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Sample records for boron cluster compounds

  1. Understanding boron through size-selected clusters: structure, chemical bonding, and fluxionality.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Alina P; Popov, Ivan A; Piazza, Zachary A; Li, Wei-Li; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Boldyrev, Alexander I

    2014-04-15

    believed that the electronic transmutation concept will be effective and valuable in aiding the design of new boride materials with predictable properties. The study of boron clusters with intermediate properties between those of individual atoms and bulk solids has given rise to a unique opportunity to broaden the frontier of boron chemistry. Understanding boron clusters has spurred experimentalists and theoreticians to find new boron-based nanomaterials, such as boron fullerenes, nanotubes, two-dimensional boron, and new compounds containing boron clusters as building blocks. Here, a brief and timely overview is presented addressing the recent progress made on boron clusters and the approaches used in the authors' laboratories to determine the structure, stability, and chemical bonding of size-selected boron clusters by joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies. Specifically, key findings on all-boron hydrocarbon analogues, metal-centered boron wheels, and electronic transmutation in boron clusters are summarized.

  2. Understanding Boron through Size-Selected Clusters: Structure, Chemical Bonding, and Fluxionality

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeeva, Alina P.; Popov, Ivan A.; Piazza, Zachary A.

    B–/C analogy. It is believed that the electronic transmutation concept will be effective and valuable in aiding the design of new boride materials with predictable properties. The study of boron clusters with intermediate properties between those of individual atoms and bulk solids has given rise to a unique opportunity to broaden the frontier of boron chemistry. Understanding boron clusters has spurred experimentalists and theoreticians to find new boron-based nanomaterials, such as boron fullerenes, nanotubes, two-dimensional boron, and new compounds containing boron clusters as building blocks. Here, a brief and timely overview is presented addressing the recent progress made on boron clusters and the approaches used in the authors’ laboratories to determine the structure, stability, and chemical bonding of size-selected boron clusters by joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies. Specifically, key findings on all-boron hydrocarbon analogues, metal-centered boron wheels, and electronic transmutation in boron clusters are summarized.« less

  3. Functionalizing graphene by embedded boron clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, Alexander; Özdoğan, Cem; Kunstmann, Jens; Fehske, Holger

    2008-08-01

    We present a model system that might serve as a blueprint for the controlled layout of graphene based nanodevices. The systems consists of chains of B7 clusters implanted in a graphene matrix, where the boron clusters are not directly connected. We show that the graphene matrix easily accepts these alternating B7-C6 chains and that the implanted boron components may dramatically modify the electronic properties of graphene based nanomaterials. This suggests a functionalization of graphene nanomaterials, where the semiconducting properties might be supplemented by parts of the graphene matrix itself, but the basic wiring will be provided by alternating chains of implanted boron clusters that connect these areas.

  4. Solid state, thermal synthesis of site-specific protein-boron cluster conjugates and their physicochemical and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Goszczyński, Tomasz M; Kowalski, Konrad; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J; Boratyński, Janusz

    2015-02-01

    Boron clusters represent a vast family of boron-rich compounds with extraordinary properties that provide the opportunity of exploitation in different areas of chemistry and biology. In addition, boron clusters are clinically used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of tumors. In this paper, a novel, in solid state (solvent free), thermal method for protein modification with boron clusters has been proposed. The method is based on a cyclic ether ring opening in oxonium adduct of cyclic ether and a boron cluster with nucleophilic centers of the protein. Lysozyme was used as the model protein, and the physicochemical and biological properties of the obtained conjugates were characterized. The main residues of modification were identified as arginine-128 and threonine-51. No significant changes in the secondary or tertiary structures of the protein after tethering of the boron cluster were found using mass spectrometry and circular dichroism measurements. However, some changes in the intermolecular interactions and hydrodynamic and catalytic properties were observed. To the best of our knowledge, we have described the first example of an application of cyclic ether ring opening in the oxonium adducts of a boron cluster for protein modification. In addition, a distinctive feature of the proposed approach is performing the reaction in solid state and at elevated temperature. The proposed methodology provides a new route to protein modification with boron clusters and extends the range of innovative molecules available for biological and medical testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New Convex and Spherical Structures of Bare Boron Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustani, Ihsan

    1997-10-01

    New stable structures of bare boron clusters can easily be obtained and constructed with the help of an "Aufbau Principle" suggested by a systematicab initioHF-SCF and direct CI study. It is concluded that boron cluster formation can be established by elemental units of pentagonal and hexagonal pyramids. New convex and small spherical clusters different from the classical known forms of boron crystal structures are obtained by a combination of both basic units. Convex structures simulate boron surfaces which can be considered as segments of open or closed spheres. Both convex clusters B16and B46have energies close to those of their conjugate quasi-planar clusters, which are relatively stable and can be considered to act as a calibration mark. The closed spherical clusters B12, B22, B32, and B42are less stable than the corresponding conjugated quasi-planar structures. As a consequence, highly stable spherical boron clusters can systematically be predicted when their conjugate quasi-planar clusters are determined and energies are compared.

  6. In vivo and in vitro effects of boron and boronated compounds.

    PubMed

    Benderdour, M; Bui-Van, T; Dicko, A; Belleville, F

    1998-03-01

    Boron is ubiquitously present in soils and water. Associated with pectin it is essential for vascular plants as a component of cell walls, and it stabilizes cell membranes. It is required for the growth of pollen tubes and is involved in membrane transport, stimulating H(+)-pumping ATPase activity and K+ uptake. However, a high boron concentration in the soils is toxic to plants and some boronated derivatives are used as herbicides. An absolute requirement for boron has not been definitively demonstrated in animals and humans. However, experiments with boron supplementation or deprivation show that boron is involved in calcium and bone metabolism, and its effects are more marked when other nutrients (cholecalciferol, magnesium) are deficient. Boron supplementation increases the serum concentration of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone but boron excess has toxic effects on reproductive function. Boron may be involved in cerebral function via its effects on the transport across membranes. It affects the synthesis of the extracellular matrix and is beneficial in wound healing. Usual dietary boron consumption in humans is 1-2 mg/day for adults. As boron has been shown to have biological activity, research into the chemistry of boronated compounds has increased. Boronated compounds have been shown to be potent anti-osteoporotic, anti-inflammatory, hypolipemic, anti-coagulant and anti-neoplastic agents both in vitro and in vivo in animals.

  7. Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Kabalka, George W.; Srivastava, Rajiv R.

    2000-03-14

    Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed.

  8. Boron Clusters Come of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Russell N.

    2004-01-01

    Boron is the only element other than carbon that can build molecules of unlimited size by covalently boding to itself, a property known as catenation. In contrast to the chains and rings favored by carbon, boron arguably adopts a cluster motif that is reflected in the various forms of the pure element and in the huge area of polyhedral borane…

  9. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Boron and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 42 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD...Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT...of both Aluminum Hydride Cluster Anions and Boron Aluminum Hydride Cluster Anions with Oxygen: Anionic Products The anionic products of reactions

  11. Functionalizing graphene by embedded boron clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, Alexander; Kunstmann, Jens; Ozdogan, Cem; Fehske, Holger

    2010-03-01

    We present results from an ab initio study of B7 clusters implanted into graphene [1,2]. Our model system consists of an alternating chain of quasiplanar B7 clusters. We show that graphene easily accepts these alternating B7-C6 chains and that the implanted boron components may dramatically modify the electronic properties. This suggests that our model system might serve as a blueprint for the controlled layout of graphene based nanodevices, where the semiconducting properties are supplemented by parts of the graphene matrix itself, and the basic metallic wiring is provided by alternating chains of implanted boron clusters. [1] A. Quandt, C. "Ozdogan, J. Kunstmann, and H. Fehske, Nanotechnology 19, 335707 (2008). [2] A. Quandt, C. "Ozdogan, J. Kunstmann, and H. Fehske, phys. stat. solidi (b) 245, 2077 (2008).

  12. A critical assessment of boron target compounds for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, M Frederick; Lee, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has undergone dramatic developments since its inception by Locher in 1936 and the development of nuclear energy during World War II. The ensuing Cold War spawned the entirely new field of polyhedral borane chemistry, rapid advances in nuclear reactor technology and a corresponding increase in the number to reactors potentially available for BNCT. This effort has been largely oriented toward the eradication of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and melanoma with reduced interest in other types of malignancies. The design and synthesis of boron-10 target compounds needed for BNCT was not channeled to those types of compounds specifically required for GBM or melanoma. Consequently, a number of potentially useful boron agents are known which have not been biologically evaluated beyond a cursory examination and only three boron-10 enriched target species are approved for human use following their Investigational New Drug classification by the US Food and Drug Administration; BSH, BPA and GB-10. All ongoing clinical trials with GBM and melanoma are necessarily conducted with one of these three species and most often with BPA. The further development of BNCT is presently stalled by the absence of strong support for advanced compound evaluation and compound discovery driven by recent advances in biology and chemistry. A rigorous demonstration of BNCT efficacy surpassing that of currently available protocols has yet to be achieved. This article discusses the past history of compound development, contemporary problems such as compound classification and those problems which impede future advances. The latter include means for biological evaluation of new (and existing) boron target candidates at all stages of their development and the large-scale synthesis of boron target species for clinical trials and beyond. The future of BNCT is bright if latitude is given to the choice of clinical disease to be treated and if a recognized study

  13. Interaction of Boron Clusters with Oxygen: a DFT Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavitabar, Kamron; Boggavarapu, Kiran; Kandalam, Anil

    A controlled combustion involving aluminum nanoparticles has often been the focus of studies in the field of solid fuel propellants. However very little focus has been given to the study of boron nanoparticles in controlled combustion. In contrast to aluminum nanoclusters, boron nanoclusters (Bn) are known to exhibit a planar geometries even at the size of n = 19 - 20, and thus offer a greater surface area for interaction with oxygen. Earlier experimental studies have shown that boron nanoclusters exhibit different reactivity with oxygen depending on their size and charge. In this poster, we present our recent density functional theory based results, focusing on the reactivity patterns of neutral and negatively charged B5 cluster with On, where n = 1 - 5; and B6 cluster with On (n = 1 - 2). The effect of charge on the reactivity of boron cluster, variation in the stability of product clusters, i e., neutral and negatively charged B5On (n = 1 - 5) and B6On (n = 1 - 2) are also examined. Financial Support from West Chester University Foundation under FaStR grant is acknowledged.

  14. Boron compounds as anion binding agents for nonaqueous battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xia-Oing; McBreen, James; Xiang, Caili

    2000-02-08

    Novel fluorinated boron-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boron-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boron-based anion receptors include borane and borate compounds bearing different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  15. Organotin Dyes Bearing Anionic Boron Clusters as Cell-Staining Fluorescent Probes.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Flores, Blanca M; Cabrera-González, Justo; Viñas, Clara; Chávez-Reyes, Arturo; Dias, H V Rasika; Jiménez-Pérez, Víctor M; Núñez, Rosario

    2018-04-11

    Within the cell nucleus, in the nucleoli, ribosomal RNAs are synthesized and participate in several biological processes. To better understand nucleoli-related processes, their visualization is often required, for which specific markers are needed. Herein, we report the design of novel fluorescent organotin compounds derived from 4-hydroxy-N'-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide and their cytoplasm and nucleoli staining of B16F10 cells in vitro. Tin compounds bearing an aliphatic carbon chain (-C 12 H 25 ) and an electron-donating group (-OH) were prepared, and the latter could be derivatized to bear the boron cluster anions [B 12 H 12 ] 2- and [3,3'-Co(1,2-C 2 B 9 H 11 ) 2 ] - (COSAN). All of the conjugates have been fully characterized and their luminescence properties have been assessed. In general, they show good quantum yields in solution (24-49 %), those for the COSAN derivatives being lower. Remarkably, the linking of [B 12 H 12 ] 2- and COSAN to the complexes made them more soluble, without being detrimental to their luminescence properties. Living B16F10 cells were treated with all of the compounds to determine their fluorescence staining properties; the compounds bearing the aliphatic chain showed a reduced staining capacity due to the formation of aggregates. Notably, the complexes bearing different boron clusters showed different staining effects; those bearing [B 12 H 12 ] 2- showed extraordinary staining of the nucleoli and cytoplasm, whereas those bearing COSAN were only detected in the cytoplasm. The remarkable fluorescence staining properties shown by these organotin compounds make them excellent candidates for fluorescence bioimaging in vitro. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Boron containing amino acid compounds and methods for their use

    DOEpatents

    Glass, John D.; Coderre, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides new boron containing amino acid compounds and methods for making these compounds by contacting melphalan or another nitrogen mustard derivative and sodium borocaptate. The present invention also provides a method of treating a mammal having a tumor by administering to the mammal a therapeutically effective amount of the new boron containing amino acid compounds.

  17. Recent developments with boron as a platform for novel drug design.

    PubMed

    Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2016-06-01

    After decades of development, the medicinal chemistry of compounds that contain a single boron atom has matured to the present status of having equal rights with other branches of drug discovery, although it remains a relative newcomer. In contrast, the medicinal chemistry of boron clusters is less advanced, but it is expanding and may soon become a productive area of drug discovery. The author reviews the current developments of medicinal chemistry of boron and its applications in drug design. First generation boron drugs that bear a single boron atom and second generation boron drugs that utilize boron clusters as pharmacophores or modulators of bioactive molecules are discussed. The advantages and gaps in our current understanding of boron medicinal chemistry, with a special focus on boron clusters, are highlighted. Boron is not a panacea for every drug discovery problem, but there is a good chance that it will become a useful addition to the medicinal chemistry tool box. The present status of boron resembles the medicinal chemistry status of fluorine three decades ago; indeed, currently, approximately 20% of pharmaceuticals on the market contain fluorine. The fact that novel boron compounds, especially those based on abiotic polyhedral boron hydrides, are currently unfamiliar could be advantageous because organisms may be less prone to developing resistance against boron cluster-based drugs.

  18. Analysis of boron distribution in vivo for boron neutron capture therapy using two different boron compounds by secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Kunio; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kajimoto, Yoshinaga; Kawabata, Shinji; Doi, Atsushi; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Ono, Koji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant gliomas depends on the selective and absolute accumulation of (10)B atoms in tumor tissues. Only two boron compounds, BPA and BSH, currently can be used clinically. However, the detailed distributions of these compounds have not been determined. Here we used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to determine the histological distribution of (10)B atoms derived from the boron compounds BSH and BPA. C6 tumor-bearing rats were given 500 mg/kg of BPA or 100 mg/kg of BSH intraperitoneally; 2.5 h later, their brains were sectioned and subjected to SIMS. In the main tumor mass, BPA accumulated heterogeneously, while BSH accumulated homogeneously. In the peritumoral area, both BPA and BSH accumulated measurably. Interestingly, in this area, BSH accumulated distinctively in a diffuse manner even 800 microm distant from the interface between the main tumor and normal brain. In the contralateral brain, BPA accumulated measurably, while BSH did not. In conclusion, both BPA and BSH each have advantages and disadvantages. These compounds are considered to be essential as boron delivery agents independently for clinical BNCT. There is some rationale for the simultaneous use of both compounds in clinical BNCT for malignant gliomas.

  19. Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James; Sun, Xuehui

    2002-01-01

    Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  20. Interaction of boron cluster ions with water: Single collision dynamics and sequential etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, Paul A.; Ruatta, Stephen A.; Anderson, Scott L.

    1990-01-01

    Reactions of mass-selected, cooled, boron cluster ions (B+n, n=1-14) with water have been studied for collision energies from 0.1 to 6.0 eV. Most work was done with D2O, however isotope effects were examined for selected reactant cluster ions. For all size clusters there are exoergic product channels, which in most cases have no activation barriers. Cross sections are generally large, however there are fluctuations with cluster size in total reactivity, collision energy dependences, and in product distributions. For small cluster ions, there is a multitude of product channels. For clusters larger than B+6, the product distributions are dominated by a single channel: Bn-1D++DBO. Under multiple collision conditions, the primary products undergo a remarkable sequence of secondary ``etching'' reactions. As these occur, boron atoms are continuously replaced by hydrogen, and the intermediate products retain the composition: Bn-mH+m. This highly efficient chemistry appears to continue unchanged as the composition changes from pure boron to mostly hydrogen. Comparison of these results is made with boron cluster ion reactions with O2 and D2, as well as reactions with water of aluminum and silicon cluster ions. Some discussion is given of the thermochemistry for these reactions, and a possible problem with the thermochemical data in the BOD/DBO system is discussed.

  1. New ligand platforms featuring boron-rich clusters as organomimetic substituents*,**

    PubMed Central

    Spokoyny, Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    200 years of research with carbon-rich molecules have shaped the development of modern chemistry. Research pertaining to the chemistry of boron-rich species has historically trailed behind its more distinguished neighbor (carbon) in the periodic table. Notably, a potentially rich and, in many cases, unmatched field of coordination chemistry using boronrich clusters remains fundamentally underdeveloped. Our work has been devoted to examining several basic concepts related to the functionalization of icosahedral boron-rich clusters and their use as ligands, aimed at designing fundamentally new hybrid molecular motifs and materials. Particularly interesting are icosahedral carboranes, which can be regarded as 3D analogs of benzene. These species comprise a class of boron-rich clusters that were discovered in the 1950s during the “space race” while researchers were developing energetic materials for rocket fuels. Ultimately, the unique chemical and physical properties of carborane species, such as rigidity, indefinite stability to air and moisture, and 3D aromaticity, may allow one to access a set of properties not normally available in carbon-based chemistry. While technically these species are considered as inorganic clusters, the chemical properties they possess make these boron-rich species suitable for replacing and/or altering structural and functional features of the organic and organometallic molecules—a phenomenon best described as “organomimetic”. Aside from purely fundamental features associated with the organomimetic chemistry of icosahedral carboranes, their use can also provide new avenues in the development of systems relevant to solving current problems associated with energy production, storage, and conversion. PMID:24311823

  2. Planar-to-Tubular Structural Transition in Boron Clusters: B20 as the Embryo of Single-Walled Boron Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Boggavarapu, Kiran; Bulusu, Satya; Zhai, Hua JIN.

    Experimental and computational simulations revealed that boron clusters, which favor planar (2D) structures up to 18 atoms, prefer three-dimensional (3D) structures beginning at 20 atoms. Using global optimization methods, we found that the B20 neutral cluster has a double-ring tubular structure with a diameter of 5.2 ?. In the B20- anion, the tubular structure is shown to be isoenergetic to 2D structures, which were observed and confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy. The 2D to 3D structural transition observed at B20, reminiscent to the ring-to-fullerene transition at C20 in carbon clusters, suggests it may be considered as the embryo of the thinnestmore » single-walled boron nanotubes.« less

  3. Termite Resistance of MDF Panels Treated with Various Boron Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Mustafa; Ustaomer, Derya; Kartal, Saip Nami; Ondaral, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of various boron compounds on the termite resistance of MDF panels were evaluated. Either borax (BX), boric acid (BA), zinc borate (ZB), or sodium perborate tetrahydrate (SPT) were added to urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin at target contents of 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% based on dry fiber weight. The panels were then manufactured using 12% urea-formaldehyde resin and 1% NH4Cl. MDF samples from the panels were tested against the subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Laboratory termite resistance tests showed that all samples containing boron compounds had greater resistance against termite attack compared to untreated MDF samples. At the second and third weeks of exposure, nearly 100% termite mortalities were recorded in all boron compound treated samples. The highest termite mortalities were determined in the samples with either BA or BX. Also, it was found that SPT showed notable performance on the termite mortality. As chemical loadings increased, termite mortalities increased, and at the same time the weight losses of the samples decreased. PMID:19582229

  4. Indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions electrophoretically separated in methanol.

    PubMed

    Vítová, Lada; Fojt, Lukáš; Vespalec, Radim

    2014-04-18

    3,5-Dinitrobenzoate and picrate are light absorbing anions pertinent to indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions in buffered methanolic background electrolytes (BGEs). Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and morpholine have been used as buffering bases, which eliminated baseline steps, and minimized the baseline noise. In methanolic BGEs, mobilities of boron cluster anions depend on both ionic constituents of the BGE buffer. This dependence can be explained by ion pair interaction of detected anions with BGE cations, which are not bonded into ion pairs with the BGE anions. The former ion pair interaction decreases sensitivity of the indirect photometric detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Current data regarding the structure-toxicity relationship of boron-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, E D; Castillo-Mendieta, N T; Ciprés-Flores, F J; Padilla-Martínez, I I; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Soriano-Ursúa, M A

    2016-09-06

    Boron is ubiquitous in nature, being an essential element of diverse cells. As a result, humans have had contact with boron containing compounds (BCCs) for a long time. During the 20th century, BCCs were developed as antiseptics, antibiotics, cosmetics and insecticides. Boric acid was freely used in the nosocomial environment as an antiseptic and sedative salt, leading to the death of patients and an important discovery about its critical toxicology for humans. Since then the many toxicological studies done in relation to BCCs have helped to establish the proper limits of their use. During the last 15 years, there has been a boom of research on the design and use of new, potent and efficient boron containing drugs, finding that the addition of boron to some known drugs increases their affinity and selectivity. This mini-review summarizes two aspects of BCCs: toxicological data found with experimental models, and the scarce but increasing data about the structure-activity relationship for toxicity and therapeutic use. As is the case with boron-free compounds, the biological activity of BCCs is related to their chemical structure. We discuss the use of new technology to discover potent and efficient BCCs for medicinal therapy by avoiding toxic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of liver metastases: biodistribution studies of boron compounds in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J; Heber, Elisa M; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Cardoso, Jorge E; Colombo, Lucas L; Nievas, Susana; Nigg, David W; Aromando, Romina F; Itoiz, Maria E; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2011-03-01

    We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of (10)B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na(2)(10)B(10)H(10)), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  7. Growth of single-layer boron nitride dome-shaped nanostructures catalysed by iron clusters.

    PubMed

    Torre, A La; Åhlgren, E H; Fay, M W; Ben Romdhane, F; Skowron, S T; Parmenter, C; Davies, A J; Jouhannaud, J; Pourroy, G; Khlobystov, A N; Brown, P D; Besley, E; Banhart, F

    2016-08-11

    We report on the growth and formation of single-layer boron nitride dome-shaped nanostructures mediated by small iron clusters located on flakes of hexagonal boron nitride. The nanostructures were synthesized in situ at high temperature inside a transmission electron microscope while the e-beam was blanked. The formation process, typically originating at defective step-edges on the boron nitride support, was investigated using a combination of transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and computational modelling. Computational modelling showed that the domes exhibit a nanotube-like structure with flat circular caps and that their stability was comparable to that of a single boron nitride layer.

  8. Photoelectron Spectroscopic and Theoretical Study of B-16(-) and B-16(2-): An All-Boron Naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Sergeeva, Alina P.; Zubarev, Dmitry Y.; Zhai, Hua Jin

    Although boron clusters were experimentally studied shortly after the discovery of the fullerenes, their structural characterization was only possible fairly recently when we combined photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical calculations to investigate the structures and bonding of boron clusters. Early theoretical studies indicated that small boron clusters do not assume cage-like structures, which are common in bulk boron and compounds; instead, planar or quasi-planar structures were suggested. The combined PES and theoretical studies show indeed boron clusters with up to 15 atom are planar, and only at B20 does a three-dimensional (3D) structure (double ring) become energetically competitive, whereas B20-more » still remains planar. A recent ion mobility and theoretical study showed that for Bn + the doublering 3D structure becomes competitive at B16 +7.« less

  9. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BCNT) for the Treatment of Liver Metastases: Biodistribution Studies of Boron Compounds in an Experimental Model

    SciTech Connect

    Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Ana J. Molinari

    2011-03-01

    Abstract We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of different boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) protocols in an experimental model of oral cancer. BNCT is based on the selective accumulation of 10B carriers in a tumor followed by neutron irradiation. Within the context of exploring the potential therapeutic efficacy of BNCT for the treatment of liver metastases, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in an experimental model of liver metastases in rats. Different boron compounds and administration conditions were assayed to determine which administration protocols would potentially be therapeutically useful in in vivo BNCT studiesmore » at the RA-3 nuclear reactor. A total of 70 BDIX rats were inoculated in the liver with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb to induce the development of subcapsular tumor nodules. Fourteen days post-inoculation, the animals were used for biodistribution studies. We evaluated a total of 11 administration protocols for the boron compounds boronophenylalanine (BPA) and GB-10 (Na210B10H10), alone or combined at different dose levels and employing different administration routes. Tumor, normal tissue, and blood samples were processed for boron measurement by atomic emission spectroscopy. Six protocols proved potentially useful for BNCT studies in terms of absolute boron concentration in tumor and preferential uptake of boron by tumor tissue. Boron concentration values in tumor and normal tissues in the liver metastases model show it would be feasible to reach therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.« less

  10. Methods of forming boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boronmore » nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.« less

  11. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  12. High Boron-loaded DNA-Oligomers as Potential Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and Antisense Oligonucleotide Dual-Action Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Kaniowski, Damian; Ebenryter-Olbińska, Katarzyna; Sobczak, Milena; Wojtczak, Błażej; Janczak, Sławomir; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J; Nawrot, Barbara

    2017-08-23

    Boron cluster-modified therapeutic nucleic acids with improved properties are of interest in gene therapy and in cancer boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). High metallacarborane-loaded antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were synthesized through post-synthetic Cu (I)-assisted "click" conjugation of alkyne-modified DNA-oligonucleotides with a boron cluster alkyl azide component. The obtained oligomers exhibited increased lipophilicity compared to their non-modified precursors, while their binding affinity to complementary DNA and RNA strands was slightly decreased. Multiple metallacarborane residues present in the oligonucleotide chain, each containing 18 B-H groups, enabled the use of IR spectroscopy as a convenient analytical method for these oligomers based on the diagnostic B-H signal at 2400-2650 cm -1 . The silencing activity of boron cluster-modified ASOs used at higher concentrations was similar to that of unmodified oligonucleotides. The screened ASOs, when used in low concentrations (up to 50 μM), exhibited pro-oxidative properties by inducing ROS production and an increase in mitochondrial activities in HeLa cells. In contrast, when used at higher concentrations, the ASOs exhibited anti-oxidative properties by lowering ROS species levels. In the HeLa cells (tested in the MTT assay) treated (without lipofectamine) or transfected with the screened compounds, the mitochondrial activity remained equal to the control level or only slightly changed (±30%). These findings may be useful in the design of dual-action boron cluster-modified therapeutic nucleic acids with combined antisense and anti-oxidant properties.

  13. Versatile Method for the Site-Specific Modification of DNA with Boron Clusters: Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Antisense Oligonucleotide Case.

    PubMed

    Ebenryter-Olbińska, Katarzyna; Kaniowski, Damian; Sobczak, Milena; Wojtczak, Błażej A; Janczak, Sławomir; Wielgus, Ewelina; Nawrot, Barbara; Leśnikowski, Zbigniew J

    2017-11-21

    A general and convenient approach for the incorporation of different types of boron clusters into specific locations of the DNA-oligonucleotide chain based on the automated phosphoramidite method of oligonucleotide synthesis and post-synthetic "click chemistry" modification has been developed. Pronounced effects of boron-cluster modification on the physico- and biochemical properties of the antisense oligonucleotides were observed. The silencing activity of antisense oligonucleotides bearing a single boron cluster modification in the middle of the oligonucleotide chain was substantially higher than that of unmodified oligonucleotides. This finding may be of importance for the design of therapeutic nucleic acids with improved properties. The proposed synthetic methodology broadens the availability of nucleic acid-boron cluster conjugates and opens up new avenues for their potential practical use. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Boron-containing chlorins and tetraazaporphyrins: synthesis and cell uptake of boronated pyropheophorbide a derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ratajski, Michal; Osterloh, Jens; Gabel, Detlef

    2006-03-01

    The literature on the synthesis and the biological properties of boron-containing chlorins and phthalocyanines is reviewed. A series of homologous derivatives of pyropheophorbide A is described. The compounds contain the B(12)H(11)SH(2-) cluster attached to the single carboxyl group and vary in the length of the alkyl chain (methyl, propyl, pentyl, heptyl and nonyl) attached via an ether linkage to the former vinyl group. Cellular uptake was found for all derivatives except the nonyl sidechain. The compounds were moderately cell-toxic. Localization in lysosomes could be excluded; the compounds localized probably in the mitochondria.

  15. An inorganic boronate affinity in-needle monolithic device for specific capture of cis-diol containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shanxia; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Qin; Dai, Lili; Zhou, Ping

    2018-02-01

    In this work, inorganic boronate affinity monolith was prepared by in situ synthesis in 0.33mm i.d. stainless steel needle through sol-gel process using tetraethoxysilane and tetrabutyl orthotitanate as the co-precursors. The morphology, structure and composition of the monolith were characterized. In contrast to conventional boronate affinity materials, inorganic boric acid was used as affinity ligand. Different compounds were used for the evaluation of the boronate affinity of this inorganic monolithic material. The monolith exhibited good selectivity towards cis-diol containing compounds. Recovery of greater than 90% was achieved for in-needle extraction of catechol under neutral conditions. Owing to the hydrophilic property of the monolith, the procedure of affinity chromatography could be performed in aqueous solution. This monolithic in-needle device will be useful for boronate affinity extraction of small-volume samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the electron density features of small boron clusters and the effects of doping with C, P, Al, Si, and Zn: Magic B7P and B8Si clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Rahane, A. B.; Kumar, V.; Sukumar, N.

    2016-05-01

    Boron atomic clusters show several interesting and unusual size-dependent features due to the small covalent radius, electron deficiency, and higher coordination number of boron as compared to carbon. These include aromaticity and a diverse array of structures such as quasi-planar, ring or tubular shaped, and fullerene-like. In the present work, we have analyzed features of the computed electron density distributions of small boron clusters having up to 11 boron atoms, and investigated the effect of doping with C, P, Al, Si, and Zn atoms on their structural and physical properties, in order to understand the bonding characteristics and discern trends in bonding and stability. We find that in general there are covalent bonds as well as delocalized charge distribution in these clusters. We associate the strong stability of some of these planar/quasiplanar disc-type clusters with the electronic shell closing with effectively twelve delocalized valence electrons using a disc-shaped jellium model. {{{{B}}}9}-, B10, B7P, and B8Si, in particular, are found to be exceptional with very large gaps between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and these are suggested to be magic clusters.

  17. Study of shallow junction formation by boron-containing cluster ion implantation of silicon and two-stage annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin-Ming

    Shallow junction formation made by low energy ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing is facing a major challenge for ULSI (ultra large scale integration) as the line width decreases down to the sub micrometer region. The issues include low beam current, the channeling effect in low energy ion implantation and TED (transient enhanced diffusion) during annealing after ion implantation. In this work, boron containing small cluster ions, such as GeB, SiB and SiB2, was generated by using the SNICS (source of negative ion by cesium sputtering) ion source to implant into Si substrates to form shallow junctions. The use of boron containing cluster ions effectively reduces the boron energy while keeping the energy of the cluster ion beam at a high level. At the same time, it reduces the channeling effect due to amorphization by co-implanted heavy atoms like Ge and Si. Cluster ions have been used to produce 0.65--2keV boron for low energy ion implantation. Two stage annealing, which is a combination of low temperature (550°C) preannealing and high temperature annealing (1000°C), was carried out to anneal the Si sample implanted by GeB, SiBn clusters. The key concept of two-step annealing, that is, the separation of crystal regrowth, point defects removal with dopant activation from dopant diffusion, is discussed in detail. The advantages of the two stage annealing include better lattice structure, better dopant activation and retarded boron diffusion. The junction depth of the two stage annealed GeB sample was only half that of the one-step annealed sample, indicating that TED was suppressed by two stage annealing. Junction depths as small as 30 nm have been achieved by two stage annealing of sample implanted with 5 x 10-4/cm2 of 5 keV GeB at 1000°C for 1 second. The samples were evaluated by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) profiling, TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry)/channeling. Cluster ion implantation

  18. Boron-Containing Compounds for Liposome-Mediated Tumor Localization and Application to Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick

    2005-04-07

    Medical application of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been significantly hindered by the slow development of boron drug-targeting methodologies for the selective delivery of high boron concentration sto malignant cells. We have successfully sought to fill this need by creating liposomes suitable as in vivo boron delivery vehicles for BNCT. Delivery of therapeutic quantities of boron to tumors in murine models has been achieved with small unilamellar boron-rich liposomes. Subsequently, attempts have been made to improve delivery efficiency of liposomes encapsulating boron-containing water-soluble species into their hollow core by incorporating lipophilic boron compounds as addenda to the liposome bilayer,more » incorporating boron compounds as structural components of the bilayer (which however, poses the risk of sacrificing some stability), and combinations thereof. Regardless of the method, approximately 90% of the total liposome mass remains therapeutically inactive and comprised of the vehicle's construction materials, while less than 5% is boron for neutron targeting. Following this laboratory's intensive study, the observed tumor specificity of certain liposomes has been attributed to their diminutive size of these liposomes (30-150 nm), which enables these small vesicles to pass through the porous, immature vasculature of rapidly growing tumor tissue. We surmised that any amphiphilic nanoparticle of suitable size could possess some tumor selectivity. Consequently, the discovery of a very boron-rich nanoparticle delivery agent with biodistribution performance similar to unilamellar liposomes became one of our goals. Closomers, a new class of polyhedral borane derivatives, attracted us as an alternative BNCT drug-delivery system. We specifically envisioned dodeca (nido-carboranyl)-substituted closomers as possibly having a great potential role in BNCT drug delivery. They could function as extraordinarily boron-rich BNCT drugs since they are

  19. From the Test Tube to the Treatment Room: Fundamentals of Boron-containing Compounds and their Relevance to Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Plattner, Jacob J

    2014-02-01

    The development of new drug classes and novel molecules that are brought to the marketplace has been a formidable challenge, especially for dermatologic drugs. The relative absence of new classes of antimicrobial agents is also readily apparent. Several barriers account for slow drug development, including regulatory changes, added study requirements, commercial pressures to bring drugs to market quickly by developing new generations of established compounds, and the greater potential for failure and higher financial risk when researching new drug classes. In addition, the return on investment is usually much lower with dermatologic drugs as compared to the potential revenue from "blockbuster" drugs for cardiovascular or gastrointestinal disease, hypercholesterolemia, and mood disorders. Nevertheless, some researchers are investigating new therapeutic platforms, one of which is boron-containing compounds. Boron-containing compounds offer a wide variety of potential applications in dermatology due to their unique physical and chemical properties, with several in formal phases of development. Tavaborole, a benzoxaborole compound, has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration for approval for treatment of onychomycosis. This article provides a thorough overview of the history of boron-based compounds in medicine, their scientific rationale, physiochemical and pharmacologic properties, and modes of actions including therapeutic targets. A section dedicated to boron-based compounds in development for treatment of various skin disorders is also included.

  20. Use of boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles with ROS scavenging ability in boron neutron capture therapy to achieve high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyu; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    A boron delivery system with high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects is crucial for a successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this study, we developed boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles (BNPs) via polyion complex (PIC) formation, using a newly synthesized poly(ethylene glycol)-polyanion (PEG-polyanion, possessing a (10)B-enriched boron cluster as a side chain of one of its segments) and PEG-polycation (possessing a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger as a side chain of one of its segments). The BNPs exhibited high colloidal stability, selective uptake in tumor cells, specific accumulation, and long retention in tumor tissue and ROS scavenging ability. After thermal neutron irradiation, significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in the BNP-treated group, with only 5-ppm (10)B in tumor tissues, whereas at least 20-ppm (10)B is generally required for low molecular weight (LMW) (10)B agents. In addition, increased leukocyte levels were observed in the LMW (10)B agent-treated group after thermal neutron irradiation, and not in BNP-treated group, which might be attributed to its ROS scavenging ability. No visual metastasis of tumor cells to other organs was observed 1 month after irradiation in the BNP-treated group. These results suggest that BNPs are promising for enhancing the BNCT performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Boron Nitride-supported Sub-nanometer Pd 6 Clusters for Formic Acid Decomposition: A DFT Study

    DOE PAGES

    Schimmenti, Roberto; Cortese, Remedios; Duca, Dario; ...

