. The desired phantom turbidity level matching that of target tissue scattering properties is vital in the right preparation of phantoms mimicking the tissue. A simplified two fiber oblique illumination-collection geometry setup is used along with iterative inverse Monte Carlo simulations on the diffuse reflectance obtained experimentally for estimating the reduced scattering coefficient (μś) of Intralipid-20% for wavelengths ranging from 500 nm to 880 nm. Basic Monte Carlo for Multi Layered media (MCML) code is modified to incorporate the two fiber inverse model of diffuse reflectance with oblique broadband illumination and perpendicular collection of diffusively reflected light from the sample. Wavelength dependent true phase function of Intralipid is incorporated in the model and a semi-empirical concentration scaling methodology is used to obtain volume concentration dependence on the μś. In the inverse modelling, the modified Twersky equation for correlated scattering has been used to obtain the μś profile of Intralipid-20% for its volume concentration ranging from 16% to 100%. The results are shown to be in good agreement with the optical characterization studies of Intralipid-20% involving bulkier instrumentation for the wavelength range under consideration. The study presented in this paper gives an insight for an in vivo fiber based methodology for quantifying the variation of optical scattering during tissue malignancy.

  11. Rat experimental model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury: an ethical approach to set up the analgesic management of acute post-surgical pain.

    PubMed

    Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Tolva, Valerio; Casana, Renato; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Vanoli, Emilio; Spazzolini, Carla; Roughan, John; Calvillo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    During the past 30 years, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rodents became one of the most commonly used model in cardiovascular research. Appropriate pain-prevention appears critical since it may influence the outcome and the results obtained with this model. However, there are no proper guidelines for pain management in rats undergoing thoracic surgery. Accordingly, we evaluated three analgesic regimens in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study was strongly focused on 3R's ethic principles, in particular the principle of Reduction. Rats undergoing surgery were treated with pre-surgical tramadol (45 mg/kg intra-peritoneal), or carprofen (5 mg/kg sub-cutaneous), or with pre-surgical administration of carprofen followed by 2 post-surgery tramadol injections (multi-modal group). We assessed behavioral signs of pain and made a subjective evaluation of stress and suffering one and two hours after surgery. Multi-modal treatment significantly reduced the number of signs of pain compared to carprofen alone at both the first hour (61±42 vs 123±47; p<0.05) and the second hour (43±21 vs 74±24; p<0.05) post-surgery. Tramadol alone appeared as effective as multi-modal treatment during the first hour, but signs of pain significantly increased one hour later (from 66±72 to 151±86, p<0.05). Carprofen alone was more effective at the second hour post-surgery when signs of pain reduced to 74±24 from 113±40 in the first hour (p<0.05). Stress behaviors during the second hour were observed in only 20% of rats in the multimodal group compared to 75% and 86% in the carprofen and tramadol groups, respectively (p<0.05). Multi-modal treatment with carprofen and tramadol was more effective in preventing pain during the second hour after surgery compared with both tramadol or carprofen. Our results suggest that the combination of carprofen and tramadol represent the best therapy to prevent animal pain after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. We obtained our results

  12. Rat Experimental Model of Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: An Ethical Approach to Set up the Analgesic Management of Acute Post-Surgical Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Tolva, Valerio; Casana, Renato; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Vanoli, Emilio; Spazzolini, Carla; Roughan, John; Calvillo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Rationale During the past 30 years, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rodents became one of the most commonly used model in cardiovascular research. Appropriate pain-prevention appears critical since it may influence the outcome and the results obtained with this model. However, there are no proper guidelines for pain management in rats undergoing thoracic surgery. Accordingly, we evaluated three analgesic regimens in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. This study was strongly focused on 3R’s ethic principles, in particular the principle of Reduction. Methods Rats undergoing surgery were treated with pre-surgical tramadol (45 mg/kg intra-peritoneal), or carprofen (5 mg/kg sub-cutaneous), or with pre-surgical administration of carprofen followed by 2 post-surgery tramadol injections (multi-modal group). We assessed behavioral signs of pain and made a subjective evaluation of stress and suffering one and two hours after surgery. Results Multi-modal treatment significantly reduced the number of signs of pain compared to carprofen alone at both the first hour (61±42 vs 123±47; p<0.05) and the second hour (43±21 vs 74±24; p<0.05) post-surgery. Tramadol alone appeared as effective as multi-modal treatment during the first hour, but signs of pain significantly increased one hour later (from 66±72 to 151±86, p<0.05). Carprofen alone was more effective at the second hour post-surgery when signs of pain reduced to 74±24 from 113±40 in the first hour (p<0.05). Stress behaviors during the second hour were observed in only 20% of rats in the multimodal group compared to 75% and 86% in the carprofen and tramadol groups, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions Multi-modal treatment with carprofen and tramadol was more effective in preventing pain during the second hour after surgery compared with both tramadol or carprofen. Our results suggest that the combination of carprofen and tramadol represent the best therapy to prevent animal pain after myocardial ischemia

  13. Diagnostic set-up and modelling for investigation of synergy between 3D edge physics and plasma-wall interactions on Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Neubauer, O.; König, R.; Krychowiak, M.; Schweer, B.; Denner, P.; Rack, M.; Reiter, D.; Feng, Y.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Drews, P.; Hasenbeck, F.; Liu, S.; Gao, Y.; Wang, E. H.; Wei, Y.; Dostal, M.; Li, L.; Wang, N.; Geiger, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Sereda, S.; Börner, P.; Weger, A. C.; Biel, W.; Brezinsek, S.; Charl, A.; Czymek, G.; Höschen, D.; Effenberg, F.; Grulke, O.; Nicolai, D.; Lambertz, H. T.; Marchuk, O.; Schmitz, O.; Hollfeld, K. P.; Knaup, M.; Offermanns, G.; Satheeswaran, G.; Terra, A.; Thomas, J.; Pederson, T. S.; Samm, U.; Linsmeier, C.; the W7-X Team

    2017-06-01

    A group of edge diagnostics and modelling has been developed for investigation of synergy between 3D edge physics and plasma-wall interactions on Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). Two endoscopes have been designed for visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy and tomography of the plasma edge, along with infrared thermography of the divertor tiles. 2D profiles of impurities (e.g. helium, carbon) will be measured by two endoscopes viewing the island divertor region in the plasma edge with a spatial resolution of  <2 mm. A multipurpose manipulator, which is used as the carrier either of the probe head for measuring the plasma edge profiles or of samples for plasma exposure studies, was installed at the outside mid-plane on W7-X in 2015. A poloidal correlation reflectometer has also been installed at W7-X. The system consists of an antenna array observing the propagation of turbulent phenomena in the mid-plane. The EMC3-EIRENE code package has been adapted for plasma edge transport in helium plasma at W7-X using a hybrid fluid-kinetic approach by enabling EMC3 to treat non-hydrogen isotopes and extending the usage of EIRENE features within EMC3-EIRENE.

  14. Petroleum geology and play assessment, Bornholm area, Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.

    1988-02-01

    The Bornholm area is dominated by a complicated pattern of grabens and uplift horst blocks, of which the island of Borhnolm is one. The horst blocks are parallel with the general northwest-southeast trend of the border zone, but major grabens arc perpendicular to this trend. The most prominent one is the Ronne graben, in which up to 2 km of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediment are present. Cambrian-Silurian rocks are present over most of the Bornholm area, whereas substantial thicknesses of mesozoic sediments are more or less restricted to the southwestern part. Devonian-Early Triassic rocks are not seen in outcrop but may be present in the deeper grabens. During the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary Laramide orogeny, part of the area was uplifted as much as 1-2 km. Source rocks are probably lower Paleozoic, high-TOC, shelf mudstones, and possibly Upper Carboniferous coal measures, and Jurassic coal measures. Due to its proximity to the Fennoscandian shield, clastic sediment has been supplied to the Bornholm area throughout geologic history. A wide range of structural traps resulted from normal extension, strike-slip faulting, and inversion. Although the Bornholm area is virtually unexplored for hydrocarbons, the presence of surrounding, structurally related oil and gas provinces makes the area a logical target for exploration today.

  15. Advice on Setting up a STEM Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Setting up a STEM club can be the most daunting item that one faces on a department's development plan. Coupled with all the other demands that exist within teaching and learning, teachers can be easily forgiven for pushing this task further and further into the school year until it eventually becomes one of next year's "to-do" items.…

  16. Advice on Setting up a STEM Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Setting up a STEM club can be the most daunting item that one faces on a department's development plan. Coupled with all the other demands that exist within teaching and learning, teachers can be easily forgiven for pushing this task further and further into the school year until it eventually becomes one of next year's "to-do" items.…

  17. Experience in setting up a PC cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua; Zhang, Mei

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we summary and present our thinking and experience in setting up a PC cluster, with a consideration that the described thinking and experience may be relevant to or useful for those who intend to buy a similar cluster in the near future.

  18. Adaptation of the pseudo-metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor technique to ultrathin silicon-on-insulator wafers characterization: Improved set-up, measurement procedure, parameter extraction, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Daele, W.; Malaquin, C.; Baumel, N.; Kononchuk, O.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2013-10-01

    This paper revisits and adapts of the pseudo-MOSFET (Ψ-MOSFET) characterization technique for advanced fully depleted silicon on insulator (FDSOI) wafers. We review the current challenges for standard Ψ-MOSFET set-up on ultra-thin body (12 nm) over ultra-thin buried oxide (25 nm BOX) and propose a novel set-up enabling the technique on FDSOI structures. This novel configuration embeds 4 probes with large tip radius (100-200 μm) and low pressure to avoid oxide damage. Compared with previous 4-point probe measurements, we introduce a simplified and faster methodology together with an adapted Y-function. The models for parameters extraction are revisited and calibrated through systematic measurements of SOI wafers with variable film thickness. We propose an in-depth analysis of the FDSOI structure through comparison of experimental data, TCAD (Technology Computed Aided Design) simulations, and analytical modeling. TCAD simulations are used to unify previously reported thickness-dependent analytical models by analyzing the BOX/substrate potential and the electrical field in ultrathin films. Our updated analytical models are used to explain the results and to extract correct electrical parameters such as low-field electron and hole mobility, subthreshold slope, and film/BOX interface traps density.

  19. Automatic set up of SHETRAN for catchments in Great Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Kilsby, Chris; Fowler, Hayley

    2014-05-01

    Physically-based spatially-distributed (PBSD) models may provide a robust framework for simulating catchment processes in ungauged catchments and under climatic variability. However, they are often overlooked in catchment studies in favour of their conceptual or lumped counterparts. This is because conceptual models are easy and rapid to set up, and can be finely tuned using historic data to give excellent simulation results. On the other hand PBSD models, such as SHETRAN developed at Newcastle University, require much more input data and take weeks or months to set up. To overcome these problems and to promote the use of SHETRAN, this project has set up an easy-to-use, accessible system of hydrological models across Great Britain to be used for both catchment scale studies and countrywide analysis of river flows under present and future conditions. An interface for this system has been developed to make the usually long and tedious setup of PBSD models quick and easy. A non-expert user can now set up a robust and reliable model for a catchment within Great Britain within 10 seconds, a process which would usually take weeks. The user can select a catchment from one of the 1457 boundaries identified in the National River Flow Archive, or they can upload their own catchment boundary as a shapefile. The system therefore has great flexibility for use in setting up models of gauged and ungauged catchments. PBSD models require a lot of data (DEM, geology, soil, land cover), often available in only an inappropriate format. The data behind this system is freely accessible under an academic licence and downloadable from various publicly funded bodies. These data layers have been converted into the correct format for use with SHETRAN, which is also freely available and is provided with every model set up.

  20. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Alan; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice. PMID:25838718

  1. Setting up a medical portrait studio.

    PubMed

    Neff, Laura L; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, J David

    2010-05-01

    Consistency of photographic documentation is essential for facial plastic surgery, a visual surgical subspecialty. Photographs are often used to validate surgical outcomes but have many other uses including education, publication, and marketing. Utilization of a properly equipped medical portrait studio will dramatically increase the quality of photographic images. In this article, the authors discuss the steps necessary to set up and use an officebased portrait studio. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trappers set up trap for lizard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In hope of catching a large monitor lizard seen in the area, state-licensed animal trappers Dewey Kessler and James Dean (at left), with Gary Povitch (kneeling) of the U.S. Wildlife and Dan Turner (standing) set up a trap on KSC. The lizard has been spotted recently near S.R. 3, a route into the Center, by several area residents. Turner is a monitor expert. The lizard is not a native of the area, and possibly a released pet. Dean is working with the cooperation of KSC and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  3. Trappers set up trap for lizard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In hope of catching a large monitor lizard seen in the area, state-licensed animal trappers Dewey Kessler and James Dean (at left), with Gary Povitch (kneeling) of the U.S. Wildlife and Dan Turner (standing) set up a trap on KSC. The lizard has been spotted recently near S.R. 3, a route into the Center, by several area residents. Turner is a monitor expert. The lizard is not a native of the area, and possibly a released pet. Dean is working with the cooperation of KSC and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

  4. Cost to Set up Common Languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latora, Vito

    Complexity is a highly interdisciplinary science. Although there are drawbacks for researchers to work at the interface of different fields, such as the cost to set up common languages, and the risks associated with not being recognized by any of the well-established scientific communities, some of my recent work indicates that interdisciplinarity can be extremely rewarding. Drawing on large data sets on scientific production during several decades, we have shown that highly interdisciplinary scholars can outperform specialized ones, and that scientists can enhance their performance by seeking collaborators with expertise in various fields. My vision for complexity is based on the added value of its interdisciplinary nature. I list below three research directions that I am personally eager to explore, and that I think will be among the main challenges of complexity in the next 10 years...

  5. Setting up of holographic optical tweezer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Tata, B. V. R.; Ravindran, T. R.

    2017-05-01

    Optical tweezers use tightly focused laser beams to hold and move microscopic objects in a solvent. However, many applications require simultaneous control over multitude of particles, positioning them in 3D space at desired locations with desired symmetry, which is made possible by the use of holographic optical tweezers using the technique of beam shaping and holography. We have designed and developed a holographic optical tweezer set-up using a phase only liquid crystal, reflective spatial light modulator. We employ the technique of phase modulation to modulate the phase of the beam by generating holograms using Random Superposition (RS) and weighted Gerchberg Saxton algorithm (WGS) algorithm for generating desired patterns of light at the trapping plane. A 4×4 array of beams with square symmetry was generated using WGS algorithm and trapped polystyrene particles of size 1.2 micron in a 4×4 two dimensional array. There were uniformity issues among the trap intensities, as we move away from the zeroth order spot. This was corrected by taking into account diffraction effects due to the pixelated nature of SLM modulating the intensity of the trap spots and the ghost order suppression by spatial disorder.

  6. Effect of galactooligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 on growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, microbial community structure, and metabolite production in an in vitro colonic model set up with human or pig microbiota.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Rafael C R; Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Borst, Wendy; Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk; Gutiérrez, Odette P; Maathuis, Annet J H; de Melo Franco, Bernadette D G; De Martinis, Elaine C P; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Venema, Koen; Saad, Susana M I; Smidt, Hauke

    2013-04-01

    A validated in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2), set up with human or pig faeces, was used to evaluate the impact of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, administered alone (i), in the presence of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (ii), and co-administered with probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) (iii) on GOS degradation, microbial growth (L. amylovorus, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and total bacteria) and metabolite production. High performance anion exchange chromatography revealed that GOS degradation was more pronounced in TIM-2 inoculated with pig faeces than with human faeces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected a more complex Lactobacillus spp. community in pig faecal material than in human faecal inoculum. According to 16S rRNA gene-targeted qPCR, GOS stimulated the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in faecal material from both materials. The cumulative production of short chain fatty acids and ammonia was higher (P < 0.05) for pig than for human faeces. However, lactate accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) in the human model and increased after co-administration with GOS and Bb-12. This study reinforced the notion that differences in microbiota composition between target host organisms need to be considered when animal data are extrapolated to human, as is often done with pre- and probiotic intervention studies.

  7. INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST WITH FIELD SET UP IN FOOTBALL CONFIGURATION. FIELD SEATING ROTATES TO ACCOMMODATE BASEBALL GAMES. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Small Business, Minneapolis, MN.

    This study guide is intended for use with the separately available entrepreneurship education text "How To Set Up Your Own Business." The guide includes student exercises that have been designed to accompany chapters dealing with the following topics: determining whether or not to set up a small business, doing market research, forecasting sales,…

  9. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Small Business, Minneapolis, MN.

    This study guide is intended for use with the separately available entrepreneurship education text "How To Set Up Your Own Business." The guide includes student exercises that have been designed to accompany chapters dealing with the following topics: determining whether or not to set up a small business, doing market research, forecasting sales,…

  10. 9. VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST STERN OF JFK, SCAFFOLDING SET UP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST STERN OF JFK, SCAFFOLDING SET UP FOR REMOUNTING OF PROPELLERS. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Burbank sets up the ICV Resting Echo Scan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-20

    ISS030-E-155938 (20 Jan. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, sets up the Integrated Cardiovascular (ICV) Resting Echo Scan at the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  12. Set-up error & organ motion uncertainty: a review.

    PubMed

    Booth, J T; Zavgorodni, S F

    1999-06-01

    Conformal radiotherapy allows improvement in the treatment outcome due to increased targeting accuracy through advanced beam shaping techniques to precisely conform radiation dose to the geometry of the tumour. Treatment set-up and organ motion uncertainties are unavoidable factors that are limiting increases in accuracy and have to be accounted for in conformal treatment planning. The magnitudes of set-up errors and organ motion uncertainties for specific sites, and using various set-up techniques, have been quantified in the literature. However, the parameters used with these measurements and the presentation of the data has differed between studies for the same site. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and combine the published material into a uniform format and to display typical reported values of set-up and organ motion uncertainties. Values measured under similar conditions were averaged across studies. The results of this analysis illustrate (1) variability in the parameters used for measurements across studies, (2) typical motion ranges of the prostate, kidneys, liver and diaphragm, (3) typical means and standard deviations for set-up errors associated with the prostate, pelvis, brain, head and neck, thorax, rectum and breast and (4) a brief review of the common methods to lower or account for these uncertainties.

  13. PROCEDURE FOR SETTING UP THE TRANSFER LINES FOR THE SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    RAPARIA,D.; LEE,Y.Y.; WENG,W.T.; WEI,J.

    2002-08-19

    This paper describes the procedures for setting up the transfer lines for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). The High Energy Beam Transfer (HEBT) is about 170 meters long and has two achromat sections, an energy corrector cavity, energy spreader cavity, and transverse and longitudinal collimators. The Ring to Target Beam Transfer (RTBT) line is about 150 meters long has an achromat, transverse collimators and a beam spreader section. It will be shown that with the available diagnostics one can first characterize the incoming beam in both lines and then, with types and locations of the diagnostics and beam tuning ''knobs'', set up to deliver an output beam with the desired properties.

  14. A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai

    2009-01-01

    A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…

  15. Setting Up Environments. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald; Stewart, Jay

    For use in conjunction with training videotapes illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide aims to help caregivers set up environments for infants and toddlers that promote young children's health, safety, and comfort, meet their developmental needs, and provide caregivers a comfortable and convenient place to work. Section 1…

  16. A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai

    2009-01-01

    A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…

  17. Hands-on Science. Getting Set Up for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for getting organized and creating a classroom environment that promotes science learning for primary students. Teachers must first decide what topics they are going to cover and what materials they need. Next, they should determine how to organize the materials. Finally, they should identify and set up areas in the classroom…

  18. Hands-on Science. Getting Set Up for Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Presents strategies for getting organized and creating a classroom environment that promotes science learning for primary students. Teachers must first decide what topics they are going to cover and what materials they need. Next, they should determine how to organize the materials. Finally, they should identify and set up areas in the classroom…

  19. How To Set Up a Workplace Mentoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.

    This document provides background for those looking to establish workplace mentoring or buddy systems. It touches briefly on the other two legs of an effective workplace preparation program, which are orientation and on-the-job training. These six steps for setting up a mentoring system are described: recruitment, flexibility, training, written…

  20. Estimating the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration using the water balance model WAVE and fine spatial resolution airborne remote sensing images from the DAIS-sensor: Experimental set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, W. W.; Veroustraete, F.; Feyen, J.

    2003-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ET) of agricultural land and forestland surfaces play an important role in the redistribution of water on the Earth's surface. Any change in evapotranspiration, either through change in vegetation or climate change, directly effects the available water resources. For quantifying these effects physical models need to be constructed. Most hydrological models have to deal with a lack of good spatial resolution, despite their good temporal information. Remote sensing techniques on the contrary determine the spatial pattern of landscape features and hence are very useful on large scales. The main objective of this research is the combination of the spatial pattern of remote sensing (using visible and thermal infrared spectrum) with the temporal pattern of the water balance model WAVE (Vanclooster et al., 1994 and 1996). To realise this, the following objectives are formulated: (i) relate soil and vegetation surface temperatures to actual evapotranspiration of forest and crops simulated with the water balance model WAVE using remote sensing derived parameters. Three methods will be used and mutually compared. Both airborne and satellite imagery will be implemented; (1) compare the spatial pattern of evapotranspiration, as a result of the three methods, with the energy balance model SEBAL (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998) and finally; (2) subject the up-scaled WAVE and SEBAL models to an uncertainty analysis using the GLUE-approach (Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimate) (Beven en Binley, 1992). To study the behaviour of the model beyond the field-scale (micro-scale), a meso-scale study was conducted at the test-site of DURAS (50°50'38"N, 5°08'50"W, Sint-Truiden). Airborne imagery from the DAIS/ROSIS sensor are available. For the determination of the spatial pattern of actual evapotranspiration the next two methods are considered: (1) relations between surface temperature, surface albedo and vegetation indices are linked with field

  1. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  2. [The set-up of an in vitro model for stable knockdown of MyD88 by lentivirus-based RNAi in IEC-6 cell line and the study on its early apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Bao, Pingqian; Li, Yang; Chen, Keling; Zhou, Bin; Liu, Bin; Li, Yuan; Zhou, Zongguang

    2012-12-01

    Intestinal inflammatory disease is a kind of non-specific disease with morbidity increasing yearly. It has been proved that the Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways are closely related to intestinal inflammatory diseases. Myeloid differentiation protein 88 (Myd88) is a critical adaptor protein of TLR4 signaling and critical for the study of intestinal inflammatory disease, but stable Myd88 knockdown in vitro models of cell line are still very few. In the present study, an HIV-1-based lentivirus three-plamid packaging system was used for the construction of a lentivirual vector mediating RNA interference (RNAi) against Myd88 in intestinal fossae epithelial cell line-6 (IEC-6). Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect Myd88 expression. Annexin V staining and flowcytometry (FLM) were applied to detect and evaluate the early apoptosis. The results showed that lentiviral vectors containing the shRNA expression cassette specifically targeting Myd88 were constructed and efficiently stably knocked down Myd88 expression in IEC-6 cell line. Early apoptosis was significantly decreased after Myd88 knockdown. This study successfully constructed a lentivirus-based RNAi for Myd88 and detailed the key technique combined with characteristics of the early apoptosis after the Myd88 knockdown, provided a novel, stable and repeatable in vitro model for the pathogenesis, targeting therapeutic study for the intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  3. Kaleri sets up Russian MBI-12 Payload in the SM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-09

    ISS026-E-008718 (8 Dec. 2010) --- Russian cosmonaut Alexander Kaleri, Expedition 26 flight engineer, sets up the Russian MBI-12 payload for a Sonokard experiment session in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. Kaleri used a sports shirt from the Sonokard kit with a special device in the pocket for testing a new method for acquiring physiological data without using direct contact on the skin. Measurements are recorded on a data card for return to Earth.

  4. Change management: setting up an asthma camp for children.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Beverly

    This article discusses the process and principles of change management using the example of setting up an asthma camp for children in south Wales. It focuses on the development of an innovative method of educating and caring for children with asthma. The planning, co-ordination, implementation and monitoring of this project through change management are examined, and the importance of evaluation is shown. The article highlights how service delivery evolved through assessment of the health and wellbeing needs of children with asthma.

  5. Essential Requirements to Setting up an Aesthetic Practice.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Mukta; Britto, Gillian R

    2014-07-01

    Aesthetic dermatology is becoming a vital and popular branch of medicine. This article aims to guide dermatologists to set up a professional and ethical aesthetic practice. Dermatologists should have an integrated practice of clinical dermatology, dermatosurgery and cosmetic dermatology. Ethical practice is the gold standard for any medical field, especially with dermatologists, who should avoid doing unnecessary procedures. Proper patient counselling and addressing the patients' concerns is imperative.

  6. Essential Requirements to Setting up an Aesthetic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Mukta; Britto, Gillian R

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetic dermatology is becoming a vital and popular branch of medicine. This article aims to guide dermatologists to set up a professional and ethical aesthetic practice. Dermatologists should have an integrated practice of clinical dermatology, dermatosurgery and cosmetic dermatology. Ethical practice is the gold standard for any medical field, especially with dermatologists, who should avoid doing unnecessary procedures. Proper patient counselling and addressing the patients’ concerns is imperative. PMID:25538440

  7. A pdpa laser-based measuring set-up for the characterisation of spray nozzles.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, D; Sonck, B; de Schampheleire, M; Steurbaut, W; Baetens, K; Verboven, P; Nicolaï, B; Ramon, H

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of agricultural sprays belong to the most critical factors affecting spray drift, deposition on plants, spray coverage and biological efficacy. Hence, within the framework of a research project about agricultural spray drift, a measuring set-up for the characterisation of spray nozzles using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA) was developed. This set-up is able to measure droplet sizes and velocities based on light-scattering principles. It is composed of different parts i.e.: a climate room, a spray unit, a three-dimensional automated positioning system and an Aerometrics PDPA 1D system. This paper presents a detailed description of this measuring set-up along with some first measuring results. These measurements will be used as an input for a Computational Fluid Dynamics drift-prediction model and to classify nozzles based on their driftability.

  8. Mapping wave set-up near a complex geometric urban coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomere, T.; Pindsoo, K.; Bishop, S. R.; Käärd, A.; Valdmann, A.

    2013-11-01

    Wave induced set-up is a process that leads to increased water levels in coastal regions. When coupled with storm conditions, wave set-up - or, for brevity, set-up - can significantly increase the risk of flooding or structural damage and therefore is of particular importance when considering coastal management or issues related to the planning of nearshore infrastructures. Here, we investigate the effects of set-up in the coastal region of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea, close to Tallinn, Estonia, although the results will have wider relevance for many other areas. Due to a lack of continuous wave data we employ modelling to provide input data using a calculation scheme based on a high-resolution (470 m) spectral wave model WAM to replicate spatial patterns of wave properties based on high-quality, instrument-measured wind data from the neighbourhood of the study site. The results indicate that for the specific geometry of coastline under consideration, there is a variation in set-up which is strongly affected by wind direction. The maximum set-up values are up to 70-80 cm in selected locations. This is more than 50% of the all-time maximum water level and thus may serve as a substantial source of marine hazard for several low-lying regions around the city. Wind directions during storms have changed in recent years and, with climate variability potentially increasing, these results will encourage further tests which may be used in a policy setting regarding defences or other structures in and around coastlines. In particular, with urban development now taking place in many coastal regions (including the one within this study) these results have implications for local planners. They may also be incorporated into new storm warning systems.

  9. Setting up a kinase discovery and development project.

    PubMed

    Bollag, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of novel kinase inhibitors has matured rapidly over the last decade. Paramount to the successful development of kinase inhibitors is appropriate selectivity for validated targets. Many different approaches have been applied over the years, with varied results. There are currently thirteen different small molecule protein kinase inhibitors on the marketplace. Interestingly, a majority of these compounds lack precise selectivity for specific targets. This will change in the coming years, as technology for achieving improved selectivity becomes more widely applied. This chapter will focus on some of the critical considerations in setting up a kinase discovery and development project, citing examples particularly targeting the Raf kinases.

  10. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion: Set-Up and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Chantelle M.

    1999-01-01

    During the research period focus was placed upon set-up, installment, and operation of the IEC. While procurement of specific components was difficult, the IEC was on several occasions demonstrated to be practical and safe during operation. Over the course of the summer several different grids were tested and various modes were obtained. While hard data was not produced, the IEC did something more important, which was to become established here at Marshall and pave the way for future IEC systems to be built.

  11. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion: Set-Up and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Chantelle M.

    1999-01-01

    During the research period focus was placed upon set-up, installment, and operation of the IEC. While procurement of specific components was difficult, the IEC was on several occasions demonstrated to be practical and safe during operation. Over the course of the summer several different grids were tested and various modes were obtained. While hard data was not produced, the IEC did something more important, which was to become established here at Marshall and pave the way for future IEC systems to be built.

  12. A Guide for Setting Up a Church-Sponsored Nursery School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostrawser, Sara

    This document provides a guide for setting up a church-sponsored nursery school. Chapter One outlines the verbal-cognitive model of preschool education which emphasizes interaction between teacher and child. Perceptual, motor, cognitive, social, emotional, and language objectives are indicated. Chapter Two covers aspects of school management such…

  13. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits: the Hardeberga Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Pedersen, Gunver K.

    2016-09-01

    During the early Cambrian, the Danish island Bornholm was situated on the northern edge of the continent Baltica with palaeolatitudes of about 35°S. An early Cambrian (Terreneuvian) transgression inundated large areas of Baltica including Bornholm creating shallow marine and coastline environments. During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well-preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal structures (medusoids) are present in the quarry, but due to the relative poor preservation of their fine-scale structures it is difficult to determine if the discoids represent true medusae imprints or inorganic structures. The preservation of the shallow-water bedforms as well as the possible medusae imprints is related to either the formation of thin mud layers, formed during a period of calm water when winds blew offshore for a longer period, or to the growth of bacterial mats. The orientation of the wave-formed bedforms indicates a local palaeoshoreline trending NE-SW and facing a large ocean to the north.

  14. Early Cambrian wave-formed shoreline deposits: the Hardeberga Formation, Bornholm, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmensen, Lars B.; Glad, Aslaug C.; Pedersen, Gunver K.

    2017-09-01

    During the early Cambrian, the Danish island Bornholm was situated on the northern edge of the continent Baltica with palaeolatitudes of about 35°S. An early Cambrian (Terreneuvian) transgression inundated large areas of Baltica including Bornholm creating shallow marine and coastline environments. During this period, wave-formed shoreline sediments (the Vik Member, Hardeberga Formation) were deposited on Bornholm and are presently exposed at Strøby quarry. The sediments consist of fine- and medium-grained quartz-cemented arenites in association with a few silt-rich mudstones. The presence of well-preserved subaqueous dunes and wave ripples indicates deposition in a wave-dominated upper shoreface (littoral zone) environment, and the presence of interference ripples indicates that the littoral zone environment experienced water level fluctuations due to tides and/or changing meteorological conditions. Discoidal structures (medusoids) are present in the quarry, but due to the relative poor preservation of their fine-scale structures it is difficult to determine if the discoids represent true medusae imprints or inorganic structures. The preservation of the shallow-water bedforms as well as the possible medusae imprints is related to either the formation of thin mud layers, formed during a period of calm water when winds blew offshore for a longer period, or to the growth of bacterial mats. The orientation of the wave-formed bedforms indicates a local palaeoshoreline trending NE-SW and facing a large ocean to the north.

  15. Overall view of test set-up in bldg 13 at JSC during docking set-up tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-08-04

    S74-27049 (4 Aug. 1974) --- Overall view of test set-up in Building 23 at the Johnson Space Center during testing of the docking mechanisms for the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The cinematic check was being made when this picture was taken. The test control room is on the right. The Soviet-developed docking system is atop the USA-NASA developed docking system. Both American and Soviet engineers can be seen taking part in the docking testing. The ASTP docking mission in Earth orbit is scheduled for July 1975.

  16. New ESD Test Set-Up for Spacecraft Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daout, B.; Romero, C.; Pelissou, P.; Wolf, K.-F. J.

    2016-05-01

    The ESD test method according to ECSS-E-ST-20-07C [1] has shown weaknesses in reproducibility and reliability. We have previously shown that test results can vary from one test laboratory and setup to another [2], this entails developing an improved methodology and hardware to address the ECSS test shortcomings. In this paper, a new topology and a generator built using a pressurized high voltage relay, a compensation circuit and a bulk current injection (BCI) probe as a coupling device instead of the 20 cm wire described in the current ECSS standard are presented. The generator and the suggested test set-up have been evaluated in different configurations showing an improved reproducibility and a simpler testing procedure.

  17. Entomotoxicology, experimental set-up and interpretation for forensic toxicologists.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Matthias; Wille, Sarah M R; Fernandez, Maria del Mar Ramírez; Di Fazio, V; Samyn, Nele; De Boeck, Gert; Bourel, Benoit

    2011-05-20

    Forensic entomotoxicology studies the usefulness of insects as alternative toxicological samples. Use of insects as alternative matrix for drug detection is well documented and recommended when conventional matrices such as blood, urine or internal organs are no longer available. However, several limitations of entomotoxicology have been highlighted, especially concerning interpretation of the drug concentrations in insects on human forensic cases. In addition, the lack of knowledge in pharmacokinetic of drugs in insects, large variability of experimental set-up and toxicological analysis compromise the utility of this science. This review focuses on the current knowledge of factors influencing drug detection in insects. Reasons for the current limitations, but also recommendations for future research are discussed and proposed in this paper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tide Effects on Wave Attenuation and Wave Set-up on a Caribbean Coral Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo-Fernández, A.; Roberts, H. H.; Wiseman, W. J., Jr.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of tides on wave attenuation and wave set-up were investigated at Great Pond Bay, a Caribbean reef located in St Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Measurements of wave pressure fluctuations were made at three stations across the reef profile. Total wave set-up was measured between the forereef and the reef crest or backreef lagoon. Wave spectra indicate significant filtering of energy at the peak frequencies as waves traveled across the reef. The energy dissipation calculations imply an average energy reduction of 62% between the forereef and reef crest. Mean energy reduction between the forereef and lagoon was 90%. Energy dissipation between the forereef and reef crest increased 15% between high and low tide and 6% between forereef and lagoon. Tidal reduction of water depth at the reef crest intensified wave breaking and this condition increased energy dissipation. Measurements of wave set-up ranged from 0·8 to 1·5 cm. Calculations of wave set-up using Tait's 1972 model showed good agreement with observations.

  19. Mapping wave set-up near a complex geometric urban coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomere, T.; Pindsoo, K.; Bishop, S. R.; Käärd, A.; Valdmann, A.

    2013-04-01

    Wave set-up is a process that leads to increased water levels in coastal regions. When coupled with storm conditions, set-up can significantly increase the risk of flooding or structural damage and therefore is of particular importance when considering coastal management or issues of planning related to near-shore infrastructures. Here, we investigate the effects of wave set-up in the coastal region of the Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea close to Tallinn, Estonia, although the results will have wider relevance for other areas. Due to a lack of continuous wave data we employ modelling to provide input data using a calculation scheme based on a high-resolution (470 m), spectral wave model WAM to replicate spatial patterns of wave properties based on high-quality, instrument measured wind data from the neighbourhood of the study site. The results indicate that for the specific geometry of coastline under consideration, there is a variation in set-up which is strongly affected by wind direction. The maximum set-up values are up to 70-80 cm in selected locations. This is more than 50% of the all-time maximum water level and thus may serve as a substantial source of marine hazard for several low-lying regions around the city. Wind directions during storms have changed in recent years and, with climate variability potentially increasing, these results will encourage for further tests which may be used in a policy setting regarding defences or other structures in and around coastlines. In particular, with urban development now taking place in many coastal regions (including the one within this study) these results have implications for local planners. They may also be incorporated into new storm warning systems.

  20. Experimental set-up and sensory glove interface for microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Amirouche, F; Martin, J R; Gonzalez, M; Fergusson, L

    2008-01-01

    One of the most fundamental prerequisites for successful microsurgery is thoughtful and adequate training. A combination of knowledge, technical skill, and decision making directly influences the surgical outcome. This study aims to analyse microsurgical hand coordinations quantitatively and to study the utility of a sensory glove interface in identifying the hand coordination patterns during microsurgery. A sensory glove interface used to measure the angular flexion-extension movements of the major interphalangeal joints of the hand, the grasp pressure, and the relative hand movements has been developed. Experiments of two suturing techniques were conducted with five experienced microsurgeons, and microsurgery practice was examined. The custom sensory glove interface required both signal conditioning and amplification which was directly interfaced with a custom-designed LABView software code. The sensory glove interface was calibrated using regression techniques and the set-up was validated using the Bland-Altman correlation technique. The hand coordination patterns were analysed using principal-component analysis. Pareto plots showing the contribution of the principal components were analysed. The contributions of the first two sensory data components have also been compared with hand coordination studies. The temporal variations provided new insights into the underlying synergetic mechanisms and in particular the relation between different suture techniques on grasp pressure.

  1. Setting Up a Veterinary Medicine Skills Lab in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m² under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare. PMID:24872855

  2. Setting up a veterinary medicine skills lab in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m(2) under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare.

  3. Setting up chronic disease programs: perspectives from Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, S; Smith, J; Sharma, S; Davey, R; Gokel, G

    2006-01-01

    To share some perspectives on setting up programs to improve management of hypertension, renal disease, and diabetes in high-risk populations, derived from experience in remote Australian Aboriginal settings. Regular integrated checks for chronic disease and their risk factors and appropriate treatment are essential elements of regular adult health care. Programs should be run by local health workers, following algorithms for testing and treatment, with back up from nurses. Constant evaluation is essential. COMPONENTS: Theses include testing, treatment, education for individuals and communities, skills and career development for staff, ongoing evaluation, program modification, and advocacy. Target groups, elements, and frequency of testing, as well as the reagents and treatment modalities must be designed for local circumstances, which include disease burden and impact, competing priorities, and available resources. Pilot surveys or record reviews can define target groups and conditions. Opportunistic testing will suffice if people are seen with some regularity for other conditions; otherwise, systematic screening is needed, preferably embedded in primary care streams. The chief goal of treatment is to lower blood pressure, and if the patient is diabetic, to control hyperglycemia. Many people will need multiple drugs for many years. Challenges include lack of resources, competing demands of acute care, the burden of treatment when disease rates are high, problems with information systems, and in our setting, health worker absenteeism. Businesses, altruistic organizations, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies might fund feasibility studies. Where governments or insurance companies already support health services, they must ultimately commit to chronic disease services over the long- term. Effective advocacy requires the presentation of an integrated view of chronic disease and a single cross-disciplinary program for its containment. Arguments based on

  4. Stereo particle image velocimetry set up for measurements in the wake of scaled wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanardi, Gabriele; Grassi, Donato; Zanotti, Alex; Nanos, Emmanouil M.; Campagnolo, Filippo; Croce, Alessandro; Bottasso, Carlo L.

    2017-08-01

    Stereo particle image velocimetry measurements were carried out in the boundary layer test section of Politecnico di Milano large wind tunnel to survey the wake of a scaled wind turbine model designed and developed by Technische Universität München. The stereo PIV instrumentation was set up to survey the three velocity components on cross-flow planes at different longitudinal locations. The area of investigation covered the entire extent of the wind turbines wake that was scanned by the use of two separate traversing systems for both the laser and the cameras. Such instrumentation set up enabled to gain rapidly high quality results suitable to characterise the behaviour of the flow field in the wake of the scaled wind turbine. This would be very useful for the evaluation of the performance of wind farm control methodologies based on wake redirection and for the validation of CFD tools.

  5. Setting up a clinical psychology service for commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Clare; Petrak, Jenny

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to provide what we believe to be the first report of the establishment of a clinical psychology service to provide accessible psychological assessment, intervention and crisis support, integrated within an existing East London sexual health clinical and outreach service for commercial sex workers (CSWs). Data are presented on referral patterns, demographics, presenting issues to clinical psychology, interventions and outcomes for the first year of the service. Women presented with a range of psychosocial needs. Psychological interventions included direct therapy, signposting to other services and consultation with staff. We concluded that this flexible model of service provision improves access to mental health services within the context of a specialist sexual health and outreach service for CSWs. The provision of a named, female clinical psychologist who provides both the clinical sessions and attends outreach has been an important factor in developing trust and familiarity, leading to better uptake of the clinical psychology service.

  6. A fluence-convolution method to calculate radiation therapy dose distributions that incorporate random set-up error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckham, W. A.; Keall, P. J.; Siebers, J. V.

    2002-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 62 (ICRU 1999) introduced the concept of expanding the clinical target volume (CTV) to form the planning target volume by a two-step process. The first step is adding a clinically definable internal margin, which produces an internal target volume that accounts for the size, shape and position of the CTV in relation to anatomical reference points. The second is the use of a set-up margin (SM) that incorporates the uncertainties of patient beam positioning, i.e. systematic and random set-up errors. We propose to replace the random set-up error component of the SM by explicitly incorporating the random set-up error into the dose-calculation model by convolving the incident photon beam fluence with a Gaussian set-up error kernel. This fluence-convolution method was implemented into a Monte Carlo (MC) based treatment-planning system. Also implemented for comparison purposes was a dose-matrix-convolution algorithm similar to that described by Leong (1987 Phys. Med. Biol. 32 327-34). Fluence and dose-matrix-convolution agree in homogeneous media. However, for the heterogeneous phantom calculations, discrepancies of up to 5% in the dose profiles were observed with a 0.4 cm set-up error value. Fluence-convolution mimics reality more closely, as dose perturbations at interfaces are correctly predicted (Wang et al 1999 Med. Phys. 26 2626-34, Sauer 1995 Med. Phys. 22 1685-90). Fluence-convolution effectively decouples the treatment beams from the patient, and more closely resembles the reality of particle fluence distributions for many individual beam-patient set-ups. However, dose-matrix-convolution reduces the random statistical noise in MC calculations. Fluence-convolution can easily be applied to convolution/superposition based dose-calculation algorithms.

  7. Reconstruction of climate and environmental changes in the Bornholm Basin during the last 6000 years, based on foraminiferal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binczewska, Anna; Polovodova Asteman, Irina; Moros, Matthias; Sławińska, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is the largest brackish sea in the world connected to the Atlantic Ocean through the narrow and shallow Danish Straits. The hydrography of the Baltic Sea is strongly dependent on inflows from the North Sea and its environmental conditions are influenced by meteorological and anthropogenic factors. To improve our understanding of the natural variability and forcing factors driving changes in the Baltic ecosystem, detailed analyses of palaeoecological archives are needed. Here we present a high-resolution study of foraminiferal assemblages together with sediment geochemistry (LOI, TOC, TIC, CNS) from a 8-m long gravity core (GC) and a 42-cm long multi core (MUC) taken in the Bornholm Basin in 2013. Both cores were investigated in order to reconstruct bottom water mass variability during the mid- and late Holocene. Cores were dated by AMS 14C (mostly on Macoma balthica shells), 210Pb and 137Cs. Age-model allowed us to place variability of foraminiferal assemblages in time and link them with the Holocene climate extremes and the Major Baltic Inflows (MBIs). High absolute abundances (ind./g wet sed.) of foraminifera are found within a core interval corresponding to the Dark Ages and the Medieval Warm Period (~AD 400-1200). The Little Ice Age is represented by rare to absent foraminiferal shells, while significant changes of foraminiferal abundances occur in the lower part of core(~ BC 2050-2995). The dominant species found in both cores are Cribroelphidium excavatum, C. excavatum f. clavatum, C. albiumbilicatum and C. incertum, all adapted to an ecologically unstable environment with high fluctuations of salinity and oxygen. The arenaceous species Reophax dentaliniformis strongly occurs at ~ AD 1450-1600, where calcareous species were rare. Presence of agglutinated foraminifera and prevailing small size of individuals in all studied material suggest bottom water undersaturation with respect to calcium carbonate. In the Baltic Sea, bottom waters

  8. A new mechatronic set-up and technique for investigation of firearms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel

    2016-12-01

    Since ancient times, mankind has manifested interest in the development and improvement of weapons, either for military or hunting purposes. Today, in competition with these legal practices, the number of those who commit crimes by non-compliance with the regime of weapons and ammunition has increased exponentially. This is why the technology and methods employed in the area of judicial ballistics, requires constant research and continuous learning. The present paper advances a new experimental set-up and its corresponding methodology, meant to measure the force deployed by the firing pin. The new experimental set-up and procedure consists of a mechatronic structure, based on a piezoelectric force transducer, which allows to measure, in-situ, the force produced by the firing pin when it is deployed. The obtained information can further be used to establish a correspondence between this force and the imprint left on the firing cap. This correspondence furthers the possibility of elaborating a model that would permit ballistic experts to correctly identify a smoothbore weapon.

  9. Don't be afraid to set up your fish facility.

    PubMed

    McNabb, Adrian; Scott, Kirsty; Ochsenstein, Elke von; Seufert, Kirsten; Carl, Matthias

    2012-09-01

    Most young researchers leaving the safe haven of postdoctoral life for the unchartered territory of a PI position are confronted with a multitude of new tasks. For those using fish as their favorite model system, this often includes the daunting task of setting up and running a fish facility. New PIs are expected to know everything about this, and are even asked in job interviews about the precise details of the facility they anticipate using. Consulting other laboratories, talking to experienced facility managers, and sifting through books and web material will certainly help but can be enormously time consuming and at times frustrating. You will likely receive conflicting advice or encounter information that is overcomplicated and out of date. In this report, we summarize our collective experience of five different fish facilities, and outline what we consider to be the essential steps for setting up and running a successful facility. We also include valuable tips and tricks such as an optimized protocol for brine shrimp hatching. Our aim is to help researchers spend less time worrying about the technical aspects of their facility so that they can focus on their main job--research.

  10. Paleomagnetic results from the Cambrian and Ordovician sediments of Bornholm (Denmark) and Southern Sweden and paleogeographical implications for Baltica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, Marek; Abrahamsen, Niels

    2003-11-01

    If apparent polar wander paths (APWP) cross, the question arises how to prove the older magnetization to be primary and not just a younger overprint. This problem is typically met in areas affected by percolating mineralizing fluids and/or heating due to a younger regional igneous activity. The Permian magnetic overprint is the classical example. Earlier paleomagnetic studies over the Lowermost Cambrian Nekso Sandstone Fm (NSF) of Bornholm (Denmark) yielded a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) similar to the Permian directions for Baltica. Since a possible reason could be a chemical overprint, we checked whether this phenomenon did take place on a regional scale. Some samples therefore were collected from other Lower Cambrian clastics of Bornholm and Southern Scandinavia. In result we show that the well-grouped and stable ChRM of the NSF contrasts with fairly chaotic, soft, and badly preserved magnetizations of the Balka, Hardeberga, Mickwitzia, and Lingulid sandstones of Bornholm and Southern Sweden, thus not indicating widespread paleomagnetic overprint. We demonstrate that the ChRM of the NSF is most probably of syndepositional/early diagenetic origin and its similarity to the Permian direction for Baltica is only casual. We propose a normal polarity and a near-equatorial position on the Southern Hemisphere for Baltica in the early Cambrian time, as well as a more complicated trend of the APWP for this paleocontinent than envisaged by other authors. Paleomagnetic results from the Arenigian limestones of the Laesaa Formation (Bornholm) that yield excellently defined but most probably only secondary components are also presented.

  11. FTIR free-jet set-up for the high resolution spectroscopic investigation of condensable species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, R.; Bonnamy, A.; Benidar, A.; Decroi, M.; Boissoles, J.

    2002-05-01

    An existing experimental set-up combining Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and free-jet cooling has been modified significantly to allow high resolution studies of the spectrum of monomer species which are liquid under standard conditions. Evaporation of the liquid samples is controlled by a condenser apparatus which is described. A supersonic planar expansion issuing from a narrow aperture is preferred for its very high cooling rate. Such an expansion, probed with a pitot tube, has a zone of limited temperature gradient close to the nozzle exit. The continuum isentropic model appears well suited to describing the thermodynamic properties of the flow up to a high number of nozzle diameters downstream. High resolution spectra of benzene and methanol have been recorded in the 3 µm wavelength range, and their analysis demonstrates a well defined rotational temperature in the 20-25 K range.

  12. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Asish, K; Suresh, Varun

    2016-02-01

    Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs), presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected. The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI), separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians.

  13. Setting up and functioning of an Emergency Medicine Department: Lessons learned from a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Asish, K; Suresh, Varun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Tertiary care teaching hospitals remain referral centres for victims of trauma and mass casualty. Often specialists from various disciplines manage these crowded casualty areas. These age old casualty areas are being replaced, throughout the country by Emergency Medicine Departments (EMDs), presumed to be better planned to confront a crisis. We aimed to gather basic data contributive in setting up of an EMD at a tertiary care teaching hospital from the lessons learned from functioning existent systems. Methods: This is primarily a questionnaire-based descriptive study at tertiary care referral centres across the country, which was purposively selected. The study models included one from a hospital without designated EMD and the other four from hospitals with established EMDs. Direct observation and focus group meetings with experienced informants at these hospitals contributed to the data. In the absence of a validated hospital preparedness assessment scale, comparison was done with regard to quantitative, qualitative and corroborative parameters using descriptive analysis. Results: The EMDs at best practice models were headed by specialist in Emergency Medicine assisted by organised staff, had protocols for managing mass casualty incident (MCI), separate trauma teams, ergonomic use of infrastructure and public education programmes. In this regard, these hospitals seemed well organised to manage MCIs and disasters. Conclusion: The observation may provide a preliminary data useful in setting up an EMD. In the absence of published Indian literature, this may facilitate further research in this direction. Anaesthesiologists, presently an approved Faculty in Emergency Medicine training can provide creative input with regard to its initial organisation and functioning, thus widening our horizons in a country where there is a severe dearth of trained emergency physicians. PMID:27013749

  14. Setting up and Running a School Library. Information Collection and Exchange Publication No. ED204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This book explains how teachers can set up and run a successful school library. In it you will find advice and information on how to: (1) set up a small library and build bookshelves; (2) select books for your library; (3) make a written record of your school's books, pamphlets and other library stock such as newspapers, magazines, audio tapes and…

  15. Overhauling and Regulating Schools Set Up by Migrants: The Reason for Overhaul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianzhong, Ding

    2004-01-01

    The article presents information on overhauling and regulating schools set up by migrants in the Pudong New District of China. As the number of migrants has risen sharply in the Pudong New District in recent years, so has the number of migrant children. An overall investigation of the fifty-nine schools set up by migrants was conducted and the…

  16. Observations of near-bottom currents in Bornholm Basin, Slupsk Furrow and Gdansk Deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulczak, A. I.; Rak, D.; Schmidt, B.; Beldowski, J.

    2016-06-01

    Dense bottom currents are responsible for transport of the salty inflow waters from the North Sea driving ventilation and renewal of Baltic deep waters. This study characterises dense currents in three deep locations of the Baltic Proper: Bornholm Basin (BB), Gdansk Basin (GB) and Slupsk Furrow (SF). These locations are of fundamental importance for the transport and pollution associated with chemical munitions deposited in BB and GB after 2nd World War. Of further importance the sub-basins are situated along the pathway of dense inflowing water.Current velocities were measured in the majority of the water column during regular cruises of r/v Oceania and r/v Baltica in 2001-2012 (38 cruises) by 307 kHz vessel mounted (VM), downlooking ADCP. Additionally, the high-resolution CTD and oxygen profiles were collected. Three moorings measured current velocity profiles in SF and GB over the summer 2012. In addition, temperature, salinity, oxygen and turbidity were measured at about 1 m above the bottom in GB. The results showed that mean current speed across the Baltic Proper was around 12 cm s-1 and the stronger flow was characteristic to the regions located above the sills, in the Bornholm and Slupsk Channels, reaching on average about 20 cm s-1. The results suggest that these regions are important for the inflow of saline waters into the eastern Baltic and are the areas of intense vertical mixing. The VM ADCP observations indicate that the average near-bottom flow across the basin can reach 35±6 cm s-1. The mooring observations also showed similar near-bottom flow velocities. However, they showed that the increased speed of the near-bottom layer occurred frequently in SF and GB during short time periods lasting for about few to several days or 10-20% of time. The observations showed that the bottom mixed layer occupies at least 10% of the water column and the turbulent mixing induced by near-bottom currents is likely to produce sediment resuspension and transport

  17. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Jan; Peck, Myron A.; Barz, Kristina; Schmidt, Jörn Oliver; Hansen, Frank C.; Peters, Janna; Renz, Jasmin; Dickmann, Miriam; Mohrholz, Volker; Dutz, Jörg; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species-specific ecophysiological preferences often result in both seasonal and inter-annual changes in vertical abundance that, when combined with depth-specific water currents, also lead to horizontal differences in spatial distribution. The present study documented the seasonal and depth-specific changes in the abundance and species composition of zooplankton in the BB based upon broad-scale survey data: 832 vertically-resolved (10 m) multinet samples collected at nine stations between March 2002 and May 2003. Changes in the zooplankton community were significantly correlated with changes in ambient hydrography. Each of five taxa (Bosmina coregoni maritima, Acartia spp., Pseudocalanus spp., Temora longicornis, Synchaeta spp.) contributed >10% to the zooplankton community composition. The appearance of cladocerans was mainly correlated with the phenology of thermocline development in the spring. The cladoceran B. coregoni maritima was a dominant member of this community during the warmest periods, preferring the surface waters above the thermocline. Copepods exhibited distinct, ontogenetic and seasonal changes in their distribution. The rotifers (Synchaeta sp.) were the most abundant zooplankton in May. Based on a multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected on Baltic zooplankton in recent decades reveals some of the factors that make this stratified system highly dynamic with respect to the spatial overlap between

  18. Simulating the X-Ray Image Contrast to Set-Up Techniques with Desired Flaw Detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides simulation data of previous work by the author in developing a model for estimating detectability of crack-like flaws in radiography. The methodology is being developed to help in implementation of NASA Special x-ray radiography qualification, but is generically applicable to radiography. The paper describes a method for characterizing X-ray detector resolution for crack detection. Applicability of ASTM E 2737 resolution requirements to the model are also discussed. The paper describes a model for simulating the detector resolution. A computer calculator application, discussed here, also performs predicted contrast and signal-to-noise ratio calculations. Results of various simulation runs in calculating x-ray flaw size parameter and image contrast for varying input parameters such as crack depth, crack width, part thickness, x-ray angle, part-to-detector distance, part-to-source distance, source sizes, and detector sensitivity and resolution are given as 3D surfaces. These results demonstrate effect of the input parameters on the flaw size parameter and the simulated image contrast of the crack. These simulations demonstrate utility of the flaw size parameter model in setting up x-ray techniques that provide desired flaw detectability in radiography. The method is applicable to film radiography, computed radiography, and digital radiography.