    2017-04-25

    A periodic, self-consistent planewave DFT study was carried out to explore the potential use of Pd 6 clusters supported on a boron nitride sheet as a catalyst for the selective decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) to CO 2 and H 2. The competition between formate (HCOO) and carboxyl (COOH) paths on catalytic sites, with different proximities to the support, was studied. Based on energetics alone, the reaction may mainly follow the HCOO route. Slightly lower activation energies were found at the lateral sites of the cluster as compared to top face sites. This is particularly true for the bidentate tomore » monodentate HCOO conversion. Through comparison of results with similar studies on HCOOH decomposition on extended Pd surfaces, it was demonstrated that the existence of undercoordinated sites in the sub-nanometer cluster could play a key role in preferentially stabilizing HCOO over COOH, which is a common CO precursor in this reaction. A hydrogen spillover mechanism was also investigated; migration toward the boron nitride support is not favorable, at least in the early stages of the reaction. However, hydrogen diffusion on the cluster has low barriers compared to those involved in formic acid decomposition.« less

  2. Boron Nitride-supported Sub-nanometer Pd 6 Clusters for Formic Acid Decomposition: A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmenti, Roberto; Cortese, Remedios; Duca, Dario

    A periodic, self-consistent planewave DFT study was carried out to explore the potential use of Pd 6 clusters supported on a boron nitride sheet as a catalyst for the selective decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) to CO 2 and H 2. The competition between formate (HCOO) and carboxyl (COOH) paths on catalytic sites, with different proximities to the support, was studied. Based on energetics alone, the reaction may mainly follow the HCOO route. Slightly lower activation energies were found at the lateral sites of the cluster as compared to top face sites. This is particularly true for the bidentate tomore » monodentate HCOO conversion. Through comparison of results with similar studies on HCOOH decomposition on extended Pd surfaces, it was demonstrated that the existence of undercoordinated sites in the sub-nanometer cluster could play a key role in preferentially stabilizing HCOO over COOH, which is a common CO precursor in this reaction. A hydrogen spillover mechanism was also investigated; migration toward the boron nitride support is not favorable, at least in the early stages of the reaction. However, hydrogen diffusion on the cluster has low barriers compared to those involved in formic acid decomposition.« less

  3. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    SciTech Connect

    Mannix, A. J.; Zhou, X. -F.; Kiraly, B.

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.

  4. Feasibility studies of the growth of 3-5 compounds of boron by MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manasevit, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    Boron-arsenic and boron-phosphorus films have been grown on Si sapphire and silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) by pyrolyzing Group 3 alkyls of boron, i.e., trimethylborane (TMB) and triethylborane (TEB), in the presence of AsH3 and PH3, respectively, in an H2 atmosphere. No evidence for reaction between the alkyls and the hydrides on mixing at room temperature was found. However, the films were predominantly amorphous. The film growth rate was found to depend on the concentration of alkyl boron compound and was essentially constant when TEB and AsH3 were pyrolyzed over the temperature range 550 C to 900 C. The films were found to contain mainly carbon impurities (the amount varying with growth temperature), some oxygen, and were highly stressed and bowed on Si substrates, with some crazing evident in thin (2 micron) B-P and thick (5 micron) B-As films. The carbon level was generally higher in films grown using TEB as the boron source. Films grown from PH3 and TMB showed a higher carbon content than those grown from AsH3 and TMB. Based on their B/As and B/P ratios, films with nominal compositions B sub12-16 As2 and B sub1.1-1.3 P were grown using TMB as the boron source.

  5. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P

    2015-12-18

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Methods for boron delivery to mammalian tissue

    DOEpatents

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Feaks, Debra A.; Shelly, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy can be used to destroy tumors. This treatment modality is enhanced by delivering compounds to the tumor site where the compounds have high concentrations of boron, the boron compounds being encapsulated in the bilayer of a liposome or in the bilayer as well as the internal space of the liposomes. Preferred compounds, include carborane units with multiple boron atoms within the carborane cage structure. Liposomes with increased tumor specificity may also be used.

  7. Investigation of the matrix effect in determining microimpurities in boron and its compounds by atomic-emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, R. V.; Tumanova, A. N.; Mashin, N. I.

    2007-07-01

    We carried out a systematic study of the influence of the main component on the change of analytical signal during atomic-emission analysis of boron compounds. Changes in the intensity of spectral lines of microimpurities as functions of their concentrations in the analytical system based on graphite powder with a variable content of boric acid and boron oxide are presented.

  8. Effect of Boron and Phosphate compounds on Thermal and Fire Properties of wood/HDPE composites

    Treesearch

    Turgay Akbulut; Nadir Ayrilmis; Turker Dundar; Ali Durmus; Robert H. White; Murat Teker

    2011-01-01

    Melting and non-isothermal crystallization behaviors, oxidative induction time, and fire performance of the injection-molded wood flour-high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels (4, 8, or 12 wt %) of boron compounds [borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %), zinc borate (ZB)] and phosphorus compounds [mono- and di-ammonium...

  9. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-02-06

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  10. Process for making boron nitride using sodium cyanide and boron

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1990-01-01

    This a very simple process for making boron nitride by mixing sodium cyanide and boron phosphate and heating the mixture in an inert atmosphere until a reaction takes place. The product is a white powder of boron nitride that can be used in applications that require compounds that are stable at high temperatures and that exhibit high electrical resistance.

  11. In Vivo Boron Uptake Determination for Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Binello, Emanuela; Shortkroff, Sonya; Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    1999-06-06

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) has been proposed as a new application of the boron neutron capture reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. In BNCS, a boron compound is injected into the joint space, where it is taken up by the synovium. The joint is then irradiated with neutrons of a desired energy range, inducing the boron neutron capture reaction in boron-loaded cells. Boron uptake by the synovium is an important parameter in the assessment of the potential of BNCS and in the determination of whether to proceed to animal irradiations for the testing of therapeutic efficacy. We presentmore » results from an investigation of boron uptake in vivo by the synovium.« less

  12. Effect of boron and phosphate compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of wood-polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Umit Buyuksari; Zeki Candan; Erkan Avci

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites incorporated with different contents of boron compounds; borax/boric acid and zinc borate, and phosphate compounds; mono and diammonium phosphates were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent content, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, on the properties of...

  13. Porphyrins for boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Gabel, Detlef

    1990-01-01

    Novel compounds for treatment of brain tumors in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy are disclosed. A method for preparing the compounds as well as pharmaceutical compositions containing said compounds are also disclosed. The compounds are water soluble, non-toxic and non-labile boronated porphyrins which show significant uptake and retention in tumors.

  14. THE BORON-CURCUMIN COMPLEX IN TRACE BORON DETERMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Heyes, M.R.; Metcalfe, J.

    1963-01-01

    A simple and robust method for the formation of the complex of boron with curcumin is described. The sensitivity of the method is 6.6 x 10/sup -5/ g/cm/sup 2/. Formation of the complex is believed to be quantitative under the conditions used and some evidence is given for a 1: 3 boron; curcumin ratio. Methods are outlined for the determination of boron in a number of metals, compounds, and organic materials. (auth)

  15. Thermodynamic consideration and ground-state search of icosahedral boron subselenide B12(B1-xSex) 2 from a first-principles cluster expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ektarawong, A.

    2018-05-01

    The phase stability of icosahedral boron subselenide B12(B1-xSex) 2 , where 0.5 ≤x ≤1 , is explored using a first-principles cluster expansion. The results shows that, instead of a continuous solid solution, B12(B1-xSex) 2 is thermodynamically stable as an individual line compound at the composition of B9.5Se . The ground-state configuration of B9.5Se is represented by a mixture of B12(Se-Se), B12(B-Se), and B12(Se-B) with a ratio of 1:1:1, where they form a periodic A B C A B C ⋯ stacking sequence of B12(Se-Se), B12(B-Se), and B12(Se-B) layers along the c axis of the hexagonal conventional unit cell. The structural and electronic properties of the ground-state B9.5Se are also derived and discussed. By comparing the derived ground-state properties of B9.5Se to the existing experimental data of boron subselenide B˜13Se , I proposed that the as-synthesized boron subselenide B˜13Se , as reported in the literature, has the actual composition of B9.5Se .

  16. Utility of Boron in Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Jackson, David G; Cardwell, Leah A; Oussedik, Elias; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-08-09

    Boron compounds are being investigated as therapies for dermatologic conditions. Several features of boron chemistry make this element an ideal component in dermatologic treatments. We review the published dermatologically-relevant clinical trials and case studies pertaining to boron compounds. PubMed was utilized to query terms boron, chemistry, drug, development, dermatology, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, onychomycosis, tavaborole, AN 2690, crisaborole, and AN 2728. Clinical trials, case studies, animal studies and in vitro studies. pertaining to atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and onychomycosis were included. Crisaborole 2% topical solution reduced atopic dermatitis lesions by approximately 60% when compared to pre-treatment baseline. Crisaborole maintains its dose-dependent effect in treatment of psoriasis and significantly reduces psoriatic plaques when compared to controls. Adverse effects were mild, frequency of events varied between studies. Crisaborole was well tolerated when applied to sensitive skin. Topical tavaborole significantly reduced or eliminated onychomycosis with minimal side effects compared to placebo. Tavaborole was effective in treating recalcitrant onychomycosis. Boron-based compounds form stable interactions with enzyme targets and are safe medications for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and onychomycosis. The mild and rare side effects of topical boron-based compounds may make them ideal treatments for individuals with sensitive skin and pediatric populations.

  17. Heteronuclear Metal Cluster Compounds Synthesis and Reactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-10

    important role in the formation of complexes with heteronuclear metal - metal bonds. Since this is our Final Report recent results are reported and...DTe FL’ Copy AFOSR-86-0125 Lfl X’ HETERONUCLEAR METAL CLUSTER COMPOUNDS00 SYNTHESIS AND REACTIVITY F. Gordon A. Stone, IDepartment of Inorganic...Security Classification) HETERONUCLEAR METAL CLUSTER COMPOUNDS: SYNTHESIS AND REACTIVITY 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) F. GORDON A. STONE 13a. TYPE OF REPORT

  18. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on the mineral, boron. Boron compounds, particularly borates, have more commercial applications than its elemental relative which is a metalloid. Making up the 90% of the borates that are used worldwide are colemanite, kernite, tincal, and ulexite. The main borate deposits are located in the Mojave Desert of the U.S., the Tethyan belt in southern Asia, and the Andean belt of South America. Underground and surface mining are being used in gathering boron compounds. INSETS: Fun facts;Boron production and consumption.

  19. Biological activity of N(4)-boronated derivatives of 2'-deoxycytidine, potential agents for boron-neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nizioł, Joanna; Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Sekuła, Justyna; Ruman, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary anticancer therapy that requires boron compound for nuclear reaction during which high energy alpha particles and lithium nuclei are formed. Unnatural, boron-containing nucleoside with hydrophobic pinacol moiety was investigated as a potential BNCT boron delivery agent. Biological properties of this compound are presented for the first time and prove that boron nucleoside has low cytotoxicity and that observed apoptotic effects suggest alteration of important functions of cancer cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of DNA from cancer cells proved that boron nucleoside is inserted into nucleic acids as a functional nucleotide derivative. NMR studies present very high degree of similarity of natural dG-dC base pair with dG-boron nucleoside system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low work function, stable compound clusters and generation process

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; Balooch, Mehdi; Schildbach, Marcus A.; Hamza, Alex V.; McLean, II, William

    2000-01-01

    Low work function, stable compound clusters are generated by co-evaporation of a solid semiconductor (i.e., Si) and alkali metal (i.e., Cs) elements in an oxygen environment. The compound clusters are easily patterned during deposition on substrate surfaces using a conventional photo-resist technique. The cluster size distribution is narrow, with a peak range of angstroms to nanometers depending on the oxygen pressure and the Si source temperature. Tests have shown that compound clusters when deposited on a carbon substrate contain the desired low work function property and are stable up to 600.degree. C. Using the patterned cluster containing plate as a cathode baseplate and a faceplate covered with phosphor as an anode, one can apply a positive bias to the faceplate to easily extract electrons and obtain illumination.

  1. A novel carborane analog, BE360, with a carbon-containing polyhedral boron-cluster is a new selective estrogen receptor modulator for bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, Michiko; Inada, Masaki; Matsumoto, Chiho

    Carboranes are a class of carbon-containing polyhedral boron-cluster compounds with globular geometry and hydrophobic surface that interact with hormone receptors. Estrogen deficiency results in marked bone loss due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption in females, but estrogen replacement therapy is not generally used for postmenopausal osteoporosis due to the risk of uterine cancer. We synthesized a novel carborane compound BE360 to clarify its anti-osteoporosis activity. BE360 showed a high binding affinity to estrogen receptors (ER), ER{alpha} and ER{beta}. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, femoral bone volume was markedly reduced and BE360 dose-dependently restored bone loss in OVX mice. However, BE360 didmore » not exhibit any estrogenic activity in the uterus. BE360 also restored bone loss in orchidectomized mice without androgenic action in the sex organs. Therefore, BE360 is a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that may offer a new therapy option for osteoporosis.« less

  2. Hollow boron nitride nanospheres as boron reservoir for prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Wang, Xiupeng; Zhang, Jun; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Wang, Xuebin; Weng, Qunhong; Ito, Atsuo; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    High global incidence of prostate cancer has led to a focus on prevention and treatment strategies to reduce the impact of this disease in public health. Boron compounds are increasingly recognized as preventative and chemotherapeutic agents. However, systemic administration of soluble boron compounds is hampered by their short half-life and low effectiveness. Here we report on hollow boron nitride (BN) spheres with controlled crystallinity and boron release that decrease cell viability and increase prostate cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo experiments on subcutaneous tumour mouse models treated with BN spheres demonstrated significant suppression of tumour growth. An orthotopic tumour growth model was also utilized and further confirmed the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of BN spheres. Moreover, the administration of hollow BN spheres with paclitaxel leads to synergetic effects in the suppression of tumour growth. The work demonstrates that hollow BN spheres may function as a new agent for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:28059072

  3. Fullerene-like boron clusters stabilized by an endohedrally doped iron atom: B(n)Fe with n = 14, 16, 18 and 20.

    PubMed

    Tam, Nguyen Minh; Pham, Hung Tan; Duong, Long Van; Pham-Ho, My Phuong; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2015-02-07

    Stabilized fullerene and tubular forms can be produced in boron clusters Bn in small sizes from n∼ 14 to 20 upon doping by transition metal atoms. B14Fe and B16Fe are stable tubes whereas B18Fe and B20Fe are stable fullerenes. Their formation and stability suggest the use of dopants to induce different growth paths leading to larger cages, fullerenes and tubes of boron.

  4. Boron chemicals in diagnosis and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bhaskar C; Thapa, Pritam; Karki, Radha; Schinke, Caroline; Das, Sasmita; Kambhampati, Suman; Banerjee, Sushanta K; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Verma, Amit; Weiss, Louis M; Evans, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the field of boron chemistry have expanded the application of boron from material use to medicine. Boron-based drugs represent a new class of molecules that possess several biomedical applications including use as imaging agents for both optical and nuclear imaging as well as therapeutic agents with anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and other disease-specific activities. For example, bortezomib (Velcade®), the only drug in clinical use with boron as an active element, was approved in 2003 as a proteasome inhibitor for the treatment of multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Several other boron-based compounds are in various phases of clinical trials, which illustrates the promise of this approach for medicinal chemists working in the area of boron chemistry. It is expected that in the near future, several boron-containing drugs should become available in the market with better efficacy and potency than existing drugs. This article discusses the current status of the development of boron-based compounds as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in humans. PMID:23617429

  5. Effect of functionalization of boron nitride flakes by main group metal clusters on their optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debdutta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2017-10-01

    The possibility of functionalizing boron nitride flakes (BNFs) with some selected main group metal clusters, viz. OLi4, NLi5, CLi6, BLI7 and Al12Be, has been analyzed with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) based computations. Thermochemical as well as energetic considerations suggest that all the metal clusters interact with the BNF moiety in a favorable fashion. As a result of functionalization, the static (first) hyperpolarizability (β ) values of the metal cluster supported BNF moieties increase quite significantly as compared to that in the case of pristine BNF. Time dependent DFT analysis reveals that the metal clusters can lower the transition energies associated with the dominant electronic transitions quite significantly thereby enabling the metal cluster supported BNF moieties to exhibit significant non-linear optical activity. Moreover, the studied systems demonstrate broad band absorption capability spanning the UV-visible as well as infra-red domains. Energy decomposition analysis reveals that the electrostatic interactions principally stabilize the metal cluster supported BNF moieties.

  6. Effect of functionalization of boron nitride flakes by main group metal clusters on their optoelectronic properties.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Debdutta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2017-10-25

    The possibility of functionalizing boron nitride flakes (BNFs) with some selected main group metal clusters, viz. OLi 4 , NLi 5 , CLi 6 , BLI 7 and Al 12 Be, has been analyzed with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) based computations. Thermochemical as well as energetic considerations suggest that all the metal clusters interact with the BNF moiety in a favorable fashion. As a result of functionalization, the static (first) hyperpolarizability ([Formula: see text]) values of the metal cluster supported BNF moieties increase quite significantly as compared to that in the case of pristine BNF. Time dependent DFT analysis reveals that the metal clusters can lower the transition energies associated with the dominant electronic transitions quite significantly thereby enabling the metal cluster supported BNF moieties to exhibit significant non-linear optical activity. Moreover, the studied systems demonstrate broad band absorption capability spanning the UV-visible as well as infra-red domains. Energy decomposition analysis reveals that the electrostatic interactions principally stabilize the metal cluster supported BNF moieties.

  7. Electronic structures and thermochemical properties of the small silicon-doped boron clusters B(n)Si (n=1-7) and their anions.

    PubMed

    Tai, Truong Ba; Kadłubański, Paweł; Roszak, Szczepan; Majumdar, Devashis; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2011-11-18

    We perform a systematic investigation on small silicon-doped boron clusters B(n)Si (n=1-7) in both neutral and anionic states using density functional (DFT) and coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)) theories. The global minima of these B(n)Si(0/-) clusters are characterized together with their growth mechanisms. The planar structures are dominant for small B(n)Si clusters with n≤5. The B(6)Si molecule represents a geometrical transition with a quasi-planar geometry, and the first 3D global minimum is found for the B(7)Si cluster. The small neutral B(n)Si clusters can be formed by substituting the single boron atom of B(n+1) by silicon. The Si atom prefers the external position of the skeleton and tends to form bonds with its two neighboring B atoms. The larger B(7)Si cluster is constructed by doping Si-atoms on the symmetry axis of the B(n) host, which leads to the bonding of the silicon to the ring boron atoms through a number of hyper-coordination. Calculations of the thermochemical properties of B(n)Si(0/-) clusters, such as binding energies (BE), heats of formation at 0 K (ΔH(f)(0)) and 298 K (ΔH(f)([298])), adiabatic (ADE) and vertical (VDE) detachment energies, and dissociation energies (D(e)), are performed using the high accuracy G4 and complete basis-set extrapolation (CCSD(T)/CBS) approaches. The differences of heats of formation (at 0 K) between the G4 and CBS approaches for the B(n)Si clusters vary in the range of 0.0-4.6 kcal mol(-1). The largest difference between two approaches for ADE values is 0.15 eV. Our theoretical predictions also indicate that the species B(2)Si, B(4)Si, B(3)Si(-) and B(7)Si(-) are systems with enhanced stability, exhibiting each a double (σ and π) aromaticity. B(5)Si(-) and B(6)Si are doubly antiaromatic (σ and π) with lower stability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. THE BORON-CURCUMIN COMPLEX IN THE DETERMINATION OF TRACE AMOUNTS OF BORON

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, M.R.; Metcalfe, J.

    1962-12-01

    A simple and robust method is described for the formation of the complex of boron with curcumin. The sensitivity of the method is 8.0 to 8.5 x 10/sup -5/ mu g per sq. cm by Sandell's definition. Formation of the complex is believed to be quartitative under the conditions used, and some evidence is given for a ratio of boron to curcumin of 1 to 3. Methods are outlined for determining boron in some metals, compounds, and organic materials. (auth)

  9. PRN 88-2: Clustering of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Notice announces that EPA has clustered the Quaternary Ammonium Compounds into four groups for the purpose of testing chemicals to build a database that will support continued registration of the entire family of quaternary ammonium compounds

  10. Effects of manganese doping on the structure evolution of small-sized boron clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingquan; Qu, Xin; Wang, Yanchao; Lv, Jian; Zhang, Lijun; Hu, Ziyu; Gu, Guangrui; Ma, Yanming

    2017-07-01

    Atomic doping of clusters is known as an effective approach to stabilize or modify the structures and properties of resulting doped clusters. We herein report the effect of manganese (Mn) doping on the structure evolution of small-sized boron (B) clusters. The global minimum structures of both neutral and charged Mn doped B cluster \\text{MnB}nQ (n  =  10-20 and Q  =  0, ±1) have been proposed through extensive first-principles swarm-intelligence based structure searches. It is found that Mn doping has significantly modified the grow behaviors of B clusters, leading to two novel structural transitions from planar to tubular and then to cage-like B structures in both neutral and charged species. Half-sandwich-type structures are most favorable for small \\text{MnB}n-/0/+ (n  ⩽  13) clusters and gradually transform to Mn-centered double-ring tubular structures at \\text{MnB}16-/0/+ clusters with superior thermodynamic stabilities compared with their neighbors. Most strikingly, endohedral cages become the ground-state structures for larger \\text{MnB}n-/0/+ (n  ⩾  19) clusters, among which \\text{MnB}20+ adopts a highly symmetric structure with superior thermodynamic stability and a large HOMO-LUMO gap of 4.53 eV. The unique stability of the endohedral \\text{MnB}\\text{20}+ cage is attributed to the geometric fit and formation of 18-electron closed-shell configuration. The results significantly advance our understanding about the structure and bonding of B-based clusters and strongly suggest transition-metal doping as a viable route to synthesize intriguing B-based nanomaterials.

  11. New Icosahedral Boron Carbide Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria Mora, Elena Maria

    Novel semiconductor boron carbide films and boron carbide films doped with aromatic compounds have been investigated and characterized. Most of these semiconductors were formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The aromatic compound additives used, in this thesis, were pyridine (Py), aniline, and diaminobenzene (DAB). As one of the key parameters for semiconducting device functionality is the metal contact and, therefore, the chemical interactions or band bending that may occur at the metal/semiconductor interface, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy has been used to investigate the interaction of gold (Au) with these novel boron carbide-based semiconductors. Both n- and p-type films have been tested and pure boron carbide devices are compared to those containing aromatic compounds. The results show that boron carbide seems to behave differently from other semiconductors, opening a way for new analysis and approaches in device's functionality. By studying the electrical and optical properties of these films, it has been found that samples containing the aromatic compound exhibit an improvement in the electron-hole separation and charge extraction, as well as a decrease in the band gap. The hole carrier lifetimes for each sample were extracted from the capacitance-voltage, C(V), and current-voltage, I(V), curves. Additionally, devices, with boron carbide with the addition of pyridine, exhibited better collection of neutron capture generated pulses at ZERO applied bias, compared to the pure boron carbide samples. This is consistent with the longer carrier lifetimes estimated for these films. The I-V curves, as a function of external magnetic field, of the pure boron carbide films and films containing DAB demonstrate that significant room temperature negative magneto-resistance (> 100% for pure samples, and > 50% for samples containing DAB) is possible in the resulting dielectric thin films. Inclusion of DAB is not essential for significant negative magneto

  12. Stabilization of Small Boron Cage by Transition Metal Encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijun; Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Ma, Yanming

    2015-03-01

    The discovery of chemically stable fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon has been long-standing desired. On this aspect significant efforts have centered around boron, only one electron deficient compared with carbon. However, during the past decade a large number of experimental and theoretical studies have established that small boron clusters are either planar/quasi-planar or forming double-ring tubular structures. Until recently, two all-boron fullerenes have been independently discovered: B38 proposed by our structure searching calculations and B40 observed in a joint experimental and theoretical study. Here we extend our work to the even smaller boron clusters and propose an effective routine to stabilize them by transition metal encapsulation. By combining swarm-intelligence structure searching and first-principles calculations, we have systematically investigated the energy landscapes of transition-metal-doped MB24 clusters (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, Cr, Mo, W, Fe, Ru and Os). Two stable symmetric endohedral boron cages, MoB24 and WB24 are identified. The stability of them can be rationalized in terms of their unique 18-electron closed-shell electronic structures. Funded by Recruitment Program of Global Experts of China and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

  13. Effect of boron compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of injection molded wood plastic composites

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Zeki Candan; Umit Buyuksari; Erkan Avci

    2011-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) incorporated with different levels of boron compounds, borax/boric acid (BX/BA) (0.5:0.5 wt %) and zinc borate (ZB) (4, 8, or 12 wt %) were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent loading (2, 4, or 6 wt %), maleic anhydride-grafted PP (MAPP), on the...

  14. Nanopores creation in boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadifar, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Rouzbeh; Nezhad Shirazi, Ali Hossein; Alajlan, Naif; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, molecular dynamic simulations have been conducted to investigate the nanopores creation on 10% of boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene by silicon and diamond nanoclusters. Two types of nanoclusters based on silicon and diamond are used to investigate their effect for the fabrication of nanopores. Therefore, three different diameter sizes of the clusters with five kinetic energies of 10, 50, 100, 300 and 500 eV/atom at four different locations in boron or nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets have been perused. We also study the effect of 3% and 6% of boron doped polycrystalline graphene with the best outcome from 10% of doping. Our results reveal that the diamond cluster with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm fabricates the largest nanopore areas on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene, respectively. Furthermore, the kinetic energies of 10 and 50 eV/atom can not fabricate nanopores in some cases for silicon and diamond clusters on boron doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets. On the other hand, silicon and diamond clusters fabricate nanopores for all locations and all tested energies on nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene. The area sizes of nanopores fabricated by silicon and diamond clusters with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm are close to the actual area size of the related clusters for the kinetic energy of 300 eV/atom in all locations on boron doped polycrystalline graphene. The maximum area and the average maximum area of nanopores are fabricated by the kinetic energy of 500 eV/atom inside the grain boundary at the center of the nanosheet and in the corner of nanosheet with diameters of 2 and 3 nm for silicon and diamond clusters on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene.

  15. Development and application of colorimetric microassay for determining boron-containing compounds

    Treesearch

    S. Nami Kartal; Frederick Green

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a microsssay for boron and the application of this microassay for evaluating leachability of boron by post-treatment of southern pine with the calcium precipitating agent NHA (N'N-napthaloylhydroxylamine). The microsssay method for quantitative estimation of boron content in treated wood and leachates is a microadaptation of...

  16. Thermal expansion of boron subnitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherednichenko, Kirill A.; Gigli, Lara; Solozhenko, Vladimir L.

    2018-07-01

    The lattice parameters of two boron subnitrides, B13N2 and B50N2, have been measured as a function of temperature between 298 and 1273 K, and the corresponding thermal expansion coefficients have been determined. Thermal expansion of both boron subnitrides was found to be quasi-linear, and the volume thermal expansion coefficients of B50N2 (15.7 (2) × 10-6 K-1) and B13N2 (21.3 (2) × 10-6 K-1) are of the same order of magnitude as those of boron-rich compounds with structure related to α-rhombohedral boron. For both boron subnitrides no temperature-induced phase transitions have been observed in the temperature range under study.

  17. Electrochemical oxidation of nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds at boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xuan; Zhu, Xiuping; Li, Hongna; Jiang, Yi; Ni, Jinren

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) are toxic and bio-refractory contaminants widely spread in environment. This study investigated electrochemical degradation of NHCs at boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode with particular attention to the effect of different number and position of nitrogen atoms in molecular structure. Five classical NHCs with similar structures including indole (ID), quinoline (QL), isoquinoline (IQL), benzotriazole (BT) and benzimidazole (BM) were selected as the target compounds. Results of bulk electrolysis showed that degradation of all NHCs was fit to a pseudo first-order equation. The five compounds were degraded with the following sequence: ID>QL>IQL>BT>BM in terms of their rates of oxidation. Quantum chemical calculation was combined with experimental results to describe the degradation character of NHCs at BDD anode. A linear relationship between degradation rate and delocalization energy was observed, which demonstrated that electronic charge was redistributed through the conjugation system and accumulated at the active sites under the attack of hydroxyl radicals produced at BDD anode. Moreover, atom charge was calculated by semi empirical PM3 method and active sites of NHCs were identified respectively. Analysis of intermediates by GC-MS showed agreement with calculation results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gamma-ray irradiation enhanced boron-10 compound accumulation in murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Nagata, Kenji; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Kashino, Genro; Kinashi, Yuko; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that X-ray irradiation affects angiogenesis in tumors. Here, we studied the effects of gamma-ray irradiation on boron-10 compound accumulation in a murine tumor model. The mouse squamous cell carcinoma was irradiated with gamma-ray before BSH ((10)B-enriched borocaptate sodium) administration. Then, the boron-10 concentrations in tumor and normal muscle tissues were measured by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry (PGA). A tumor blood flow assay was performed, and cell killing effects of neutron irradiation with various combinations of BSH and gamma-rays were also examined. BSH concentrations of tumor tissues were 16.1 +/- 0.6 microg/g, 16.7 +/- 0.5 microg/g and 17.8 +/- 0.5 microg/g at 72 hours after gamma-ray irradiation at doses of 5, 10, and 20 Gy, compared with 13.1 +/- 0.5 microg/g in unirradiated tumor tissues. The enhancing inhibition of colony formation by neutron irradiation with BSH was also found after gamma-ray irradiation. In addition, increasing Hoechst 33342 perfusion was also observed. In this study, we demonstrated that gamma-ray irradiation enhances BSH accumulation in tumors. The present results suggest that the enhancement of (10)B concentration that occurs after gamma-ray irradiation may be due to the changes in the extracellular microenvironment, including in tumor vessels, induced by gamma-ray irradiation.

  19. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1997-03-18

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  20. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1995-10-03

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  1. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1997-08-05

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized. by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na.sub.4 B.sub.12 I.sub.11 SSB.sub.12 I.sub.11, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy.

  2. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1995-10-03

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  3. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-03-18

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  4. Halogenated sulfidohydroboranes for nuclear medicine and boron neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1997-08-05

    A method for performing boron neutron capture therapy for the treatment of tumors is disclosed. The method includes administering to a patient an iodinated sulfidohydroborane, a boron-10-containing compound. The site of the tumor is localized by visualizing the increased concentration of the iodine labelled compound at the tumor. The targeted tumor is then irradiated with a beam of neutrons having an energy distribution effective for neutron capture. Destruction of the tumor occurs due to high LET particle irradiation of the tissue secondary to the incident neutrons being captured by the boron-10 nuclei. Iodinated sulfidohydroboranes are disclosed which are especially suitable for the method of the invention. In a preferred embodiment, a compound having the formula Na{sub 4}B{sub 12}I{sub 11}SSB{sub 12}I{sub 11}, or another pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound, may be administered to a cancer patient for boron neutron capture therapy. 1 fig.

  5. Boron nitride - Composition, optical properties, and mechanical behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at. percent. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at. percent range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  6. Boron nitride: Composition, optical properties and mechanical behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Warner, Joseph D.

    1987-01-01

    A low energy ion beam deposition technique was used to grow boron nitride films on quartz, germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide, and indium phosphate. The film structure was amorphous with evidence of a hexagonal phase. The peak boron concentration was 82 at %. The carbon and oxygen impurities were in the 5 to 8 at % range. Boron-nitrogen and boron-boron bonds were revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The index of refraction varied from 1.65 to 1.67 for films deposited on III-V compound semiconductors. The coefficient of friction for boron nitride in sliding contact with diamond was less than 0.1. The substrate was silicon.

  7. Chemical disposition of boron in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moseman, R F

    1994-01-01

    Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889870

  8. Accelerator-driven boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgecock, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a binary treatment for certain types of cancer. It works by loading the cancerous cells with a boron-10 carrying compound. This isotope has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the reaction producing a lithium nucleus and alpha particle that kill the cell in which they are produced. Recent studies of the boron carrier compound indicate that the uptake process works best in particularly aggressive cancers. Most studied is glioblastoma multiforme and a trial using a combination of BNCT and X-ray radiotherapy has shown an increase of nearly a factor of two in mean survival over the state of the art. However, the main technical problem with BNCT remains producing a sufficient flux of neutrons for a reasonable treatment duration in a hospital environment. This paper discusses this issue.

  9. Development of magnetic resonance technology for noninvasive boron quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, K.M.

    1990-11-01

    Boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) were developed in support of the noninvasive boron quantification task of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) program. The hardware and software described in this report are modifications specific to a GE Signa{trademark} MRI system, release 3.X and are necessary for boron magnetic resonance operation. The technology developed in this task has been applied to obtaining animal pharmacokinetic data of boron compounds (drug time response) and the in-vivo localization of boron in animal tissue noninvasively. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  10. The boron conundrum: Bonding in the bowl B30 and B36, fullerene B40 and triple ring B42 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hung Tan; Duong, L. V.; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Pham-Ho, M. P.; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2014-07-01

    Geometries and bonding of B30, B36, B40 and B42 clusters were studied using quantum chemical computations. The bowl B30 and B36 and planar B42 clusters exhibit disk aromaticity. Diatropic ring current is strong in B30 and weaker in B42. A fullerene-like B40 (D2d) having two hexagons and four heptagons was found as the lowest-lying isomer. Such a fullerene whose MOs closely mimic those of the buckyball B80, represents novel structural feature of boron clusters. The most stable B42 (C2h) isomer is a triple ring tube with consistent σ + π diatropic magnetic responses making it a tubular aromatic species.

  11. Boronate probes as diagnostic tools for real time monitoring of peroxynitrite and hydroperoxides

    PubMed Central

    Zielonka, Jacek; Sikora, Adam; Hardy, Micael; Joseph, Joy; Dranka, Brian P.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2012-01-01

    Boronates, a group of organic compounds, are emerging as one of the most effective probes for detecting and quantifying peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide. Boronates react with peroxynitrite nearly a million times faster than with hydrogen peroxide. Boronate-containing fluorogenic compounds have been used to monitor real time generation of peroxynitrite in cells and for imaging hydrogen peroxide in living animals. This Perspective highlights potential applications of boronates and other fluorescent probes to high-throughput analyses of peroxynitrite and hydroperoxides in toxicological studies. PMID:22731669

  12. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Boron containing compounds and their preparation and use in neutron capture therapy

    DOEpatents

    Gabel, D.

    1992-09-01

    The present invention pertains to boron containing thiouracil derivatives, their method of preparations, and their use in the therapy of malignant melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy. No Drawings

  14. Composite Reinforcement using Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-09

    while retaining the nanotube structure. This project involves the use of computational quantum chemistry to study interactions of aluminium (Al...small clusters of 1–4 metal atoms. The effect of varying the radius of the nanotubes and the size of aluminium and titanium clusters was considered...15. SUBJECT TERMS Boron Nitride Nanotubes, composite materials, Aluminum Alloys , Titanium Alloy , Theoretical Chemistry 16. SECURITY

  15. Application of boronated anti-CEA immunoliposome to tumour cell growth inhibition in in vitro boron neutron capture therapy model.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagië, H.; Tomita, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Fujii, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Hasumi, K.; Nariuchi, H.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1991-01-01

    An immunoliposome containing a 10B-compound has been examined as a selective drug delivery system in boron neutron-capture therapy. Liposomes, conjugated with monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were shown to bind selectively to cells bearing CEA on their surface. The immunoliposomes attached to tumour cells suppressed growth in vitro upon thermal neutron irradiation and suppression was dependent upon the concentration of the 10B-compound in the liposomes and on the density of antibody conjugated to the liposomes. The results suggest that immunoliposomes containing the 10B-compound could act as a selective and efficient carrier of 10B atoms to target tumour cells in boron neutron-capture therapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2021537

  16. Tuning the Colors of the Dark Isomers of Photochromic Boron Compounds with Fluoride Ions: Four-State Color Switching.

    PubMed

    Mellerup, Soren K; Rao, Ying-Li; Amarne, Hazem; Wang, Suning

    2016-09-02

    Combining a three-coordinated boron (BMes2) moiety with a four-coordinated photochromic organoboron unit leads to a series of new diboron compounds that undergo four-state reversible color switching in response to stimuli of light, heat, and fluoride ions. Thus, these hybrid diboron systems allow both convenient color tuning/switching of such photochromic systems, as well as visual fluoride sensing by color or fluorescent emission color change.

  17. Fine-tuning the nucleophilic reactivities of boron ate complexes derived from aryl and heteroaryl boronic esters.

    PubMed

    Berionni, Guillaume; Leonov, Artem I; Mayer, Peter; Ofial, Armin R; Mayr, Herbert

    2015-02-23

    Boron ate complexes derived from thienyl and furyl boronic esters and aryllithium compounds have been isolated and characterized by X-ray crystallography. Products and mechanisms of their reactions with carbenium and iminium ions have been analyzed. Kinetics of these reactions were monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy, and the influence of the aryl substituents, the diol ligands (pinacol, ethylene glycol, neopentyl glycol, catechol), and the counterions on the nucleophilic reactivity of the boron ate complexes were examined. A Hammett correlation confirmed the polar nature of their reactions with benzhydrylium ions, and the correlation lg k(20 °C)=sN (E+N) was employed to determine the nucleophilicities of the boron ate complexes and to compare them with those of other borates and boronates. The neopentyl and ethylene glycol derivatives were found to be 10(4) times more reactive than the pinacol and catechol derivatives. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Boronization on NSTX using Deuterated Trimethylboron

    SciTech Connect

    W.R. Blanchard; R.C. Gernhardt; H.W. Kugel

    2002-01-28

    Boronization on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has proved to be quite beneficial with increases in confinement and density, and decreases in impurities observed in the plasma. The boron has been applied to the interior surfaces of NSTX, about every 2 to 3 weeks of plasma operation, by producing a glow discharge in the vacuum vessel using deuterated trimethylboron (TMB) in a 10% mixture with helium. Special NSTX requirements restricted the selection of the candidate boronization method to the use of deuterated boron compounds. Deuterated TMB met these requirements, but is a hazardous gas and special care in themore » execution of the boronization process is required. This paper describes the existing GDC, Gas Injection, and Torus Vacuum Pumping System hardware used for this process, the glow discharge process, and the automated control system that allows for remote operation to maximize both the safety and efficacy of applying the boron coating. The administrative requirements and the detailed procedure for the setup, operation and shutdown of the process are also described.« less

  19. Three-chain B{sub 6n+14} cages as possible precursors for the syntheses of boron fullerenes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Haigang, E-mail: luhg@sxu.edu.cn; Li, Si-Dian

    Using the first principle methods, we proposed a series of three-chain boron cages B{sub 6n+14} (n = 1–12) which are mainly built by fusing three boron semi-double-rings. Their simple geometric structures (approximate D{sub 3} or C{sub 3} symmetry) facilitate their bottom-up syntheses from the hexagonal B{sub 7} and the double-chain boron clusters, such as B{sub 2}, B{sub 4}, B{sub 6}, B{sub 8}H{sub 2}, B{sub 10}H{sub 2}, B{sub 12}H{sub 2}, and the double ring B{sub 20}. The spherical shapes of these three-chain boron cages show that they could be taken as the possible precursors to further synthesize the boron fullerenes, suchmore » as B{sub 80}. Therefore, these three-chain boron cages provide a possible synthesis pathway of the boron fullerenes from the experimentally synthesized small planar boron clusters.« less

  20. Isotope engineering of van der Waals interactions in hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, T. Q. P.; Liu, S.; van der Lee, A.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.; Michel, T.; Valvin, P.; Edgar, J. H.; Cassabois, G.; Gil, B.

    2018-02-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride is a model lamellar compound where weak, non-local van der Waals interactions ensure the vertical stacking of two-dimensional honeycomb lattices made of strongly bound boron and nitrogen atoms. We study the isotope engineering of lamellar compounds by synthesizing hexagonal boron nitride crystals with nearly pure boron isotopes (10B and 11B) compared to those with the natural distribution of boron (20 at% 10B and 80 at% 11B). On the one hand, as with standard semiconductors, both the phonon energy and electronic bandgap varied with the boron isotope mass, the latter due to the quantum effect of zero-point renormalization. On the other hand, temperature-dependent experiments focusing on the shear and breathing motions of adjacent layers revealed the specificity of isotope engineering in a layered material, with a modification of the van der Waals interactions upon isotope purification. The electron density distribution is more diffuse between adjacent layers in 10BN than in 11BN crystals. Our results open perspectives in understanding and controlling van der Waals bonding in layered materials.

  1. Isotope engineering of van der Waals interactions in hexagonal boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Vuong, T Q P; Liu, S; Van der Lee, A; Cuscó, R; Artús, L; Michel, T; Valvin, P; Edgar, J H; Cassabois, G; Gil, B

    2018-02-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride is a model lamellar compound where weak, non-local van der Waals interactions ensure the vertical stacking of two-dimensional honeycomb lattices made of strongly bound boron and nitrogen atoms. We study the isotope engineering of lamellar compounds by synthesizing hexagonal boron nitride crystals with nearly pure boron isotopes ( 10 B and 11 B) compared to those with the natural distribution of boron (20 at% 10 B and 80 at% 11 B). On the one hand, as with standard semiconductors, both the phonon energy and electronic bandgap varied with the boron isotope mass, the latter due to the quantum effect of zero-point renormalization. On the other hand, temperature-dependent experiments focusing on the shear and breathing motions of adjacent layers revealed the specificity of isotope engineering in a layered material, with a modification of the van der Waals interactions upon isotope purification. The electron density distribution is more diffuse between adjacent layers in 10 BN than in 11 BN crystals. Our results open perspectives in understanding and controlling van der Waals bonding in layered materials.

  2. Lipase-catalyzed highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Leandro H; Barcellos, Thiago

    2009-07-16

    The first application of enzymes as catalysts to obtain optically pure boron compounds is described. The kinetic resolution of boron-containing chiral alcohols via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipases was studied. Aromatic, allylic, and aliphatic secondary alcohols containing a boronate ester or boronic acid group were resolved by lipase from Candida antartica (CALB), and excellent E values (E > 200) and high enantiomeric excesses (up to >99%) of both remaining substrates and acetylated product were obtained.

  3. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/boron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, J.R.; Manos, D.; Nartowitz, E.

    1994-12-13

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod. 2 figures.

  4. Effects of boron derivatives on extracellular matrix formation.

    PubMed

    Benderdour, M; Van Bui, T; Hess, K; Dicko, A; Belleville, F; Dousset, B

    2000-10-01

    Boric acid solution (3%) dramatically improves wound healing through action on the extracellular matrix, a finding that has been obtained in vitro. Consequently, investigations are presently underway to produce boronated compounds having a therapeutical effectiveness similar to that of boric acid. On the basis of experimental results obtained with boric acid, we examined the effects of boron derivatives on extracellular matrix formation and degradation and analyzed their potential toxicity by using two biological models (chick embryo cartilage and human fibroblasts). The four boron derivatives tested in this study (triethanolamine borate; N-diethyl-phosphoramidate-propylboronique acid; 2,2 dimethylhexyl-1,3-propanediol-aminopropylboronate and 1,2 propanediol-aminopropylboronate) mimicked the effects of boric acid. They induced a decrease of intracellular concentrations in extracellular matrix macromolecules (proteoglycans, proteins)-associated with an increase of their release in culture medium and stimulated the activity of intra- and extracellular proteases. Similarly to boric acid, these actions occurred after exposure of the cells to concentrations of all boron derivatives without apparent toxic effects. The compounds were found to be more toxic than boric acid itself when concentrations were calculated according to their molecular weight. Nevertheless, these in vitro preliminary results demonstrate effects of boron derivatives that may be of therapeutic benefit in wound repair.

  5. Ionic High-Pressure Form of Elemental Boron

    SciTech Connect

    Oganov, A.; Chen, J; Gatti, C

    2009-01-01

    This Letter presents the results of high-pressure experiments and ab initio evolutionary crystal structure predictions, and found a new boron phase that we named gamma-B28. This phase is comprised of icosahedral B12 clusters and B2 pairs in a NaCl-type arrangement, stable between 19 and 89 GPa, and exhibits evidence for charge transfer (for which our best estimate is delta approximately 0.48) between the constituent clusters to give (B2)delta+(B12)delta-. We have recently found that the same high-pressure boron phase may have given rise to the Bragg reflections reported by Wentorf in 1965 (ref. 1), although the chemical composition was not analysedmore » and the data (subsequently deleted from the Powder Diffraction File database) seems to not have been used to propose a structure model. We also note that although we used the terms 'partially ionic' and 'ionic' to emphasize the polar nature of the high-pressure boron phase and the influence this polarity has on several physical properties of the elemental phase, the chemical bonding in gamma-B28 is predominantly covalent.« less

  6. Depth resolved investigations of boron implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztucki, M.; Metzger, T. H.; Milita, S.; Berberich, F.; Schell, N.; Rouvière, J. L.; Patel, J.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the depth distribution and structure of defects in boron implanted silicon (0 0 1). Silicon wafers were implanted with a boron dose of 6×10 15 ions/cm -2 at 32 keV and went through different annealing treatments. Using diffuse X-ray scattering at grazing incidence and exit angles we are able to distinguish between different kinds of defects (point defect clusters and extrinsic stacking faults on {1 1 1} planes) and to determine their depth distribution as a function of the thermal budget. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy was used to gain complementary information. In addition we have determined the strain distribution caused by the boron implantation as a function of depth from rocking curve measurements.

  7. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Electron spectroscopic imaging of antigens by reaction with boronated antibodies.

    PubMed

    Qualmann, B; Kessels, M M; Klobasa, F; Jungblut, P W; Sierralta, W D

    1996-07-01

    Two small homogeneous markers for electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) containing eight dodecaborane cages linked to a poly-alpha, epsilon-L-lysine dendrimer were synthesized; one of these was made water soluble by the attachment of a polyether. The markers were coupled to the sulfhydryl group of (monovalent) antibody fragments (Fab') by a homobifunctional cross-linker. While the coupling ratios of the poorly water-soluble compound did not exceed 20%, the polyether-containing variant reacted quantitatively. Its suitability for immunolabelling was tested in a study of the mechanism of the transcellular transport of an administered heterologous protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) through ileal enterocytes of newborn piglets by endocytotic vesicles in comparison to conventional immunogold reagents. The post-embedding technique was employed. The boronated Fab' gave rise to considerably higher tagging frequencies than seen with immunogold, as could be expected from its form- and size-related physical advantages and the dense packing of BSA in the vesicles. The new probe, carrying the antigen-combining cleft at one end and the boron clusters at the opposite end of the oval-shaped conjugate, add to the potential of ESI-based immunocytochemistry.

  9. Raman effect in icosahedral boron-rich solids

    PubMed Central

    Werheit, Helmut; Filipov, Volodymyr; Kuhlmann, Udo; Schwarz, Ulrich; Armbrüster, Marc; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Tanaka, Takaho; Higashi, Iwami; Lundström, Torsten; Gurin, Vladimir N; Korsukova, Maria M

    2010-01-01

    We present Raman spectra of numerous icosahedral boron-rich solids having the structure of α-rhombohedral, β-rhombohedral, α-tetragonal, β-tetragonal, YB66, orthorhombic or amorphous boron. The spectra were newly measured and, in some cases, compared with reported data and discussed. We emphasize the importance of a high signal-to-noise ratio in the Raman spectra for detecting weak effects evoked by the modification of compounds, accommodation of interstitial atoms and other structural defects. Vibrations of the icosahedra, occurring in all the spectra, are interpreted using the description of modes in α-rhombohedral boron by Beckel et al. The Raman spectrum of boron carbide is largely clarified. Relative intra- and inter-icosahedral bonding forces are estimated for the different structural groups and for vanadium-doped β-rhombohedral boron. The validity of Badger's rule is demonstrated for the force constants of inter-icosahedral B–B bonds, whereas the agreement is less satisfactory for the intra-icosahedral B–B bonds. PMID:27877328

  10. Electroextraction of boron from boron carbide scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ashish; Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in; Ghosh, C.

    2013-10-15

    Studies were carried out to extract elemental boron from boron carbide scrap. The physicochemical nature of boron obtained through this process was examined by characterizing its chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size. The microstructural characteristics of the extracted boron powder were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopic examination of boron powder was also carried out to determine its crystalline form. Oxygen and carbon were found to be the major impurities in boron. Boron powder of purity ∼ 92 wt. % could be produced by the electroextraction processmore » developed in this study. Optimized method could be used for the recovery of enriched boron ({sup 10}B > 20 at. %) from boron carbide scrap generated during the production of boron carbide. - Highlights: • Recovery of {sup 10}B from nuclear grade boron carbide scrap • Development of process flow sheet • Physicochemical characterization of electroextracted boron • Microscopic examination of electroextracted boron.« less

  11. Composition Formulas of Inorganic Compounds in Terms of Cluster Plus Glue Atom Model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanping; Dong, Dandan; Wu, Aimin; Dong, Chuang

    2018-01-16

    The present paper attempts to identify the molecule-like structural units in inorganic compounds, by applying the so-called "cluster plus glue atom model". This model, originating from metallic glasses and quasi-crystals, describes any structure in terms of a nearest-neighbor cluster and a few outer-shell glue atoms, expressed in the cluster formula [cluster](glue atoms). Similar to the case for normal molecules where the charge transfer occurs within the molecule to meet the commonly known octet electron rule, the octet state is reached after matching the nearest-neighbor cluster with certain outer-shell glue atoms. These kinds of structural units contain information on local atomic configuration, chemical composition, and electron numbers, just as for normal molecules. It is shown that the formulas of typical inorganic compounds, such as fluorides, oxides, and nitrides, satisfy a similar octet electron rule, with the total number of valence electrons per unit formula being multiples of eight.

  12. Fluorescent sensors based on boronic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Christopher R.; James, Tony D.

    1999-05-01

    Sensor systems have long been needed for detecting the presence in solution of certain chemically or biologically important species. Sensors are used in a wide range of applications from simple litmus paper that shows a single color change in acidic or basic environments to complex biological assays that use enzymes, antibodies and antigens to display binding events. With this work the use of boronic acids in the design and synthesis of sensors for saccharides (diols) will be presented. The fluorescent sensory systems rely on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) to modulate the observed fluorescence. When saccharides form cyclic boronate esters with boronic acids, the Lewis acidity of the boronic acid is enhanced and therefore the Lewis acid-base interaction between the boronic acid and a neighboring amine is strengthened. The strength of this acid-base interaction modulates the PET from the amine (acting as a quencher) to anthracene (acting as a fluorophore). These compounds show increased fluorescence at neutral pH through suppression of the PET from nitrogen to anthracene on saccharide binding. The general strategy for the development of saccharide selective systems will be discussed. The potential of the boronic acid based systems will be illustrated using the development of glucose and glucosamine selective fluorescent sensors as examples.

  13. Planar CoB18- Cluster: a New Motif for - and Metallo-Borophenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Teng-Teng; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary; Li, Wan-Lu; Chen, Xin; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Combined Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical calculations have found that anion boron clusters (Bn-) are planar and quasi-planar up to B25-. Recent works show that anion pure boron clusters continued to be planar at B27-,B30-,B35- and B36-. B35- and B36- provide the first experimental evidence for the viability of the two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets (Borophene). The 2D to three-dimensional (3D) transitions are shown to happen at B40-,B39- and B28-, which possess cage-like structures. These fullerene-like boron cage clusters are named as Borospherene. Recently, borophenes or similar structures are claimed to be synthesized by several groups. Following an electronic design principle, a series of transition-metal-doped boron clusters (M©Bn-, n=8-10) are found to possess the monocyclic wheel structures. Meanwhile, CoB12- and RhB12- are revealed to adopt half-sandwich-type structures with the quasi-planar B12 moiety similar to the B12- cluster. Very lately, we show that the CoB16- cluster possesses a highly symmetric Cobalt-centered drum-like structure, with a new record of coordination number at 16. Here we report the CoB18- cluster to possess a unique planar structure, in which the Co atom is doped into the network of a planar boron cluster. PES reveals that the CoB18- cluster is a highly stable electronic system with the first adiabatic detachment energy (ADE) at 4.0 eV. Global minimum searches along with high-level quantum calculations show the global minimum for CoB18- is perfectly planar and closed shell (1A1) with C2v symmetry. The Co atom is bonded with 7 boron atoms in the closest coordination shell and the other 11 boron atoms in the outer coordination shell. The calculated vertical detachment energy (VDE) values match quite well with our experimental results. Chemical bonding analysis by the Adaptive Natural Density Partitioning (AdNDP) method shows the CoB18- cluster is π-aromatic with four 4-centered-2-electron (4c-2e) π bonds and one 19

  14. Is Boron a Prebiotic Element? A Mini-review of the Essentiality of Boron for the Appearance of Life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorei, Romulus

    2012-02-01

    Boron is probably a prebiotic element with special importance in the so-called "sugars world". Boron is not present on Earth in its elemental form. It is found only in compounds, e.g., borax, boric acid, kernite, ulexite, colemanite and other borates. Volcanic spring waters sometimes contain boron-based acids (e.g., boric, metaboric, tetraboric and pyroboric acid). Borates influence the formation of ribofuranose from formaldehyde that feeds the "prebiotic metabolic cycle". The importance of boron in the living world is strongly related to its implications in the prebiotic origins of genetic material; consequently, we believe that throughout the evolution of life, the primary role of boron has been to provide thermal and chemical stability in hostile environments. The complexation of boric acid and borates with organic cis-diols remains the most probable chemical mechanism for the role of this element in the evolution of the living world. Because borates can stabilize ribose and form borate ester nucleotides, boron may have provided an essential contribution to the "pre-RNA world".

  15. Boron-Based Nanostructures, Stability, Functionality and Synthetic Routes

    SciTech Connect

    Yakobson, Boris I.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    Boron (B) is one of the most intriguing elements not only because of its position between metals and nonmetals in periodic table but also because of its ability to form an enormous number of allotropes. Apart from several bulk three-dimensional (3D) phases, boron can form 0D clusters, 1D nanotubes and nanowires, and 2D layers. In particular, boron sheets of monoatomic thickness have raised interest as a potential new 2D-material and as a (conceptual) precursor, for example, so-called α-sheets, from which other boron structures - fullerene cages and tubes - might be constructed. In fact, a number of planar B clustersmore » up to tens of atoms, found in experiments, appear as seeds for extended sheets. In this project we developed theoretical methods to guide synthesis, have successfully identified the material substrates (Ag, Au, Cu) to producing the pure boron layers, and further even predicted what atomistic structures should be expected. These guidelines have successfully led to discoveries in several labs and now have grown into an active line of research worldwide.« less

  16. STELLAR BORON ABUNDANCES NEAR THE MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 3293 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF ROTATIONALLY DRIVEN MIXING IN STELLAR ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Lennon, Daniel J.; Langer, Norbert

    2016-06-10

    Spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph covering the B iii resonance line have been obtained for 10 early-B stars near the turnoff of the young Galactic open cluster NGC 3293. This is the first sample of boron abundance determinations in a single, clearly defined population of early-B stars that also covers a substantial range of projected rotational velocities. In most of these stars we detect partial depletion of boron at a level consistent with that expected for rotational mixing in single stars, but inconsistent with expectations for depletion from close binarymore » evolution. However, our results do suggest that the efficiency of rotational mixing is at or slightly below the low end of the range predicted by the available theoretical calculations. The two most luminous targets observed have a very large boron depletion and may be the products of either binary interactions or post-main-sequence evolution.« less

  17. Spectromicroscopy of boron in human glioblastomas following administration of Na2B12H11SH.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, B; Perfetti, L; Fauchoux, O; Redondo, J; Baudat, P A; Andres, R; Neumann, M; Steen, S; Gabel, D; Mercanti, D; Ciotti, M T; Perfetti, P; Margaritondo, G; De Stasio, G

    2000-07-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental, binary treatment for brain cancer which requires as the first step that tumor tissue is targeted with a boron-10 containing compound. Subsequent exposure to a thermal neutron flux results in destructive, short range nuclear reaction within 10 microm of the boron compound. The success of the therapy requires than the BNCT agents be well localized in tumor, rather than healthy tissue. The MEPHISTO spectromicroscope, which performs microchemical analysis by x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy from microscopic areas, has been used to study the distribution of trace quantities of boron in human brain cancer tissues surgically removed from patients first administered with the compound Na2B12H11SH (BSH). The interpretation of XANES spectra is complicated by interference from physiologically present sulfur and phosphorus, which contribute structure in the same energy range as boron. We addressed this problem with the present extensive set of spectra from S, B, and P in relevant compounds. We demonstrate that a linear combination of sulfate, phosphate and BSH XANES can be used to reproduce the spectra acquired on boron-treated human brain tumor tissues. We analyzed human glioblastoma tissue from two patients administered and one not administered with BSH. As well as weak signals attributed to BSH, x-ray absorption spectra acquired from tissue samples detected boron in a reduced chemical state with respect to boron in BSH. This chemical state was characterized by a sharp absorption peak at 188.3 eV. Complementary studies on BSH reference samples were not able to reproduce this chemical state of boron, indicating that it is not an artifact produced during sample preparation or x-ray exposure. These data demonstrate that the chemical state of BSH may be altered by in vivo metabolism.

  18. Boron-based nanostructures: Synthesis, functionalization, and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedasso, Eyrusalam Kifyalew

    Boron-based nanostructures have not been explored in detail; however, these structures have the potential to revolutionize many fields including electronics and biomedicine. The research discussed in this dissertation focuses on synthesis, functionalization, and characterization of boron-based zero-dimensional nanostructures (core/shell and nanoparticles) and one-dimensional nanostructures (nanorods). The first project investigates the synthesis and functionalization of boron-based core/shell nanoparticles. Two boron-containing core/shell nanoparticles, namely boron/iron oxide and boron/silica, were synthesized. Initially, boron nanoparticles with a diameter between 10-100 nm were prepared by decomposition of nido-decaborane (B10H14) followed by formation of a core/shell structure. The core/shell structures were prepared using the appropriate precursor, iron source and silica source, for the shell in the presence of boron nanoparticles. The formation of core/shell nanostructures was confirmed using high resolution TEM. Then, the core/shell nanoparticles underwent a surface modification. Boron/iron oxide core/shell nanoparticles were functionalized with oleic acid, citric acid, amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, folic acid, and dopamine, and boron/silica core/shell nanoparticles were modified with 3-(amino propyl) triethoxy silane, 3-(2-aminoethyleamino)propyltrimethoxysilane), citric acid, folic acid, amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, and O-(2-Carboxyethyl)polyethylene glycol. A UV-Vis and ATR-FTIR analysis established the success of surface modification. The cytotoxicity of water-soluble core/shell nanoparticles was studied in triple negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the result showed the compounds are not toxic. The second project highlights optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of boron nanorods. This synthesis, done via reduction of boron oxide with molten lithium, was studied to produce boron nanorods without any

  19. Structure and reactivity of boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Kathryn; Berionni, Guillaume; Mayr, Herbert; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2015-06-05

    Boron-ate complexes derived from primary and secondary boronic esters and aryllithiums have been isolated, and the kinetics of their reactions with carbenium ions studied. The second-order rate constants have been used to derive nucleophilicity parameters for the boron-ate complexes, revealing that nucleophilicity increased with (i) electron-donating aromatics on boron, (ii) neopentyl glycol over pinacol boronic esters, and (iii) 12-crown-4 ether.

  20. Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds

    DOEpatents

    Aselage, Terrence L.; Emin, David

    2002-01-01

    A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

  1. Next generation of the self-consistent and environment-dependent Hamiltonian: Applications to various boron allotropes from zero- to three-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandy, P.; Yu, Ming; Leahy, C.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.

    2015-03-01

    An upgrade of the previous self-consistent and environment-dependent linear combination of atomic orbitals Hamiltonian (referred as SCED-LCAO) has been developed. This improved version of the semi-empirical SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian, in addition to the inclusion of self-consistent determination of charge redistribution, multi-center interactions, and modeling of electron-electron correlation, has taken into account the effect excited on the orbitals due to the atomic aggregation. This important upgrade has been subjected to a stringent test, the construction of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian for boron. It was shown that the Hamiltonian for boron has successfully characterized the electron deficiency of boron and captured the complex chemical bonding in various boron allotropes, including the planar and quasi-planar, the convex, the ring, the icosahedral, and the fullerene-like clusters, the two-dimensional monolayer sheets, and the bulk alpha boron, demonstrating its transferability, robustness, reliability, and predictive power. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme based on the Hamiltonian has been applied to explore the existence and the energetics of ˜230 compact boron clusters BN with N in the range from ˜100 to 768, including the random, the rhombohedral, and the spherical icosahedral structures. It was found that, energetically, clusters containing whole icosahedral B12 units are more stable for boron clusters of larger size (N > 200). The ease with which the simulations both at 0 K and finite temperatures were completed is a demonstration of the efficiency of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian.

  2. Solid-state NMR/NQR and first-principles study of two niobium halide cluster compounds.

    PubMed

    Perić, Berislav; Gautier, Régis; Pickard, Chris J; Bosiočić, Marko; Grbić, Mihael S; Požek, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Two hexanuclear niobium halide cluster compounds with a [Nb6X12](2+) (X=Cl, Br) diamagnetic cluster core, have been studied by a combination of experimental solid-state NMR/NQR techniques and PAW/GIPAW calculations. For niobium sites the NMR parameters were determined by using variable Bo field static broadband NMR measurements and additional NQR measurements. It was found that they possess large positive chemical shifts, contrary to majority of niobium compounds studied so far by solid-state NMR, but in accordance with chemical shifts of (95)Mo nuclei in structurally related compounds containing [Mo6Br8](4+) cluster cores. Experimentally determined δiso((93)Nb) values are in the range from 2,400 to 3,000 ppm. A detailed analysis of geometrical relations between computed electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors with respect to structural features of cluster units was carried out. These tensors on niobium sites are almost axially symmetric with parallel orientation of the largest EFG and the smallest CS principal axes (Vzz and δ33) coinciding with the molecular four-fold axis of the [Nb6X12](2+) unit. Bridging halogen sites are characterized by large asymmetry of EFG and CS tensors, the largest EFG principal axis (Vzz) is perpendicular to the X-Nb bonds, while intermediate EFG principal axis (Vyy) and the largest CS principal axis (δ11) are oriented in the radial direction with respect to the center of the cluster unit. For more symmetrical bromide compound the PAW predictions for EFG parameters are in better correspondence with the NMR/NQR measurements than in the less symmetrical chlorine compound. Theoretically predicted NMR parameters of bridging halogen sites were checked by (79/81)Br NQR and (35)Cl solid-state NMR measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Observation of an all-boron fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hua-Jin; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Li, Wei-Li; Chen, Qiang; Bai, Hui; Hu, Han-Shi; Piazza, Zachary A.; Tian, Wen-Juan; Lu, Hai-Gang; Wu, Yan-Bo; Mu, Yue-Wen; Wei, Guang-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Pan; Li, Jun; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    After the discovery of fullerene-C60, it took almost two decades for the possibility of boron-based fullerene structures to be considered. So far, there has been no experimental evidence for these nanostructures, in spite of the progress made in theoretical investigations of their structure and bonding. Here we report the observation, by photoelectron spectroscopy, of an all-boron fullerene-like cage cluster at B40- with an extremely low electron-binding energy. Theoretical calculations show that this arises from a cage structure with a large energy gap, but that a quasi-planar isomer of B40- with two adjacent hexagonal holes is slightly more stable than the fullerene structure. In contrast, for neutral B40 the fullerene-like cage is calculated to be the most stable structure. The surface of the all-boron fullerene, bonded uniformly via delocalized σ and π bonds, is not perfectly smooth and exhibits unusual heptagonal faces, in contrast to C60 fullerene.

  4. Observation of an all-boron fullerene.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Hua-Jin; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Li, Wei-Li; Chen, Qiang; Bai, Hui; Hu, Han-Shi; Piazza, Zachary A; Tian, Wen-Juan; Lu, Hai-Gang; Wu, Yan-Bo; Mu, Yue-Wen; Wei, Guang-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Pan; Li, Jun; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    After the discovery of fullerene-C60, it took almost two decades for the possibility of boron-based fullerene structures to be considered. So far, there has been no experimental evidence for these nanostructures, in spite of the progress made in theoretical investigations of their structure and bonding. Here we report the observation, by photoelectron spectroscopy, of an all-boron fullerene-like cage cluster at B40(-) with an extremely low electron-binding energy. Theoretical calculations show that this arises from a cage structure with a large energy gap, but that a quasi-planar isomer of B40(-) with two adjacent hexagonal holes is slightly more stable than the fullerene structure. In contrast, for neutral B40 the fullerene-like cage is calculated to be the most stable structure. The surface of the all-boron fullerene, bonded uniformly via delocalized σ and π bonds, is not perfectly smooth and exhibits unusual heptagonal faces, in contrast to C60 fullerene.

  5. Dissolution and Characterization of Boron Nitride Nanotubes in Superacid.

    PubMed

    Kleinerman, Olga; Adnan, Mohammed; Marincel, Daniel M; Ma, Anson W K; Bengio, E Amram; Park, Cheol; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Pasquali, Matteo; Talmon, Yeshayahu

    2017-12-19

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are of interest for their unique combination of high tensile strength, high electrical resistivity, high neutron cross section, and low reactivity. The fastest route to employing these properties in composites and macroscopic articles is through solution processing. However, dispersing BNNTs without functionalization or use of a surfactant is challenging. We show here by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy that BNNTs spontaneously dissolve in chlorosulfonic acid as disentangled individual molecules. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of BNNTs dried from the solution confirms preservation of the sp 2 hybridization for boron and nitrogen, eliminating the possibility of BNNT functionalization or damage. The length and diameter of the BNNTs was statistically calculated to be ∼4.5 μm and ∼4 nm, respectively. Interestingly, bent or otherwise damaged BNNTs are filled by chlorosulfonic acid. Additionally, nanometer-sized synthesis byproducts, including boron nitride clusters, isolated single and multilayer hexagonal boron nitride, and boron particles, were identified. Dissolution in superacid provides a route for solution processing BNNTs without altering their chemical structure.

  6. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy - A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nedunchezhian, Kavitaa; Thiruppathy, Manigandan; Thirugnanamurthy, Sarumathi

    2016-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a radiation science which is emerging as a hopeful tool in treating cancer, by selectively concentrating boron compounds in tumour cells and then subjecting the tumour cells to epithermal neutron beam radiation. BNCT bestows upon the nuclear reaction that occurs when Boron-10, a stable isotope, is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield α particles (Helium-4) and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. A large number of 10 Boron (10B) atoms have to be localized on or within neoplastic cells for BNCT to be effective, and an adequate number of thermal neutrons have to be absorbed by the 10B atoms to maintain a lethal 10B (n, α) lithium-7 reaction. The most exclusive property of BNCT is that it can deposit an immense dose gradient between the tumour cells and normal cells. BNCT integrates the fundamental focusing perception of chemotherapy and the gross anatomical localization proposition of traditional radiotherapy. PMID:28209015

  7. α-cluster versus non-α-cluster decay of the excited compound nucleus Ce124* using the dynamical cluster-decay model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Arshdeep; Chopra, Sahila; Gupta, Raj K.

    2014-03-01

    The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), an extended version of the preformed cluster model (PCM) for ground-state (T =0) decays, is applied to study the decay of the proton-rich compound nucleus Ce124* formed in the S32 + Mo92 reaction at an above-barrier beam energy of 150 MeV. Application of the statistical code pace4 to experimental data shows large deviations in all cases of proton clusters' (2p, 3p, and 4p) evaporation residue (ER) and the non-α nucleus Be6 intermediate mass fragment (IMF). Furthermore, the α-nucleus Be8 decay is not observed in this experiment (not even the upper limit is given). Using the DCM, with effects of deformations up to hexadecapole and "compact" orientations included, for the best-fitted cross sections of 2p and 3p ERs and of Li5 and Be6 IMFs, the relative cross section of Be8 is found to be more than that of Be6, possibly due to the α-nucleus structure of Be8. The same is shown to be true for C12 versus C10, i.e., α-nuclei clusters are populated strongly relative to non-α clusters, similar to what was predicted by one of us (R.K.G.) et al. [S. Kumar, D. Bir, and R. K. Gupta, Phys. Rev. C 51, 1762 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevC.51.1762] for ground-state decays of such nuclei and the decay of Ba116* formed in the Ni58 + Ni58 reaction at various compound nucleus excitation energies [R. K. Gupta et al., J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 32, 345 (2006), 10.1088/0954-3899/32/3/009]. The only parameter of the DCM is the neck-length ΔR, related to the "barrier-lowering" parameter. The compound nucleus formation probability and "barrier-lowering/-modification" effects are analyzed, and the role of varying the deformations of Be6 and/or Be8 nuclei on relative cross sections is studied, since the measured deformations are not available. The ones used here are from relativistic mean-field calculations [β2(6Be )=-0.087 and β2(8Be)=-0.094]. Calculations are also presented for a beam energy of 140 MeV, supporting the above result.

  8. Next generation of the self-consistent and environment-dependent Hamiltonian: Applications to various boron allotropes from zero- to three-dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect

    Tandy, P.; Yu, Ming; Leahy, C.

    2015-03-28

    An upgrade of the previous self-consistent and environment-dependent linear combination of atomic orbitals Hamiltonian (referred as SCED-LCAO) has been developed. This improved version of the semi-empirical SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian, in addition to the inclusion of self-consistent determination of charge redistribution, multi-center interactions, and modeling of electron-electron correlation, has taken into account the effect excited on the orbitals due to the atomic aggregation. This important upgrade has been subjected to a stringent test, the construction of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian for boron. It was shown that the Hamiltonian for boron has successfully characterized the electron deficiency of boron and captured the complex chemicalmore » bonding in various boron allotropes, including the planar and quasi-planar, the convex, the ring, the icosahedral, and the fullerene-like clusters, the two-dimensional monolayer sheets, and the bulk alpha boron, demonstrating its transferability, robustness, reliability, and predictive power. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme based on the Hamiltonian has been applied to explore the existence and the energetics of ∼230 compact boron clusters B{sub N} with N in the range from ∼100 to 768, including the random, the rhombohedral, and the spherical icosahedral structures. It was found that, energetically, clusters containing whole icosahedral B{sub 12} units are more stable for boron clusters of larger size (N > 200). The ease with which the simulations both at 0 K and finite temperatures were completed is a demonstration of the efficiency of the SCED-LCAO Hamiltonian.« less

  9. Semiconducting boron carbide polymers devices for neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, Elena; Pasquale, Frank L.; James, Robinson; Colón Santana, Juan A.; Adenwalla, Shireen; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Dowben, Peter A.

    2014-03-01

    Boron carbide materials, with aromatic compounds included, prove to be effective materials as solid state neutron detector detectors. The I-V characteristic curves for these heterojunction diodes with silicon show that these modified boron carbides, in the presence of these linking groups such as 1,4-diaminobenzene (DAB) and pyridine, are p-type. Cadmium was used as shield to discriminate between neutron-induced signals and thermal neutrons, and thermal neutron capture is evident, while gamma detection was not realized. Neutron detection signals for these heterojunction diode were observed, a measurable zero bias current noted, even without complete electron-hole collection. This again illustrates that boron carbide devices can be considered a neutron voltaic.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new boron-containing chlorin derivatives as agents for both photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryuji; Nagami, Amon; Fukumoto, Yuki; Miura, Kaori; Yazama, Futoshi; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakata, Isao; Tai, Akihiro

    2014-03-01

    New boron-containing chlorin derivatives 9 and 13 as agents for both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer were synthesized from photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (2) and L-4-boronophenylalanine-related compounds. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of 9 and 13 were investigated in tumor-bearing mice. The time to maximum accumulation of compound 13 in tumor tissue was one-fourth of that of compound 9, and compound 13 showed rapid clearance from normal tissues within 24h after injection. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PDT using 13 was evaluated by measuring tumor growth rates in tumor-bearing mice with 660 nm light-emitting diode irradiation at 3h after injection of 13. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PDT using 13. These results suggested that 13 might be a good candidate for both PDT and BNCT of cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metal-Element Compounds of Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium as Pyrotechnic Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-04

    including ceramic materials in this role has been far less common. Following the development of boron carbide-based pyrotechnics in our laboratories, we...ameliorate these problems. Commercially available group 4 compounds containing hydrogen, boron , carbon, nitrogen, silicon, and phosphorus were obtained for...predicted behavior suggests that these compounds may be useful for a variety of pyrotechnic applications. 1. INTRODUCTION The recent use of boron

  12. Nanostructured Boron Nitride With High Water Dispersibility For Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Paviter; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Baban; Vij, Ankush; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Meena, Ramovatar; Singh, Ajay; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Highly water dispersible boron based compounds are innovative and advanced materials which can be used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for cancer treatment (BNCT). Present study deals with the synthesis of highly water dispersible nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN). Unique and relatively low temperature synthesis route is the soul of present study. The morphological examinations (Scanning/transmission electron microscopy) of synthesized nanostructures showed that they are in transient phase from two dimensional hexagonal sheets to nanotubes. It is also supported by dual energy band gap of these materials calculated from UV- visible spectrum of the material. The theoretically calculated band gap also supports the same (calculated by virtual nano lab Software). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the synthesized material has deformed structure which is further supported by Raman spectroscopy. The structural aspect of high water disperse ability of BN is also studied. The ultra-high disperse ability which is a result of structural deformation make these nanostructures very useful in BNCT. Cytotoxicity studies on various cell lines (Hela(cervical cancer), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7)) show that the synthesized nanostructures can be used for BNCT. PMID:27759052

  13. Nanostructured Boron Nitride With High Water Dispersibility For Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Paviter; Singh, Kulwinder; Kumar, Baban; Vij, Ankush; Kumar, Manjeet; Bala, Rajni; Meena, Ramovatar; Singh, Ajay; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2016-10-01

    Highly water dispersible boron based compounds are innovative and advanced materials which can be used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for cancer treatment (BNCT). Present study deals with the synthesis of highly water dispersible nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN). Unique and relatively low temperature synthesis route is the soul of present study. The morphological examinations (Scanning/transmission electron microscopy) of synthesized nanostructures showed that they are in transient phase from two dimensional hexagonal sheets to nanotubes. It is also supported by dual energy band gap of these materials calculated from UV- visible spectrum of the material. The theoretically calculated band gap also supports the same (calculated by virtual nano lab Software). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the synthesized material has deformed structure which is further supported by Raman spectroscopy. The structural aspect of high water disperse ability of BN is also studied. The ultra-high disperse ability which is a result of structural deformation make these nanostructures very useful in BNCT. Cytotoxicity studies on various cell lines (Hela(cervical cancer), human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7)) show that the synthesized nanostructures can be used for BNCT.