  19. A magnetic resonance-compatible experimental set-up for hyperthermia studies.

    PubMed

    Jayasundar, R; Hall, L D; Bleehen, N M

    1999-11-01

    This study presents the development and testing of an experimental set-up for simultaneous measurements of pH (intracellular by MR and extracellular by fibre-optic pH meter), tumour bio-energetics (by MR), and core/tumour temperatures (by thermocouples) in tumour-bearing mice. Potential sources of measurement errors when using these techniques concurrently in an MR set-up are discussed. Emphasis is placed on simple practical solutions to these problems.

  20. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis set up for electronic sputtering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Tripathi, A.; Kabiraj, D.; Sugathan, P.; Chaudhary, G. K.; Barua, P.

    2006-04-01

    Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) set up with a large solid angle (greater than or similar to 4.8 msr) Delta E - E position-sensitive telescope detector is developed at Inter University Accelerator Centre as a dedicated facility for the study of electronic sputtering of thin films under swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. The detector consists of a gas ionization chamber (Delta E ) and a solid-state surface barrier detector ( E ) housed in a same assembly. The electronic sputtering yield (atoms/ion) is determined by analyzing on-line fluence-dependent ERDA data obtained from a variety of thin films. Large erosion (> 10 5 atoms/ion) of carbon from a-C:H by 150 MeV Ag 13+ ions, evolution of nitrogen (greater than or similar to 880 atoms/ion) from copper nitride and depletion of oxygen (greater than or similar to 1000 atoms/ion) from copper oxide film under 200 MeV Au 15+ ion impact are studied and reported in this work. The electronic sputtering of these materials is discussed on the basis of the thermal spike model of SHI and solid interaction.

  1. Validation of a calibration set-up for radiosondes to fulfil GRUAN requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairanen, H.; Heinonen, M.; Högström, R.

    2015-10-01

    Interest in the precise measurement of water vapour in the upper-air is growing along with the consciousness of climate change. Because better knowledge of high altitude humidity levels improves the accuracy of climate models and weather forecasts, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) is putting more effort into the quality of these measurements. The GCOS established the Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) and set the requirements for its measurements accuracy and traceability to the International System of Units (SI). To fulfil these requirements, improved radiosondes and methods to calibrate them are being developed. This paper presents a new calibration system for radiosondes based on mixing air flows from two independent dew-point generators. The system operates in the air temperature range down to  -80 °C. Our results show that the new calibration set-up is able to provide calibrations for radionsondes at the uncertainty level of 2% in terms of the water vapour mixing ratio as required by GRUAN. A complete calibration covering the whole temperature and humidity range lasts less than three days. Additionally, the apparatus provides an option to characterize the behaviour of a radiosonde in changing temperatures and water vapour concentrations.

  2. Equipment set-up among Olympic sprint and slalom kayak paddlers.

    PubMed

    Ong, K B; Ackland, T R; Hume, P A; Ridge, B; Broad, E; Kerr, D A

    2005-01-01

    The anthropometry and equipment set-up for sprint (31 male; 11 female) and slalom (12 male; 12 female) kayak paddlers who competed at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney were measured in the 15 day period before competition. This paper provides normative data for equipment set-up in these sports, as well as information about differences in rigging and paddle dimensions between sprint and slalom kayak paddlers. These differences were consistent for both male and female athletes, with sprint paddlers seated higher and using longer paddles with longer, though narrower, blades (p < 0.0001). Among male sprint paddlers, only minor differences in equipment set-up were found between competitors ranked in the top 10 places compared to the rest of the field. Considering all male paddlers initially, then sprint paddlers alone, significant (p < 0.01) regression equations were developed for the prediction of foot bar distance (r2 = 0.482 and 0.589 respectively) and hand grip distance (r2 = 0.400 and 0.541 respectively). The process of fine tuning equipment set-up often requires hours of practice with subjective feedback from the athlete. The normative data presented in this paper should assist coaches with this process as their athletes evolve toward their individual optimum set-up.

  3. How to set up a GIS program at a Minority University/College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannel, S.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation provides detailed ideas on how to set up a GIS program and how to develop it for maximum benefits in the areas of education, research, and community outreach. We draw our experience from setting up the GIS program at Oglala Lakota College (OLC), Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota and work at the University of the Virgin Islands. GIS can be useful in many fields and is inexpensive to set up. Native Americans applied science in the past and now embrace GIS technology for everyday decision making. This presentation shows the wide range of GIS applications using OLC's GIS program as an example. We present our educational activities, research and community outreach. This presentation will give detailed advice of what works (and what doesn't) and to promote geospatial technology to other tribal or non-tribal colleges and universities.

  4. A patient set-up protocol based on partially blocked cone-beam CT.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jing; Xie, Yaoqin; Starman, Jared; Fahrig, Rebecca; Xing, Lei

    2010-04-01

    Three-dimensional x-ray cone-beam CT (CBCT) is being increasingly used in radiation therapy. Since the whole treatment course typically lasts several weeks, the repetitive x-ray imaging results in large radiation dose delivered on the patient. In the current radiation therapy treatment, CBCT is mainly used for patient set-up, and a rigid transformation of the CBCT data from the planning CT data is also assumed. For an accurate rigid registration, it is not necessary to acquire a full 3D image. In this paper, we propose a patient set-up protocol based on partially blocked CBCT. A sheet of lead strips is inserted between the x-ray source and the scanned patient. From the incomplete projection data, only several axial slices are reconstructed and used in the image registration for patient set-up. Since the radiation is partially blocked, the dose delivered onto the patient is significantly reduced, with an additional benefit of reduced scatter signals. The proposed approach is validated using experiments on two anthropomorphic phantoms. As x-ray beam blocking ratio increases, more dose reduction is achieved, while the patient set-up error also increases. To investigate this tradeoff, two lead sheets with different strip widths are implemented, which correspond to radiation dose reduction of approximately 6 and approximately 11, respectively. We compare the registration results using the partially blocked CBCT with those using the regular CBCT. Both lead sheets achieve high patient set-up accuracies. It is seen that, using the lead sheet with radiation dose reduction by a factor of approximately 11, the patient set-up error is still less than 1mm in translation and less than 0.2 degrees in rotation. The comparison of the reconstructed images also shows that the image quality of the illuminated slices in the partially blocked CBCT is much improved over that in the regular CBCT.

  5. Investigations in quantum games using EPR-type set-ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2006-04-01

    Research in quantum games has flourished during recent years. However, it seems that opinion remains divided about their true quantum character and content. For example, one argument says that quantum games are nothing but 'disguised' classical games and that to quantize a game is equivalent to replacing the original game by a different classical game. The present thesis contributes towards the ongoing debate about quantum nature of quantum games by developing two approaches addressing the related issues. Both approaches take Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-type experiments as the underlying physical set-ups to play two-player quantum games. In the first approach, the players' strategies are unit vectors in their respective planes, with the knowledge of coordinate axes being shared between them. Players perform measurements in an EPR-type setting and their payoffs are defined as functions of the correlations, i.e. without reference to classical or quantum mechanics. Classical bimatrix games are reproduced if the input states are classical and perfectly anti-correlated, as for a classical correlation game. However, for a quantum correlation game, with an entangled singlet state as input, qualitatively different solutions are obtained. The second approach uses the result that when the predictions of a Local Hidden Variable (LHV) model are made to violate the Bell inequalities the result is that some probability measures assume negative values. With the requirement that classical games result when the predictions of a LHV model do not violate the Bell inequalities, our analysis looks at the impact which the emergence of negative probabilities has on the solutions of two-player games which are physically implemented using the EPR-type experiments.

  6. The Use of Instructional and Motivational Self-Talk in Setting up a Physical Education Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zourbanos, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide guidelines to physical educators for setting up a self-talk program during their lesson. The article briefly presents definitions of self-talk and research findings in sport and physical education to highlight the important benefits of positive self-talk in enhancing task performance. It also provides…

  7. PromISS 4 hardware set up in the MSG during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-18

    ISS012-E-16184 (18 Jan. 2006) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur, Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, sets up the Protein Crystal Growth Monitoring by Digital Holographic Microscope (PromISS) experiment hardware inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) facility in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station.

  8. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Volumes I-II and Overhead Transparencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallek, Max

    This two-volume textbook and collection of overhead transparency masters is intended for use in a course in setting up a small business. The following topics are covered in the first volume: getting off to a good start, doing market research, forecasting sales, financing a small business, understanding the different legal needs of different types…

  9. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Study Guide Keyed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Small Business, Minneapolis, MN.

    This study guide, which includes the answers to student exercises included in it, is intended for use with the separately available entrepreneurship education text "How To Set Up Your Own Business." The guide includes student exercises and answers that have been designed to accompany chapters dealing with the following topics: deciding whether or…

  10. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  11. Students' Errors in Setting up Difference Quotients and Connections to Their Conceptions of Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Although finding the limits of the difference quotients in the definitions of the derivative is troubling for many students, a difficulty that preceded this confusion was observed: students were not able to correctly set up the difference quotients as required in the definitions. The purpose of this study is to uncover student errors in setting up…

  12. A Guide To Setting Up a Creative Art Experiences Program for Older Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Jane E.

    This guide is intended to help agencies serving older adults with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities in setting up a relatively inexpensive creative art program. The first section presents a rationale for creative art experiences for this population and then provides specific information on program development, including…

  13. Kuipers sets up the CSA-CP in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-26

    ISS030-E-156455 (26 Jan. 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, sets up the Compound Specific Analyzer - Combustion Products (CSA-CP) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. The purpose of the analyzer is to measure the concentrations of carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride and oxygen.

  14. Kuipers sets up the EHS/TEPC Spectrometer and Detector Assembly in the SM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-12

    ISS030-E-177101 (12 March 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, sets up the Environmental Health System / Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (EHS/TEPC) spectrometer and detector assembly on panel 327 in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. The TEPC detector assembly is the primary radiation measurement tool on the space station.

  15. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  16. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Study Guide Keyed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Small Business, Minneapolis, MN.

    This study guide, which includes the answers to student exercises included in it, is intended for use with the separately available entrepreneurship education text "How To Set Up Your Own Business." The guide includes student exercises and answers that have been designed to accompany chapters dealing with the following topics: deciding whether or…

  17. Setting Up a Library: How To Begin or Begin Again. CSLA Guide No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ruth S.

    Designed as a simple how-to guide, this handbook presents guidelines for setting up a church or synagogue library or revitalizing an existing one. The first of 10 sections, "Begin with a Purpose," advocates thinking about the goals of the library and putting them in writing. It includes two brief sample mission statements. The second, "Establish…

  18. Setting up a Library BBS: A Step-by-Step Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gene; Mitchell, Chris

    1987-01-01

    Setting up a public library bulletin board system is described as a way to attract young adult users as well as to foster awareness and use of electronic information media. Step-by-step guidelines cover hardware needed, including modems, types of software available, designing the system's contents, and maintenance and security. (EM)

  19. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  20. Setting up Targeted Research Interviews: A Primer for Students and New Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noy, Darren

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes key strategic considerations for setting up targeted research interviews, including human subjects and Institutional Review Board requirements, approaching respondents, the medium of contact, using technology, cultural conceptions of time and commitment, using networks, wading through bureaucracies, and watching for warning…

  1. Set up and Operation of Video Cassette Recorders or "...How Do I Work This Thing???"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Designed to assist Alaskans in making optimum use of the LearnAlaska TV transmitter network, this booklet provides instructions for the operation and maintenance of videocassette recorders (VCRs). After a brief introduction, which lists state film library addresses for ordering an accompanying videocassette entitled "Set Up & Operation…

  2. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  3. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  4. Setting up spaces for collaboration in industry between researchers from the natural and social sciences.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Steven M; van der Sanden, Maarten C A; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Policy makers call upon researchers from the natural and social sciences to collaborate for the responsible development and deployment of innovations. Collaborations are projected to enhance both the technical quality of innovations, and the extent to which relevant social and ethical considerations are integrated into their development. This could make these innovations more socially robust and responsible, particularly in new and emerging scientific and technological fields, such as synthetic biology and nanotechnology. Some researchers from both fields have embarked on collaborative research activities, using various Technology Assessment approaches and Socio-Technical Integration Research activities such as Midstream Modulation. Still, practical experience of collaborations in industry is limited, while much may be expected from industry in terms of socially responsible innovation development. Experience in and guidelines on how to set up and manage such collaborations are not easily available. Having carried out various collaborative research activities in industry ourselves, we aim to share in this paper our experiences in setting up and working in such collaborations. We highlight the possibilities and boundaries in setting up and managing collaborations, and discuss how we have experienced the emergence of 'collaborative spaces.' Hopefully our findings can facilitate and encourage others to set up collaborative research endeavours.

  5. Campaigns by Parents to Set Up New Schools in England: Issues and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennell, Hazel; West, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of parents in the planning and setting up of new secondary schools in the context of proposals to extend the right of parents in relation to new schools. The research focused on 15 parent campaigns that had recently taken place or were ongoing: seven aimed to obtain new schools and eight to prevent new schools being…

  6. Setting up and Running a Loss and Bereavement Support Group for Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Paul; Freeman, Adele; Offen, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Following evidence based literature, the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service for People with Learning Disabilities ran a Loss and Bereavement Psychotherapy Group. The group consisted of five adults with mild learning disabilities, who met for 8 consecutive weeks. This paper reports the process of setting up a bereavement group for people with…

  7. Reliable measurement of E. coli single cell fluorescence distribution using a standard microscope set-up.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Marilisa; Bandiera, Lucia; Pasini, Alice; Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Gherardi, Alessandro; Furini, Simone; Giordano, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying gene expression at single cell level is fundamental for the complete characterization of synthetic gene circuits, due to the significant impact of noise and inter-cellular variability on the system's functionality. Commercial set-ups that allow the acquisition of fluorescent signal at single cell level (flow cytometers or quantitative microscopes) are expensive apparatuses that are hardly affordable by small laboratories. A protocol that makes a standard optical microscope able to acquire quantitative, single cell, fluorescent data from a bacterial population transformed with synthetic gene circuitry is presented. Single cell fluorescence values, acquired with a microscope set-up and processed with custom-made software, are compared with results that were obtained with a flow cytometer in a bacterial population transformed with the same gene circuitry. The high correlation between data from the two experimental set-ups, with a correlation coefficient computed over the tested dynamic range > 0.99, proves that a standard optical microscope- when coupled with appropriate software for image processing- might be used for quantitative single-cell fluorescence measurements. The calibration of the set-up, together with its validation, is described. The experimental protocol described in this paper makes quantitative measurement of single cell fluorescence accessible to laboratories equipped with standard optical microscope set-ups. Our method allows for an affordable measurement/quantification of intercellular variability, whose better understanding of this phenomenon will improve our comprehension of cellular behaviors and the design of synthetic gene circuits. All the required software is freely available to the synthetic biology community (MUSIQ Microscope flUorescence SIngle cell Quantification).

  8. Set-up and validation of a Delft-FEWS based coastal hazard forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Eftimova, Petya; Andreeva, Nataliya

    2017-04-01

    European coasts are increasingly threatened by hazards related to low-probability and high-impact hydro-meteorological events. Uncertainties in hazard prediction and capabilities to cope with their impact lie in both future storm pattern and increasing coastal development. Therefore, adaptation to future conditions requires a re-evaluation of coastal disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies and introduction of a more efficient mix of prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures. The latter presumes that development of tools, which can manage the complex process of merging data and models and generate products on the current and expected hydro-and morpho-dynamic states of the coasts, such as forecasting system of flooding and erosion hazards at vulnerable coastal locations (hotspots), is of vital importance. Output of such system can be of an utmost value for coastal stakeholders and the entire coastal community. In response to these challenges, Delft-FEWS provides a state-of-the-art framework for implementation of such system with vast capabilities to trigger the early warning process. In addition, this framework is highly customizable to the specific requirements of any individual coastal hotspot. Since its release many Delft-FEWS based forecasting system related to inland flooding have been developed. However, limited number of coastal applications was implemented. In this paper, a set-up of Delft-FEWS based forecasting system for Varna Bay (Bulgaria) and a coastal hotspot, which includes a sandy beach and port infrastructure, is presented. It is implemented in the frame of RISC-KIT project (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolKIT). The system output generated in hindcast mode is validated with available observations of surge levels, wave and morphodynamic parameters for a sequence of three short-duration and relatively weak storm events occurred during February 4-12, 2015. Generally, the models' performance is considered as very good and

  9. Development of a grinding-specific performance test set-up.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C G; Larsen, B H; Andresen, E L; de Zee, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a performance test set-up for America's Cup grinders. The test set-up had to mimic the on-boat grinding activity and be capable of collecting data for analysis and evaluation of grinding performance. This study included a literature-based analysis of grinding demands and a test protocol developed to accommodate the necessary physiological loads. This study resulted in a test protocol consisting of 10 intervals of 20 revolutions each interspersed with active resting periods of 50 s. The 20 revolutions are a combination of both forward and backward grinding and an exponentially rising resistance. A custom-made grinding ergometer was developed with computer-controlled resistance and capable of collecting data during the test. The data collected can be used to find measures of grinding performance such as peak power, time to complete and the decline in repeated grinding performance.

  10. Setting up a Grid: A Guide for Beginners by a Beginner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Clara

    2003-01-01

    A simple compute grid can be constructed for under $ 1,000 with 5 computers on a LAN for the purpose of video compression from captured digital video to MPEG file format. The process for setting up this grid will be covered in detail, including the required operating systems and hardware, the required globus software, and the required video capture and compression software. Pitfalls encountered will be discussed, and the approximate timeline for a motivated but uninformed beginner. The installation, configuration, and operation of additional software that is needed test, measure and otherwise verify that the grid components are functioning as "advertised", will also be presented. This is a true life account for setting up a grid based on instructions in Chapters 9 and 10 of Introduction to Grid Computing with Globus.

  11. Practical guidelines for setting up neurosurgery skills training cadaver laboratory in India.

    PubMed

    Suri, Ashish; Roy, Tara Sankar; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Deo, Rama Chandra; Tripathi, Manjul; Dhingra, Renu; Bhardwaj, Daya Nand; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Though the necessity of cadaver dissection is felt by the medical fraternity, and described as early as 600 BC, in India, there are no practical guidelines available in the world literature for setting up a basic cadaver dissection laboratory for neurosurgery skills training. Hands-on dissection practice on microscopic and endoscopic procedures is essential in technologically demanding modern neurosurgery training where ethical issues, cost constraints, medico-legal pitfalls, and resident duty time restrictions have resulted in lesser opportunities to learn. Collaboration of anatomy, forensic medicine, and neurosurgery is essential for development of a workflow of cadaver procurement, preservation, storage, dissection, and disposal along with setting up the guidelines for ethical and legal concerns.

  12. Setting up and using the autopatcher for automated intracellular neural recording in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B.; Holst, Gregory L.; Wickersham, Ian R.; Singer, Annabelle C.; Franzesi, Giovanni Talei; McKinnon, Michael L.; Forest, Craig R.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2016-01-01

    Whole cell patch clamping in vivo is an important neuroscience technique that uniquely provides access to both supra-threshold spiking and sub-threshold synaptic events of single neurons in the brain. This article describes how to set up and use the autopatcher, a robot for automatically obtaining high yield and high quality whole cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. Following this protocol, a functional experimental rig for automated whole cell patch clamping can be set up in one week. High quality surgical preparation of mice takes approximately 1 hour, and each autopatching experiment can be carried out over periods lasting several hours. Autopatching should enable in vivo intracellular investigations to be accessible by a significant number of neuroscience labs, and enable labs already doing in vivo patch clamp to scale up their efforts by reducing training time for new lab members and increasing experimental durations by handling mentally intensive tasks automatically. PMID:26938115

  13. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallon, G. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Vittoria, F. A.; Basta, D.; Endrizzi, M.; Olivo, A.

    2017-10-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF.

  14. Kondratvez sets up Sonokard Experiment in the SM during Expedition 26

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-03

    ISS026-E-014250 (3 Jan. 2011) --- Russian cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev, Expedition 26 flight engineer, sets up the Russian MBI-12 payload for a Sonokard experiment session in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station. Kondratyev used a sports shirt from the Sonokard kit with a special device in the pocket for testing a new method for acquiring physiological data without using direct contact on the skin. Measurements are recorded on a data card for return to Earth.

  15. Setting up a fast-track insulin start clinic for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Burden, Mary; Byard, Caroline; Gregory, Robert; Khulpateea, Anita; Burden, Andrew

    When people with established type 2 diabetes first need insulin therapy there is often a delay in accessing services. Since the report of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study was published it has been recognised that people with type 2 diabetes have a progressive disease and a need for increasing treatment. The authors set up a fast-track service to enable GPs and practice nurses to refer to a nurse-led service at the diabetes centre.

  16. [A discussion on setting up target age group for immunization against leptospirosis].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, J T; Wang, S S; Lan, W L

    1995-08-01

    This paper presented the lesson of setting up a false immunization priority age group for leptospirosis which failed to prevent the leptospirosis outbreak. Our experience was that in the rice paddy field type endemic area the priority age group for the vaccination against leptopirosis should be 15 to 34 year olds followed by 35 years old or above. There was no preventive effect in the vaccination for the children 14 years old or yaunger, to our observation.

  17. Air fluorescence efficiency measurements for AIRWATCH based mission: Experimental set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Celi, F.; Fazio, G.; Giarrusso, S.; La Rosa, G.; Mangano, A.; Bonanno, G.; Cosentino, R.; Di Benedetto, R.; Scuderi, S.; Richiusa, G.; Gregorio, A.

    1998-06-15

    In the framework of the AIRWATCH project we present an experimental set-up to measure the efficiency of the UV fluorescence production of the air using hard X-ray stimulus. The measures will be carried out at different pressure and temperature to emulate the same condition of the upper layers of the atmosphere where X-ray and gamma ray photons of Gamma Ray Bursts are absorbed.

  18. A Novel Computer-Based Set-Up to Study Movement Coordination in Human Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Alderisio, Francesco; Lombardi, Maria; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Existing experimental works on movement coordination in human ensembles mostly investigate situations where each subject is connected to all the others through direct visual and auditory coupling, so that unavoidable social interaction affects their coordination level. Here, we present a novel computer-based set-up to study movement coordination in human groups so as to minimize the influence of social interaction among participants and implement different visual pairings between them. In so doing, players can only take into consideration the motion of a designated subset of the others. This allows the evaluation of the exclusive effects on coordination of the structure of interconnections among the players in the group and their own dynamics. In addition, our set-up enables the deployment of virtual computer players to investigate dyadic interaction between a human and a virtual agent, as well as group synchronization in mixed teams of human and virtual agents. We show how this novel set-up can be employed to study coordination both in dyads and in groups over different structures of interconnections, in the presence as well as in the absence of virtual agents acting as followers or leaders. Finally, in order to illustrate the capabilities of the architecture, we describe some preliminary results. The platform is available to any researcher who wishes to unfold the mechanisms underlying group synchronization in human ensembles and shed light on its socio-psychological aspects.

  19. A Novel Computer-Based Set-Up to Study Movement Coordination in Human Ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Alderisio, Francesco; Lombardi, Maria; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Existing experimental works on movement coordination in human ensembles mostly investigate situations where each subject is connected to all the others through direct visual and auditory coupling, so that unavoidable social interaction affects their coordination level. Here, we present a novel computer-based set-up to study movement coordination in human groups so as to minimize the influence of social interaction among participants and implement different visual pairings between them. In so doing, players can only take into consideration the motion of a designated subset of the others. This allows the evaluation of the exclusive effects on coordination of the structure of interconnections among the players in the group and their own dynamics. In addition, our set-up enables the deployment of virtual computer players to investigate dyadic interaction between a human and a virtual agent, as well as group synchronization in mixed teams of human and virtual agents. We show how this novel set-up can be employed to study coordination both in dyads and in groups over different structures of interconnections, in the presence as well as in the absence of virtual agents acting as followers or leaders. Finally, in order to illustrate the capabilities of the architecture, we describe some preliminary results. The platform is available to any researcher who wishes to unfold the mechanisms underlying group synchronization in human ensembles and shed light on its socio-psychological aspects. PMID:28649217

  20. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    SciTech Connect

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  1. How to set up and administer an enteral feed via a nasogastric tube.

    PubMed

    Best, Carolyn

    2017-07-05

    Rationale and key points Nasogastric tube feeding is a method of enteral feeding commonly administered by nurses. Feed can be administered either using a volumetric enteral feeding pump (pump feeding) or via an enteral syringe (bolus feeding). This article explains how nurses can safely undertake these two methods of nasogastric tube feed administration at the patient's bedside. » Nasogastric tube feeding can be used to provide some or all of the patient's nutrition, fluid or medication. » Nurses should be equipped with the relevant knowledge to flush a nasogastric tube before the administration of feed or medication; set up and administer an enteral feed via a volumetric enteral feeding pump; and set up and administer a feed using a bolus method. » The position of the distal tip of the nasogastric tube must be confirmed as sitting in the patient's stomach before the tube is used to administer enteral feed, fluid or medication. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help you update your practice and ensure it remains evidence-based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you think this article will change your practice when setting up and administering an enteral feed via a nasogastric tube. 2. How you could use this resource to educate your colleagues about nasogastric tube feeding via an enteral feeding pump or bolus feeding.

  2. The importance of set up time and temperature in real-time PCR; an essential reminder.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Hayley; MacLean, Alasdair; Gunson, Rory

    2017-05-01

    Non-specific amplification can arise in real-time PCR when temperatures are above 4°C during PCR set up. Pressure of high throughput tests, particularly in a clinical setting, can lead to short cuts being taken during PCR set up. This study set out to evaluate the outcome of exposing a real-time PCR assay to increasing durations of room temperature prior to PCR amplification. A real-time PCR assay was exposed to increasing durations of room temperature prior to PCR amplification. We found that reactions left at room temperature for 30min or more produced non-specific traces in the negative controls which could be mistaken for weak positive traces. In addition we found that the fluorescence of positive control traces was significantly reduced indicating reduced reaction efficiency, however the Ct valves were comparable between all reactions highlighting that control Ct monitoring alone would not have detected this issue. This study acts as a reminder for PCR users to set up reactions on ice/chill blocks prior to PCR amplification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Live surgery in neurosurgical training courses: essential infrastructure and technical set-up.

    PubMed

    Roser, Florian; Pfister, Gerd; Tatagiba, Marcos; Ebner, Florian H

    2013-03-01

    Training courses in neurosurgery are essential educational elements of residency. Teaching methods vary due to cultural differences, monetary restrictions and infrastructure conditions. Anatomical dissection courses combined with annotated live surgeries performed by senior surgeons have proved to be best accepted by students. In this technical note, we provide detailed information about the necessary requirements, resources and optimal performance of live surgeries in neurosurgical training courses. From 2007 to 2012, 12 neurosurgical training courses with live surgeries were organised at the Department of Neurosurgery. Here, we share our experience and report the essential set-up for these courses. Our department organised seven skull base, four cervical spine and one spinal cord stimulation hands-on dissection course with live surgeries. The course structure included lectures, cadaver dissections and live surgeries. The technical set-up included video transmission via an IP-based network with fibreglass backbone between the operating theatre (OR) and lecture room. During surgery, bidirectional discussions offered the participants the ability to interject and ask questions. Important issues included the careful selection of live operated patients with clearly presented pathology for the didactic cases used to demonstrate the technique. A live surgery should include the entire procedure: intraoperative set-up, positioning, anaesthesiological procedures and handling of intraoperative situations. A professionally prepared step-by-step educational program including surgical anatomy, cadaver dissection and live surgeries with online discussion offers a high level of training and enriches both the participants and instructors.

  4. Technical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial) plant leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2017-07-01

    Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes that operate at small scales yet exert a significant influence on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and climate. Surprisingly, experimental capabilities required to quantify the energy-transpiration coupling at the leaf scale are lacking, challenging our ability to test basic questions of importance for resolving large-scale processes. The present study describes an experimental set-up for the simultaneous observation of transpiration rates and all leaf energy balance components under controlled conditions, using an insulated closed loop miniature wind tunnel and artificial leaves with pre-defined and constant diffusive conductance for water vapour. A range of tests documents the above capabilities of the experimental set-up and points to potential improvements. The tests reveal a conceptual flaw in the assumption that leaf temperature can be characterized by a single value, suggesting that even for thin, planar leaves, a temperature gradient between the irradiated and shaded or transpiring and non-transpiring leaf side can lead to bias when using observed leaf temperatures and fluxes to deduce effective conductances to sensible heat or water vapour transfer. However, comparison of experimental results with an explicit leaf energy balance model revealed only minor effects on simulated leaf energy exchange rates by the neglect of cross-sectional leaf temperature gradients, lending experimental support to our current understanding of leaf gas and energy exchange processes.

  5. A novel set-up for the ex vivo analysis of mechanical properties of mouse aortic segments stretched at physiological pressure and frequency.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Arthur J A; Van Hove, Cor E; Kurdi, Ammar; De Moudt, Sofie; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien M; De Keulenaer, Gilles W; Fransen, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Cyclic stretch is known to alter intracellular pathways involved in vessel tone regulation. We developed a novel set-up that allows straightforward characterization of the biomechanical properties of the mouse aorta while stretched at a physiological heart rate (600 beats min(-1) ). Active vessel tone was shown to have surprisingly large effects on isobaric stiffness. The effect of structural vessel wall alterations was confirmed using a genetic mouse model. This set-up will contribute to a better understanding of how active vessel wall components and mechanical stimuli such as stretch frequency and amplitude regulate aortic mechanics. Cyclic stretch is a major contributor to vascular function. However, isolated mouse aortas are frequently studied at low stretch frequency or even in isometric conditions. Pacing experiments in rodents and humans show that arterial compliance is stretch frequency dependent. The Rodent Oscillatory Tension Set-up to study Arterial Compliance is an in-house developed organ bath set-up that clamps aortic segments to imposed preloads at physiological rates up to 600 beats min(-1) . The technique enables us to derive pressure-diameter loops and assess biomechanical properties of the segment. To validate the applicability of this set-up we aimed to confirm the effects of distension pressure and vascular smooth muscle tone on arterial stiffness. At physiological stretch frequency (10 Hz), the Peterson modulus (EP ; 293 (10) mmHg) for wild-type mouse aorta increased 22% upon a rise in pressure from 80-120 mmHg to 100-140 mmHg, while, at normal pressure, EP increased 80% upon maximal contraction of the vascular smooth muscle cells. We further validated the method using a mouse model with a mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene and an endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-out model. Both models are known to have increased arterial stiffness, and this was confirmed using the set-up. To our knowledge, this is the first set-up that facilitates

  6. [Setting up of 15 POC blood gas analyzers at Montpellier Hosptital (France)].

    PubMed

    Marrocco, Alexandre; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Boularan, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the setting up of 15 blood gas analyzers GEM(®) Premier™ 4000 (IL) at Montpellier hospital. This experience includes analytical characterization (within and between run coefficient of variation) using GSE and GHE IL controls, correlation of 35 samples with a routinely used laboratory blood gas analyzer (Cobas b221, Roche(®)). We shall also develop the training, the habilitation and its follow-up for the user staff (450 people) of the different hospital's units in the aim of the accreditation.

  7. Setting up a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) for a healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Du, Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    WLAN can help the medical professionals to improve their working efficiency and reduce medical errors. In this paper, the important issues of deploying WLAN in hospitals are discussed. It gives a comprehensive overview of how to set up the mobility, Quality of Service (QoS) and security of the WLAN for a healthcare system. IEEE 802.11e standard and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ACT (HIPAA) regulations are discussed and some suggestions are given to meet the specific requirements of a healthcare environment.

  8. DESIGN NOTE: A measurement set-up for photoconductivity decay experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarkiewicz, T.; Kuta, S.

    1998-06-01

    Measurements of photoconductivity decay from the steady state for samples of amorphous silicon and silicon-carbon alloys were carried out using the experimental set-up with a Pockels cell as a light chopper. The developed electronic switching circuit allows measurements of decay times ranging down to microseconds. The advantage of the adopted method of light switching is that one can easily control the light intensity and photon energy. From knowledge of the photoconductivity decay time and the value of the steady state photoconductivity for a given sample, the carrier drift mobility can be calculated.

  9. Load test set-up for the Airmass Sunburst Ultra-Light Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, Daniel W.; Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to set up, instrument, and test a Sunburst Ultra-Light aircraft. The intentions of the project were that the aircraft would need to be suspended from the test stand, leveled in the stand, the strain gauges tested and wired to the test equipment, and finally, the aircraft would be destroyed to obtain the failing loads. All jobs were completed, except for the destruction of the aircraft. This notebook shows the group's progress as these tasks were completed, and the following section attempts to explain the photographs in the notebook.

  10. Experimental set-up for three PHOEBUS type large-area heliostats at the PSA

    SciTech Connect

    Haeger, M.; Schiel, W.; Romero, M.; Schmitz-Goeb, M.

    1995-11-01

    Three large-area heliostat prototypes are being erected at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria by Spanish and German industry. The objective is to demonstrate their technical and economical suitability for a PHOEBUS power tower plant. The two different heliostat designs including two 100 ml glass/metal faceted heliostats and one 150 m{sup 2} stressed membrane heliostat are tested at a representative distance of 485 m to the PSA`s CESA tower. The paper introduces the heliostat designs and test set-up, such as location, targets, flux measurement, data acquisition and control.

  11. A practical tutorial to set up NMR diffusometry equipment: application to liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, M

    2014-10-01

    NMR diffusometry is nowadays a well-established and powerful technique to investigate molecular translation in fluid materials. Standard NMR diffusometry approaches are based on pulsed field gradients generated by specific hardware and specially designed NMR probes. Here, we present an alternative set-up that exploits the static gradient present in the fringe field of any commercial superconducting magnet. This stray field diffusometry technique can be particularly useful to study diffusional processes in fast-relaxing and slow-diffusing systems, such as thermotropic liquid crystals, ionic liquids and polymer melts.

  12. Setting up robotic surgery in gynaecology: the experience of the Strasbourg teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sananès, N; Garbin, O; Hummel, M; Youssef, C; Vizitiu, R; Lemaho, D; Rottenberg, D; Diemunsch, P; Wattiez, A

    2011-06-01

    Teleoperated surgical robots could provide a genuine breakthrough in laparoscopy and it is for this reason that the development of robot-assisted laparoscopy is one of the priorities of the Strasbourg University Hospitals' strategic plan. The hospitals purchased a da Vinci S(®) robot in June 2006 and Strasbourg has, in IRCAD, one of the few robotic surgery training centres in the world. Our experience has, however, revealed the difficulties involved in setting up robotic surgery, the first of which are organizational issues. This prospective work was carried out between December 2007 and September 2008, primarily to examine the possibility of setting up robotic surgery on a regular basis for gynaecological surgical procedures at the Strasbourg University Hospitals. We maintained a "logbook" in which we prospectively noted all the resources implemented in setting up the robotic surgery service. The project was divided into two phases: the preparatory phase up until the first hysterectomy and then the second phase with the organization of subsequent hysterectomies. The first surgical procedure took 5 months to organize, and followed 25 interviews, 10 meetings, 53 telephone conversations and 48 e-mails with a total of 40 correspondents. The project was presented to seven separate groups, including the hospital medical commission, the gynaecology unit committee and the surgical staff. Fifteen members of the medical and paramedical team attended a two-day training course. Preparing the gynaecology department for robotic surgery required freeing up 8.5 days of "physician time" and 12.5 days of "nurse time". In the following five months, we performed five hysterectomies. Preparation for each procedure involved on average 5 interviews, 19 telephone conversations and 11 e-mails. The biggest obstacle was obtaining an operating slot, as on average it required 18 days, four telephone calls and four e-mails to be assigned a slot in the operating theatre schedule, which is

  13. Application of activation methods on the Dubna experimental transmutation set-ups.

    PubMed

    Stoulos, S; Fragopoulou, M; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Brandt, R; Westmeier, W; Krivopustov, M; Sosnin, A; Papastefanou, C; Zamani, M; Manolopoulou, M

    2003-02-01

    High spallation neutron fluxes were produced by irradiating massive heavy targets with proton beams in the GeV range. The experiments were performed at the Dubna High Energy Laboratory using the nuclotron accelerator. Two different experimental set-ups were used to produce neutron spectra convenient for transmutation of radioactive waste by (n,x) reactions. By a theoretical analysis neutron spectra can be reproduced from activation measurements. Thermal-epithermal and fast-super-fast neutron fluxes were estimated using the 197Au, 238U (n,gamma) and (n,2n) reactions, respectively. Depleted uranium transmutation rates were also studied in both experiments.

  14. A user-friendly technical set-up for infrared photography of forensic findings.

    PubMed

    Rost, Thomas; Kalberer, Nicole; Scheurer, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary. These limitations prevented up to now the routine application of infrared photography in forensics. In this study the use of a professional modification inside the digital camera body was evaluated regarding camera handling and image quality. This permanent modification consisted of the replacement of the in-built infrared blocking filter by an infrared transmission filter of 700nm and 830nm, respectively. The application of this camera set-up for the photo-documentation of forensically relevant post-mortem findings was investigated in examples of trace evidence such as gunshot residues on the skin, in external findings, e.g. hematomas, as well as in an exemplary internal finding, i.e., Wischnewski spots in a putrefied stomach. The application of scattered light created by indirect flashlight yielded a more uniform illumination of the object, and the use of the 700nm filter resulted in better pictures than the 830nm filter. Compared to pictures taken under visible light, infrared photographs generally yielded better contrast. This allowed for discerning more details and revealed findings which were not visible otherwise, such as imprints on a fabric and tattoos in mummified skin. The permanent modification of a digital camera by building in a 700nm infrared transmission filter resulted in a user-friendly and efficient set-up which qualified for the use in daily forensic routine. Main advantages were a clear picture in the viewfinder, an auto

  15. [Approaches to setting up the Center for identification of exhumed bodies in Chechen Republic].

    PubMed

    Klevno, V A; Ivanov, P L

    2007-01-01

    The authors participated in the activity of a group of European experts who visited Moscow, Rostov-on-Don and Grozny in September 2005 to clarify situation with identification of exhumed unknown dead bodies of the civil population. The European experts recommend to set up Center for Identification in Chechen Republic (in Grozny). The authors propose to make DNA identification tests in the Russian Federation Center for Forensic Medical Evaluation in Moscow which has much experience and staff skilled in identification of unknown exhumed bodies and can solve the problem of genetic identification of unidentified bodies of people missed in the Chechen Republic more effectively.

  16. American & Soviet engineers examine ASTP docking set-up following tests

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-07-10

    S74-25394 (10 July 1974) --- A group of American and Soviet engineers of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project working group three examines an ASTP docking set-up following a docking mechanism fitness test conducted in Building 13 at the Johnson Space Center. Working Group No. 3 is concerned with ASTP docking problems and techniques. The joint U.S.-USSR ASTP docking mission in Earth orbit is scheduled for the summer of 1975. The Apollo docking mechanism is atop the Soyuz docking mechanism.

  17. The regional commission for medical accidents and nosocomial infections set up by French law.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, C; Piercecchi-Marti, M D; Pelissier-Alicot, A L; Cianfarani, F; Leonetti, G

    2005-07-01

    The regional commission for conciliation and compensation for medical accidents, iatrogenic diseases and nosocomial infections (commission régionale de conciliation et d'indemnisation des accidents médicaux, affections iatrogènes et infections nosocomiales, CRCI) offers victims of such events the possibility of obtaining compensation without recourse to legal proceedings. We suggest various points of view about this commission set up by the French law no. 2002-303 of 4 March 2002: the composition, role and competence of the CRCI; the place of the expert's report; the opinion pronounced by the CRCI and its outcome, the compensation of victims and, finally, interaction with other procedures.

  18. Hadfield prepares to set up the ISERV in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-15

    ISS034-E-029914 (15 Jan. 2013) --- Canadian Space Agency astronaut Chris Hadfield, Expedition 34 flight engineer, prepares to set up the ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. ISERV is a fully automated image data acquisition system that flies aboard the space station and deploys in the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) rack within Destiny. The study is expected to provide useful images for use in disaster monitoring and assessment and environmental decision making.

  19. A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.

  20. Setting up of teeth in the neutral zone and its effect on speech.

    PubMed

    Al-Magaleh, Wafa'a Radwan; Swelem, Amal Ali; Shohdi, Sahar Saad; Mawsouf, Nadia Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Rational goals for denture construction are basically directed at the restoration of esthetics and masticatory function and the healthy preservation of the remaining natural tissues. Little concern has been given to the perfection and optimization of the phonetic quality of denture users. However, insertion of prosthodontic restorations may lead to speech defects. Most such defects are mild but, nevertheless, can be a source of concern to the patient. For the dental practitioner, there are few guidelines for designing a prosthetic restoration with maximum phonetic success. One of these guidelines involves the setting up of teeth within the neutral zone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, subjectively and objectively, the effect on speech of setting up teeth in the neutral zone. Three groups were examined: group I (control) included 10 completely dentulous subjects, group II included 10 completely edentulous patients with conventional dentures, and group III included the same 10 edentulous patients with neutral zone dentures. Subjective assessment included patient satisfaction. Objective assessment included duration taken for recitation of Al-Fateha and acoustic analysis. Subjectively, patients were more satisfied with their neutral zone dentures. Objectively, speech produced with the neutral zone dentures was closer to normal than speech with conventional dentures.

  1. Optical digital to analog conversion performance analysis for indoor set-up conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobesch, Aleš; Alves, Luis Nero; Wilfert, Otakar; Ribeiro, Carlos Gaspar

    2017-10-01

    In visible light communication (VLC) the optical digital to analog conversion (ODAC) approach was proposed as a suitable driving technique able to overcome light-emitting diode's (LED) non-linear characteristic. This concept is analogous to an electrical digital-to-analog converter (EDAC). In other words, digital bits are binary weighted to represent an analog signal. The method supports elementary on-off based modulations able to exploit the essence of LED's non-linear characteristic allowing simultaneous lighting and communication. In the ODAC concept the reconstruction error does not simply rely upon the converter bit depth as in case of EDAC. It rather depends on communication system set-up and geometrical relation between emitter and receiver as well. The paper describes simulation results presenting the ODAC's error performance taking into account: the optical channel, the LED's half power angle (HPA) and the receiver field of view (FOV). The set-up under consideration examines indoor conditions for a square room with 4 m length and 3 m height, operating with one dominant wavelength (blue) and having walls with a reflection coefficient of 0.8. The achieved results reveal that reconstruction error increases for higher data rates as a result of interference due to multipath propagation.

  2. Set up of an automatic water quality sampling system in irrigation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2013-12-23

    We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS) for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines) in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system's technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  3. Test set up description and performances for HAWAII-2RG detector characterization at ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; ter Haar, J.; de Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Butler, B.; Smit, H.; van der Luijt, C.; Martin, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame work of the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision program, the Euclid mission has the objective to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies will be observed in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths by an imaging and spectroscopic channel. For the Near Infrared Spectrometer instrument (NISP), the state-of-the-art HAWAII-2RG detectors will be used, associated with the SIDECAR ASIC readout electronic which will perform the image frame acquisitions. To characterize and validate the performance of these detectors, a test bench has been designed, tested and validated. This publication describes the pre-tests performed to build the set up dedicated to dark current measurements and tests requiring reasonably uniform light levels (such as for conversion gain measurements). Successful cryogenic and vacuum tests on commercial LEDs and photodiodes are shown. An optimized feed through in stainless steel with a V-groove to pot the flex cable connecting the SIDECAR ASIC to the room temperature board (JADE2) has been designed and tested. The test set up for quantum efficiency measurements consisting of a lamp, a monochromator, an integrating sphere and set of cold filters, and which is currently under construction will ensure a uniform illumination across the detector with variations lower than 2%. A dedicated spot projector for intra-pixel measurements has been designed and built to reach a spot diameter of 5 μm at 920nm with 2nm of bandwidth [1].

  4. Setting up of teeth in the neutral zone and its effect on speech

    PubMed Central

    Al-Magaleh, Wafa’a Radwan; Swelem, Amal Ali; Shohdi, Sahar Saad; Mawsouf, Nadia Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Rational goals for denture construction are basically directed at the restoration of esthetics and masticatory function and the healthy preservation of the remaining natural tissues. Little concern has been given to the perfection and optimization of the phonetic quality of denture users. However, insertion of prosthodontic restorations may lead to speech defects. Most such defects are mild but, nevertheless, can be a source of concern to the patient. For the dental practitioner, there are few guidelines for designing a prosthetic restoration with maximum phonetic success. One of these guidelines involves the setting up of teeth within the neutral zone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, subjectively and objectively, the effect on speech of setting up teeth in the neutral zone. Three groups were examined: group I (control) included 10 completely dentulous subjects, group II included 10 completely edentulous patients with conventional dentures, and group III included the same 10 edentulous patients with neutral zone dentures. Subjective assessment included patient satisfaction. Objective assessment included duration taken for recitation of Al-Fateha and acoustic analysis. Subjectively, patients were more satisfied with their neutral zone dentures. Objectively, speech produced with the neutral zone dentures was closer to normal than speech with conventional dentures. PMID:23960527

  5. Setting up a Nuchal Translucency Clinic: What Radiologists Need to Know.

    PubMed

    Onyeacholem, Ifeanyi; Kleiner, Beth; Hull, Andrew D; Chibuk, Jason; Romine, Lorene; Anton, Tracy; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to discuss the process of setting up a nuchal translucency (NT) screening clinic in clinical practice, how to interpret the information in combination with other clinical tests, what to do if abnormal results are obtained, and to illustrate some of the fetal anomalies that are associated with an increased NT. The NT was initially implemented to predict the likelihood of a fetus with Down syndrome. Maternal age can be combined with fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry (free β-hCG and PAPP-A) at 11 to 14 weeks to identify about 90% of affected fetuses. Setting up a clinic to perform the NT screening requires certified physicians and certified sonographers. Certification can be obtained for both physicians and sonographers through Nuchal Translucency Quality Review and Fetal Medicine Foundation. Cell-free DNA testing is now altering what our patients are choosing to evaluate fetuses at risk for chromosomal anomalies and congenital anomalies. Common pitfalls to performing, interpreting, and conveying results of the NT are illustrated in this article. Nasal bone measurement, fetal anatomy examination and fetal echocardiography are tools that add sensitivity to the detection of chromosomal abnormalities. Examples of fetal anomalies discovered during the NT screening are also illustrated. Screening for obstetric complications is an additional benefit to the NT clinic.

  6. Setting up a PDPA system for measurements in a Diesel spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneo, L.; Soare, V.; Payri, R.; Shakal, J.

    2006-07-01

    A PDPA system was set up, optimised and used to measure the time resolved characteristics of the droplets inside a spray produced by a common-rail diesel fuel injection system. Some preliminary tests are performed with gas flows to optimise the optical set-up. Parametric studies are performed to gain an understanding of the particle density limits of the system, and their dependence on PDPA system parameters. Then the diesel spray produced by a single-hole injector is measured, with the fuel pressure ranging from 500 to 1300 bar, gas density in the test chamber ranging from ambient conditions to 40 kg/m3. Fuel and gas temperature were 25 °C. Beam waist size is reduced to the minimum value allowed by the optical stand-off of the spray enclosure. Receiver lens focal length is similarly reduced. Receiver slit width, which is found to have a dramatic effect on the detection of droplets during the injection period, was tested in the range from 100um to 25um. Tests performed with two different slit heights are tested, respectively 1mm and 50 µm, show that this parameter has minimal effect on performance. PMT voltage (gain) is held to a moderately low value between 400 and 500 volt and the laser power between 400 and 800 mW in the green line. Optimum burst threshold is found to obtain the best quality data regardless of background level, which varies greatly in high-density pulsed sprays.

  7. Multicenter trial for the set-up of a MRI quality assurance programme.

    PubMed

    Colombo, P; Baldassarri, A; Del Corona, M; Mascaro, L; Strocchi, S

    2004-01-01

    Many international protocols related to RMI-QC program are focused on acquisition methods and analysis of several image quality parameters but rarely normality ranges or measurement frequencies are presented. To address this problem we investigated the variability of many magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems with the set-up of multicenter trial. The trial was set up to investigate short-and mid-term variability of two fundamental nongeometric image quality parameters: signal-to-noise (SNR) and integral percent uniformity (U%). Ten centers (12 devices) participated to data collection consisting of a three-step-protocol. First, 10 consecutive images of a phantom were collected with a spin echo sequence. As second step the series collection was repeated 24 h later. Finally a single image acquisition was performed twice a week for 5 weeks. The analysis of results allowed us to define a "physiological" variability of +/-3% of the reference level for both parameters and to conclude that a weekly measurement is adequate to detect relevant variations of device performance.

  8. The effect of different foot and hand set-up positions on backstroke start performance.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Karla; de Jesus, Kelly; Abraldes, J Arturo; Mourão, Luis; Borgonovo-Santos, Márcio; Medeiros, Alexandre I A; Gonçalves, Pedro; Chainok, Phornpot; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vaz, Mário A P; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Foot and hand set-up position effects were analysed on backstroke start performance. Ten swimmers randomly completed 27 starts grouped in trials (n = 3) of each variation, changing foot (totally immersed, partially and totally emerged) and hand (lowest, highest horizontal and vertical) positioning. Fifteen cameras recorded kinematics, and four force plates collected hands and feet kinetics. Standardised mean difference and 95% confidence intervals were used. Variations with feet immersed have shown lower vertical centre of mass (CM) set-up position (0.16 m), vertical impulse exerted at the hands, horizontal and vertical impulse exerted at the feet (0.28, 0.41, 0.16 N/BW.s, respectively) than feet emerged with hands horizontal and vertically positioned. Most variations with feet partially emerged exhibited higher and lesser vertical impulse exerted at hands than feet immersed and emerged (e.g. vertical handgrip, 0.13, 0.15 N/BW.s, respectively). Variation with feet emerged and hands on the lowest horizontal handgrip depicted shorter horizontal (0.23, 0.26 m) and vertical CM positioning at flight (0.16, 0.15 m) than the highest horizontal and vertical handgrip, respectively. Start variations have not affected 15-m time. Variations with feet partially or totally emerged depicted advantages, but focusing on the entry and underwater biomechanics is relevant for a shorter start time.

  9. A managed clinical network for cardiac services: set-up, operation and impact on patient care

    PubMed Central

    E StC Hamilton, Karen; M Sullivan, Frank; T Donnan, Peter; Taylor, Rex; Ikenwilo, Divine; Scott, Anthony; Baker, Chris; Wyke, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. Methods This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Results Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and ‘bed down’. Its primary “modus operand” was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were not

  10. How To Set Up Your Own Small Business. Service Company Case Study. Manufacturing Firm Case Study. Retail Store Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallek, Max

    This collection of case studies is intended for use in a course in setting up a small business. The first, a case study of the process of setting up a service company, covers analyzing the pros and cons of starting one's own business, assessing the competition and local market, and selecting a site for and financing the business. The principal…

  11. Improvements of the multichannel collimator set-up on ID27, ESRF: applications to the Fe-FeS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezouar, M.; Morard, G.; Bauchau, S.; Álvarez-Murga, M.; Hodeau, J.; Garbarino, G.

    2010-12-01

    Sulfur is believed to be an alloying light element in iron-rich planetary cores such as those of the Earth, Mars or Ganymede 1,2. Recent studies have suggested that Mars, like the Earth, could have a liquid metallic outer core together with a solid inner core 3. Hence, it is important to investigate the evolution of the Fe-FeS phase diagram and of the physical properties of the liquid Fe-FeS alloys in respect to pressure, temperature and sulphur content. A new multichannel collimator set-up 4 has been designed on the High Pressure Beamline ID27, ESRF. The signature from the slits on the diffraction signal could be removed using a transfer image, measured by the comparison of diffraction patterns of tin glass with and without the multichannel collimator set-up. Here we present an application of this set-up to the Fe-FeS system. Partial melting properties of Fe-16%at S samples were investigated at ~5.7 GPa, by in situ X-ray radiography to determine the absence or presence of solid Fe in coexistence with the S-rich liquid. Diffraction patterns of partially molten Fe-16%at S (composition of the liquid changed with increasing temperature) and pure liquid FeS have been acquired up to 5.9 GPa and 1870 K 5. After a careful data analysis, structural properties and densities have been extracted for different sulfur content. Structural properties changes from compact structure at 16%at S to a disordered structure at 50%at S. Density of Fe-S liquids could be fitted using a symmetric regular solution, with a non-ideality parameter constant over the pressure range studied. Such data set could be used to model small planetary cores, such as Ganymede. References 1 C.J. Allègre, J.P. Poirier, E. Humler et al., Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 134, 515 (1995). 2 F. Sohl and T. Spohn, J. Geophys. Res. 102 (E1), 1613 (1997). 3 C.F. Yoder, A.S. Konopliv, D.N. Yuan et al., Science 300, 299 (2003). 4 G. Morard, M. Mezouar, S. Bauchau et al., Rev. Sci. Inst., Submitted (2010). 5 G. Morard, M

  12. [Technical consideration of setting up a specification for human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, C L; Geng, X C; Zhang, W X; Yan, G D; Chu, X

    1999-12-01

    Anti-G equipment needs to be evaluated using human centrifuge before further developed. However, there isn't a general specification for human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment. From related literature and from our over thirty years experience in this area, we sum up to five aspect technical consideration below: human centrifuge, medical specification for using human in +Gz stress experiment, anti-G equipment experimental assembly, principle should be abided by during human centrifuge evaluation of anti-G equipment. We hope that the technical considerations mentioned in the paper should be helpful to the work of setting up a specification for human centrifuge evaluation anti-G equipment. After we have a specification, the research will be conducted orderly and the anti-G [correction of an-G] equipment will be developed sequentially.