  14. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Vajo, John J.

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slowmore » rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.« less

  15. Localization and orientation of heavy-atom cluster compounds in protein crystals using molecular replacement

    PubMed Central

    Dahms, Sven O.; Kuester, Miriam; Streb, Carsten; Roth, Christian; Sträter, Norbert; Than, Manuel E.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy-atom clusters (HA clusters) containing a large number of specifically arranged electron-dense scatterers are especially useful for experimental phase determination of large complex structures, weakly diffracting crystals or structures with large unit cells. Often, the determination of the exact orientation of the HA cluster and hence of the individual heavy-atom positions proves to be the critical step in successful phasing and subsequent structure solution. Here, it is demonstrated that molecular replacement (MR) with either anomalous or isomorphous differences is a useful strategy for the correct placement of HA cluster compounds. The polyoxometallate cluster hexasodium α-metatungstate (HMT) was applied in phasing the structure of death receptor 6. Even though the HA cluster is bound in alternate partially occupied orientations and is located at a special position, its correct localization and orientation could be determined at resolutions as low as 4.9 Å. The broad applicability of this approach was demonstrated for five different derivative crystals that included the compounds tantalum tetradeca­bromide and trisodium phosphotungstate in addition to HMT. The correct placement of the HA cluster depends on the length of the intramolecular vectors chosen for MR, such that both a larger cluster size and the optimal choice of the wavelength used for anomalous data collection strongly affect the outcome. PMID:23385464

  16. Phenylene bridged boron-nitrogen containing dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Proń, Agnieszka; Baumgarten, Martin; Müllen, Klaus

    2010-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel phenylene bridged boron-nitrogen containing π-conjugated dendrimers N3B6 and N3B3, with peripheral boron atoms and 1,3,5-triaminobenzene moiety as a core, are presented. UV-vis absorption and emission measurements reveal that the optical properties of the resulting compounds can be controlled by changing the donor/acceptor ratio: a 1:1 ratio results in a more efficient charge transfer than the 1:2 ratio. This was proven by the red shift of the emission maxima and the stronger solvatochromic effect in N3B3 compared to N3B6.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of Gd-based nanoparticles to tag boron compounds in boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M.; Bonora, M.; Borsa, F.; Bortolussi, S.; Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S.; Altieri, S.; Zonta, C.; Clerici, A. M.; Cansolino, L.; Ferrari, C.; Dionigi, P.; Porta, A.; Zanoni, G.; Vidari, G.

    2011-04-01

    We report the investigation of new organic complexes containing a magnetic moment (Gd-based molecular nanomagnets), which can serve the double purpose of acting as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agents, and at the same time act as contrast agents to detect the molecule in the tissue by a proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also explore the possibility of monitoring the concentration of the BNCT agent directly via proton and boron NMR relaxation. The absorption of 10B-enriched molecules inside tumoral liver tissues has been shown by NMR measurements and confirmed by α spectroscopy. A new molecular Gd-tagged nanomagnet and BNCT agent (GdBPA) has been synthesized and characterized measuring its relaxivity R1 between 10 kHz and 66 MHz, and its use as a contrast agent in MRI has been demonstrated. The NMR-based evidence of the absorption of GdBPA into living tumoral cells is also shown.

  18. BIO-PRECIPITATES PRODUCED BY TWO AUTOCHTHONOUS BORON TOLERANT STREPTOMYCES STRAINS.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Norma Beatriz; Irazusta, Verónica; Amoroso, María Julia; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    Boron is widespread in the environment. Although contaminated soils are hard to recover different strategies have been investigated in the recent years. Bioremediation is one of the most studied because it is eco-friendly and less costly than other techniques. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether two Streptomyces strains isolated from boron contaminated soils in Salta, Argentina, may help remove boron from such soils. For this, they were grown in different liquid media with two boric acid concentrations and their specific growth rate and specific boric acid consumption rate were determined. Both strains showed great capacity to remove boron from the media. Increasing boric acid concentrations affected negatively the specific growth rate, however the specific boric acid consumption rate was superior. Boron bio-precipitates were observed when the strains grew in the presence of boric acid, probably due to an adaptive response developed by the cells to the exposure, for which many proteins were differentially synthetized. This strategy to tolerate high concentrations of boron by immobilizing it in bio-precipitates has not been previously described, to the best of our knowledge, and may have a great potential application in remediating soils contaminated with boron compounds.

  19. Bicyclic tetrapeptide histone deacetylase inhibitors with methoxymethyl ketone and boronic acid zinc-binding groups.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nurul; Islam, Md Shahidul; Hoque, Md Ashraful; Kato, Tamaki; Nishino, Norikazu; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru

    2014-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are a class of potential therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Bicyclic tetrapeptides equipped with methoxymethyl ketone and boronic acid as zinc-binding group were designed and synthesized. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were evaluated against HDAC enzymes. The cell-free and cell-based assay data showed that both potency and selectivity changed with the change in zinc-binding group. Boronic acid-based compound showed poor activity whereas methoxymethyl ketone-based compound displayed impressive activity in both cell-free and cell-based conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, Stephen B.; Koo, Myoung-Seo

    1992-01-01

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  1. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

    1992-09-22

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  2. Copper(II)-Catalyzed Conversion of Aryl/Heteroaryl Boronic Acids, Boronates, and Trifluoroborates into the Corresponding Azides: Substrate Scope and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Kimberly D; Gupte, Amol; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2010-05-01

    We report the copper(II)-catalyzed conversion of organoboron compounds into the corresponding azide derivatives. A systematic series of phenylboronic acid derivatives is evaluated to examine the importance of steric and electronic effects of the substituents on reaction yield as well as functional group compatibility. Heterocyclic substrates are also shown to participate in this mild reaction while compounds incorporating B-C(sp(3)) bonds are unreactive under the reaction conditions. The copper(II)-catalyzed boronic acid-azide coupling reaction is further extended to both boronate esters and potassium organotrifluoroborate salts. The method described herein complements existing procedures for the preparation of aryl azides from the respective amino, triazene, and halide derivatives and we expect that it will greatly facilitate copper- and ruthenium-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions for the preparation of diversely functionalized 1-aryl- or 1-heteroaryl-1,2,3-triazoles derivatives.

  3. Cohesive Energies of Some Transition Metal Compounds Using Embedded Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Mehernosh Rustom

    The molecular-clusters approach to electronic structure calculation is especially well-suited to the study of properties that depend primarily on the local environment of a system, especially those with no translational symmetry, e.g. systems with defects and structural deformations. The presence of the rest of the crystal environment can be accounted for approximately by embedding the cluster in a self-consistent crystal potential. This thesis makes a contribution in the area of investigating the capability of embedded molecular-clusters to yield reliable bulk structural properties. To this end, an algorithm for calculating the cohesive energies of clusters within the discrete-variational X(,(alpha)) LCAO-MO formulation is set up and verified on simple solids: Li, Na, Cu and LiF. We then use this formulation to study transition metal compounds, for which the interesting physics lies in local lattice defects, foreign impurities and structural deformations. In a self -consistent calculation of the lattice energies and stability of defect clusters in wustite, Fe(,1-x)O, corner-sharing aggregates of the 4:1 defect are identified as the most stable defect configurations due to efficient compensation of the cluster charge. The intercalation properties of layered-transition-metal-dichalcogenides continues to be a fertile experimental working area, backed by comparatively little theoretical study. We find that intercalation of ZrS(,2) with Na perturbs the valence energy level structure sufficiently to induce a more ionic Zr-S bond, a narrowing of the optical gap and filling of the lowest unoccupied host lattice orbitals with the electron donated by Na. Fe - intercalation in ZrS(,2) is accommodated via a strong Fe-S bond, impurity-like band levels in the optical gap of the host and hybridization-driven compression and lowering of the conduction band energy levels. The piezoelectric cuprous halides, CuCl and CuBr, exhibit a host of intriguing properties due to a filled and

  4. Metalloid compounds as drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

  5. Novel Hyaluronan Formulation Enhances the Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Murine Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Masao; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Sougawa, Nagako; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Lee, Chun Man

    2016-03-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a refractory cancer of the pleura caused by asbestos exposure. MPM is difficult to treat because it easily disseminates. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy in which cancer cells that selectively take up (10)Boron-containing compounds are destroyed, and normal cells are uninjured. Hyaluronan (HA) is a ligand of cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), that is expressed on MPM cells. In order to enhance BNCT for MPM tumors, we developed a novel HA-containing (10)B (sodium borocaptate: BSH) formulation (HA-BND-S). We examined the efficacy of HA-BND-S using MPM cells and a mouse MPM model. HA-BND-S preferentially bound MPM cells dose-dependently, and increased the cytotoxicity of BNCT compared to BSH in vitro. HA-BND-S administration significantly increased the survival of MPM tumor-bearing mice compared to BSH at the same (10)B dosage in BNCT. Modifying BSH with HA is a promising strategy for enhancing the efficacy of BNCT for therapy of MPM. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Organomimetic clusters: Precision in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Marek B.; Howarth, Ashlee J.; Farha, Omar K.

    2017-04-01

    Biomimetic molecules that can be easily tailored offer numerous opportunities. Now, boron-based clusters have been shown to be excellent biomimetics. The ease with which the cluster surfaces can be modified stands to change how chemists might go about preparing materials for imaging, drug delivery and other applications.

  7. Boron

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Boron is an essential micronutrient element required for plant growth. Boron deficiency is wide-spread in crop plants throughout the world especially in coarse-textured soils in humid areas. Boron toxicity can also occur, especially in arid regions under irrigation. Plants respond directly to the...

  8. Silicon carbide sintered body manufactured from silicon carbide powder containing boron, silicon and carbonaceous additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Hidehiko

    1987-01-01

    A silicon carbide powder of a 5-micron grain size is mixed with 0.15 to 0.60 wt% mixture of a boron compound, i.e., boric acid, boron carbide (B4C), silicon boride (SiB4 or SiB6), aluminum boride, etc., and an aluminum compound, i.e., aluminum, aluminum oxide, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum carbide, etc., or aluminum boride (AlB2) alone, in such a proportion that the boron/aluminum atomic ratio in the sintered body becomes 0.05 to 0.25 wt% and 0.05 to 0.40 wt%, respectively, together with a carbonaceous additive to supply enough carbon to convert oxygen accompanying raw materials and additives into carbon monoxide.

  9. Direct current sputtering of boron from boron/coron mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Timberlake, John R.; Manos, Dennis; Nartowitz, Ed

    1994-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with boron by sputtering includes lowering the electrical resistance of a boron-containing rod to allow electrical conduction in the rod; placing the boron-containing rod inside a vacuum chamber containing substrate material to be coated; applying an electrical potential between the boron target material and the vacuum chamber; countering a current avalanche that commences when the conduction heating rate exceeds the cooling rate, and until a steady equilibrium heating current is reached; and, coating the substrate material with boron by sputtering from the boron-containing rod.

  10. Ge(14)[Ge(SiMe(3))(3)](5)Li(3)(THF)(6): the largest metalloid cluster compound of germanium: on the way to fullerene-like compounds?

    PubMed

    Schenk, Christian; Schnepf, Andreas

    2008-10-14

    The reaction of GeBr with LiGe(SiMe(3))(3) yields the largest metalloid cluster compound of germanium Ge(14)[Ge(SiMe(3))(3)](5)Li(3)(THF)(6), in which 14 germanium atoms are arranged as a hollow sphere in the cluster core, showing that in the case of germanium also fullerene-like compounds might be present in the borderland between the molecular and solid states.

  11. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔG binding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25214833

  12. Boron Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of boron (B) in the environment are reviewed, with emphasis on natural resources. Subtopics covered include environmental chemistry, background concentrations, effects, and current recommendations for the protection of living resources. Boron is not now considered essential in mammalian nutrition, although low dietary levels protect against fluorosis and bone demineralization. Excessive consumption (i.e., >1,000 mg B/kg diet, >15 mg B/kg body weight daily, >1.0 mg B/L drinking water, or >210 mg B/kg body weight in a single dose) adversely affects growth, survival, or reproduction in sensitive mammals. Boron and its compounds are potent teratogens when applied directly to the mammalian embryo, but there is no evidence of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity. Boron`s unique affinity for cancerous tissues has been exploited in neutron capture radiation therapy of malignant human brain tumors. Current boron criteria recommended for the protection of sensitive species include <0.3 mg B/L in crop irrigation waters, <1.0 mg B/L for aquatic life, <5.0 mg B/L in livestock drinking waters, <30 mg B/kg in waterfowl diets, and <100 mg B/kg in livestock diets.

  13. Selective boron delivery to murine tumors by lipophilic species incorporated in the membranes of unilamellar liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, D.A.; Shelly, K.; Hawthorne, M.F.

    1995-02-28

    The nido-carborane species K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] has been synthesized for use as an addend for the bilayer membrane of liposomes. Small unilamellar vesicles, composed of distearoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, 1:1, and incorporating K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] in the bilayer, have been investigated in vivo. The time-course biodistribution of boron delivered by these liposomes was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analyses after the injection of liposomal suspensions in BALB/c mice bearing EMT6 mammary adenocarcinomas. At the low injected doses normally used ({approx}5-10 mg of boron per kg of body weight), peak tumor boron concentrations ofmore » {approx}35 {mu}g of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of {approx}8 were achieved. These values are sufficiently high for the successful application of boron neutron capture therapy. The bilayer-embedded boron compound may provide the sole boron source or, alternatively, a concentrated aqueous solution of a hydrophilic boron compound may also be encapsulated within the liposomes to provide a dose enhancement. Thus, the incorporation of both K[nido-7-CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 15}-7,8-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}] and the hydrophilic species, Na{sub 3}[1-(2{prime}-B{sub 10}H{sub 9})-2-NH{sub 3}B{sub 10}H{sub 8}], within the same liposomes demonstrated significantly enhanced biodistribution characteristics, exemplified by maximum tumor boron concentrations of {approx} 50 {mu}g of boron per g of tissue and tumor/blood boron ratios of {approx} 6. 18 refs., 1 fig.« less

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a bimodal form of radiation therapy for cancer. The first component of this treatment is the preferential localization of the stable isotope {sup 10}B in tumor cells by targeting with boronated compounds. The tumor and surrounding tissue is then irradiated with a neutron beam resulting in thermal neutron/{sup 10}B reactions ({sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li) resulting in the production of localized high LET radiation from alpha and {sup 7}Li particles. These products of the neutron capture reaction are very damaging to cells, but of short range so that the majority of the ionizing energy released ismore » microscopically confined to the vicinity of the boron-containing compound. In principal it should be possible with BNCT to selectively destroy small nests or even single cancer cells located within normal tissue. It follows that the major improvements in this form of radiation therapy are going to come largely from the development of boron compounds with greater tumor selectivity, although there will certainly be advances made in neutron beam quality as well as the possible development of alternative sources of neutron beams, particularly accelerator-based epithermal neutron beams.« less

  15. Defect charge states in Si doped hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapasha, R. E.; Molepo, M. P.; Andrew, R. C.; Chetty, N.

    2016-02-01

    We perform ab initio density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetics, electronic and magnetic properties of isolated stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric substitutional Si complexes in a hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer. The Si impurity atoms substituting the boron atom sites SiB giving non-stoichiometric complexes are found to be the most energetically favourable, and are half-metallic and order ferromagnetically in the neutral charge state. We find that the magnetic moments and magnetization energies increase monotonically when Si defects form a cluster. Partial density of states and standard Mulliken population analysis indicate that the half-metallic character and magnetic moments mainly arise from the Si 3p impurity states. The stoichiometric Si complexes are energetically unfavorable and non-magnetic. When charging the energetically favourable non-stoichiometric Si complexes, we find that the formation energies strongly depend on the impurity charge states and Fermi level position. We also find that the magnetic moments and orderings are tunable by charge state modulation q  =  -2, -1, 0, +1, +2. The induced half-metallic character is lost (retained) when charging isolated (clustered) Si defect(s). This underlines the potential of a Si doped hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer for novel spin-based applications.

  16. Disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Swastik; Bykova, Elena; Dey, Somnath; Ali, Sk Imran; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Parakhonskiy, Gleb; van Smaalen, Sander

    2016-01-01

    A unique combination of useful properties in boron-carbide, such as extreme hardness, excellent fracture toughness, a low density, a high melting point, thermoelectricity, semi-conducting behavior, catalytic activity and a remarkably good chemical stability, makes it an ideal material for a wide range of technological applications. Explaining these properties in terms of chemical bonding has remained a major challenge in boron chemistry. Here we report the synthesis of fully ordered, stoichiometric boron-carbide B13C2 by high-pressure-high-temperature techniques. Our experimental electron-density study using high-resolution single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data conclusively demonstrates that disorder and defects are not intrinsic to boron carbide, contrary to what was hitherto supposed. A detailed analysis of the electron density distribution reveals charge transfer between structural units in B13C2 and a new type of electron-deficient bond with formally unpaired electrons on the C-B-C group in B13C2. Unprecedented bonding features contribute to the fundamental chemistry and materials science of boron compounds that is of great interest for understanding structure-property relationships and development of novel functional materials.

  17. Fluid synthesis and structure of a new polymorphic modification of boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokropivny, V. V.; Smolyar, A. S.; Ovsiannikova, L. I.; Pokropivny, A. V.; Kuts, V. A.; Lyashenko, V. I.; Nesterenko, Yu. V.

    2013-04-01

    A new previously unknown phase of boron nitride with a hardness of 0.41-0.63 GPa has been pre-pared by the supercritical fluid synthesis. The presence of a new phase is confirmed by the X-ray spectra and IR absorption spectra, where new reflections and bands are distinguished. The fundamental reflection of the X-ray diffraction pattern is d = 0.286-0.291 nm, and the characteristic band in the infrared absorption spectrum is observed at 704 cm-1. The X-ray diffraction pattern and the experimental and theoretical infrared absorption spectra show that a new synthesized boron nitride phase can be a cluster crystal (space group 211) with a simple cubic lattice. Cage clusters of a fullerene-like morphology B24N24 with point symmetry O are arranged in lattice sites.

  18. Theoretical Investigation of Stabilizing Mechanism by Boron in Body-Centered Cubic Iron Through (Fe,Cr)23(C,B)6 Precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, Ryoji; Matsunaga, Tetsuya; Hongo, Hiromichi; Tabuchi, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    Small amounts of boron improve the mechanical properties in high-chromium ferritic heat-resistant steels. In this work, the stabilizing mechanism by boron in body-centered cubic iron (bcc Fe) through (Fe,Cr)23(C,B)6 precipitates was investigated by first-principles calculations. Formation energy analysis of (Fe,Cr)23(C,B)6 reveals that the compounds become more stable to elemental solids as the boron concentration increases. Furthermore, the interface energy of bcc Fe(110) || Fe23(C,B)6(111) also decreases with boron concentration in the compounds. The decreased interface energy caused by boron addition is explained by the balance between the change in the phase stability of the precipitates and the change in the misfit parameter for the bcc Fe matrix and the precipitates. These results show that boron stabilizes the microstructure of heat-resistant steels, which is important for understanding the origins of the creep strength in ferritic steels.

  19. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents.

  20. Boron supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, Cheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

    Supercapacitors based on the electric double-layer mechanism use porous carbons or graphene as electrodes. To move beyond this paradigm, we propose boron supercapacitors to leverage two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets’ metallicity and low weight. Six 2D boron sheets from both previous theoretical design and experimental growth are chosen as test electrodes. By applying joint density functional theory (JDFT) to the electrode–electrolyte system, we examine how the 2D boron sheets charge up against applied potential. JDFT predicts that these 2D boron sheets exhibit specific capacitance on the order of 400 F/g, about four times that of graphene. As a result, our workmore » suggests that 2D boron sheets are promising electrodes for supercapacitor applications.« less

  1. Boron supercapacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Zhan, Cheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng; ...

    2016-11-16

    Supercapacitors based on the electric double-layer mechanism use porous carbons or graphene as electrodes. To move beyond this paradigm, we propose boron supercapacitors to leverage two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets’ metallicity and low weight. Six 2D boron sheets from both previous theoretical design and experimental growth are chosen as test electrodes. By applying joint density functional theory (JDFT) to the electrode–electrolyte system, we examine how the 2D boron sheets charge up against applied potential. JDFT predicts that these 2D boron sheets exhibit specific capacitance on the order of 400 F/g, about four times that of graphene. As a result, our workmore » suggests that 2D boron sheets are promising electrodes for supercapacitor applications.« less

  2. Controlling the Morphology and Oxidation Resistance of Boron Carbide Synthesized Via Carbothermic Reduction Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Yasser M. Z.; El-Sheikh, Said M.; Ewais, Emad M. M.; Abd-Allah, Asmaa A.; Sayed, Said A.

    2017-03-01

    Boron carbide powder was synthesized from boric acid and lactose mixtures via easy procedure. Boric acid and lactose solution mixtures were roasted in stainless steel pot at 280 °C for 24 h. Boron carbide was obtained by heating the roasted samples under flowing of industrial argon gas at 1500 °C for 3 h. The amount of borate ester compound in the roasted samples was highly influenced by the boron/carbon ratio in the starting mixtures and plays a versatile role in the produced boron carbide. The high-purity boron carbide powder was produced with a sample composed of lowest boron/carbon ratio of 1:1 without calcination step. Particle morphology was changed from nano-needles like structure of 8-10 nm size with highest carbon ratio mixture to spherical shape of >150 nm size with lowest one. The oxidation resistance performance of boron carbide is highly dependent on the morphology and grain size of the synthesized powder.

  3. Synthesis of boron nitride nanostructures from catalyst of iron compounds via thermal chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Wellington M.; Ribeiro, Hélio; Ferreira, Tiago H.; Ladeira, Luiz O.; Sousa, Edésia M. B.

    2017-05-01

    For the first time, patterned growth of boron nitride nanostructures (BNNs) is achieved by thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD) technique at 1150 °C using a mixture of FeS/Fe2O3 catalyst supported in alumina nanostructured, boron amorphous and ammonia (NH3) as reagent gas. This innovative catalyst was synthesized in our laboratory and systematically characterized. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The X-ray diffraction profile of the synthesized catalyst indicates the coexistence of three different crystal structures showing the presence of a cubic structure of iron oxide and iron sulfide besides the gamma alumina (γ) phase. The results show that boron nitride bamboo-like nanotubes (BNNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanosheets were successfully synthesized. Furthermore, the important contribution of this work is the manufacture of BNNs from FeS/Fe2O3 mixture.

  4. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. For example, one aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising: (a) providing boron oxide and an aerogel comprising carbon; (b) heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the aerogel; (c) mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide; and (d) converting at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride. Another aspect relates to a method for making an aerogel comprising boron nitride, comprising heating boron oxidemore » and an aerogel comprising carbon under flow of a nitrogen-containing gas, wherein boron oxide vapor and the nitrogen-containing gas convert at least a portion of the carbon to boron nitride to obtain the aerogel comprising boron nitride.« less

  5. Silica nanoparticles carrying boron-containing polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozek, Eric M.; Mollard, Alexis H.; Zharov, Ilya

    2014-05-01

    A new class of surface-modified silica nanoparticles has been developed for potential applications in boron neutron capture therapy. Sub-50 nm silica particles were synthesized using a modified Stöber method and used in surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of two biocompatible polymers, poly(2-(hydroxyethyl)methacrylate) and poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl succinate). The carboxylic acid and hydroxyl functionalities of the polymeric side chains were functionalized with carboranyl clusters in high yields. The resulting particles were characterized using DLS, TEM, solution 1H NMR, solid state 11B NMR and thermogravimetric analysis. The particles contain between 13 and 18 % of boron atoms by weight, which would provide a high amount of 10B nuclides for BNCT, while the polymer chains are suitable for further modification with cell targeting ligands.

  6. EDITORIAL: Cluster issue on Heusler compounds and devices Cluster issue on Heusler compounds and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felser, Claudia; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2009-04-01

    This is the third cluster issue of Journal Physics D: Applied Physics devoted to half-metallic Heusler compounds and devices utilizing this class of materials. Heusler compounds are named after Fritz Heusler, the owner of a German copper mine, the Isabellenhütte, who discovered this class of materials in 1903 [1]. He synthesized mixtures of Cu2Mn alloys with various main group metals Z = Al, Si, Sn, Sb, which became ferromagnetic despite all constituents being non-magnetic. The recent success story of Heusler compounds began in 1983 with the discovery of the half-metallic electronic structure in NiMnSb [2] and Co2MnZ [3], making these and similar materials, in particular PtMnSb, also useful for magneto-optical data storage media applications due to their high Kerr rotation. The real breakthrough, however, came in 2000 with the observation of a large magnetoresistance effect in Co2Cr0.6Fe0.4Al [4]. The Co2YZ (Y = Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe) compounds are a special class of materials, which follow the Slater-Pauling rule [5], and most of them are half-metallic bulk materials. The electronic structure of Heusler compounds is well understood [6] and Curie temperatures up to 1100 K have been observed [7]. In their contribution to this cluster issue, Thoene et al predict that still higher Curie temperatures can be achieved. A breakthrough from the viewpoint of materials design is the synthesis of nanoparticles of Heusler compounds as reported in the contribution by Basit et al. Nano-sized half- metallic ferromagnets will open new directions for spintronic applications. The challenge, however, is still to produce spintronic devices with well defined interfaces to take advantage of the half-metallicity of the electrodes. Several groups have succeeded in producing excellent tunnel junctions with high magnetoresistance effects at low temperatures and decent values at room temperature [8-11]. Spin-dependent tunnelling characteristics of fully epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions with a

  7. Boronic species as promising inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump: study of 6-substituted pyridine-3-boronic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Fanny; Héquet, Arnaud; Voisin-Chiret, Anne-Sophie; Bouillon, Alexandre; Lesnard, Aurélien; Cresteil, Thierry; Jolivalt, Claude; Rault, Sylvain

    2015-05-05

    In response to the extensive use of antibiotics, bacteria have evolved numerous mechanisms of defense against antimicrobial agents. Among them, extrusion of the antimicrobial agents outside the bacterial cell through efflux pumps is a major cause of concern. At first limited to one or few structurally-related antibiotics, bacterial resistance have then progressed towards cross-resistance between different classes of antibiotics, leading to multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Emergence of these pathogens requires development of novel therapeutic strategies and inhibition of efflux pumps appears to be a promising strategy that could restore the potency of existing antibiotics. NorA is the most studied chromosomal efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus; it is known to be implied in resistance of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains against a wide range of unrelated substrates, including hydrophilic fluoroquinolones. Starting from 6-benzyloxypyridine-3-boronic acid I that we previously identified as a potential inhibitor of the NorA efflux pump against the NorA-overexpressing S. aureus 1199B strain (SA1199B), we describe here the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 6-(aryl)alkoxypyridine-3-boronic acids. 6-(3-Phenylpropoxy)pyridine-3-boronic acid 3i and 6-(4-phenylbutoxy)pyridine-3-boronic acid 3j were found to potentiate ciprofloxacin activity by a 4-fold increase compared to the parent compound I. In addition, it has been shown that both compounds promote Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) accumulation in SA1199B, thus corroborating their potential mode of action as NorA inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of dietary boron and arsenic on the behavior of mallard ducklings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitworth, M.R.; Pendleton, G.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Camardese, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    High concentrations of boron and arsenic have been associated with irrigation drain water and aquatic plants consumed by waterfowl. Both compounds affect the central nervous sytem and cause generalized physiological distress in mammals and waterfowl. We examined sublethal efefcts of boron and arsenic on the behavior of developing mallard ducklings (Anas Platyrhnchos). Day-old ducklings received an untreated diet (control) or a diet containing 100, 400, or 1,600 ppm boron, added as boric acid, or 30, 100, or 300 ppm arsenic, added as sodium aresenate. Activity schedules and behavior durations were analyzed for effects at the various treatment levels. Both boron and arsenic at the highest levels had significant effects on the activity schedules of developing ducklings, including increased time at rest and under the provided heat lamp. We also observed decreases in the amount of time treated ducklings spent in alert behaviors and in the water in comparison to control ducklings. High levels of boron (1,600 ppm) increased feeding time overall but did not increase the amount of food consumed. Arsenic had no effect on feeding behavior. There were no differences found in the durations of behaviors as a result of treatment. These findings, in combination with reported effects on the growth and physiology of ducklings under identical treatments, suggest that reported concentrations of these compounds in aquatic plants in the Central Valley of California could adversly affect normal duckling development and survival.

  9. Modeling the suppression of boron transient enhanced diffusion in silicon by substitutional carbon incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngau, Julie L.; Griffin, Peter B.; Plummer, James D.

    2001-08-01

    Recent work has indicated that the suppression of boron transient enhanced diffusion (TED) in carbon-rich Si is caused by nonequilibrium Si point defect concentrations, specifically the undersaturation of Si self-interstitials, that result from the coupled out-diffusion of carbon interstitials via the kick-out and Frank-Turnbull reactions. This study of boron TED reduction in Si1-x-yGexCy during 750 °C inert anneals has revealed that the use of an additional reaction that further reduces the Si self-interstitial concentration is necessary to describe accurately the time evolved diffusion behavior of boron. In this article, we present a comprehensive model which includes {311} defects, boron-interstitial clusters, a carbon kick-out reaction, a carbon Frank-Turnbull reaction, and a carbon interstitial-carbon substitutional (CiCs) pairing reaction that successfully simulates carbon suppression of boron TED at 750 °C for anneal times ranging from 10 s to 60 min.

  10. An Assessment of the Potential Use of BNNTs for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tiago H; Miranda, Marcelo C; Rocha, Zildete; Leal, Alexandre S; Gomes, Dawidson A; Sousa, Edesia M B

    2017-04-12

    Currently, nanostructured compounds have been standing out for their optical, mechanical, and chemical features and for the possibilities of manipulation and regulation of complex biological processes. One of these compounds is boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), which are a nanostructured material analog to carbon nanotubes, but formed of nitrogen and boron atoms. BNNTs present high thermal stability along with high chemical inertia. Among biological applications, its biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and functionalization potential can be highlighted, in addition to its eased utilization due to its nanometric size and tumor cell internalization. When it comes to new forms of therapy, we can draw attention to boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), an experimental radiotherapy characterized by a boron-10 isotope carrier inside the target and a thermal neutron beam focused on it. The activation of the boron-10 atom by a neutron generates a lithium atom, a gamma ray, and an alpha particle, which can be used to destroy tumor tissues. The aim of this work was to use BNNTs as a boron-10 carrier for BNCT and to demonstrate its potential. The nanomaterial was characterized through XRD, FTIR, and SEM. The WST-8 assay was performed to confirm the cell viability of BNNTs. The cells treated with BNNTs were irradiated with the neutron beam of a Triga reactor, and the apoptosis caused by the activation of the BNNTs was measured with a calcein AM/propidium iodide test. The results demonstrate that this nanomaterial is a promising candidate for cancer therapy through BNCT.

  11. Plasma boron and the effects of boron supplementation in males.

    PubMed Central

    Green, N R; Ferrando, A A

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a proliferation of athletic supplements has been marketed touting boron as an ergogenic aid capable of increasing testosterone. The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in male bodybuilders. Ten male bodybuilders (aged 20 to 26) were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement, while nine male bodybuilders (aged 21 to 27) were given a placebo for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on day 1 and day 49 of the study. A microwave digestion procedure followed by inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy was used for boron determination. Twelve subjects had boron values at or above the detection limit with median value of 25 ng/ml (16 ng/ml lower quartile and 33 ng/ml upper quartile). Of the ten subjects receiving boron supplements, six had an increase in their plasma boron. Analysis of variance indicated no significant effect of boron supplementation on any of the other dependent variables. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in total testosterone (p < 0.01), lean body mass (p < 0.01), and one repetition maximum (RM) squat (p < 0.001) and one RM bench press (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that 7 weeks of bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser-trained bodybuilders, but boron supplementation affects these variables not at all. PMID:7889885

  12. Investigations on the system boron-carbon silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, R.; Gugel, E.; Leimer, G.; Ettmayer, P.

    1983-01-01

    The above elements form with each other binary compounds which are very interesting from the point of view of their structure and their chemistry and which are important for technology. The present investigation is concerned with the three-component system and the behavior of the binary compounds occurring in it. Investigations employing various techniques, such as X-ray, chemical analysis, microscopy and fusion experiments showed that no ternary phase exists within the boundary of the ternary system. There is no compound with a higher abrasion capacity than boron carbide. The probable phase field divisions at two isothermic intersections and the fusion isotherms are indicated.

  13. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  14. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  15. Boron nitride composites

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2017-02-21

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and one or more borate binders; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes: a matrix material including hexagonal boron nitride and amorphous boron nitride; and a plurality of cubic boron nitride particles dispersed in the matrix material.

  16. An assessment of the genetic toxicology of novel boron-containing therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Ciaravino, Vic; Plattner, Jacob; Chanda, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Boron-containing compounds are being studied as potential therapeutic agents. As part of the safety assessment of these therapeutic agents, a battery of genetic toxicology studies was conducted. The battery included a bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay, an in vitro chromosome aberration assay in peripheral human lymphocytes, and an in vivo rat micronucleus study. The following compounds represent some of the boron-containing compounds that have been advanced to human clinical trials in various therapeutic areas. The borinic picolinate, AN0128, is an antibacterial compound with anti-inflammatory activity that has been studied in clinical trials for acne and the treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. AN2690 (tavaborole) is a benzoxaborole in Phase 3 clinical trials for the topical treatment of onychomycosis, a fungal infection of the toenails and fingernails. Another benzoxaborole derivative, AN2728, a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor, is in Phase 2 clinical trials for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. AN2898, also a PDE4 inhibitor, has been studied in clinical trials for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. AN3365 is a leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor that has been in clinical development for the treatment of various Gram-negative bacterial infections. These five representative compounds were negative in the three genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, AN2690 has been studied in mouse and rat 2-year bioassays and was not found to have any carcinogenic potential. These results demonstrate that it is possible to design boron-based therapeutic agents with no genetic toxicology liabilities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Intracellular delivery and passive tumor targeting of a self-assembled nanogel containing carborane clusters for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Riku; JST-ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency; Sasaki, Yoshihiro

    Boron neutron capture therapy, based on the release of thermal neutron irradiation from boron, is a targeted radiation therapy for cancer. Targeted and sufficient accumulation of boron in tumor cells to achieve cytotoxic efficacy and reduce off-target effects remains a challenge. Carborane has been investigated for use as a delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy because of its high boron content and chemical stability; however, it is cytotoxic, making safe delivery difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of carborane-bearing pullulan nanogels to safely and effectively deliver boron to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and,more » consequently, assess their potential as a boron neutron capture therapeutic. Murine fibrosarcoma cells (CMS5a) were used for in vitro investigations of nanogel cytotoxicity, cell uptake. A mouse fibrosarcoma xenograft model was used to investigate the bio-distribution of nanogels after intravenous administration. The nanogels produced no apparent cytotoxicity and underwent cell uptake in CMS5a cells after a 24 h incubation at up to 2000 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL, respectively. The internalized nanogels were localized around the nuclear membrane. The nanogels were administered intravenously to mice bearing fibrosarcoma xenografts. Nanogel tumor localization likely occurred through the enhanced permeation and retention effect. The nanogels successfully reduced the cytotoxicity of carborane, were internalized into tumor cells, acted as a dual-delivery therapeutic and accumulated in tumors in vivo. Consequently, they demonstrate significant potential as a boron neutron capture therapeutic. - Highlights: • A carborane-bearing pullulan nanogel is developed as a boron delivery agent. • The nanogels are cell-friendly and show effective cell uptake for drug delivery. • The nanogels show passive tumor targeting by enhanced permeation and retention.« less

  18. Not all boronic acids with a five-membered cycle induce tremor, neuronal damage and decreased dopamine.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Maribel; García-Mendoza, Esperanza; Farfán-García, Eunice D; Das, Bhaskar C; Ciprés-Flores, Fabiola J; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G; Tamay-Cach, Feliciano; Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A

    2017-09-01

    Several striatal toxins can be used to induce motor disruption. One example is MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), whose toxicity is accepted as a murine model of parkinsonism. Recently, 3-Thienylboronic acid (3TB) was found to produce motor disruption and biased neuronal damage to basal ganglia in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the toxic effects of four boronic acids with a close structural relationship to 3TB (all having a five-membered cycle), as well as boric acid and 3TB. These boron-containing compounds were compared to MPTP regarding brain access, morphological disruption of the CNS, and behavioral manifestations of such disruption. Data was collected through acute toxicity evaluations, motor behavior tests, necropsies, determination of neuronal survival by immunohistochemistry, Raman spectroscopic analysis of brain tissue, and HPLC measurement of dopamine in substantia nigra and striatum tissue. Each compound showed a distinct profile for motor disruption. For example, motor activity was not disrupted by boric acid, but was decreased by two boronic acids (caused by a sedative effect). 3TB, 2-Thienyl and 2-furanyl boronic acid gave rise to shaking behavior. The various manifestations generated by these compounds can be linked, in part, to different levels of dopamine (measured by HPLC) and degrees of neuronal damage in the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Clearly, motor disruption is not induced by all boronic acids with a five-membered cycle as substituent. Possible explanations are given for the diverse chemico-morphological changes and degrees of disruption of the motor system, considering the role of boron and the structure-toxicity relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Boron Protecting Group Strategy for 1,2-Azaborines.

    PubMed

    Baggett, Andrew W; Liu, Shih-Yuan

    2017-10-25

    Upon reaction with either molecular oxygen or di-tert-butylperoxide in the presence of a simple copper(I) salt and an alcohol, a range of 1,2-azaborines readily exchange B-alkyl or B-aryl moieties for B-alkoxide fragments. This transformation allows alkyl and aryl groups to serve for the first time as removable protecting groups for the boron position of 1,2-azaborines during reactions that are not compatible with the easily modifiable B-alkoxide moiety. This reaction can be applied to synthesize a previously inaccessible BN isostere of ethylbenzene, a compound of interest in biomedical research. A sequence of epoxide ring opening using N-deprotonated 1,2-azaborines followed by an intramolecular version of the boron deprotection reaction can be applied to access the first examples of BN isosteres of dihydrobenzofurans and benzofurans, classes of compounds that are important to medicinal chemistry and natural product synthesis.

  20. Magnetic iron oxides in the cementation technology of the boron-containing radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, M. A.; Gorbunova, O. A.; Fedorova, O. V.; Folmanis, G. E.; Kovalenko, L. V.

    2015-04-01

    Two ways of synthesis of non-detachable dispersed particles of magnetic materials useful for the boron-containing waste cementation process regulation were developed. Powder XRD showed that the method of carbothermic recovery of nanoscale iron hydroxide allows obtaining a mixture of iron oxides with content of the magnetic phase up to 70%. Method of low-temperature hydrogen reduction of the raw materials allows obtaining various compositions of a-iron and iron oxides with the possibility to change the size of the final particles in a wide range. The possibility of using composites of magnetic iron oxides and metal oxide compositions instead of ferromagnetic rods with VEP of boron-containing liquid radioactive waste in the fluidized field was studied. It was shown that the use of fine and nano particles of the iron oxides in the pre-treatment of the boron-containing LRW increases the strength of the final compounds and accelerates the cement setting compounds from 13 to 5-9 days.

  1. Metabolic Clustering Analysis as a Strategy for Compound Selection in the Drug Discovery Pipeline for Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Emily G; Godzien, Joanna; Peña, Imanol; López-Gonzálvez, Ángeles; Angulo, Santiago; Gradillas, Ana; Alonso-Herranz, Vanesa; Martín, Julio; Fiandor, Jose M; Barrett, Michael P; Gabarro, Raquel; Barbas, Coral

    2018-05-18

    A lack of viable hits, increasing resistance, and limited knowledge on mode of action is hindering drug discovery for many diseases. To optimize prioritization and accelerate the discovery process, a strategy to cluster compounds based on more than chemical structure is required. We show the power of metabolomics in comparing effects on metabolism of 28 different candidate treatments for Leishmaniasis (25 from the GSK Leishmania box, two analogues of Leishmania box series, and amphotericin B as a gold standard treatment), tested in the axenic amastigote form of Leishmania donovani. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry was applied to identify the metabolic profile of Leishmania donovani, and principal components analysis was used to cluster compounds on potential mode of action, offering a medium throughput screening approach in drug selection/prioritization. The comprehensive and sensitive nature of the data has also made detailed effects of each compound obtainable, providing a resource to assist in further mechanistic studies and prioritization of these compounds for the development of new antileishmanial drugs.

  2. Analysis of boron carbides' electronic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Iris A.; Beckel, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    The electronic properties of boron-rich icosahedral clusters were studied as a means of understanding the electronic structure of the icosahedral borides such as boron carbide. A lower bound was estimated on bipolaron formation energies in B12 and B11C icosahedra, and the associated distortions. While the magnitude of the distortion associated with bipolaron formation is similar in both cases, the calculated formation energies differ greatly, formation being much more favorable on B11C icosahedra. The stable positions of a divalent atom relative to an icosahedral borane was also investigated, with the result that a stable energy minimum was found when the atom is at the center of the borane, internal to the B12 cage. If incorporation of dopant atoms into B12 cages in icosahedral boride solids is feasible, novel materials might result. In addition, the normal modes of a B12H12 cluster, of the C2B10 cage in para-carborane, and of a B12 icosahedron of reduced (D sub 3d) symmetry, such as is found in the icosahedral borides, were calculated. The nature of these vibrational modes will be important in determining, for instance, the character of the electron-lattice coupling in the borides, and in analyzing the lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity.

  3. Intracellular delivery and passive tumor targeting of a self-assembled nanogel containing carborane clusters for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Riku; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2017-01-29

    Boron neutron capture therapy, based on the release of thermal neutron irradiation from boron, is a targeted radiation therapy for cancer. Targeted and sufficient accumulation of boron in tumor cells to achieve cytotoxic efficacy and reduce off-target effects remains a challenge. Carborane has been investigated for use as a delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy because of its high boron content and chemical stability; however, it is cytotoxic, making safe delivery difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of carborane-bearing pullulan nanogels to safely and effectively deliver boron to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and, consequently, assess their potential as a boron neutron capture therapeutic. Murine fibrosarcoma cells (CMS5a) were used for in vitro investigations of nanogel cytotoxicity, cell uptake. A mouse fibrosarcoma xenograft model was used to investigate the bio-distribution of nanogels after intravenous administration. The nanogels produced no apparent cytotoxicity and underwent cell uptake in CMS5a cells after a 24 h incubation at up to 2000 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL, respectively. The internalized nanogels were localized around the nuclear membrane. The nanogels were administered intravenously to mice bearing fibrosarcoma xenografts. Nanogel tumor localization likely occurred through the enhanced permeation and retention effect. The nanogels successfully reduced the cytotoxicity of carborane, were internalized into tumor cells, acted as a dual-delivery therapeutic and accumulated in tumors in vivo. Consequently, they demonstrate significant potential as a boron neutron capture therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  5. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W [Newport News, VA; Jordan, Kevin [Newport News, VA; Park, Cheol [Yorktown, VA

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  6. Asymmetric twins in rhombohedral boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Takeshi, E-mail: tfujita@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp; Guan, Pengfei; Madhav Reddy, K.

    2014-01-13

    Superhard materials consisting of light elements have recently received considerable attention because of their ultrahigh specific strength for a wide range of applications as structural and functional materials. However, the failure mechanisms of these materials subjected to high stresses and dynamic loading remain to be poorly known. We report asymmetric twins in a complex compound, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C), characterized by spherical-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The atomic structure of boron-rich icosahedra at rhombohedral vertices and cross-linked carbon-rich atomic chains can be clearly visualized, which reveals unusual asymmetric twins with detectable strains along the twin interfaces. This study offers atomic insightsmore » into the structure of twins in a complex material and has important implications in understanding the planar defect-related failure of superhard materials under high stresses and shock loading.« less

  7. Alternative Process for Manufacturing of Thin Layers of Boron for Neutron Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Auge, Gregoire; Partyka, Stanislas; Guerard, Bruno

    Due to the worldwide shortage of helium 3, Boron-lined proportional counters are developed intensively by several groups. Up to now, thin boron containing layers for neutron detectors are essentially produced by sputtering of boron carbide (B{sub 4}C). This technology provides high quality films but it is slow and expensive. Our paper describes a novel and inexpensive technology for producing boron layers. This technology is based on chemical synthesis of boron 10 nanoparticles, and on electrophoretic deposition of these particles on metallic plates, or on metallic pieces with more complex shapes. The chemical synthesis consists in: - Heating boron 10 withmore » lithium up to 700 deg. C under inert atmosphere: an intermetallic compound, LiB, is produced; - Hydrolysing this intermetallic compound: LiB + H{sub 2}O → B + Li{sup +} + OH{sup -} + 1/2H{sub 2}, where B is under the form of nanoparticles; - Purifying the suspension of boron nanoparticles in water, from lithium hydroxide, by successive membrane filtrations; - Evaporating the purified suspension, in order to get a powder of nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles have size around 300 nm, with a high porosity, of about 50%. This particle size is equivalent to about 150 nm massive particles. The nanoparticles are then put into suspension in a specific solvent, in order to perform deposition on metallic surfaces, by electrophoretic method. The solvent is chosen so that it is not electrolysed even under voltages of several tens of volts. An acid is dissolved into the solvent, so that the nanoparticles are positively charged. Deposition is performed on the cathode within about 10 min. The cathode could be an aluminium plate, or a nickel coated aluminium plate. Homogeneous deposition may also be performed on complex shapes, like grids in a Multigrid detector. A large volume of pieces, can be coated with a Boron-10 film in a few hours. The thickness of the layer can be adjusted according to the required

  8. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of thiododecaborated α, α- cycloalkylamino acids for the treatment of malignant brain tumors by boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshihide; Kusaka, Shintaro; Mukumoto, Mari; Ishimura, Miki; Ohta, Yoichiro; Takenaka, Hiroshi; Uehara, Kouki; Asano, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Ono, Koji; Tanimori, Shinji; Kirihata, Mitsunori

    2014-12-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an attractive technique for cancer treatment. As such, α, α-cycloalkyl amino acids containing thiododecaborate ([B12H11](2-)-S-) units were designed and synthesized as novel boron delivery agents for BNCT. In the present study, new thiododecaborate α, α-cycloalkyl amino acids were synthesized, and biological evaluation of the boron compounds as boron carrier for BNCT was carried out.

  9. Boron-rich benzene and pyrene derivatives for the detection of thermal neutrons

    PubMed Central

    Yemam, Henok A.; Mahl, Adam; Koldemir, Unsal; Remedes, Tyler; Parkin, Sean; Greife, Uwe; Sellinger, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic methodology is developed to generate boron rich aromatic small molecules based on benzene and pyrene moieties for the detection of thermal neutrons. The prepared aromatic compounds have a relatively high boron content up to 7.4 wt%, which is important for application in neutron detection as 10B (20% of natural abundance boron) has a large neutron induced reaction cross-section. This is demonstrated by preparing blends of the synthesized molecules with fluorescent dopants in poly(vinyltoluene) matrices resulting in comparable scintillation light output and neutron capture as state-of-the art commercial scintillators, but with the advantage of much lower cost. The boron-rich benzene and pyrene derivatives are prepared by Suzuki conditions using both microwave and traditional heating, affording yields of 40–93%. This new procedure is simple and straightforward, and has the potential to be scaled up. PMID:26334111

  10. Base free aryl coupling of diazonium compounds and boronic esters: self-activation allowing an overall highly practical process.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Hélène; Delbrayelle, Dominique; Demonchaux, Patrice; Gras, Emmanuel

    2010-04-21

    Boronic esters have long been considered as poor partners in cross-coupling reactions with arene diazoniums. Here is reported an unprecedented application of self-activated boronic esters in a base-free cross-coupling reaction with diazonium salts under mild and user friendly conditions.

  11. The role of boron in flame-retardant treatments

    Treesearch

    S. L. LeVan; H. C. Tran

    1990-01-01

    Flame retardants for wood alter the combustion properties of wood to reduce surface flame spread. Flame retardant chemicals cause acid catalyzed dehydration reactions in wood to facilitate the formation of char and reduce the effective heat of combustion, resulting in lower heat release and flame spread. Boron compounds can also form glassy fiis that may inhibit mass...

  12. Boron-Based Catalysts for C-C Bond-Formation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Rao, Bin; Kinjo, Rei

    2018-05-02

    Because the construction of the C-C bond is one of the most significant reactions in organic chemistry, the development of an efficient strategy has attracted much attention throughout the synthetic community. Among various protocols to form C-C bonds, organoboron compounds are not just limited to stoichiometric reagents, but have also made great achievements as catalysts because of the easy modification of the electronic and steric impacts on the boron center. This review presents recent developments of boron-based catalysts applied in the field of C-C bond-formation reactions, which are classified into four kinds on the basis of the type of boron catalyst: 1) highly Lewis acidic borane, B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 ; 2) organoboron acids, RB(OH) 2 , and their ester derivatives; 3) borenium ions, (R 2 BL)X; and 4) other miscellaneous kinds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ceramic silicon-boron-carbon fibers from organic silicon-boron-polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-Ta S. (Inventor); Chen, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Novel high strength ceramic fibers derived from boron, silicon, and carbon organic precursor polymers are discussed. The ceramic fibers are thermally stable up to and beyond 1200 C in air. The method of preparation of the boron-silicon-carbon fibers from a low oxygen content organosilicon boron precursor polymer of the general formula Si(R2)BR(sup 1) includes melt-spinning, crosslinking, and pyrolysis. Specifically, the crosslinked (or cured) precursor organic polymer fibers do not melt or deform during pyrolysis to form the silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fiber. These novel silicon-boron-carbon ceramic fibers are useful in high temperature applications because they retain tensile and other properties up to 1200 C, from 1200 to 1300 C, and in some cases higher than 1300 C.

  14. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    DOEpatents

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  15. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  16. Simple, Green, and High-Yield Production of Boron-Based Nanostructures with Diverse Morphologies by Dissolution and Recrystallization of Layered Magnesium Diboride Crystals in Water.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Harini; Das, Saroj Kumar; Jasuja, Kabeer

    2018-04-05

    Layered metal diborides that contain metal atoms sandwiched between boron honeycomb planes offer a rich opportunity to access graphenic forms of boron. We recently demonstrated that magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) could be exfoliated by ultrasonication in water to yield boron-based nanosheets. However, knowledge of the fate of metal boride crystals in aqueous phases is still in its incipient stages. This work presents our preliminary findings on the discovery that MgB 2 crystals can undergo dissolution in water under ambient conditions to result in precursors (prenucleation clusters) that, upon aging, undergo nonclassical crystallization preferentially growing in lateral directions by two-dimensional (2D) oriented attachment. We show that this recrystallization can be utilized as an avenue to obtain a high yield (≈92 %) of boron-based nanostructures, including nanodots, nanograins, nanoflakes, and nanosheets. These nanostructures comprise boron honeycomb planes chemically modified with hydride and oxy functional groups, which results in an overall negative charge on their surfaces. This ability of MgB 2 crystals to yield prenucleation clusters that can self-seed to form nanostructures comprising chemically modified boron honeycomb planes presents a new facet to the physicochemical interaction of MgB 2 with water. These findings also open newer avenues to obtain boron-based nanostructures with tunable morphologies by varying the chemical milieu during recrystallization. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Boron.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the scientific evidence on boron including expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. This review serves as a clinical support tool. Electronic searches were conducted in nine databases, 20 additional journals (not indexed in common databases), and bibliographies from 50 selected secondary references. No restrictions were placed on language or quality of publications. All literature collected pertained to efficacy in humans, dosing, precautions, adverse effects, use in pregnancy/lactation, interactions, alteration of laboratory assays, and mechanisms of action. Standardized inclusion/exclusion criteria are utilized for selection. Grades were assigned using an evidence-based grading rationale. There was a lack of systematic study on the safety and effectiveness of boron in humans. However, based on popular use and supportive scientific data, nine indications are discussed in this review: hormone regulation, improving cognitive function, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, vaginitis (topical), bodybuilding aid (increasing testosterone), menopausal symptoms, prevention of blood clotting (coagulation effects), and psoriasis (topical). Although studies assessing the use of boron for osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are in preliminary stages, reports are promising. There is conflicting evidence to support the use of boron in hormonal regulation and cognitive function. Future randomized controlled trials are warranted. There is fair negative evidence regarding the use of boron as an anticoagulant, a bodybuilding aid, for menopausal symptoms, or for psoriasis. Excessive use may be harmful, and caution is advised.

  18. Encapsulation of cisplatin as an anti-cancer drug into boron-nitride and carbon nanotubes: Molecular simulation and free energy calculation.

    PubMed

    Roosta, Sara; Hashemianzadeh, Seyed Majid; Ketabi, Sepideh

    2016-10-01

    Encapsulation of cisplatin anticancer drug into the single walled (10, 0) carbon nanotube and (10, 0) boron-nitride nanotube was investigated by quantum mechanical calculations and Monte Carlo Simulation in aqueous solution. Solvation free energies and complexation free energies of the cisplatin@ carbon nanotube and cisplatin@ boron-nitride nanotube complexes was determined as well as radial distribution functions of entitled compounds. Solvation free energies of cisplatin@ carbon nanotube and cisplatin@ boron-nitride nanotube were -4.128kcalmol(-1) and -2457.124kcalmol(-1) respectively. The results showed that cisplatin@ boron-nitride nanotube was more soluble species in water. In addition electrostatic contribution of the interaction of boron- nitride nanotube complex and solvent was -281.937kcalmol(-1) which really more than Van der Waals and so the electrostatic interactions play a distinctive role in the solvation free energies of boron- nitride nanotube compounds. On the other hand electrostatic part of the interaction of carbon nanotube complex and solvent were almost the same as Van der Waals contribution. Complexation free energies were also computed to study the stability of related structures and the free energies were negative (-374.082 and -245.766kcalmol(-1)) which confirmed encapsulation of drug into abovementioned nanotubes. However, boron-nitride nanotubes were more appropriate for encapsulation due to their larger solubility in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Photovoltaic Device Including A Boron Doping Profile In An I-Type Layer

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Liyou

    1993-10-26

    A photovoltaic cell for use in a single junction or multijunction photovoltaic device, which includes a p-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon, an i-type layer of an amorphous semiconductor compound including silicon, and an n-type layer of a semiconductor compound including silicon formed on the i-type layer. The i-type layer including an undoped first sublayer formed on the p-type layer, and a boron-doped second sublayer formed on the first sublayer.

  20. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Present knowledge of electronic properties and charge transport of icosahedral boron-rich solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werheit, Helmut

    2009-06-01

    B12 icosahedra or related structure elements determine the different modifications of elementary boron and numerous boron-rich compounds from α-rhombohedral boron with 12 to YB66 type with about 1584 atoms per unit cell. Typical are well-defined high density intrinsic defects: Jahn-Teller distorted icosahedra, vacancies, incomplete occupancies, statistical occupancies and antisite defects. The correlation between intrinsic point defects and electron deficiencies solves the discrepancy between theoretically predicted metal and experimentally proved semiconducting character. The electron deficiencies generate split-off valence states, which are decisive for the electronic transport, a superposition of band-type and hopping-type conduction. Their share depends on actual conditions like temperature or pre-excitation. The theoretical model of bipolaron hopping is incompatible with numerous experiments. Technical application of the typically p-type icosahedral boron-rich solids requires suitable n-type counterparts; doping and other possibilities are discussed.

  2. In vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the screening of boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Clackdoyle, R.; Shortkroff, S.; Yanch, J.

    2008-05-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is under development as a potential treatment modality for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is characterized by the inflammation of the synovium (the membrane lining articular joints), which leads to pain and a restricted range of motion. BNCS is a two-part procedure involving the injection of a boronated compound directly into the diseased joint followed by irradiation with a low-energy neutron beam. The neutron capture reactions taking place in the synovium deliver a local, high-linear energy transfer (LET) dose aimed at destroying the inflamed synovial membrane. For successful treatment via BNCS, a boron-labeled compound exhibiting both high synovial uptake and long retention time is necessary. Currently, the in vivo uptake behavior of potentially useful boronated compounds is evaluated in the knee joints of rabbits in which arthritis has been induced. This strategy involves the sacrifice and dissection of a large number of animals. An in vivo 10B screening approach is therefore under investigation with the goal of significantly reducing the number of animals needed for compound evaluation via dissection studies. The 'in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis' (IVPGNAA) approach uses a narrow neutron beam to irradiate the knee from several angular positions following the intra-articular injection of a boronated compound whose uptake characteristics are unknown. A high-purity germanium detector collects the 478 keV gamma photons produced by the 10B capture reactions. The 10B distribution in the knee is then reconstructed by solving a system of simultaneous equations using a weighted least squares algorithm. To study the practical feasibility of IVPGNAA, simulation data were generated with the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The boron-containing region of a rabbit knee was partitioned into 8 compartments, and the 10B prompt gamma signals were tallied from 16 angular positions. Results demonstrate that for this

  3. Room-Temperature Fabricated Thin-Film Transistors Based on Compounds with Lanthanum and Main Family Element Boron.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Peng; Huang, Junhua; Dong, Ting; Xie, Jianing; Yuan, Jian; Luo, Dongxiang; Liu, Baiquan

    2018-06-06

    For the first time, compounds with lanthanum from the main family element Boron (LaB x ) were investigated as an active layer for thin-film transistors (TFTs). Detailed studies showed that the room-temperature fabricated LaB x thin film was in the crystalline state with a relatively narrow optical band gap of 2.28 eV. The atom ration of La/B was related to the working pressure during the sputtering process and the atom ration of La/B increased with the increase of the working pressure, which will result in the freer electrons in the LaB x thin film. LaB x -TFT without any intentionally annealing steps exhibited a saturation mobility of 0.44 cm²·V −1 ·s −1 , which is a subthreshold swing ( SS ) of 0.26 V/decade and a I on / I off ratio larger than 10⁴. The room-temperature process is attractive for its compatibility with almost all kinds of flexible substrates and the LaB x semiconductor may be a new choice for the channel materials in TFTs.

  4. Core-level photoabsorption study of defects and metastable bonding configurations in boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, I.; Jankowski, A.F.; Terminello, L.J.

    1997-04-01

    Boron nitride is an interesting material for technological applications and for fundamental solid state physics investigations. It is a compound isoelectronic with carbon and, like carbon can possess sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} bonded phases resembling graphite and diamond. BN crystallizes in the sp{sup 2}-bonded hexagonal (h-BN), rhombohedral (r-BN) and turbostratic phases, and in the sp{sup 3}-bonded cubic (c-BN) and wurtzite (w-BN) phases. A new family of materials is obtained when replacing C-C pairs in graphite with isoelectronic B-N pairs, resulting in C{sub 2}BN compounds. Regarding other boron compounds, BN is exceptional in the sense that it has standard two-centermore » bonds with conventional coordination numbers, while other boron compounds (e.g. B{sub 4}C) are based on the boron icosahedron unit with three-center bonds and high coordination numbers. The existence of several allotropic forms and fullerene-like structures for BN suggests a rich variety of local bonding and poses the questions of how this affects the local electronic structure and how the material accommodates the stress induced in the transition regions between different phases. One would expect point defects to play a crucial role in stress accommodation, but these must also have a strong influence in the electronic structure, since the B-N bond is polar and a point defect will thus be a charged structure. The study of point defects in relationship to the electronic structure is of fundamental interest in these materials. Recently, the authors have shown that Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) is sensitive to point defects in h-BN, and to the formation of metastable phases even in amorphous materials. This is significant since other phase identification techniques like vibrational spectroscopies or x-ray diffraction yield ambiguous results for nanocrystalline and amorphous samples. Serendipitously, NEXAFS also combines chemical selectivity with point defect sensitivity.« less

  5. B38: an all-boron fullerene analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Zhu, Li; Ma, Yanming

    2014-09-01

    Fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon have long been sought. Finding all-boron (B) fullerene-like structures is challenging due to the geometrical frustration arising from competitions among various structural motifs. We report here the prediction of a B38 fullerene analogue found through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The structure is highly symmetric and consists of 56 triangles and four hexagons, which provide an optimal void in the center of the cage. Energetically, it is more favorable than the planar and tubular structures, and possesses an unusually high chemical stability: a large energy gap (~2.25 eV) and a high double aromaticity, superior to those of most aromatic quasi-planar B12 and double-ring B20 clusters. Our findings represent a key step forward towards to the understanding of structures of medium-sized B clusters and map out the experimental direction of the synthesis of an all-B fullerene analogue.Fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon have long been sought. Finding all-boron (B) fullerene-like structures is challenging due to the geometrical frustration arising from competitions among various structural motifs. We report here the prediction of a B38 fullerene analogue found through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The structure is highly symmetric and consists of 56 triangles and four hexagons, which provide an optimal void in the center of the cage. Energetically, it is more favorable than the planar and tubular structures, and possesses an unusually high chemical stability: a large energy gap (~2.25 eV) and a high double aromaticity, superior to those of most aromatic quasi-planar B12 and double-ring B20 clusters. Our findings represent a key step forward towards to the understanding of structures of medium-sized B clusters and map out the experimental direction of the synthesis of an all-B fullerene analogue. Electronic supplementary information

  6. Boron coating on boron nitride coated nuclear fuels by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmazuçar, Hasan H.; Gündüz, Güngör

    2000-12-01

    Uranium dioxide-only and uranium dioxide-gadolinium oxide (5% and 10%) ceramic nuclear fuel pellets which were already coated with boron nitride were coated with thin boron layer by chemical vapor deposition to increase the burn-up efficiency of the fuel during reactor operation. Coating was accomplished from the reaction of boron trichloride with hydrogen at 1250 K in a tube furnace, and then sintering at 1400 and 1525 K. The deposited boron was identified by infrared spectrum. The morphology of the coating was studied by using scanning electron microscope. The plate, grainy and string (fiber)-like boron structures were observed.

  7. Thermochemistry and electronic structure of small boron clusters (B(n), n = 5-13) and their anions.

    PubMed

    Truong, Ba Tai; Grant, Daniel J; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Dixon, David A

    2010-01-21

    Thermochemical parameters of a set of small-sized neutral (B(n)) and anionic (B(n)(-)) boron clusters, with n = 5-13, were determined using coupled-cluster theory CCSD(T) calculations with the aug-cc-pVnZ (n = D, T, and Q) basis sets extrapolated to the complete basis set limit (CBS) plus addition corrections and/or G3B3 calculations. Enthalpies of formation, adiabatic electron affinities (EA), vertical (VDE), and adiabatic (ADE) detachment energies were evaluated. Our calculated EAs are in good agreement with recent experiments (values in eV): B(5) (CBS, 2.29; G3B3, 2.48; exptl., 2.33 +/- 0.02), B(6) (CBS, 2.59; G3B3, 3.23; exptl., 3.01 +/- 0.04), B(7) (CBS, 2.62; G3B3, 2.67; exptl., 2.55 +/- 0.05), B(8) (CBS, 3.02; G3B3, 3.11; exptl., 3.02 +/- 0.02), B(9) (G3B3, 3.03; exptl., 3.39 +/- 0.06), B(10) (G3B3, 2.85; exptl., 2.88 +/- 0.09), B(11) (G3B4, 3.48;, exptl., 3.43 +/- 0.01), B(12) (G3B3, 2.33; exptl., 2.21 +/- 0.04), and B(13) (G3B3, 3.62; exptl., 3.78 +/- 0.02). The difference between the calculated adiabatic electron affinity and the adiabatic detachment energy for B(6) is due to the fact that the geometry of the anion is not that of the ground-state neutral. The calculated adiabatic detachment energies to the (3)A(u), C(2h) and (1)A(g), D(2h) excited states of B(6), which have geometries similar to the (1)A(g), D(2h) state of B(6)(-), are 2.93 and 3.06 eV, in excellent agreement with experiment. The VDEs were also well reproduced by the calculations. Partitioning of the electron localization functions into pi and sigma components allows probing of the partial and local delocalization in global nonaromatic systems. The larger clusters appear to exhibit multiple aromaticity. The binding energies per atom vary in a parallel manner for both neutral and anionic series and approach the experimental value for the heat of atomization of B. The resonance energies and the normalized resonance energies are convenient indices to quantify the stabilization of a cluster

  8. New Boron Analogues of Pyrophosphates and Deoxynucleoside Boranophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Vyakaranam, Kamesh; Rana, Geeta; Spielvogel, Bernard F.

    2001-01-01

    Tetraethyldicyanoborane pyrophosphate (2) and 3'-(diethylphosphite-cyanoborano)-5'-dimethoxytrityl.N4-benzoyl-deoxycytidine (3) have been synthesized in 70% and 76% yields, respectively. The compatibility of the substituted boranophosphates with common protecting groups is hereby demonstrated. Boron containing biologically active compounds, such as nucleosides and nucleotides 1-6 and amino acids 7-9 are important due to their potential therapeutic activity, research and diagnostic applications. Many boron containing compounds have shown promising activity as anticancer, 10. 11. 12 antiinflammatory,13 and antiosteoporotic 13agents. Oligonucleotdes in which a non-bridging oxygen atom is replaced by a borane(BH3) group are a very important class of modified nucleic acids. 1. 3. 14-16 The BH3 group is isoelectronic with oxygen in natural oligonucleotides and isoelectronic and isostructural with the oligonucleotide methyl phosphonates, which are nuclease resistant. On the other hand, the α-borano triphosphates are good substrates for DNA polymerases and incorporation of boranophosphates into DNA causes an increase in the resistance to exo- and endonucleases 2. 17a as compared to non-modified DNA. There are also notable applications of the α-borano triphosphates in PCR sequencing 17a and nucleic acid detection 17b. PMID:18475988

  9. A method for topological analysis of high nuclearity coordination clusters and its application to Mn coordination compounds.

    PubMed

    Kostakis, George E; Blatov, Vladislav A; Proserpio, Davide M

    2012-04-21

    A novel method for the topological description of high nuclearity coordination clusters (CCs) was improved and applied to all compounds containing only manganese as a metal center, the data on which are collected in the CCDC (CCDC 5.33 Nov. 2011). Using the TOPOS program package that supports this method, we identified 539 CCs with five or more Mn centers adopting 159 topologically different graphs. In the present database all the Mn CCs are collected and illustrated in such a way that can be searched by cluster topological symbol and nuclearity, compound name and Refcode. The main principles for such an analysis are described herein as well as useful applications of this method.

  10. Shock-induced reaction synthesis of cubic boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beason, M. T.; Pauls, J. M.; Gunduz, I. E.; Rouvimov, S.; Manukyan, K. V.; Matouš, K.; Son, S. F.; Mukasyan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report ultra-fast (0.1-5 μs) shock-induced reactions in the 3B-TiN system, leading to the direct synthesis of cubic boron nitride, which is extremely rare in nature and is the second hardest material known. Composite powders were produced through high-energy ball milling to provide intimate mixing and subsequently shocked using an explosive charge. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirm the formation of nanocrystalline grains of c-BN produced during the metathetical reaction between boron and titanium nitride. Our results illustrate the possibility of rapid reactions enabled by high-energy ball milling possibly occurring in the solid state on incredibly short timescales. This process may provide a route for the discovery and fabrication of advanced compounds.

  11. TyPol - a new methodology for organic compounds clustering based on their molecular characteristics and environmental behavior.

    PubMed

    Servien, Rémi; Mamy, Laure; Li, Ziang; Rossard, Virginie; Latrille, Eric; Bessac, Fabienne; Patureau, Dominique; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    Following legislation, the assessment of the environmental risks of 30000-100000 chemical substances is required for their registration dossiers. However, their behavior in the environment and their transfer to environmental components such as water or atmosphere are studied for only a very small proportion of the chemical in laboratory tests or monitoring studies because it is time-consuming and/or cost prohibitive. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop a new methodology, TyPol, to classify organic compounds, and their degradation products, according to both their behavior in the environment and their molecular properties. The strategy relies on partial least squares analysis and hierarchical clustering. The calculation of molecular descriptors is based on an in silico approach, and the environmental endpoints (i.e. environmental parameters) are extracted from several available databases and literature. The classification of 215 organic compounds inputted in TyPol for this proof-of-concept study showed that the combination of some specific molecular descriptors could be related to a particular behavior in the environment. TyPol also provided an analysis of similarities (or dissimilarities) between organic compounds and their degradation products. Among the 24 degradation products that were inputted, 58% were found in the same cluster as their parents. The robustness of the method was tested and shown to be good. TyPol could help to predict the environmental behavior of a "new" compound (parent compound or degradation product) from its affiliation to one cluster, but also to select representative substances from a large data set in order to answer some specific questions regarding their behavior in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biocompatibility of functionalized boron phosphate (BPO4) nanoparticles for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application.

    PubMed

    Achilli, Cesare; Grandi, Stefania; Ciana, Annarita; Guidetti, Gianni F; Malara, Alessandro; Abbonante, Vittorio; Cansolino, Laura; Tomasi, Corrado; Balduini, Alessandra; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Merli, Daniele; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Canobbio, Ilaria; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2014-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment based on the accumulation in the tumor of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, which bring about the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing the death of the neoplastic cell. The effectiveness of BNCT is limited by the low delivery and accumulation of the used boron-containing compounds. Here we report the development and the characterization of BPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) as a novel possible alternative drug for BNCT. An extensive analysis of BPO4 NP biocompatibility was performed using both mature blood cells (erythrocytes, neutrophils and platelets) and a model of hematopoietic progenitor cells. A time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity study was performed on neoplastic coloncarcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. BPO4 functionalization with folic acid, introduced to improve the uptake by tumor cells, appeared to effectively limit the unwanted effects of NPs on the analyzed blood components. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapy treatment modality based on the accumulation of a (10)B-containing drug and subsequent irradiation with low energy neutrons, inducing the decay of (10)B to (7)Li and an α particle, causing neoplastic cell death. This team of authors reports on a folic acid functionalized BPO4 nanoparticle with improved characteristics compared with conventional BNCT approaches, as demonstrated in tumor cell lines, and hopefully to be followed by translational human studies. © 2014.

  13. Revisiting benzene cluster cations for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide and select volatile organic compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Michelle J.; Zoerb, Matthew C.; Campbell, Nicole R.; ...

    2016-04-05

    Here, benzene cluster cations were revisited as a sensitive and selective reagent ion for the chemical ionization of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and a select group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Laboratory characterization was performed using both a new set of compounds (i.e., DMS, β-caryophyllene) as well as previously studied VOCs (i.e., isoprene, α-pinene). Using a field deployable chemical-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-ToFMS), benzene cluster cations demonstrated high sensitivity (> 1 ncps ppt −1) to DMS, isoprene, and α-pinene standards. Parallel measurements conducted using a chemical-ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer, with a much weaker electric field, demonstrated that ion–molecule reactions likely proceed through amore » combination of ligand-switching and direct charge transfer mechanisms. Laboratory tests suggest that benzene cluster cations may be suitable for the selective ionization of sesquiterpenes, where minimal fragmentation (< 25 %) was observed for the detection of β-caryophyllene, a bicyclic sesquiterpene. The in-field stability of benzene cluster cations using CI-ToFMS was examined in the marine boundary layer during the High Wind Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS). The use of benzene cluster cation chemistry for the selective detection of DMS was validated against an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer, where measurements from the two instruments were highly correlated ( R 2 > 0.95, 10 s averages) over a wide range of sampling conditions.« less

  14. The acceleration of boron neutron capture therapy using multi-linked mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate (BSH) fused cell-penetrating peptide.