  13. Error control in the set-up of stereo camera systems for 3d animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A.; Creato, C.; Del Castello, L.; Giardina, I.; Melillo, S.; Parisi, L.; Viale, M.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional tracking of animal systems is the key to the comprehension of collective behavior. Experimental data collected via a stereo camera system allow the reconstruction of the 3d trajectories of each individual in the group. Trajectories can then be used to compute some quantities of interest to better understand collective motion, such as velocities, distances between individuals and correlation functions. The reliability of the retrieved trajectories is strictly related to the accuracy of the 3d reconstruction. In this paper, we perform a careful analysis of the most significant errors affecting 3d reconstruction, showing how the accuracy depends on the camera system set-up and on the precision of the calibration parameters.

  14. Specific heat measurement set-up for quench condensed thin superconducting films.

    PubMed

    Poran, Shachaf; Molina-Ruiz, Manel; Gérardin, Anne; Frydman, Aviad; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    We present a set-up designed for the measurement of specific heat of very thin or ultra-thin quench condensed superconducting films. In an ultra-high vacuum chamber, materials of interest can be thermally evaporated directly on a silicon membrane regulated in temperature from 1.4 K to 10 K. On this membrane, a heater and a thermometer are lithographically fabricated, allowing the measurement of heat capacity of the quench condensed layers. This apparatus permits the simultaneous thermal and electrical characterization of successively deposited layers in situ without exposing the deposited materials to room temperature or atmospheric conditions, both being irreversibly harmful to the samples. This system can be used to study specific heat signatures of phase transitions through the superconductor to insulator transition of quench condensed films.

  15. Setting up your own business. Facing the future as an entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Brent, N J

    1990-01-01

    Other areas of setting up and running a business also are important to explore, especially if the business plans to use employees. You will become an employer, and you must be familiar with rules and regulations that include areas such as the employee's right to a safe workplace, worker's compensation laws, unemployment compensation laws and tax liabilities, antidiscrimination laws, and wage and tax laws. If independent contractors are going to be used, you must recognize that well-developed contracts are a necessity. If you are going to market a new product, consult with an attorney whose practice concentrates in trademark and patent law before the product is shared with others. Being well informed about the proposed business venture, not only before its establishment but as it develops and grows, can help you be in the best position to have a successful business.

  16. Setting up and running an advanced light microscopy and imaging facility.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carlos; Muñoz, Ma Ángeles; Villalba, Maite; Labrador, Verónica; Díez-Guerra, F Javier

    2011-07-01

    During the last twenty years, interest in light microscopy and imaging techniques has grown in various fields, such as molecular and cellular biology, developmental biology, and neurobiology. In addition, the number of scientific articles and journals using these techniques is rapidly increasing. Nowadays, most research institutions require sophisticated microscopy systems to cover their investigation demands. In general, such instruments are too expensive and complex to be purchased and managed by a single laboratory or research group, so they have to be shared with other groups and supervised by specialized personnel. This is the reason why microscopy and imaging facilities are becoming so important at research institutions nowadays. In this unit, we have gathered and presented a number of issues and considerations from our own experience that we hope will be helpful when planning or setting up a new facility.

  17. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Galvis, J A; Herrera, E; Guillamón, I; Azpeitia, J; Luccas, R F; Munuera, C; Cuenca, M; Higuera, J A; Díaz, N; Pazos, M; García-Hernandez, M; Buendía, A; Vieira, S; Suderow, H

    2015-01-01

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi2Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  18. Setting up a robotic hepatectomy program: a Western-European experience and perspective.

    PubMed

    Nota, Carolijn L; Rinkes, Inne H Borel; Hagendoorn, Jeroen

    2017-08-01

    Currently the majority of liver resections are performed via open resection. Nevertheless, minimally invasive liver surgery is gaining ground and conventional laparoscopy has proven to be beneficial in different fields of liver surgery compared to open resections. Still, conventional laparoscopy has a few downsides, from which straight instruments, 2-dimensional view and awkward ergonomics are the most obvious. The robotic surgical system is developed to overcome these limitations. It offers several advantages over conventional laparoscopy to optimize conditions in minimally invasive surgery: instruments are wristed with a wide range of motion and the view is 3-dimensional and magnified. With instruments with a greater range of motion than in laparoscopic surgery, the use of a robotic system potentially broadens indications for minimally invasive liver resection. Here, we discuss the steps of setting up a robotic hepatectomy program against the background of the initial experience at our institution.

  19. Juvenile obsessive compulsive disorder in a paediatric dentistry set-up.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Ruchi; Shigli, Anand L; Thakur, Gagan; Jain, Upendra

    2015-06-11

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder comprising uncontrollable thought processes and repetitive, ritualised behaviours that one feels compelled to perform. If an individual has OCD, he/she probably realises that his/her obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours are irrational but would still feel unable to resist them. Since a pedodontist's association with the child patient and parents is established at quite an early age, they should make good use of the opportunity to diagnose psychological disorders in child patients as well as adolescents. Prompt diagnosis in such cases would enable timely medical intervention and hence help in achieving a more cooperative dental patient to ensure instillation of a positive dental attitude. This endeavour highlights a case of a 10-year-old boy who had reported to a private dental set-up with dental problems and was concurrently diagnosed for OCD.

  20. Resistive wall modes in the setting-up phase of a reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, P.; Barrick, G. ); Robertson, S. )

    1990-12-01

    Resistive wall modes during the setting-up phase of a reversed field pinch have been investigated in an experiment (Reversatron II (IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. {bold PS}-{bold 16}, 667 (1988))) operated without a conducting shell. The time for the vertical field to penetrate the vacuum chamber (4 {mu}sec) is much shorter than the rise time of the plasma current (100 {mu}sec). The discharges, when compared to discharges in the same device with a conducting shell, have a greater resistance and lower plasma current. Magnetic probes indicate the growth of a strong {vert bar}{ital n}{vert bar}=6 helical kink resonant with the field on axis.

  1. Set up of cutoff thresholds for kinship determination using SNP loci.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sohee; Shin, Eun Soon; Yu, Hyung Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Seo, Hee Jin; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Soong Deok

    2017-03-08

    The usefulness of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for kinship testing has been demonstrated in many case works, and suggested as a promising marker for relationship identification. For interpreting results based on the calculation of the likelihood ratio (LR) in kinship testing, it is important to prepare cutoffs for respective relatives which are dependent on genetic relatedness. For this, analysis using true pedigree data is significant and reliable as it reflects the actual frequencies of markers in the population. In this study, the kinship index was explored through 1209 parent-child pairs, 1373 full sibling pairs, and 247 uncle-nephew pairs using 136 SNP loci. The cutoffs for LR were set up using different numbers of SNP loci with accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. It is expected that this study can support the application of SNP loci-based kinship testing for various relationships.

  2. Three axis vector magnet set-up for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Buendía, A.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Azpeitia, J.; Luccas, R. F.; Munuera, C.; García-Hernandez, M.; and others

    2015-01-15

    We describe a three axis vector magnet system for cryogenic scanning probe microscopy measurements. We discuss the magnet support system and the power supply, consisting of a compact three way 100 A current source. We obtain tilted magnetic fields in all directions with maximum value of 5T along z-axis and of 1.2T for XY-plane magnetic fields. We describe a scanning tunneling microscopy-spectroscopy (STM-STS) set-up, operating in a dilution refrigerator, which includes a new high voltage ultralow noise piezodrive electronics and discuss the noise level due to vibrations. STM images and STS maps show atomic resolution and the tilted vortex lattice at 150 mK in the superconductor β-Bi{sub 2}Pd. We observe a strongly elongated hexagonal lattice, which corresponds to the projection of the tilted hexagonal vortex lattice on the surface. We also discuss Magnetic Force Microscopy images in a variable temperature insert.

  3. Setting up of a low temperature in-situ ion implantation and channeling facility at Kalpakkam

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaravel, B.; Saravanan, K.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nair, K. G. M.

    2011-07-15

    A simple low temperature ion implantation and ion channeling facility has been set up. Low temperatures upto 70 K has been obtained on a goniometer sample holder by connecting to a continuous flow Helium cryostat with a copper braid. Charge integration is carried out with a transmission Faraday cup with 10 mm diameter aperture and four Faraday cups for performing ion implantation and an electron suppressed 1.5 mm aperture with a TEM grid of 60% beam transmission for ion beam analysis. Typical low temperature ion implantation and channeling experiments have been carried out. Stabilization at intermediate temperatures by controlling the heater at the sample holder and improvement of the achievable lowest temperature by having liquid nitrogen cooled heat shield are in progress.

  4. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloupka, Petr; Jakl, Pavel; Kapitán, Jan; Zerola, Michal; Lauret, Jérôme; STAR Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations' experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called "Golias". It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  5. The experimental set-up of the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Nicoletto, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Toniolo, N.; Torresi, D.; Tortone, G.; Anastasio, A.; Bettini, M.; Cassese, C.; Castellani, L.; Corti, D.; Costa, L.; De Fazio, B.; Galet, G.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Molini, P.; Pontoriere, G.; Rocco, R.; Romoli, M.; Roscilli, L.; Sandoli, M.; Stroe, L.; Tessaro, M.; Zatti, P. G.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the experimental set-up of the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) in-flight facility EXOTIC consisting of: (a) two position-sensitive Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs), dedicated to the event-by-event tracking of the produced RIBs and to time of flight measurements and (b) the new high-granularity compact telescope array EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System), designed for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments employing low-energy light RIBs. EXPADES consists of eight ΔE -Eres telescopes arranged in a cylindrical configuration around the target. Each telescope is made up of two Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) with a thickness of 40/60 μm and 300 μm for the ΔE and Eres layer, respectively. Additionally, eight ionization chambers were constructed to be used as an alternative ΔE stage or, in conjunction with the entire DSSSD array, to build up more complex triple telescopes. New low-noise multi-channel charge-sensitive preamplifiers and spectroscopy amplifiers, associated with constant fraction discriminators, peak-and-hold and Time to Amplitude Converter circuits were developed for the electronic readout of the ΔE stage. Application Specific Integrated Circuit-based electronics was employed for the treatment of the Eres signals. An 8-channel, 12-bit multi-sampling 50 MHz Analog to Digital Converter, a Trigger Supervisor Board for handling the trigger signals of the whole experimental set-up and an ad hoc data acquisition system were also developed. The performance of the PPACs, EXPADES and of the associated electronics was obtained offline with standard α calibration sources and in-beam by measuring the scattering process for the systems 17O+58Ni and 17O+208Pb at incident energies around their respective Coulomb barriers and, successively, during the first experimental runs with the RIBs of the EXOTIC facility.

  6. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Lauret, J.; Lauret, J.; Chaloupka, P.; Jakl, P.; Kapitan, J.; Zerola, M.

    2010-05-28

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called 'Golias'. It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  7. Development of Data Acquisition Set-up for Steady-state Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Gupta, Arnab D.; Sunil, S.; Khan, Ziauddin

    2017-04-01

    For short duration experiments, generally digitized data is transferred for processing and storage after the experiment whereas in case of steady-state experiment the data is acquired, processed, displayed and stored continuously in pipelined manner. This requires acquiring data through special techniques for storage and on-the-go viewing data to display the current data trends for various physical parameters. A small data acquisition set-up is developed for continuously acquiring signals from various physical parameters at different sampling rate for long duration experiment. This includes the hardware set-up for signal digitization, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based timing system for clock synchronization and event/trigger distribution, time slicing of data streams for storage of data chunks to enable viewing of data during acquisition and channel profile display through down sampling etc. In order to store a long data stream of indefinite/long time duration, the data stream is divided into data slices/chunks of user defined time duration. Data chunks avoid the problem of non-access of server data until the channel data file is closed at the end of the long duration experiment. A graphical user interface has been developed in Lab VIEW application development environment for configuring the data acquisition hardware and storing data chunks on local machine as well as at remote data server through Python for further data access. The data plotting and analysis utilities have been developed with Python software, which provides tools for further data processing. This paper describes the development and implementation of data acquisition for steady-state experiment.

  8. Setting up of a cerebral visual impairment clinic for children: Challenges and future developments.

    PubMed

    Philip, Swetha Sara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the setting up of a cerebral visual impairment (CVI) clinic in a tertiary care hospital in South India and to describe the spectrum of cases seen. The CVI clinic, set up in February 2011, receives interdisciplinary input from a core team involving a pediatrician, neurologist, psychiatrist, occupational therapist, pediatric ophthalmologist, and an optometrist. All children, <18 years of age, with cerebral palsy (CP), learning disability, autism, neurodegenerative diseases, and brain trauma are referred to the clinic for functional vision assessment and opinion for further management. One thousand four hundred and seventy-eight patients were seen in the CVI clinic from February 2011 to September 2015. Eighty-five percent of the patients were from different parts of India. In the clinic, 61% had CP, 28% had seizure disorders, autism was seen in 9.5%, and learning disability, neurodegenerative conditions, and brain injury together constituted 1.5%. Most of the children (45%) had moderate CP. Forty percent of CVI was due to birth asphyxia, but about 20% did not have any known cause for CVI. Seventy percent of patients, who came back for follow-up, were carrying out the habilitation strategies suggested. Average attendance of over 300 new patients a year suggests a definite need for CVI clinics in the country. These children need specialized care to handle their complex needs. Although difficult to coordinate, an interdisciplinary team including the support groups and voluntary organizations is needed to facilitate the successful implementation of such specialized service.

  9. Quantum efficiency test set up performances for NIR detector characterization at ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; Duvet, L.; De Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Blommaert, S.; Butler, B.; Van Duinkerken, G.; ter Haar, J.; Heijnen, J.; van der Luijt, K.; Smit, H.; Viale, T.

    2014-07-01

    The Payload Technology Validation Section (Future mission preparation Office) at ESTEC is in charge of specific mission oriented validation activities, for science and robotic exploration missions, aiming at reducing development risks in the implementation phase. These activities take place during the early mission phases or during the implementation itself. In this framework, a test set up to characterize the quantum efficiency of near infrared detectors has been developed. The first detector to be tested will an HAWAII-2RG detector with a 2.5μm cut off, it will be used as commissioning device in preparation to the tests of prototypes European detectors developed under ESA funding. The capability to compare on the same setup detectors from different manufacturers will be a unique asset for the future mission preparation office. This publication presents the performances of the quantum efficiency test bench to prepare measurements on the HAWAII-2RG detector. A SOFRADIR Saturn detector has been used as a preliminary test vehicle for the bench. A test set up with a lamp, chopper, monochromator, pinhole and off axis mirrors allows to create a spot of 1mm diameter between 700nm and 2.5μm.The shape of the beam has been measured to match the rms voltage read by the Merlin Lock -in amplifier and the amplitude of the incoming signal. The reference detectors have been inter-calibrated with an uncertainty up to 3 %. For the measurement with HAWAII-2RG detector, the existing cryostat [1] has been modified to adapt cold black baffling, a cold filter wheel and a sapphire window. An statistic uncertainty of +/-2.6% on the quantum efficiency on the detector under test measurement is expected.

  10. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, Emanuel; Kraft, Philipp; Buchen, Caroline; Frede, Hans-Georg; Aquino, Eugenio; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has already a large impact on the availability of water resources. Many regions in South-East Asia are assumed to receive less water in the future, dramatically impacting the production of the most important staple food: rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice is the primary food source for nearly half of the World's population, and is the only cereal that can grow under wetland conditions. Especially anaerobic (flooded) rice fields require high amounts of water but also have higher yields than aerobic produced rice. In the past different methods were developed to reduce the water use in rice paddies, like alternative wetting and drying or the use of mixed cropping systems with aerobic (non-flooded) rice and alternative crops such as maize. A more detailed understanding of water and nutrient cycling in rice-based cropping systems is needed to reduce water use, and requires the investigation of hydrological and biochemical processes as well as transport dynamics at the field scale. New developments in analytical devices permit monitoring parameters at high temporal resolutions and at acceptable costs without much necessary maintenance or analysis over longer periods. Here we present a new type of automatic sampling set-up that facilitates in situ analysis of hydrometric information, stable water isotopes and nitrate concentrations in spatially differentiated agricultural fields. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water) in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS) for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O), a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The whole system is maintained with special developed software for remote control of the system via internet. We

  11. Setting up of a cerebral visual impairment clinic for children: Challenges and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Swetha Sara

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the setting up of a cerebral visual impairment (CVI) clinic in a tertiary care hospital in South India and to describe the spectrum of cases seen. Materials and Methods: The CVI clinic, set up in February 2011, receives interdisciplinary input from a core team involving a pediatrician, neurologist, psychiatrist, occupational therapist, pediatric ophthalmologist, and an optometrist. All children, <18 years of age, with cerebral palsy (CP), learning disability, autism, neurodegenerative diseases, and brain trauma are referred to the clinic for functional vision assessment and opinion for further management. Results: One thousand four hundred and seventy-eight patients were seen in the CVI clinic from February 2011 to September 2015. Eighty-five percent of the patients were from different parts of India. In the clinic, 61% had CP, 28% had seizure disorders, autism was seen in 9.5%, and learning disability, neurodegenerative conditions, and brain injury together constituted 1.5%. Most of the children (45%) had moderate CP. Forty percent of CVI was due to birth asphyxia, but about 20% did not have any known cause for CVI. Seventy percent of patients, who came back for follow-up, were carrying out the habilitation strategies suggested. Conclusions: Average attendance of over 300 new patients a year suggests a definite need for CVI clinics in the country. These children need specialized care to handle their complex needs. Although difficult to coordinate, an interdisciplinary team including the support groups and voluntary organizations is needed to facilitate the successful implementation of such specialized service. PMID:28300737

  12. SETTING UP OF A HOMECARE SYSTEM FOR HIGH COST NEBULISERS IN A PAEDIATRIC CYSTIC FIBROSIS CENTRE.

    PubMed

    Chorro-Mari, Veronica; Christiansen, Nanna

    2016-09-01

    Due to national changes to the commissioning process of high cost nebulisers (HCN) for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients, CF centres have to repatriate the prescribing of the HCN to the tertiary care centres.1 The following nebulisers will no longer be prescribed by primary care: Cayston® (Aztreonam); Colomycin®, Pomixin®, Clobreathe® (Colistimethate); Pulmozyme® (Dornase alfa); Tobi®, Tobi Podhaler ®, Bramitob® (Tobramycin).This abstract explains how the Royal London Hospital (RLH) Paediatric Pharmacy recruited over 100 paediatric (CF) patients smoothly within a period of 4 months and set up a homecare system to avoid patients and families having to travel large distances to obtain their medication. A number of homecare companies were evaluated initially. Parameters looked at were reports of customer satisfaction, delivery cost, turn-around time once the prescription was received and availability of same day delivery service.In order to capture existing patients we met with CF Specialist Nurses to establish the total number of patients on HCN, what nebulised treatment they were on and their respective doses. We prioritised patients that had known problems with GP prescribing and anybody newly starting on HCN.To communicate the change to parents, a letter was sent to all parents explaining the changeover to homecare delivery and tertiary prescribing. In addition a section in the parent bulletin was dedicated to the topic as well. Following this we contacted parents via phone and in clinic to request consent and explain the process.Up to 10 patients were contacted weekly (average of 7); the consent form and registration form were then faxed to the Homecare company for patient registration. In parallel to this prescriptions were requested for the patients that had been set up in the previous week, ensuring that prescribing was spread out over time to avoid having peak times for repeat prescriptions.In addition to the letter to parents GP surgeries were also

  13. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work.

  14. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  15. Margin evaluation of translational and rotational set-up errors in intensity modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Shan, Guo-Ping; Liu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Bin-Bing

    2016-01-01

    A clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin recipes was routinely used to ensure dose was actually delivered to target for all (most) patients. Currently used margin recipes were associated with only translational set-up errors in radiotherapy. However, when set-up errors extended to six-degree (6D) scope (three translational and three rotational set-up errors), margin recipe should be re-evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate dosimetric changes of targets (both CTV and PTV) coverage when 6D set-up errors were introduced and testify the practicability of currently used margin recipe in radiotherapy. A total number of 105 cone beam computer tomography scans for ten patients with cervical cancer were derived prior to treatment delivery and 6D set-up errors were acquired with image registration tools. Target coverage was evaluated retrospectively for 6D set-up errors introduced plan with 6 mm CTV to PTV margin. Target coverage of PTV showed significant decreases (3.3 %) in set-up errors introduced plans compared with original plans. But CTV coverage was not susceptible to these set-up errors. A tendency of coverage decrease for PTV along with distance away from treatment was testified, from -0.2 to -6.2 %. However, CTV seems changed less, from -0.2 to -0.8 %. The result indicate that a CTV to PTV margin of 6 mm was sufficient to take into account 6D set-up errors for most patients with cervical cancer. Future research suggests a smaller margin to further improve both tumor coverage and organs at risk sparing.

  16. The influence of the IMRT QA set-up error on the 2D and 3D gamma evaluation method as obtained by using Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Hee; Cho, Min-Seok; Suh, Tae Suk

    2015-11-01

    The phantom-alignment error is one of the factors affecting delivery quality assurance (QA) accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Accordingly, a possibility of inadequate use of spatial information in gamma evaluation may exist for patient-specific IMRT QA. The influence of the phantom-alignment error on gamma evaluation can be demonstrated experimentally by using the gamma passing rate and the gamma value. However, such experimental methods have a limitation regarding the intrinsic verification of the influence of the phantom set-up error because experimentally measuring the phantom-alignment error accurately is impossible. To overcome this limitation, we aimed to verify the effect of the phantom set-up error within the gamma evaluation formula by using a Monte Carlo simulation. Artificial phantom set-up errors were simulated, and the concept of the true point (TP) was used to represent the actual coordinates of the measurement point for the mathematical modeling of these effects on the gamma. Using dose distributions acquired from the Monte Carlo simulation, performed gamma evaluations in 2D and 3D. The results of the gamma evaluations and the dose difference at the TP were classified to verify the degrees of dose reflection at the TP. The 2D and the 3D gamma errors were defined by comparing gamma values between the case of the imposed phantom set-up error and the TP in order to investigate the effect of the set-up error on the gamma value. According to the results for gamma errors, the 3D gamma evaluation reflected the dose at the TP better than the 2D one. Moreover, the gamma passing rates were higher for 3D than for 2D, as is widely known. Thus, the 3D gamma evaluation can increase the precision of patient-specific IMRT QA by applying stringent acceptance criteria and setting a reasonable action level for the 3D gamma passing rate.

  17. Ultra-sensitive γ-ray spectroscopy set-up for investigating primordial lithium problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Gustavino, C.; Trezzi, D.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; DiLeva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.

    2016-07-01

    To precisely determine BBN 6Li production, the cross-section of the nuclear reaction 2H(α, γ)6Li must be directly measured within the astrophysical energy range of 30-400 keV. This measure requires an ultra-low γ-ray background in the experimental set-up. We have realized the conditions matching these very strict requirements at LUNA, the deep underground accelerator laboratory active in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy: the γ-ray spectrometer background has been reduced down to reach unmatched low levels, comparable to the good ones experienced in dedicated off-line underground ultra low γ counting rate. We present and discuss the γ-ray background reduction reached in the HpGe spectrometer, where most of the remaining γ-ray background seen in the spectra are coming from the energetic deuterons scattered in the gas target by the α beam. Thanks to the low neutron environmental background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3 MeV neutrons on HpGe detectors has been studied in details and the results are presented and discussed.

  18. Probabilistic multiscale image segmentation: set-up and first results (Proceedings Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincken, Koen L.; Koster, Andre S.; Viergever, Max A.

    1992-09-01

    We have developed a method to segment two- and three-dimensional images using a multiscale (hyperstack) approach with probabilistic linking. A hyperstack is a voxel-based multiscale data structure containing linkages between voxels at different scales. The scale-space is constructed by repeatedly applying a discrete convolution with a Gaussian kernel to the original input image. Between these levels of increasing scale we establish child-parent linkages according to a linkage scheme that is based on affection. In the resulting tree-like data structure roots are formed to indicate the most plausible locations in scale-space where objects (of different sizes) are actually defined by a single voxel. Tracing the linkages back from every root to the ground level produces a segmented image. The present paper deals with probabilistic linking, i.e., a set-up in which a child voxel can be linked to more than one parent voxel. The output of the thus constructed hyperstack -- a list of object probabilities per voxel -- can be directly related to the opacities used in volume renderers.

  19. A set up of a modern analytical laboratory for wastewaters from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Natalia; Dahl, Olli

    2007-08-01

    The introduction of analytical techniques allowing rapid, selective, sensitive, and reliable determination of aqueous pollutants is of crucial importance for the protection of the environment. This critical review summarizes the advanced analytical techniques suggested over the last ten years together with already established methods, and evaluates whether they are fit for wastewater quality assessment considering the area of application, interferences, limit of detection, calibration function, and precision. The key parameters of wastewater quality assessment are: total organic carbon (TOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), organochlorines (AOX), nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and toxicity. Chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, photocatalytic oxidation with semiconductor nanofilms and atomic emission spectrometry, optical fibre sensors and chemiluminescence, amperometric mediated biosensors and microbial fuel cells, respirometry and bioluminescence measurements are just part of the proposed wastewater analyst's toolkit. The diversity of fundamental phenomena and the captivating elegance of interdisciplinary applications involved in the development of wastewater analytical techniques should attract the interest of a wide scientific audience including analytical chemists, chemical physicists, microbiologists and environmentalists. To conclude, we suggest a laboratory set up for the analysis of wastewaters from the pulp and paper industry.

  20. Learning the hard way! Setting up an RCT of aromatherapy massage for patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Westcombe, A M; Gambles, M A; Wilkinson, S M; Barnes, K; Fellowes, D; Maher, E J; Young, T; Love, S B; Lucey, R A; Cubbin, S; Ramirez, A J

    2003-06-01

    Aromatherapy massage is used in cancer palliative care to improve quality of life but there is little evidence for its effectiveness. A large pragmatic multicentre randomized controlled trial was set up to examine the effectiveness of aromatherapy in improving psychological distress and quality of life in patients with cancer. This paper examines the challenges encountered in the design and execution of the study. The original design, i) focused on palliative care patients with advanced disease; ii) had both a no-intervention and a treatment control group (relaxation therapy); and iii) adopted 90% power for sample size calculations. A varied measurement strategy was employed. Recruitment proved difficult, referrers were 'gate-keeping', patients were often too ill to approach and others declined. The trial was modified to ensure viability. Eligibility was extended to all patients with cancer irrespective of stage, the relaxation group was removed and the power reduced to 80%. Although it is not generally good practice to change a study design once recruitment has started, the changes were consistent with the original basic study aims and design principles. The data collection phase was successfully completed in July 2002.

  1. [Set up of a protocol for heparin use in special patients].

    PubMed

    Manresa Ramón, N; Nájera Pérez, Ma D; Page del Pozo, Ma Ángeles; Sánchez Martínez, I; Sánchez Catalicio, Ma del M; Roldán Schilling, V

    2014-04-01

    Low-molecular weight (LMW) heparins bring a series of advantages as compared to non-fractionated heparin (NFH), such as safety, efficacy, bioavailability, fewer monitoring, and persistent anti-coagulant response. There exist, however, a concern about their use in particular patients that may require a special control, such as those with renal failure, age over 75 years, obesity, and pregnancy. The aim of this study was the set up between the department of Pharmacy, Hematology, and Internal Medicine of a consensus protocol for the follow-up ad monitoring of LMWH in patients requiring a special control. For this purpose, we carried out a bibliographical review of the different heparins used under de above mentioned conditions. Based on the evidence available and the consensus among the members of the working group, we established a protocol that contained recommendations on prophylaxis, management and monitoring by means of the determination of anti-Xa factor. Besides, we included some clues on the therapeutic figures of anti-Xa and administration schedules for obtaining anti-Xa values within the range. Enoxaparin was the selected heparin given the evidence and its availability at our center.

  2. A set-up for a biased electrode experiment in ADITYA Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhyani, Pravesh; Ghosh, Joydeep; Sathyanarayana, K.; Praveenlal, V. E.; Gautam, Pramila; Shah, Minsha; Tanna, R. L.; Kumar, Pintu; Chavda, C.; Patel, N. C.; Panchal, V.; Gupta, C. N.; Jadeja, K. A.; Bhatt, S. B.; Kumar, S.; Raju, D.; Atrey, P. K.; Joisa, S.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental set-up to investigate the effect of a biased electrode introduced in the edge region on ADITYA tokamak discharges is presented. A specially designed double-bellow mechanical assembly is fabricated for controlling the electrode location as well as its exposed length inside the plasma. The cylindrical molybdenum electrode is powered by a capacitor-bank based pulsed power supply (PPS) using a semiconductor controlled rectifier (SCR) as a switch with forced commutation. A Langmuir probe array for radial profile measurements of plasma potential and density is fabricated and installed. Standard results of improvement of global confinement have been obtained using a biased electrode. In addition to that, in this paper we show for the first time that the same biasing system can be used to avoid disruptions through stabilisation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Real time disruption control experiments have also been carried out by triggering the bias-voltage on the electrode automatically when the Mirnov probe signal exceeds a preset threshold value using a uniquely designed electronic comparator circuit. Most of the results related to the improved confinement and disruption mitigation are obtained in case of the electrode tip being kept at ~3 cm inside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) with an exposed length of ~20 mm in typical discharges of ADITYA tokamak.

  3. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center: New Facility Set-up

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Tatsuya; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yamada, Satoru; Yusa, Ken; Tashiro, Mutsumi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Torikai, Kota; Yoshida, Yukari; Kitada, Yoko; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Takayoshi; Nakano, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) offers superior dose conformity in the treatment of deep-seated tumors compared with conventional X-ray therapy. In addition, carbon ion beams have a higher relative biological effectiveness compared with protons or X-ray beams. C-ion RT for the first patient at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center (GHMC) was initiated in March of 2010. The major specifications of the facility were determined based on the experience of clinical treatments at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), with the size and cost being reduced to one-third of those at NIRS. The currently indicated sites of cancer treatment at GHMC are lung, prostate, head and neck, liver, rectum, bone and soft tissue. Between March 2010 and July 2011, a total of 177 patients were treated at GHMC although a total of 100 patients was the design specification during the period in considering the optimal machine performance. In the present article, we introduce the facility set-up of GHMC, including the facility design, treatment planning systems, and clinical preparations. PMID:24213124

  4. A simple, low-cost and fast Peltier thermoregulation set-up for electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Corrèges, P; Bugnard, E; Millerin, C; Masiero, A; Andrivet, J P; Bloc, A; Dunant, Y

    1998-09-01

    Most of the parameters recorded in electrophysiology are strongly temperature dependent. In order to control temperature fluctuations we have built a system that ensures an accurate thermoregulation of the recording chamber. Temperature of physiological preparations can be changed relatively quickly (about 8 degrees C/min) and with a good accuracy (+/- 0.5 degrees C) without inducing thermal oscillations. Contrary to other thermoregulating devices, the temperature regulation is not carried out through the perfused medium but directly at the bottom of the chamber where a 3-cm2 Peltier element has been placed. The element is driven by a dedicated electronic device which controls the amount and the direction of the current flowing across the Peltier thermocouple. All construction details and the appropriate electrical circuits are provided. Using this home-made device, the steady-state chamber temperature could be precisely monitored with a resolution of +/- 0.1 degrees C in a range of 0-40 degrees C. This set-up was tested in experiments designed to evaluate the temperature dependence of synaptic transmission in the Torpedo nerve electroplate synapses and of calcium currents recorded from isolated nerve cells. This low-cost method is suitable for a wide range of applications.

  5. Comparing para-rowing set-ups on an ergometer using kinematic movement patterns of able-bodied rowers.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B; Eger, T; Merritt, T; Godwin, A

    2017-04-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the biomechanics of able-bodied rowing, few studies have been completed with para-rowing set-ups. The purpose of this research was to provide benchmark data for handle kinetics and joint kinematics for able-bodied athletes rowing in para- rowing set-ups on an indoor ergometer. Able-bodied varsity rowers performed maximal trials in three para-rowing set-ups; Legs, Trunk and Arms (LTA), Trunk and Arms (TA) and Arms and Shoulders (AS) rowing. The handle force kinetics of the LTA stroke were comparable to the values for able-bodied literature. Lumbar flexion at the catch, extension at the finish and total range of motion were, however, greater than values in the literature for able-bodied athletes in the LTA set-up. Additionally, rowers in TA and AS set-ups utilised more extreme ranges of motion for lumbar flexion, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction than the LTA set-up. This study provides the first biomechanical values of the para-rowing strokes for researchers, coaches and athletes to use while promoting the safest training programmes possible for para-rowing.

  6. Bushmeat genetics: setting up a reference framework for the DNA typing of African forest bushmeat.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Njiokou, Flobert; Olayemi, Ayodeji; Pagani, Paolo; Dufour, Sylvain; Danquah, Emmanuel; Nutsuakor, Mac Elikem K; Ngua, Gabriel; Missoup, Alain-Didier; Tedesco, Pablo A; Dernat, Rémy; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-05-01

    The bushmeat trade in tropical Africa represents illegal, unsustainable off-takes of millions of tons of wild game - mostly mammals - per year. We sequenced four mitochondrial gene fragments (cyt b, COI, 12S, 16S) in >300 bushmeat items representing nine mammalian orders and 59 morphological species from five western and central African countries (Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea). Our objectives were to assess the efficiency of cross-species PCR amplification and to evaluate the usefulness of our multilocus approach for reliable bushmeat species identification. We provide a straightforward amplification protocol using a single 'universal' primer pair per gene that generally yielded >90% PCR success rates across orders and was robust to different types of meat preprocessing and DNA extraction protocols. For taxonomic identification, we set up a decision pipeline combining similarity- and tree-based approaches with an assessment of taxonomic expertise and coverage of the GENBANK database. Our multilocus approach permitted us to: (i) adjust for existing taxonomic gaps in GENBANK databases, (ii) assign to the species level 67% of the morphological species hypotheses and (iii) successfully identify samples with uncertain taxonomic attribution (preprocessed carcasses and cryptic lineages). High levels of genetic polymorphism across genes and taxa, together with the excellent resolution observed among species-level clusters (neighbour-joining trees and Klee diagrams) advocate the usefulness of our markers for bushmeat DNA typing. We formalize our DNA typing decision pipeline through an expert-curated query database - DNA BUSHMEAT - that shall permit the automated identification of African forest bushmeat items.

  7. Potentials and Limitations of Guiding Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Set-Up on Liver-Implanted Fiducial Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderink, Wouter; Mendez Romero, Alejandra; Seppenwoolde, Yvette; Boer, Hans de; Levendag, Peter; Heijmen, Ben

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: We investigated the potentials and limitations of guiding liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) set-up on liver-implanted fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients undergoing compression-supported SBRT in a stereotactic body frame received fluoroscopy at treatment preparation and before each treatment fraction. In fluoroscopic videos we localized the markers and diaphragm tip at expiration and the spine (measurements on free-breathing and abdominal compression). Day-to-day displacements, rotations (markers only), and deformations were determined. Marker guidance was compared to conventional set-up strategies in treatment set-up simulations. Results: For compression, day-to-day motion of markers with respect to their centers of mass (COM) was {sigma} = 0.9 mm (random error SD), {Sigma} = 0.4 mm (systematic error SD), and <2.1 mm (maximum). Consequently, assuming that markers were closely surrounding spherical tumors, marker COM-guided set-up would have required safety margins of {approx}2 mm. Using marker COM as the gold standard, other set-up methods (using no correction, spine registration, and diaphragm tip craniocaudal registration) resulted in set-up errors of 1.4 mm < {sigma} < 2.8 mm, 2.6 mm < {Sigma} < 5.1 mm, and 6.3 mm < max < 12.4 mm. Day-to-day intermarker motion of <16.7%, 2.2% median, and rotations between 3.5{sup o} and 7.2{sup o} were observed. For markers not surrounding the tumor, e.g., 5 cm between respective COMs, these changes could effect residual tumor set-up errors up to 8.4 mm, 1.1 mm median (deformations), and 3.1 mm to 6.3 mm (rotations). Compression did not systematically contribute to deformations and rotations, since similar results were observed for free-breathing. Conclusions: If markers can be implanted near and around the tumor, residual set-up errors by marker guidance are small compared to those of conventional set-up methods, allowing high-precision tumor radiation set-up. However, substantial

  8. In vitro investigations of repulsion during laser lithotripsy using a pendulum set-up.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Ronald; Haseke, Nicolas; Pongratz, Thomas; Hecht, Volkmar; Tilki, Derya; Stief, Christian G; Bader, Markus Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy is a commonly used technique to treat ureteral calculi.The type of energy source used is one of the main influences of retrograd calculi propulsion. Using a momentum pendulum under-water set-up the induced momentum and the initial velocity were investigated. Pulsed laser light from three different clinically available laser systems, including a Ho:YAG laser, a frequency-doubled double-pulse (second harmonic generation, SHG) Nd:YAG laser and a flash-lamp pumped dye (FLPD) laser, were transmitted via flexible fibres of different core diameter to the front of the pendulum sinker. Single pulses at variable pulse energy, according to the clinical laser parameter settings, were applied to the target sinker, thus causing a repulsion-induced deflection which was documented by video recording. The maximum deflection was determined. Solving the differential equation of a pendulum gives the initial velocity, the laser-induced momentum and the efficiency of momentum transfer. The induced deflection as well as the starting velocity of the two short-duration pulsed laser systems (SHG Nd:YAG, FLPD) were similar (s (max) = 2-3.6 cm and v (0) = 150-200 mm/s, respectively), whereas both values were lower using the Ho:YAG laser with a long pulse duration (s (max) = 0.9--1.6 cm and v (0) = 60-105 mm/s, respectively). The momentum I induced by the Ho:YAG laser was only 50% and its transfer efficacy η (Repuls) was reduced to less than 5% of the values of the two short-pulsed laser systems. This investigation clearly showed the variable parts and amounts of repulsion using different pulsed lasers in an objective and reproducible manner. The momentum transfer efficiency could be determined without any physical friction problems. Further investigations are needed to compare stone fragmentation techniques with respect to laser repulsion and its clinical impact.

  9. Different sedimentological and thermal evolution of three north-pyrenean basins during their set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelalou, Roman; Nalpas, Thierry; Bousquet, Romain; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2015-04-01

    out to be good places where to study the evolution of passive margin analogue and also to be a good example where the sediments were metamorphosed during the basin set up.

  10. Influence of experimental set-up on the infiltration characteristics during managed aquifer recharge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Thomas; Vanzella de Melo, Julio Augusto; Stefan, Catalin

    2016-04-01

    The main focus during operation of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is on clogging processes, specifically on the changes of infiltration capacities and degradation of infiltrated organic substances including vadose zone oxygen dynamics. Lab scale experiments are one opportunity to understand and characterize these processes under different drying and wetting cycles and infiltration rates. However, the multitude of assumptions and scale-related limitations of downscale investigations often lead to over- or underestimations, rendering their results useless when translated to field-like conditions. Therefore, the specific objective of this investigation is to compare the results obtained from two different experimental set-ups with different scales: a 3D, rectangular shaped, stainless steel lysimeter (1.5 x 1.0 x 1.0 m) with an infiltration basin installed in the centre of its surface and a 1D soil column (1m, ᴓ 0.15 m) with the infiltration over the complete column surface. The study focuses on the influence of the experimental setup conditions on the soil clogging, water flow pattern, oxygen dynamics and degradation of organic substances. The results should allow making statements about the suitability of these lab experiments for the investigation of processes taking place in the unsaturated soil zone during operation of MAR. Both experimental units were packed with the same soil and equipped with tensiometers, TDR-probes, oxygen probes and suction cups in two depths for the estimation of spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture, oxygen and infiltrated substances. The lysimeter and the column were placed inside of a fully automatic climate tent, which facilitates the exact control of air temperature and humidity. The first results confirm that both infiltration units are suitable to simulate the clogging and the oxidation of easily degradable organic substances. However, the velocity of water transport is higher in the column compared with the lysimeter

  11. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  12. Novel Set-Up for Low-Disturbance Sampling of Volatile and Non-volatile Compounds from Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Elisabeth J; Pauls, Gerhard; Rillig, Matthias C; Hansson, Bill S; Hilker, Monika; Reinecke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on rhizosphere chemicals are carried out in substrate-free set-ups or in artificial substrates using sampling methods that require an air flow and may thus cause disturbance to the rhizosphere. Our study aimed to develop a simplified and inexpensive system that allows analysis of rhizosphere chemicals at experimentally less disturbed conditions. We designed a mesocosm in which volatile rhizosphere chemicals were sampled passively (by diffusion) without air- and water flow on polydimethylsiloxane-(PDMS) tubes. Dandelion (Taraxacum sect. ruderalia) was used as model plant; roots were left undamaged. Fifteen volatiles were retrieved from the sorptive material by thermal desorption for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, three sugars were collected from the rhizosphere substrate by aqueous extraction and derivatized prior to GC/MS analysis. In order to study how the quantity of detected rhizosphere compounds depends on the type of soil or substrate, we determined the matrix-dependent recovery of synthetic rhizosphere chemicals. Furthermore, we compared sorption of volatiles on PDMS tubes with and without direct contact to the substrate. The results show that the newly designed mesocosm is suitable for low-invasive extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from rhizospheres. We further highlight how strongly the type of substrate and contact of PDMS tubes to the substrate affect the detectability of compounds from rhizospheres.

  13. In search of the economic sustainability of Hadron therapy: the real cost of setting up and operating a Hadron facility.

    PubMed

    Vanderstraeten, Barbara; Verstraete, Jan; De Croock, Roger; De Neve, Wilfried; Lievens, Yolande

    2014-05-01

    To determine the treatment cost and required reimbursement for a new hadron therapy facility, considering different technical solutions and financing methods. The 3 technical solutions analyzed are a carbon only (COC), proton only (POC), and combined (CC) center, each operating 2 treatment rooms and assumed to function at full capacity. A business model defines the required reimbursement and analyzes the financial implications of setting up a facility over time; activity-based costing (ABC) calculates the treatment costs per type of patient for a center in a steady state of operation. Both models compare a private, full-cost approach with public sponsoring, only taking into account operational costs. Yearly operational costs range between €10.0M (M = million) for a publicly sponsored POC to €24.8M for a CC with private financing. Disregarding inflation, the average treatment cost calculated with ABC (COC: €29,450; POC: €46,342; CC: €46,443 for private financing; respectively €16,059, €28,296, and €23,956 for public sponsoring) is slightly lower than the required reimbursement based on the business model (between €51,200 in a privately funded POC and €18,400 in COC with public sponsoring). Reimbursement for privately financed centers is very sensitive to a delay in commissioning and to the interest rate. Higher throughput and hypofractionation have a positive impact on the treatment costs. Both calculation methods are valid and complementary. The financially most attractive option of a publicly sponsored COC should be balanced to the clinical necessities and the sociopolitical context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of an air-liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C. R.; Ameer, S. S.; Ludvigsson, L.; Ali, N.; Alhamdow, A.; Messing, M. E.; Pagels, J.; Gudmundsson, A.; Bohgard, M.; Sanfins, E.; Kåredal, M.; Broberg, K.; Rissler, J.

    2016-04-01

    Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air-liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50-150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles <10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air-liquid interface of 0.4-10.7, 0.9-46.6, and 0.1-1.4 µg/cm2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.

  15. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for oropharyngeal cancer: the sensitivity of plan objectives and constraints to set-up uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploquin, Nicolas; Song, William; Lau, Harold; Dunscombe, Peter

    2005-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of set-up uncertainty on compliance with the objectives and constraints of an intensity modulated radiation therapy protocol for early stage cancer of the oropharynx. As the convolution approach to the quantitative study of set-up uncertainties cannot accommodate either surface contours or internal inhomogeneities, both of which are highly relevant to sites in the head and neck, we have employed the more resource intensive direct simulation method. The impact of both systematic (variable from 0 to 6 mm) and random (fixed at 2 mm) set-up uncertainties on compliance with the criteria of the RTOG H-0022 protocol has been examined for eight geometrically complex structures: CTV66 (gross tumour volume and palpable lymph nodes suspicious for metastases), CTV54 (lymph node groups or surgical neck levels at risk of subclinical metastases), glottic larynx, spinal cord, brainstem, mandible and left and right parotids. In a probability-based approach, both dose-volume histograms and equivalent uniform doses were used to describe the dose distributions achieved by plans for two patients, in the presence of set-up uncertainty. The equivalent uniform dose is defined to be that dose which, when delivered uniformly to the organ of interest, will lead to the same response as the non-uniform dose under consideration. For systematic set-up uncertainties greater than 2 mm and 5 mm respectively, coverage of the CTV66 and CTV54 could be significantly compromised. Directional sensitivity was observed in both cases. Most organs at risk (except the glottic larynx which did not comply under static conditions) continued to meet the dose constraints up to 4 mm systematic uncertainty for both plans. The exception was the contra lateral parotid gland, which this protocol is specifically designed to protect. Sensitivity to systematic set-up uncertainty of 2 mm was observed for this organ at risk in both clinical plans.

  16. Extreme alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich fluid inclusions in granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rainer; Davidson, Paul; Schmidt, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Our study of fluid and melt inclusions in quartz and feldspar from granite pegmatite from the Precambrian Rønne granite, Bornholm Island, Denmark revealed extremely alkali bicarbonate- and carbonate-rich inclusions. The solid phases (daughter crystals) are mainly nahcolite [NaHCO3], zabuyelite [Li2CO3], and in rare cases potash [K2CO3] in addition to the volatile phases CO2 and aqueous carbonate/bicarbonate solution. Rare melt inclusions contain nahcolite, dawsonite [NaAl(CO3)(OH)2], and muscovite. In addition to fluid and melt inclusions, there are primary CO2-rich vapor inclusions, which mostly contain small nahcolite crystals. The identification of potash as a naturally occurring mineral would appear to be the first recorded instance. From the appearance of high concentrations of these carbonates and bicarbonates, we suggest that the mineral-forming media were water- and alkali carbonate-rich silicate melts or highly concentrated fluids. The coexistence of silicate melt inclusions with carbonate-rich fluid and nahcolite-rich vapor inclusions indicates a melt-melt-vapor equilibrium during the crystallization of the pegmatite. These results are supported by the results of hydrothermal diamond anvil cell experiments in the pseudoternary system H2O-NaHCO3-SiO2. Additionally, we show that boundary layer effects were insignificant in the Bornholm pegmatites and are not required for the origin of primary textures in compositionally simple pegmatites at least.

  17. Single well thermal tracer test, a new experimental set up for characterizing thermal transport in fractured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Bernardie, Jérôme; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Chatton, Eliot; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Le Lay, Hugo; Koch, Floriant; Gerard, Marie-Françoise; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2017-04-01

    Thermal transport in fractured media depends on the hydrological properties of fractures and thermal characteristics of rock. Tracer tests using heat as tracer can thus be a good alternative to characterize fractured media for shallow geothermal needs. This study investigates the possibility of implementing a new thermal tracer test set up, the single well thermal tracer test, to characterize hydraulic and thermal transport properties of fractured crystalline rock. The experimental setup is based on injecting hot water in a fracture isolated by a double straddle packer in the borehole while pumping and monitoring the temperature in a fracture crossing the same borehole at greater elevation. One difficulty comes from the fact that injection and withdrawal are achieved in the same borehole involving thermal losses along the injection tube that may disturb the heat recovery signal. To be able to well localize the heat influx, we implemented a Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS) which allows the temperature monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolution (29 centimeters and 30 seconds respectively). Several tests, at different pumping and injection rates, were performed in a crystalline rock aquifer at the experimental site of Ploemeur (H+ observatory network). We show through signal processing how the thermal breakthrough may be extracted thanks to Fiber-Optic distributed temperature measurements. In particular, we demonstrate how detailed distributed temperature measurements were useful to identify different inflows and to estimate how much heat was transported and stored within the fractures network. Thermal breakthrough curves of single well thermal tracer tests were then interpreted with a simple analytical model to characterize hydraulic and thermal characteristics of the fractured media. We finally discuss the advantages of these tests compared to cross-borehole thermal tracer tests.

  18. Organizational development trajectory of a large academic radiotherapy department set up similarly to a prospective clinical trial: the MAASTRO experience

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, L; Dekker, A; Hermanns, E; Houben, R; Govers, M; van Merode, F; Lambin, P

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To simultaneously improve patient care processes and clinical research activities by starting a hypothesis-driven reorganization trajectory mimicking the rigorous methodology of a prospective clinical trial. Methods: The design of this reorganization trajectory was based on the model of a prospective trial. It consisted of (1) listing problems and analysing their potential causes, (2) defining interventions, (3) defining end points and (4) measuring the effect of the interventions (i.e. at baseline and after 1 and 2 years). The primary end point for patient care was the number of organizational root causes of incidents/near incidents; for clinical research, it was the number of patients in trials. There were several secondary end points. We analysed the data using two sample z-tests, χ2 test, a Mann–Whitney U test and the one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. Results: The number of organizational root causes was reduced by 27% (p < 0.001). There was no effect on the percentage of patients included in trials. Conclusion: The reorganizational trajectory was successful for the primary end point of patient care and had no effect on clinical research. Some confounding events hampered our ability to draw strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the transparency of this approach can give medical professionals more confidence in moving forward with other organizational changes in the same way. Advances in knowledge: This article is novel because managerial interventions were set up similarly to a prospective clinical trial. This study is the first of its kind in radiotherapy, and this approach can contribute to discussions about the effectiveness of managerial interventions. PMID:25679320

  19. Organizational development trajectory of a large academic radiotherapy department set up similarly to a prospective clinical trial: the MAASTRO experience.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M; Boersma, L; Dekker, A; Hermanns, E; Houben, R; Govers, M; van Merode, F; Lambin, P

    2015-05-01

    To simultaneously improve patient care processes and clinical research activities by starting a hypothesis-driven reorganization trajectory mimicking the rigorous methodology of a prospective clinical trial. The design of this reorganization trajectory was based on the model of a prospective trial. It consisted of (1) listing problems and analysing their potential causes, (2) defining interventions, (3) defining end points and (4) measuring the effect of the interventions (i.e. at baseline and after 1 and 2 years). The primary end point for patient care was the number of organizational root causes of incidents/near incidents; for clinical research, it was the number of patients in trials. There were several secondary end points. We analysed the data using two sample z-tests, χ(2) test, a Mann-Whitney U test and the one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction. The number of organizational root causes was reduced by 27% (p < 0.001). There was no effect on the percentage of patients included in trials. The reorganizational trajectory was successful for the primary end point of patient care and had no effect on clinical research. Some confounding events hampered our ability to draw strong conclusions. Nevertheless, the transparency of this approach can give medical professionals more confidence in moving forward with other organizational changes in the same way. This article is novel because managerial interventions were set up similarly to a prospective clinical trial. This study is the first of its kind in radiotherapy, and this approach can contribute to discussions about the effectiveness of managerial interventions.

  20. Setting Up Learning Centers for Industry Services Programs. Self-Paced Instructionl Module. Module Number VIII-G.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kent

    One of 33 self-paced instructional modules for training industry services leaders to provide guidance in the performance of manpower services by public agencies to new or expanding private industries, this module contains three sequential learning activities on setting up learning centers for an industry services program. The first learning…

  1. Setting up a Low-Cost Lab Management System for a Multi-Purpose Computing Laboratory Using Virtualisation Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Heng Ngee; Lee, Yeow Leong; Tan, Wee Kiat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a generic computer laboratory equipped with 52 workstations is set up for teaching IT-related courses and other general purpose usage. The authors have successfully constructed a lab management system based on decentralised, client-side software virtualisation technology using Linux and free software tools from VMware that…

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  4. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  5. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  6. 41 CFR 102-34.285 - Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.285 Where can we... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where can we obtain help in setting up a maintenance program? 102-34.285 Section 102-34.285 Public Contracts and...

  7. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages…

  8. McArthur sets up the SLAMMD hardware in the U.S. Lab during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-16

    ISS012-E-12577 (16 Dec. 2005) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, sets up the Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device (SLAMMD) hardware attached to the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  9. McArthur sets up the SLAMMD hardware in the U.S. Lab during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-12-16

    ISS012-E-12629 (16 Dec. 2005) --- Astronaut William S. (Bill) McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA space station science officer, sets up the calibration arm on the Space Linear Acceleration Mass Measurement Device (SLAMMD) attached to the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  10. IRMA-2 at SOLEIL: a set-up for magnetic and coherent scattering of polarized soft x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, M.; Popescu, H.; Gaudemer, R.; Jaouen, N.; Avila, A.; Delaunay, R.; Fortuna, F.; Maier, U.; Spezzani, C.

    2013-03-01

    We have designed, built and tested a new instrument for soft x-ray scattering experiments. IRMA-2 is a UHV set-up for elastic and coherent scattering experiments developed at the SEXTANTS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron. Applications will be in the field of solid state physics, with emphasis on the investigation of the magnetic properties of artificially structured materials.

  11. Setting up a Low-Cost Lab Management System for a Multi-Purpose Computing Laboratory Using Virtualisation Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Heng Ngee; Lee, Yeow Leong; Tan, Wee Kiat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how a generic computer laboratory equipped with 52 workstations is set up for teaching IT-related courses and other general purpose usage. The authors have successfully constructed a lab management system based on decentralised, client-side software virtualisation technology using Linux and free software tools from VMware that…

  12. A new training set-up for trans-apical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Kalejs, Martins; von Segesser, Ludwig Karl

    2009-06-01

    Trans-apical aortic valve replacement (AVR) is a new and rapidly growing therapy. However, there are only few training opportunities. The objective of our work is to build an appropriate artificial model of the heart that can replace the use of animals for surgical training in trans-apical AVR procedures. To reduce the necessity for fluoroscopy, we pursued the goal of building a translucent model of the heart that has nature-like dimensions. A simplified 3D model of a human heart with its aortic root was created in silico using the SolidWorks Computer-Aided Design (CAD) program. This heart model was printed using a rapid prototyping system developed by the Fab@Home project and dip-coated two times with dispersion silicone. The translucency of the heart model allows the perception of the deployment area of the valved-stent without using heavy imaging support. The final model was then placed in a human manikin for surgical training on trans-apical AVR procedure. Trans-apical AVR with all the necessary steps (puncture, wiring, catheterization, ballooning etc.) can be realized repeatedly in this setting.

  13. Micro-foundations for macroeconomics: New set-up based on statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Modern macroeconomics is built on "micro foundations." Namely, optimization of micro agent such as consumer and firm is explicitly analyzed in model. Toward this goal, standard model presumes "the representative" consumer/firm, and analyzes its behavior in detail. However, the macroeconomy consists of 107 consumers and 106 firms. For the purpose of analyzing such macro system, it is meaningless to pursue the micro behavior in detail. In this respect, there is no essential difference between economics and physics. The method of statistical physics can be usefully applied to the macroeconomy, and provides Keynesian economics with correct micro-foundations.

  14. "Set Up to Fail": Institutional Racism and the Sabotage of School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dianne L.; Clark, Menthia P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from two previous studies are reanalyzed using the lens of institutional racism to examine district decisions that undermined, or sabotaged, improvement efforts at schools attended by students of color. Opportunities to rectify the sabotage were available but not pursued. A model portrays the interaction between decision-maker intent,…

  15. "Set Up to Fail": Institutional Racism and the Sabotage of School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dianne L.; Clark, Menthia P.

    2009-01-01

    Data from two previous studies are reanalyzed using the lens of institutional racism to examine district decisions that undermined, or sabotaged, improvement efforts at schools attended by students of color. Opportunities to rectify the sabotage were available but not pursued. A model portrays the interaction between decision-maker intent,…

  16. Setting up a mobile dental practice within your present office structure.

    PubMed

    Morreale, James P; Dimitry, Susan; Morreale, Mark; Fattore, Isabella

    2005-02-01

    Different service models have emerged in Canada and the United States to address the issue of senior citizens' lack of access to comprehensive dental care. Over the past decade, one such model, the use of mobile dental service units, has emerged as a practical strategy. This article describes a mobile unit, operated as an adjunct to the general practitioner's office and relying mainly on existing office resources, both human and capital, to deliver services at long-term care institutions. The essential components of a profitable geriatric mobile unit are described, including education, equipment, marketing research and development, and human resource management. Issues related to patient consent and operating expenditures are also discussed. Data from one practitioner's mobile dental unit, in Hamilton, Ontario, are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and profitability of this approach.

  17. The experience of setting up a resident-managed Acute Pain Service: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Borracci, Tommaso; Prencipe, Daniela; Masotti, Anita; Nella, Alessandra; Tuccinardi, Germana; Margiacchi, Lucia; Villa, Gianluca; Pinelli, Fulvio; Romagnoli, Stefano; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Zagli, Giovanni

    2016-02-22

    The benefits of an Acute Pain Service (APS) for pain management have been widely reported, but its diffusion is still limited. There are two APS models: anesthesiologist-based and a nurse-based model. Here we describe the development of a different APS model managed by anesthesia residents, and we report the first year of activity in a tertiary Italian university hospital (Careggi University Hospital, Florence, IT). Patients were included in the APS were those undergoing abdominal and urologic surgery causing moderate or severe postsurgical pain. The service was provided for patients, beginning upon their exit from the operating room, for 4, 12, 24 and 48 h for iv, and up to 72 h for epidural therapy. Vital signs, static/dynamic VAS, presence of nausea/vomiting, sedation level, and Bromage scale in case of epidural catheter, were monitored. From September 2013 to April 2015, a total of 1054 patients who underwent major surgery were included in the APS: 542 from abdominal surgery and 512 from urological surgery. PCA and epidural analgesia were more adopted in general surgical patients than in urology (48% vs 36% and 15% vs 2%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Patients who underwent to abdominal surgery had a significantly higher self-administration of morphine (30.3 vs 22.7 mg; P = 0.0315). Elastomeric pump was the analgesic of choice in half of the urologic patients compared to a quarter of the general surgical patients (P <  .0001). Among the different surgical techniques, epidural analgesia was used more in open (16.5%) than in videolaparoscopic (1.9%) and robotic technique (1.1%), whereas PCA was predominant in videolaparoscopic (46.5%) and robotic technique (55.5%) than in open technique (31.4%). The creation of APS, managed by anesthesia residents, may represent an alternative between specialist-based and nurse-based models.

  18. Digital dental surface registration with laser scanner for orthodontics set-up planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Albalat, Salvador E.; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Monserrat, Carlos A.

    1997-05-01

    We present an optical measuring system based on laser structured light suitable for its diary use in orthodontics clinics that fit four main requirements: (1) to avoid use of stone models, (2) to automatically discriminate geometric points belonging to teeth and gum, (3) to automatically calculate diagnostic parameters used by orthodontists, (4) to make use of low cost and easy to use technology for future commercial use. Proposed technique is based in the use of hydrocolloids mould used by orthodontists for stone model obtention. These mould of the inside of patient's mouth are composed of very fluent materials like alginate or hydrocolloids that reveal fine details of dental anatomy. Alginate mould are both very easy to obtain and very low costly. Once captured, alginate moulds are digitized by mean of a newly developed and patented 3D dental scanner. Developed scanner is based in the optical triangulation method based in the projection of a laser line on the alginate mould surface. Line deformation gives uncalibrated shape information. Relative linear movements of the mould with respect to the sensor head gives more sections thus obtaining a full 3D uncalibrated dentition model. Developed device makes use of redundant CCD in the sensor head and servocontrolled linear axis for mould movement. Last step is calibration to get a real and precise X, Y, Z image. All the process is done automatically. The scanner has been specially adapted for 3D dental anatomy capturing in order to fulfill specific requirements such as: scanning time, accuracy, security and correct acquisition of 'hidden points' in alginate mould. Measurement realized on phantoms with known geometry quite similar to dental anatomy present errors less than 0,1 mm. Scanning of global dental anatomy is 2 minutes, and generation of 3D graphics of dental cast takes approximately 30 seconds in a Pentium-based PC.

  19. View of Anderson setting up SAME Hardware in the US Lab during Expedition 15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-01

    ISS015-E-26252 (1 Sept. 2007) --- Astronaut Clay Anderson, Expedition 15 flight engineer, works on the Smoke and Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME) hardware setup located in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. SAME will measure the smoke properties, or particle size distribution, of typical particles that are produced from different materials that can be found onboard station and other spacecrafts. SAME aims to test the performance of ionization smoke detectors and evaluate the performance of the photoelectric smoke detectors. The data will be used to develop a model that can predict smoke droplet growth that will be used to evaluate future smoke detection devices.

  20. Superconducting quantum interference devices based set-up for probing current noise and correlations in three-terminal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, A. H.; Kaviraj, B.; Coupiac, O.; Lefloch, F.

    2012-11-15

    We have implemented a new experimental set-up for precise measurements of current fluctuations in three-terminal devices. The system operates at very low temperatures (30 mK) and is equipped with three superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as low noise current amplifiers. A SQUID input coil is connected to each terminal of a sample allowing the acquisition of time-dependent current everywhere in the circuit. From these traces, we can measure the current mean value, the noise, and cross-correlations between different branches of a device. In this paper, we present calibration results of noise and cross-correlations obtained using low impedance macroscopic resistors. From these results, we can extract the noise level of the set-up and show that there are no intrinsic correlations due to the measurement scheme. We also studied noise and correlations as a function of a dc current and estimated the electronic temperature of various macroscopic resistors.

  1. Monitoring of spectroscopic changes of a single trapped fission yeast cell by using a Raman tweezers set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Başar, G.; Kın, S.

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate an improvement of the sensitivity of a Raman tweezers set-up, which combines optical tweezers with Raman spectroscopy. The system was tested by taking the Raman spectrum of a 4.6 μm diameter polystyrene sphere trapped in an aqueous solution. The improvement of sensitivity of the set-up was achieved by adjusting the trap depth for maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR). The maximum SNR was obtained by investigating the Raman peak of a trapped polystyrene sphere at 1001 cm -1 according to trap depth. With this system, a single trapped living Schizosaccharomyces Pombe yeast cell was sensitively monitored by taking the kinetic Raman spectra for more than 2 h. The relative intensity decrease in amide I and amide III bands, frequency increase in amide I band together with alterations in tyrosine marker band around 850 cm -1 was observed, which indicates alterations in the hydration state of protein by time progressing.

  2. Setting Up a Sentinel 1 Based Soil Moisture - Data Assimilation System for Flash Flood Risk Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenci, Luca; Pulvirenti, Luca; Boni, Giorgio; Chini, Marco; Matgen, Patrick; Gabellani, Simone; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Pierdicca, Nazzareno

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have shown that the assimilation of satellite-derived soil moisture products (SM-DA) within hydrological modelling is able to reduce the uncertainty of discharge predictions. This can be exploited for improving early warning systems (EWS) and it is thus particularly useful for flash flood risk mitigation (Cenci et al., 2016a). The objective of this research was to evaluate the potentialities of an advanced SM-DA system based on the assimilation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations derived from Sentinel 1 (S1) acquisitions. A time-continuous, spatially-distributed, physically-based hydrological model was used: Continuum (Silvestro et al., 2013). The latter is currently exploited for civil protection activities in Italy, both at national and at regional scale. Therefore, its adoption allows for a better understanding of the real potentialities of the aforementioned SM-DA system for improving EWS. The novelty of this research consisted in the use of S1-derived SM products obtained by using a multitemporal retrieval algorithm (Cenci et al., 2016b) in which the correction of the vegetation effect was obtained by means of both SAR (Cosmo-SkyMed) and optical (Landsat) images. The maps were characterised by a comparatively higher spatial/lower temporal resolution (respectively, 100 m and 12 days) w.r.t. maps obtained from commonly used microwave sensors for such applications (e.g. the Advanced SCATterometer, ASCAT). The experiment was carried out in the period October 2014 - February 2015 in an exemplifying Mediterranean catchment prone to flash floods: the Orba Basin (Italy). The Nudging assimilation scheme was chosen for its computational efficiency, particularly useful for operational applications. The impact of the assimilation was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed discharge values. In particular, it was analysed the impact of the assimilation on higher flows. Results were compared with those obtained by assimilating an ASCAT

  3. Set up an Arc Welding Code with Enthalpy Method in Upwind Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Je-Ee.

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a numerical code with enthalpy method in upwind scheme is proposed to estimate the distribution of thermal stress in the molten pool, which is primarily determined by the type of the input power and travel speed of heating source. To predict the cracker deficit inside the workpiece, a simulated program satisfying the diagonal domination and Scarborough criterion provides a stable iteration. Meantime, an experimental performance, operated by robot arm "DR-400" to provide a steady and continuous arc welding, was also conducted to verify the simulated result. By surveying the consistence of molten pool bounded by contrast shade and simulated melting contour on the surface of workpiece, the validity of model proposed to predict the thermal cracker has been successfully identified.

  4. Study of di-electron production in quasi-free n-p interactions at HADES set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerusalimov, A. P.; Lykasov, G. I.

    2015-11-01

    The study of e+e--pairs production in n-p interactions was carried out at HADES set-up due to irradiation of proton target by deuteron beam at Tkind = 2.5 AGeV. The momentum and angular distributions of proton-spectator an effective masses of e+e--pairs were satisfactory described by a sum of various reactions of quasi-free n-p and p-p interactions.

  5. Cone beam CT with zonal filters for simultaneous dose reduction, improved target contrast and automated set-up in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moore, C J; Marchant, T E; Amer, A M

    2006-05-07

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) using a zonal filter is introduced. The aims are reduced concomitant imaging dose to the patient, simultaneous control of body scatter for improved image quality in the tumour target zone and preserved set-up detail for radiotherapy. Aluminium transmission diaphragms added to the CBCT x-ray tube of the Elekta Synergytrade mark linear accelerator produced an unattenuated beam for a central "target zone" and a partially attenuated beam for an outer "set-up zone". Imaging doses and contrast noise ratios (CNR) were measured in a test phantom for transmission diaphragms 12 and 24 mm thick, for 5 and 10 cm long target zones. The effect on automatic registration of zonal CBCT to conventional CT was assessed relative to full-field and lead-collimated images of an anthropomorphic phantom. Doses along the axis of rotation were reduced by up to 50% in both target and set-up zones, and weighted dose (two thirds surface dose plus one third central dose) was reduced by 10-20% for a 10 cm long target zone. CNR increased by up to 15% in zonally filtered CBCT images compared to full-field images. Automatic image registration remained as robust as that with full-field images and was superior to CBCT coned down using lead-collimation. Zonal CBCT significantly reduces imaging dose and is expected to benefit radiotherapy through improved target contrast, required to assess target coverage, and wide-field edge detail, needed for robust automatic measurement of patient set-up error.

  6. Determination of patient set-up error and optimal treatment margin for intensity modulated radiotherapy using image guidance system.

    PubMed

    Kanakavelu, Nithya; Jebaseelan Samuel, James

    2016-01-01

    The geometrical uncertainties in the patient positioning during intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are crucial as there is potential to underdose the tumor and overdose the nearby critical structures. Image guided techniques provide a solution to assess the patient set-up uncertainties and help determine the optimal planning target volume (PTV) margin to the clinical tumor volume (CTV). A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate patient set-up errors along the three translational directions at different treatment sites such as the brain, the head and neck (H&N) and the prostate. A total of 60 patients' set-up error data was analysed to evaluate the systematic and random errors and the optimal CTV-PTV margin. For brain and H&N sites, more than 90, 80 and about 100% of the total image acquisitions were less than 3 mm in lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions respectively. For the prostate cases, the frequency of patient set-up error to be less than 3 mm were 79.7, 75.6 and 80% in lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions respectively. About 0.6% had more than 7 mm error in the lateral and longitudinal directions for the prostate site. CTV-PTV margin of 3.4, 3.4 and 1.9 mm for brain cases, 3.5, 3 and 1.8 mm for H&N cases and 5, 4.6 and 4.5 mm for the prostate cases in the lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions respectively were determined. Image guidance is an effective method to evaluate the accuracy of IMRT treatment delivery. The optimal CTV-PTV margin can be determined to ensure adequate dose to CTV, specific to the site.

  7. Evaluation of different set-up error corrections on dose–volume metrics in prostate IMRT using CBCT images

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Tomita, Tsuneyuki; Kitsuda, Kenji; Notogawa, Takuya; Miki, Katsuhito; Nakamura, Kiyonao; Ishigaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different set-up error corrections on dose–volume metrics in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer under different planning target volume (PTV) margin settings using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 30 consecutive patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer were retrospectively analysed, and 7–14 CBCT datasets were acquired per patient. Interfractional variations in dose–volume metrics were evaluated under six different set-up error corrections, including tattoo, bony anatomy, and four different target matching groups. Set-up errors were incorporated into planning the isocenter position, and dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images. These processes were repeated under two different PTV margin settings. In the on-line bony anatomy matching groups, systematic error (∑) was 0.3 mm, 1.4 mm, and 0.3 mm in the left–right, anterior–posterior (AP), and superior–inferior directions, respectively. ∑ in three successive off-line target matchings was finally comparable with that in the on-line bony anatomy matching in the AP direction. Although doses to the rectum and bladder wall were reduced for a small PTV margin, averaged reductions in the volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose from planning were within 2.5% under all PTV margin settings for all correction groups, with the exception of the tattoo set-up error correction only (≥5.0%). Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between on-line bony anatomy matching and target matching. While variations between the planned and delivered doses were smallest when target matching was applied, the use of bony anatomy matching still ensured the planned doses. PMID:24820094

  8. Evaluation of RSA set-up from a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for 3D joint kinematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; SIGNORELLI, CECILIA; BONTEMPI, MARCO; RUSSO, ALESSANDRO; ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; MARCACCI, MAURILIO; BRAGONZONI, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose dinamic roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), a technique currently based only on customized radiographic equipment, has been shown to be a very accurate method for detecting three-dimensional (3D) joint motion. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of an innovative RSA set-up for in vivo knee kinematic analysis, using a biplane fluoroscopic image system. To this end, the Authors describe the set-up as well as a possible protocol for clinical knee joint evaluation. The accuracy of the kinematic measurements is assessed. Methods the Authors evaluated the accuracy of 3D kinematic analysis of the knee in a new RSA set-up, based on a commercial biplane fluoroscopy system integrated into the clinical environment. The study was organized in three main phases: an in vitro test under static conditions, an in vitro test under dynamic conditions reproducing a flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), and an in vivo analysis of the flexion-extension ROM. For each test, the following were calculated, as an indication of the tracking accuracy: mean, minimum, maximum values and standard deviation of the error of rigid body fitting. Results in terms of rigid body fitting, in vivo test errors were found to be 0.10±0.05 mm. Phantom tests in static and kinematic conditions showed precision levels, for translations and rotations, of below 0.1 mm/0.2° and below 0.5 mm/0.3° respectively for all directions. Conclusions the results of this study suggest that kinematic RSA can be successfully performed using a standard clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for the acquisition of slow movements of the lower limb. Clinical relevance a kinematic RSA set-up using a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system is potentially applicable and provides a useful method for obtaining better characterization of joint biomechanics. PMID:27602352

  9. The Interaction Between Dynamics and Chemistry of Ozone in the Set-up Phase of the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Margitan, J. J.; Douglass, A. R.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Hoppel, K.; Sen, B.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and evolution of the stratospheric ozone (O3) distribution at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are examined for the late summer and fall seasons of 1999. This time period sets the O3 initial condition for the SOLVE/THESEO field mission performed during winter 1999-2000. In situ and satellite data are used along with a three-dimensional model of chemistry and transport (CTM) to determine the key processes that control the distribution of O3 in the lower-to-middle stratosphere. O3 in the vortex at the beginning of the winter season is found to be nearly constant from 500 to above 800 K with a value at 3 ppmv +/- approx. 10%. Values outside the vortex are up to a factor of 2 higher and increase significantly with potential temperature. The seasonal time series of data from POAM shows that relatively low O3 mixing ratios, which characterize the vortex in late fall, are already present at high latitudes at the end of summer before the vortex circulation sets up. Analysis of the CTM output shows that the minimum O3 and increase in variance in late summer are the result of: 1) stirring of polar concentric O3 gradients by nascent wave-driven transport, and 2) an acceleration of net photochemical loss with decreasing solar illumination. The segregation of low O3 mixing ratios into the vortex as the circulation strengthens through the fall suggests a possible feedback role between O3 chemistry and the vortex formation dynamics. Trajectory calculations from O3 sample points early in the fall, however, show only a weak correlation between initial O3 mixing ratio and potential vorticity later in the season consistent with order-of-magnitude calculations for the relative importance of O3 in the fall radiative balance at high latitudes. The possible connection between O3 chemistry and the dynamics of vortex formation does suggest that these feedbacks and sensitivities need to be better understood in order to make confident predictions of the recovery

  10. Swell-generated Set-up and Infragravity Wave Propagation Over a Fringing Coral Reef: Implications for Wave-driven Inundation of Atoll Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheriton, O. M.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Quataert, E.; van Dongeren, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Republic of the Marshall Islands is comprised of 1156 islands on 29 low-lying atolls with a mean elevation of 2 m that are susceptible to sea-level rise and often subjected to overwash during large wave events. A 6-month deployment of wave and tide gauges across two shore-normal sections of north-facing coral reef on the Roi-Namur Island on Kwajalein Atoll was conducted during 2013-2014 to quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on the fringing coral reef. Wave heights and periods on the reef flat were strongly correlated to the water levels. On the fore reef, the majority of wave energy was concentrated in the incident band (5-25 s); due to breaking at the reef crest, however, the wave energy over the reef flat was dominated by infragravity-band (25-250 s) motions. Two large wave events with heights of 6-8 m at 15 s over the fore reef were observed. During these events, infragravity-band wave heights exceeded the incident band wave heights and approximately 1.0 m of set-up was established over the innermost reef flat. This set-up enabled the propagation of large waves across the reef flat, reaching maximum heights of nearly 2 m on the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach. XBEACH models of the instrument transects were able to replicate the incident waves, infragravity waves, and wave-driven set-up across the reef when the hydrodynamic roughness of the reef was correctly parameterized. These events led to more than 3 m of wave-driven run-up and inundation of the island that drove substantial morphological change to the beach face.

  11. Experimental evaluation and set-up of a new apparatus designed for transitional flow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-darag, Sakhr; Rozehnal, Dalibor

    2012-04-01

    Experimental exercise has been conducted to validate the capability of a new test apparatus. The test stand has been designed and constructed at the laboratory of aerodynamics, University of Defence to carry out the experimental investigation of transitional flow prediction and development over flat plate. The test facility consists of a rectangular duct set on the suction side of air source apparatus. The working section is 2 m long with a cross section of 0.44 m in width and 0.25 m in height. The exercise is performed into two stages. In the first stage, the basic parameters such as freestream velocity, turbulence intensity and pressure gradient in streamwise direction were measured and manipulated to setup acceptable values. Second stage of the exercise, the bottom wall of the test section was used as a flat plate model to conduct turbulent boundary-layer experiment. The characteristics of the boundary layer obtained by using the apparatus are represented by a qualitative and quantitative agreement with those predicted by boundary-layer theory for turbulent boundary layer while more improvements seems to be required to satisfy the rules of boundary layer stability experiments. The results are show a fair agreement for mean velocity profile, U∞, boundary layer thickness, δ, momentum thickness, θ, and skin friction coefficient, Cf.

  12. [Cost-benefit analysis in setting up limitation standards of aflatoxins in foods].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xiumei

    2011-03-01

    To explore a reasonable limitation standard for aflatoxins in foods to protect the health of people in China with a cost-benefit analysis. A traditional mathematical model and MOE (margin of exposure) method was used to assess the effect of different limiting standards on health for total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 in peanut, corn and rice, and the loss of foods under different limiting standard levels was also calculated. The change of limiting standards for total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 in peanut and corn might have no significant influence on reducing the prevalence of liver cancer in China, but the loss of foods was significantly different. The change of limiting standards for total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 in ice might have significant influence both on reducing liver cancer and losing foods. The following limiting standards is advisable: 20 microg/kg for total aflatoxins and 15 microg/kg for Aflatoxin B1 in peanut and its products, 20 microg/kg for total aflatoxins and 15 microg/kg for aflatoxin B1 in corn, 10 microg/kg for total aflatoxins and 5 microg/kg or 10 microg/kg for aflatoxin B1 in rice.

  13. Initial experience in setting up a medical student first responder scheme in South Central England.

    PubMed

    Seligman, William H; Ganatra, Sameer; England, David; Black, John J M

    2016-02-01

    Prehospital emergency medicine (PHEM) is a recently recognised subspecialty of emergency medicine, and anaesthetics, intensive care and acute medicine, in the UK, and yet it receives little to no mention in many undergraduate medical curricula. However, there is growing interest in PHEM among medical students and junior doctors. Several programmes are in existence across the UK that serve to provide teaching and exposure of prehospital care to medical students and junior doctors. However, relatively few students are able to gain significant first-hand experience of treating patients in the prehospital phase. In this short report, we discuss our experience of launching the student first responder (SFR) scheme across three counties in the Thames Valley. Medical students are trained by the regional ambulance service and respond to life-threatening medical emergencies in an ambulance response vehicle. The scheme is likely to benefit the ambulance service by providing a wider pool of trained volunteer first responders able to attend to emergency calls, to benefit patients by providing a quick response at their time of need, and to benefit medical students by providing first-hand experience of medical emergencies in the community. In its first 15 months of operation, SFRs were dispatched to 343 incidents. This scheme can serve as a training model for other ambulance services and medical schools across the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Cone beam CT-based set-up strategies with and without rotational correction for stereotactic body radiation therapy in the liver.

    PubMed

    Bertholet, Jenny; Worm, Esben; Høyer, Morten; Poulsen, Per

    2017-06-01

    Accurate patient positioning is crucial in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) due to a high dose regimen. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is often used for patient positioning based on radio-opaque markers. We compared six CBCT-based set-up strategies with or without rotational correction. Twenty-nine patients with three implanted markers received 3-6 fraction liver SBRT. The markers were delineated on the mid-ventilation phase of a 4D-planning-CT. One pretreatment CBCT was acquired per fraction. Set-up strategy 1 used only translational correction based on manual marker match between the CBCT and planning CT. Set-up strategy 2 used automatic 6 degrees-of-freedom registration of the vertebrae closest to the target. The 3D marker trajectories were also extracted from the projections and the mean position of each marker was calculated and used for set-up strategies 3-6. Translational correction only was used for strategy 3. Translational and rotational corrections were used for strategies 4-6 with the rotation being either vertebrae based (strategy 4), or marker based and constrained to ±3° (strategy 5) or unconstrained (strategy 6). The resulting set-up error was calculated as the 3D root-mean-square set-up error of the three markers. The set-up error of the spinal cord was calculated for all strategies. The bony anatomy set-up (2) had the largest set-up error (5.8 mm). The marker-based set-up with unconstrained rotations (6) had the smallest set-up error (0.8 mm) but the largest spinal cord set-up error (12.1 mm). The marker-based set-up with translational correction only (3) or with bony anatomy rotational correction (4) had equivalent set-up error (1.3 mm) but rotational correction reduced the spinal cord set-up error from 4.1 mm to 3.5 mm. Marker-based set-up was substantially better than bony-anatomy set-up. Rotational correction may improve the set-up, but further investigations are required to determine the optimal correction

  15. The effect of systematic set-up deviations on the absorbed dose distribution for left-sided breast cancer treated with respiratory gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edvardsson, A.; Ceberg, S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to investigate interfraction set-up uncertainties for patients treated with respiratory gating for left-sided breast cancer, 2) to investigate the effect of the inter-fraction set-up on the absorbed dose-distribution for the target and organs at risk (OARs) and 3) optimize the set-up correction strategy. By acquiring multiple set-up images the systematic set-up deviation was evaluated. The effect of the systematic set-up deviation on the absorbed dose distribution was evaluated by 1) simulation in the treatment planning system and 2) measurements with a biplanar diode array. The set-up deviations could be decreased using a no action level correction strategy. Not using the clinically implemented adaptive maximum likelihood factor for the gating patients resulted in better set-up. When the uncorrected set-up deviations were simulated the average mean absorbed dose was increased from 1.38 to 2.21 Gy for the heart, 4.17 to 8.86 Gy to the left anterior descending coronary artery and 5.80 to 7.64 Gy to the left lung. Respiratory gating can induce systematic set-up deviations which would result in increased mean absorbed dose to the OARs if not corrected for and should therefore be corrected for by an appropriate correction strategy.

  16. Breast movement during normal and deep breathing, respiratory training and set up errors: implications for external beam partial breast irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S; Dinshaw, K A; Kamble, R; Sarin, R

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate interfraction and intrafraction breast movement and to study the effect of respiratory training on respiratory indices. Five patients were immobilized in supine position in a vacuum bag and three-dimensional set up errors, respiratory movement of the breast during normal and deep breathing, tidal volume and breath hold time were recorded. All patients underwent respiratory training and all the respiratory indices were re-evaluated at the end of training. Cumulative maximum movement error (CMME) was calculated by adding directional maximum set up error and maximum post training movement during normal breathing. The mean set up deviation was 1.3 mm (SD +/- 0.5 mm), 1.3 mm (SD +/- 0.3 mm) and 4.4 mm (SD +/- 2.6 mm) in the mediolateral, superoinferior and anteroposterior dimensions. Pre-training mean of the maximum marker movement during normal breathing was 1.07 mm, 1.94 mm and 1.86 mm in the mediolateral, superoinferior and anteroposterior dimensions. During deep breathing these values were 2 mm, 5.5 mm and 4.8 mm. While respiratory training had negligible effect on breast movement during normal breathing, it resulted in a modest reduction during deep breathing (p = 0.2). The mean CMME recorded for these patients was 3.4 mm, 4.5 mm and 7.1 mm in the mediolateral, superoinferior and anteroposterior dimension. Respiratory training also resulted in an increase in breath hold time from a mean of 31 s to 44 s (p = 0.04) and tidal volume from a mean of 560 cm(3) to 1160 cm(3) (p = 0.04). With patients immobilized in the vacuum bag the CMMEs are relatively less. Individualized directional margins may aid in reduction of planning target volume (PTV).

  17. Setting up a telemedicine service for remote real-time video-EEG consultation in La Rioja (Spain).

    PubMed

    Campos, C; Caudevilla, E; Alesanco, A; Lasierra, N; Martinez, O; Fernández, J; García, J

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report and discuss a successful experience in the setting up of a telemedicine solution for remote video-electroencephalography consultation (tele-EEG) in La Rioja, Spain. The setup has been implemented between a primary hospital situated in Calahorra (Calahorra Hospital Foundation, FHC) and a secondary hospital in Logroño (San Pedro Hospital, HSP), the capital city of the region of La Rioja. During the twelve first months of the setting-up a detailed evaluation study was performed. During this period we evaluated the technical aspects of the setup and also demonstrated the clinical viability of the system. The impact on hospital organization and the impact on patients regarding the improvement in their quality of life, as well as their financial savings, were also evaluated. During these twelve months a total of 259 consultations were conducted through the telemedicine system. The clinical viability study was completely successful, and technical problems were detected only during the first months of setting-up. Regarding patients' preferences (177 completed an opinion questionnaire), 99% expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the telemedicine service. They also remarked that they preferred the telemedicine service to previous methods for the EEG test, on the grounds that it provided a significant improvement in access to specialized medical care and important financial savings in terms of travel (around 30€ per visit) and of time (approximately 2h) invested in consultations. After one year of evaluation, we concluded that the tele-EEG system had been successfully introduced into the clinical routine. As a matter of fact, the success of the telemedicine system has led to its widespread use and it has now replaced the conventional EEG service for FHC patients almost completely. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Totomatix: a novel automatic set-up to control diurnal, diel and long-term plant nitrate nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques; Huanosto Magaña, Ruth; Fabre, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Stand-alone nutritional set-ups are useful tools to grow plants at defined nutrient availabilities and to measure nutrient uptake rates continuously, in particular that for nitrate. Their use is essential when the measurements are meant to cover long time periods. These complex systems have, however, important drawbacks, including poor long-term reliability and low precision at high nitrate concentration. This explains why the information dealing with diel dynamics of nitrate uptake rate is scarce and concerns mainly young plants grown at low nitrate concentration. Scope The novel system detailed in this paper has been developed to allow versatile use in growth rooms, greenhouses or open fields at nitrate concentrations ranging from a few micro- to several millimoles per litres. The system controls, at set frequencies, the solution nitrate concentration, pH and volumes. Nitrate concentration is measured by spectral deconvolution of UV spectra. The main advantages of the set-up are its low maintenance (weekly basis), an ability to diagnose interference or erroneous analyses and high precision of nitrate concentration measurements (0·025 % at 3 mm). The paper details the precision of diurnal nitrate uptake rate measurements, which reveals sensitivity to solution volume at low nitrate concentration, whereas at high concentration, it is mostly sensitive to the precision of volume estimates. Conclusions This novel set-up allows us to measure and characterize the dynamics of plant nitrate nutrition at high temporal resolution (minutes to hours) over long-term experiments (up to 1 year). It is reliable and also offers a novel method to regulate up to seven N treatments by adjusting the daily uptake of test plants relative to controls, in variable environments such as open fields and glasshouses. PMID:21985796

  19. Therapeutic education unit for heart failure: setting-up and difficulties. Initial evaluation of the I-CARE programme.

    PubMed

    Juillière, Yves; Jourdain, Patrick; Roncalli, Jérome; Boireau, Amélie; Guibert, Hélène; Lambert, Hélène; Spinazze, Laure; Jondeau, Guillaume; Sonnier, Pierre; Rouanne, Céline; Bidet, Angélique; Sandrin-Berthon, Brigitte; Trochu, Jean-Nöel

    2009-01-01

    Education programmes are required in chronic diseases. The insuffisance cardiaque : éducation thérapeutique (I-CARE) programme was developed in France to promote the setting-up of therapeutic education units for chronic heart failure. To evaluate the setting-up of such units, assessing the influence of training on the creation and organization of the unit, the problems encountered and the contribution of the dedicated educational tools. We submitted a questionnaire to the first 136 trained centres. The questionnaire was divided into two sections: one section dealing with educational practices and the other with the advantages and disadvantages of the tools provided. The participation rate reached 69.1%. Seventy-four centres (78.7%) declared themselves to be active in therapeutic education. Unit educational activities determined an educational diagnosis (89.2% of the centres) and provided education by means of collective workshops (73.0%) or one-to-one teaching sessions (75.7%). A complete education programme for a patient consisted of a median of four sessions (25th-75th percentile, 2-5 sessions) and lasted for a median of 6 h (25th-75th percentile, 4-10 h). The education team was multidisciplinary and usually included a nurse (93.2%), a dietician (78.4%), a cardiologist (71.6%) and a physiotherapist (40.5%). Heart failure educational tools were used only in part in most centres (89.2%). All advantages and disadvantages were recorded. This first evaluation of the setting-up of therapeutic education units in the I-CARE programme has yielded promising results, despite expected difficulties. The effects of therapeutic education on the behaviour of heart failure patients remain to be determined.

  20. Feasibility Study for The Setting Up of a Safety System for Monitoring CO2 Storage at Prinos Field, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Lymperopoulos, Panagiotis; Tasianas, Alexandros; Shariatipour, Seyed

    2016-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in subsurface geological structures can mitigate global warming. A comprehensive safety and monitoring system for CO2 storage has been undertaken for the Prinos hydrocarbon field, offshore northern Greece; a system which can prevent any possible leakage of CO2. This paper presents various monitoring strategies of CO2 subsurface movement in the Prinos reservoir, the results of a simulation of a CO2 leak through a well, an environmental risk assessment study related to the potential leakage of CO2 from the seafloor and an overall economic insight of the system. The results of the simulation of the CO2 leak have shown that CO2 reaches the seabed in the form of gas approximately 13.7 years, from the beginning of injection. From that point onwards the amount of CO2 reaching the seabed increases until it reaches a peak at around 32.9 years. During the injection period, the CO2 plume develops only within the reservoir. During the post-injection period, the CO2 reaches the seabed and develops side branches. These correspond to preferential lateral flow pathways of the CO2 and are more extensive for the dissolved CO2 than for the saturated CO2 gas. For the environmental risk assessment, we set up a model, using ArcGIS software, based on the use of data regarding the speeds of the winds and currents encountered in the region. We also made assumptions related to the flow rate of CO2. Results show that after a period of 10 days from the start of CO2 leakage the CO2 has reached halfway to the continental shores where the “Natura” protected areas are located. CO2 leakage modelling results show CO2 to be initially flowing along a preferential flow direction, which is towards the NE. However, 5 days after the start of leakage of CO2, the CO2 is also flowing towards the ENE. The consequences of a potential CO2 leak are considered spatially limited and the ecosystem is itself capable of recovering. We have tried to determine the costs necessary for the

  1. Study of MOSFET Low Frequency Noise Source Fluctuation Using a New Fully Programmable Test Set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochereau, K.; Blanc, C.; Marin, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we aim to demonstrate the huge spread that can be seen on flicker (1/f) noise figures of advanced MOS devices. In order to do so, we set up a new fully programmable test bench including low frequency noise (1Hz-few Mhz) measurement capability. Once all the hurdles we faced during measurement optimization have been overpassed, we show indeed 1/f noise dispersion over wafer is far larger than simple drive current one. We introduce the first steps of a global study of noise source fluctuation that has still to be led.

  2. Set-up and calibration of an indoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassu, T.; Seeger, M.

    2012-04-01

    Rainfall simulation is one of the most prevalent methods used in soil erosion studies on agricultural land. In-situ simulators have been used to relate soil surface characteristics and management to runoff generation, infiltration and erosion, eg. the influence of different cultivation systems, and to parameterise erosion models. Laboratory rainfall simulators have been used to determine the impact of the soil surface characteristics such as micro-topography, surface roughness, and soil chemistry on infiltration and erosion rates, and to elucidate the processes involved. The purpose of the following study is to demonstrate the set-up and the calibration of a large indoor, nozzle-type rainfall simulator (RS) for soil erosion, surface runoff and rill development studies. This RS is part of the Kraijenhoff van de Leur Laboratory for Water and Sediment Dynamics in Wageningen University. The rainfall simulator consists from a 6 m long and 2,5 m wide plot, with metal lateral frame and one open side. Infiltration can be collected in different segments. The plot can be inclined up to 15.5° slope. From 3,85 m height above the plot 2 Lechler nozzles 460.788 are sprinkling the water onto the surface with constant intensity. A Zehnder HMP 450 pump provides the constant water supply. An automatic pressure switch on the pump keeps the pressure constant during the experiments. The flow rate is controlled for each nozzle by independent valves. Additionally, solenoid valves are mounted at each nozzle to interrupt water flow. The flow is monitored for each nozzle with flow meters and can be recorded within the computer network. For calibration of the RS we measured the rainfall distribution with 60 gauges equally distributed over the plot during 15 minutes for each nozzle independently and for a combination of 2 identical nozzles. The rainfall energy was recorded on the same grid by measuring drop size distribution and fall velocity with a laser disdrometer. We applied 2 different

  3. Quantitative analysis of sit to stand movement: experimental set-up definition and application to healthy and hemiplegic adults.

    PubMed

    Galli, M; Cimolin, V; Crivellini, M; Campanini, I

    2008-07-01

    Rising from a chair or sit to stand (STS) is a movement with a great clinical interest: it is meaningful in order to evaluate motor control and stability in patients with functional limitations. STS requires some skills, as coordination between trunk and lower limbs movements, correction of muscles strength, control of equilibrium and stability and it is often considered into clinical evaluation scales of different pathologies. In literature, although some studies are focused on STS, the essential functions of standing up are not well standardized and uniformly defined: for this reason its application in clinical centres is difficult. In this study an experimental set-up for acquisition of STS movement which is suitable for clinical applications has been proposed: first, it was studied in healthy subjects, to define a normative database of this specific motor task, then in pathological subjects (adults with hemiplegia), to quantify their functional limitation, using quantitative kinematic and kinetic parameters. The results showed that this experimental set-up is effective both in healthy and in pathological subjects; some significant parameters were identified and calculated in order to characterise and quantify the functional limitation of patients.

  4. Parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon display based optical set-up for the generation of polarization spatial distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, Irene; Lizana, Angel; Zheng, Xuejie; Peinado, Alba; Ramírez, Claudio; Martínez, Jose Luis; Márquez, Andrés.; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Liquid Crystals on Silicon (LCOS) displays are a type of LCDs that work in reflection. Such devices, due to the double pass that the light beam performs through the LC cells, lead to larger phase modulation than transmissive LCDs with the same thickness. By taking advantage of this modulation capability exhibited by LCOS displays, we propose a new experimental set-up which is able to provide customized state of polarization spatial distributions just by means of a single LCOS display. To this aim, a double reflection on different halves of the display is properly performed. This fact is achieved by including a compact optical system that steers the light and performs a proper polarization plane rotation. The set-up has been experimentally implemented and some experimental concerns are discussed. The suitability of the system is provided by generating different experimental spatial distributions of polarization. In this regard, well-known polarization distributions, as axial, azimuthal or spiral linear polarization patterns are here provided. Based on the excellent results obtained, the suitability of the system to generate different spatially variant distributions of polarization is validated.

  5. Setting up of in-vacuum PIXE system for direct elemental analysis of thick solid environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Rihawy, M S; Ismail, I M; Halloum, D

    2016-04-01

    Experimental set-up, development, characterization, and calibration of an in-vacuum PIXE system at the tandem accelerator facility of the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) is described. The PIXE system calibration involved experimental characterization of the X-ray detector parameters and careful determination of the H-values that control dependence of the detector solid angle with the X-ray energies and correct imperfect values of the detector efficiency. Setting up of an electron flood gun to compensate charge built up and utilization of a beam profile monitor to perform indirect measurement of the beam charge, provide a direct PIXE measurement of thick insulating samples in-vacuum. The PIXE system has been subsequently examined to verify its ability to perform direct PIXE measurements on geological materials. A combination of minimum sample preparation procedures and specific experimental conditions applied enables simple and accurate elemental analysis. Elemental concentrations of several elements heavier than sodium in different reference geological samples, at about 5-10% absolute accuracy for most elements, have been determined. Comprehensive discussion of the obtained elemental concentration values, for most elements of visible X-ray peaks in the PIXE spectra, has been considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel design and optimisation of a nitritation/anammox set-up for ammonium removal from filtrate of digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, Yury; Kallistova, Anna; Kevbrina, Marina; Dorofeev, Alexander; Agarev, Anton; Mardanov, Andrey; Ravin, Nikolay; Kozlov, Michail; Pimenov, Nikolay

    2017-04-05

    Although the anammox process is extensively applied for the treatment of NH4-rich wastewater, new technical solutions overcoming the operational difficulties remain an important task. An innovative design of anammox-based set-up was employed to improve sludge settling under high ammonium load. The set-up included a completely mixed bioreactor with suspended and immobilised activated sludge. To prevent sludge flotation, recycled suspended sludge was additionally treated in an aerated tank at dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of 1.5 ± 0.2 mg/l followed by processing in a flow-homogeniser. Introduction of these elements resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in total nitrogen removal efficiency (TNRE). The bioreactor achieved maximal TNRE of 86% corresponding to total nitrogen removal rate of 0.77 kg N/m3/d under defined optimal conditions: temperature of 35 ± 2°C, DO of 0.6 ± 0.2 mg/l, hydraulic retention time of 12 h, and dose of suspended sludge of 1.5 ± 0.1 g total suspended solids (TSS)/l. A weakly attached sludge was first described as a technologically important factor. Suspended, weakly and firmly attached sludge exhibited the highest heterotrophic, nitrifying, and anammox activities, respectively. New probes were constructed to detect anammox bacteria by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Probe for Candidatus 'Jettenia' could be recommended for widespread use.

  7. To Set Up Norms for Drug Safety and Inspection: To Guarantee Administrative Sufficiency and Avoid Regulators from Being Wrongly Punished.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Qingsheng; Dong, Zuojun; Shao, Mingli

    2015-09-01

    Currently, as there is no systematic norm or standard for drug safety and inspection, it cannot be judged whether the regulatory authority or regulators have fulfilled their administrative responsibilities entirely or not, when a drug safety-related incident occurs. And there is a probability that some may even be wrongly punished. In this study, we have analyzed the risk of not having appropriate norms in place and also put forward recommendations for the government or the regulatory authorities to set up norms to be fulfilled for drug safety and inspection issues. This, on one hand, could provide a basic guideline for the regulatory authorities and regulators to improve their professional levels and administrative acumen and on the other hand, it could also provide a baseline for society to judge whether the regulatory authorities and regulators have fulfilled their responsibilities correctly and thereby also help prevent regulators from being mistakenly punished. This study proposes that a systematic and functional norm for drug safety and inspection could be set up relating to the determination of the responsibilities of regulatory authorities and scope of various inspections, number and frequency of inspections, number and qualifications of regulators, handling of inspection results, inspection records, and disciplinary codes for inspectors. This study also puts forward suggestions on who should be responsible for drafting the norms and what are the factors that need to be considered while formulating the norms.

  8. A dynamic method based on the specific substrate uptake rate to set up a feeding strategy for Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is one of the most important host organisms for the recombinant production of proteins in industrial biotechnology. To date, strain specific parameters, which are needed to set up feeding profiles for fed batch cultivations, are determined by time-consuming continuous cultures or consecutive fed batch cultivations, operated at different parameter sets. Results Here, we developed a novel approach based on fast and easy to do batch cultivations with methanol pulses enabling a more rapid determination of the strain specific parameters specific substrate uptake rate qs, specific productivity qp and the adaption time (Δtimeadapt) of the culture to methanol. Based on qs, an innovative feeding strategy to increase the productivity of a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain was developed. Higher specific substrate uptake rates resulted in increased specific productivity, which also showed a time dependent trajectory. A dynamic feeding strategy, where the setpoints for qs were increased stepwise until a qs max of 2.0 mmol·g-1·h-1 resulted in the highest specific productivity of 11 U·g-1·h-1. Conclusions Our strategy describes a novel and fast approach to determine strain specific parameters of a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain to set up feeding profiles solely based on the specific substrate uptake rate. This approach is generic and will allow application to other products and other hosts. PMID:21371310

  9. The influence of laboratory set-up in usability tests: effects on user performance, subjective ratings and physiological measures.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Sauer, Juergen

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the influences of situational factors on user behaviour in usability tests. Sixty participants carried out two tasks on a computer-simulated prototype of a mobile phone. Employing a 3 x 2 mixed experimental design, laboratory set-up was varied as a between-subjects variable (presence of facilitator and two non-interactive observers, presence of facilitator or no person present) while task difficulty was manipulated as a within-subjects variable (low vs. high). Performance data, subjective measures and physiological parameters (e.g. heart rate variability) were taken. The results showed that the presence of non-interactive observers during a usability test led to a physiological stress response, decreased performance on some measures and affected the emotional state of test participants. The presence of a facilitator (i.e. a participating observer) also influenced the emotional state of the test participant. Practitioners involved in usability testing need to be aware of undue influences of observers, in particular, if the observers are non-interactive. The findings presented in this paper have implications for the practice of usability testing. They indicated a considerable influence of observers on test participants (physiology and emotions) and on the outcomes of usability tests (performance measures). This should be considered when selecting the set-up of a usability testing procedure.

  10. SU-F-P-18: Development of the Technical Training System for Patient Set-Up Considering Rotational Correction in the Virtual Environment Using Three-Dimensional Computer Graphic Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Imura, K; Fujibuchi, T; Hirata, H; Kaneko, K; Hamada, E

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patient set-up skills in radiotherapy treatment room have a great influence on treatment effect for image guided radiotherapy. In this study, we have developed the training system for improving practical set-up skills considering rotational correction in the virtual environment away from the pressure of actual treatment room by using three-dimensional computer graphic (3DCG) engine. Methods: The treatment room for external beam radiotherapy was reproduced in the virtual environment by using 3DCG engine (Unity). The viewpoints to perform patient set-up in the virtual treatment room were arranged in both sides of the virtual operable treatment couch to assume actual performance by two clinical staffs. The position errors to mechanical isocenter considering alignment between skin marker and laser on the virtual patient model were displayed by utilizing numerical values expressed in SI units and the directions of arrow marks. The rotational errors calculated with a point on the virtual body axis as the center of each rotation axis for the virtual environment were corrected by adjusting rotational position of the body phantom wound the belt with gyroscope preparing on table in a real space. These rotational errors were evaluated by describing vector outer product operations and trigonometric functions in the script for patient set-up technique. Results: The viewpoints in the virtual environment allowed individual user to visually recognize the position discrepancy to mechanical isocenter until eliminating the positional errors of several millimeters. The rotational errors between the two points calculated with the center point could be efficiently corrected to display the minimum technique mathematically by utilizing the script. Conclusion: By utilizing the script to correct the rotational errors as well as accurate positional recognition for patient set-up technique, the training system developed for improving patient set-up skills enabled individual user to

  11. A simple recipe for setting up the flux equations of cyclic and linear reaction schemes of ion transport with a high number of states: The arrow scheme.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ulf-Peter; Rauh, Oliver; Schroeder, Indra

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of flux equations or current-voltage relationships in reaction kinetic models with a high number of states can be very cumbersome. Here, a recipe based on an arrow scheme is presented, which yields a straightforward access to the minimum form of the flux equations and the occupation probability of the involved states in cyclic and linear reaction schemes. This is extremely simple for cyclic schemes without branches. If branches are involved, the effort of setting up the equations is a little bit higher. However, also here a straightforward recipe making use of so-called reserve factors is provided for implementing the branches into the cyclic scheme, thus enabling also a simple treatment of such cases.

  12. A simple recipe for setting up the flux equations of cyclic and linear reaction schemes of ion transport with a high number of states: The arrow scheme

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulf-Peter; Rauh, Oliver; Schroeder, Indra

    2016-01-01

    abstract The calculation of flux equations or current-voltage relationships in reaction kinetic models with a high number of states can be very cumbersome. Here, a recipe based on an arrow scheme is presented, which yields a straightforward access to the minimum form of the flux equations and the occupation probability of the involved states in cyclic and linear reaction schemes. This is extremely simple for cyclic schemes without branches. If branches are involved, the effort of setting up the equations is a little bit higher. However, also here a straightforward recipe making use of so-called reserve factors is provided for implementing the branches into the cyclic scheme, thus enabling also a simple treatment of such cases. PMID:26646356

  13. [Measurement set-up for estimation of colour discrimination thresholds of colour vision deficiencies and while wearing coloured filters].

    PubMed

    Schürer, M; Walter, A; Eppig, T; Brünner, H; Langenbucher, A

    2009-07-01

    In clinical practice, several techniques for the evaluation of colour vision deficiencies are well established. Most of them are designed for the detection of congenital or pathological changes. Due to the narrow-banded light sources, used in monitors or anomaloscopes, the human gamut can be addressed only in part. With these set-ups, the impact of coloured filters on colour vision such as blue light filtering intraocular lenses cannot be investigated precisely. The technique is based on the visual matching of colour differences between two halves of a test field. The colours are generated by mixing seven types of LEDs. A transparent, vertically divided circular test field is retro-illuminated with this light using optical fibres and projection optics. An ocular optic assures the unaccommodated sight of the subject on the test field (size 2 degrees). The developed set-up presents freely adjustable colours in the form of continuous light spectra to examine the influence of filter materials on colour discrimination. A colour space can be generated which corresponds to that of human perception. The saturation and brightness of the light is adjustable. The subject has to decide if he can discriminate between the colours in the test field halves or not. Before the next colours are shown the subject is neutrally adapted by a neutral hue to provide different adaptation levels. The luminescence of the test field can be varied up to 1500 cd/m(2). The adaptive algorithm of the sequence is based on the SIAM method described by Kaernbach. Based on reference measurements, including 4 subjects with a congenital deficiency, it was shown that the discrimination thresholds at the characteristic confusing axes are significantly different than those with normal colour vision. Also, the impact of green laser goggles on the colour perception was determined. Due to the filter the thresholds in the vicinity of yellow (x = 0.4664; y = 0.4525) are reduced in the yellow-orange and cyan

  14. Learning curve and robot set-up/operative times in singly docked totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Fernandes, Eduardo; Choudhury, Nabajit

    2014-05-01

    The robotic platform might offer superior ergonomics over other minimally invasive approaches. However, the increased time required for instrument set-up, operations, and surgical training are perceived as major drawbacks. There is limited literature on this topic, therefore we report our experience at an academic tertiary medical center in the USA. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the learning curve and the times for necessary steps for singly docked totally robotic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RREYGB). From November 2010 to April 2013, all consecutive patients who underwent RREYGB were retrospectively analyzed from a prospectively maintained database. Variables of interest for this study were patient demographics, preoperative body mass index, previous surgical history, clinically relevant perioperative events, and operative times for various steps in the procedure. During the study period, a total of 32 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 39.9 ± 9.7 years (range 25-60), preoperative weight was 120.9 ± 21.5 kg (range 76.7-184.6), and body mass index (BMI) was 44.7 ± 5.3 kg/m(2) (range 36.1-61). The mean total operative time was 187.3 ± 36.4 min (range 130-261). The time necessary for trocar placement was 11.9 ± 4.5 min (range 4-23), robot set-up was 8.5 ± 3.6 min (range 3-20), pouch creation was 32 ± 10.11 min (range 16-56), gastrojejunal anastomosis was 59.5 ± 12.3 min (range 39-90), jejunojejunal anastomosis was 33.5 ± 9.6 min (range 18-65), and endoscopy/hemostasis was 12.9 ± 7.2 min (range 2-34). Operative time significantly improved after eight cases. In a high-volume established robotic bariatric center, robot set-up, operative times, and learning curve are shorter than previously reported.

  15. Development, set-up and first results for a one-channel near-infrared spectroscopy system.

    PubMed

    Bauernfeind, Günther; Leeb, Robert; Wriessnegger, Selina Christin; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2008-02-01

    Abstract Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique that can be used to assess functional activity in the human brain. This work describes the set-up of a one-channel NIRS system designed for use as an optical brain-computer interface (BCI) and reports on first measurements of deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and oxyhemoglobin (HbO(2)) changes during mental arithmetic tasks. We found relatively stable and reproducible hemodynamic responses in a group of 13 healthy subjects. Unexpected observations of a decrease in HbO(2) and increase in Hb concentrations measured over the prefrontal cortex were in contrast to the typical hemodynamic responses (increase in HbO(2), decrease in Hb) during cortical activation previously reported.

  16. Improved dose homogeneity in scalp irradiation using a single set-up point and different energy electron beams.

    PubMed

    Yaparpalvi, R; Fontenla, D P; Beitler, J J

    2002-08-01

    Homogeneous irradiation of the entire or a large portion of the superficial scalp poses both technical and dosimetric challenges. Some techniques will irradiate too much of the underlying normal brain while other techniques are either complex and involve field matching problems or may require sophisticated linear accelerator (linac) add-ons such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)/electron multileaf collimation. However, many radiotherapy facilities are not equipped with such treatment modalities. We propose a practical treatment technique that can be delivered with a standard linac capable of producing high energy electrons. The proposed technique offers a simple alternative for achieving results equivalent to IMRT. Dose homogeneity throughout the treatment volume is achieved by aiming different energy electron beams at differential areas of the treatment surface to achieve improved dosimetry and rapid treatment delivery, while using a single set-up point. We introduced this treatment technique at our institution to treat superficial cancers of the scalp and other irregular surfaces.

  17. Beam patterns in an optical parametric oscillator set-up employing walk-off compensating beta barium borate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaucikas, M.; Warren, M.; Michailovas, A.; Antanavicius, R.; van Thor, J. J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the investigation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) set-up based on two beta barium borate (BBO) crystals, where the interplay between the crystal orientations, cut angles and air dispersion substantially influenced the OPO performance, and especially the angular spectrum of the output beam. Theory suggests that if two BBO crystals are used in this type of design, they should be of different cuts. This paper aims to provide an experimental manifestation of this fact. Furthermore, it has been shown that air dispersion produces similar effects and should be taken into account. An x-ray crystallographic indexing of the crystals was performed as an independent test of the above conclusions.