    PubMed

    Michiue, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kondo, Natsuko; Kitamatsu, Mizuki; Bin, Feng; Nakajima, Kiichiro; Hirota, Yuki; Kawabata, Shinji; Nishiki, Tei-ichi; Ohmori, Iori; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Ono, Koji; Matsui, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    New anti-cancer therapy with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction of boron-10 with neutron irradiation. The median survival of BNCT patients with glioblastoma was almost twice as long as those receiving standard therapy in a Japanese BNCT clinical trial. In this clinical trial, two boron compounds, BPA (boronophenylalanine) and BSH (sodium borocaptate), were used for BNCT. BPA is taken up into cells through amino acid transporters that are expressed highly in almost all malignant cells, but BSH cannot pass through the cell membrane and remains outside the cell. We simulated the energy transfer against the nucleus at different locations of boron from outside the cell to the nuclear region with neutron irradiation and concluded that there was a marked difference between inside and outside the cell in boron localization. To overcome this disadvantage of BSH in BNCT, we used a cell-penetrating peptide system for transduction of BSH. CPP (cell-membrane penetrating peptide) is very common peptide domains that transduce many physiologically active substances into cells in vitro and in vivo. BSH-fused CPPs can penetrate the cell membrane and localize inside a cell. To increase the boron ratio in one BSH-peptide molecule, 8BSH fused to 11R with a dendritic lysine structure was synthesized and administrated to malignant glioma cells and a brain tumor mouse model. 8BSH-11R localized at the cell nucleus and showed a very high boron value in ICP results. With neutron irradiation, the 8BSH-11R administrated group showed a significant cancer killing effect compared to the 100 times higher concentration of BSH-administrated group. We concluded that BSH-fused CPPs were one of the most improved and potential boron compounds in the next-stage BNCT trial and 8BSH-11R may be applied in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATIONS OF BORON; Estudo Estatistico de Determinacoes Espectrofotometricas de Boro

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, F.W.; Pagano, C.; Schneiderman, B.

    1959-07-01

    Boron can be determined quantitatively by absorption spectrophotometry of solutions of the red compound formed by the reaction of boric acid with curcumin. This reaction is affected by various factors, some of which can be detected easily in the data interpretation. Others, however, provide more difficulty. The application of modern statistical method to the study of the influence of these factors on the quantitative determination of boron is presented. These methods provide objective ways of establishing significant effects of the factors involved. (auth)

  16. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1999-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

  17. Crystalline boron nitride aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Rousseas, Michael; Goldstein, Anna P.; Mickelson, William; Worsley, Marcus A.; Woo, Leta

    2017-04-04

    This disclosure provides methods and materials related to boron nitride aerogels. In one aspect, a material comprises an aerogel comprising boron nitride. The boron nitride has an ordered crystalline structure. The ordered crystalline structure may include atomic layers of hexagonal boron nitride lying on top of one another, with atoms contained in a first layer being superimposed on atoms contained in a second layer.

  18. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  19. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  20. Recent developments in and perspectives on three-coordinate boron materials: a bright future

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lei; Griesbeck, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    The empty pz-orbital of a three-coordinate organoboron compound leads to its electron-deficient properties, which make it an excellent π-acceptor in conjugated organic chromophores. The empty p-orbital in such Lewis acids can be attacked by nucleophiles, so bulky groups are often employed to provide air-stable materials. However, many of these can still bind fluoride and cyanide anions leading to applications as anion-selective sensors. One electron reduction generates radical anions. The π-acceptor strength can be easily tuned by varying the organic substituents. Many of these compounds show strong two-photon absorption (TPA) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) behaviour, which can be applied for e.g. biological imaging. Furthermore, these chromophores can be used as emitters and electron transporters in OLEDs, and examples have recently been found to exhibit efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). The three-coordinate organoboron unit can also be incorporated into polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Such boron-doped compounds exhibit very interesting properties, distinct from their all-carbon analogues. Significant developments have been made in all of these areas in recent years and new applications are rapidly emerging for this class of boron compounds. PMID:28572897

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of boron to a variety of freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Koch, Brian T

    2011-08-01

    Boron enters the aquatic environment from various sources, including weathering of borates, sewage effluents, coal combustion, use of cleaning compounds, and agrochemicals. The present study was designed to generate data on acute and chronic boron toxicity in support of an update of water quality standards in Illinois, USA. We examined the acute toxicity of boron to eight different freshwater organisms including a fish, an insect, two crustaceans, and four bivalve mollusks. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present data on the toxicity of boron to freshwater mollusks. We also sought to clarify whether hardness or pH affect boron toxicity to aquatic life, and to quantify chronic effect levels in two freshwater species. Sensitivity among the various species ranged widely, with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) being the most sensitive. Neither pH nor hardness had a consistent effect on acute boron toxicity to two crustaceans (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), but we observed evidence that chloride reduces boron toxicity to H. azteca. The fathead minnow, while more acutely sensitive than the other species, had a lower acute to chronic ratio than did H. azteca, which had reduced reproduction at 13 mg/L. While we do not know the extent to which the eight tested species represent the range of sensitivities of native but untested species in Illinois, the current water quality standard for Illinois (1 mg/L) is conservative with regard to the native species tested thus far. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1999-04-27

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of boric acid in boron powder with curcumin

    SciTech Connect

    Grotheer, E.W.

    1979-12-01

    A rapid and accurate method was needed to determine trace amounts of boric acid for quality control and specification testing of elemental boron. The reaction between boric acid and curcumin occurs at a measurable rate only when the curcumin molecule is protonated. Protonation takes place at the carbonyl groups in the presence of a strong acid and occurs completely and rapidly when sulfuric acid is added to a solution of curcumin in acetic acid. Spectrophotometric measurements were made. The extraction of boric acid from boron powder was found to be complete within 2h when either water or the diol solutionmore » was used. Whatman No. 40 cr 42 filter paper was used to obtain diol samples free of boron particles. The extraction efficiency of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol was evaluated by adding 1 ml of 500 ppM aqueous boric acid and 1 drop of 10% NaOH to accurately weighed samples of boron powder. The water then was evaporated at room temperature and the samples were extracted with diol solution. The data obtained are included. The extraction efficiency also was evaluated by determining the boric acid content of boron which had been recovered from a previous extraction and boric acid determination. The determination of boric acid using curcumin is unaffected by the presence of other compounds, except for fluoride and nitrate ions. 2 tables. (DP)« less

  4. QMD and classical MD simulation of alpha boron and boron-carbide behavior under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanilkin, Alexey; Korotaev, Pavel; Kuksin, Alexey; Pokatashkin, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Boron and some boron-rich compounds are super-hard and light-weighted material with a wide range of different applications. Nevertheless, the question of its behavior under pressure is still open. In the present work we study the equation of state (EOS), stability and deformation of α-B and B4C under high pressure within quantum and classical molecular dynamics (QMD and MD). Based on QMD results the finite temperature EOSs are revealed. CBC chain bending, amorphization and recrystallization of B4C are investigated under hydrostatic, uniform and uniaxial compression. The influence of nonhydrostatic loading is discussed. Angular dependent interatomic potentials are derived by force-matching method. The properties of α-B and B4C, obtained by classical potential, are verified. Structure, bulk modulus, pressure-volume relation, Gruneisen and thermal expansion coefficients are in good agreement with both ab initio and experimental data. These potentials are used to study shock wave propagation in a single crystal of α-B and B4C. Two mechanisms of shear deformation are observed: stacking fault formation and local amorphization. The crystallographic orientations of defects are in a good agreement with experiments.

  5. The effects of dietary boron compounds in supplemented diet on hormonal activity and some biochemical parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Kucukkurt, Ismail; Akbel, Erten; Karabag, Funda; Ince, Sinan

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of dietary boric acid or borax, as a boron (B) source, on hormonal status (leptin, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine) and some biochemical parameter levels as glucose, carnitine, nonesterified fatty acids, and betahydroxybutyric acid in rats. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three equal groups: the animals in the first group (control) were fed with a standard rodent diet containing 6.4 mg B/kg, and the animals in the experimental group were fed with a standard rodent diet added with boric acid and borax (100 mg B/kg) throughout the experimental period of 28 days. The B compounds especially borax decreased leptin, insulin, and glucose levels, whereas increased T3 and carnitine levels in plasma. In addition, body weight of rats was found to be low in the boric acid group at the end of 4 weeks. Consequently, our results demonstrate that B supplementation (100 mg/kg) in diet decreases body weight, leptin, and insulin, whereas increases T3 levels in plasma, so enhances the metabolic activity of rats. Between the B compounds used in this study, it was found that borax had a greater effect on hormonal status than boric acid. © The Author(s) 2012.

  6. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; McKernan, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil.

  7. Fabrication of boron sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1995-02-28

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high density boron sputtering targets with sufficient mechanical strength to function reliably at typical magnetron sputtering power densities and at normal process parameters. The process involves the fabrication of a high density boron monolithe by hot isostatically compacting high purity (99.9%) boron powder, machining the boron monolithe into the final dimensions, and brazing the finished boron piece to a matching boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) piece, by placing aluminum foil there between and applying pressure and heat in a vacuum. An alternative is the application of aluminum metallization to the back of the boron monolithe by vacuum deposition. Also, a titanium based vacuum braze alloy can be used in place of the aluminum foil. 7 figs.

  8. Hyaluronic acid as a potential boron carrier for BNCT: Preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zaboronok, A; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Yoshida, F; Uspenskii, S; Selyanin, M; Zelenetskii, A; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a nonimmunogenic, biocompatible polymer found in different biological tissues, has the potential to attach to CD44 receptors on the surface of certain cancer cells, where the receptor is overexpressed compared with normal cells. Boron-hyaluronic acid (BHA) was tested for its feasibility as a potential agent for BNCT. BHA with low-viscosity 30 kDa HA could be administered by intravenous injection. The compound showed a certain degree of cytotoxicity and accumulation in C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Instability of the chelate bonds between boron and HA and/or insufficient specificity of CD44 receptors on C6 cells to BHA could account for the insufficient in vitro accumulation. To ensure the future eligibility of BHA for BNCT experiments, using alternative tumor cell lines and chemically securing the chelate bonds or synthesizing BHA with boron covalently attached to HA might be required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Boron-containing acids: preliminary evaluation of acute toxicity and access to the brain determined by Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Soriano-Ursúa, Marvin A; Farfán-García, Eunice D; López-Cabrera, Yessica; Querejeta, Enrique; Trujillo-Ferrara, José G

    2014-01-01

    Boron-containing compounds (BCCs), particularly boron containing acids (BCAs), have become attractive moieties or molecules in drug development. It has been suggested that when functional groups with boron atoms are added to well-known drugs, the latter are conferred with greater potency and efficacy in relation to their target receptors. However, the use of BCAs in drug development is limited due to the lack of a toxicological profile. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of boric and boronic acids. Thus, a determination was made of the lethal dose (LD50) of test compounds in male CD1 mice, as well as the effective dose required to negatively affect spontaneous motor activity and to produce notable behavioral abnormalities. After treatment of animals at different doses, macroscopic observations were made from a necropsy, and Raman scattering spectroscopic studies were carried out on brain tissue samples. In general, the results show that most of the tested BCAs have very low toxicity, evidenced by the high doses required to induce notable toxic effects (greater than 100 mg/kg of body weight for all compounds, except for 3-thyenilboronic acid). Such toxic effects, presumably mediated by action on the CNS, include eye damage, gastrointestinal effects (e.g., gastric-gut dilatation and fecal retention), sedation, hypnosis and/or trembling. This preliminary toxicological profile suggests that BCAs can be considered potential therapeutic agents or moieties to be added to other compounds in the development of new drugs. Future studies are required to explore possible chronic toxicity of BCCs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Boron-containing organic pigments from a Jurassic red alga

    PubMed Central

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Gross, Jürgen H.; Falk, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Organic biomolecules that have retained their basic chemical structures over geological periods (molecular fossils) occur in a wide range of geological samples and provide valuable paleobiological, paleoenvironmental, and geochemical information not attainable from other sources. In rare cases, such compounds are even preserved with their specific functional groups and still occur within the organisms that produced them, providing direct information on the biochemical inventory of extinct organisms and their possible evolutionary relationships. Here we report the discovery of an exceptional group of boron-containing compounds, the borolithochromes, causing the distinct pink coloration of well-preserved specimens of the Jurassic red alga Solenopora jurassica. The borolithochromes are characterized as complicated spiroborates (boric acid esters) with two phenolic moieties as boron ligands, representing a unique class of fossil organic pigments. The chiroptical properties of the pigments unequivocally demonstrate a biogenic origin, at least of their ligands. However, although the borolithochromes originated from a fossil red alga, no analogy with hitherto known present-day red algal pigments was found. The occurrence of the borolithochromes or their possible diagenetic products in the fossil record may provide additional information on the classification and phylogeny of fossil calcareous algae. PMID:20974956

  11. Boron-containing organic pigments from a Jurassic red alga.

    PubMed

    Wolkenstein, Klaus; Gross, Jürgen H; Falk, Heinz

    2010-11-09

    Organic biomolecules that have retained their basic chemical structures over geological periods (molecular fossils) occur in a wide range of geological samples and provide valuable paleobiological, paleoenvironmental, and geochemical information not attainable from other sources. In rare cases, such compounds are even preserved with their specific functional groups and still occur within the organisms that produced them, providing direct information on the biochemical inventory of extinct organisms and their possible evolutionary relationships. Here we report the discovery of an exceptional group of boron-containing compounds, the borolithochromes, causing the distinct pink coloration of well-preserved specimens of the Jurassic red alga Solenopora jurassica. The borolithochromes are characterized as complicated spiroborates (boric acid esters) with two phenolic moieties as boron ligands, representing a unique class of fossil organic pigments. The chiroptical properties of the pigments unequivocally demonstrate a biogenic origin, at least of their ligands. However, although the borolithochromes originated from a fossil red alga, no analogy with hitherto known present-day red algal pigments was found. The occurrence of the borolithochromes or their possible diagenetic products in the fossil record may provide additional information on the classification and phylogeny of fossil calcareous algae.

  12. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  13. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  14. Chemical and mechanical analysis of boron-rich boron carbide processed via spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munhollon, Tyler Lee

    Boron carbide is a material of choice for many industrial and specialty applications due to the exceptional properties it exhibits such as high hardness, chemical inertness, low specific gravity, high neutron cross section and more. The combination of high hardness and low specific gravity makes it especially attractive for high pressure/high strain rate applications. However, boron carbide exhibits anomalous behavior when high pressures are applied. Impact pressures over the Hugoniot elastic limit result in catastrophic failure of the material. This failure has been linked to amorphization in cleavage planes and loss of shear strength. Atomistic modeling has suggested boron-rich boron carbide (B13C2) may be a better performing material than the commonly used B4C due to the elimination of amorphization and an increase in shear strength. Therefore, a clear experimental understanding of the factors that lead to the degradation of mechanical properties as well as the effects of chemistry changes in boron carbide is needed. For this reason, the goal of this thesis was to produce high purity boron carbide with varying stoichiometries for chemical and mechanical property characterization. Utilizing rapid carbothermal reduction and pressure assisted sintering, dense boron carbides with varying stoichiometries were produced. Microstructural characteristics such as impurity inclusions, porosity and grain size were controlled. The chemistry and common static mechanical properties that are of importance to superhard materials including elastic moduli, hardness and fracture toughness of the resulting boron-rich boron carbides were characterized. A series of six boron carbide samples were processed with varying amounts of amorphous boron (up to 45 wt. % amorphous boron). Samples with greater than 40 wt.% boron additions were shown to exhibit abnormal sintering behavior, making it difficult to characterize these samples. Near theoretical densities were achieved in samples with

  15. Fluoride, boron and nitrate toxicity in ground water of northwest Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Veena; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Mukesh; Yadav, B S

    2010-02-01

    The study was carried out to access the fluoride, boron, and nitrate concentrations in ground water samples of different villages in Indira Gandhi, Bhakra, and Gang canal catchment area of northwest Rajasthan, India. Rural population, in the study site, is using groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes, without any quality test of water. All water samples (including canal water) were contaminated with fluoride. Fluoride, boron, and nitrate were observed in the ranges of 0.50-8.50, 0.0-7.73, and 0.0-278.68 mg/l, respectively. Most of the water samples were in the categories of fluoride 1.50 mg/l, of boron 2.0-4.0 mg/l, and of nitrate < 45 mg/l. There was no industrial pollution in the study site; hence, availability of these compounds in groundwater was due to natural reasons and by the use of chemical fertilizers.

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anticancer and Trypanocidal Activities of Boronic Tyrphostins.

    PubMed

    de J Hiller, Noemi; A A E Silva, Nayane; Faria, Robson X; Souza, André Luís A; Resende, Jackson A L C; Borges Farias, André; Correia Romeiro, Nelilma; de Luna Martins, Daniela

    2018-06-01

    Molecules containing an (cyanovinyl)arene moiety are known as tyrphostins because of their ability to inhibit proteins from the tyrosine kinase family, an interesting target for the development of anticancer and trypanocidal drugs. In the present work, (E)-(cyanovinyl)benzeneboronic acids were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensations without the use of any catalysts in water through a simple protocol that completely avoided the use of organic solvents in the synthesis and workup process. The in vitro anticancer and trypanocidal activities of the synthesized boronic acids were also evaluated, and it was discovered that the introduction of the boronic acid functionality improved the activity of the boronic tyrphostins. In silico target fishing with the use of a chemogenomic approach suggested that tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1a (DYRK1A) was a potential target for some of the designed compounds. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. X-ray attenuation coefficients of high-atomic-number, hexanuclear transition metal cluster compounds: a new paradigm for radiographic contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Mullan, B F; Madsen, M T; Messerle, L; Kolesnichenko, V; Kruger, J

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the radiologic attenuation properties of the parent cluster compounds, particularly attenuation as a function of discrete photon energy, before investigating ligand substitutions, which are necessary to improve cluster biocompatibility and to impart desirable physicochemical properties. The linear attenuation coefficients for solutions of the cluster compounds Ta6Br14, K8Ta6O19, and (H3O)2W6Cl14 were determined at 60, 80, 103, 122, and 140 keV from gamma-ray transmission measurements with americium-241, xenon-133, gadolinium-153, cobalt-57, and technetium-99m radioactive sources. Transmission measurements were obtained for a fixed time interval that ensured a statistically accurate count distribution exceeding 20,000 counts through the sample for each trial. On a strictly mole per liter basis, a 0.075 mol/L aqueous solution of K8Ta6O19 showed 1.08 times the attenuation of 0.063 mol/L aqueous iohexol at 60 keV and 3.30 times the attenuation at 80 keV. Similarly, a 0.05 mol/L methanolic solution of (H3O)2W6Cl4 showed 0.96 times (96%) the attenuation of 0.063 mol/L aqueous iohexol at 60 keV but 3.09 times the attenuation of the iohexol solution at 80 keV. Attenuations of 0.063 mol/L aqueous iohexol and 0.0125 mol/L Ta6Br14 (ie, at approximately one-fifth the iohexol concentration) were comparable at greater than 60 keV. These results confirm the theoretic potential for use of early transition metal cluster compounds as radiographic contrast agents. At higher x-ray energies, cluster compounds demonstrate multiplied x-ray attenuation relative to iodinated contrast agents.

  18. Precision and Accuracy of Analysis for Boron in ITP Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Tovo, L.L.

    'Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES) has been used by the Analytical Development Section (ADS) to measure boron in catalytic tetraphenylboron decomposition studies performed by the Waste Processing Technology (WPT) section. Analysis of these samples is complicated due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium and organic compounds. Previously, we found signal suppression in samples analyzed "as received". We suspected that the suppression was due to the high organic concentration (up to 0.01 molar organic decomposition products) in the samples. When the samples were acid digested prior to analysis, the suppression was eliminated. The precision of the reported boronmore » concentration was estimated as 10 percent based on the known precision of the inorganic boron standard used for calibration and quality control check of the ICPES analysis. However, a precision better than 10 percent was needed to evaluate ITP process operating parameters. Therefore, the purpose of this work was (1) to measure, instead of estimating, the precision of the boron measurement on ITP samples and (2) to determine the optimum precision attainable with current instrumentation.'« less

  19. Characterization of Boron Contamination in Fluorine Implantation using Boron Trifluoride as a Source Material

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeide, Matthias; Kondratenko, Serguei

    2011-01-07

    Fluorine implantation process purity was considered on different types of high current implanters. It was found that implanters equipped with an indirectly heated cathode ion source show an enhanced deep boron contamination compared to a high current implanter using a cold RF-driven multicusp ion source when boron trifluoride is used for fluorine implantations. This contamination is directly related to the source technology and thus, should be considered potentially for any implanter design using hot cathode/hot filament ion source, independently of the manufacturer.The boron contamination results from the generation of double charged boron ions in the arc chamber and the subsequentmore » charge exchange reaction to single charged boron ions taking place between the arc chamber and the extraction electrode. The generation of the double charged boron ions depends mostly on the source parameters, whereas the pressure in the region between the arc chamber and the extraction electrode is mostly responsible for the charge exchange from double charged to single charged ions. The apparent mass covers a wide range, starting at mass 11. A portion of boron ions with energies of (19/11) times higher than fluorine energy has the same magnetic rigidity as fluorine beam and cannot be separated by the analyzer magnet. The earlier described charge exchange effects between the extraction electrode and the entrance to the analyzer magnet, however, generates boron beam with a higher magnetic rigidity compared to fluorine beam and cannot cause boron contamination after mass-separation.The energetic boron contamination was studied as a function of the ion source parameters, such as gas flow, arc voltage, and source magnet settings, as well as analyzing magnet aperture resolution. This allows process optimization reducing boron contamination to the level acceptable for device performance.« less

  20. Crystal structure of the new A2SnTa6X18 (A = K, Rb, Cs; X = Cl, Br) cluster compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, P.; Wilmet, M.; Malaman, B.; Paofai, S.; Dumait, N.; Cordier, S.

    2018-01-01

    The crystal structure of the new cluster compounds A2SnTa6X18 (with A = K, Rb, Cs, and X = Cl, Br) was determined by using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. Those compounds crystallize in the Cs2EuNb6Br18-type structure of space group R 3 ̅. This type of structure is built up on discrete edge-bridged [M6Xi12Xa6]4- cluster units arranged according to a pseudo face-centered cubic stacking, where the octahedral and tetrahedral vacancies are fully occupied by divalent tin cations and monovalent alkaline cations, respectively. The tin cations influence on the halogen matrix and the electronic effects on the cluster units in the Cs2EuNb6Br18-type structure are discussed by comparison with isotype compounds. From those analyses, the ionic radius of Sn2+ in coordination number VI is estimated to be 1.14(1) Å. Finally, K2SnTa6Br18 might be considered as a new example of compound containing a quite bare stannous ion (5 s2 configuration).

  1. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  2. β-Rhombohedral Boron: At the Crossroads of the Chemistry of Boron and the Physics of Frustration [Boron: a frustrated element

    SciTech Connect

    Ogitsu, Tadashi; Schwegler, Eric; Galli, Giulia

    2013-05-08

    In the periodic table boron occupies a peculiar, crossover position: on the first row, it is surrounded by metal forming elements on the left and by non-metals on the right. In addition, it is the only non-metal of the third column. Therefore it is perhaps not surprising that the crystallographic structure and topology of its stable allotrope at room temperature (β-boron) are not shared by any other element, and are extremely complex. The formidable intricacy of β- boron, with interconnecting icosahedra, partially occupied sites, and an unusually large number of atoms per unit cell (more than 300) has been knownmore » for more than 40 years. Nevertheless boron remains the only element purified in significant quantities whose ground state geometry has not been completely determined by experiments. However theoretical progress reported in the last decade has shed light on numerous properties of elemental boron, leading to a thorough characterization of its structure at ambient conditions, as well as of its electronic and thermodynamic properties. This review discusses in detail the properties of β-boron, as inferred from experiments and the ab-initio theories developed in the last decade.« less

  3. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  4. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  5. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Bystroff, Roman I.; Miller, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  6. Clusters, Assemble: Growth of Intermetallic Compounds from Metal Flux Reactions.

    PubMed

    Latturner, Susan E

    2018-01-16

    Metal flux synthesis involves the reaction of metals and metalloids in a large excess of a low-melting metal that acts as a solvent. This technique makes use of an unusual temperature regime (above the temperatures used for solvothermal methods and below the temperatures used in traditional solid state synthesis) and facilitates the growth of products as large crystals. It has proven to be a fruitful method to discover new intermetallic compounds. However, little is known about the chemistry occurring within a molten metal solvent; without an understanding of the nature of precursor formation and assembly, it is difficult to predict product structures and target properties. Organic chemists have a vast toolbox of well-known reagents and reaction mechanisms to use in directing their synthesis toward a desired molecular structure. This is not yet the case for the synthesis of inorganic extended structures. We have carried out extensive explorations of the growth of new magnetic intermetallic compounds from a variety of metal fluxes. This Account presents a review of some of our results and recent reports by other groups; this work indicates that products with common building blocks and homologous series with identical structural motifs are repeatedly seen in metal flux chemistry. For instance, fluorite-type layers comprised of transition metals coordinated by eight main group metal atoms are found in the Th 2 (Au x Si 1-x )[AuAl 2 ] n Si 2 and R[AuAl 2 ] n Al 2 (Au x Si 1-x ) 2 series grown from aluminum flux, the Ce n PdIn 3n+2 series grown from indium flux, and CePdGa 6 and Ce 2 PdGa 10 grown from gallium flux. Similarly, our investigations of reactions of heavy main group metals, M, in rare earth/transition metal eutectic fluxes reveal that the R/T/M/M' products usually feature M-centered rare earth clusters M@R 8-12 , which share faces to form layers and networks that surround transition metal building blocks. These structural trends, temperature dependence of

  7. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1997-09-23

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition. 6 figs.

  8. Boron containing multilayer coatings and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1997-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from multilayer boron/boron carbide, boron carbide/cubic boron nitride, and boron/boron nitride/boron carbide, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron and boron carbide used in forming the multilayers are formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/boron carbide, and boron carbide/cubic boron nitride is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron, cubic boron nitride or boron carbide, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be of a discrete or a blended or graded composition.

  9. [Antioxidant properties of cluster rhenium compounds and their effect on erythropoiesis of rats with guerin carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Voronkova, Y S; Babiy, S O; Ivans'kar, L V; Shtemenko, O V; Shtemenko, N I

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical characteristics of kidneys, pe- ripheral blood and bone marrow of rats in model of tumor growth under introduction of cisplatin and cis-tetrachlorodi-μ-isobutyratodirhenium(III), cis-Re2(i-C3H7COO)2Cl4 (I) have been investigated. It was shown that introduction of I alone and together with cisplatin led to decrease of biochemical markers of oxidation of lipids and proteins in tissue homogenates of the kidneys, change of enzyme activity in the urea and tissue homogenates of the kidneys, by a decrease of filtration function of kidneys. Introduction of nanoliposomal forms of the rhenium cluster compound led to a practically normal morphological picture of bone marrow and increase of the RBC (by 60%) with normalization of hematocrit counts, and decrease of quantities of destructed RBC (3.2 times) in comparison with the tumor-bearing animals. A tentative scheme of influence of cluster rhenium compound on erythropoiesis through regulation of synthesis of erythropoietin in kidneys has been proposed.

  10. Iterative reactions of transient boronic acids enable sequential C-C bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battilocchio, Claudio; Feist, Florian; Hafner, Andreas; Simon, Meike; Tran, Duc N.; Allwood, Daniel M.; Blakemore, David C.; Ley, Steven V.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to form multiple carbon-carbon bonds in a controlled sequence and thus rapidly build molecular complexity in an iterative fashion is an important goal in modern chemical synthesis. In recent times, transition-metal-catalysed coupling reactions have dominated in the development of C-C bond forming processes. A desire to reduce the reliance on precious metals and a need to obtain products with very low levels of metal impurities has brought a renewed focus on metal-free coupling processes. Here, we report the in situ preparation of reactive allylic and benzylic boronic acids, obtained by reacting flow-generated diazo compounds with boronic acids, and their application in controlled iterative C-C bond forming reactions is described. Thus far we have shown the formation of up to three C-C bonds in a sequence including the final trapping of a reactive boronic acid species with an aldehyde to generate a range of new chemical structures.

  11. Recent progress in boron nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Various types of zero, one, and two-dimensional boron nanomaterials such as nanoclusters, nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoribbons, nanosheets, and monolayer crystalline sheets named borophene have been experimentally synthesized and identified in the last 20 years. Owing to their low dimensionality, boron nanomaterials have different bonding configurations from those of three-dimensional bulk boron crystals composed of icosahedra or icosahedral fragments. The resulting intriguing physical and chemical properties of boron nanomaterials are fascinating from the viewpoint of material science. Moreover, the wide variety of boron nanomaterials themselves could be the building blocks for combining with other existing nanomaterials, molecules, atoms, and/or ions to design and create materials with new functionalities and properties. Here, the progress of the boron nanomaterials is reviewed and perspectives and future directions are described. PMID:29152014

  12. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Feakes, Debra A.

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  13. Observation of Spontaneous C=C Bond Breaking in the Reaction between Atomic Boron and Ethylene in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Jian, Jiwen; Lin, Hailu; Luo, Mingbiao; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-07-11

    A ground-state boron atom inserts into the C=C bond of ethylene to spontaneously form the allene-like compound H2 CBCH2 on annealing in solid neon. This compound can further isomerize to the propyne-like HCBCH3 isomer under UV light excitation. The observation of this unique spontaneous C=C bond insertion reaction is consistent with theoretical predictions that the reaction is thermodynamically exothermic and kinetically facile. This work demonstrates that the stronger C=C bond, rather than the less inert C-H bond, can be broken to form organoboron species from the reaction of a boron atom with ethylene even at cryogenic temperatures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. L-Phenylalanine preloading reduces the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li dose to the normal brain by inhibiting the uptake of boronophenylalanine in boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. Previously, high doses of one of the boron compounds used for BNCT, L-BPA, were found to reduce the boron-derived irradiation dose to the central nervous system. However, injection with a high dose of L-BPA is not feasible in clinical settings. We aimed to find an alternative method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy. We examined the effects of oral preloading with various analogues of L-BPA in a xenograft tumour model and found that high-dose L-phenylalanine reduced the accumulation of L-BPA in the normal brain relative to tumour tissue. As a result, the maximum irradiation dose in the normal brain was 19.2% lower in the L-phenylalanine group relative to the control group. This study provides a simple strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional boron compounds for BNCT for brain tumours and the possibility to widen the indication of BNCT to various kinds of other tumours. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Energy release properties of amorphous boron and boron-based propellant primary combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong; Xiao, Jinwu; Xi, Jianfei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhou, Junhu

    2015-07-01

    The microstructure of amorphous boron and the primary combustion products of boron-based fuel-rich propellant (hereafter referred to as primary combustion products) was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. Composition analysis of the primary combustion products was carried out by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy release properties of amorphous boron and the primary combustion products were comparatively studied by laser ignition experimental system and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry. The primary combustion products contain B, C, Mg, Al, B4C, B13C2, BN, B2O3, NH4Cl, H2O, and so on. The energy release properties of primary combustion products are different from amorphous boron, significantly. The full-time spectral intensity of primary combustion products at a wavelength of 580 nm is ~2% lower than that of amorphous boron. The maximum spectral intensity of the former at full wave is ~5% higher than that of the latter. The ignition delay time of primary combustion products is ~150 ms shorter than that of amorphous boron, and the self-sustaining combustion time of the former is ~200 ms longer than that of the latter. The thermal oxidation process of amorphous boron involves water evaporation (weight loss) and boron oxidation (weight gain). The thermal oxidation process of primary combustion products involves two additional steps: NH4Cl decomposition (weight loss) and carbon oxidation (weight loss). CL-20 shows better combustion-supporting effect than KClO4 in both the laser ignition experiments and the thermal oxidation experiments.

  16. METHOD OF COATING SURFACES WITH BORON

    DOEpatents

    Martin, G.R.

    1949-10-11

    A method of forming a thin coating of boron on metallic, glass, or other surfaces is described. The method comprises heating the article to be coated to a temperature of about 550 d C in an evacuated chamber and passing trimethyl boron, triethyl boron, or tripropyl boron in the vapor phase and under reduced pressure into contact with the heated surface causing boron to be deposited in a thin film.

  17. Fabrication of boron articles

    DOEpatents

    Benton, Samuel T.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to the fabrication of boron articles by a powder metallurgical method wherein the articles are of a density close to the theoretical density of boron and are essentially crackfree. The method comprises the steps of admixing 1 to 10 weight percent carbon powder with amorphous boron powder, cold pressing the mixture and then hot pressing the cold pressed compact into the desired article. The addition of the carbon to the mixture provides a pressing aid for inhibiting the cracking of the hot pressed article and is of a concentration less than that which would cause the articles to possess significant concentrations of boron carbide.

  18. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1998-07-14

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  19. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1997-12-02

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  20. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1996-12-03

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  1. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1997-12-02

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  2. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.

    1996-12-03

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000 C. Boron is added to a Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end. 3 figs.

  3. Carbon or boron modified titanium silicide

    DOEpatents

    Thom, Andrew J.; Akinc, Mufit

    1998-07-14

    A titanium silicide material based on Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 intermetallic compound exhibits substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures. In particular, carbon is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.6 weight % C) effective to impart substantially improved oxidative stability at elevated temperatures, such as about 1000.degree. C. Boron is added to a Ti.sub.5 Si.sub.3 base material in an amount (e.g. about 0.3 to about 3.3 weight % B) to this same end.

  4. Identification of a Novel System for Boron Transport: Atr1 Is a Main Boron Exporter in Yeast▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Alaattin; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Boron is a micronutrient in plants and animals, but its specific roles in cellular processes are not known. To understand boron transport and functions, we screened a yeast genomic DNA library for genes that confer resistance to the element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thirty boron-resistant transformants were isolated, and they all contained the ATR1 (YML116w) gene. Atr1 is a multidrug resistance transport protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily. C-terminal green fluorescent protein-tagged Atr1 localized to the cell membrane and vacuole, and ATR1 gene expression was upregulated by boron and several stress conditions. We found that atr1Δ mutants were highly sensitive to boron treatment, whereas cells overexpressing ATR1 were boron resistant. In addition, atr1Δ cells accumulated boron, whereas ATR1-overexpressing cells had low intracellular levels of the element. Furthermore, atr1Δ cells showed stronger boron-dependent phenotypes than mutants deficient in genes previously reported to be implicated in boron metabolism. ATR1 is widely distributed in bacteria, archaea, and lower eukaryotes. Our data suggest that Atr1 functions as a boron efflux pump and is required for boron tolerance. PMID:19414602

  5. Ferromagnetism and semiconducting of boron nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    More recently, motivated by extensively technical applications of carbon nanostructures, there is a growing interest in exploring novel non-carbon nanostructures. As the nearest neighbor of carbon in the periodic table, boron has exceptional properties of low volatility and high melting point and is stronger than steel, harder than corundum, and lighter than aluminum. Boron nanostructures thus are expected to have broad applications in various circumstances. In this contribution, we have performed a systematical study of the stability and electronic and magnetic properties of boron nanowires using the spin-polarized density functional calculations. Our calculations have revealed that there are six stable configurations of boron nanowires obtained by growing along different base vectors from the unit cell of the bulk α-rhombohedral boron (α-B) and β-rhombohedral boron (β-B). Well known, the boron bulk is usually metallic without magnetism. However, theoretical results about the magnetic and electronic properties showed that, whether for the α-B-based or the β-B-based nanowires, their magnetism is dependent on the growing direction. When the boron nanowires grow along the base vector [001], they exhibit ferromagnetism and have the magnetic moments of 1.98 and 2.62 μB, respectively, for the α-c [001] and β-c [001] directions. Electronically, when the boron nanowire grows along the α-c [001] direction, it shows semiconducting and has the direct bandgap of 0.19 eV. These results showed that boron nanowires possess the unique direction dependence of the magnetic and semiconducting behaviors, which are distinctly different from that of the bulk boron. Therefore, these theoretical findings would bring boron nanowires to have many promising applications that are novel for the boron bulk. PMID:23244063

  6. Planar dicyclic B{sub 6}S{sub 6}, B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup −}, and B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} clusters: Boron sulfide analogues of naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Da-Zhi; Bai, Hui; Ou, Ting

    2015-01-07

    Inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of current interest in chemistry. Based upon global structural searches and B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, we present herein the perfectly planar dicyclic boron sulfide clusters: D{sub 2h} B{sub 6}S{sub 6} (1, {sup 1}A{sub g}), D{sub 2h} B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup −} (2, {sup 2}B{sub 3u}), and D{sub 2h} B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} (3, {sup 1}A{sub g}). These are the global minima of the systems, being at least 0.73, 0.81, and 0.53 eV lower in energy, respectively, than their alternative isomers at the CCSD(T) level. The D{sub 2h} structures feature twin B{submore » 3}S{sub 2} five-membered rings, which are fused together via a B{sub 2} unit and terminated by two BS groups. Bonding analyses show that the closed-shell B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} (3) cluster possesses 10 delocalized π electrons, closely analogous to the bonding pattern of the aromatic naphthalene C{sub 10}H{sub 8}. The B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup −} (2) and B{sub 6}S{sub 6} (1) species are readily obtained upon removal of one or two π electrons from B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} (3). The results build a new analogous relationship between boron sulfide clusters and their PAH counterparts. The B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup −} (2) monoanion and B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} (3) dianion can be effectively stabilized in neutral LiB{sub 6}S{sub 6} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 6}S{sub 6} salts, respectively.« less

  7. A Hypoxia-Targeted Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Agent for the Treatment of Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Luderer, Micah John; Muz, Barbara; de la Puente, Pilar; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Kapoor, Vaishali; Marcelo, Raymundo; Biswas, Pratim; Thotala, Dinesh; Rogers, Buck; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential to become a viable cancer treatment modality, but its clinical translation has been limited by the poor tumor selectivity of agents. To address this unmet need, a boronated 2-nitroimidazole derivative (B-381) was synthesized and evaluated for its capability of targeting hypoxic glioma cells. Methods B-381 has been synthesized from a 1-step reaction. Using D54 and U87 glioma cell lines, the in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular accumulation of B-381 has been evaluated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions compared to L-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Furthermore, tumor retention of B-381 was evaluated in vivo. Results B-381 had low cytotoxicity in normal and cancer cells. Unlike BPA, B-381 illustrated preferential retention in hypoxic glioma cells compared to normoxic glioma cells and normal tissues in vitro. In vivo, B-381 illustrated significantly higher long-term tumor retention compared to BPA, with 9.5-fold and 6.5-fold higher boron levels at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Conclusions B-381 represents a new class of BNCT agents in which their selectivity to tumors is based on tumor hypoxic metabolism, and further studies are warranted to evaluate this compound and similar compounds as preclinical candidates for future BNCT clinical trials for the treatment of glioma. PMID:27401411

  8. B38: an all-boron fullerene analogue.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Zhu, Li; Ma, Yanming

    2014-10-21

    Fullerene-like structures formed by elements other than carbon have long been sought. Finding all-boron (B) fullerene-like structures is challenging due to the geometrical frustration arising from competitions among various structural motifs. We report here the prediction of a B38 fullerene analogue found through first-principles swarm structure searching calculations. The structure is highly symmetric and consists of 56 triangles and four hexagons, which provide an optimal void in the center of the cage. Energetically, it is more favorable than the planar and tubular structures, and possesses an unusually high chemical stability: a large energy gap (∼2.25 eV) and a high double aromaticity, superior to those of most aromatic quasi-planar B12 and double-ring B20 clusters. Our findings represent a key step forward towards to the understanding of structures of medium-sized B clusters and map out the experimental direction of the synthesis of an all-B fullerene analogue.