  18. Do you think you have what it takes to set up a long-term video monitoring unit?

    PubMed

    Smith, Sheila L

    2006-03-01

    The single most important factor when setting up a long-term video monitoring unit is research. Research all vendors by traveling to other sites and calling other facilities. Considerations with equipment include the server, acquisition units, review units, cameras, software, and monitors as well as other factors including Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliance. Research customer support including both field and telephone support. Involve your Clinical Engineering Department in your investigations. Be sure to obtain warranty information. Researching placement of the equipment is essential. Communication with numerous groups is vital. Administration, engineers, clinical engineering, physicians, infection control, environmental services, house supervisors, security, and all involved parties should be involved in the planning.

  19. Setting up a Neuroscience Stroke and Rehabilitation Centre in Brunei Darussalam by a transcontinental on-site and telemedical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Meyding-Lamadé, U; Bassa, B; Craemer, E; Jacobi, C; Chan, C; Hacke, W; Kress, B

    2017-02-01

    Due to the world-wide aging population, there is a need for specialist neurological knowledge, treatment and care. Stroke treatment is effective in reducing mortality and disability, but it is still not available in many areas of the world. We describe the set-up process of a specialized Neuroscience, Stroke and Rehabilitation Centre in Brunei Darussalam (BNSRC) in cooperation with a German hospital. This study details the setup of a stroke-, neurological intensive care- and neurorehabilitation unit, laboratories and a telemedical network to perform all evidence-based stroke treatments. All neurological on-site services and the telemedical network were successfully established within a short time. After setup, 1386 inpatients and 1803 outpatients with stroke and stroke mimics were treated. All evidence-based stroke treatments including thrombolysis and hemicraniectomy could be performed. It is possible to establish evidence-based modern stroke treatment within a short time period by a transcontinental on-site and telemedical cooperation.

  20. Controls on Water Storage, Mixing and Release in a Nested Catchment Set-up with Clean and Mixed Physiographic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, L.; McDonnell, J.; Hissler, C.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Klaus, J.

    2015-12-01

    With catchment water storage being only rarely determined, storage dynamics remain largely unknown to date. However, storage bears considerable potential for catchment inter-comparison exercises, as well as it is likely to have an important role in regulating catchment functions. Catchment comparisons across a wide range of environments and scales will help to increase our understanding of relationships between storage dynamics and catchment processes. With respect to the potential of catchment storage for bringing new momentum to catchment classification and catchment processes understanding we currently investigate spatial and temporal variability of dynamic storage in a nested catchment set-up (16 catchments) of the Alzette River basin (Luxembourg, Europe), covering a wide range of geological settings, catchment areas, contrasted landuse, and hydro-meteorological and tracer series. We define catchment storage as the total amount of water stored in a control volume, delimited by the catchment's topographical boundaries and depth of saturated and unsaturated zones. Complementary storage assessments (via input-output dynamics of natural tracers, geographical sounding, groundwater level measurements, soil moisture measurements, hydrometry) are carried out for comparison purposes. In our nested catchment set-up we have (1) assessed dependencies between geology, catchment permeability and winter runoff coefficients, (2) calculated water balance derived catchment storage and mixing potential and quantified how dynamic storage differs between catchments and scales, and (3) examined how stream baseflow dD (as a proxy for baseflow transit time) and integrated flow measures (like the flow duration curve) relate to bedrock geology. Catchments with higher bedrock permeability exhibited larger storage capacities and eventually lower average winter runoff coefficients. Over a time-span of 11 years, all catchments re-produced the same winter runoff coefficients year after year

  1. Fracture of porcelain-veneered gold-alloy and zirconia molar crowns using a modified test set-up

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Christel; Drazic, Marko; Nilsson, Eddie; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The main aim of this study was to compare fracture load and fracture mode of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) and metal-ceramic (MC) molar crowns using a modified test set-up to produce fractures similar to those seen in vivo, i.e. fractures of the veneering material rather than complete fractures. Materials and methods: 13 high-noble-alloy MC and 13 Y-TZP molar crowns veneered with porcelain were manufactured. The crowns were artificially aged before final load to fracture. Load was applied using a 7 mm diameter steel ball exerting force on the cusps with stresses directed toward the core-veneer interface. Fracture surface analysis was performed using light- and scanning electron microscopy. Results: The test design produced fractures of the veneering material rather than complete fractures. MC crowns withstood significantly (p > 0.001) higher loads (mean 2155 N) than Y-TZP (mean 1505 N) crowns, yet both endure loads sufficient for predictable clinical use. Fracture mode differed between MC and Y-TZP. MC crowns exhibited fractures involving the core-veneer interface but without core exposure. One Y-TZP crown suffered a complete fracture, all others except one displayed fractures of the veneering material involving the core-veneer interface with core exposure. Conclusions: The test set-up produces fractures similar to those found in vivo and may be useful to evaluate the core-veneer interface of different material systems, both metals and ceramics. The study confirms suggestions from previous studies of a weaker core-veneer bond for Y-TZP compared to MC crowns. PMID:28642899

  2. High temperature measurement set-up for the electro-mechanical characterization of robust thin film systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, S.; Friedberger, A.; Seidel, H.; Schmid, U.

    2014-01-01

    Due to economic and environmental requirements there is a strong need both to increase the efficiency and to monitor the actual status of gas turbines, rocket engines and deep drilling systems. For these applications, micromachined pressure sensors based on a robust substrate material (e.g. sapphire) as well as strain gauges made of platinum for long-term stable operation are regarded as most promising to withstand harsh environments such as high temperature levels, aggressive media and/or high pressure loads. For pre-evaluation purposes, a novel, custom-built measurement set-up is presented allowing the determination of electro-mechanical thin film properties up to 850 °C. Key components of the measurement set-up are the one-sided clamped beam made of Al2O3 ceramics which is deflected by a quartz rod and a high precision encoder-controlled dc motor to drive the quartz rod. The specific arrangement of the infrared halogen heaters in combination with the gold coated quartz half shells ensures a high degree of temperature homogeneity along the beam axis. When exposed to tensile as well as compressive load conditions, the corresponding gauge factor values of 1 µm thick platinum thin films show a good comparison at room temperature and in the temperature range from 600 up to 850 °C where the effects originating from grain boundaries or from the film surfaces are negligible. Between 150 and 600 °C, however, a strong deviation in the gauge factor determination depending on the mechanical load condition is observed, which is attributed to the gliding of adjacent grains.

  3. Comparison of different statistical methods for estimation of extreme sea levels with wave set-up contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kergadallan, Xavier; Bernardara, Pietro; Benoit, Michel; Andreewsky, Marc; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the probability of occurrence of extreme sea levels is a central issue for the protection of the coast. Return periods of sea level with wave set-up contribution are estimated here in one site : Cherbourg in France in the English Channel. The methodology follows two steps : the first one is computation of joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level, the second one is interpretation of that joint probabilities to assess a sea level for a given return period. Two different approaches were evaluated to compute joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level : the first one is multivariate extreme values distributions of logistic type in which all components of the variables become large simultaneously, the second one is conditional approach for multivariate extreme values in which only one component of the variables have to be large. Two different methods were applied to estimate sea level with wave set-up contribution for a given return period : Monte-Carlo simulation in which estimation is more accurate but needs higher calculation time and classical ocean engineering design contours of type inverse-FORM in which the method is simpler and allows more complex estimation of wave setup part (wave propagation to the coast for example). We compare results from the two different approaches with the two different methods. To be able to use both Monte-Carlo simulation and design contours methods, wave setup is estimated with an simple empirical formula. We show advantages of the conditional approach compared to the multivariate extreme values approach when extreme sea-level occurs when either surge or wave height is large. We discuss the validity of the ocean engineering design contours method which is an alternative when computation of sea levels is too complex to use Monte-Carlo simulation method.

  4. Reconstruction of gene regulatory modules from RNA silencing of IFN-α modulators: experimental set-up and inference method.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Angela; Di Camillo, Barbara; Ciccarese, Francesco; Agnusdei, Valentina; Zanovello, Paola; Amadori, Alberto; Finesso, Lorenzo; Indraccolo, Stefano; Toffolo, Gianna Maria

    2016-03-12

    Inference of gene regulation from expression data may help to unravel regulatory mechanisms involved in complex diseases or in the action of specific drugs. A challenging task for many researchers working in the field of systems biology is to build up an experiment with a limited budget and produce a dataset suitable to reconstruct putative regulatory modules worth of biological validation. Here, we focus on small-scale gene expression screens and we introduce a novel experimental set-up and a customized method of analysis to make inference on regulatory modules starting from genetic perturbation data, e.g. knockdown and overexpression data. To illustrate the utility of our strategy, it was applied to produce and analyze a dataset of quantitative real-time RT-PCR data, in which interferon-α (IFN-α) transcriptional response in endothelial cells is investigated by RNA silencing of two candidate IFN-α modulators, STAT1 and IFIH1. A putative regulatory module was reconstructed by our method, revealing an intriguing feed-forward loop, in which STAT1 regulates IFIH1 and they both negatively regulate IFNAR1. STAT1 regulation on IFNAR1 was object of experimental validation at the protein level. Detailed description of the experimental set-up and of the analysis procedure is reported, with the intent to be of inspiration for other scientists who want to realize similar experiments to reconstruct gene regulatory modules starting from perturbations of possible regulators. Application of our approach to the study of IFN-α transcriptional response modulators in endothelial cells has led to many interesting novel findings and new biological hypotheses worth of validation.

  5. A "pivot" Model to set up Large Scale Rare Diseases Information Systems: Application to the Fibromuscular Dysplasia Registry.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, Laurent; Ugon, Adrien; Giavarini, Alessandra; Riquier, Jérémie; Charlet, Jean; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The SIR-FMD project is a partnership between the Department of Genetics and Reference Centre for Rare Vascular Diseases at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris and the Medical Informatics and Knowledge Engineering Laboratory of Inserm. Its aim is to use an ontological approach to implement an information system for the French Fibromuscular Dysplasia Registry. The existing data was dispersed in numerous databases, which had been created independently. These databases have different structures and contain data of diverse quality. The project aims to provide generic solutions for the management of the communication of medical data. The secondary objective is to demonstrate the applicability of these generic solutions in the field of rare diseases (RD) in an operational context. The construction of the French FMD registry was a multistep process. A secure platform has been available since the beginning of November 2013. The medical records of 471 patients from the initial dataset provided by the HEGP-Paris, France have been included, and are accessible from a secure user account. Users are organized into a collaborative group, and can access patient groups. Each electronic patient record contains more than 2,200 items. The problem of semantic interoperability has become one of the major challenges for the development of applications requiring the sharing and reuse of data. The information system component of the SIR-FMD project has a direct impact on the standardisation of coding of rare diseases and thereby contributes to the development of e-Health.

  6. How to set up a microsurgical laboratory on small animal models: organization, techniques, and impact on residency training.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, A; Frati, A; Santoro, A; Lenzi, J; Delfini, R; Pannarale, L; Gaudio, E; D'Andrea, G; Cantore, G P

    2009-01-01

    Microsurgical training is mandatory for the optimal education of modern neurosurgeons. Even though this is a widely acknowledged statement and a lot of institutions around the world practice training in laboratory, the recent literature lacks tip and tricks on how to start a laboratory from scratch, what would be a convenient anesthesia, and what kind of exercises are appropriate. We present our experience in 16 microsurgical training courses settled up at our institutions. Two hundred eleven rodents were dissected. We will describe the organization of the laboratory and of the training courses and we will discuss its practical impact on the residency program.

  7. [Improving the internal medical care to set up a leading model for precision medicine development in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Han, B H

    2017-02-23

    Lung cancer still remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Recent development of molecular targeted therapies, especially the emergence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, has made an enormous progress for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, targeted therapy still faces many problems including acquired resistance. Several clinical trials have proved that targeted therapy can significantly improve the progression-free survival (PFS), but there are still many things needed to be improved. Thus, oncologists still have a long way to go for realizing precision medicine. The present article illustrates the impact of precision medicine on the treatment of lung cancer and describes how to improve the treatment level of lung cancer, aiming to give an inspiration to the medical oncologists.

  8. Detection of actinides and rare earths in natural matrices with the AGLAE new, high sensitivity detection set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Alonso, Ursula; Lemasson, Quentin; Missana, Tiziana; Moignard, Brice; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Camarena de la Mora, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    A series of granite samples (Grimsel and Äspö) enriched by sorption with natU (10-3 M, 10-4 M, 10-5 M in solution) and La (10-3 M, 10-4 M in solution) has been scanned by PIXE over a surface of 1920 × 1920 mm2 together with non-enriched Grimsel and Äspö granites and a glass standard. An assessment of minimum detection limits, MDL's, for several elements has been performed with the use of standard materials. Due to mapping and the high sensitivity of the new AGLAE detection system, U levels around 30 ppm can be detected from the whole PIXE spectrum (one low energy detector and four summed filtered detectors) while U reach grains, inhomogeneously distributed over the surface can be clearly identified through the multi elemental maps and analyzed separately. Even the nominally enriched samples have La levels below the MDL, probably because precipitation of the element (and not adsorption) mostly took place, and precipitates were eliminated after surface cleaning carried out before PIXE analyses. A multi detector system that implies a PIXE detection solid angle much wider than in any other similar set-up (a factor of 2-5); a higher events selectivity, given by the possibility of filtering individually up to 4 PIXE detectors; a double RBS detector, the new Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) spectrometry and gamma spectrometry. Full mapping capability in air, assisted by a powerful event by event reconstruction software. These features allow lower Minimum Detection Limits (MDL) which are highly beneficial to the analysis of cultural heritage objects, meaning generally a reduction of irradiation time. Paintings will then be studied without any damage to the pigments that have color change tendencies which is a major drawback of the previous system. Alternatively they could allow an increase in information collected at equal time, particularly considering the detector's fast response and therefore the potential for high beam currents when sample damage can be

  9. A compact and stable eddy covariance set-up for methane measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, D. M. D.; Dolman, A. J.; van der Molen, M. K.; van Huissteden, J.

    2008-01-01

    A Fast Methane Analyzer (FMA) is assessed for its applicability in a closed path eddy covariance field set-up in a peat meadow. The FMA uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy combined with a highly specific narrow band laser for the detection of CH4 and strongly reflective mirrors to obtain a laser path length of 2-20×103 m. Statistical testing and a calibration experiment showed high precision (7.8×10-3 ppb) and accuracy (<0.30%) of the instrument, while no drift was observed. The instrument response time was determined to be 0.10 s. In the field set-up, the FMA is attached to a scroll pump and combined with a 3-axis ultrasonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer for measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour. The power-spectra and co-spectra of the instruments were satisfactory for 10 Hz sampling rates. Due to erroneous measurements, spikes and periods of low turbulence the data series consisted for 26% of gaps. Observed CH4 fluxes consisted mainly of emission, showed a diurnal cycle, but were rather variable over. The average CH4 emission was 29.7 nmol m-2 s-1, while the typical maximum CH4 emission was approximately 80.0 nmol m-2 s-1 and the typical minimum flux was approximately 0.0 nmol m-2 s-1. The correspondence of the measurements with flux chamber measurements in the footprint was good and the observed CH4 emission rates were comparable with eddy covariance CH4 measurements in other peat areas. Additionally, three measurement techniques with lower sampling frequencies were simulated, which might give the possibility to measure CH4 fluxes without an external pump and save energy. Disjunct eddy covariance appeared to be the most reliable substitute for 10 Hz eddy covariance, while relaxed eddy accumulation gave reliable estimates of the fluxes over periods in the order of days or weeks.

  10. Validation of an integrated experimental set-up for kinetic and kinematic three-dimensional analyses in a training environment.

    PubMed

    Boisnoir, A; Decker, L; Reine, B; Natta, F

    2007-05-01

    Biomechanical analyses using synchronized tools [electromyography (EMG), motion capture, force sensors, force platform, and digital camera] are classically performed in a laboratory environment that could influence the performance. We present a system for studying the running sprint start that synchronizes motion capture, EMG, and ground reaction force data. To maximize motion capture (Vicon 612 with six cameras), a special dim environment was created in the stadium. "Classical" tools were combined with "purpose-built" tools intended to analyse the different aspects of movement. For example, a synchronization system was built to create a common time-base for all data recordings and a portable EMG system was synchronized by a cable that was "disconnected" by the athlete's movement out of the blocks. This disconnection represented an independent event recorded by different tools. A "gap" was measured for some sprint start events between kinetic and kinematic (motion capture) data. Calibration results, measurements of time "gap", and duration of the independent event were used to validate the accuracy of motion capture and the synchronization system. The results validate the entire experimental set-up and suggest adjustment values for motion capture data. This environment can be used to study other movements and can easily be applied to several sports.

  11. A simplified edge illumination set-up for quantitative phase contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation at clinical doses.

    PubMed

    Longo, Mariaconcetta; Rigon, Luigi; Lopez, Frances C M; Chen, Rongchang; Dreossi, Diego; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Longo, Renata

    2015-02-07

    This work presents the first study of x-ray phase contrast imaging based on a simple implementation of the edge illumination method (EIXPCi) in the field of mammography with synchrotron radiation. A simplified EIXPCi set-up was utilized to study a possible application in mammography at clinical doses. Moreover, through a novel algorithm capable of separating and quantifying absorption and phase perturbations of images acquired in EIXPCi modality, it is possible to extract quantitative information on breast images, allowing an accurate tissue identification. The study was carried out at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy), where a mastectomy specimen was investigated with the EIXPCi technique. The sample was exposed at three different energies suitable for mammography with synchrotron radiation in order to test the validity of the novel algorithm in extracting values of linear attenuation coefficients integrated over the sample thickness. It is demonstrated that the quantitative data are in good agreement with the theoretical values of linear attenuation coefficients calculated on the hypothesis of the breast with a given composition. The results are promising and encourage the current efforts to apply the method in mammography with synchrotron radiation.

  12. A simplified edge illumination set-up for quantitative phase contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation at clinical doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Mariaconcetta; Rigon, Luigi; Lopez, Frances C. M.; Chen, Rongchang; Dreossi, Diego; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Longo, Renata

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the first study of x-ray phase contrast imaging based on a simple implementation of the edge illumination method (EIXPCi) in the field of mammography with synchrotron radiation. A simplified EIXPCi set-up was utilized to study a possible application in mammography at clinical doses. Moreover, through a novel algorithm capable of separating and quantifying absorption and phase perturbations of images acquired in EIXPCi modality, it is possible to extract quantitative information on breast images, allowing an accurate tissue identification. The study was carried out at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra synchrotron radiation facility (Trieste, Italy), where a mastectomy specimen was investigated with the EIXPCi technique. The sample was exposed at three different energies suitable for mammography with synchrotron radiation in order to test the validity of the novel algorithm in extracting values of linear attenuation coefficients integrated over the sample thickness. It is demonstrated that the quantitative data are in good agreement with the theoretical values of linear attenuation coefficients calculated on the hypothesis of the breast with a given composition. The results are promising and encourage the current efforts to apply the method in mammography with synchrotron radiation.

  13. TWINNING between Institutions in developed and less developed countries: an ideal way to set-up an astrophysics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-03-01

    It is very difficult to start from scratch a new Astrophysics program in a country with very little or no researchers in the field. In 2007, we began to set-up an Astrophysics program by TWINNING the Université de Ouagadougou with the Université de Montréal in Canada, the Université de Provence in France and the University of Cape Town in South Africa. Already, courses are given at the undergraduate and Master levels and a teaching Observatory has been built. A 1m research telescope was also moved from the La Silla Observatory in Chile to Burkina Faso and the infrastructure is being built at the moment on mount Djaogari in the north-eastern part of the country. In the meantime, 6 students are doing their PhD in Astrophysics overseas (Canada, France and South Africa) and will become the core of the research group at the Université de Ouagadougou. An engineer is also doing his PhD in Astronomical Instrumentation to help with the maintenance of the equipment on the Research Telescope.

  14. Set up of a cardiovascular simulator: application to the evaluation of the dynamical behavior of atheroma plaques in human arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brum, J.; Bia, D.; Benech, N.; Balay, G.; Armentano, R.; Negreira, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work a circulating loop capable of mimicking the physiological pressure and flow conditions inside a vessel is set up. The circulating loop consists of an artificial heart coupled to a perfusion line made of polyethylene and silicon. The artificial heart is driven by a pneumatic pump which provides the desired heart rate, pressure values and length of the systolic and diastolic period of each cycle. To measure the changes in diameter of the segment under study, an ultrasonic probe in pulse eco mode is used. For pressure monitoring a pressure sensor is positioned inside the sample. Pressure-diameter loops were obtained for characterization of the dynamical properties of the arterial wall. In vitro measurements were made on three different conduits: 1) Calibrated tubes made of latex: these phantoms were characterized by the presented method, 2) Non-atherosclerotic human carotid arteries obtained from donors and 3) Atherosclerotic human carotid arteries with atheroma plaques. In the three cases, under physiological simulated conditions, the mechanical properties of the conduit were obtained. We conclude that atheroma plaques were successfully detected and its dynamical properties characterized. This method could be used in the experimental and clinical field to characterize the effects of atheroma plaques on the arterial wall biomechanics.

  15. Linking mathematics with engineering applications at an early stage - implementation, experimental set-up and evaluation of a pilot project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooch, Aeneas; Junker, Philipp; Härterich, Jörg; Hackl, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Too difficult, too abstract, too theoretical - many first-year engineering students complain about their mathematics courses. The project MathePraxis aims to resolve this disaffection. It links mathematical methods as they are taught in the first semesters with practical problems from engineering applications - and thereby shall give first-year engineering students a vivid and convincing impression of where they will need mathematics in their later working life. But since real applications usually require more than basic mathematics and first-year engineering students typically are not experienced with construction, mensuration and the use of engineering software, such an approach is hard to realise. In this article, we show that it is possible. We report on the implementation of MathePraxis at Ruhr-Universität Bochum. We describe the set-up and the implementation of a course on designing a mass damper which combines basic mathematical techniques with an impressive experiment. In an accompanying evaluation, we have examined the students' motivation relating to mathematics. This opens up new perspectives how to address the need for a more practically oriented mathematical education in engineering sciences.

  16. [Multiple sclerosis epidemiological situation update: pertinence and set-up of a population based registry of new cases in Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Otero, S; Batlle, J; Bonaventura, I; Brieva, Ll; Bufill, E; Cano, A; Carmona, O; Escartín, A; Marco, M; Moral, E; Munteis, E; Nos, C; Pericot, I; Perkal, H; Ramió-Torrentà, Ll; Ramo-Tello, C; Saiz, A; Sastre-Garriga, J; Tintoré, M; Vaqué, J; Montalban, X

    2010-05-16

    The first epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) around the world pictured a north to south latitudinal gradient that led to the first genetic and environmental pathogenic hypothesis. MS incidence seems to be increasing during the past 20 years based on recent data from prospective studies performed in Europe, America and Asia. This phenomenon could be explained by a better case ascertainment as well as a change in causal factors. The few prospective studies in our area together with the increase in the disease in other regions, justifies an epidemiological MS project in order to describe the incidence and temporal trends of MS. A prospective multicenter MS registry has been established according to the actual requirements of an epidemiological surveillance system. Case definition is based on the fulfillment of the McDonald diagnostic criteria. The registry setting is the geographical area of Cataluna (northeastern Spain), using a wide network of hospitals specialized in MS management. Recent epidemiological studies have described an increase in MS incidence. In order to contrast this finding in our area, we consider appropriate to set up a population based registry.

  17. The upgraded external-beam PIXE/PIGE set-up at LABEC for very fast measurements on aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Mochi, D.; Nava, S.; Carraresi, L.

    2014-01-01

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence, an external beam facility is fully dedicated to measurements of elemental composition of atmospheric aerosol. The experimental set-up hitherto used for this kind of applications has been upgraded with the replacement of a traditional Si(Li) detector for the detection of medium-high Z elements with a silicon drift detector (SDD) with a big active area (80 mm2) and 450 μm thickness, with the aim of obtaining better minimum detection limits (MDL) and reduce measuring times. The Upilex extraction window has been replaced by a more resistant one (Si3N4). A comparison between the old Si(Li) and the new SDD for aerosol samples collected on different substrata like Teflon, Kapton and Nuclepore evidenced the better performances of the SDD. It allows obtaining better results (higher counting statistics, lower MDLs) even in shorter measuring times, thus allowing very fast analysis of both daily and hourly samples.

  18. Set-up of debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Preliminary results and first experiences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Claudia; Moya, Jose; Chevalier, Guillaume; Raïmat, Carles; Luis-Fonseca, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Direct observations of debris flows in the field by monitoring stations are of great importance to improve understandings of triggering, flow behaviour and accumulation of debris flows. Upon the knowledge of the authors, in Europe debris-flow monitoring stations are only situated in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland), while no test site is located in a catchment affected by Mediterranean climate. In 2005, the first monitoring system was set up by GEOBRUGG IBERICA SA in the Erill catchment, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. A flexible ring net VX160-H4 with load-cells was installed together with a video camera and four geophones. In addition, a meteorological station completed the instrumentation. During 2009, the monitoring of two additional catchments has been set up; Senet in the Axial Pyrenees and Ensija in the Pre-Pyrenees. Four geophones and one ultrasonic device are installed along the torrent in order to determine the flow velocity and flow depth/discharge of the events. As in Erill, a meteorological station completes the devices and measures rainfall and temperature. The main objective of the three monitoring stations is to get some insights on how the Mediterranean climate influences the critical rainfall for debris-flow initiation. The flow behaviour of debris flows is another major goal, while the Erill test site focuses basically on the effectiveness of flexible ring nets. In addition, the Erill installation also acts as protection for the village located on the fan. The calibration, installation and analysis during the testing phase showed that a correct implementation of the different sensors is not an easy task and needs knowledge in geophysics, electronics, telecommunications etc. Especially geophones and ultrasonic devices need special attentions. Geophone outputs are strongly affected by the type of underground and the distance to the torrent, while the measures of the ultrasonic sensor clearly depend on the temperature. To simplify the data storage

  19. Decompression induced bubble dynamics on ex vivo fat and muscle tissue surfaces with a new experimental set up.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Evgenidis, Sotiris; Eckersley, Robert J; Mesimeris, Thodoris; Balestra, Costantino; Kostoglou, Margaritis; Tang, Meng-Xing; Karapantsios, Thodoris D

    2015-05-01

    Vascular gas bubbles are routinely observed after scuba dives using ultrasound imaging, however the precise formation mechanism and site of these bubbles are still debated and growth from decompression in vivo has not been extensively studied, due in part to imaging difficulties. An experimental set-up was developed for optical recording of bubble growth and density on tissue surface area during hyperbaric decompression. Muscle and fat tissues (rabbits, ex vivo) were covered with nitrogen saturated distilled water and decompression experiments performed, from 3 to 0bar, at a rate of 1bar/min. Pictures were automatically acquired every 5s from the start of the decompression for 1h with a resolution of 1.75μm. A custom MatLab analysis code implementing a circular Hough transform was written and shown to be able to track bubble growth sequences including bubble center, radius, contact line and contact angles over time. Bubble density, nucleation threshold and detachment size, as well as coalescence behavior, were shown significantly different for muscle and fat tissues surfaces, whereas growth rates after a critical size were governed by diffusion as expected. Heterogeneous nucleation was observed from preferential sites on the tissue substrate, where the bubbles grow, detach and new bubbles form in turn. No new nucleation sites were observed after the first 10min post decompression start so bubble density did not vary after this point in the experiment. In addition, a competition for dissolved gas between adjacent multiple bubbles was demonstrated in increased delay times as well as slower growth rates for non-isolated bubbles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Contrast-Enhanced Proton Radiography for Patient Set-up by Using X-Ray CT Prior Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Fassi, Aurora; Zaffino, Paolo; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Depauw, Nicolas; Seco, Joao

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To obtain a contrasted image of the tumor region during the setup for proton therapy in lung patients, by using proton radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT) prior knowledge. Methods and Materials: Six lung cancer patients' CT scans were preprocessed by masking out the gross tumor volume (GTV), and digitally reconstructed radiographs along the planned beam's eye view (BEV) were generated, for a total of 27 projections. Proton radiographies (PR) were also computed for the same BEV through Monte Carlo simulations. The digitally reconstructed radiograph was subtracted from the corresponding proton image, resulting in a contrast-enhanced proton radiography (CEPR). Michelson contrast analysis was performed both on PR and CEPR. The tumor region was then automatically segmented on CEPR and compared to the ground truth (GT) provided by physicians in terms of Dice coefficient, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Contrast on CEPR was, on average, 4 times better than on PR. For 10 lateral projections (±45° off of 90° or 270°), although it was not possible to distinguish the tumor region in the PR, CEPR offers excellent GTV visibility. The median ± quartile values of Dice, precision, and accuracy indexes were 0.86 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 0.88 ± 0.02, respectively, thus confirming the reliability of the method in highlighting tumor boundaries. Sensitivity and specificity analysis demonstrated that there is no systematic over- or underestimation of the tumor region. Identification of the tumor boundaries using CEPR resulted in a more accurate and precise definition of GTV compared to that obtained from pretreatment CT. Conclusions: In most proton centers, the current clinical protocol is to align the patient using kV imaging with bony anatomy as a reference. We demonstrated that CEPR can significantly improve tumor visualization, allowing better patient set-up and permitting image guided proton therapy (IGPT)

  1. Verification films: a study of the daily and weekly reproducibility of breast patient set-up in the START trial.

    PubMed

    Venables, K; Miles, E A; Hoskin, P J; Aird, E G A

    2005-08-01

    Verification of patient position in radiotherapy by the use of portal images is a current practice in most radiotherapy departments. All patients within the Standardisation of Breast Radiotherapy Trial (START) were required to have on-treatment verification images. Measurements of maximum lung and breast depth from these were used to provide details for the case-report forms. This study was undertaken to validate these measurements, assess the reproducibility of patients' set-up within the START trial and to compare reproducibility on a day-to-day basis with reproducibility over a longer period. Analysis also included a subjective assessment of image quality. Fifty-three patients from 29 departments were studied. Some centres used electronic portal imaging and others used film. Where film verification was the method of choice, information was collected about the type of film and cassette used. The correlation coefficients for inter- and intra-observer variability of breast and lung depth were 0.99. Comparing maximum breast depth on weekly and daily images, the median per cent standard deviation of breast depth was 4% and 3%, respectively. The mean standard deviation of breast depth for all patients, which gives an indication of the individual patient variability, was 5.5 +/- 2.2 mm for weekly and 3.9 +/- 1.5 mm for daily measurements. For lung depth, mean standard deviation was 6.8 +/- 2.5 mm for weekly and 6.8 +/- 2.8 mm for daily measurements. Images taken using Kodak X-omat V film were inferior to those taken with films in corresponding cassettes. Differences between lung depth measured in simulator and on the treatment unit were evident for many patients. There was little difference in the standard deviations of breast and lung depth for daily and weekly verification films on the treatment machine.

  2. A knowledge brokerage approach for assessing the impacts of the setting up young farmers policy measure in Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Bournaris, Th.; Moulogianni, Ch.; Arampatzis, S.; Kiomourtzi, F.; Wascher, D.M.; Manos, B.

    2016-02-15

    This study explores Knowledge Brokerage (KB) aspects of an ex-post Impact Assessment (IA) for the Rural Development Programme (RDP) measure of setting up young farmers, under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), at the regional level in Northern Greece. The measure supports the entry of young farmers in agriculture by moving land from older to younger farmers. The aim of the study was to test a set of KB tools for improving the interaction between researchers and policy makers. Our analysis mainly focused on a suite of IA Support Modules to guide practitioners, and on a technical tool kit, a web-based contextualisation platform, to support the IA of the specific test case. Offering a structured approach towards IA, both the Support Modules and LIAISE-KIT allow framing the context, organisation, scheduling and method selection in the light of KB objectives. The evaluation of how IA Support Modules influence the Science Policy Interface (SPI), in the case of the ex-post assessment, demonstrated the high relevance of KB activities for facilitating the interaction between researchers and regional policy makers. The assessment bridges the gap between knowledge producers developing scientific output to be applied in a specific context, and knowledge users, who want clear messages regarding the policy challenges they face. Other conclusions include the need for specific guidelines and training for knowledge users, especially with regard to the use of tools. According to our findings, a consequent application of KB activities is a crucial pre-condition for successfully implementing IAs in future RDP measures.

  3. Assessment and quantification of patient set-up errors in nasopharyngeal cancer patients and their biological and dosimetric impact in terms of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD), tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)

    PubMed Central

    Marcie, S; Fellah, M; Chami, S; Mekki, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess and quantify patients' set-up errors using an electronic portal imaging device and to evaluate their dosimetric and biological impact in terms of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) on predictive models, such as the tumour control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Methods: 20 patients treated for nasopharyngeal cancer were enrolled in the radiotherapy–oncology department of HCA. Systematic and random errors were quantified. The dosimetric and biological impact of these set-up errors on the target volume and the organ at risk (OARs) coverage were assessed using calculation of dose–volume histogram, gEUD, TCP and NTCP. For this purpose, an in-house software was developed and used. Results: The standard deviations (1SDs) of the systematic set-up and random set-up errors were calculated for the lateral and subclavicular fields and gave the following results: ∑ = 0.63 ± (0.42) mm and σ = 3.75 ± (0.79) mm, respectively. Thus a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) margin of 3 mm was defined around the OARs, and a 5-mm margin used around the clinical target volume. The gEUD, TCP and NTCP calculations obtained with and without set-up errors have shown increased values for tumour, where ΔgEUD (tumour) = 1.94% Gy (p = 0.00721) and ΔTCP = 2.03%. The toxicity of OARs was quantified using gEUD and NTCP. The values of ΔgEUD (OARs) vary from 0.78% to 5.95% in the case of the brainstem and the optic chiasm, respectively. The corresponding ΔNTCP varies from 0.15% to 0.53%, respectively. Conclusion: The quantification of set-up errors has a dosimetric and biological impact on the tumour and on the OARs. The developed in-house software using the concept of gEUD, TCP and NTCP biological models has been successfully used in this study. It can be used also to optimize the treatment plan established for our patients. Advances in knowledge: The g

  4. A new set-up for in-situ probing of radiation effects in materials and electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, M.; Felizardo, M.; Catarino, N.; Alves, L.C.; Cruz, C.; Alves, E.; Lorenz, K.

    2015-07-01

    The micro-probe facility installed at the Van de Graff accelerator at CTN/IST permits simultaneous measurements of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Iono-Luminescence (IL). Here we present a recent up-grade of the measurement chamber allowing improved optical sensitivity in IL measurements and opening the possibility to perform simultaneously electrical measurements. Combinations of all these characterization techniques make this setup a powerful tool to characterize and modify different materials with spatial resolution. In particular, it can be used to study radiation effects in different materials and electronic devices in-situ. IL is a luminescence technique that uses the ion beam as the excitation source. Compared with other luminescence techniques with spatial resolution like Cathodoluminescence, this technique has the advantage to probe deeper regions of the sample, several microns below the surface. The same ion beam used to produce luminescence, can create a high density of defects, in a controllable way and the new set-up allows monitoring optical and electrical properties in realtime. In this work we combine IL with I-V curve measurements to assess the response of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to proton irradiation. Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN are emerging materials for applications in high power electronics and are considered for radiation resistant electronics. We will present a systematic study of the changes in IL and conductivity in Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN samples with the energy of the ion beam and with the time of exposure. In particular, it was observed that during the irradiation some luminescence bands related with intrinsic point defects decrease while other new bands appear. Simulations using the SRIM code were used to determine the depth profiles of ionization and displacement events, helping to correlate the optical and electrical response of the materials with certain radiation effects

  5. Solid-phase microextraction set-up for the analysis of liver volatolome to detect livestock exposure to micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Bouhlel, Jihéne; Ratel, Jérémy; Abouelkaram, Said; Mercier, Frédéric; Travel, Angelique; Baéza, Elisabeth; Jondreville, Catherine; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Dubreil, Estelle; Mompelat, Sophie; Verdon, Eric; Inthavong, Chanthadary; Guérin, Thierry; Rutledge, Douglas N; Engel, Erwan

    2017-05-12

    Weights Analysis - ComDim) showed that the liver volatolome could reveal dietary exposure of broilers to a group of environmental pollutants (PCBs), a veterinary treatment (monensin), and a pesticide (deltamethrin), thus confirming the usefulness of this analytical set-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry: system set-up and its application on a lobed jet mixing flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, H.; Saga, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasuki, M.

    The technical basis and system set-up of a dual-plane stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) system, which can obtain the flow velocity (all three components) fields at two spatially separated planes simultaneously, is summarized. The simultaneous measurements were achieved by using two sets of double-pulsed Nd:Yag lasers with additional optics to illuminate the objective fluid flow with two orthogonally linearly polarized laser sheets at two spatially separated planes, as proposed by Kaehler and Kompenhans in 1999. The light scattered by the tracer particles illuminated by laser sheets with orthogonal linear polarization were separated by using polarizing beam-splitter cubes, then recorded by high-resolution CCD cameras. A three-dimensional in-situ calibration procedure was used to determine the relationships between the 2-D image planes and three-dimensional object fields for both position mapping and velocity three-component reconstruction. Unlike conventional two-component PIV systems or single-plane stereoscopic PIV systems, which can only get one-component of vorticity vectors, the present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system can provide all the three components of the vorticity vectors and various auto-correlation and cross-correlation coefficients of flow variables instantaneously and simultaneously. The present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was applied to measure an air jet mixing flow exhausted from a lobed nozzle. Various vortex structures in the lobed jet mixing flow were revealed quantitatively and instantaneously. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the present dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system, the measurement results were compared with the simultaneous measurement results of a laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) system. It was found that both the instantaneous data and ensemble-averaged values of the stereoscopic PIV measurement results and the LDV measurement results agree well. For the ensemble-averaged values of the out

  7. Fluorescence multi-scale endoscopy and its applications in the study and diagnosis of gastro-intestinal diseases: set-up design and software implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Arranz, Alicia; Fresno, Manuel; Desco, Manuel; Mahmood, Umar; Vaquero, Juan José; Ripoll, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopy is frequently used in the diagnosis of several gastro-intestinal pathologies as Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis or colorectal cancer. It has great potential as a non-invasive screening technique capable of detecting suspicious alterations in the intestinal mucosa, such as inflammatory processes. However, these early lesions usually cannot be detected with conventional endoscopes, due to lack of cellular detail and the absence of specific markers. Due to this lack of specificity, the development of new endoscopy technologies, which are able to show microscopic changes in the mucosa structure, are necessary. We here present a confocal endomicroscope, which in combination with a wide field fluorescence endoscope offers fast and specific macroscopic information through the use of activatable probes and a detailed analysis at cellular level of the possible altered tissue areas. This multi-modal and multi-scale imaging module, compatible with commercial endoscopes, combines near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) measurements (enabling specific imaging of markers of disease and prognosis) and confocal endomicroscopy making use of a fiber bundle, providing a cellular level resolution. The system will be used in animal models exhibiting gastro-intestinal diseases in order to analyze the use of potential diagnostic markers in colorectal cancer. In this work, we present in detail the set-up design and the software implementation in order to obtain simultaneous RGB/NIRF measurements and short confocal scanning times.

  8. New paleomagnetic data from Bornholm granitoids testing whether the East-European Craton rotated during the 1.50-1.45 Ga Danopolonian orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubnina, N.; Bogdanova, S.; Cecys, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to the palaeogeographic reconstructions, the East-European Craton (EEC) was part of the Palaeo- to Mesoproterozoic supercontinent Nuna / Columbia (Hoffman, 1997; Rogers and Santosh, 2002). Particularly important was the period between 1.5 and 1.3 Ga, when incipient break-up of this supercontinent occurred (Condie, 2002) but the EEC ("Baltica") still remained in close connection with other continental blocks. During the entire Mesoproterozoic, however, the EEC featured different geodynamic regimes in its presently western and eastern parts. In the west, these were convergent, while rifting prevailed in the east (Bogdanova et al., 2008). Previously, paleomagnetic studies of the Mesoproterozoic Ladoga Lake mafic rocks in NE Russia and the Dalarna mafic dykes in Sweden have disclosed a regular trend from the older Dalarna dykes to the younger dolerites of Lake Ladoga, suggesting an anticlockwise rotation of about 20 degrees. That rotation could either have affected the entire EEC as a result of the Danopolonian orogeny at ca. 1.50-1.45 Ga or have been associated with local block-displacement events in the Pasha-Ladoga graben (Lubnina et al., 2005, 2007). In the present study, we have tested these alternative possibilities by carrying out new paleomagnetic studies of Mesoproterozoic granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm in the South Baltic Sea, which is a key area of the Danopolonian orogeny. On SW Bornholm, the 1.46 Ga Ronne granodiorites, which are cut by NNW trending thin dolerite dykes have been sampled in the Klippelokke quarry. Remanence measurements were performed using a 2G cryogenic magnetometer at the Palaeomagnetic Laboratory of the Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden. Conventional progressive thermal or alternating field (AF) demagnetizations were applied to all specimens. During the stepwise thermal and AF demagnetization experiments, two components of NRM were isolated in the majority of the granitoid specimens. The low

  9. In Search of the Economic Sustainability of Hadron Therapy: The Real Cost of Setting Up and Operating a Hadron Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderstraeten, Barbara; Verstraete, Jan; De Croock, Roger; De Neve, Wilfried; Lievens, Yolande

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the treatment cost and required reimbursement for a new hadron therapy facility, considering different technical solutions and financing methods. Methods and Materials: The 3 technical solutions analyzed are a carbon only (COC), proton only (POC), and combined (CC) center, each operating 2 treatment rooms and assumed to function at full capacity. A business model defines the required reimbursement and analyzes the financial implications of setting up a facility over time; activity-based costing (ABC) calculates the treatment costs per type of patient for a center in a steady state of operation. Both models compare a private, full-cost approach with public sponsoring, only taking into account operational costs. Results: Yearly operational costs range between €10.0M (M = million) for a publicly sponsored POC to €24.8M for a CC with private financing. Disregarding inflation, the average treatment cost calculated with ABC (COC: €29,450; POC: €46,342; CC: €46,443 for private financing; respectively €16,059, €28,296, and €23,956 for public sponsoring) is slightly lower than the required reimbursement based on the business model (between €51,200 in a privately funded POC and €18,400 in COC with public sponsoring). Reimbursement for privately financed centers is very sensitive to a delay in commissioning and to the interest rate. Higher throughput and hypofractionation have a positive impact on the treatment costs. Conclusions: Both calculation methods are valid and complementary. The financially most attractive option of a publicly sponsored COC should be balanced to the clinical necessities and the sociopolitical context.

  10. "helix Nebula - the Science Cloud", a European Science Driven Cross-Domain Initiative Implemented in via AN Active Ppp Set-Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengert, W.; Mondon, E.; Bégin, M. E.; Ferrer, M.; Vallois, F.; DelaMar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Helix Nebula, a European science cross-domain initiative building on an active PPP, is aiming to implement the concept of an open science commons[1] while using a cloud hybrid model[2] as the proposed implementation solution. This approach allows leveraging and merging of complementary data intensive Earth Science disciplines (e.g. instrumentation[3] and modeling), without introducing significant changes in the contributors' operational set-up. Considering the seamless integration with life-science (e.g. EMBL), scientific exploitation of meteorological, climate, and Earth Observation data and models open an enormous potential for new big data science. The work of Helix Nebula has shown that is it feasible to interoperate publicly funded infrastructures, such as EGI [5] and GEANT [6], with commercial cloud services. Such hybrid systems are in the interest of the existing users of publicly funded infrastructures and funding agencies because they will provide "freedom and choice" over the type of computing resources to be consumed and the manner in which they can be obtained. But to offer such freedom and choice across a spectrum of suppliers, various issues such as intellectual property, legal responsibility, service quality agreements and related issues need to be addressed. Finding solutions to these issues is one of the goals of the Helix Nebula initiative. [1] http://www.egi.eu/news-and-media/publications/OpenScienceCommons_v3.pdf [2] http://www.helix-nebula.eu/events/towards-the-european-open-science-cloud [3] e.g. https://sentinel.esa.int/web/sentinel/sentinel-data-access [5] http://www.egi.eu/ [6] http://www.geant.net/

  11. The set-up for forward scattered particle detection at the external microbeam facility of the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Czelusniak, C.; Fedi, M. E.; Gueli, A. M.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P. A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years some new implementations and upgrades have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence, enriching the existing PIXE, PIGE, BS, IBIL set-up with complementary techniques, when possible allowing for simultaneous multi-technique analyses. We developed a system, compatible with the existing set-up, for the out-of-vacuum detection of the forward scattered particles. This system makes feasible the external-STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) and external-FS (Forward Scattering), now both available at our beamline. Test measurements are shortly presented.

  12. Sensitivity study of the UHI in the city of Szeged (Hungary) to different offline simulation set-ups using SURFEX/TEB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsebeházi, Gabriella; Hamdi, Rafiq; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    Urbanised areas modify the local climate due to the physical properties of surface subjects and their morphology. The urban effect on local climate and regional climate change interact, resulting in more serious climate change impacts (e.g., more heatwave events) over cities. Majority of people are now living in cities and thus, affected by these enhanced changes. Therefore, targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies in cities are of high importance. Regional climate models (RCMs) are sufficient tools for estimating future climate change of an area in detail, although most of them cannot represent the urban climate characteristics, because their spatial resolution is too coarse (in general 10-50 km) and they do not use a specific urban parametrization over urbanized areas. To describe the interactions between the urban surface and atmosphere on few km spatial scale, we use the externalised SURFEX land surface scheme including the TEB urban canopy model in offline mode (i.e. the interaction is only one-way). The driving atmospheric conditions highly influence the impact results, thus the good quality of these data is particularly essential. The overall aim of our research is to understand the behaviour of the impact model and its interaction with the forcing coming from the atmospheric model in order to reduce the biases, which can lead to qualified impact studies of climate change over urban areas. As a preliminary test, several short (few-day) 1 km resolution simulations are carried out over a domain covering a Hungarian town, Szeged, which is located at the flat southern part of Hungary. The atmospheric forcing is provided by ALARO (a new version of the limited-area model of the ARPEGE-IFS system running at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium) applied over Hungary. The focal point of our investigations is the ability of SURFEX to simulate the diurnal evolution and spatial pattern of urban heat island (UHI). Different offline simulation set-ups have

  13. The setting up and running of a cross-county out-of-hours gastrointestinal bleed service: a possible blueprint for the future.

    PubMed

    Shokouhi, Bahman N; Khan, Mohammad; Carter, Martyn J; Khan, Nasser Q; Mills, Philip; Morris, Danielle; Rowlands, David E; Samsheer, Kote; Sargeant, Ian R; McIntyre, Peter B; Greenfield, Simon M

    2013-07-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) results in 25 000 hospital admissions annually. Patients admitted at weekends with AUGIB have increased mortality, and guidelines advise out-of-hours endoscopy. We present retrospective data from our service involving the interhospital transfer of patients. We pooled resources of two neighbouring general hospitals, just north of London. Emergency endoscopy is performed at the start of the list followed by elective endoscopy in the endoscopy unit on Saturday and Sunday mornings. From Friday evening to Sunday morning, patients admitted to Queen Elizabeth II Hospital (QEII) are medically stabilised and transferred to Lister Hospital by ambulance. 240 endoscopies were performed out of hours from December 2007 to March 2011. Of these, 54 patients were transferred: nine had emergency endoscopy at QEII as they were medically unstable; eight of the patients transferred required therapeutic intervention for active bleeding. The mean pre-endoscopy Rockall score of those transferred was 2.5. We examined the records of 51 of the 54 patients transferred. There were three deaths within 30 days after endoscopy not associated with the transfer process. 19 (37%) patients had reduced hospitalisation after having their endoscopy at the weekend. The introduction of the out-of-hours endoscopy service in our trust has had multiple benefits, including patients consistently receiving timely emergency endoscopy, significantly reduced disruption to emergency operating theatres, and participation of endoscopy nurses ensures a better and safer experience for patients, and better endoscopy decontamination. We suggest our model is safe and feasible for other small units wishing to set up their own out-of-hours endoscopy service to adopt.

  14. Development of an Educational Game to Set Up Surgical Instruments on the Mayo Stand or Back Table: Applied Research in Production Technology.

    PubMed

    Paim, Crislaine Pires Padilha; Goldmeier, Silvia

    2017-01-10

    Existing research suggests that digital games can be used effectively for educational purposes at any level of training. Perioperative nursing educators can use games to complement curricula, in guidance and staff development programs, to foster team collaboration, and to give support to critical thinking in nursing practice because it is a complex environment. To describe the process of developing an educational game to set up surgical instruments on the Mayo stand or back table as a resource to assist the instructor in surgical instrumentation training for students and nursing health professionals in continued education. The study was characterized by applied research in production technology. It included the phases of analysis and design, development, and evaluation. The objectives of the educational game were developed through Bloom's taxonomy. Parallel to the physical development of the educational game, a proposed model for the use of digital elements in educational game activities was applied to develop the game content. The development of the game called "Playing with Tweezers" was carried out in 3 phases and was evaluated by 15 participants, comprising students and professional experts in various areas of knowledge such as nursing, information technology, and education. An environment was created with an initial screen, menu buttons containing the rules of the game, and virtual tour modes for learning and assessment. The "digital" nursing student needs engagement, stimulation, reality, and entertainment, not just readings. "Playing with Tweezers" is an example of educational gaming as an innovative teaching strategy in nursing that encourages the strategy of involving the use of educational games to support theoretical or practical classroom teaching. Thus, the teacher does not work with only 1 type of teaching methodology, but with a combination of different methodologies. In addition, we cannot forget that skill training in an educational game does not

  15. Development of an Educational Game to Set Up Surgical Instruments on the Mayo Stand or Back Table: Applied Research in Production Technology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Existing research suggests that digital games can be used effectively for educational purposes at any level of training. Perioperative nursing educators can use games to complement curricula, in guidance and staff development programs, to foster team collaboration, and to give support to critical thinking in nursing practice because it is a complex environment. Objective To describe the process of developing an educational game to set up surgical instruments on the Mayo stand or back table as a resource to assist the instructor in surgical instrumentation training for students and nursing health professionals in continued education. Methods The study was characterized by applied research in production technology. It included the phases of analysis and design, development, and evaluation. The objectives of the educational game were developed through Bloom’s taxonomy. Parallel to the physical development of the educational game, a proposed model for the use of digital elements in educational game activities was applied to develop the game content. Results The development of the game called “Playing with Tweezers” was carried out in 3 phases and was evaluated by 15 participants, comprising students and professional experts in various areas of knowledge such as nursing, information technology, and education. An environment was created with an initial screen, menu buttons containing the rules of the game, and virtual tour modes for learning and assessment. Conclusions The “digital” nursing student needs engagement, stimulation, reality, and entertainment, not just readings. “Playing with Tweezers” is an example of educational gaming as an innovative teaching strategy in nursing that encourages the strategy of involving the use of educational games to support theoretical or practical classroom teaching. Thus, the teacher does not work with only 1 type of teaching methodology, but with a combination of different methodologies. In addition, we

  16. SU-F-I-03: Correction of Intra-Fractional Set-Up Errors and Target Coverage Based On Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Cervical Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, JY; Hong, DL

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the patient set-up error and interfraction target coverage in cervical cancer using image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: Twenty cervical cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were randomly selected. All patients were matched to the isocenter using laser with the skin markers. Three dimensional CBCT projections were acquired by the Varian Truebeam treatment system. Set-up errors were evaluated by radiation oncologists, after CBCT correction. The clinical target volume (CTV) was delineated on each CBCT, and the planning target volume (PTV) coverage of each CBCT-CTVs was analyzed. Results: A total of 152 CBCT scans were acquired from twenty cervical cancer patients, the mean set-up errors in the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral direction were 3.57, 2.74 and 2.5mm respectively, without CBCT corrections. After corrections, these were decreased to 1.83, 1.44 and 0.97mm. For the target coverage, CBCT-CTV coverage without CBCT correction was 94% (143/152), and 98% (149/152) with correction. Conclusion: Use of CBCT verfication to measure patient setup errors could be applied to improve the treatment accuracy. In addition, the set-up error corrections significantly improve the CTV coverage for cervical cancer patients.

  17. The Setting-up of Multi-Site School Collaboratives: The Benefits of This Organizational Reform in Terms of Networking Opportunities and Their Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mifsud, Denise

    2015-01-01

    This article, which is set within the Maltese education scenario of unfolding decentralization through the setting-up of multi-site school collaboratives (legally termed "colleges") via a policy mandate, explores a particular aspect of this reform--that of "networking". This is examined in terms of the potential for…

  18. Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Lung Tumors Using BodyLoc With Tomotherapy: Clinical Implementation and Set-Up Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Jining Uhl, Barry; Dewitt, Kelly; Young, Mark; Taylor, Brian; Fei Dingyu; Lo, Y-C

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the use of a BodyLoc immobilization and stereotactic localization device combined with TomoTherapy megavoltage CT (MVCT) in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to reduce set-up uncertainty and treatment time. Eight patients treated with 3-5 fractions of SBRT were retrospectively analyzed. A BodyLoc localizer was used in both CT simulation for localization and the initial patient treatment set-up. Patients were immobilized with a vacuum cushion on the back and a thermoplastic body cast on the anterior body. Pretreatment MVCT from the TomoTherapy unit was fused with the planning kilovoltage CT (KVCT) before each fraction of treatment to determine interfractional set-up error. The comparison of two MVCTs during a fraction of treatment resulted in the intrafractional uncertainty of the treatment. A total of 224 target isocenter shifts were analyzed to assess these inter- and intrafractional tumor motions. We found that for interfractional shifts, the mean set-up errors and standard deviations were -1.1 {+-} 2.8 mm, -2.5 {+-} 8.7 mm, and 4.1 {+-} 2.6 mm, for lateral, longitudinal, and vertical variation, respectively; the mean setup rotational variation was -0.3 {+-} 0.7 deg.; and the maximum motion was 13.5 mm in the longitudinal direction. For intrafractional shifts, the mean set-up errors and standard deviations were -0.1 {+-} 0.7 mm, -0.3 {+-} 2.0 mm, and 0.5 {+-} 1.1 mm for the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts, respectively; the mean rotational variation was 0.1 {+-} 0.2 deg.; and the maximum motion was 3.8 mm in the longitudinal direction. There was no correlation among patient characteristics, set-up uncertainties, and isocenter shifts, and the interfractional set-up uncertainties were larger than the intrafractional isocenter shift. The results of this study suggested that image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy using the BodyLoc immobilization system with TomoTherapy can improve treatment accuracy.

  19. SU-E-T-258: Development of a New Patient Set-Up Monitoring System Using Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) Sensor for the Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new patient set-up monitoring system using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors that can confirm pressure of contact surface and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on develop the patient set-up monitoring system to compensate for the limitation of existing optical based monitoring system, so the developed system can inform motion in the radiation therapy. The set-up monitoring system was designed consisting of sensor units (FSR sensor), signal conditioning devices (USB cable/interface electronics), a control PC, and a developed analysis software. The sensor unit was made by attaching FSR sensor and dispersing pressure sponge to prevent error which is caused by concentrating specific point. Measured signal from the FSR sensor was sampled to arduino mega 2560 microcontroller, transferred to control PC by using serial communication. The measured data went through normalization process. The normalized data was displayed through the developed graphic user interface (GUI) software. The software was designed to display a single sensor unit intensity (maximum 16 sensors) and display 2D pressure distribution (using 16 sensors) according to the purpose. Results: Changes of pressure value according to motion was confirmed by the developed set-up monitoring system. Very small movement such as little physical change in appearance can be confirmed using a single unit and using 2D pressure distribution. Also, the set-up monitoring system can observe in real time. Conclusion: In this study, we developed the new set-up monitoring system using FSR sensor. Especially, we expect that the new set-up monitoring system is suitable for motion monitoring of blind area that is hard to confirm existing optical system and compensate existing optical based monitoring system. As a further study, an integrated system will be constructed through correlation of existing optical monitoring system. This work was supported by

  20. Safety, Tolerability, Blinding Efficacy and Behavioural Effects of a Novel MRI-Compatible, High-Definition tDCS Set-Up.

    PubMed

    Gbadeyan, Oyetunde; Steinhauser, Marco; McMahon, Katie; Meinzer, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) may allow more specific neural modulation than conventional-tDCS. We compared safety, tolerability, blinding efficacy and cognitive effects of a novel HD-tDCS set-up to that of conventional-tDCS and established compatibility with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two groups of healthy participants completed a visual flanker task either with conventional (N = 30) or HD-tDCS (N = 30) administered to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (1 mA) in a double-blind, sham-tDCS-controlled, cross-over design. HD-tDCS was administered with a one-channel DC-stimulator using a small conductive rubber "centre" electrode and a circular return electrode, mimicking the frequently used 4 × 1 HD-tDCS set-up. Tolerability, adverse effects, impact on performance and blinding efficacy were compared within and between the two montages. In a separate experiment, potential heating and impact on image quality of the novel HD-tDCS set-up were assessed during simultaneous fMRI. Both montages elicited only mild adverse effects and those were less pronounced for the novel HD-tDCS set-up. Participant and investigator blinding was achieved with both montages. Only HD-tDCS resulted in significant modulation of the conflict adaptation effect during the flanker task; however, no differences were found for the direct comparison of the two montages. No significant heating occurred during fMRI and only minor effects on image quality were observed during HD-tDCS. This study confirmed safety, tolerability and blinding efficacy of a novel, re-usable and MRI-compatible HD-tDCS set-up. It also highlights its potential to exert beneficial effects on behavioural performance. Use of this novel set-up during simultaneous fMRI in future studies will help clarify the neural mechanisms by which this HD-tDCS impacts on behavioural and neural function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction of Synthetic Populations with Key Attributes: Simulation Set-up while Accommodating Multiple Approaches within a Flexible Simulation Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A; Beaver, Justin M; Symons, Christopher T; Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our concept for overcoming the data barriers of building credible synthetic populations to assist the transformation between social theories and mathematical models. We specifically developed a 31-million-agent model of Afghanistan s population to demonstrate the ability to computationally control and analytically manipulate a system with the large number of agents (i.e., 108) necessary to model regions at the individual level using the LandScan Global population database. Afghanistan was selected for this case study because gathering data for Afghanistan was thought to be especially challenging. The LandScan Global population database is used by a majority of key U.S. and foreign agencies as their database system for worldwide geospatial distribution of populations. Assigning attributes to disaggregated population was achieved by fusing appropriate indicator databases using two forms of aggregation techniques geographical and categorical. A new approach of matching attributes to theoretical constructs was illustrated. The other data sources used include data on military and peacekeeper forces loyalties, readiness, and deployment collected through a combination of UN and classified force projections; economic data collected at the national level and disaggregated using data fusion techniques; data on social attitudes, beliefs, and social cleavages through anthropological studies, worldwide polling, and classified sources; and data on infrastructure and information systems and networks.

  2. Setting Up an ECMO Program in a South American Country: Outcomes of the First 104 Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Claudia X; Bermon, Anderson; Castillo, Victor R; Salazar, Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    Less than 1% of the extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO) registry patients are from South America. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an expensive therapy not only in terms of direct financial cost but also with respect to technical and human resources. Finding a successful ECMO model that developing countries can afford is critical to the expansion of therapy to include the availability of this technology for patients in the developing world. We retrospectively studied the first 104 pediatric ECMO patients in the Fundacion Cardiovascular de Colombia between May 2007 and May 2013. We collected the ELSO registry data from electronic medical records to determine the survival rate, mortality risk factors, and complications in pediatric patients who received ECMO support for cardiac failure, respiratory failure, or ECMO for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the setting of refractory cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We describe our model of ECMO care regarding staff, training process, care protocol, ECMO circuit, and costs. Of 104 patients, 82 were diagnosed with congenital heart disease. Of those, 50 had biventricular and 32 had univentricular physiology, with a significantly higher survival rate at discharge in the biventricular group (44% vs 18.7%, odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-10.52, P = .01). Pediatric patients with a cardiac indication had survival rates of 76.3% at weaning and 52.6% at discharge, which is roughly comparable to those reported by the ELSO in 2013. Univentricular physiology, ECPR, severe pre-ECMO acidosis, ECMO-associated renal failure, and duration of ECMO support were factors associated with increased mortality. Despite limited availability of technical and economic resources, ECMO therapy can be done successfully in a developing country. A model of care based on nurses as ECMO specialists, supported by a multidisciplinary team, is cost-effective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Set-up of a decision support system to support sustainable development of the Laguna de Bay, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nauta, Tjitte A; Bongco, Alicia E; Santos-Borja, Adelina C

    2003-01-01

    Over recent decades, population expansion, deforestation, land conversion, urbanisation, intense fisheries and industrialisation have produced massive changes in the Laguna de Bay catchment, Philippines. The resulting problems include rapid siltation of the lake, eutrophication, inputs of toxics, flooding problems and loss of biodiversity. Rational and systematic resolution of conflicting water use and water allocation interests is now urgently needed in order to ensure sustainable use of the water resources. With respect to the competing and conflicting pressures on the water resources, the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) needs to achieve comprehensive management and development of the area. In view of these problems and needs, the Government of the Netherlands was funding a two-year project entitled 'Sustainable Development of the Laguna de Bay Environment'.A comprehensive tool has been developed to support decision-making at catchment level. This consists of an ArcView GIS-database linked to a state-of-the-art modelling suite, including hydrological and waste load models for the catchment area and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model (Delft3D) linked to a habitat evaluation module for the lake. In addition, MS Office based tools to support a stakeholder analysis and financial and economic assessments have been developed. The project also focused on technical studies relating to dredging, drinking water supply and infrastructure works. These aimed to produce technically and economically feasible solutions to water quantity and quality problems. The paper also presents the findings of a study on the development of polder islands in the Laguna de Bay, addressing the water quantity and quality problems and focusing on the application of the decision support system.

  4. How to Set up an Effective Food Tax? Comment on “Food Taxes: A New Holy Grail?”

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Whereas public information campaigns have failed to reverse the rising trend in obesity, economists support food taxes as they suggest they can force individuals to change their eating behavior and make the agro-food industry think more about healthy food products. Excise taxes based on the unhealthy nutrient content would be more effective since they impact more on unhealthy food products than VAT (value-added-tax) taxes. Taxes based only on junk food products would avoid perverse effects on healthy nutrient. However, as eating behavior of consumers is complex, a modeling analysis would allow to assess unexpected effects on other unhealthy nutrients or products. PMID:24596873

  5. Development of a new in-air micro-PIXE set-up with in-vacuum charge measurements in Atomki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Zs.; Huszánk, R.; Csedreki, L.; Dani, J.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.

    2015-11-01

    A new external microbeam set-up has recently been installed as the extension of the existing microprobe system at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications of Atomki, Debrecen, Hungary. The external beam set-up, based on the system of Oxford Microbeams (OM), is equipped with two X-ray detectors for PIXE analysis, a digital microscope, two alignment lasers and a precision XYZ stage for easy and reproducible positioning of the sample. Exit windows with different thicknesses and of different materials can be used according to the actual demands, currently silicon-nitride (Si3N4) film with 200 nm thickness is employed in our laboratory. The first application was demonstrated in the field of archaeometry, on Bronze Age hoards from Hungary.

  6. Developing a virtual reality application for training nuclear power plant operators: setting up a database containing dose rates in the refuelling plant.

    PubMed

    Ródenas, J; Zarza, I; Burgos, M C; Felipe, A; Sánchez-Mayoral, M L

    2004-01-01

    Operators in Nuclear Power Plants can receive high doses during refuelling operations. A training programme for simulating refuelling operations will be useful in reducing the doses received by workers as well as minimising operation time. With this goal in mind, a virtual reality application is developed within the framework of the CIPRES project. The application requires doses, both instantaneous and accumulated, to be displayed at all times during operator training. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a database containing dose rates at every point in the refuelling plant. This database is based on radiological protection surveillance data measured in the plant during refuelling operations. Some interpolation routines have been used to estimate doses through the refuelling plant. Different assumptions have been adopted in order to perform the interpolation and obtain consistent data. In this paper, the procedures developed to set up the dose database for the virtual reality application are presented and analysed.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus mesonae FJAT-13985T (=DSM 25968T) for Setting Up Phylogenomics in Genomic Taxonomy of the Bacillus-Like Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-hong; Zhu, Yu-jing; Wang, Jie-ping; Che, Jian-mei; Chen, Qian-qian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus mesonae FJAT-13985T is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, and aerobic bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. mesonae FJAT-13985T with 5,807,726 bp, which will provide useful information for setting up phylogenomics in the genomic taxonomy of the Bacillus-like bacteria, as well as for the functional gene mining and application of B. mesonae FJAT-13985T. PMID:27313309

  8. MO-F-CAMPUS-T-05: Correct Or Not to Correct for Rotational Patient Set-Up Errors in Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Briscoe, M; Ploquin, N; Voroney, JP

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of patient rotation in stereotactic radiation therapy and establish a threshold where rotational patient set-up errors have a significant impact on target coverage. Methods: To simulate rotational patient set-up errors, a Matlab code was created to rotate the patient dose distribution around the treatment isocentre, located centrally in the lesion, while keeping the structure contours in the original locations on the CT and MRI. Rotations of 1°, 3°, and 5° for each of the pitch, roll, and yaw, as well as simultaneous rotations of 1°, 3°, and 5° around all three axes were applied to two types of brain lesions: brain metastasis and acoustic neuroma. In order to analyze multiple tumour shapes, these plans included small spherical (metastasis), elliptical (acoustic neuroma), and large irregular (metastasis) tumour structures. Dose-volume histograms and planning target volumes were compared between the planned patient positions and those with simulated rotational set-up errors. The RTOG conformity index for patient rotation was also investigated. Results: Examining the tumour volumes that received 80% of the prescription dose in the planned and rotated patient positions showed decreases in prescription dose coverage of up to 2.3%. Conformity indices for treatments with simulated rotational errors showed decreases of up to 3% compared to the original plan. For irregular lesions, degradation of 1% of the target coverage can be seen for rotations as low as 3°. Conclusions: This data shows that for elliptical or spherical targets, rotational patient set-up errors less than 3° around any or all axes do not have a significant impact on the dose delivered to the target volume or the conformity index of the plan. However the same rotational errors would have an impact on plans for irregular tumours.

  9. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Analysis of the Precision of Patient Set-Up, and Fidelity of the Delivered Dose Distribution in Proton Therapy of Ocular Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, A; Carpenter, K; Shih, HA

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify daily set-up variations in fractionated proton therapy of ocular melanomas, and to assess the effect on the fidelity of delivered distribution to the plan. Methods: In a typical five-fraction course, daily set-up is achieved by matching the position of fiducial markers in orthogonal radiographs to the images generated by treatment planning program. A patient maintains the required gaze direction voluntarily, without the aid of fixation devices. Confirmation radiographs are acquired to assess intrafractional changes. For this study, daily radiographs were analyzed to determine the daily iso-center position and apparent gaze direction, which were then transferred to the planning system to calculate the dose delivered in individual fractions, and accumulated dose for the entire course. Dose-volume metrics were compared between the planned and accumulated distributions for the tumor and organs at risk, for representative cases that varied by location within the ocular globe. Results: The analysis of the first set of cases (3 posterior, 3 transequatorial and 4 anterior tumors) revealed varying dose deviation patterns, depending on the tumor location. For anterior and posterior tumors, the largest dose increases were observed in the lens and ciliary body, while for the equatorial tumors, macula, optic nerve and disk, were most often affected. The iso-center position error was below 1.3 mm (95%-confidence interval), and the standard deviation of daily polar and azimuthal gaze set-up were 1.5 and 3 degrees, respectively. Conclusion: We quantified interfractional and intrafractional set-up variation, and estimated their effect on the delivered dose for representative cases. Current safety margins are sufficient to maintain the target coverage, however, the dose delivered to critical structures often deviates from the plan. The ongoing analysis will further explore the patterns of dose deviation, and may help to identify particular treatment scenarios

  10. High-Quality Genome Sequence of Bacillus vireti DSM 15602T for Setting Up Phylogenomics for the Genomic Taxonomy of Bacillus-Like Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-Hong; Wang, Jie-Ping; Che, Jian-Mei; Chen, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus vireti DSM 15602T is a Gram-negative, spore-forming, and facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Here, we report the 5.309-Mb draft genome sequence of B. vireti DSM 15602T, which will provide useful information for setting up phylogenomics for the genomic taxonomy of Bacillus-like bacteria, as well as for the functional gene mining and application of B. vireti. PMID:26251494

  11. The Interaction Between Dynamics and Chemistry of Ozone in the Set-Up Phase of the Northern Hemisphere Polar Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S.R.; Douglass, A. R.; Bevilacqua, R.; Margitan, J. J.; Sen, B.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding stratospheric ozone loss to the point of accurately predicting ozone in the future requires correctly distinguishing chemical from transport-induced changes in ozone. For example, evaluating the impact of chlorine reduction in controlling stratospheric ozone loss requires estimating the amount of ozone lost in chemical reactions in the polar winter and spring. The Northern Hemisphere winter polar region is a particularly crucial and interesting area because it appears that the Northern vortex may currently be poised near the threshold of extreme ozone destruction such as that which now occurs annually in the Antarctic ozone "hole." In this presentation we explore the interaction of ozone transport and chemistry through the Northern late summer and fall seasons as the vortex circulation becomes established. This phase of the seasonal cycle determines the starting point for heterogeneous processes and chlorine-driven loss that take control in the winter vortex. Using a combination of profile data from POAM, HALOE, and in situ measurements, we show that relatively low ozone at high latitudes in the middle stratosphere is associated with vortex airmasses and that these ozone abundances evolve photochemically from characteristically higher values at the end of the summer. The zonal variance of ozone mixing ratio also increases greatly at this time consistent with increasing wave-driven transport. Comparison with a three-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to generalize the findings from the limited set of observations and quantify the relative roles of transport and chemistry in determining the ozone mixing ratio distributions.

  12. Setting up an off-site emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a DVI incident: disaster victim management (DVM).

    PubMed

    Eitzen, David; Zimmermann, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Forensic mortuaries in all Australian jurisdictions are dealing with increasing workloads, with routine cases regularly occupying greater than 50%, and often as much as 85%, of existing cold room body storage capacity, particularly over long weekends and during seasonal increases in respiratory infections. Hence the need to deal with a sudden influx of deceased persons or multiple body parts in a mass fatality incident would overwhelm most Australian forensic mortuaries, thereby requiring other means of body storage and processing. Exercise "Construct" was a joint South Australian Police (SAPol) and Forensic Science South Australia exercise designed to practice the establishment and construction of an emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a mass fatality incident and the subsequent disaster victim identification process. The aims of the exercise were to test preparedness, activation and construction processes relative to the establishment of an EMF. The exercise provided the opportunity to identify gaps in the capacity to successfully complete the tasks within the allotted time frames. The exercise reinforced the need to have a comprehensive and clearly documented process which must include a current list of suppliers who can deliver goods and services in a timely manner. The aim of this paper is to report on the exercise findings and share the experience with other jurisdictions. It will also provide other jurisdictions with the opportunity to consider whether the South Australian model will be useful to them in improving their own response when confronted with a mass fatality incident that may overwhelm existing local mortuary capacities and capabilities.

  13. The preclinical set-up at the ID17 biomedical beamline to achieve high local dose deposition using interlaced microbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Nemoz, C.; Brochard, Th; Berruyer, G.; Renier, M.; Pouyatos, B.; Serduc, R.

    2013-03-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses spatially a fractionated "white beam" (energies 50-350 keV) irradiation from a Synchrotron Source. The typical microbeams used at ID17 are 25-100μm-thick, spaced by 200-400μm, and carry extremely high dose rates (up to about 16 kGy/s). These microbeams are well tolerated by biological tissue, i.e. up to several hundred of Gy in the peaks. When valley doses, caused by Compton scattering in between two microbeams, remain within a dose regime similar to conventional RT, a superior tumour control can be achieved with MRT than with conventional RT. The normal tissue tolerance of these microscopically small beams is outstanding and well documented in the literature. The hypothesis of a differential effect in particular on the vasculature of normal versus tumoral tissue might best be proven by using large animal models with spontaneous tumors instead of small laboratory animals with transplantable tumors, an ongoing project on ID17. An alternative approach to deposit a high dose, while preserving the feature of the spatial separation of these microbeams outside the target has opened up new applications in preclinical research. The instrumentation of this method to produce such interlaced beams is presented with an outlook on the challenges to build a treatment platform for human patients. Dose measurements using Gafchromic films exposed in interlaced geometries with their steep profiles highlight the potential to deposit radiotoxic doses in the vicinity of radiosensitive tissues.

  14. Setting Up an Efficient Therapeutic Hypothermia Team in Conscious ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A UK Heart Attack Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A; Tang, Kare H; Davies, John R; Keeble, Thomas R

    2015-12-01

    Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial.

  15. Use of natural clays as sorbent materials for rare earth ions: Materials characterization and set up of the operative parameters.

    PubMed

    Iannicelli-Zubiani, Elena Maria; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni; Gallo Stampino, Paola; Pelosato, Renato; Mesto, Ernesto; Schingaro, Emanuela; Lacalamita, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Two mineral clays of the montmorillonite group were tested as sorbents for the removal of Rare Earths (REs) from liquid solutions. Lanthanum and neodymium model solutions were used to perform uptake tests in order to: (a) verify the clays sorption capability, (b) investigate the sorption mechanisms and (c) optimize the experimental parameters, such as contact time and pH. The desorption was also studied, in order to evaluate the feasibility of REs recovery from waters. The adsorption-desorption procedure with the optimized parameters was also tested on a leaching solution obtained by dissolution of a dismantled NdFeB magnet of a hard-disk. The clays were fully characterized after REs adsorption and desorption by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the liquid phase was characterized via Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analyses. The experimental results show that both clays are able to capture and release La and Nd ions, with an ion exchange mechanism. The best total efficiency (capture ≈ 50%, release ≈ 70%) is obtained when the uptake and release processes are performed at pH=5 and pH=1 respectively; in real leached scrap solutions, the uptake is around 40% but release efficiency is strongly decreased passing from a mono-ion system to a real system (from 80% to 5%). Furthermore, a strong matrix effect is found, with the matrix largely affecting both the uptake and the release of neodymium.

  16. Setting Up an Efficient Therapeutic Hypothermia Team in Conscious ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A UK Heart Attack Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Shahed; Hampton-Till, James; MohdNazri, Shah; Watson, Noel; Gudde, Ellie; Gudde, Tom; Kelly, Paul A.; Tang, Kare H.

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are routinely treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to restore blood flow in the occluded artery to reduce infarct size (IS). However, there is evidence to suggest that the restoration of blood flow can cause further damage to the myocardium through reperfusion injury (RI). Recent research in this area has focused on minimizing damage to the myocardium caused by RI. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of coronary artery occlusion in reducing IS caused by RI if instituted early in an ischemic myocardium. Data in humans are less convincing to date, although exploratory analyses suggest that there is significant clinical benefit in reducing IS if TH can be administered at the earliest recognition of ischemia in anterior myocardial infarction. The Essex Cardiothoracic Centre is the first UK center to have participated in administering TH in conscious patients presenting with STEMI as part of the COOL-AMI case series study. In this article, we outline our experience of efficiently integrating conscious TH into our primary percutaneous intervention program to achieve 18 minutes of cooling duration before reperfusion, with no significant increase in door-to-balloon times, in the setting of the clinical trial. PMID:26154447

  17. Interview: Setting up NICE International.

    PubMed

    Chalkidou, Kalipso

    2012-03-01

    Kalipso Chalkidou is the founding director of the NICE's international program helping governments build technical and institutional capacity for using evidence to inform health policy. She is interested in how comparative effectiveness evidence, combined with local expertise and local institutions, can drive scientific and legitimate healthcare resource allocation decisions. She has been involved in the Chinese rural health reform and also in national health reform projects in Colombia, Turkey and the Middle East, working with the World Bank, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Department For International Development (DFID) and the Inter-American Development Bank, as well as national governments. She holds a doctorate on the molecular biology of prostate cancer from the University of Newcastle (UK), an MD with Honors from the University of Athens (Greece) and is an honorary senior lecturer at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK), a senior advisor on international policy at the Center for Medical Technology Policy (MD, USA) and a visiting faculty member at the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute for Bioethics (MD, USA). Between 2007 and 2008, she spent a year at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health as a Harkness Fellow in Health Policy and Practice, studying how comparative effectiveness research can inform policy and US government drug pricing policies.

  18. [Testing the efficacy of disinfectants during drinking water treatment. A new experimental set-up at the German EPA (Umweltbundesamt - UBA)].

    PubMed

    Grützmacher, G; Bartel, H; Althoff, H W; Clemen, S

    2007-03-01

    A set-up for experiments in the flow-through mode was constructed in order to test the efficacy of substances used for disinfecting water during drinking water treatment. A flow-through mode - in contrast to experiments under stationary conditions (so-called batch experiments) - was chosen, because this experimental design allows experiments to be carried out under constant conditions for an extended time (up to one week) and because efficacy testing is possible repeatedly, simultaneously and under exactly the same conditions for short (about 0.5 min) and also longer (about 47 min) contact times. With this experimental design the effect of biofilms along the inner pipe surfaces can be included in the observations. The construction of the experimental set-up is based on experience with laboratory flow-through systems that were installed by the UBA's drinking water department (formerly Institute for Water-, Soil- and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) Institute) for testing disinfection with chlorine. In the first step, a test pipe for the simulation of a water works situation was installed. Water of different qualities can be mixed in large volumes beforehand so that the experimental procedure can be run with constant water quality for a minimum of one week. The kinetics of the disinfection reaction can be observed by extracting samples from eight sampling ports situated along the test pipe. In order to assign exact residence times to each of the sampling ports, tracer experiments were performed prior to testing disinfectant efficacy. This paper gives the technical details of the experimental set-up and presents the results of the tracer experiments to provide an introduction with respect to its potential.

  19. SU-C-204-06: Surface Imaging for the Set-Up of Proton Post-Mastectomy Chestwall Irradiation: Gated Images Vs Non Gated Images

    SciTech Connect

    Batin, E; Depauw, N; MacDonald, S; Lu, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Historically, the set-up for proton post-mastectomy chestwall irradiation at our institution started with positioning the patient using tattoos and lasers. One or more rounds of orthogonal X-rays at gantry 0° and beamline X-ray at treatment gantry angle were then taken to finalize the set-up position. As chestwall targets are shallow and superficial, surface imaging is a promising tool for set-up and needs to be investigated Methods: The orthogonal imaging was entirely replaced by AlignRT™ (ART) images. The beamline X-Ray image is kept as a confirmation, based primarily on three opaque markers placed on skin surface instead of bony anatomy. In the first phase of the process, ART gated images were used to set-up the patient and the same specific point of the breathing curve was used every day. The moves (translations and rotations) computed for each point of the breathing curve during the first five fractions were analyzed for ten patients. During a second phase of the study, ART gated images were replaced by ART non-gated images combined with real-time monitoring. In both cases, ART images were acquired just before treatment to access the patient position compare to the non-gated CT. Results: The average difference between the maximum move and the minimum move depending on the chosen breathing curve point was less than 1.7 mm for all translations and less than 0.7° for all rotations. The average position discrepancy over the course of treatment obtained by ART non gated images combined to real-time monitoring taken before treatment to the planning CT were smaller than the average position discrepancy obtained using ART gated images. The X-Ray validation images show similar results with both ART imaging process. Conclusion: The use of ART non gated images combined with real time imaging allows positioning post-mastectomy chestwall patients in less than 3 mm / 1°.

  20. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens

    PubMed Central

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget. PMID:25589866

  1. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens.

    PubMed

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  2. New approach for the determination of aerosol refractive indices - Part II: Experimental set-up and application to amorphous silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, P.; Herbin, H.; Visez, N.; Pujol, O.; Petitprez, D.

    2017-10-01

    This article is the Part II of a work aimed at proposing a new method for determining the optical constants of aerosols. The Part I detailed the theoretical and numerical basis of an algorithm devoted to retrieve the imaginary and the real part of complex refractive indices from extinction spectra of aerosols. This algorithm associates the Mie theory, the single subtractive Kramers-Kronig relation, and an optimal estimation method in an iterative process. This Part II presents the experimental set-up developed to record simultaneously high spectral resolution extinction spectra and size distributions of airborne silica particles. Extinction spectra are measured with a high spectral resolution on a broad spectral range, including both infrared (650 - 2 , 500cm-1) and UV-visible (9 , 000 - 32 , 500cm-1) spectral regions. Experimental data were used to retrieve the complex refractive indices of aerosol particles. By associating the numerical procedure presented in the first paper and this experimental set-up, complex refractive indices of silica spherical aerosol particles have been determined under controlled experimental conditions. Additional comparison between experimental and simulated extinction spectra from retrieved complex refractive indices shows that this new methodology provides optical properties representative of the material.

  3. Characterization of Fe sites in Fe-zeolites by FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed NO: are the spectra obtained in static vacuum and dynamic flow set-ups comparable?

    PubMed

    Berlier, Gloria; Lamberti, Carlo; Rivallan, Mickaël; Mul, Guido

    2010-01-14

    The present paper shows a direct comparison of IR spectra of adsorbed NO on two catalyst systems (Fe-silicalite and Fe-ZSM-5), recorded in a flow-through cell (in operando, where NO is carried by an excess of inert gas) and static cell (in situ, where a given pure NO equilibrium pressure is dosed). A progressive NO poly-adsorption is observed in the static cell upon increasing the NO equilibrium pressure (from Fe(2+)...(NO)(2) to Fe(2+)...(NO)(3)), while predominantly Fe(2+)...NO adducts are observed in the flow-through cell. By comparing literature spectra, it is shown that these spectral differences are intrinsically inherent to the two different experimental approaches. The two experimental set-ups are able to observe preferentially only a part of the total Fe species present on Fe-zeolites. Water contamination experiments employing different experimental conditions (order of dosage, co-dosage, different NO/H(2)O ratios) did not reproduce in the static environment the IR spectra collected with the dynamic set-up. The spectral differences could have a thermodynamic origin and be related to different adsorption enthalpies of mono- and di-nitrosyl complexes of the two Fe(2+) families and to the different NO partial pressure adopted in the two experimental configurations. These considerations have important consequences for the conclusions reached by different research groups on the structure of active Fe sites.

  4. SU-E-T-367: Evaluate the Dosimetric Impacts On Patient Specific Treatment Plans Due to Set Up Uncertainties During LINAC Annual QA and Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, V; Wang, B; Shi, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact on patient’s specific treatment plans due to set up uncertainties during LINAC commission and annual QA and to determine the maximum set up uncertainty allowance range. Methods: A 60×60×60 cm{sup 3} solid water cube was created in Varian Eclipse TPS. Beam data profiles (crossline and diagonal) and PDDs for field sizes ranging from 2×2 cm{sup 2} to 40×40 cm{sup 2} were simulated. Three main uncertainty scenarios were purposely introduced for gantry position tilts (0–5°), source axis distance changes (100–105 cm), and iso-center position shifts (0–5 mm) during the simulation. A gamma analysis was used to compare the correct simulated profiles with the profiles for each scenario. Two static IMRT treatment plans (H&N and GYN) with tumors at 5 cm and 15 cm depths were compared using similar set up uncertainties. Results: A gamma analysis using ±3%/±3mm with 90% passing rate criteria is included to show the passing rate for each scenario. Crossline and diagonal profiles showed a gamma passing rating of ≥ 90% at depth ≤10 cm for these scenarios: gantry tilted from 0–5°, SAD changed from 100–105 cm, and iso-center shifted ≤ 4 mm. From 10 to 20 cm depths, all three scenarios failed with gamma passing ≤ 90% excepted for diagonal profiles at Gantry =2°, SAD =1 cm, and iso-center =1 mm off center. Diagonal profiles showed a higher gamma passing rating compared to crossline profiles for all three scenarios. PDD differences also increased as depth increased. For patient’s specific treatment plans, maximum uncertainties allowed to obtain a ≥90% gamma passing rating are: gantry tilts ±1 degree, SAD shifts ±2 cm, and iso-center moves ±3 mm. Conclusion: This study validated AAPM TG 142 recommendations on the mechanical and dosimetry uncertainties and provided proofs on maximum acceptance tolerances for LINAC annual QA and commission.

  5. Welfare rights services for people disabled with arthritis integrated in primary care and hospital settings: set-up costs and monetary benefits.

    PubMed

    Powell, J E; Langley, C; Kirwan, J; Gubbay, D; Memel, D; Pollock, J; Means, R; Hewlett, S

    2004-09-01

    To quantify the set-up costs and monetary benefits of a welfare rights service integrated within an NHS service provider, that selects eligible patients using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and offers welfare rights advice to assist in application for Disability Living Allowance and Attendance Allowance. (1) DESIGN: a cost evaluation of a social intervention, screening with the HAQ and welfare rights advice in primary care and hospital settings. (2) SETTING: Eight general practices and four hospital rheumatology out-patient departments were selected from four localities in the southwest of England. (3) PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and sixty-eight eligible patients with arthritis accepted an interview with a welfare rights officer (WRO) from a sample of 1989 service users identified from GPs' records and hospital out-patient lists. Two hundred and forty two service users expressed an interest in take up of the social intervention. (4) Service users with a HAQ score >/=1.5 were contacted by telephone and offered an appointment with an experienced WRO to help them complete a welfare benefit application form. A 'micro-costing' study was undertaken with assessment of monetary benefits received. The indicative set-up costs of similar welfare rights services are pound 8125 in a GP setting and pound 9307 per annum in a hospital setting at 2002 prices. Total annual unclaimed Disability Living Allowance/Attendance Allowance granted to successful claimants was pound 184,382 in the GP setting (n = 84 from 137) and pound 169,309 in the hospital setting (n = 79 from 131). Welfare rights advice received during a visit to a GP practice or a hospital out-patient department can substantially reduce the level of unclaimed benefit in arthritic populations including the elderly; with mobility and care difficulties. A welfare rights service integrated within a GP practice or hospital that screens people with arthritis using HAQ scores and encourages those with scores >/=1.5 to

  6. Power, fairness and trust: understanding and engaging with vaccine trial participants and communities in the setting up the EBOVAC-Salone vaccine trial in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Enria, Luisa; Lees, Shelley; Smout, Elizabeth; Mooney, Thomas; Tengbeh, Angus F; Leigh, Bailah; Greenwood, Brian; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Larson, Heidi

    2016-11-08

    This paper discusses the establishment of a clinical trial of an Ebola vaccine candidate in Kambia District, Northern Sierra Leone during the epidemic, and analyses the role of social science research in ensuring that lessons from the socio-political context, the recent experience of the Ebola outbreak, and learning from previous clinical trials were incorporated in the development of community engagement strategies. The paper aims to provide a case study of an integrated social science and communications system in the start-up phase of the clinical trial. The paper is based on qualitative research methods including ethnographic observation, interviews with trial participants and key stakeholder interviews. Through the case study of EBOVAC Salone, the paper suggests ways in which research can be used to inform communication strategies before and during the setting up of the trial. It explores notions of power, fairness and trust emerging from analysis of the Sierra Leonean context and through ethnographic research, to reflect on three situations in which social scientists and community liaison officers worked together to ensure successful community engagement. Firstly, a section on "power" considers the pitfalls of considering communities as homogeneous and shows the importance of understanding intra-community power dynamics when engaging communities. Secondly, a section on "fairness" shows how local understandings of what is fair can help inform the design of volunteer recruitment strategies. Finally, a section on "trust" highlights how historically rooted rumours can be effectively addressed through active dialogue rather than through an approach focused on correcting misinformation. The paper firstly emphasises the value of social science in the setting up of clinical trials, in terms of providing an in depth understanding of context and social dynamics. Secondly, the paper suggests the importance of a close collaboration between research and community

  7. Experimental Set Up of P300 Based Brain Computer Interface Using a Bioamplifier and BCI2000 System for Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyeongseok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain computer interface (BCI) is one of the most promising technologies for helping people with neurological disorders. Most current BCI systems are relatively expensive and difficult to set up. Therefore, we developed a P300-based BCI system with a cheap bioamplifier and open source software. The purpose of this study was to describe the setup process of the system and preliminary experimental results. Methods Ten spinal cord-injured patients were recruited. We used a sixteen-channel EEG(KT88-1016, Contec, China) and BCI2000 software (Wadsworth center, NY, USA). Subjects were asked to spell a 5-character word using the P300-based BCI system with 10 minutes of training. EEG data were acquired during the experiment. After subjects spelled the word for ten trials, the spelling accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) were obtained in each patients. Results All subjects performed the experiment without difficulty. The mean accuracy was 59.4±22.8%. The spelling accuracy reversely correlated with the age. Younger subjects spelled with higher accuracy than older subjects (p=0.018). However, sex, injury level, time since injury and ASIA scale were not correlated with the accuracy. The mean of ITR was 2.26±1.22 bit/min. Conclusion This study showed that a BCI system can be set up inexpensively with a low-price bioamplifier and open-source software. The spelling accuracy was moderately achieved with our system. P300-based BCI is useful in young patients, but modification is necessary in old patients who have low ability of recognition and concentration. PMID:26512264

  8. A new small-angle X-ray scattering set-up on the crystallography beamline I711 at MAX-lab.

    PubMed

    Knaapila, M; Svensson, C; Barauskas, J; Zackrisson, M; Nielsen, S S; Toft, K N; Vestergaard, B; Arleth, L; Olsson, U; Pedersen, J S; Cerenius, Y

    2009-07-01

    A small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) set-up has recently been developed at beamline I711 at the MAX II storage ring in Lund (Sweden). An overview of the required modifications is presented here together with a number of application examples. The accessible q range in a SAXS experiment is 0.009-0.3 A(-1) for the standard set-up but depends on the sample-to-detector distance, detector offset, beamstop size and wavelength. The SAXS camera has been designed to have a low background and has three collinear slit sets for collimating the incident beam. The standard beam size is about 0.37 mm x 0.37 mm (full width at half-maximum) at the sample position, with a flux of 4 x 10(10) photons s(-1) and lambda = 1.1 A. The vacuum is of the order of 0.05 mbar in the unbroken beam path from the first slits until the exit window in front of the detector. A large sample chamber with a number of lead-throughs allows different sample environments to be mounted. This station is used for measurements on weakly scattering proteins in solutions and also for colloids, polymers and other nanoscale structures. A special application supported by the beamline is the effort to establish a micro-fluidic sample environment for structural analysis of samples that are only available in limited quantities. Overall, this work demonstrates how a cost-effective SAXS station can be constructed on a multipurpose beamline.

  9. Evaluation of a new column backflushing set-up in the gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis of pesticide residues in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Mastovska, Katerina; Wylie, Philip L

    2012-11-23

    This study evaluated the use of a new concurrent backflushing set-up in the multiresidue analysis of pesticides in dietary supplement matrices using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The backflushing configuration employed a purged union installed between a short, 5-m long capillary column and a 15-m analytical column of the same column diameter (0.25 mm i.d.), stationary phase type (HP-5MS UI) and film thickness (0.25 μm). This set-up is more time- and cost-effective than the use of post-run or mid-column backflushing configurations because the backflushing starts as soon as the last analyte elutes from the short column, thus preventing the less volatile matrix components from reaching the longer analytical column and MS source. As opposed to the analysis without backflushing, the column does not need to be kept at a higher temperature for an extended period of time, resulting in about 50% increased sample throughput on the instrument (a run time of 20 min). Optimization of the GC-MS/MS method is discussed in detail, especially when it comes to the selection of MS/MS transitions, optimization of injection conditions using a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) inlet in solvent vent mode, and optimization of the backflushing parameters. The optimized method showed very good long-term performance, which was evaluated in a 2.5-day uninterrupted sequence (without any system maintenance) of repeated injections of various dietary supplement extracts containing over one hundred pesticides, mainly those with limits set for herbal drugs and preparations by the U.S. and European Pharmacopoeias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Setting up and utilizing a service for measuring perioperative transcranial motor evoked potentials during thoracoabdominal aortic surgery and thoracic endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh; Bashir, Mohamad; Yan, Tristan; Harrington, Deborah; Field, Mark L; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Oo, Aung; Desmond, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Paraplegia is a complication that may occur following surgery or endovascular stenting of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic pathology. Measuring transcranial motor evoked potentials (tcMEPs) has been shown to provide a reliable measure of spinal cord function during such procedures allowing interventions to protect cord function. In the spirit of sharing experience and eliminating the learning curve for others, this manuscript describes our experience of setting up a service for tcMEP monitoring as well as the documents and algorithms for measuring, recording and acting on the patient data, the so-called 'MEP Pathway'. Recording and interpretation of tcMEP during thoracoabdominal aortic intervention requires training of staff and close team working in the operating theatre and postoperative intensive care unit. Providing consistent, reliable, specific and sensitive information on spinal cord function and its safe and effective use to alter patient outcomes requires a protocol. The MEP pathway was developed by medical and paramedical staff at our institution based on clinical experience and literature reviews over a 1-year period (2012-2013). The tcMEP pathway comprises six documents that guide staff in: (a) assessing suitability of patients, (b) setting up hardware, (c) preparing algorithms for management, (d) documenting intervention (left heart bypass, cardiopulmonary bypass or endovascular stenting) as well as (e) documenting postoperative intensive care processes. The tcMEP pathway acts as a guide for safe introduction and use of tcMEPs in thoracoabdominal aortic interventions. tcMEP-led guidance of intraoperative and postoperative management in thoracic aortic surgery is an important adjunct in caring for this patient group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection performance assessment of hand-held mine detection systems in a procurement process: test set-up for MDs and MD/GPRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoolderman, Arnold J.; Roosenboom, Jacques H. J.

    2005-06-01

    The Engineers Centre of Expertise of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA) has conducted a study on countermine in peace operations. This study, finished in 2002, concluded that the final solution to countermine will depend in the first place on better detection of buried low-metal mines, e.g. by direct detection of the explosive components in mines. Until such detection systems are available, intermediate solutions are necessary in order to assure freedom of movement in peace operations. Because countermine operations consist of a number of different activities (area preparation, detection, clearance, etc) and the suitability of the different types of available equipment depends on the scenario, the toolbox concept for countermine equipment was adopted. In 2003 a procurement process was started in order to fill this toolbox with commercial-off-the-shelf and military-off-the-shelf equipment. The paper gives a concise description of the study on countermine operations and the procurement process, and subsequently focuses on the set-up of the tests that were conducted in the framework of the procurement of hand-held mine detection systems, like metal detectors and dual-sensor mine detectors. Programs of requirements for these systems were drawn up, aiming at systems for general use and special purpose systems. Blind tests to check the compliancy to the detection performance requirements were designed and conducted in the short timeframe that was available in the procurement process. These tests are discussed in this paper, including the set-up of the test lanes, the targets used and their depths, and the role of the operator. The tests of the capability of the detectors to discriminate small targets adjacent to large targets were conducted according the guidelines of the CEN Workshop Agreement on metal detector tests. Although the results of the tests are commercially confidential, conclusions and lessons learned from the execution of these tests are presented.

  12. Determination of a time-shift in the OPERA set-up using high-energy horizontal muons in the LVD and OPERA detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, N. Yu.; Antonioli, P.; Ashikhmin, V. V.; Bari, G.; Bressan, E.; Evans, L.; Garbini, M.; Giusti, P.; Malguin, A. S.; Persiani, R.; Ryasny, V. G.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Selvi, M.; Shakirianova, I. R.; Votano, L.; Wenniger, H.; Yakushev, V. F.; Zichichi, A.; Agafonova, N.; Alexandrov, A.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Büttner, B.; Chiarella, V.; Chukanov, A.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievsky, S.; Dracos, M.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R. A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Göllnitz, C.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grianti, F.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Klicek, B.; Kose, U.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naumov, D.; Olshevsky, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Schembri, A.; Shakirianova, I.; Sheshukov, A.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Stipcevic, M.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Votano, L.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to report the measurement of a time-shift in the OPERA set-up in a way totally independent of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) measurements of CNGS neutrino events and without the need to know the distance between the two laboratories, CERN and LNGS, where the neutrinos are produced and detected, respectively. The LVD and OPERA experiments are both installed in the same laboratory: LNGS. The relative position of the two detectors, separated by an average distance of ˜ 160 m, allows the use of very high-energy horizontal muons to cross-calibrate the timing systems of the two detectors, using a TOF technique, which, as stated above, is totally independent of the TOF of CNGS neutrino events. Indeed, the OPERA-LVD direction lies along the so-called "Teramo anomaly", a region in the Gran Sasso massif where LVD has established, many years ago, the existence of an anomaly in the mountain structure, which exhibits a low m.w.e. thickness for horizontal directions. The "abundant" high-energy horizontal muons (nearly 100 per year) going through LVD and OPERA exist because of this anomaly in the mountain orography. The total live time of the data in coincidence between the two experiments correspond to 1200 days from mid 2007 until March 2012. The time coincidence study of LVD and OPERA detectors is based on 306 cosmic-horizontal-muon events and shows the existence of a negative time-shift in the OPERA set-up of the order of Δt AB = -(73 ± 9) when two calendar periods, A and B, are compared. The first, A, goes from August 2007 to August 2008 plus the period from January 2012 to March 2012; the second period, B, goes from August 2008 to December 2011. This result shows a systematic effect in the OPERA timing system present from August 2008 until December 2011. The size of the effect, in terms of the cosmic horizontal muons TOF, is comparable with the neutrino velocity excess recently measured by OPERA. It is probably interesting not to forget that with

  13. A simple algorithmic approach using histology and immunohistochemistry for the current classification of adult diffuse glioma in a resource-limited set-up.

    PubMed

    Rajeswarie, R T; Rao, Shilpa; Nandeesh, Bevinahalli N; Yasha, T Chickabasaviah; Santosh, Vani

    2017-08-11

    The WHO 2016 classification of diffuse gliomas combines histological and molecular parameters for diagnosis. However, in view of cost constraints for molecular testing, an economical working formula is essential to reach a meaningful diagnosis in a resource-limited setting. The aim of this study was to establish a practical algorithmic approach using histology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the classification of diffuse gliomas in such a set-up. Diffuse gliomas of WHO grade II and III diagnosed in our institute in the year 2016 were analysed for histological and IHC features, using the markers isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1R132H) and α thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene (ATRX). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for 1p/19q co-deletion was performed when requested. 449 diffuse gliomas (grades II/III) were included in the study. Integrating histology and IHC features, as per the WHO 2016 guidelines, we derived the following groups: Astrocytoma, IDH-mutant (A,IDH-mt, 37.2%); astrocytoma, not otherwise specified (A,NOS, 12.7%); oligoastrocytoma, NOS (OA,NOS, 4.5%); and oligodendroglioma, NOS (ODG,NOS, 45.6%). FISH was performed in a subset of ODG,NOS, OA,NOS and A,NOS gliomas. This revealed 1p/19q co-deletion in all cases of ODG,NOS, 15.8% of OA,NOS and 37.5% of A,NOS. Sequencing for rare IDH 1/2 mutations was not carried out in this study. In a resource-limited set-up, histology with IHC (IDH1(R132H) and ATRX) form the baseline to reasonably derive four histomolecular subgroups of diffuse glioma. Of these, we recommend, OA,NOS and IDH1(R132H)-non-mt ODG,NOS to be our priority for performing 1p/19q co-deletion studies in comparison to IDH-mt ODG,NOS, and it would not be mandatory for astrocytoma. Sequencing for rare IDH mutations is advised for A,NOS and OA,NOS groups, but not for the IDH1(R132H)-non-mutant diffuse gliomas with 1p/19q co-deletion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  14. Raman spectroscopy at mantle pressure and temperature conditions experimental set-up and the example of CaTiO3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Philippe; Fiquet, Guillaume; Daniel, Isabelle; Reynard, Bruno

    1993-09-01

    We present a new experimental set-up for studying minerals by Raman spectroscopy in situ at simultaneously high pressures (up to 35 GPa) and high temperatures (up to 2000 K). High pressures are generated with a diamond anvil cell, and local sample heating is obtained by focussing the beam of a CO2 laser on the pressurized sample through a type IIa diamond. The Raman spectrum and the thermal emission of the sample are collected on the same 2-micron-sized heated area, whereas the pressure can be measured simultaneously anywhere in the pressure chamber. Temperature in the central part of the heated spot is estimated from the thermal emission curves. Pressures are obtained by the classical fluorescence technique. Raman spectra of CaTiO3 perovskite, analog of MgSiO3-perovskite, are presented at temperatures up to 1700 K at a pressure of 12 GPa. These data are compared with high temperature Raman data at ambient pressure. The spectral changes upon heating observed in both series of experiments are discussed.

  15. Awareness assessment of harmful effects of mercury in a health care set-up in India: A survey-based study.

    PubMed

    Halder, Nabanita; Peshin, Sharda Shah; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Mercury, one of the most toxic heavy metals, is ubiquitous in environment. The adverse health impact of mercury on living organisms is well known. The health care facilities are one of the important sources of mercury release into the atmosphere as mercury items are extensively used in hospitals. To assess the awareness about mercury toxicity and the knowledge of proper handling and disposal of mercury-containing items in health care set-up, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out amongst doctors (n = 835), nurses (n = 610) and technicians (n = 393) in government hospitals, corporate hospitals and primary health care centres in the Indian states of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. The study was conducted using a tool-containing pretested structured multiple-choice questionnaire. Analysis of the results using STATA 11.1 software highlighted that overall awareness was more in corporate sector. However, percentage range of knowledge of respondents irrespective of health care sector was only between 20 and 40%. Despite the commitment of various hospitals to be mercury free, mercury containing-thermometer/sphygmomanometer are still preferred by health professionals. The likely reasons are availability, affordability, accuracy and convenience in use. There is an urgent need for source reduction, recycling and waste minimization. Emphasis must be laid on mercury alternative products, education and training of health personnel and public at large, about correct handling and proper clean up of spills. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Characterization of an Am-Be PGNAA set-up developed for in situ liquid analysis: Application to domestic waste water and industrial liquid effluents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Mazrou, H.; Amokrane, A.; Bedek, S.

    2010-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) set-up with an Am-Be source developed for in situ analysis of liquid samples is described. The linearity of its response was tested for chlorine and cadmium dissolved in water. Prompt gamma efficiency of the system has been determined experimentally using prompt gamma of chlorine dissolved in water and detection limits for different elements have been derived for domestic waste water. A methodology to analyze any kind of liquid is then proposed. This methodology consists mainly on using standards with water as bulk or in the case of absolute method, to use gamma efficiency determined with prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in water. To take into account the thermal neutron flux variations inside the samples, flux monitoring was carried out using a He-3 neutron detector placed at the external sample container surface. Finally, to correct for the differences in gamma attenuation, average gamma attenuations factors were calculated using MCNP5 code. This method was then checked successfully by determining cadmium in industrial phosphoric acid and our result was in good agreement with that obtained with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) method.

  17. A Controlled Design of Aligned and Random Nanofibers for 3D Bi-functionalized Nerve Conduits Fabricated via a Novel Electrospinning Set-up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong In; Hwang, Tae In; Aguilar, Ludwig Erik; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-01-01

    Scaffolds made of aligned nanofibers are favorable for nerve regeneration due to their superior nerve cell attachment and proliferation. However, it is challenging not only to produce a neat mat or a conduit form with aligned nanofibers but also to use these for surgical applications as a nerve guide conduit due to their insufficient mechanical strength. Furthermore, no studies have been reported on the fabrication of aligned nanofibers and randomly-oriented nanofibers on the same mat. In this study, we have successfully produced a mat with both aligned and randomly-oriented nanofibers by using a novel electrospinning set up. A new conduit with a highly-aligned electrospun mat is produced with this modified electrospinning method, and this proposed conduit with favorable features, such as selective permeability, hydrophilicity and nerve growth directional steering, were fabricated as nerve guide conduits (NGCs). The inner surface of the nerve conduit is covered with highly aligned electrospun nanofibers and is able to enhance the proliferation of neural cells. The central part of the tube is double-coated with randomly-oriented nanofibers over the aligned nanofibers, strengthening the weak mechanical strength of the aligned nanofibers. PMID:27021221

  18. Experimental illumination of natural habitat--an experimental set-up to assess the direct and indirect ecological consequences of artificial light of different spectral composition.

    PubMed

    Spoelstra, Kamiel; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Donners, Maurice; Gienapp, Phillip; Huigens, Martinus E; Slaterus, Roy; Berendse, Frank; Visser, Marcel E; Veenendaal, Elmar

    2015-05-05

    Artificial night-time illumination of natural habitats has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Generally, studies that assess the impact of artificial light on various species in the wild make use of existing illumination and are therefore correlative. Moreover, studies mostly focus on short-term consequences at the individual level, rather than long-term consequences at the population and community level-thereby ignoring possible unknown cascading effects in ecosystems. The recent change to LED lighting has opened up the exciting possibility to use light with a custom spectral composition, thereby potentially reducing the negative impact of artificial light. We describe here a large-scale, ecosystem-wide study where we experimentally illuminate forest-edge habitat with different spectral composition, replicated eight times. Monitoring of species is being performed according to rigid protocols, in part using a citizen-science-based approach, and automated where possible. Simultaneously, we specifically look at alterations in behaviour, such as changes in activity, and daily and seasonal timing. In our set-up, we have so far observed that experimental lights facilitate foraging activity of pipistrelle bats, suppress activity of wood mice and have effects on birds at the community level, which vary with spectral composition. Thus far, we have not observed effects on moth populations, but these and many other effects may surface only after a longer period of time.

  19. Cold test with a benchtop set-up for fluidized bed reactor using quartz sand to simulate gasification of coal cokes by concentrated solar radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Tadaaki; Kodama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of internal circulation of a mixture of coal-coke particles and quartz sand on the fluidization state in a fluidized bed reactor are investigated by a cold test with a benchtop set-up in order to design 10-30 kWth scale prototype windowed fluidized-bed reactor. Firstly, a basic relationship between pressure loss of inlet gas and gas velocity was experimentally examined using quartz sand with different particle sizes by a small-scale quartz tube with a distributor at ambient pressure and temperature. Based on the results, an appropriate particle range of quartz sand and layer height/layer diameter ratio (L/D ratio) was determined for a design of the fluidized bed reactor. Secondly, a windowed reactor mock-up was designed and fabricated for solar coke gasification using quartz sand as a bed material. The pressure loss between the inlet and outlet gases was examined, and descending cokes and sand particles on the sidewall of the reactor was observed in the reactor mock-up. The moving velocity and distance of descending particles/sands from the top to bottom of fluidized bed were measured by the visual observation of the colored tracer particles on outside wall of the reactor.

  20. Set-up of an experimental procedure for the measurement of thermal transmittances via infrared thermography on lab-made prototype walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donatelli, Antonio; Aversa, Patrizia; Luprano, Vincenza Anna Maria

    2016-11-01

    In this paper an experimental set-up measurement for the evaluation of the thermal transmittance of opaque elements has been developed. It is based on infrared thermography and it is suggested as alternative to the standard approach set by the ISO 9869:1994 based on heat flow meter (HFM) measurement which is widely accepted by scientific audience. The proposed method has been designed in order to overcome the following restrictions of HFM method: long measuring times (about 72 h), weather conditions as constant as possible and at least a difference of 10-15 °C between the temperatures of internal and external sides of walls. In this work, the alternative method proposed is widely described and applied on lab-made prototype walls: the results are encouraging, showing discrepancies with theoretical U-values, determined in accordance with international standard ISO 6946:2007, in the range -3.5 to 2.9%. The thermal transmittances were also calculated with a commercial software based on finite element analysis; the obtained results were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Moreover, the simulations pointed out that the values obtained on lab-made prototype walls are similar to those associated with partition walls which separate rooms with different environmental conditions.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance monitoring in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and strategic use of funds from the Global Fund to set up a systematic Moroccan gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme.