  9. Controlling the reaction between boron-containing sealing glass and a lanthanum-containing cathode by adding Nb2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dandan; Fang, Lihua; Tang, Dian; Zhang, Teng

    2016-09-01

    In solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, the volatile boron species present in the sealing glass often react with the lanthanum-containing cathode, degrading the activity of the cathode (this phenomenon is known as boron poisoning). In this work, we report that this detrimental reaction can be effectively reduced by doping bismuth-containing borosilicate sealing glass-ceramic with a niobium dopant. The addition of Nb2O5 not only condenses the [SiO4] structural units in the glass network, but also promotes the conversion of [BO3] to [BO4]. Moreover, the Nb2O5 dopant enhances the formation of boron-containing phases (Ca3B2O6 and CaB2Si2O8), which significantly reduces the volatility of boron compounds in the sealing glass, suppressing the formation of LaBO3 in the reaction couple between the glass and the cathode. The reported results provide a new approach to solve the problem of boron poisoning.

  10. Method for preparing boron-carbide articles

    DOEpatents

    Benton, S.T.; Masters, D.R.

    1975-10-21

    The invention is directed to the preparation of boron carbide articles of various configurations. A stoichiometric mixture of particulate boron and carbon is confined in a suitable mold, heated to a temperature in the range of about 1250 to 1500$sup 0$C for effecting a solid state diffusion reaction between the boron and carbon for forming the boron carbide (B$sub 4$C), and thereafter the resulting boron-carbide particles are hot-pressed at a temperature in the range of about 1800 to 2200$sup 0$C and a pressure in the range of about 1000 to 4000 psi for densifying and sintering the boron carbide into the desired article.

  11. Biodistribution of sodium borocaptate (BSH) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in an oral cancer model.

    PubMed

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; González, Sara J; Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Nievas, Susana; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2013-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on selective accumulation of ¹⁰B carriers in tumor followed by neutron irradiation. We previously proved the therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by the boron compounds boronophenylalanine and sodium decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Based on the clinical relevance of the boron carrier sodium borocaptate (BSH) and the knowledge that the most effective way to optimize BNCT is to improve tumor boron targeting, the specific aim of this study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model and evaluate the feasibility of BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3. The general aim of these studies is to contribute to the knowledge of BNCT radiobiology and optimize BNCT for head and neck cancer. Sodium borocaptate (50 mg ¹⁰B/kg) was administered to tumor-bearing hamsters. Groups of 3-5 animals were killed humanely at nine time-points, 3-12 h post-administration. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous pouch tissue, normal pouch tissue and other clinically relevant normal tissues were processed for boron measurement by optic emission spectroscopy. Tumor boron concentration peaked to therapeutically useful boron concentration values of 24-35 ppm. The boron concentration ratio tumor/normal pouch tissue ranged from 1.1 to 1.8. Pharmacokinetic curves showed that the optimum interval between BSH administration and neutron irradiation was 7-11 h. It is concluded that BNCT mediated by BSH at nuclear reactor RA-3 would be feasible.

  12. Boron microlocalization in oral mucosal tissue: implications for boron neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Morris, G M; Smith, D R; Patel, H; Chandra, S; Morrison, G H; Hopewell, J W; Rezvani, M; Micca, P L; Coderre, J A

    2000-01-01

    the boron delivery agent relative to BPA. The compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor for BSH was estimated at 0.29 ± 0.02. This compares with a previously published CBE factor for BPA of 4.87 ± 0.16. It was concluded that variations in the microdistribution profile of 10B, using the two boron delivery agents, had a significant effect on the response of oral mucosa to BNC irradiation. From a clinical perspective, based on the findings of the present study, it is probable that potential radiation-induced oral mucositis will be restricted to BNCT protocols involving BPA. However, a thorough high resolution analysis of 10B microdistribution in human oral mucosal tissue, using a technique such as ion microscopy, is a prerequisite for the use of experimentally derived CBE factors in clinical BNCT. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839288

  13. Liposome-based delivery of a boron-containing cholesteryl ester for high-LET particle-induced damage of prostate cancer cells: a boron neutron capture therapy study.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Ian; Vreeland, Wyatt; Grdanovska, Slavica; Burgett, Eric; Kalinich, John; Vergara, Vernieda; Wang, C-K Chris; Maimon, Eric; Poster, Dianne; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    The efficacy of a boron-containing cholesteryl ester compound (BCH) as a boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent for the targeted irradiation of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells was examined. Liposome-based delivery of BCH was quantified with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity of the BCH-containing liposomes was evaluated with neutral red, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Colony formation assays were utilized to evaluate the decrease in cell survival due to high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles resulting from (10)B thermal neutron capture. BCH delivery by means of encapsulation in a lipid bilayer resulted in a boron uptake of 35.2 ± 4.3 μg/10(9) cells, with minimal cytotoxic effects. PC-3 cells treated with BCH and exposed to a 9.4 × 10(11) n/cm(2) thermal neutron fluence yielded a 20-25% decrease in clonogenic capacity. The decreased survival is attributed to the generation of high-LET α particles and (7)Li nuclei that deposit energy in densely ionizing radiation tracks. Liposome-based delivery of BCH is capable of introducing sufficient boron to PC-3 cells for BNCT. High-LET α particles and (7)Li nuclei generated from (10)B thermal neutron capture significantly decrease colony formation ability in the targeted PC-3 cells.

  14. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR BORON AND COMPOUNDS (THIRD EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT 2002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U. S. EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the health hazard and dose response assessment for Boron that will appear on the Agency's online data base, the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Peer Review is meant to ensure that science is u...

  15. Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2015-12-01

    Methods of producing continuous boron carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a boron oxide gas within a temperature range of from approximately 1400.degree. C. to approximately 2200.degree. C. Continuous boron carbide fibers, continuous fibers comprising boron carbide, and articles including at least a boron carbide coating are also disclosed.

  16. The Physiological Role of Boron on Health.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Haseeb; Juming, Zhong; Ke-Mei, Peng

    2018-03-15

    Boron is an essential mineral that plays an important role in several biological processes. Boron is required for growth of plants, animals, and humans. There are increasing evidences of this nutrient showing a variety of pleiotropic effects, ranging from anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects to the modulation of different body systems. In the past few years, the trials showed disease-related polymorphisms of boron in different species, which has drawn attention of scientists to the significance of boron to health. Low boron profile has been related with poor immune function, increased risk of mortality, osteoporosis, and cognitive deterioration. High boron status revealed injury to cell and toxicity in different animals and humans. Some studies have shown some benefits of higher boron status, but findings have been generally mixed, which perhaps accentuates the fact that dietary intake will benefit only if supplemental amount is appropriate. The health benefits of boron are numerous in animals and humans; for instance, it affects the growth at safe intake. Central nervous system shows improvement and immune organs exhibit enhanced immunity with boron supplementation. Hepatic metabolism also shows positive changes in response to dietary boron intake. Furthermore, animals and human fed diets supplemented with boron reveal improved bone density and other benefits including embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer therapy. It has also been reported that boron affects the metabolism of several enzymes and minerals. In the background of these health benefits, low or high boron status is giving cause for concern. Additionally, researches are needed to further elucidate the mechanisms of boron effects, and determine the requirements in different species.

  17. Anomalous stress response of ultrahard WB n compounds

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Quan; Zhou, Dan; Zheng, Weitao; ...

    2015-10-29

    Boron-rich tungsten borides are premier prototypes of a new class of ultrahard compounds. Here, we show by first-principles calculations that their stress-strain relations display surprisingly diverse and anomalous behavior under a variety of loading conditions. Most remarkable is the dramatically changing bonding configurations and deformation modes with rising boron concentration in WB n (n=2, 3, 4), resulting in significantly different stress responses and unexpected indentation strength variations. This novel phenomenon stems from the peculiar structural arrangements in tungsten borides driven by boron’s ability to form unusually versatile bonding states. Our results elucidate the intriguing deformation mechanisms that define a distinctmore » type of ultrahard material. Here, these new insights underscore the need to explore unconventional structure-property relations in a broad range of transition-metal light-element compounds.« less

  18. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-08-02

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  19. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from [10B]NA4B24H22S2

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Micca, Peggy L.; Fairchild, Ralph G.

    1988-01-01

    A stable boronated (.sup.10 B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, [.sup.10 B]Na.sub.4 B.sub.24 H.sub.22 S.sub.2, at a dose of about 200 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight. The infusion is performed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 .mu.g .sup.10 B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of .sup.10 B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of .sup.10 B in the tumor.

  20. First identification of boronic species as novel potential inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Fanny; Hequet, Arnaud; Voisin-Chiret, Anne-Sophie; Bouillon, Alexandre; Lesnard, Aurélien; Cresteil, Thierry; Jolivalt, Claude; Rault, Sylvain

    2014-03-27

    Overexpression of efflux pumps is an important mechanism of bacterial resistance that results in the extrusion of antimicrobial agents outside the bacterial cell. Inhibition of such pumps appears to be a promising strategy that could restore the potency of existing antibiotics. The NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus confers resistance to a wide range of unrelated substrates, such as hydrophilic fluoroquinolones, leading to a multidrug-resistance phenotype. In this work, approximately 150 heterocyclic boronic species were evaluated for their activity against susceptible and resistant strains of S. aureus. Twenty-four hit compounds, although inactive when tested alone, were found to potentiate ciprofloxacin activity by a 4-fold increase at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 8 μg/mL against S. aureus 1199B, which overexpresses NorA. Boron-free analogues showed no biological activity, thus revealing that the boron atom is crucial for biological activity. This work describes the first reported efflux pump inhibitory activity of boronic acid derivatives.

  1. Boron Nitride Nanoribbons from Exfoliation of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Two types of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were exfoliated into boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNR), which were identified using transmission electron microscopy: (1) commercial BNNTs with thin tube walls and small diameters. Tube unzipping was indicated by a large decrease of the sample's surface area and volume for pores less than 2 nm in diameter. (2) BNNTs with large diameters and thick walls synthesized at NASA Glenn Research Center. Here, tube unraveling was indicated by a large increase in external surface area and pore volume. For both, the exfoliation process was similar to the previous reported method to exfoliate commercial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN): Mixtures of BNNT, FeCl3, and NaF (or KF) were sequentially treated in 250 to 350 C nitrogen for intercalation, 500 to 750 C air for exfoliation, and finally HCl for purification. Property changes of the nanosized boron nitride throughout this process were also similar to the previously observed changes of commercial hBN during the exfoliation process: Both crystal structure (x-ray diffraction data) and chemical properties (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data) of the original reactant changed after intercalation and exfoliation, but most (not all) of these changes revert back to those of the reactant once the final, purified products are obtained.

  2. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C.; Pyzik, Aleksander J.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1986-01-01

    Hard, tough, lightweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidation step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modulus of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi.sqroot.in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  3. MIDA boronates are hydrolysed fast and slow by two different mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Ogba, O. Maduka; Morehouse, Gregory F.; Rosson, Nicholas; Houk, Kendall N.; Leach, Andrew G.; Cheong, Paul H.-Y.; Burke, Martin D.; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C.

    2016-11-01

    MIDA boronates (N-methylimidodiacetic boronic acid esters) serve as an increasingly general platform for small-molecule construction based on building blocks, largely because of the dramatic and general rate differences with which they are hydrolysed under various basic conditions. Yet the mechanistic underpinnings of these rate differences have remained unclear, which has hindered efforts to address the current limitations of this chemistry. Here we show that there are two distinct mechanisms for this hydrolysis: one is base mediated and the other neutral. The former can proceed more than three orders of magnitude faster than the latter, and involves a rate-limiting attack by a hydroxide at a MIDA carbonyl carbon. The alternative ‘neutral’ hydrolysis does not require an exogenous acid or base and involves rate-limiting B-N bond cleavage by a small water cluster, (H2O)n. The two mechanisms can operate in parallel, and their relative rates are readily quantified by 18O incorporation. Whether hydrolysis is ‘fast’ or ‘slow’ is dictated by the pH, the water activity and the mass-transfer rates between phases. These findings stand to enable, in a rational way, an even more effective and widespread utilization of MIDA boronates in synthesis.

  4. Matrix Effects on Boron Containing Materials due to Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Staci R.; Akpovo, Charlemagne A.; Martinez, Jorge; Ford, Alan; Herbert, Kenley; Johnson, Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a spectroscopic technique that is used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of materials in the liquid, solid, or gas phase. LIBS can also be used for the detection of isotopic shifts in atomic and diatomic species via Laser-Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectroscopy (LAMIS). However, any additional elements that are entrained into the plasma other than the element of interest, can affect the extent of ablation and quality of spectra and hence, potentially obscure or aid in the relative abundance assessment for a given element. To address the importance of matrix effects, the isotopic analysis of boron obtained from boron oxide (BO) emission originating from different boron-containing compounds, such as boron nitride (BN), boric acid (H3BO3) , and borax (Na2B4O710H2O), via LIBS has been performed here. Each of these materials has different physical properties and elemental composition in order to illustrate possible challenges for the LAMIS method. A calibration-free model similar to that for the original LAMIS work is used to determine properties of the plasma as the matrix is changed. DTRA

  5. An empirical model for parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron-containing wastewaters by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2007-06-01

    In this study, it was investigated parameters affecting energy consumption in boron removal from boron containing wastewaters prepared synthetically, via electrocoagulation method. The solution pH, initial boron concentration, dose of supporting electrolyte, current density and temperature of solution were selected as experimental parameters affecting energy consumption. The obtained experimental results showed that boron removal efficiency reached up to 99% under optimum conditions, in which solution pH was 8.0, current density 6.0 mA/cm(2), initial boron concentration 100mg/L and solution temperature 293 K. The current density was an important parameter affecting energy consumption too. High current density applied to electrocoagulation cell increased energy consumption. Increasing solution temperature caused to decrease energy consumption that high temperature decreased potential applied under constant current density. That increasing initial boron concentration and dose of supporting electrolyte caused to increase specific conductivity of solution decreased energy consumption. As a result, it was seen that energy consumption for boron removal via electrocoagulation method could be minimized at optimum conditions. An empirical model was predicted by statistically. Experimentally obtained values were fitted with values predicted from empirical model being as following; [formula in text]. Unfortunately, the conditions obtained for optimum boron removal were not the conditions obtained for minimum energy consumption. It was determined that support electrolyte must be used for increase boron removal and decrease electrical energy consumption.

  6. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    PubMed

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation.

  7. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Boron Derivatives in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Iris H.; Burnham, Bruce S.; Chen, Shang Y.; Sood, Anup; Spielvogel, Bernard F.; Morse, Karen W.

    1995-01-01

    Acyclic amine-carboxyboranes were effective anti-inflammatory agents in mice at 8 mg/kg x 2. These amine-carboxyboranes were more effective than the standard indomethacin at 8 mg/kg x 2, pentoxifylline at 50 mg/kg x 2, and phenylbutazone at 50 mg/kg x 2. The heterocyclic amine derivatives as well as amine-carbamoylboranes, carboalkoxyboranes, and cyanoboranes were generally less active. However, selected aminomethyl-phosphonate-N-cyanoboranes demonstrated greater than 60% reduction of induced inflammation. The boron compounds were also active in the rat induced edema, chronic arthritis, and pleurisy screens, demonstrating activity similar to the standard indomethacin. The compounds were effecive in reducing local pain and decreased the tail flick reflex to pain. The derivatives which demonstrated good anti-inflammatory activity were effective inhibitors of hydrolytic lysosomal, and proteolytic enzyme activities with IC50 50 values equal to -6M in mouse macrophages, human leukocytes, and Be Sal osteofibrolytic cells. In these same cell lines, the agents blocked prostaglandin cyclooxygenase activity with IC50 values of -6M. In mouse macrophage and human leukocytes, 5′ lipoxygenase activity was also inhibited by the boron derivatives with IC50 values of 10-6M. These IC50 values for inhibition of these enzyme activities are consistent with published values of known anti-inflammatory agents which target these enzymes. PMID:18472741

  8. The Combined Action of Duplicated Boron Transporters Is Required for Maize Growth in Boron-Deficient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Mithu; Liu, Qiujie; Menello, Caitlin; Galli, Mary; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The micronutrient boron is essential in maintaining the structure of plant cell walls and is critical for high yields in crop species. Boron can move into plants by diffusion or by active and facilitated transport mechanisms. We recently showed that mutations in the maize boron efflux transporter ROTTEN EAR (RTE) cause severe developmental defects and sterility. RTE is part of a small gene family containing five additional members ( RTE2 - RTE6 ) that show tissue-specific expression. The close paralogous gene RTE2 encodes a protein with 95% amino acid identity with RTE and is similarly expressed in shoot and root cells surrounding the vasculature. Despite sharing a similar function with RTE , mutations in the RTE2 gene do not cause growth defects in the shoot, even in boron-deficient conditions. However, rte2 mutants strongly enhance the rte phenotype in soils with low boron content, producing shorter plants that fail to form all reproductive structures. The joint action of RTE and RTE2 is also required in root development. These defects can be fully complemented by supplying boric acid, suggesting that diffusion or additional transport mechanisms overcome active boron transport deficiencies in the presence of an excess of boron. Overall, these results suggest that RTE2 and RTE function are essential for maize shoot and root growth in boron-deficient conditions. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Effect of low temperature oxidation (LTO) in reducing boron skin in boron spin on dopant diffused emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, Bandana; Solanki, Chetan Singh

    Formation of boron skin is an unavoidable phenomenon in p-type emitter formation with boron dopant source. The boron skin thickness is generally less than 100 nm and difficult to remove by chemical and physical means. Low temperature oxidation (LTO) used in this work is useful in removing boron skin thickness up to 30 nm and improves the emitter performance. The effective minority carrier lifetime gets improved by more than 30% after using LTO and leakage current of the emitter gets lowered by 100 times thereby showing the importance of low temperature oxidation in boron spin on dopant diffused emitters.

  10. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos

    2009-06-01

    The JAGUAR product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products. Relationships of the Murnaghan form for molar volumes and derived properties were implemented in JAGUAR. Available Hugoniot and static volumertic data were analyzed to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationship for solid boron, boron oxide, boron nitride, boron carbide, and boric acid. Experimental melting points were also utilized with optimization procedures to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX - boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using JAGUAR are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that boron mixtures may exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior, as observed by aluminized combined effects explosives, with higher detonation velocities than would be achieved by a classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX - boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the energy output obtained from the detonation of the formulation.

  11. Mineral of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  12. Method for separating boron isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Rockwood, Stephen D.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating boron isotopes .sup.10 B and .sup.11 B by laser-induced selective excitation and photodissociation of BCl.sub.3 molecules containing a particular boron isotope. The photodissociation products react with an appropriate chemical scavenger and the reaction products may readily be separated from undissociated BCl.sub.3, thus effecting the desired separation of the boron isotopes.

  13. Insights into the use of gadolinium and gadolinium/boron-based agents in imaging-guided neutron capture therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Deagostino, Annamaria; Protti, Nicoletta; Alberti, Diego; Boggio, Paolo; Bortolussi, Silva; Altieri, Saverio; Crich, Simonetta Geninatti

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is currently under development as an alternative approach for cancer therapy. All of the clinical experience to date with NCT is done with (10)B, known as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), a binary treatment combining neutron irradiation with the delivery of boron-containing compounds to tumors. Currently, the use of Gd for NCT has been getting more attention because of its highest neutron cross-section. Although Gd-NCT was first proposed many years ago, its development has suffered due to lack of appropriate tumor-selective Gd agents. This review aims to highlight the recent advances for the design, synthesis and biological testing of new Gd- and B-Gd-containing compounds with the task of finding the best systems able to improve the NCT clinical outcome.

  14. Boron isotope fractionation in liquid chromatography with boron-specific resins as column packing material

    SciTech Connect

    Oi, Takao; Shimazaki, Hiromi; Ishii, Reiko

    1997-07-01

    Boron-specific resins with n-methyl glucamine as the functional group were used as column packing material of liquid chromatography for boron isotope separation. The shapes of chromatograms in reverse breakthrough experiments were heavily dependent on the pH of the eluents, and there existed a pH value at which a chromatogram of the displacement type was realized nearly ideally. The value of the single-stage separation factor for the boron isotopes varied between 1.010 and 1.022, depending on the temperature and the form of the resins. The existence of the three-coordinate boron species in addition to the four-coordinate species in the resin phasemore » is suggested.« less

  15. Properties of vacuum-evaporated boron films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feakes, F.

    1973-01-01

    The work on the properties of thin boron films made by vacuum evaporation of elemental boron using an electron beam as the energy source is reported. The program aimed at characterizing the properties of vacuum evaporated films. The work was directed toward those variables considered to be important in affecting the tensile strength of the boron films. In general, the thickness of the films was less than 0.002 in. The temperature of the substrate on which the boron was condensed was found to be most important. Three distinctly different forms of boron deposit were produced. Although the transition temperature was not sharply defined, at substrate temperatures of less than approximately 600 deg C the boron deposits were amorphous to X-ray. If the substrate were highly polished, the deposits were black and mirror-like. For substrates with coefficients of thermal expansion close to that of boron, the deposits were then continuous and uncracked. The studies suggest that the potential continues to exist for film-type composites to have both high strength and high modulus.

  16. Boron - A potential goiterogen?

    PubMed

    Popova, Elizaveta V; Tinkov, Alexey A; Ajsuvakova, Olga P; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-07-01

    The iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) include a variety of disturbances such as decreased fertility, increased perinatal and infant mortality, impaired physical and intellectual development, mental retardation, cretinism, hypothyroidism, and endemic goiter (EG). The occurrence of the latter is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor is iodine status that is required for normal thyroid hormone synthesis. However, other factors like intake of micronutrients and goiterogens also have a significant impact. Essential and toxic trace elements both play a significant role in thyroid physiology. We hypothesize that in terms of overexposure boron may serve as a potential goiterogen. In particular, it is proposed that boron overload may impair thyroid physiology ultimately leading to goiter formation. Certain studies provide evidential support of the hypothesis. In particular, it has been demonstrated that serum and urinary B levels are characterized by a negative association with thyroid hormone levels in exposed subjects. Single indications on the potential efficiency of B in hypothyroidism also exist. Moreover, the levels of B were found to be interrelated with thyroid volume in children environmentally exposed to boron. Experimental studies also demonstrated a significant impact of boron on thyroid structure and hormone levels. Finally, the high rate of B cumulation in thyroid may also indicate that thyroid is the target for B activity. Chemical properties of iodine and boron also provide a background for certain competition. However, it is questionable whether these interactions may occur in the biological systems. Further clinical and experimental studies are required to support the hypothesis of the involvement of boron overexposure in goiter formation. If such association will be confirmed and the potential mechanisms elucidated, it will help to regulate the incidence of hypothyroidism and goiter in endemic

  17. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical pretreatment method is used to produce boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal composites by an infiltration process. The boron carbide or other starting constituents, in powder form, are immersed in various alcohols, or other chemical agents, to change the surface chemistry of the starting constituents. The chemically treated starting constituents are consolidated into a porous ceramic precursor which is then infiltrated by molten aluminum or other metal by heating to wetting conditions. Chemical treatment of the starting constituents allows infiltration to full density. The infiltrated precursor is further heat treated to produce a tailorable microstructure. The process at low cost produces composites with improved characteristics, including increased toughness, strength.

  18. Optical properties of boron-group (V) hexagonal nanowires: DFT investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhibhushan, B.; Soni, Mahesh; Srivastava, Anurag

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents structural, electronic and optical properties of boron-group V hexagonal nanowires (h-NW) within the framework of density functional theory. The h-NW of boron-group V compounds with an analogous diameter of 12 Å have been designed in (1 1 1) plane. Stability analysis performed through formation energies reveal that, the stability of these structures decreases with increasing atomic number of the group V element. The band nature predicts that these nanowires are good electrical conductors. Optical behaviour of the nanowires has been analysed through absorption coefficient, reflectivity, refractive index, optical conductivity and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS), that are computed from the frequency-dependent complex dielectric function. The analysis reveals high reactivity of BP and BAs h-NWs to the incident light especially in the IR and visible ranges, and the optical transparency of BN h-NW in the visible and UV ranges.

  19. Boron nitride composites

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Ellsworth, German F.; Swenson, Fritz J.; Allen, Patrick G.

    2016-02-16

    According to one embodiment, a composite product includes hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and a plurality of cubic boron nitride (cBN) particles, wherein the plurality of cBN particles are dispersed in a matrix of the hBN. According to another embodiment, a composite product includes a plurality of cBN particles, and one or more borate-containing binders.

  20. Removal of boron (B) from waste liquors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, J Q; Xu, Y; Simon, J; Quill, K; Shettle, K

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the use of electrocoagulation to remove boron from waste effluent in comparison with alum coagulation. In treating model test wastes, greater boron removals were achieved with electrocoagulation at low doses than conventional alum coagulation when reaction was undertaken for the same conditions (pH 8.5, and initial boron concentration was 500 mg/L). Al electrocoagulation can achieve good boron removal performance (68.3%) at a dose of 2.1 (as molar ratio of Al:B, and for current density of 62.1 A/m2), while alum coagulation can only achieve the maximum boron removal of 56% at a dose of 2.4. Also, Al electrocoagulation can remove 15-20% more boron than alum coagulation for the same dose compared in the treatment of both model test wastes and industry effluent. The estimation of running costs shows that to achieve 75% boron removal from industry waste effluent, i.e. removing 150 g of boron from 1 m3 of effluent, electrocoagulation was 6.2 times cheaper than alum coagulation. The economic advantage of electrocoagulation in the treatment of boron-containing waste effluent is thus significant.

  1. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of nonmetallic materials: Electronic structures of boron and BxOy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, C. W.; Huang, H.; Zheng, B.; Kwok, R. W. M.; Hui, Y. Y.; Lau, W. M.

    2004-04-01

    Although an increasing volume of x-ray photoemission spectroscopic (XPS) data has been accumulated on boron and boron-rich compounds because of their unusual properties, including a unique three-center, two-electron bonding configuration, their common nonmetallic nature has been overlooked. Typically, the measured energy-state data are not clarified by surface Fermi level positions of these nonmetallic samples, which compromises the scientific contents of the data. In the present study, we revisited the XPS studies of sputter-cleaned β-rhombohedral boron (βr-B), the oxidized surface of βr-B, B6O pellet, and polished B2O3, to illustrate the impact and resolution of this scientific issue. These samples were chosen because βr-B is the most thermodynamically stable polytype of pure boron, B2O3 is its fully oxidized form, and B6O is the best known superhard family member of boron-rich compounds. From our XPS measurements, including those from a sputter-cleaned gold as a metal reference, we deduced that our βr-B had a surface Fermi level located at 0.7±0.1 eV from its valence-band maximum (VBM) (referred as EFL) and a binding energy for its B 1s core level at 187.2 eV from VBM (Eb,VBM). The latter attribute, unlike typical XPS binding energy data that are referenced to a sample-dependent Fermi level (Eb,FL), is immune from any uncertainties and variations arising from sample doping and surface charging. For bulk B2O3, we found an Eb,VBM for its B 1s core level at 190.5 eV and an Eb,FL at 193.6 eV. For our βr-B subjected to a surface oxidation treatment, an overlayer structure of ˜1.2 nm B2O3/˜2 nm B2O/B was found. By comparing the data from this sample and those from βr-B and bulk B2O3, we infer that the oxide overlayer carried some negative fixed charge and this induced on the semiconducting βr-B sample an upward surface band bending of ˜0.6 eV. As for our B6O sample, we found an EFL of ˜1.7 eV and two different chemical states having Eb,VBM of 185.4 and

  2. Tuning negative differential resistance in single-atomic layer boron-silicon sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ming-Yue; Liu, Chun-Sheng, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: yanxh@njupt.edu.cn; Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210023, Jiangsu

    2015-03-21

    Using density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's function formalism for quantum transport calculation, we have quantified the ballistic transport properties along different directions in two-dimensional boron-silicon (B-Si) compounds, as well as the current response to bias voltage. The conductance of the most B-Si devices is higher than the conductance of one-atom-thick boron and silicene. Furthermore, the negative differential resistance phenomenon can be found at certain B-Si stoichiometric composition, and it occurs at various bias voltages. Also, the peak-to-valley ratio is sensitive to the B-Si composition and dependent of the direction considered for B-Si monolayers. The present findings could be helpfulmore » for applications of the single-atomic layer B-Si sheets in the field of semiconductor devices or low-dimensional electronic devices.« less

  3. Use of Phenylboronic Acids to Investigate Boron Function in Plants. Possible Role of Boron in Transvacuolar Cytoplasmic Strands and Cell-to-Wall Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Elias; Hu, Hening; Brown, Patrick H.

    2004-01-01

    The only defined physiological role of boron in plants is as a cross-linking molecule involving reversible covalent bonds with cis-diols on either side of borate. Boronic acids, which form the same reversible bonds with cis-diols but cannot cross-link two molecules, were used to selectively disrupt boron function in plants. In cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv BY-2) cells, addition of boronic acids caused the disruption of cytoplasmic strands and cell-to-cell wall detachment. The effect of the boronic acids could be relieved by the addition of boron-complexing sugars and was proportional to the boronic acid-binding strength of the sugar. Experiments with germinating petunia (Petunia hybrida) pollen and boronate-affinity chromatography showed that boronic acids and boron compete for the same binding sites. The boronic acids appear to specifically disrupt or prevent borate-dependent cross-links important for the structural integrity of the cell, including the organization of transvacuolar cytoplasmic strands. Boron likely plays a structural role in the plant cytoskeleton. We conclude that boronic acids can be used to rapidly and reversibly induce boron deficiency-like responses and therefore are useful tools for investigating boron function in plants. PMID:15466241

  4. Validation and Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Mediated By Boron-Rich Liposomes in Multiple Murine Tumor Models

    DOE PAGES

    Maitz, Charles A.; Khan, Aslam A.; Kueffer, Peter J.; ...

    2017-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor in mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma flank tumors and the results were compared with previously performed studies with mice bearing EMT6 breast cancer flank tumors. We implanted mice with CT26 tumors subcutaneously in the caudal flank and were given two separate tail vein injections of unilamellar liposomes composed of cholesterol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycer-3-phosphocholine, and K[nido-7-CH 3(CH 2) 15–7,8-C 2B 9H 11] in the lipid bilayer and encapsulated Na 3[1-(2`-B 10H 9)-2-NH 3B 10H 8] within the liposomal core. Mice were irradiated 30 hours after the second injection inmore » a thermal neutron beam for various lengths of time. The tumor size was monitored daily for 72 days. In spite of relatively lower tumor boron concentrations, as compared to EMT6 tumors, a 45 minute neutron irradiation BNCT resulted in complete resolution of the tumors in 50% of treated mice, 50% of which never recurred. Median time to tumor volume tripling was 38 days in BNCT treated mice, 17 days in neutron-irradiated mice given no boron compounds, and 4 days in untreated controls. Tumor response in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma was markedly more pronounced than in previous reports of mice with EMT6 tumors, a difference which increased with dose. The slope of the dose response curve of CT26 colon carcinoma tumors is 1.05 times tumor growth delay per Gy compared to 0.09 times tumor growth delay per Gy for EMT6 tumors, indicating that inherent radiosensitivity of tumors plays a role in boron neutron capture therapy and should be considered in the development of clinical applications of BNCT in animals and man.« less

  5. Validation and Comparison of the Therapeutic Efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Mediated By Boron-Rich Liposomes in Multiple Murine Tumor Models

    SciTech Connect

    Maitz, Charles A.; Khan, Aslam A.; Kueffer, Peter J.

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was performed at the University of Missouri Research Reactor in mice bearing CT26 colon carcinoma flank tumors and the results were compared with previously performed studies with mice bearing EMT6 breast cancer flank tumors. We implanted mice with CT26 tumors subcutaneously in the caudal flank and were given two separate tail vein injections of unilamellar liposomes composed of cholesterol, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycer-3-phosphocholine, and K[nido-7-CH 3(CH 2) 15–7,8-C 2B 9H 11] in the lipid bilayer and encapsulated Na 3[1-(2`-B 10H 9)-2-NH 3B 10H 8] within the liposomal core. Mice were irradiated 30 hours after the second injection inmore » a thermal neutron beam for various lengths of time. The tumor size was monitored daily for 72 days. In spite of relatively lower tumor boron concentrations, as compared to EMT6 tumors, a 45 minute neutron irradiation BNCT resulted in complete resolution of the tumors in 50% of treated mice, 50% of which never recurred. Median time to tumor volume tripling was 38 days in BNCT treated mice, 17 days in neutron-irradiated mice given no boron compounds, and 4 days in untreated controls. Tumor response in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma was markedly more pronounced than in previous reports of mice with EMT6 tumors, a difference which increased with dose. The slope of the dose response curve of CT26 colon carcinoma tumors is 1.05 times tumor growth delay per Gy compared to 0.09 times tumor growth delay per Gy for EMT6 tumors, indicating that inherent radiosensitivity of tumors plays a role in boron neutron capture therapy and should be considered in the development of clinical applications of BNCT in animals and man.« less

  6. Single step synthesis of nanostructured boron nitride for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Singh, Paviter; Kumar, Manjeet; Thakur, Anup; Kumar, Akshay

    2015-05-01

    Nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN) has been successfully synthesized by carbo-thermic reduction of Boric Acid (H3BO3). This method is a relatively low temperature synthesis route and it can be used for large scale production of nanostructured BN. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase nanostructured Boron Nitride. SEM analysis showed that the particles are spherical in shape. DTA analysis showed that the phase is stable upto 900 °C and the material can be used for high temperature applications as well boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).