    PubMed

    Hançali, Amina; Ndowa, Francis; Bellaji, Bahija; Bennani, Aziza; Kettani, Amina; Charof, Reda; El Aouad, Rajae

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections and update the treatment in the national guidelines for the syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections in Morocco. 171 men complaining of urethral discharge were recruited from basic health services during 2009. Urethral swab samples were collected and N gonorrhoeae identification was performed by culture. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Etest method and the antimicrobial agents tested were ciprofloxacin, penicillin, spectinomycin, tetracycline, ceftriaxone and cefixime. A total of 72 isolates were examined. Significant resistance to tetracycline (92.8%) and ciprofloxacin (86.8%), which was used as first-line treatment in gonococcal infections, was noted. No resistance to spectinomycin, ceftriaxone or cefixime was detected in all the isolates. Following these results the Ministry of Health of Morocco replaced ciprofloxacin and introduced ceftriaxone 250 mg as a single dose in the treatment of gonococcal infections. Using funds from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund), a surveillance programme was set up for antimicrobial resistance testing in N gonorrhoeae.

  2. Validation of an original incubator set-up for the exposure of human astrocyte cells to X-band microwaves in a GTEM-chamber.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Del Moral, A; Pérez-Castejón, C; Llorente, M; Vera, A; Azanza, M J

    2011-09-01

    A current concern about the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is increasing with the wide spread use of X-band microwaves (MW, 8-10 GHz range). Gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) field flat transmission lines are currently being used for experimental exposure of biological samples to high frequency EMF. Experiments carried out on human cells in culture require optimal growing temperature conditions, i.e. 37 °C, 5% CO2 in a humidified atmosphere. The aim of our work has been: i) to built up an original incubator set-up, the so called GTEM-incubator, for exposure of human cells in culture to MW inside a GTEM-chamber, under optimal growing physical conditions; ii) to make the validation of the GTEM-incubator by growing cell samples inside the non-energized GTEM-chamber (test sample) comparing the results with the ones obtained from cell samples grown inside a standard incubator (control samples). The features for comparison were: cell morphology, expression and distribution of cytoskeleton proteins, genotoxicity, viability and cell cycle progression. Any variation in any of the studied parameters would allow for detecting any possible failure or misconception in our GTEM-incubator working test. The results obtained in control and test incubators showed non-significant differences in the development of both cell populations for any of the studied parameters. Thereby our GTEM-incubator is considered valid for our purposes of human cell exposures to X-band MW.

  3. A Controlled Design of Aligned and Random Nanofibers for 3D Bi-functionalized Nerve Conduits Fabricated via a Novel Electrospinning Set-up.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong In; Hwang, Tae In; Aguilar, Ludwig Erik; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-03-29

    Scaffolds made of aligned nanofibers are favorable for nerve regeneration due to their superior nerve cell attachment and proliferation. However, it is challenging not only to produce a neat mat or a conduit form with aligned nanofibers but also to use these for surgical applications as a nerve guide conduit due to their insufficient mechanical strength. Furthermore, no studies have been reported on the fabrication of aligned nanofibers and randomly-oriented nanofibers on the same mat. In this study, we have successfully produced a mat with both aligned and randomly-oriented nanofibers by using a novel electrospinning set up. A new conduit with a highly-aligned electrospun mat is produced with this modified electrospinning method, and this proposed conduit with favorable features, such as selective permeability, hydrophilicity and nerve growth directional steering, were fabricated as nerve guide conduits (NGCs). The inner surface of the nerve conduit is covered with highly aligned electrospun nanofibers and is able to enhance the proliferation of neural cells. The central part of the tube is double-coated with randomly-oriented nanofibers over the aligned nanofibers, strengthening the weak mechanical strength of the aligned nanofibers.

  4. Experimental illumination of natural habitat—an experimental set-up to assess the direct and indirect ecological consequences of artificial light of different spectral composition

    PubMed Central

    Spoelstra, Kamiel; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Donners, Maurice; Gienapp, Phillip; Huigens, Martinus E.; Slaterus, Roy; Berendse, Frank; Visser, Marcel E.; Veenendaal, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Artificial night-time illumination of natural habitats has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Generally, studies that assess the impact of artificial light on various species in the wild make use of existing illumination and are therefore correlative. Moreover, studies mostly focus on short-term consequences at the individual level, rather than long-term consequences at the population and community level—thereby ignoring possible unknown cascading effects in ecosystems. The recent change to LED lighting has opened up the exciting possibility to use light with a custom spectral composition, thereby potentially reducing the negative impact of artificial light. We describe here a large-scale, ecosystem-wide study where we experimentally illuminate forest-edge habitat with different spectral composition, replicated eight times. Monitoring of species is being performed according to rigid protocols, in part using a citizen-science-based approach, and automated where possible. Simultaneously, we specifically look at alterations in behaviour, such as changes in activity, and daily and seasonal timing. In our set-up, we have so far observed that experimental lights facilitate foraging activity of pipistrelle bats, suppress activity of wood mice and have effects on birds at the community level, which vary with spectral composition. Thus far, we have not observed effects on moth populations, but these and many other effects may surface only after a longer period of time. PMID:25780241

  5. Measurement of maximum skin dose in interventional radiology and cardiology and challenges in the set-up of European alert thresholds.

    PubMed

    Farah, J; Trianni, A; Carinou, E; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Clairand, I; Dabin, J; De Angelis, C; Domienik, J; Jarvinen, H; Kopec, R; Majer, M; Malchair, F; Negri, A; Novák, L; Siiskonen, T; Vanhavere, F; Knežević, Ž

    2015-04-01

    To help operators acknowledge patient dose during interventional procedures, EURADOS WG-12 focused on measuring patient skin dose using XR-RV3 gafchromic films, thermoluminescent detector (TLD) pellets or 2D TL foils and on investigating possible correlation to the on-line dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time, Kerma-area product (KAP) and cumulative air Kerma at reference point (CK). The study aims at defining non-centre-specific European alert thresholds for skin dose in three interventional procedures: chemoembolization of the liver (CE), neuroembolization (NE) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Skin dose values of >3 Gy (ICRP threshold for skin injuries) were indeed measured in these procedures confirming the need for dose indicators that correlate with maximum skin dose (MSD). However, although MSD showed fairly good correlation with KAP and CK, several limitations were identified challenging the set-up of non-centre-specific European alert thresholds. This paper presents preliminary results of this wide European measurement campaign and focuses on the main challenges in the definition of European alert thresholds.

  6. Proton induced γ-ray emission yields for the analysis of light elements in aerosol samples in an external beam set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Portarena, S.

    2010-05-01

    The PIXE technique is a reliable tool for the characterisation of thin aerosol samples, but it can underestimate the lightest measurable elements, like Na, Mg, Al, Si and P, owing to the absorption of their X-rays inside the sample. The PIGE technique is a valid help to determine corrections for such effect: in order to perform PIGE measurements relative to thin reference standards in an external beam set-up, we measured, at the external beam facility of the Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory in Florence, the γ-ray yields as a function of the proton beam energy for the reactions 19F(p,p'γ) 19F ( Eγ = 110 and 197 keV), 23Na(p,p'γ) 23Na ( Eγ = 440 keV) and 27Al(p,p'γ) 27Al ( Eγ = 843 and 1013 keV), in the proton energy range from 3 to 5 MeV. The measured yields are shown, and the determined most suitable energies for performing PIGE quantification of Na and Al are reported, together with the corresponding minimum detection limits (MDLs). The results of some test on PIGE accuracy and an evaluation of self-absorption effects in PIXE measurements on thin aerosol samples are also presented.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Mixed-Mode Interlaminar Fracture of Carbon-Polyester Laminated Woven Composite by Using Arcan Set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Mohammad Hossein; Choupani, Naghdali; Shameli, Moharram

    2011-12-01

    Composite materials are widely used in marine, aerospace and automobile industries. These materials are often subjected to defects and damages from both in-service and manufacturing process. Delamination is the most important of these defects. This paper reports investigation of mixed-mode fracture toughness in carbon-polyester composite by using numerical and experimental methods. All tests were performed by Arcan set-up. By changing the loading angle, α, from 0° to 90° at 15° intervals, mode-I, mixed-mode and mode-II fracture data were obtained. Correction factors for various conditions were obtained by using ABAQUS software. Effects of the crack length and the loading angle on fracture were also studied. The interaction j-integral method was used to separate the mixed-mode stress intensity factors at the crack tip under different loading conditions. As the result, it can be seen that the shearing mode interlaminar fracture toughness is larger than the opening mode interlaminar fracture toughness. This means that interlaminar cracked specimen is tougher in shear loading condition and weaker in tensile loading condition.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Jim Landy, NDE specialist, sets up a flight crew lockers for flash thermography. He is screening the lockers for hidden damage underneath dings and dents that might occur during handling.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-04

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Vehicle Assembly Building, Jim Landy, NDE specialist, sets up a flight crew lockers for flash thermography. He is screening the lockers for hidden damage underneath dings and dents that might occur during handling.

  9. A novel 15N tracer approach for the quantification of N2 and N2O emissions from soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheer, Clemens; Dannenmann, Michael; Meier, Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro-ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification has received great interest by biogeochemists in the last decades, the magnitude of N2lossesand related N2:N2O ratios from soils still are largely unknown due to methodical constraints. We present a novel 15N tracer approach, based on a previous developed tracer method to study denitrification in pure bacterial cultures which was modified for the use on soil incubations in a completely automated laboratory set up. The method uses a background air in the incubation vessels that is replaced with a helium-oxygen gas mixture with a 50-fold reduced N2 background (2 % v/v). This method allows for a direct and sensitive quantification of the N2 and N2O emissions from the soil with isotope-ratio mass spectrometry after 15N labelling of denitrification N substrates and minimises the sensitivity to the intrusion of atmospheric N2 at the same time. The incubation set up was used to determine the influence of different soil moisture levels on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture soil in Queensland/Australia. The soil was labelled with an equivalent of 50 μg-N per gram dry soil by broadcast application of KNO3solution (4 at.% 15N) and incubated for 3 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS), respectively. The headspace of the incubation vessel was sampled automatically over 12hrs each day and 3 samples (0, 6, and 12 hrs after incubation start) of headspace gas analysed for N2 and N2O with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (DELTA V Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany(. In addition, the soil was analysed for 15N NO3- and NH4+ using the 15N diffusion method, which enabled us to obtain a complete N balance. The method proved to be highly sensitive for N2 and N2O emissions detecting N2O emissions ranging from 20 to 627 μN kg

  10. Convenient and Efficient Method for Quality Control Analysis of 18F-Fluorocholine: For a Small Scale GMP-based Radiopharmaceuticals Laboratory Set-up.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hishar; Abu Bakar, Suharzelim; Halim, Khairul Najah Che A; Idris, Jaleezah; Nordin, Abdul Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer continues to be the most prevalent cancer in men in Malaysia. As time progresses, the prospect of PET imaging modality in diagnosis of prostate cancer is promising, with on-going improvement on novel tracers. Among all tracers, 18F-Fluorocholine is reported to be a reputable tracer and reliable diagnostic technique for prostate imaging. Nonetheless, only 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is available and used in most oncology cases in Malaysia. With a small scale GMP-based radiopharmaceuticals laboratory set-up, initial efforts have been taken to put Malaysia on 18F-Fluorocholine map. This article presents a convenient, efficient and reliable method for quality control analysis of 18F-Fluorocholine. Besides, the aim of this research work is to assist local GMP radiopharmaceuticals laboratories and local authority in Malaysia for quality control analysis of 18F-Fluorocholine guideline. In this study, prior to synthesis, quality control analysis method for 18F-Fluorocholine was developed and validated, by adapting the equipment set-up used in 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FFDG) routine production. Quality control on the 18F-Fluorocholine was performed by means of pH, radionuclidic identity, radio-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet, radio- thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and filter integrity test. Post-synthesis; the pH of 18F-Fluorocholine was 6.42 ± 0.04, with half-life of 109.5 minutes (n = 12). The radiochemical purity was consistently higher than 99%, both in radio-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with ultraviolet (r-HPLC; SCX column, 0.25 M NaH2PO4: acetonitrile) and radio-thin layer chromatography method (r-TLC). The calculated relative retention time (RRT) in r-HPLC was 1.02, whereas the retention factor (Rf) in r-TLC was 0.64. Potential impurities from 18F-Fluorocholine synthesis such as ethanol, acetonitrile, dimethylethanolamine and dibromomethane were determined in gas chromatography

  11. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, R; Schade, U; Kleber, Ch; Schreiner, M

    2014-06-01

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  12. Analysis of sewage sludge using an experimental prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (pgnaa) set-up with an am-be source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idiri, Z.; Redjem, F.; Beloudah, N.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental PGNAA set-up using a 1 Ci Am-Be source has been developed and used for analysis of bulk sewage sludge samples issued from a wastewater treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Algiers. The sample dimensions were optimized using thermal neutron flux calculations carried out with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo Code. A methodology is then proposed to perform quantitative analysis using the absolute method. For this, average thermal neutron flux inside the sludge samples is deduced using average thermal neutron flux in reference water samples and thermal flux measurements with the aid of a 3He neutron detector. The average absolute gamma detection efficiency is determined using the prompt gammas emitted by chlorine dissolved in a water sample. The gamma detection efficiency is normalized for sludge samples using gamma attenuation factors calculated with the MCNP5 code for water and sludge. Wet and dehydrated sludge samples were analyzed. Nutritive elements (Ca, N, P, K) and heavy metals elements like Cr and Mn were determined. For some elements, the PGNAA values were compared to those obtained using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) methods. Good agreement is observed between the different values. Heavy element concentrations are very high compared to normal values; this is related to the fact that the wastewater treatment plant is treating not only domestic but also industrial wastewater that is probably rejected by industries without removal of pollutant elements. The detection limits for almost all elements of interest are sufficiently low for the method to be well suited for such analysis.

  13. [Setting-up an epidemiological monitoring system of mortality by trauma in children under 15 years of age in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Lasbeur, L; Thélot, B

    2014-11-01

    In metropolitan France in 2009, trauma was the leading cause of death among children under 15 years of age: 459 deaths (source CépiDc), with 236 deaths by home and leisure injuries (HLI). These rough mortality data do not describe the circumstances of the trauma responsible for the death. The "Fatal home and leisure injury among children under 15 years old-MAC-15" feasibility study was set up in 2009 in France in the following regions: Île-de-France, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The main objective of the survey was to understand exactly how these accidents occurred and determine their risk factors. Its secondary objectives were to test the feasibility and analyze the possibility of extending and/or scaling up the monitoring of these deaths. Case reporting was made through death certificates, contacts with regional health agencies, and media surveillance. A detailed record was completed by the medical certifier. In 2009, 76 HLI-related deaths in under 15-year-old children were identified by the survey in the three regions. The victims were mostly boys. The most common cause of death was drowning, followed by suffocation, falls, and fires. The survey contributed to precisely determining the risk factors of HLIs in children and, most often, to identifying the cause responsible for the fatal accident. The feasibility conclusions of this survey are positive, data collection is effective and practicable, and its quality and exhaustiveness were demonstrated. Implementation of the "detailed analyses of the deaths by trauma among children under 15 years old" survey is proposed. This survey will be extended to all deaths by trauma among children in Metropolitan France.

  14. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesinger, R.; Schade, U.; Kleber, Ch.; Schreiner, M.

    2014-06-15

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  15. Lessons learned from setting up the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the resource-constrained context of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V.; Afenyadu, Godwin Y.; Findley, Sally E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The present time reflects a period of intense effort to get the most out of public health interventions, with an emphasis on health systems reform and implementation research. Population health approaches to determine which combinations are better at achieving the goals of improved health and well-being are needed to provide a ready response to the need for timely and real-world piloting of promising interventions. Objective This paper describes the steps needed to establish a population health surveillance site in order to share the lessons learned from our experience launching the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in a relatively isolated, rural district in Zamfara, northern Nigeria, where strict Muslim observance of gender separation and seclusion of women must be respected by any survey operation. Discussion Key to the successful launch of the Nahuche HDSS was the leadership's determination, stakeholder participation, support from state and local government areas authorities, technical support from the INDEPTH Network, and international academic partners. Solid funding from our partner health systems development programme during the launch period was also essential, and provided a base from which to secure long-term sustainable funding. Perhaps the most difficult challenges were the adaptations needed in order to conduct the requisite routine population surveillance in the communities, where strict Muslim observance of gender separation and seclusion of women, especially young women, required recruitment of female interviewers, which was in turn difficult due to low female literacy levels. Local community leaders were key in overcoming the population's apprehension of the fieldwork and modern medicine, in general. Continuous engagement and sensitisation of all stakeholders was a critical step in ensuring sustainability. While the experiences of setting up a new HDSS site may vary globally, the experiences in northern Nigeria

  16. [P3S: Secured fitness trail set up in Guadeloupe, a tool to fight against physical inactivity: A device that has proved itself].

    PubMed

    Atallah, A; Pinay, M; Virolan, K; Bedouet, F; Gatibelza, S

    2016-06-01

    The objective is to introduce an original device already set up in Guadeloupe, the P3S: it is a secured fitness trail; it aims to raise awareness of the harmful effects of physical inactivity and to fight against physical inactivity. The P3S device was financed by the Regional Council of Guadeloupe and includes: (1) a first space to perform a warm-up and gymnastics; (2) the route to the market; (3) 8 physical activity workshops. Coaching by educators sportsmen and teachers of activity physics adapted is proposed, provided by the ARS of Guadeloupe. Coordination is organized by the network of care, the HTA-GWAD network - Gip.Raspeg. A first evaluation of the device was conducted following the establishment on 10 routes drivers. The very encouraging results of these P3S led to extend the device to all communes of Guadeloupe who have at least a P3S. The proximity of these P3S, their free, and coaching provided by exercise teachers trained in sport health explains the success of these devices. The P3S are currently well known by the Guadeloupean population that well integrates this device. The supervision of educators is a source of motivation and makes P3S, a place where physical activities in group are practiced free of charge and in a friendly state of mind. This device might be known from other regions that could also set them up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. SU-E-J-172: Bio-Physical Effects of Patients Set-Up Errors According to Whole Breast Irradiation Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Suh, T; Park, S; Kim, M; Lee, M; Park, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The dose-related effects of patient setup errors on biophysical indices were evaluated for conventional wedge (CW) and field-in-field (FIF) whole breast irradiation techniques. Methods: The treatment plans for 10 patients receiving whole left breast irradiation were retrospectively selected. Radiobiological and physical effects caused by dose variations were evaluated by shifting the isocenters and gantry angles of the treatment plans. Dose-volume histograms of the planning target volume (PTV), heart, and lungs were generated, and conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), tumor control probability (TCP), and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were determined. Results: For “isocenter shift plan” with posterior direction, the D95 of the PTV decreased by approximately 15% and the TCP of the PTV decreased by approximately 50% for the FIF technique and by 40% for the CW; however, the NTCPs of the lungs and heart increased by about 13% and 1%, respectively, for both techniques. Increasing the gantry angle decreased the TCPs of the PTV by 24.4% (CW) and by 34% (FIF). The NTCPs for the two techniques differed by only 3%. In case of CW, the CIs and HIs were much higher than that of the FIF in all cases. It had a significant difference between two techniques (p<0.01). According to our results, however, the FIF had more sensitive response by set up errors rather than CW in bio-physical aspects. Conclusions: The radiobiological-based analysis can detect significant dosimetric errors then, can provide a practical patient quality assurance method to guide the radiobiological and physical effects.

  18. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesinger, R.; Schade, U.; Kleber, Ch.; Schreiner, M.

    2014-06-01

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  19. Robustness of IMPT treatment plans with respect to inter-fractional set-up uncertainties: impact of various beam arrangements for cranial targets.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, Johannes; Stock, Markus; Knäusl, Barbara; Georg, Dietmar

    2013-04-01

    In the current study IMPT plan robustness was evaluated with respect to inter-fractional patient positioning for various beam arrangements and two tumor indications in the cranial region. For 14 patients suffering from tumors in the cranial region [skull base (SB; n = 7) and paranasal sinus (PS; n = 7)] the CTV and OARs were delineated. A safety margin of 3 mm was applied to the CTV. A prescribed dose of 2 GyE was planned via three beam arrangements (α, β, γ). Beam arrangement α consisted of lateral opposed fields for both tumor groups while beam arrangement β was optimized according to respective tumor and OAR locations, using two beams only. Beam arrangement γ applied four beams in the SB group and three beams in the PS group. Dose distributions were recalculated subjected to virtual patient translations along the major anatomical axes. The following dosimetric indices were evaluated and compared to original plans: target coverage (TC), target dose homogeneity (HI), CTV median and average dose (D(median), D(mean)). For OARs near maximum dose and average dose (D2%, D(mean)) were evaluated. Dose distributions were distorted after introducing shifts. In the SB group, TC and HI were significantly different for caudal, cranial and anterior shifts for all beam arrangements. For PS patients, all but right shifts differed significantly from the original plans for all beam arrangements, although clinical relevance was not reached for arrangement γ (ΔTC < 1.5%). In general, beam arrangement γ exhibited the least spread of data regarding target indices and was consequently considered the most robust. Dosimetric parameters regarding the brainstem were mostly influenced by shifts along the anterio-posterior axis. For cranial IMPT, set-up uncertainties may lead to pronounced deterioration of dose distributions. According to our investigations, multi-beam arrangements were dosimetrically more robust and hence preferable over two beam arrangements.

  20. Non-contact test set-up for aeroelasticity in a rotating turbomachine combining a novel acoustic excitation system with tip-timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, O.; Montgomery, M.; Mittelbach, M.; Seume, J. R.

    2014-03-01

    Due to trends in aero-design, aeroelasticity becomes increasingly important in modern turbomachines. Design requirements of turbomachines lead to the development of high aspect ratio blades and blade integral disc designs (blisks), which are especially prone to complex modes of vibration. Therefore, experimental investigations yielding high quality data are required for improving the understanding of aeroelastic effects in turbomachines. One possibility to achieve high quality data is to excite and measure blade vibrations in turbomachines. The major requirement for blade excitation and blade vibration measurements is to minimize interference with the aeroelastic effects to be investigated. Thus in this paper, a non-contact—and thus low interference—experimental set-up for exciting and measuring blade vibrations is proposed and shown to work. A novel acoustic system excites rotor blade vibrations, which are measured with an optical tip-timing system. By performing measurements in an axial compressor, the potential of the acoustic excitation method for investigating aeroelastic effects is explored. The basic principle of this method is described and proven through the analysis of blade responses at different acoustic excitation frequencies and at different rotational speeds. To verify the accuracy of the tip-timing system, amplitudes measured by tip-timing are compared with strain gage measurements. They are found to agree well. Two approaches to vary the nodal diameter (ND) of the excited vibration mode by controlling the acoustic excitation are presented. By combining the different excitable acoustic modes with a phase-lag control, each ND of the investigated 30 blade rotor can be excited individually. This feature of the present acoustic excitation system is of great benefit to aeroelastic investigations and represents one of the main advantages over other excitation methods proposed in the past. In future studies, the acoustic excitation method will be used

  1. Accuracy and efficiency of an infrared based positioning and tracking system for patient set-up and monitoring in image guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jing; Xu, Gongming; Pei, Xi; Cao, Ruifen; Hu, Liqin; Wu, Yican

    2015-03-01

    An infrared based positioning and tracking (IPT) system was introduced and its accuracy and efficiency for patient setup and monitoring were tested for daily radiotherapy treatment. The IPT system consists of a pair of floor mounted infrared stereoscopic cameras, passive infrared markers and tools used for acquiring localization information as well as a custom controlled software which can perform the positioning and tracking functions. The evaluation of IPT system characteristics was conducted based on the AAPM 147 task report. Experiments on spatial drift and reproducibility as well as static and dynamic localization accuracy were carried out to test the efficiency of the IPT system. Measurements of known translational (up to 55.0 mm) set-up errors in three dimensions have been performed on a calibration phantom. The accuracy of positioning was evaluated on an anthropomorphic phantom with five markers attached to the surface; the precision of the tracking ability was investigated through a sinusoidal motion platform. For the monitoring of the respiration, three volunteers contributed to the breathing testing in real time. The spatial drift of the IPT system was 0.65 mm within 60 min to be stable. The reproducibility of position variations were between 0.01 and 0.04 mm. The standard deviation of static marker localization was 0.26 mm. The repositioning accuracy was 0.19 mm, 0.29 mm, and 0.53 mm in the left/right (L/R), superior/inferior (S/I) and anterior/posterior (A/P) directions, respectively. The measured dynamic accuracy was 0.57 mm and discrepancies measured for the respiratory motion tracking was better than 1 mm. The overall positioning accuracy of the IPT system was within 2 mm. In conclusion, the IPT system is an accurate and effective tool for assisting patient positioning in the treatment room. The characteristics of the IPT system can successfully meet the needs for real time external marker tracking and patient positioning as well as respiration

  2. The effect the design solutions adopted for a pilot vortex burner with central admission of medium have on setting up the conditions for stable combustion of air-fuel mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoinishnikov, V. A.; Khokhlov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The effect the design and operating parameters of a pilot vortex burner have on the swirl jet formation and on the jet characteristics is studied. The flow characteristics were studied by mathematically modeling the flow using the ANSYS CFX software package. The performed investigations made it possible to determine the extent to which the swirl parameter n, the ratios of channel diameters m and flow rates of medium in the channels in case of using a two-channel swirl burner design, and the constriction ratio K cnst influence the flow aerodynamic pattern, including the back flow zone and its characteristics. The region of m and n values at which the aerodynamic conditions necessary for maintaining stable combustion are set up is determined. Matters concerned with performance efficiency of the axial swirling apparatus are considered. A correlation for determining the flow swirling loss factor is presented. It is shown that pressure loss in an annular channel with a swirling device depends not only on the blade setting angle, but also on the ratio of annular channel diameters.

  3. Polymerization of rod-like macromolecular monomers studied by stopped-flow, multiangle light scattering: set-up, data processing, and application to fibrin formation.

    PubMed Central

    Bernocco, S; Ferri, F; Profumo, A; Cuniberti, C; Rocco, M

    2000-01-01

    Many biological supramolecular structures are formed by polymerization of macromolecular monomers. Light scattering techniques can provide structural information from such systems, if suitable procedures are used to collect the data and then to extract the relevant parameters. We present an experimental set-up in which a commercial multiangle laser light scattering photometer is linked to a stopped-flow mixer, allowing, in principle, the time-resolved extrapolation of the weight-average molecular weight M(w) and of the z-average square radius of gyration (z) of the polymers from Zimm-like plots. However, if elongated structures are formed as the polymerization proceeds, curved plots rapidly arise, from which M(w) and (z) cannot be recovered by linear fitting. To verify the correctness of a polynomial fitting procedure, polydisperse collections of rod-like or worm-like particles of different lengths, generated at various stages during bifunctional polycondensations of rod-like macromolecular monomers, were considered. Then, the angular dependence of their time-averaged scattered intensity was calculated in the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation, with random and systematic noise also added to the data. For relatively narrow size distributions, a third-degree polynomial fitting gave satisfactory results across a broad range of conversion degrees, yielding M(w) and (z) values within 2% and no greater than 10-20%, respectively, of the calculated values. When more broad size distributions were analyzed, the procedure still performed well for semiflexible polymers, but started to seriously underestimate both M(w) and (z) when rigid rod-like particles were analyzed, even at relatively low conversion degrees. The data were also analyzed in the framework of the Casassa approximation, from which the mass per unit length of the polymers can be derived. These procedures were applied to a set of data taken on the early stages of the thrombin

  4. Farm Level--Setting Up and Using the Tripod Level, Staking Out Foundations, Differential Leveling, and Staking Out Fence Lines. Student Materials. V.A. III. V-E-1, V-E-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    Designed for use by individuals enrolled in vocational agricultural classes, these student materials deal with setting up and using a tripod level, staking out foundations, differential leveling, and staking out fence lines. Topics covered in the unit are different kinds of tripod levels, the parts of a tripod level, transporting a tripod level,…

  5. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  6. A multiprocessor coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea: Application to salt inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, H. E. Markus; DöScher, Ralf; FaxéN, Torgny

    2003-08-01

    Within the Swedish Regional Climate Modeling Program, SWECLIM, a three-dimensional (3-D) coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea has been developed to simulate physical processes on timescales of hours to decades. The code has been developed based on the massively parallel version of the Ocean Circulation Climate Advanced Modeling (OCCAM) project of the Bryan-Cox-Semtner model. An elastic-viscous-plastic ice rheology is employed, resulting in a fully explicit numerical scheme that improves computational efficiency. An improved two-equation turbulence model has been embedded to simulate the seasonal cycle of surface mixed layer depths as well as deepwater mixing on decadal timescale. The model has open boundaries in the northern Kattegat and is forced with realistic atmospheric fields and river runoff. Optimized computational performance and advanced algorithms to calculate processor maps make the code fast and suitable for multi-year, high-resolution simulations. As test cases, the major salt water inflow event in January 1993 and the stagnation period 1980-1992, have been selected. The agreement between model results and observations is regarded as good. Especially, the time evolution of the halocline in the Baltic proper is realistically simulated also for the longer period without flux correction, data assimilation, or reinitialization. However, in particular, smaller salt water inflows into the Bornholm Basin are underestimated, independent of the horizontal model resolution used. It is suggested that the mixing parameterization still needs improvements. In addition, a series of process studies of the inflow period 1992/1993 have been performed to show the impact of river runoff, wind speed, and sea level in Kattegat. Natural interannual runoff variations control salt water inflows into the Bornholm Basin effectively. The effect of wind speed variation on the salt water flux from the Arkona Basin to the Bornholm Basin is minor.

  7. Spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod revisited: Using hydrodynamic modelling to reveal spawning habitat suitability, egg survival probability, and connectivity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Lehmann, A.; Petereit, C.; Nissling, A.; Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the highly variable environment of the Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks exist, one west of the island of Bornholm, which is referred to as the western stock, and one to the east of Bornholm, the eastern stock. A hydrodynamic model combined with a Lagrangian particle tracking technique was utilised to provide spatially and temporally resolved long-term information on environmentally-related (i) spawning habitat size, (ii) egg/yolk-sac larval survival, (iii) separation of causes of mortality, and (iv) connectivity between spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod. Simulations were performed to quantify processes generating heterogeneity in spatial distribution of cod eggs and yolk sac larvae up to the first-feeding stage. The spatial extent of cod eggs represented as virtual drifters is primarily determined by oxygen and salinity conditions at spawning, which define the habitat requirement to which cod's physiology is suited for egg development. The highest habitat suitability occurred in the Bornholm Basin, followed by the Gdansk Deep, while relatively low habitat suitability was obtained for the Arkona and the Gotland Basin. During drift egg and yolk sac larval survival is to a large extent affected by sedimentation. Eggs initially released in the western spawning grounds (Arkona and Bornholm Basin) were more affected by sedimentation than those released in the eastern spawning grounds (Gdansk Deep and Gotland Basin). Highest relative survival of eastern Baltic cod eggs occurred in the Bornholm Basin, with a pronounced decrease towards the Gdansk Deep and the Gotland Basin. Relatively low survival rates in the Gdansk Deep and in the Gotland Basin were attributable to oxygen-dependent mortality. Low oxygen content had almost no impact on survival in the Arkona Basin. For all spawning areas temperature dependent mortality was only evident after severe winters. Egg buoyancy in relation to topographic features like bottom sills and strong bottom slopes

  8. Impact of patient-specific factors, irradiated left ventricular volume, and treatment set-up errors on the development of myocardial perfusion defects after radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Elizabeth S.; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Yu Xiaoli; Zhou Sumin; Hollis, Donna R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Light, Kim L.; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Blazing, Michael A.; Marks, Lawrence B. . E-mail: lawrence.marks@duke.edu

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of patient-specific factors, left ventricle (LV) volume, and treatment set-up errors on the rate of perfusion defects 6 to 60 months post-radiation therapy (RT) in patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2005, a total of 153 patients were enrolled onto an institutional review board-approved prospective study and had pre- and serial post-RT (6-60 months) cardiac perfusion scans to assess for perfusion defects. Of the patients, 108 had normal pre-RT perfusion scans and available follow-up data. The impact of patient-specific factors on the rate of perfusion defects was assessed at various time points using univariate and multivariate analysis. The impact of set-up errors on the rate of perfusion defects was also analyzed using a one-tailed Fisher's Exact test. Results: Consistent with our prior results, the volume of LV in the RT field was the most significant predictor of perfusion defects on both univariate (p = 0.0005 to 0.0058) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0026 to 0.0029). Body mass index (BMI) was the only significant patient-specific factor on both univariate (p = 0.0005 to 0.022) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0091 to 0.05). In patients with very small volumes of LV in the planned RT fields, the rate of perfusion defects was significantly higher when the fields set-up 'too deep' (83% vs. 30%, p = 0.059). The frequency of deep set-up errors was significantly higher among patients with BMI {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2} compared with patients of normal weight (47% vs. 28%, p = 0.068). Conclusions: BMI {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2} may be a significant risk factor for cardiac toxicity after RT for left-sided breast cancer, possibly because of more frequent deep set-up errors resulting in the inclusion of additional heart in the RT fields. Further study is necessary to better understand the impact of patient-specific factors and set-up errors on the development of

  9. Boron neutron capture therapy of skin melanomas at the RA-6 reactor: a procedural approach to beam set up and performance evaluation for upcoming clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Blaumann, H R; González, S J; Longhino, J; Santa Cruz, G A; Calzetta Larrieu, O A; Bonomi, M R; Roth, B M C

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the progress of the modeling and experimental characterization of the RA-6 reactor neutron beam, designed for the upcoming BNCT clinical trials of skin melanoma, and presents the first theoretical analysis of such beam performance. The aspects relating to surface source modeling and assessment, beam dosimetry, treatment planning system calibration, and treatment planning optimization are presented herein. Several methods and criteria were established in order to provide guidance for future clinical studies conducted in this facility. Following a realistic model, the theoretical analysis was based on a clinical case of malignant melanoma in extremities. Owing to the complex geometry of the tumor, this particular clinical case represents one of the most difficult lesions to be treated. This article discusses the thorough evaluation stage that has led to the optimization of the treatment planning procedure. Two candidate plans were proposed, and dose-volume distributions in the target volume were evaluated on the basis of the application of a series of criteria that define the critical normal structures which limit the dose delivered. In spite of the complexity of the clinical case under review, results showed that only 4% of the tumor volume is underdosed in cases of mean blood 10B concentration values, even in the most unfavorable analysis. The overall results suggest that this BNCT facility is prepared to rigorously explore the clinical efficacy of the RA-6 beam and the BNCT treatment modality for peripheral melanomas.

  10. Field-based density measurements as tool to identify preeruption dome structure: set-up and first results from Unzen volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Spieler, Oliver; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2005-03-01

    For an improvement in the quality of conduit flow and dome-related explosive eruption models, knowledge of the preeruption or precollapse density of the rocks involved is necessary. As close investigation is impossible during eruption, the best substitute comes from quantitative investigation of the eruption deposits. The porosity of volcanic rocks is of primary importance for the eruptive behaviour and, accordingly, a key-parameter for realistic models of dome stability and conduit flow. Fortunately, this physical property may be accurately determined via density measurements. We developed a robust, battery-powered device for rapid and reliable density measurements of dry rock samples in the field. The density of the samples (sealed in plastic bags at 250 mbar) is determined using the Archimedean principle. We have tested the device on the deposits of the 1990-1995 eruption of Unzen volcano, Japan. Short setup and operation times allow up to 60 measurements per day under fieldwork conditions. The rapid accumulation of correspondingly large data sets has allowed us to acquire the first statistically significant data set of clast density distribution in block-and-ash flow deposits. More than 1100 samples with a total weight of 2.2 tons were measured. The data set demonstrates that the deposits of the last eruptive episode at Unzen display a bimodal density distribution, with peaks at 2.0±0.1 and 2.3±0.1 g/cm 3, corresponding to open porosity values of 20 and 8 vol.%, respectively. We use this data set to link the results of laboratory-based fragmentation experiments to field studies at recently active lava domes.

  11. Analysis of interfractional set-up errors and intrafractional organ motions during IMRT for head and neck tumors to define an appropriate planning target volume (PTV)- and planning organs at risk volume (PRV)-margins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Minoru; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakamatsu, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Masahiko; Hashiba, Hisayuki; Koike, Ryuta; Kanamori, Shuichi; Shibata, Toru

    2006-03-01

    To analyze the interfractional set-up errors and intrafractional organ motions and to define appropriate planning target volume (PTV)- and planning organs at risk volume (PRV)-margins in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck tumors. Twenty-two patients with head and neck or brain tumors who were treated with IMRT were enrolled. The set-up errors were defined as the displacements of the coordinates of bony landmarks on the beam films from those on the simulation films. The organ motions were determined as the displacements of the coordinates of the landmarks on the images recorded every 3 min for 15 min on the X-ray simulator from those on the initial image. The standard deviations (SDs) of the systematic set-up errors (Sigma-INTER) and organ motions (Sigma-intra) distributed with a range of 0.7-1.3 and 0.2-0.8 mm, respectively. The average of the SDs of the random set-up errors (sigma-INTER) and organ motions (sigma-intra) ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 mm and from 0.3 to 0.6 mm, respectively. Appropriate PTV-margins and PRV-margins for all the landmarks ranged from 2.0 to 3.6 mm and from 1.8 to 2.4 mm, respectively. We have adopted a PTV-margin of 5mm and a PRV-margin of 3mm for head and neck IMRT at our department.

  12. Reliable set-up for in-loop ¹¹C-carboxylations using Grignard reactions for the preparation of [carbonyl-¹¹C]WAY-100635 and [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO.

    PubMed

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Ungersboeck, Johanna; Haeusler, Daniela; Nics, Lukas; Philippe, Cecile; Mitterhauser, Markus; Willeit, Matthaeus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Karanikas, Georgios; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    Aim of this work was the implementation of a generalized in-loop synthesis for (11)C-carboxylations and subsequent (11)C-acylations on the TRACERlab FxC Pro platform. The set-up was tested using [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635 and, for the first time, [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO. Its general applicability could be demonstrated and both [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635 and [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO were prepared with high reliability and satisfying outcome.

  13. Balancing the Optimal and the Feasible: A Practical Guide for Setting Up Patient Registries for the Collection of Real-World Data for Health Care Decision Making Based on Dutch Experiences.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Saskia; van der Linden, Naomi; Franken, Margreet G; Blommestein, Hedwig M; Leeneman, Brenda; van Rooijen, Ellen; Koos van der Hoeven, J J M; Wouters, Michel W; Westgeest, Hans M; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this article was to provide practical guidance in setting up patient registries to facilitate real-world data collection for health care decision making. This guidance was based on our experiences and involvement in setting up patient registries in oncology in the Netherlands. All aspects were structured according to 1) mission and goals ("the Why"), 2) stakeholders and funding ("the Who"), 3) type and content ("the What"), and 4) identification and recruitment of patients, data handling, and pharmacovigilance ("the How"). The mission of most patient registries is improving patient health by improving the quality of patient care; monitoring and evaluating patient care is often the primary goal ("the Why"). It is important to align the objectives of the registry and agree on a clear and functional governance structure with all stakeholders ("the Who"). There is often a trade off between reliability, validity, and specificity of data elements and feasibility of data collection ("the What"). Patient privacy should be carefully protected, and address (inter-)national and local regulations. Patient registries can reveal unique safety information, but it can be challenging to comply with pharmacovigilance guidelines ("the How"). It is crucial to set up an efficient patient registry that serves its aims by collecting the right data of the right patient in the right way. It can be expected that patient registries will become the new standard alongside randomized controlled trials due to their unique value. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase Shift Interferometer and Growth Set Up to Step Pattern Formation During Growth From Solutions. Influence of the Oscillatory solution Flow on Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alex A.; Booth, N. A.; Vekilov, P. G.; Murray, B. T.; McFadden, G. B.

    2000-01-01

    We have assembled an experimental setup based on Michelson interferometry with the growing crystal surface as one of the reflective surfaces. The crystallization part of the device allows optical monitoring of a face of a crystal growing at temperature stable within 0.05 C in a flow of solution of controlled direction and speed. The reference arm of the interferometer contains a liquid crystal element that allows controlled shifts of the phase of the interferograms. We employ an image-processing algorithm, which combines five images with a pi/2 phase difference between each pair of images. The images are transferred to a computer by a camera capable of capturing 60 frames per second. The device allows data collection on surface morphology and kinetics during the face layers growth over a relatively large area (approximately 4 sq. mm) in situ and in real time during growth. The estimated depth resolution of the phase shifting interferometry is approximately 50 Angstroms. The data will be analyzed in order to reveal and monitor step bunching during the growth process. The crystal chosen as a model for study in this work is KH2PO4 (KDP). This optically non-linear material is widely used in frequency doubling applications. There have been a number of studies of the kinetics of KDP crystallization that can serve as a benchmark for our investigations. However, so far, systematic quantitative characteristics of step interaction and bunching are missing. We intend to present our first quantitative results on the onset, initial stages and development of instabilities in moving step trains on vicinal crystal surfaces at varying supersaturation, flow rate, and flow direction. Behavior of a vicinal face growing from solution flowing normal to the steps and periodically changing its direction in time was considered theoretically. It was found that this oscillating flow reduces both stabilization and destabilization effects resulted from the unidirectional solution flow directed

  15. Synthesis of subsurface temperature information and evaluation of the potential for setting up borehole heat exchanger in the central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Hideki; Shiraishi, Hidetaka; Hachinohe, Shoichi; Ishiyama, Takashi; Satake, Kenta; Miyakoshi, Akinobu

    2014-05-01

    Borehole heat exchanger (BHE) is an economical and environmentally friendly technology that is widely used in Europe and North America, but rarely used in Japan. One of the reasons for this is the relatively complex topography and geological structure in Japan compared with those in Europe and North America. Complex structures produce regional differences in subsurface thermal properties and temperature structures, leading to regional variation in the efficiency of BHE. It is thus important to evaluate the available subsurface heat energy through thermal response tests and/or numerical simulations and to design appropriate systems (depth and number of boreholes for heat exchange). Geological structures, groundwater properties, and subsurface temperatures are essential input data for numerical simulations. However, there is little information available concerning subsurface temperatures. Thus, we have decided to construct a database of subsurface temperatures in the Saitama region, which is in the central part of the Kanto Plain in Japan. The Kanto Plain contains the capital city of Japan and has a population of more than 40 million. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy potential of BHE in a part of this area. We have performed measurements of subsurface temperatures at 23 stations in the Saitama region. We have illustrated a numerical simulation for BHE using the recent subsurface temperature data. Furthermore, we have discussed the regional characteristics of potential assessments for BHE. The results are expected to be utilized as information prior to the installation of BHE. For evaluating the potential assessments, we have developed a new method using an existing geological model with a high spatial resolution and applied this method to the southeastern part of the Saitama region. The results show that the potential of the plateau area in the central part of the region is higher than that of the lowland area in the eastern part. Furthermore, the

  16. An experience of knowledge co-production for setting up landslide risk management processes in a critical infrastructure: the case of Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Guido; Roca Collell, Marta; Uzielli, Marco; Van Ruiten, Kees; Mercogliano, Paola; Ciervo, Fabio; Reder, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    consortium, which investigates direct and cascading effects induced by landslide events in pyroclastic cover; pairwise comparisons to identify the more relevant parameters of protection actions against landslide events in pyroclastic soils; and cumulative distribution functions returned by multi model climate simulation ensembles, displaying the occurrence probability of fixed variations in weather-proxy for landslide events, and providing a reliable frame of the current uncertainties in climate projections. The main findings achieved through the application of these tools and methods for the Campanian test case are illustrated and discussed.

  17. Setting up Uncertified Teachers to Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    A study of new teachers with science degrees but little or no training in education found that coaches who spent time in their classrooms provided the most effective support for new teachers. Science methods courses provided by a university also were very helpful for the new teacher. But academic mentors for science content and teacher mentors who…

  18. Setting up a CFO Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the importance of a solid relationship with the head of finance is critical to success, both for the IT department and the institution as a whole. Never has this been truer than in today's bleak economy, as CFOs become increasingly cautious about initiatives that involve significant expense, yet information technology can help…

  19. Setting up an acute pain management service.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Eric S; Baratta, Jaime L; Gandhi, Kishor; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2014-12-01

    Successful implementation of an acute pain management service involves a team approach in which team members have clearly defined roles. Clinical protocols are designed to help address common problems and prevent errors. As the complexity of surgery and patients' diseases continues to increase, current knowledge of new analgesic medications, acute pain literature, and skills in regional anesthesia techniques is imperative. Emphasizing a multimodal approach can improve analgesia and decrease opioid-related side effects.

  20. Teacher Tips: Set Up a Writers' Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, an early childhood consultant and author of several books, offers ten quick and easy suggestions that teachers may use to inspire their students to become budding authors. Some suggestions include: create an intimate writing area; provide paper that will inspire all kinds of writing; and cooperatively create a…

  1. Setting Up a Preventive Maintenance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Michael J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steps of a preventive maintenance program are to determine what equipment will fall within the program; to determine what tasks are necessary to perform the required maintenance, and the frequency of each task; and to build a workable schedule. (Author/MLF)

  2. 3-D PRINTED TURBOPUMP TEST SET UP

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-29

    ENGINEERS PREPARE 3-D PRINTED TURBOPUMP FOR A TEST AT NASA’S MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER IN HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA. THE TURBOPUMP WAS TESTED AT FULL POWER, PUMPING 600 GALLONS OF LIQUID METHANE PER MINUTE, ENOUGH TO POWER AN ENGINE CAPABLE OF GENERATING 35,000 POUNDS OF THRUST…NICK CASE, (GREEN SHIRT), ANDREW HANKS, (PLAID SHIRT), MARTY CALVERT (KNEELING)

  3. Setting up Uncertified Teachers to Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.; Frazier, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    A study of new teachers with science degrees but little or no training in education found that coaches who spent time in their classrooms provided the most effective support for new teachers. Science methods courses provided by a university also were very helpful for the new teacher. But academic mentors for science content and teacher mentors who…

  4. Calibration set up for load cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, T. V. Govinda; Venkatesh, C. S.; Shivashankar, N.

    1989-05-01

    The planning, designing, fabrication, and calibration of 30, 50, and 100 ton tension load cells and 30 ton shear load cells are described. The tension load cells are for monitoring the force developed by earth moving vehicles and the shear load cells are for monitoring the load that tipplers unload form platform to ground. The shear load cells were incorporated into a rotary wagon tippler.

  5. Setting up Conditions for Negotiation in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Bennett, William; Mendez, Claudia Aguirre; Hand, Brian

    2010-01-01

    When using an argument based inquiry approach like the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, argumentation between peers and with a teacher will provide great opportunities for students to experience negotiation of meaning in relation to science content. However, students do not automatically engage in dialogue and argumentation with…

  6. NSF Sets Up Regional Instrument Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains the aims behind the first six regional facilities that are being established at universities that already have strong state-of-the art programs in the areas of their grants. Gives a brief look at the facilities and what each has to offer. (GA)

  7. How to Set up a Computer Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Peter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This material is excerpted from the first book of the Addison-Wesley series on computers in education titled "Practical Guide to Computers in Education." Details on planning the physical setup, the question of access, providing the information needed, and establishing rules for computer use are presented as a guide. (MP)

  8. [Technological Set-up of Epiretinal Implants].

    PubMed

    Mokwa, W; Görtz, M

    2016-11-01

    In blinded patients, visual prostheses can restore visual perception by appropriate electrical stimulation of retinal nerve cells. This article presents the basic technological principles of retinal prostheses, using an epiretinal implantable visual prosthesis as example. An implantable visual prosthesis typically consists of extraocular and intraocular sections. The extraocular section is responsible for detecting the image. The information is derived from this image that is needed for appropriate electrical stimulation of the retinal nerve cells. Together with the necessary energy, these data are transmitted through a magnetic connection to the intraocular section. To ensure reliable transmission, the data are encoded. After transmission, energy and data are separated in the intraocular section, and the data are decoded. In accordance with the transmitted information, biphasic pulses of defined intensity and duration are produced on the simulation electrodes. In this way, ganglia cells are electrically stimulated and react with action potentials, which are transmitted to the visual cortex, where they lead to visual perception. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Calculator program set up for film coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Gracey, J.O.; Teter, D.L.

    1982-11-15

    Describes a mechanized computation scheme for the film coefficients used in heat transfer calculations designed for the Texas Instruments TI-59 programmable calculator. Presents tables showing application conditions (small diagram included) and the corresponding heat transfer equations for 10 heat flow situations; symbols used; user instructions, a complete film coefficient program; and storage assignments. Example problem and corresponding printout are given.

  10. Setting up a CFO Trust Fund

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the importance of a solid relationship with the head of finance is critical to success, both for the IT department and the institution as a whole. Never has this been truer than in today's bleak economy, as CFOs become increasingly cautious about initiatives that involve significant expense, yet information technology can help…

  11. Assessment of three-dimensional set-up errors using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) during image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) on helical tomotherapy (HT).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tejpal; Upasani, Maheshkumar; Master, Zubin; Patil, Anita; Phurailatpam, Reena; Nojin, Siji; Kannan, Sadhana; Godasastri, Jayant; Jalali, Rakesh

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess three-dimensional (3D) set-up errors using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) during image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for supine craniospinal irradiation (CSI) on helical tomotherapy (HT). Patients were immobilized in a customized 4-clamp thermoplastic head mask with or without whole-body vacuum cradle. Set-up was based primarily on a set of cranial fiducial markers. MVCT scans were acquired and co-registered with planning scan separately at three different levels (brain, upper, and lower spine) at every fraction. Only translational displacements were analysed, wherein positive sign denotes deviation in anterior, left, and superior direction; while negative sign denotes deviation in posterior, right, and inferior direction. Mean displacements, systematic, and random errors of the study population were calculated at all three levels separately. Local residual uncertainty of the upper and lower spine was also derived assuming perfect co-registration of the skull. Set-up margins for clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) were derived at these three levels separately using published margin recipes. Data from 1868 co-registrations in 674 fractions on 33 patients was included. The mean displacements in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions were -1.21, -1.36, and 1.38 mm; -1.25, -0.34, and 0.65 mm; and -1.47, -2.78, and 0.22 mm for the brain; upper spine; and lumbar spine respectively. The corresponding 3D vector of displacement was 2.28; 1.45; and 3.15 mm respectively. There was a distinct systematic trend towards increasing inaccuracy from the brain towards the lower spine. Using Stroom's formula, the minimum recommended CTV to PTV margins in absence of daily image-guidance were 6.5; 7.0; and 9.5 mm for the brain; upper spine; and lower spine respectively. This increased to 7.5; 8.5; and 11.5 mm using van Herk's formula. Subset and sensitivity analyses

  12. Further considerations for the setting up of a low background whole-body counter for internal dosimetry at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Carlsbad, NM, USA: transmitted photon component.

    PubMed

    Pillalamarri, Ila; Jagam, P

    2015-04-01

    One of the further considerations in the present work, while setting up a low background whole-body counter (WBC) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to reduce the background in the energy region of interest <100 keV. The goal of the present work is to determine the adequacy of a chamber located underground at WIPP of dimensions 1.83 m × 1.22 m at the base, 1.83 m high, with 15 cm thick pre-world-war II steel shielding. The objective of the present work is to estimate the transmitted photon flux into this chamber for setting up the low background WBC. The transmitted photon flux is simulated with the GEANT code for an incident photon flux consisting only of 1461 keV photons. The results are discussed with respect to a detector of choice for detecting <50 mBq emitting photons in the energy region <100 keV.

  13. Multi-scenario based robust intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans can account for set-up errors more effectively in terms of normal tissue sparing than planning target volume (PTV) based intensity-modulated photon plans in the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Stuschke, Martin; Kaiser, Andreas; Abu Jawad, Jehad; Pöttgen, Christoph; Levegrün, Sabine; Farr, Jonathan

    2013-06-18

    In a previous report, we compared the conformity of robust intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans with that of helical tomotherapy plans for re-irradiations of head and neck carcinomas using a fixed set-up error of 2 mm. Here, we varied the maximum set-up errors between 0 and 5 mm and compared the robust IMPT-plans with planning target volume (PTV) based intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMRT). Seven patients were treated with a PTV-based tomotherapy plan. Set-up margins of 0, 2, and 5 mm were subtracted from the PTV to generate target volumes (TV) TV(0mm), TV(2mm), and TV(5mm), for which robust IMPT-plans were created assuming range uncertainties of ±3.5% and using worst case optimization assuming set-up errors of 0, 2, and 5 mm, respectively. Robust optimization makes use of the feature that set-up errors in beam direction alone do not affect the distal and proximal margin for that beam. With increasing set-up errors, the body volumes that were exposed to a selected minimum dose level between 20% and 95% of the prescribed dose decreased. In IMPT-plans with 0 mm set-up error, the exposed body volumes were on average 6.2% ± 0.9% larger than for IMPT-plans with 2 mm set-up error, independent of the considered dose level (p < 0.0001, F-test). In IMPT-plans accounting for 5 mm set-up error, the exposed body volumes were by 11.9% ± 0.8% smaller than for IMPT-plans with 2 mm set-up error at a fixed minimum dose (p < 0.0001, F-test). This set-up error dependence of the normal tissue exposure around the TV in robust IMPT-plans corresponding to the same IMRT-plan led to a decrease in the mean dose to the temporal lobes and the cerebellum, and in the D2% of the brain stem or spinal cord with increasing set-up errors considered during robust IMPT-planning. For recurrent head and neck cancer, robust IMPT-plan optimization led to a decrease in normal tissue exposure with increasing set-up error for target volumes corresponding to the same PTV.

  14. Generation of mesoscale eddies and squirts in the southeast Baltic Sea: modelling and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurbas, V.; Stipa, T.; Mälkki, P.; Paka, V.; Golenko, N.; Hense, I.

    2003-04-01

    Closely spaced CTD measurements performed in the southeast Baltic Sea during summertime reveal localized simultaneous deepenings of the seasonal thermocline and swellings of the permanent halocline which result in localized convergences of isopycnals towards the intermediate layer. In view of geostrophic balance, such mesoscale baroclinic disturbances can be interpreted as the cyclonic eddies within the intermediate layer. They were observed in the Bornholm Deep, the Stolpe Channel ,the Gulf of Gdansk, and the southern part of East Gotland Basin. In the case of the Stolpe Channel, the cyclones were satisfactory reproduced in numerical experiments with a sigma-coordinate, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) in which horizontal grid sell size was as small as 0.5 km. The diameter of modelled cyclones (approx. 15 km) fits well that of the observations. The cyclones are shown to be generated during the adjustment of the high potential vorticity (PV) outflow (in this particular case from the Bornholm basin via the Stolpe Sill) to low vorticity environment by vortex stretching (so-called the PV outflow hypothesis by Spall and Price (1998)). In addition to the cyclones in the Stolpe Channel, numerical experiments with easterly wind yield exiting possibility to watch squirts and mesoscale eddies, both cyclones and anticyclones, generated in the upper layer due to the instability of the upwelling front off the southern coast of the sea.

  15. Community and connectivity: summary of a community based monitoring program set up to assess the movement of nutrients and sediments into the Great Barrier Reef during high flow events.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M; Waterhouse, J; Brodie, J

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) system encompasses the largest system of corals and related life forms anywhere in the world. The health of this extensive system, particularly the inshore area, is dependent on the relationship between the GBR and adjacent coastal catchments. The major impact of agricultural practices on the GBR is the degradation of water quality in receiving (rivers) waters, caused by increased inputs of nutrients, suspended sediments and other pollutants. For the past three years, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) has been involved with the co-ordination of a river-monitoring program, specifically targeting the sampling of rivers during flood events. Representative sites were set up along two North Queensland rivers, the Russell-Mulgrave and Barron Rivers. This monitoring program is run in conjunction with the Queensland Department of Natural Resources' Waterwatch program. The program involves intensive sampling of first flush, extreme flow and post flood conditions over the two rivers. Extreme flow conditions are sampled over a limited time span (48 hours) with trained volunteers at 4-hour intervals. Concentrations measured in the flood events are dependent on land use characteristic, and extent of flow. Concentrations of dissolved and particulate nutrients are higher if the extreme flow event is part of the first flush cycle. Concentrations of DIN and DIP measured before, during and after a major flood event suggest that there is a large storage of inorganic material within the Barron and Russell-Mulgrave agricultural subcatchments that move over a period of days, and perhaps weeks. This program created a forum in which GBRMPA liased with the Barron and Russell-Mulgrave community about the connectivity existing between the river and the Great Barrier Reef lagoon.

  16. A new set-up for simultaneous high-precision measurements of CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 on small ice core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenk, Theo Manuel; Rubino, Mauro; Etheridge, David; Ciobanu, Viorela Gabriela; Blunier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Palaeoatmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods. Additional analytical resources with high analytical precision and throughput are thus desirable to extend the existing datasets. Moreover, consistent measurements derived by independent laboratories and a variety of analytical systems help to further increase confidence in the global CO2 palaeo-reconstructions. Here, we describe our new set-up for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and atmospheric δ13C and δ18O-CO2 in air extracted from ice core samples. The centrepiece of the system is a newly designed needle cracker for the mechanical release of air entrapped in ice core samples of 8-13 g operated at -45 °C. The small sample size allows for high resolution and replicate sampling schemes. In our method, CO2 is cryogenically and chromatographically separated from the bulk air and its isotopic composition subsequently determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In combination with thermal conductivity measurement of the bulk air, the CO2 mixing ratio is calculated. The analytical precision determined from standard air sample measurements over ice is ±1.9 ppm for CO2 and ±0.09 ‰ for δ13C. In a laboratory intercomparison study with CSIRO (Aspendale, Australia), good agreement between CO2 and δ13C results is found for Law Dome ice core samples. Replicate analysis of these samples resulted in a pooled standard deviation of 2.0 ppm for CO2 and 0.11 ‰ for δ13C. These numbers are good, though they are rather conservative estimates of the overall analytical precision achieved for single ice sample measurements. Facilitated by the small sample requirement

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, an actuator is set up on a table for a 3D digital scan. There are two actuators per engine on the Shuttle, one for pitch motion and one for yaw motion. The Space Shuttle Main Engine hydraulic servoactuators are used to gimbal the main engine.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-03

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, an actuator is set up on a table for a 3D digital scan. There are two actuators per engine on the Shuttle, one for pitch motion and one for yaw motion. The Space Shuttle Main Engine hydraulic servoactuators are used to gimbal the main engine.

  18. Developing an in situ environmental TEM set up for investigations of resistive switching mechanisms in Pt-Pr1-xCaxMnO3-δ-Pt sandwich structures.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Thilo; Mierwaldt, Daniel; Scherff, Malte; Kanbach, Mike; Jooss, Christian

    2017-08-23

    Non-volatile resistance change under electric stimulation in many metal-oxides is a promising path to next generation memory devices. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. In situ transmission electron microscopy experiments provide a powerful tool to elucidate these mechanisms. In this contribution, we demonstrate a TEM lamella geometry for in situ biasing with two fixed electrode contacts ensuring low and stable contact resistances. We use Pr1-xCaxMnO3-δ sandwiched by Pt electrodes as model system. The evolution of manganese valence state during electric stimulation in different environments is mapped by means of electron energy loss spectroscopy with high spatial resolution in STEM. Correlation of Mn valence with local oxygen content is found. In addition to electrically driven switching, beam-induced redox reactions in oxygen environment are observed. This effect might be restricted to thin lamellae. In general, our results support that bulk oxygen electromigration is the relevant mechanism for non-volatile resistive switching in PCMO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. It's COWANBUNGA Time: Setting up Shop in a Foreign Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Ruth B.; Chung, Ed

    2008-01-01

    What happens to business negotiations when culture gets in the way? Participants are about to find out. This game is an international negotiation simulation for the classroom. Participants learn, through role-playing and observation, how cross-cultural differences complicate international business negotiations. Students are formed into pairs of…

  20. Considerations for setting up a small-animal imaging facility.

    PubMed

    Klaunberg, Brenda A; Lizak, Martin J

    2004-03-01

    Imaging techniques allow for the conduct of noninvasive, in vivo longitudinal small-animal studies, but also require access to expensive and complex equipment, and personnel who are properly trained in their use. The authors describe their planning and staffing of the NIH Mouse Imaging Facility, and highlight important issues to consider when designing a similar facility.

  1. SETTING UP A LABORATORY AB INITIO IN A REMOTE LOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, OH has operated a pilot plant approximately 5 kilometers from its main research facility. Originally, this Tet and Evaluation (T&E) facility was sited to be adjacent to the City of Cincinnati's...

  2. Biological clocks: who in this place set up a sundial?

    PubMed

    Foster, Russell G

    2012-05-22

    How do circadian rhythms, alarm clocks and the light/dark cycle interact? The concept of social jetlag is informing our appreciation of the tensions and consequences of imposing an artificial temporal order upon our biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Setting Up of a Resources Centre. 3: Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Adam H., Ed.

    Assembled to aid educators and administrators in Scotland in selecting and applying appropriate information retrieval systems in learning resources centers, this collection contains an introductory essay and four articles on the characteristics and features of some basic information retrieval systems. The articles include (1) a discussion of the…

  4. The complicated business of setting up residential alternatives.

    PubMed

    Zanditon, M; Hellman, S

    1981-05-01

    To meet the housing needs of deinstitutionalized clients characterized by low incomes, isolation from their families, and inability to function independently, the Massachusetts Mental Health Center has developed a range of community residential settings. Among them are the independent living apartment program, partly supported by section 8 rent subsidies from the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and group homes for 12 to 18 clients. Factors that have contributed to the success of the program include diligent cultivation of relationships with housing developers, innovative support from the staff of the state housing and finance agency, clear delineation of rights and responsibilities of tenants and owners, and the center's system of backup services for clients. The center is currently developing additional housing under HUD's section 202 demonstration program for housing of the handicapped through rehabilitation of existing buildings.

  5. Physicist sets up pioneering science park in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Anita Goel has certainly mastered the art of multitasking. She earned a PhD in biophysics from Harvard University in 2002 while at the same time training as a medical doctor there. She also founded and chairs two medicalresearch companies - Nanobiosym and Nanobiosym Diagnostics. And now the 34-year-old American has created the first nanobiotechnology park in India, the country from which her parents emigrated in 1970.

  6. SETTING UP FARM RECORDS TO PROVIDE FOR ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON FARM RECORD ANALYSIS FOR USE IN HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO PROVIDE TEXTUAL MATERIAL FOR STUDENTS ON THE PURPOSES OF RECORDS, ANALYSIS MEASURES, INVENTORIES, DEPRECIATION SCHEDULES, FINANCIAL TRANSACTION…

  7. Prerequisites for Setting Up Management System in Municipal Retail Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suraeva, Maria O.; Grigoryants, Igor A.; Karpova, Galina A.; Khoreva, Lyubov V.; Schreyer, Alexander V.; Sirotkin, Victor A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem Urban district, management, trade, sales network is determined by the number of complex problems that exist in present Samara municipal retail trade system, which is manifested in the lack of regulation, a glut of sales area, and poorly developed infrastructure. The purpose of this article is to form a…

  8. PARP1 orchestrates epigenetic events setting up chromatin domains.

    PubMed

    Ciccarone, Fabio; Zampieri, Michele; Caiafa, Paola

    2017-03-01

    Epigenetic events include reversible modifications of DNA and histone tails driving chromatin organization and thus transcription. The epigenetic regulation is a highly integrated process underlying the plasticity of the genomic information both in the context of complex physiological and pathological processes. The global regulatory aspects of epigenetic events are largely unknown. PARylation and PARP1 are recently emerging as multi-level regulatory effectors that modulate the topology of chromatin by orchestrating very different processes. This review focuses in particular on the role of PARP1 in epigenetics, trying to build a comprehensive perspective of its involvement in the regulation of epigenetic modifications of histones and DNA, contextualizing it in the global organization of chromatin domains in the nucleus.

  9. Infantile hemiplegia in pediatric dental set-up

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Ghousia; Benni, Deepa; Naik, Saraswathi V; Surendra, Poornima

    2012-01-01

    Infantile hemiplegia refers to brain injuries that occur before or at birth and lead to hemiplegia/ total paralysis of one side of the body, including the face, arm and leg. The main purpose of this article is to provide valuable information to pediatric dentists about the review and treatment alternatives for patients with infantile hemiplegia. This article reports the case of a 12-year-old girl with a hemiplegia of left side of the body suffering with tooth ache and gum inflammation. The treatment performed was rehabilitation with oral prophylaxis and extractions of root stumps followed by thorough preventive regimen with periodic check-ups. PMID:23559936

  10. The Setting Up of a Resources Centre. 3: Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Adam H., Ed.

    Assembled to aid educators and administrators in Scotland in selecting and applying appropriate information retrieval systems in learning resources centers, this collection contains an introductory essay and four articles on the characteristics and features of some basic information retrieval systems. The articles include (1) a discussion of the…

  11. Setting Up Participatory Research: A Discussion of the Initial Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Anne; McMillan, Jane; Cummins, Lorraine; Thompson, Agnes; Forsyth, Watson; McLellan, James; Snot, Linda; Fraser, Anne; Fraser, Mary; Fulton, Charity; McGrindel, Elizabeth; Gillies, Lorraine; LeFort, Shelley; Miller, Gail; Whitehall, John; Wilson, John; Smith, Janet; Wright, David

    2003-01-01

    A participatory research project was designed to teach eight British adults with learning disabilities about keeping healthy. The development of the project, the recruitment of the participants, and the involvement of the participants in the project are discussed, along with the role of researchers and support workers in participatory research.…

  12. How to set up and use a Twitter account professionally.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, Meriel; Jones, Ray

    2016-11-02

    Rationale and key points This article encourages nurses to use Twitter to engage in professional discussions, share information and raise awareness of alternative views to enhance practice and patient care. Twitter is an online social media service that enables users to send and read 140-character messages called tweets. » Twitter is free and accessible across multiple platforms and devices, providing immediate contact with professionals, organisations and the public worldwide. » Many healthcare professionals use Twitter to share ideas and information. » Responsible use of Twitter creates opportunities to access information, discuss issues and challenge misconceptions to support professional nursing behaviours. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you could develop your use of Twitter for professional learning and interaction with healthcare professionals and others. 2. How you could support a colleague to use Twitter for the first time.

  13. Setting Up a Preventive Maintenance Program: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Michael J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines how a good preventive maintenance program can be scheduled and followed up to insure that the inspections have been performed. Both manually operated and computerized preventive maintenance programs are discussed. (MLF)

  14. Alternative approaches to setting up donor cows for superstimulation.

    PubMed

    Bó, G A; Guerrero, D C; Adams, G P

    2008-01-01

    Protocols that controlled follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, as they permitted the initiation of superstimulatory treatments at a self-appointed time. However, the most commonly used approach for synchronization of follicular wave emergence involved estradiol, which cannot be used in many countries. Therefore, alternative treatments are required. Mechanical removal of the dominant follicle by ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration was effective, but required the use of specialized equipment and trained technical staff, which made it difficult to utilize in the field. Exogenous GnRH or pLH have also been used to induce ovulation of a dominant follicle, synchronizing follicular wave emergence, but their efficacy was dependent on the stage of the dominant follicle at treatment; thus, the emergence of the ensuing follicular wave may be too variable for superstimulation. An alternative approach could be initiating treatments at the time of emergence of the first follicular wave, but the need to synchronize ovulation may be a disadvantage in groups of donors at random stages of the estrous cycle. The final alternative may be to use FSH or eCG to initiate a new wave, without regard to the presence of a dominant follicle, followed by superstimulatory treatment at a predetermined time. All alternatives need to be thoroughly investigated in order to confirm their utility in the superstimulation of donor cows, regardless of the stage of the estrous cycle and without compromising ova/embryo production.

  15. Setting up microbiological water reuse guidelines for the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Bahri, A; Brissaud, F

    2004-01-01

    Water reuse is a widespread practice in most Mediterranean countries. Some countries have no wastewater treatment facilities and direct reuse of raw wastewater is occurring while others have a well-established national reuse policy. Water reuse microbiological standards, when existing, significantly differ from one country to another. Some countries have adopted regulations close to the California's Water Recycling Criteria whereas other countries have chosen criteria based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines. California standards are technologically based requirements aimed at eliminating the presence of pathogens. The WHO guidelines relied on epidemiological evidences though few were available. Their revision on the basis of new epidemiological investigations and quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) provided by Blumenthal et al., together with added QMRA data, helped proposing Mediterranean guidelines. Acceptable annual risks related to bathing and potable water drinking were taken as benchmarks. This proposal is designed to protect individuals against realistic maximum exposures and to provide minimum and affordable requirements which should constitute the basis of water reuse regulations in every country of the region. Inadequacies of the actual knowledge do not allow a definitive position regarding the guideline limits; other scientific and technical basis are still required.

  16. Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2009-01-01

    Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)--what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the…

  17. Setting Up Computer Workstations in Classrooms and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Explains the benefits of computer workstations in schools and describes various components, including projection tools such as LCD (liquid crystal display) projectors, printers, Internet connections, tape drives, digitizers, scanners, laserdisc players, and CD-i (interactive) players. (LRW)

  18. Setting up annual OSHA training--bloodborne pathogen standard.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Judith A

    2006-11-28

    While monitoring actual performance will always be of paramount importance, laboratory managers must also be vigilant about protecting their employees. In Part One of this two-part series discussing OSHA training procedures, columnist Judith O'Brien examines the necessary precautions related to bloodborne pathogens.

  19. Setting up the Interactive Educational Process in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponomariova, Olga Nikolaevna; Vasin?, Olga Nikolaevna

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the opportunities in the interactive teaching in higher education. The study presents the methodological approach of understanding the notions of "teaching technology" and "interactive teaching methods". The originality of the study consists in the authors' definition of the situation in "the…

  20. Challenges in Setting up Cross-Institutional Virtual Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Approved in 1999 by the Swiss Parliament, the Swiss Virtual Campus (SVC) project debuted in 2000 with the goal of promoting an information society in Switzerland. The University of Geneva has been actively involved with building the SVC and the European virtual campus e-LERU, a two-year project in which eight European countries partnered to…

  1. Setting up a Free School: Successful Proposers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Craven, Barrie; Tooley, James

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 Academies Act was significant in introducing Free Schools to the English education system. Opening up funding to new, non-profit entrants on the basis of demand, the policy has aroused support and controversy on political, philosophical and practical educational grounds with implications for social justice in terms of equity and freedom.…

  2. Setting Up a Public Use Local Area Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flower, Eric; Thulstrup, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    Describes a public use microcomputer cluster at the University of Maine, Orono. Various network topologies, hardware and software options, installation problems, system management, and performance are discussed. (MES)

  3. High accuracy length measuring set up for optical encoder calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, Iuliana; Iancu, O.; Schiopu, P.; Apostol, D.

    2009-01-01

    Regarding nano-sciences and nano-technologies there is a permanent confusion between resolution and accuracy. Many sophisticated devices (APM, AFM, SNOM, confocal microscopes) characterized by their resolution, are used to observe at the nano-scale but they are far from being metrological devices, i.e. they do not measure. A metrological instrument must be traceable to the internationally accepted unit: meter in our case. We present an optical setup able to measure in micrometer range with nanometer resolution and ten nanometers accuracy. Its utility for MEMS geometrical parameter is obvious. The setup is working on a passive vibration-isolated table and contains a SIOS laser interferometer which assures the traceability of the measurement, a high resolution translation table, and a long working distance microscope. Few hundred measurements were done to a linear grating to measure the micrometric range pitch with nanometer accuracy. A 2 10-4 relative error was obtained.

  4. It's COWANBUNGA Time: Setting up Shop in a Foreign Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Ruth B.; Chung, Ed

    2008-01-01

    What happens to business negotiations when culture gets in the way? Participants are about to find out. This game is an international negotiation simulation for the classroom. Participants learn, through role-playing and observation, how cross-cultural differences complicate international business negotiations. Students are formed into pairs of…

  5. Setting up a Free School: Successful Proposers' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Craven, Barrie; Tooley, James

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 Academies Act was significant in introducing Free Schools to the English education system. Opening up funding to new, non-profit entrants on the basis of demand, the policy has aroused support and controversy on political, philosophical and practical educational grounds with implications for social justice in terms of equity and freedom.…

  6. SETTING UP A LABORATORY AB INITIO IN A REMOTE LOCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many years the USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, OH has operated a pilot plant approximately 5 kilometers from its main research facility. Originally, this Tet and Evaluation (T&E) facility was sited to be adjacent to the City of Cincinnati's...

  7. Setting-up tension in the style of Marantaceae.

    PubMed

    Pischtschan, E; Classen-Bockhoff, R

    2008-07-01

    The Marantaceae stand out from other plant families through their unique style movement which is combined with a highly derived form of secondary pollen presentation. Although known for a long time, the mechanism underlying the movement is not yet understood. In this paper, we report an investigation into the biomechanical principles of this movement. For the first time we experimentally confirm that, in Maranta noctiflora, longitudinal growth of the maturing style within the 'straitjacket' of the hooded staminode involves both arresting of the style before tripping and building up of potential for the movement. The longer the style grows in relation to the enclosing hooded staminode, the more does its capacity for curling increase. We distinguish between the basic tension that a growing style builds up normally, even when the hooded staminode is removed beforehand, and the induced tension which comes about only under the pressure of a too short hooded staminode and which enables the movement. The results of our investigations are discussed in relation to previous interpretations, ranging from biomechanical to electrophysiological mechanisms.

  8. Classroom Management: Setting Up the Classroom for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Donna R.

    2009-01-01

    Student learning is directly related to classroom control established the first week of school (Wong and Wong 2001)--what you do the first day counts, and what you do the first 10 minutes counts even more. This article shares the advanced planning aspects of classroom management that should be in place before students enter the classroom for the…

  9. Setting-Up a Fireball Detection Station at UCM Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocana, F.; Zamorano, J.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Izquierdo, J.; Manjavacas, E.; Ramirez-Moreta, P.; Ponce, R.

    2011-01-01

    UCM Observatory is the urban teaching observatory of Universidad Complutense de Madrid. In 2010 a fully-equipped fireball detection station has been completed as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN). The station is quasi-automatic and covers the whole sky with 6 cameras during night and day with a plate scale of ~7 arcmin/pixel. We introduce here the Fireball Research Group, its facilities and some results of our first 2 years of activity.

  10. Setting up an emergency stock for metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llamazares, C M; Serrano, M L; Manrique-Rodríguez, S; Sanjurjo-Sáez, M

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) is complicated. The drugs involved are classified as orphan, and their supply depends on whether they are orphan medicines, investigational drugs, or need to be prepared as a compounded formula. We analyzed emergency criteria, availability, and permanent location of metabolic drugs within the hospital. Information on therapeutic usage, administration, and dosage was also recorded. A stock for treating IEMs should include chelating agents, drugs to treat deficiencies, enzyme supplements, and other specific treatments. Hyperammonemia was considered to be life-threatening; therefore, an emergency supply of drugs to treat this condition should be kept permanently in the hospitalization unit. Emergency drug stocks are highly recommended in tertiary hospitals in order to improve care for patients susceptible to IEM.

  11. Modeling Steady-State Groundwater Flow Using Microcomputer Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousey, John Russell, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how microcomputer spreadsheets are easily adapted for use in groundwater modeling. Presents spreadsheet set-ups and the results of five groundwater models. Suggests that this approach can provide a basis for demonstrations, laboratory exercises, and student projects. (ML)

  12. Modeling Steady-State Groundwater Flow Using Microcomputer Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousey, John Russell, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how microcomputer spreadsheets are easily adapted for use in groundwater modeling. Presents spreadsheet set-ups and the results of five groundwater models. Suggests that this approach can provide a basis for demonstrations, laboratory exercises, and student projects. (ML)

  13. Random Models in the Classroom 1: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkirk, Keith

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model of a soccer-league competition results is set up and investigated using simple randomization techniques. The hypothesis that winning the league championship was purely luck was statistically tested. (JP)

  14. Take the Reins on Model Quality with ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey

    2012-01-01

    Model quality and consistency has been an issue for us due to the diverse experience level and imaginative modeling techniques of our users. Fortunately, setting up ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper to enforce our best practices has helped greatly, but it wasn't easy. There were many challenges associated with setting up ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper including: limited documentation, restrictions within ModelCHECK, and resistance from end users. However, we consider ours a success story. In this presentation we will describe how we overcame these obstacles and present some of the details of how we configured them to work for us.

  15. Another Route to a General Theory of Cultural Transmission: A Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbert, Marion L.

    1975-01-01

    A cultural transmission theory is presented. The model has two uses: to provide a guide for gathering cultural transmission data; and to set up a computerized cultural transmission simulation. Availability information is given in SO 504 073. (Author/RM)

  16. Advanced flight design systems subsystem performance models. Sample model: Environmental analysis routine library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. C.; Torian, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A sample environmental control and life support model performance analysis using the environmental analysis routines library is presented. An example of a complete model set up and execution is provided. The particular model was synthesized to utilize all of the component performance routines and most of the program options.

  17. Microtron Modelling and Control

    SciTech Connect

    Krist, Pavel; Bila, Jiri

    2010-01-05

    The article describes the design of the mathematical model and automatic control system of the microtron (high frequency cyclic electron accelerator). This type of accelerator was controlled manually till now. The critical values have been set up empirically on the basis of the previous operational experiences. The designed automatic control system with fuzzy controller should increase the accelerated electrons current value and improve the beam stability.

  18. Graph Coloring Used to Model Traffic Lights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John

    1992-01-01

    Two scheduling problems, one involving setting up an examination schedule and the other describing traffic light problems, are modeled as colorings of graphs consisting of a set of vertices and edges. The chromatic number, the least number of colors necessary for coloring a graph, is employed in the solutions. (MDH)

  19. Using Multilevel Modeling in Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual and practical overview of multilevel modeling (MLM) for researchers in counseling and development provides guidelines on setting up SPSS to perform MLM and an example of how to present the findings. It also provides a discussion on how counseling and developmental researchers can use MLM to address their own research questions.…

  20. Institutionalizing Innovation in an Organization: A Model and Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawski, Carl

    A policy systems theoretical analysis of the problem of institutionalizing innovation in an organization is summarized in a flow diagram. The model is presented in terms of specific hypotheses, and then illustrated with a case of frustrated innovation, the 1968-69 crisis and strike at San Francisco State College. The model is set up (1) to help…

  1. Contracting Janitorial Services. A Training and Production Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christopher A.

    This book provides a model to help facilities for training handicapped persons to teach janitorial work and set up a contracting program for janitorial services. The book is organized in three sections. The first section outlines the training production model, including hints on beginning the venture, separation of training and contracting…

  2. Experimental models of anxiety. Problems and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griez, E

    1984-01-01

    In a brief review of the field of experimental psychopathology, the author observes that few adequate laboratory models of anxiety have been produced. Criteria to set up valid anxiety models are discussed. The carbon dioxide inhalation technique, an anxiomimetic intervention, is then proposed as a new human panic attack model and compared to the existing lactate infusion method. Both appear as promising agents in the experimental study of panic anxiety.

  3. Numerical modelling of the buoyant marine microplastics in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagaev, Andrei; Mizyuk, Artem; Chubarenko, Irina; Khatmullilna, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Microplastics is a burning issue in the marine pollution science. Its sources, ways of propagation and final destiny pose a lot of questions to the modern oceanographers. Hence, a numerical model is an optimal tool for reconstruction of microplastics pathways and fate. Within the MARBLE project (lamp.ocean.ru), a model of Lagrangian particles transport was developed. It was tested coupled with oceanographic transport fields from the operational oceanography product of Copernicus Marine Monitoring Environment Service. Our model deals with two major types of microplastics such as microfibres and buoyant spheroidal particles. We are currently working to increase the grid resolution by means of the NEMO regional configuration for the south-eastern Baltic Sea. Several expeditions were organised to the three regions of the Baltic Sea (the Gotland, the Bornholm, and the Gdansk basins). Water samples from the surface and different water layers were collected, processed, and analysed by our team. A set of laboratory experiments was specifically designed to establish the settling velocity of particles of various shapes and densities. The analysis in question provided us with the understanding necessary for the model to reproduce the large-scale dynamics of microfibres. In the simulation, particles were spreading from the shore to the deep sea, slowly sinking to the bottom, while decreasing in quantity due to conditional sedimentation. Our model is expected to map out the microplastics life cycle and to account for its distribution patterns under the impact of wind and currents. For this purpose, we have already included the parameterization for the wind drag force applied to a particle. Initial results of numerical experiments seem to indicate the importance of proper implicit parameterization of the particle dynamics at the vertical solid boundary. Our suggested solutions to that problem will be presented at the EGU-2017. The MARBLE project is supported by Russian Science

  4. DIADDHEM set-up: New IBA facility for studying the helium behavior in nuclear glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamssedine, F.; Sauvage, T.; Peuget, S.

    2010-06-01

    The immobilization of fission products and minor actinides by vitrification is the reference process for industrial management of high-level radioactive wastes generated from spent fuel reprocessing. The glassy matrix is subjected to radiation damage and radiogenic helium generation due to the alpha decays of minor actinides. A specific experimental study has been conducted to better understand the behavior of helium and its diffusion mechanisms in the borosilicate glass. Helium production is simulated by external irradiation with 3He + ions at a concentration (2 × 10 15 He cm -2) equivalent to the one obtained after 1000 years of glass storage. He diffusion coefficients as function of temperature are extracted from the evolution of the depth profiles after annealing. The 3He(d, α) 1H Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) technique is successfully used for in situ low-temperature measurements of depth profiles. Its high depth resolution allows detecting helium mobility at a temperature as low as 250 K and the presence of a trapped helium fraction. The good agreement of our first values of diffusion coefficients with the literature data highlights the relevance of the implantation technique in the study of helium diffusion mechanisms in borosilicate glasses.

  5. Setting up a Rayleigh Scattering Based Flow Measuring System in a Large Nozzle Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Gomez, Carlos R.

    2002-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh scattering based air density measurement system has been built in a large nozzle testing facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The technique depends on the light scattering by gas molecules present in air; no artificial seeding is required. Light from a single mode, continuous wave laser was transmitted to the nozzle facility by optical fiber, and light scattered by gas molecules, at various points along the laser beam, is collected and measured by photon-counting electronics. By placing the laser beam and collection optics on synchronized traversing units, the point measurement technique is made effective for surveying density variation over a cross-section of the nozzle plume. Various difficulties associated with dust particles, stray light, high noise level and vibration are discussed. Finally, a limited amount of data from an underexpanded jet are presented and compared with expected variations to validate the technique.

  6. In vivo glenohumeral translation under anterior loading in an open-MRI set-up.

    PubMed

    Cereatti, Andrea; Calderone, Manuela; Buckland, Dan M; Buettner, Anne; Della Croce, Ugo; Rosso, Claudio

    2014-11-28

    The evaluation of the glenohumeral joint laxity requires the estimate of displacements of the humeral head centre (HHC) with respect to the glenoid. To the authors׳ knowledge, several studies have been conducted to estimate HHC translations in vivo but data under anterior loading conditions has not been collected yet. Aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive experimental methodology based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the in vivo evaluation of the HHC translations due to an anteriorly directed force. Fourteen asymptomatic shoulders were acquired using a horizontal open MR scanner with the subjects in the supine position both at 15° and 90° of arm abduction with and without an anterior force of 20N applied at the HHC level. When no load was applied, from 15° to 90° of arm abduction, the HHC moved, anteriorly (1.5±1.3mm) and superiorly (1.8±1.3mm) while smaller displacements were observed medio-laterally (0.4±0.7mm). Under the application of the anterior force the 3D displacement of the HHC with respect to the glenoid was 1.6±1.2mm and 1.3 ±0.7mm, respectively at 15° and 90° of arm abduction. The level of precision associated to the GHJ translation was less than 0.33mm along all directions i.e. one order of magnitude smaller than the relevant translations. In conclusion, the MRI-based methodology allowed for the analysis of HHC displacements under conditions of anterior loads within an acceptable level of reliability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent developments in the setting up of the Malta Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2015-04-01

    Weak to moderate earthquakes in the Sicily Channel have until now been either poorly located or left undetected. The number of seismic stations operated by various networks: Italy (INGV), Tunisia (TT), and Libya (LNSN) have now improved considerably, however most of the seismicity occurs offshore, in the central part of the Channel, away from the mainland stations. Seismic data availability from island stations across the Channel has been limited or had intermittent transmission hindering proper real-time earthquake monitoring and hypocentre relocation. In order to strengthen the seismic monitoring of the Sicily Channel, in particular the central parts of the Channel, the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU), University of Malta, has, in the last year, been installing a permanent seismic network across the Maltese archipelago: the Malta Seismic Network (ML). Furthermore the SMRU has upgraded its IT facilities to run a virtual regional seismic network composed of the stations on Pantelleria and Lampedusa, together with all the currently publicly available stations in the region. Selected distant seismic stations found elsewhere in the Mediterranean and across the globe have also been incorporated in the system in order to enhance the overall performance of the monitoring and to detect potentially damaging regional earthquakes. Data acquisition and processing of the seismic networks are run by SeisComP. The new installations are part of the project SIMIT (B1-2.19/11) funded by the Italia-Malta Operational Programme 2007-2013. The new system allows the SMRU to rapidly perform more accurate hypocentre locations in the region, and issue automatic SMS alert for potentially felt events in the Sicily Channel detected by the network and for strong earthquakes elsewhere. Within the SIMIT project, the alert system will include civil protection departments in Malta and Sicily. We present the recent developments of the real and virtual seismic network, and discuss the performance of each of the new stations, the general operation of the SMRU, and the alert system. New web features soon available on the SMRU website will be presented.

  8. Setting Up CD-ROM Work Areas. Part I: Ergonomic Considerations, User Furniture, Location.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasi, John; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    1992-01-01

    The first of a two-part series on design of CD-ROM work areas in libraries discusses (1) space and location considerations; (2) ergonomics, including work surface, chairs, lighting, printers, other accessories, and security; and (3) other considerations, including staff assistance, reference tools, literature racks, and promotional materials. (MES)

  9. Video-Out Projection and Lecture Hall Set-Up. Microcomputing Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris

    This paper details the considerations involved in determining suitable video projection systems for displaying the Apple Macintosh's screen to large groups of people, both in classrooms with approximately 25 people, and in lecture halls with approximately 250. To project the Mac screen to groups in lecture halls, the Electrohome EDP-57 video…

  10. Setting up a new evidence-based hospice-at-home service in England.

    PubMed

    Butler, Claire; Holdsworth, Laura

    2013-07-01

    A hospice service in south east England determined to develop a new hospice-at-home service to enable greater patient choice and facilitate patients dying at home, which is often a patient's preferred place. As a first step, a literature review was commissioned to establish the evidence base to inform the design of the new service. A range of research had been reported on hospice-at-home services, but the service configurations evaluated in these studies and the context in which they operated had not been described in detail. This paper briefly summarises the results of the literature review and then describes the new service that was established, including the setting and context. Experiences with the service in terms of activity, acceptability, and problems are described. The aim is to assist providers and commissioners seeking to establish or develop similar services and to help them predict the likely impact of such services.

  11. Tenure Track Athletic Training Educators: Are They Being Set Up to Fail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, Lori; Walsh, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Issues faced by tenure track AT education faculty are addressed and suggestions for those who are considering appointments as AT faculty are given. Literature and research from other allied health professions are provided as insights to AT faculty. We also suggest future research ideas related to AT educators. Finally, we consider future…

  12. Setting up an Asbestos Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Covers steps a buidling's O&M plan should including: appointing an asbestos program manager, inspecting the building, developing a plan, and if necessary selecting and implementing larger repair or abatement projects.

  13. State of the art: how to set up a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sue; Hill, Kylie; Cecins, Nola M

    2010-11-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an essential role in the management of symptomatic patients with COPD. The benefits of rehabilitation include a decrease in dyspnoea and fatigue, and improvements in exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life. Importantly, rehabilitation reduces hospitalization for acute exacerbations and is cost-effective. Although most of the evidence for pulmonary rehabilitation has been obtained in patients with COPD, symptomatic individuals with other respiratory diseases have been shown to benefit. In this review we outline a stepwise approach to establish, deliver and evaluate a pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP) that would be feasible in most settings. Throughout the review we have specified the minimum requirements for a PRP to facilitate the establishment of programs using limited resources. Recommendations for staffing and other resources required for a PRP are presented in the first section. Exercise training is a focus of the section on program delivery as this is the component of rehabilitation that has the strongest level of evidence for benefit. Program considerations for patients with respiratory conditions other than COPD are described. Different approaches for delivering the education component of a PRP are outlined and recommendations are made regarding topics for group and individual sessions. The problems commonly encountered in pulmonary rehabilitation, together with recommendations to avoid these problems and strategies to assist in their resolution, are discussed. The review concludes with recommendations for evaluating a PRP. © 2010 The Authors; Respirology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. Set Up and Test Results for a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Levashov, Michael Y.

    2010-12-01

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of a quadrupole. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing it. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). The following break up of error was suggested for the fiducialization steps: 10{micro}m for step 1 (finding the center), 20{micro}m for step 2 (finding the wire), and 10{micro}m for step 3 (tooling ball measurements). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the vibrating wire system meets the requirements for LCLS. In particular, if it can reliably fiducialize a quadrupole magnetic center to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. The behavior of individual system components is compared to the expected performance. A vibrating wire system was constructed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note studies the ability of the system to fulfill the fiducialization requirements.

  15. Set Up and Test Results for a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-29

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of a quadrupole. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing it. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). The following break up of error was suggested for the fiducialization steps: 10{micro}m for step 1 (finding the center), 20{micro}m for step 2 (finding the wire), and 10{micro}m for step 3 (tooling ball measurements). The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the vibrating wire system meets the requirements for LCLS. In particular, if it can reliably fiducialize a quadrupole magnetic center to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. The behavior of individual system components is compared to the expected performance. A vibrating wire system was constructed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note studies the ability of the system to fulfill the fiducialization requirements.

  16. Using Video Streaming: Setting Up a Cheap System for Distributing Information to Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeal, Thomas, Jr.; Kearns, Landon

    2005-01-01

    Video streaming can be a very useful tool for educators. It is now possible for a school?s technical specialist or classroom teacher to create a streaming server with tools that are available in many classrooms. In this article we describe how we created our video streamer using free software, older computers, and borrowed hardware. The system…

  17. Cooperation between Japanese and Cambodian Dietitians in Setting up a Hospital Diet Management System.

    PubMed

    Ly, Koung Ry; Saito, Shino; Kusama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia faces a considerably high percentage of the stunted under 5 (Unicef, 2014). Despite the National Nutrition Strategy Launched by the Ministry of Health in cooperation with development partners, nutrition improvement projects have not always been effective. It is generally said these issues are addressed in many other developing nations, and the literature largely documented that successful nutrition programmes are community-based programmes because of their sustainability and the intensive communications between health workers and beneficiaries. Learning from the past experiences, the Foundation for International Development/Relief organized a project team with a Cambodian dietitian and an experienced Japanese dietitian to implement a hospital diet programme for children from April 2006 to March 2014 in the National Pediatric Hospital (NPH) in Cambodia. The project has two objectives: establishing a hospital diet management system, and developing the capacity of NPH staff. Hospital food menus were created paying particular attention to Cambodian culture, eating habits and accessibility to the ingredients for the purpose of continuous supply. We have also put emphasis on the communication between dietitians and family members of the children to let them understand the importance of a nutritious diet. After 8 y of project implementation, the hospital diet management system was established providing 7 types of menu with nutritious diets. The final evaluation of the project showed that NPH staff have the intention to continue hospital food supply with their acquired knowledge and capacity. In practice, a Cambodian dietitian currently takes the initiative for a continuous nutritional diet in NPH. The key to this success is the collaboration between Japanese dietitians with experience and Cambodian dietitians with knowledge of Cambodian eating habits. Taking our experience into account, it is highly recommended to educate Cambodian dietitians, as they are extremely scarce, and to increase the awareness of health care staff towards the importance of nutrition management.

  18. Field Enhancement Properties of Nanotubes in a Field Emission Set-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adessi, Ch.; Devel, M.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mechanisms of emission of nanotubes. The field enhancement properties of carbon nanotubes, involved in the emission of electrons, is investigated theoretically for various single-wall (SWNT) and multi-wall nanotubes (MWNT). The presentation points out big differences between (n,0) and (n,n) nanotubes, and propose phenomenological laws for the variations of the enhancement factor with length and diameter

  19. HPC in a HEP lab: lessons learned from setting up cost-effective HPC clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husejko, Michal; Agtzidis, Ioannis; Baehler, Pierre; Dul, Tadeusz; Evans, John; Himyr, Nils; Meinhard, Helge

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present our findings gathered during the evaluation and testing of Windows Server High-Performance Computing (Windows HPC) in view of potentially using it as a production HPC system for engineering applications. The Windows HPC package, an extension of Microsofts Windows Server product, provides all essential interfaces, utilities and management functionality for creating, operating and monitoring a Windows-based HPC cluster infrastructure. The evaluation and test phase was focused on verifying the functionalities of Windows HPC, its performance, support of commercial tools and the integration with the users work environment. We describe constraints imposed by the way the CERN Data Centre is operated, licensing for engineering tools and scalability and behaviour of the HPC engineering applications used at CERN. We will present an initial set of requirements, which were created based on the above constraints and requests from the CERN engineering user community. We will explain how we have configured Windows HPC clusters to provide job scheduling functionalities required to support the CERN engineering user community, quality of service, user- and project-based priorities, and fair access to limited resources. Finally, we will present several performance tests we carried out to verify Windows HPC performance and scalability.

  20. [Experience in setting up a morbid anatomy bureau in the Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Golubev, O A

    2006-01-01

    A diversity of the clinical and morphological manifestations pf melanoma determines the great importance of each description of manifestation of this most malignant tumor. In this connection, there is a worldwide increasing rise in the number of patients with melanoma whose diagnosis present well-known difficulties, the authors describe a case of this tumor progression, which masked as uterine carcinoma.

  1. Tenure Track Athletic Training Educators: Are They Being Set Up to Fail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewald, Lori; Walsh, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Issues faced by tenure track AT education faculty are addressed and suggestions for those who are considering appointments as AT faculty are given. Literature and research from other allied health professions are provided as insights to AT faculty. We also suggest future research ideas related to AT educators. Finally, we consider future…

  2. Experimental set up for the irradiation of biological samples and nuclear track detectors with UV C.

    PubMed

    Portu, Agustina Mariana; Rossini, Andrés Eugenio; Gadan, Mario Alberto; Bernaola, Omar Alberto; Thorp, Silvia Inés; Curotto, Paula; Pozzi, Emiliano César Cayetano; Cabrini, Rómulo Luis; Martin, Gisela Saint

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present a methodology to produce an "imprint" of cells cultivated on a polycarbonate detector by exposure of the detector to UV C radiation. The distribution and concentration of (10)B atoms in tissue samples coming from BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) protocols can be determined through the quantification and analysis of the tracks forming its autoradiography image on a nuclear track detector. The location of boron atoms in the cell structure could be known more accurately by the simultaneous observation of the nuclear tracks and the sample image on the detector. A UV C irradiator was constructed. The irradiance was measured along the lamp direction and at different distances. Melanoma cells were cultured on polycarbonate foils, incubated with borophenylalanine, irradiated with thermal neutrons and exposed to UV C radiation. The samples were chemically attacked with a KOH solution. A uniform irradiation field was established to expose the detector foils to UV C light. Cells could be seeded on the polycarbonate surface. Both imprints from cells and nuclear tracks were obtained after chemical etching. It is possible to yield cellular imprints in polycarbonate. The nuclear tracks were mostly present inside the cells, indicating a preferential boron uptake.

  3. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR SETTING UP A HOUSEHOLD SAMPLING SCHEDULE (SOP-2.10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for scheduling study subjects for field sampling activities in North Carolina (NC) and Ohio (OH). There are three field sampling teams with two staff members on each team. Two field sampling teams collect the field data simultaneously. A third fiel...

  4. Multiplicity of inhabited worlds and the problem of setting up contacts among them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shklovskiy, I. S.

    1974-01-01

    The numerous planetary systems in our galaxy appear to a high degree of probability to contain some planets with a biosphere similar to earth' environment. The possibility of communicating with those extraterrestrial alien planetary civilizations centers on the high level of technological development that is required to overcome the problem of distance. It is conceivable that advanced civilizations can produce energy at a level of 10 to the 43rd power erg/year and that an artificial biosphere can be developed within the limits of 10 to the 22nd power to 10 to the 23rd power cm.

  5. ASCAN Helms sets up tent during survival training at Fairchild AFB

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-09-24

    1990 Group 13 Astronaut Candidate (ASCAN) Susan J. Helms gathers pine branches to create bedding under a tent she has constructed from a parachute. Helms, along with her classmates, is participating in wilderness survival training at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) Spokane, Washington. The training was conducted in the mountain forests of Washington from 08-26-90 through 08-30-90.

  6. U.S. Judge's Ruling Sets Up New Battle over Care of Lab Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    A federal court decision overturning federal regulations requiring research institutions to present plans for care and use of laboratory animals has renewed debate over laboratory animal welfare. University scientists fear new, stricter Department of Agriculture regulations will result. (MSE)

  7. Setting up the critical rainfall line for debris flows via support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y. F.; Chan, C. H.; Chang, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    The Chi-Chi earthquake in 1999 caused tremendous landslides which triggered many debris flows and resulted in significant loss of public lives and property. To prevent the disaster of debris flow, setting a critical rainfall line for each debris-flow stream is necessary. Firstly, 8 predisposing factors of debris flow were used to cluster 377 streams which have similar rainfall lines into 7 groups via the genetic algorithm. Then, support vector machines (SVM) were applied to setup the critical rainfall line for debris flows. SVM is a machine learning approach proposed based on statistical learning theory and has been widely used on pattern recognition and regression. This theory raises the generalized ability of learning mechanisms according to the minimum structural risk. Therefore, the advantage of using SVM can obtain results of minimized error rates without many training samples. Finally, the experimental results confirm that SVM method performs well in setting a critical rainfall line for each group of debris-flow streams.

  8. A Python tool to set up relative free energy calculations in GROMACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimovich, Pavel V.; Mobley, David L.

    2015-11-01

    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have seen a tremendous growth in the last decade. However, it is still difficult and tedious to set them up in an automated manner, as the majority of the present-day MD simulation packages lack that functionality. Relative free energy calculations are a particular challenge for several reasons, including the problem of finding a common substructure and mapping the transformation to be applied. Here we present a tool, alchemical- setup.py, that automatically generates all the input files needed to perform relative solvation and binding free energy calculations with the MD package GROMACS. When combined with Lead Optimization Mapper (LOMAP; Liu et al. in J Comput Aided Mol Des 27(9):755-770, 2013), recently developed in our group, alchemical- setup.py allows fully automated setup of relative free energy calculations in GROMACS. Taking a graph of the planned calculations and a mapping, both computed by LOMAP, our tool generates the topology and coordinate files needed to perform relative free energy calculations for a given set of molecules, and provides a set of simulation input parameters. The tool was validated by performing relative hydration free energy calculations for a handful of molecules from the SAMPL4 challenge (Mobley et al. in J Comput Aided Mol Des 28(4):135-150, 2014). Good agreement with previously published results and the straightforward way in which free energy calculations can be conducted make alchemical- setup.py a promising tool for automated setup of relative solvation and binding free energy calculations.

  9. Set Up to Fail: Charter Passenger Airlines and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-21

    1. 16 Teagan, Shawn E. CRAF 2002-An Analysis of CRAF Participation Since September 2001. Graduate Research Project. AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-12. Graduate...Teagan, Shawn E. CRAF 2002-An Analysis of CRAF Participation Since September 2001. Graduate Research Project. AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-12. Graduate School

  10. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  11. [Three types of brand name loyalty strategies set up by drug manufacturers].

    PubMed

    PréMont, Marie-Claude; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-11-01

    The recent restructuring of the pharmaceutical industry has led to three new types of promotional strategies to build patient loyalty to brand name drugs: loyalty through rebates, patient support, and compassion programs. Loyalty through rebates seeks to keep patients on a brand name drug and prevent their switch to the generic equivalent. Loyalty through patient support provides aftersales services to help and support patients (by phone or home visits) in order to improve adherence to their treatments. Finally, compassion programs offer patients access to drugs still awaiting regulatory approval or reimbursement by insurers. When and if the approval process is successful, the manufacturer puts an end to the compassion program and benefits from a significant cohort of patients already taking a very expensive drug for which reimbursement is assured. The impact of these programs on public policies and patients' rights raises numerous concerns, among which the direct access to patients and their health information by drug manufacturers and upward pressure on costs for drug insurance plans.

  12. Setting Up a Mental Health Clinic in the Heart of Rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Enow, Humphrey; Thalitaya, Madhusudan Deepak; Mbatia, Wallace; Kirpekar, Sheetal

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO 1948). In Africa, mental health issues often come last on the list of priorities for policy-makers & people's attitudes towards mental illness are strongly influenced by traditional beliefs in supernatural causes/remedies. The massive burden attributed to mental illness in these communities, poses a huge moral, cultural/economic challenge and requires a concerted and integrated approach involving policy makers, mental health Practitioners, the general public, service users and their families and other stake holders to reverse the trend. Improving community awareness of mental illness. Change the negative perception of mental illness by the community. Providing a screening/referral pathway for mental illnesses. Providing supervision of patient care. Promote community participation on issues regarding mental health with a view to challenge existing traditional attitudes and beliefs, reduce stigma and promote health seeking behaviour.

  13. In-air PIXE set-up for automatic analysis of historical document inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Simčič, Jure; Rupnik, Zdravko; Uršič, Mitja; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Strlič, Matija

    2004-06-01

    The iron gall inks were one of the writing materials mostly applied in historical documents of the western civilization. Due to the ink corrosive character, the documents are faced with a danger of being seriously, and in some cases also irreversibly changed. The elemental composition of the inks is an important information for taking the adequate conservation action [Project InkCor, http://www.infosrvr.nuk.uni-lj.si/jana/Inkcor/index.htm, and references within]. Here, the in-air PIXE analysis offers an indispensable tool due to its sensitivity and almost non-destructive character. An experimental approach developed for precise and automatic analysis of documents at Jožef Stefan Institute Tandetron accelerator is presented. The selected documents were mounted, one at the time, on the positioning board and the chosen ink spots on the sample were irradiated by 1.7 MeV protons. The data acquisition on the selected ink spots is done automatically throughout the measuring pattern determined prior to the measurement. The chemical elements identified in the documents ranged from Si to Pb, and between them the significant iron gall ink components like Fe, S, K, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni were deduced with precision of ±10%. The measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated documents.

  14. The antibiotics of choice for the treatment of melioidosis in Indian set up.

    PubMed

    Shaw, T; Tellapragada, C; Eshwara, V K; Bhat, H V; Mukhopadhyay, C

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic options for the treatment of melioidosis caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei are limited due to the inherent resistance conferred by this pathogen to various groups of antibiotics. Witnessing an increase in the number of microbiological culture-confirmed cases of melioidosis at our settings in the past few years, we undertook this study to estimate the minimum inhibitory concentrations of clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei against the four commonly employed antimicrobial agents in the patient management at our settings, namely, ceftazidime, meropenem, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline. All isolates were susceptible to the antibiotics tested, except for one isolate which showed resistance to doxycycline (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]: 32 μg/ml). MIC50 and 90 for all the four antibiotics were estimated. From this study, we conclude that the clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei from the southern part of India are well susceptible to the commonly employed antimicrobial agents for therapy.

  15. A Guide to Setting up a College Bereavement Group: Using Monologue, Soliloquy, and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Childhood grief disrupts and reshapes a developing child's primary attachments, emotional regulation system, and identity formation. Bereft college students have to build their grief identity simultaneously with their social, academic, vocational, and sexual identities. This article describes a bereavement group to help students work on these…

  16. Microbiota and pathogen 'pas de deux': setting up and breaking down barriers to intestinal infection.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Elizabeth S; Kendall, Melissa M

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiota plays essential roles in human health and disease. In this review, we focus on the role of the intestinal microbiota in promoting resistance to infection by bacterial pathogens as well as how pathogens overcome this barrier. We discuss how the resident microbiota restricts growth and colonization of invading pathogens by limiting availability of nutrients and through generation of a hostile environment. Additionally, we examine how microbiota-derived signaling molecules interfere with bacterial virulence. In turn, we discuss how pathogens exploit non-competitive metabolites to replicate in vivo as well as to precisely control virulence and cause disease. This bacterial two step of creating and overcoming challenges important in preventing and establishing infection highlights the complexities of elucidating interactions between the commensal bacteria and pathogens. Better understanding of microbiota-pathogen interplay will have significant implications for developing novel therapeutics to treat infectious diseases.

  17. U.S. Judge's Ruling Sets Up New Battle over Care of Lab Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    A federal court decision overturning federal regulations requiring research institutions to present plans for care and use of laboratory animals has renewed debate over laboratory animal welfare. University scientists fear new, stricter Department of Agriculture regulations will result. (MSE)

  18. Experiments in Cold Atom Optics at ARL I: Introduction to Atom Chip Set-up

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    optics. A pair of coils in an anti- Helmholtz configuration generate the quadrapole trapping fields. While two pairs of coils in Helmhotz configuration...order to trap the atoms an inhomogeneous magnetic field is applied via a pair of coils in an anti- Helmholtz configuration. Atoms that drift away...in an anti- Helmholtz configuration. The current is adjusted in these coils until the overlap between the laser beams and the magnetic field minimum

  19. Evaporation condensation-induced bubble motion after temperature gradient set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolayev, Vadim S.; Garrabos, Yves; Lecoutre, Carole; Pichavant, Guillaume; Chatain, Denis; Beysens, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Thermocapillary (Marangoni) motion of a gas bubble (or a liquid drop) under a temperature gradient can hardly be present in a one-component fluid. Indeed, in such a pure system, the vapor-liquid interface is always isothermal (at saturation temperature). However, evaporation on the hot side and condensation on the cold side can occur and displace the bubble. We have observed such a phenomenon in two different fluids submitted to a temperature gradient under reduced gravity: hydrogen under magnetic compensation of gravity in the HYLDE facility at CEA-Grenoble and water in the DECLIC facility onboard the ISS. The experiments and the subsequent analysis are performed in the vicinity of the vapor-liquid critical point to benefit from critical universality. In order to better understand the phenomena, a 1D numerical simulation has been performed. After the temperature gradient is imposed, two regimes can be evidenced. At early times, the temperatures in the bubble and the surrounding liquid become different thanks to their different compressibility and the "piston effect" mechanism, i.e. the fast adiabatic bulk thermalization induced by the expansion of the thermal boundary layers. The difference in local temperature gradients at the vapor-liquid interface results in an unbalanced evaporation/condensation phenomenon that makes the shape of the bubble vary and provoke its motion. At long times, a steady temperature gradient progressively forms in the liquid (but not in the bubble) and induces steady bubble motion towards the hot end. We evaluate the bubble velocity and compare with existing theories.

  20. STS-35 Payload Specialist Parise sets up SAREX on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise enters data into the payload and general support computer (PGSC) in preparation for Earth communication via the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. The SAREX equipment is secured to the middeck starboard sleep station. SAREX provided radio transmissions between ground based amateur radio operators around the world and Parise, a licensed amateur radio operator. The experiment enabled students to communicate with an astronaut in space, as Parise (call-sign WA4SIR) devoted some of his off-duty time to that purpose. Displayed on the forward lockers beside Parise is a AMSAT (Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation) / ARRL (American Radio Relay League) banner. Food items and checklists are attached to the lockers. In locker position MF43G, the Development Test Objective (DTO) Trash Compaction and Retention System Demonstration extended duration orbiter (EDO) compactor is visible.