  7. Where Boron? Mars Rover Detects It

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    This map shows the route driven by NASA's Curiosity Mars rover (blue line) and locations where the rover's Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument detected the element boron (dots, colored by abundance of boron according to the key at right). The main map shows the traverse from landing day (Sol 0) in August 2012 to the rover's location in September 2016, with boron detections through September 2015. The inset at upper left shows a magnified version of the most recent portion of that traverse, with boron detections during that portion. Overlapping dots represent cases when boron was detected in multiple ChemCam observation points in the same target and non-overlapping dots represent cases where two different targets in the same location have boron. Most of the mission's detections of boron have been made in the most recent seven months (about 200 sols) of the rover's uphill traverse. The base image for the map is from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. North is up. The scale bar at lower right represents one kilometer (0.62 mile). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21150

  8. Investigation into the Effects of Boron on Liver Tissue Protein Carbonyl, MDA, and Glutathione Levels in Endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Balabanlı, Barbaros; Balaban, Tuba

    2015-10-01

    Endotoxin has been known to cause the formation and damage of free radical. The importance of boron for human life is increasing each passing day, and its consuming fields are continuing to expand due to the advances in science and technology. Therefore, in our study, we intended to investigate into the effects of boron on liver tissue oxidative events. Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were randomly separated into three equal groups in the experiments; control group, boron + endotoxin group, and endotoxin group. Dissolved in distilled water, boric acid (100 mg/kg) was administered to boron + endotoxin group via gavage procedure for 28 days. Only distilled water was administered to control and endotoxin groups via gavage procedure for 28 days. Then 4 mg/kg endotoxin (LPS; Escherichia coli 0111:B4) was intraperitoneally (ip) administered to boron + endotoxin and endotoxin groups on the 28th day. Sterile saline was injected into control group on the 28th day (ip). Malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the end product of lipid peroxidation in liver tissues, protein carbonyl compounds (PC), which are protein oxidization markers, and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. The results were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. When boron + endotoxin group is compared with endotoxin group, PC levels of endotoxin group showed a significant increase. When GSH levels are compared, GSH level in boron + endotoxin group decreased according to endotoxin group. Variations among all groups in MDA levels were found to be statistically insignificant. We are of the opinion that endotoxin affects the proteins by forming free radicals, and boron may also cause the structural and/or functional changes in proteins in order to protect proteins from oxidization.

  9. Lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms over Si/B surfaces during CVD of pure boron layers

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, V., E-mail: V.Mohammadi@tudelft.nl; Nihtianov, S.

    The lateral gas phase diffusion length of boron atoms, L{sub B}, along silicon and boron surfaces during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is reported. The value of L{sub B} is critical for reliable and uniform boron layer coverage. The presented information was obtained experimentally and confirmed analytically in the boron deposition temperature range from 700 °C down to 400 °C. For this temperature range the local loading effect of the boron deposition is investigated on the micro scale. A L{sub B} = 2.2 mm was determined for boron deposition at 700 °C, while a L{sub B}more » of less than 1 mm was observed at temperatures lower than 500 °C.« less

  10. Method of manufacture of atomically thin boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-08-06

    The present invention provides a method of fabricating at least one single layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) suspending at least one multilayer boron nitride across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating single layer hexagonal boron nitride. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) providing multilayer boron nitride suspended across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure.

  11. Effects of Different Boron Compounds on the Corrosion Resistance of Andalusite-Based Low-Cement Castables in Contact with Molten Al Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adabifiroozjaei, Esmaeil; Koshy, Pramod; Sorrell, Charles Chris

    2012-02-01

    Interfacial reactions between Al alloy and andalusite low-cement castables (LCCs) containing 5 wt pct B2O3, B4C, and BN were analyzed at 1123 K and 1433 K (850 °C and 1160 °C) using the Alcoa cup test. The results showed that the addition of boron-containing materials led to the formation of aluminoborate (9Al2O3.2B2O3) and glassy phase containing boron in the prefiring temperature (1373 K [1100 °C]), which consequently improved the corrosion resistance of the refractories. The high heat of formation of the aluminoborate phase (which increased its stability to reactions with molten Al alloy) and the low solubility of boron in molten Al were the major factors that contributed to the improvement in the corrosion resistance of B-doped samples.

  12. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Shul, Randy J.; Constantine, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  13. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Shul, R.J.; Constantine, C.

    1997-04-29

    A dry etching method is disclosed. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators. 1 fig.

  14. The relationship of blood- and urine-boron to boron exposure in borax-workers and usefulness of urine-boron as an exposure marker.

    PubMed Central

    Culver, B D; Shen, P T; Taylor, T H; Lee-Feldstein, A; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, P L

    1994-01-01

    Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 microgram/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 micrograms/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform. Personal air samplers of two types were used: one, the 37-mm closed-face, two-piece cassette to estimate total dust and the other, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler to estimate inspirable particulate mass. Under the conditions of this study, the IOM air sampler more nearly estimated human exposure as measured by blood- and urine-boron levels than did the sampler that measured total dust.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889874

  15. Mapping Compound Cosmic Telescopes Containing Multiple Projected Cluster-scale Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, S. Mark; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Keeton, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    Lines of sight with multiple projected cluster-scale gravitational lenses have high total masses and complex lens plane interactions that can boost the area of magnification, or étendue, making detection of faint background sources more likely than elsewhere. To identify these new "compound" cosmic telescopes, we have found directions in the sky with the highest integrated mass densities, as traced by the projected concentrations of luminous red galaxies (LRGs). We use new galaxy spectroscopy to derive preliminary magnification maps for two such lines of sight with total mass exceeding ~3 × 1015 M ⊙. From 1151 MMT Hectospec spectra of galaxies down to i AB = 21.2, we identify two to three group- and cluster-scale halos in each beam. These are well traced by LRGs. The majority of the mass in beam J085007.6+360428 (0850) is contributed by Zwicky 1953, a massive cluster at z = 0.3774, whereas beam J130657.5+463219 (1306) is composed of three halos with virial masses of 6 × 1014-2 × 1015 M ⊙, one of which is A1682. The magnification maps derived from our mass models based on spectroscopy and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry alone display substantial étendue: the 68% confidence bands on the lens plane area with magnification exceeding 10 for a source plane of zs = 10 are [1.2, 3.8] arcmin2 for 0850 and [2.3, 6.7] arcmin2 for 1306. In deep Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging of beam 0850, we serendipitously discover a candidate multiply imaged V-dropout source at z phot = 5.03. The location of the candidate multiply imaged arcs is consistent with the critical curves for a source plane of z = 5.03 predicted by our mass model. Incorporating the position of the candidate multiply imaged galaxy as a constraint on the critical curve location in 0850 narrows the 68% confidence band on the lens plane area with μ > 10 and zs = 10 to [1.8, 4.2] arcmin2, an étendue range comparable to that of MACS 0717+3745 and El Gordo, two of the most powerful single cluster lenses known

  16. Experimental observation of boron nitride chains.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Ovidiu; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Lehtinen, Ossi; Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Kaiser, Ute; Suenaga, Kazu; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2014-12-23

    We report the formation and characterization of boron nitride atomic chains. The chains were made from hexagonal boron nitride sheets using the electron beam inside a transmission electron microscope. We find that the stability and lifetime of the chains are significantly improved when they are supported by another boron nitride layer. With the help of first-principles calculations, we prove the heteroatomic structure of the chains and determine their mechanical and electronic properties. Our study completes the analogy between various boron nitride and carbon polymorphs, in accordance with earlier theoretical predictions.

  17. Producing carbon stripper foils containing boron

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, J. O. Jr.

    2012-12-19

    Parameters being actively tested by the accelerator community for the purpose of extending carbon stripper foil lifetimes in fast ion beams include methods of deposition, parting agents, mounting techniques, support (fork) materials, and inclusion of alloying elements, particularly boron. Specialized production apparatus is required for either sequential deposition or co-deposition of boron in carbon foils. A dual-use vacuum evaporator for arc evaporation of carbon and electron-beam evaporation of boron and other materials has been built for such development. Production of both carbon and boron foils has begun and improvements are in progress.

  18. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  19. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Ellis, Timothy W.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Hofer, Robert J.; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  20. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE BENZOIN METHOD FOR THE FLUORIMETRIC DETERMINATION OF BORON

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.; Radley, J.A.

    1961-01-01

    The development of the boron -benzoin fluorescence at microgram concentrations of boron was investigated; a simple, but sensitive, fluorimeter was used. The development and decay of fluorescence intensity with time were observed in various solvents in the presence of different basic compounds. The fluorescence produced when formamide and its N-derivatives are used as the solvent media is stronger than that found when ethanol is used. A glycine buffer solution of pH 12.8 is effective in producing the correct conditions for developing fluorescence with ethanol as solvent, but is not effective in the formamide series of solvents. Isopropylamine and isobutylamine aremore » effective bases in both ethanol and the formamide series. For a series of solvents of a given chemical type, e.g., the formamides, there may be an increase in fluorescence intensity with dielectric constant, although this is not true for the alcohols. Oxygen has a pronounced inhibiting action on the development of fluorescence in ethanol, but has much less effect in formamide. There is a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and amount of boron present in the range studied (0.05 to 0.5 - g). (auth)« less

  1. Single step synthesis of nanostructured boron nitride for boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Bikramjeet; Singh, Paviter; Kumar, Akshay, E-mail: akshaykumar.tiet@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN) has been successfully synthesized by carbo-thermic reduction of Boric Acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}). This method is a relatively low temperature synthesis route and it can be used for large scale production of nanostructured BN. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of single phase nanostructured Boron Nitride. SEM analysis showed that the particles are spherical in shape. DTA analysis showed that the phase is stable upto 900 °C and the material can be used for high temperature applications asmore » well boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)« less

  2. Development of the ion source for cluster implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulevoy, T. V.; Seleznev, D. N.; Kozlov, A. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Kropachev, G. N.; Alexeyenko, O. V.; Dugin, S. N.; Oks, E. M.; Gushenets, V. I.; Hershcovitch, A.; Jonson, B.; Poole, H. J.

    2014-02-01

    Bernas ion source development to meet needs of 100s of electron-volt ion implanters for shallow junction production is in progress in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics. The ion sources provides high intensity ion beam of boron clusters under self-cleaning operation mode. The last progress with ion source operation is presented. The mechanism of self-cleaning procedure is described.

  3. A combined photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio study of the quasi-planar B24(-) cluster.

    PubMed

    Popov, Ivan A; Piazza, Zachary A; Li, Wei-Li; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Boldyrev, Alexander I

    2013-10-14

    The structure and chemical bonding of the 24-atom boron cluster are investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The joint experimental and theoretical investigation shows that B24(-) possesses a quasi-planar structure containing fifteen outer and nine inner atoms with six of the inner atoms forming a filled pentagonal moiety. The central atom of the pentagonal moiety is puckered out of plane by 0.9 Å, reminiscent of the six-atom pentagonal caps of the well-known B12 icosahedral unit. The next closest isomer at the ROCCSD(T) level of theory has a tubular double-ring structure. Comparison of the simulated spectra with the experimental data shows that the global minimum quasi-planar B24(-) isomer is the major contributor to the observed photoelectron spectrum, while the tubular isomer has no contribution to the experiment. Chemical bonding analyses reveal that the periphery of the quasi-planar B24 constitutes 15 classical 2c-2e B-B σ-bonds, whereas delocalized σ- and π-bonds are found in the interior of the cluster with one unique 6c-2e π-bond responsible for bonding in the B-centered pentagon. The current work suggests that the 24-atom boron cluster continues to be quasi-2D, albeit the tendency to form filled pentagonal units, characteristic of 3D cage-like structures of bulk boron, is observed.

  4. Decreasing boron concentrations in UK rivers: insights into reductions in detergent formulations since the 1990s and within-catchment storage issues.

    PubMed

    Neal, Colin; Williams, Richard J; Bowes, Michael J; Harrass, Michael C; Neal, Margaret; Rowland, Philip; Wickham, Heather; Thacker, Sarah; Harman, Sarah; Vincent, Colin; Jarvie, Helen P

    2010-02-15

    The changing patterns of riverine boron concentration are examined for the Thames catchment in southern/southeastern England using data from 1997 to 2007. Boron concentrations are related to an independent marker for sewage effluent, sodium. The results show that boron concentrations in the main river channels have declined with time especially under baseflow conditions when sewage effluent dilution potential is at its lowest. While boron concentrations have reduced, especially under low-flow conditions, this does not fully translate to a corresponding reduction in boron flux and it seems that the "within-catchment" supplies of boron to the river are contaminated by urban sources. The estimated boron reduction in the effluent input to the river based on the changes in river chemistry is typically around 60% and this figure matches with an initial survey of more limited data for the industrial north of England. Data for effluent concentrations at eight sewage treatment works within the Kennet also indicate substantial reductions in boron concentrations: 80% reduction occurred between 2001 and 2008. For the more contaminated rivers there are issues of localised rather than catchment-wide sources and uncertainties over the extent and nature of water/boron stores. Atmospheric sources average around 32 to 61% for the cleaner and 4 to 14% for the more polluted parts. The substantial decreases in the boron concentrations correspond extremely well with the timing and extent of European wide trends for reductions in the industrial and domestic usage of boron-bearing compounds. It clearly indicates that such reductions have translated into lower average and peak concentrations of boron in the river although the full extent of these reductions has probably not yet occurred due to localised stores that are still to deplete.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new BSH-conjugated chlorin derivatives as agents for both photodynamic therapy and boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Asano, Ryuji; Nagami, Amon; Fukumoto, Yuki; Miura, Kaori; Yazama, Futoshi; Ito, Hideyuki; Sakata, Isao; Tai, Akihiro

    2014-11-01

    New disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH)-conjugated chlorin derivatives 11, 12, 16 and 20 as agents for both photodynamic therapy (PDT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of cancer were synthesized. The in vivo biodistribution and clearance of 11, 12, 16 and 20 were investigated in tumor-bearing mice. Compounds 12 and 16 showed good tumor-selective accumulation among the four derivatives. The time to maximum accumulation of compound 16 in tumor tissue was one-fourth of that of compound 12, and clearance from normal tissues of compound 16 was similar to that of compound 12. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PDT using 16, which has twice as many boron atoms as 12, was evaluated by measuring tumor growth rates in tumor-bearing mice with 660 nm light-emitting diode irradiation at 6h after injection of 16. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited by PDT using 16. These results suggested that 16 is a good candidate for both PDT and BNCT of cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Atmospheric contribution to boron enrichment in aboveground wheat tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Ji, Junfeng; Chen, Mindong; Zhong, Cong; Yang, Zhongfang; Browne, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Boron is an essential trace element for all organisms and has both beneficial and harmful biological functions. A particular amount of boron is discharged into the environment every year because of industrial activities; however, the effects of environmental boron emissions on boron accumulation in cereals has not yet been estimated. The present study characterized the accumulation of boron in wheat under different ecological conditions in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) area. This study aimed to estimate the effects of atmospheric boron that is associated with industrial activities on boron accumulation in wheat. The results showed that the concentrations of boron in aboveground wheat tissues from the highly industrialized region were significantly higher than those from the agriculture-dominated region, even though there was no significant difference in boron content in soils. Using the model based on the translocation coefficients of boron in the soil-wheat system, we estimated that the contribution of atmosphere to boron accumulation in wheat straw in the highly industrialized region exceeded that in the agriculture-dominated region by 36%. In addition, from the environmental implication of the model, it was estimated that the development of boron-utilizing industries had elevated the concentration of boron in aboveground wheat tissues by 28-53%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lumin; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised ofmore » boron trioxide and sassolite (H 3BO 3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.« less

  8. Process of Making Boron-Fiber Reinforced Composite Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, Harry L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for producing a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composition from powder pre-impregnated fiber tow bundles and a linear array of boron fibers. The boron fibers are applied onto the powder pre-impregnated fiber tow bundles and then are processed within a processing component having an impregnation bar assembly. After passing through variable-dimension forming nip-rollers, the powder pre-impregnated fiber tow bundles with the boron fibers become a hybrid boron reinforced polymer matrix composite tape. A driving mechanism pulls the powder pre-impregnated fiber tow bundles with boron fibers through the processing line of the apparatus and a take-up spool collects the formed hybrid boron-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite tape.

  9. Spin-canting magnetization in an unusual Co4 cluster-based layer compound from a 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline ligand.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-I; Chuang, Po-Hsiang; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shie-Ming; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2012-01-16

    The self-assembly of Co(O(2)CPh)(2) with a 2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline (H(2)dhq) linker has revealed a new two-dimensional cluster-based compound, [Co(4)(OMe)(2)(O(2)CPh)(2)(dhq)(2)(MeOH)(2)](n), which shows spin-canted magnetization and a definite magnetic hysteresis loop.

  10. Boron

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of boron, inside the vagina to treat yeast infections. People also apply boric acid to the ... acid, used inside the vagina, can successfully treat yeast infections (candidiasis), including infections that do not seem ...

  11. Effect of boron on fruit quality in pineapple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Changbin; Ma, Zhiling; Liu, Yuge; Qiao, Jian; Sun, Guangming

    2018-04-01

    Boron (B) is an important element for the plant. The aim of work was to study the effect of B on fruit quality of pineapple. The experiment was carried out with `Comte de paris' variety in pots. The results demonstrated that B had positive effect on fruit weight, TSS, the ratio of TSS/acidity, Vitamin C, the content of aroma volatile compounds. The B had no effect on the content of the three sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) and titrable acidity. There was a positive effect on fruit quality by application of B fertilizer in production of pineapple.

  12. Covalent docking of selected boron-based serine beta-lactamase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Novati, Beatrice; Colombo, Giorgio; Grazioso, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    AmpC β-lactamase is a hydrolytic enzyme conferring resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in multiple Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, identification of non-β-lactam compounds able to inhibit the enzyme is crucial for the development of novel antibacterial therapies. In general, AmpC inhibitors have to engage the highly solvent-exposed catalytic site of the enzyme. Therefore, understanding the implications of ligand-protein induced-fit and water-mediated interactions behind the inhibitor-enzyme recognition process is fundamental for undertaking structure-based drug design process. Here, we focus on boronic acids, a promising class of beta-lactamase covalent inhibitors. First, we optimized a docking protocol able to reproduce the experimentally determined binding mode of AmpC inhibitors bearing a boronic group. This goal was pursued (1) performing rigid and flexible docking calculations aiming to establish the role of the side chain conformations; and (2) investigating the role of specific water molecules in shaping the enzyme active site and mediating ligand protein interactions. Our calculations showed that some water molecules, conserved in the majority of the considered X-ray structures, are needed to correctly predict the binding pose of known covalent AmpC inhibitors. On this basis, we formalized our findings in a docking and scoring protocol that could be useful for the structure-based design of new boronic acid AmpC inhibitors.

  13. Boron nitride housing cools transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Boron nitride ceramic heat sink cools transistors in r-f transmitter and receiver circuits. Heat dissipated by the transistor is conducted by the boron nitride housing to the metal chassis on which it is mounted.

  14. Low-Energy Sputtering Studies of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1999-01-01

    Sputtering of boron nitride with xenon ions was investigated using secondary ion (SIMS) and secondary neutral (SNMS) mass spectrometry. The ions generated from the ion gun were incident on the target at an angle of 50' with respect to the surface'normal. The energy of ions ranged from 100 eV to 3 keV. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge build-up on the target surface. The intensities of sputtered neutral and charged particles, including single atoms, molecules, and clusters, were measured as a function of ion energy. Positive SIMS spectra were dominated by the two boron isotopes whereas BN- and B- were the two major constituents of the negative SIMS spectra. Nitrogen could be detected only in the SNMS spectra. The intensity-energy curves of the sputtered particles were similar in shape. The knees in P-SIMS and SNMS intensity-energy curves appear at around I keV which is significantly higher that 100 to 200 eV energy range at which knees appear in the sputtering of medium and heavy elements by ions of argon and xenon. This difference in the position of the sputter yield knee between boron nitride and heavier targets is due to the reduced ion energy differences. The isotopic composition of secondary ions of boron were measured by bombarding boron nitride with xenon ions at energies ranging from 100 eV to 1.5 keV using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. A flood electron gun was used to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The secondary ion flux was found to be enriched in heavy isotopes at lower incident ion energies. The heavy isotope enrichment was observed to decrease with increasing primary ion energy. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially with the enrichment increasing to an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. The trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy

  15. Mineral resource of the month: boron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyday, Phyllis A.

    2005-01-01

    What does boron have to do with baseball, apple pie, motherhood and Chevrolet? Boron minerals and chemicals are used in the tanning of leather baseballs and gloves; in micro-fertilizer to grow apples and in the glass and enamels of bakewares to cook apple pie; in boron detergents for soaking baby clothes and diapers; and in fiberglass parts for the Chevrolet Corvette.

  16. Design, synthesis and docking studies of novel dipeptidyl boronic acid proteasome inhibitors constructed from αα- and αβ-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingmiao; Lei, Meng; Wu, Wenkui; Feng, Huayun; Wang, Jia; Chen, Shanshan; Zhu, Yongqiang; Hu, Shihe; Liu, Zhaogang; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-04-15

    A series of novel dipeptidyl boronic acid proteasome inhibitors constructed from αα- and αβ-amino acids were designed and synthesized. Their structures were elucidated by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC-MS and HRMS. These compounds were evaluated for their β5 subunit inhibitory activities of human proteasome. The results showed that dipeptidyl boronic acid inhibitors composed of αα-amino acids were as active as bortezomib. Interestingly, the activities of those derived from αβ-amino acids lost completely. Of all the inhibitors, compound 22 (IC50=4.82 nM) was the most potent for the inhibition of proteasome activity. Compound 22 was also the most active against three MM cell lines with IC50 values less than 5 nM in inhibiting cell growth assays. Molecular docking studies displayed that 22 fitted very well in the β5 subunit active pocket of proteasome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. CE with a boron-doped diamond electrode for trace detection of endocrine disruptors in water samples.

    PubMed

    Browne, Damien J; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H T; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2013-07-01

    Off-line SPE and CE coupled with electrochemical detection have been used for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, 4-ethylphenol, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in bottled drinking water. The use of boron-doped diamond electrode as an electrochemical detector in amperometric mode that provides a favorable analytical performance for detecting these endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. The oxidative electrochemical detection of the endocrine-disrupting compounds was accomplished by boron-doped diamond electrode poised at +1.4 V versus Ag/AgCl without electrode pretreatment. An off-line SPE procedure (Bond Elut® C18 SPE cartridge) was utilized to extract and preconcentrate the compounds prior to separation and detection. The minimum concentration detectable for all four compounds ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 μM, having S/N equal to three. After exposing the plastic bottle water container under sunlight for 7 days, the estimated concentration of BPA in the bottled drinking water was estimated to be 0.03 μM. This proposed approach has great potential for rapid and effective determination of BPA content present in water packaging of plastic bottles that have been exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Entropy of gaseous boron monobromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Feng; Peng, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lie-Hui; Wang, Chao-Wen; Jia, Chun-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    We present an explicit representation of molar entropy for gaseous boron monobromide in terms of experimental values of only three molecular constants. Fortunately, through comparison of theoretically calculated results and experimental data, we find that the molar entropy of gaseous boron monobromide can be well predicted by employing the improved Manning-Rosen oscillator to describe the internal vibration of boron monobromide molecule. The present approach provides also opportunities for theoretical predictions of molar entropy for other gases with no use of large amounts of experimental spectroscopy data.

  19. A first-principles core-level XPS study on the boron impurities in germanium crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Jun; Yoshimoto, Yoshihide; Suwa, Yuji

    2013-12-04

    We systematically investigated the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core-level shifts and formation energies of boron defects in germanium crystals and compared the results to those in silicon crystals. Both for XPS core-level shifts and formation energies, relationship between defects in Si and Ge is roughly linear. From the similarity in the formation energy, it is expected that the exotic clusters like icosahedral B12 exist in Ge as well as in Si.

  20. Identification of B-K near edge x-ray absorption fine structure peaks of boron nitride thin films prepared by sputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Niibe, Masahito; Miyamoto, Kazuyoshi; Mitamura, Tohru

    2010-09-15

    Four {pi}{sup *} resonance peaks were observed in the B-K near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra of boron nitride thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering. In the past, these peaks have been explained as the K-absorption of boron atoms, which are present in environment containing nitrogen vacancies, the number of which is 1-3 corresponding to the three peaks at higher photon energy. However, the authors found that there was a strong correlation between the intensities of these three peaks and that of O-K absorption after wide range scanning and simultaneous measurement of nitrogen and oxygen K-absorptions of the BNmore » films. Therefore, the authors conclude that these three peaks at the higher energy side correspond to boron atoms bound to one-to-three oxygen atoms instead of three nitrogen atoms surrounding the boron atom in the h-BN structure. The result of the first-principles calculation with a simple cluster model supported the validity of this explanation.« less

  1. 2-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole-based four-coordinate boron-containing materials with highly efficient deep-blue photoluminescence and electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Houyu; Jiao, Chuanjun; Ye, Kaiqi; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Jingying; Wang, Yue

    2015-03-16

    Two novel four-coordinate boron-containing emitters 1 and 2 with deep-blue emissions were synthesized by refluxing a 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole ligand with triphenylborane or bromodibenzoborole. The boron chelation produced a new π-conjugated skeleton, which rendered the synthesized boron materials with intense fluorescence, good thermal stability, and high carrier mobility. Both compounds displayed deep-blue emissions in solutions with very high fluorescence quantum yields (over 0.70). More importantly, the samples showed identical fluorescence in the solution and solid states, and the efficiency was maintained at a high level (approximately 0.50) because of the bulky substituents between the boron atom and the benzimidazole unit, which can effectively separate the flat luminescent units. In addition, neat thin films composed of 1 or 2 exhibited high electron and hole mobility in the same order of magnitude 10(-4), as determined by time-of-flight. The fabricated electroluminescent devices that employed 1 or 2 as emitting materials showed high-performance deep-blue emissions with Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (X = 0.15, Y = 0.09) and (X = 0.16, Y = 0.08), respectively. Thus, the synthesized boron-containing materials are ideal candidates for fabricating high-performance deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes.

  2. METHOD OF PREPARING POLONIUM-BORON SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.

    1959-08-01

    An improved technique is described for preparation of a polonium-boron neutron source. A selected amount of Po-210 is vaporized into a thin walled nickel container, then the desired amcunt of boron powder is added. After sealing the container, it is heated quickly by induction heating to vaporize the Po-210 and deposit it in the still cool boron powder. The unit is then quickly cooled to prevent revaporization of the Po-210 from the boron. The build-up of neutron emission may be followed by means of a neutron counter in order to terminate the heating at the optimum level of neutron yield.

  3. The versatility of boron in biological target engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Diego B.; Yudin, Andrei K.

    2017-08-01

    Boron-containing molecules have been extensively used for the purposes of chemical sensing, biological probe development and drug discovery. Due to boron's empty p orbital, it can coordinate to heteroatoms such as oxygen and nitrogen. This reversible covalent mode of interaction has led to the use of boron as bait for nucleophilic residues in disease-associated proteins, culminating in the approval of new therapeutics that work by covalent mechanisms. Our analysis of a wide range of covalent inhibitors with electrophilic groups suggests that boron is a unique electrophile in its chameleonic ability to engage protein targets. Here we review boron's interactions with a range of protein side-chain residues and reveal that boron's properties are nuanced and arise from its uncommon coordination preferences. These mechanistic and structural insights should serve as a guide for the development of selective boron-based bioactive molecules.

  4. Exploring the potential of boron-doped nanographene as efficient charge transport and nonlinear optical material: A first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Ahmad; Chaudhry, Aijaz Rasool; Muhammad, Shabbir; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G

    2017-08-01

    Owing to their excellent electrochemical properties, graphenes found applications in several fields ranging from semiconductors, solar cells, field effect transistors, and nanoscale electronic devices as well as in nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. The structural features, electro-optical, charge transport and nonlinear optical properties of the boron-doped graphene (BG) compound 1 were studied using density functional theory methods The BG compound comprises a central electron deficient site of boron atoms, which can serve as electron acceptor while terminal alkoxy groups as donors leading to powerful donor-π-acceptor (D-π-A) configuration. The experimental crystal structure was successfully reproduced by optimized ground state geometry at PBE0/6-311G* level of theory for isolated molecule. The experimental lattice parameters, geometries, crystal presentation and alignment of molecules in the unit cells as well as their packing orientation of BG compound 1 was also efficiently reproduced by applying periodic boundary conditions (PBC) at PBE level. The comprehensive intramolecular charge transfer (CT) was realized from terminal rings of the HOMO to the electron deficient sites of boron atoms of the LUMO. The nature of BG compound 1 might be more towards hole transport even though its hole reorganization energy is twice than that of the electron one due to the significant higher hole transfer integral values. The superior hole transfer integrals and intrinsic mobility values of the BG compound 1 might lead remarkable hole transport contender as compared to many other organic materials. The narrow band gap, density of states profile, dielectric function, uniform conductivity functions and noteworthy electronic as well as CT properties revealed that the BG compound 1 might be proficient optoelectronic contestant having intermolecular CT as well as intramolecular CT with optimal stability. A comparison of static third-order polarizability <γ> of BG compound 1

  5. Thermal neutron scintillators using unenriched boron nitride and zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, J. E.; Cole, A. J.; Kirby, A.; Marsden, E.

    2015-06-01

    Thermal neutron detectors based on powdered zinc sulfide intimately mixed with a neutron capture compound have a history as long as scintillation technique itself. We show that using unenriched boron nitride powder, rather than the more commonly used enriched lithium fluoride, results in detection screens which produce less light but which are very considerably cheaper. Methods of fabricating large areas of this material are presented. The screens are intended for the production of large area low cost neutron detectors as a replacement for helium-3 proportional tubes.

  6. The effect of boron deficiency on gene expression and boron compartmentalization in sugarbeet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NIP5, BOR1, NIP6, and WRKY6 genes were investigated for their role in boron deficiency in sugar beet, each with a proposed role in boron use in model plant species. All genes showed evidence of polymorphism in fragment size and gene expression in the target genomic DNA and cDNA libraries, with no co...

  7. Electron paramagnetic resonance of deep boron in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, P. G.; Mokhov, E. N.

    1996-04-01

    In this article we report the first EPR observation of deep boron centres in silicon carbide. A direct identification of the boron atom involved in the defect centre, considered as deep boron, has been established by the presence of a hyperfine interaction with 0268-1242/11/4/005/img1 and 0268-1242/11/4/005/img2 nuclei in isotope-enriched 6H-SiC:B crystals. Deep boron centres were shown from EPR spectra to have axial symmetry along the hexagonal axis. A correspondence between the EPR spectra and the luminescence, ODMR and DLTS spectra of deep boron centres has been indicated. The structural model for a deep boron centre as a boron - vacancy pair is presented and the evidence for bistable behaviour of deep boron centres is discussed.

  8. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    PubMed

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras-Ramírez, María Elena; Lara-Álvarez, Carlos; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

  9. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray

    PubMed Central

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras–Ramírez, María Elena; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:27092938

  10. Stability and molecular properties of the boron-nitrogen alternating analogs of azulene and naphthalene: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Catão, Anderson José Lopes; López-Castillo, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the spectroscopic information, stability and aromaticity of the boron-nitrogen azulene and naphthalene molecules are provided by the use of CC2 (geometry optimization, dipole moment, UV-vis spectrum calculations) and DFT (vibrational spectrum and NMR calculations) methodologies. One isomer of the investigated boron-nitrogen naphthalene (boroazanaphthalene) and two isomers of boron-nitrogen azulene, 1,3,4,6,8-pentaaza-2,3a,5,7,8a-pentaboraazulene (BN-azulene) and 2,3a,5,7,8a-pentaaza-1,3,4,6,8- pentaboraazulene (NB-azulene), are stable systems. However, these molecules have different properties, i.e., different stability, dipole moment, and aromaticity based on the NICS approach. BN-naphthalene has a high dipole moment magnitude showing high polar character, while naphthalene is apolar. BN- and NB-azulene are weakly polar, while ordinary azulene is highly polar in character. Also, substitution of C atoms by B and N atoms decreases the aromaticity. In the case of NB-azulene, the seven-membered ring has anti-aromaticity behavior while both rings of BN-azulene exhibit aromaticity. We expect that the new theoretical data provided in this work will be useful in identifying and characterizing experimentally the compounds investigated, and in helping our understanding of the chemistry of boron-nitrogen molecules. Graphical abstract Boron-nitrogen alternating analogs of azulene. Spectral distinction between isomers.

  11. Insights into the Mechanisms Underlying Boron Homeostasis in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinari, Akira; Takano, Junpei

    2017-01-01

    Boron is an essential element for plants but is toxic in excess. Therefore, plants must adapt to both limiting and excess boron conditions for normal growth. Boron transport in plants is primarily based on three transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane: passive diffusion of boric acid, facilitated diffusion of boric acid via channels, and export of borate anion via transporters. Under boron -limiting conditions, boric acid channels and borate exporters function in the uptake and translocation of boron to support growth of various plant species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, NIP5;1 and BOR1 are located in the plasma membrane and polarized toward soil and stele, respectively, in various root cells, for efficient transport of boron from the soil to the stele. Importantly, sufficient levels of boron induce downregulation of NIP5;1 and BOR1 through mRNA degradation and proteolysis through endocytosis, respectively. In addition, borate exporters, such as Arabidopsis BOR4 and barley Bot1, function in boron exclusion from tissues and cells under conditions of excess boron. Thus, plants actively regulate intracellular localization and abundance of transport proteins to maintain boron homeostasis. In this review, the physiological roles and regulatory mechanisms of intracellular localization and abundance of boron transport proteins are discussed. PMID:29204148

  12. Oxidative Unzipping and Transformation of High Aspect Ratio Boron Nitride Nanotubes into “White Graphene Oxide” Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Pranjal; Loganathan, Archana; Agrawal, Richa; Boesl, Benjamin; Wang, Chunlei; Agarwal, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Morphological and chemical transformations in boron nitride nanotubes under high temperature atmospheric conditions is probed in this study. We report atmospheric oxygen induced cleavage of boron nitride nanotubes at temperatures exceeding 750 °C for the first time. Unzipping is then followed by coalescence of these densely clustered multiple uncurled ribbons to form stacks of 2D sheets. FTIR and EDS analysis suggest these 2D platelets to be Boron Nitride Oxide platelets, with analogous structure to Graphene Oxide, and therefore we term them as “White Graphene Oxide” (WGO). However, not all BNNTs deteriorate even at temperatures as high as 1000 °C. This leads to the formation of a hybrid nanomaterial system comprising of 1D BN nanotubes and 2D BN oxide platelets, potentially having advanced high temperature sensing, radiation shielding, mechanical strengthening, electron emission and thermal management applications due to synergistic improvement of multi-plane transport and mechanical properties. This is the first report on transformation of BNNT bundles to a continuous array of White Graphene Oxide nanoplatelet stacks. PMID:27388704

  13. Oxidative Unzipping and Transformation of High Aspect Ratio Boron Nitride Nanotubes into “White Graphene Oxide” Platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nautiyal, Pranjal; Loganathan, Archana; Agrawal, Richa; Boesl, Benjamin; Wang, Chunlei; Agarwal, Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Morphological and chemical transformations in boron nitride nanotubes under high temperature atmospheric conditions is probed in this study. We report atmospheric oxygen induced cleavage of boron nitride nanotubes at temperatures exceeding 750 °C for the first time. Unzipping is then followed by coalescence of these densely clustered multiple uncurled ribbons to form stacks of 2D sheets. FTIR and EDS analysis suggest these 2D platelets to be Boron Nitride Oxide platelets, with analogous structure to Graphene Oxide, and therefore we term them as “White Graphene Oxide” (WGO). However, not all BNNTs deteriorate even at temperatures as high as 1000 °C. This leads to the formation of a hybrid nanomaterial system comprising of 1D BN nanotubes and 2D BN oxide platelets, potentially having advanced high temperature sensing, radiation shielding, mechanical strengthening, electron emission and thermal management applications due to synergistic improvement of multi-plane transport and mechanical properties. This is the first report on transformation of BNNT bundles to a continuous array of White Graphene Oxide nanoplatelet stacks.

  14. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains invited and contributed peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008), which was held on 7-12 September 2008, at Kunibiki Messe, Matsue, Japan. This triennial symposium has a half-century long history starting from the 1st meeting in 1959 at Asbury Park, New Jersey. We were very pleased to organize ISBB 2008, which gathered chemists, physicists, materials scientists as well as diamond and high-pressure researchers. This meeting had a strong background in the boron-related Japanese research history, which includes the discovery of superconductivity in MgB2 and development of Nd-Fe-B hard magnets and of YB66 soft X-ray monochromator. The scope of ISBB 2008 spans both basic and applied interdisciplinary research that is centered on boron, borides and related materials, and the collection of articles defines the state of the art in research on these materials. The topics are centered on: 1. Preparation of new materials (single crystals, thin films, nanostructures, ceramics, etc) under normal or extreme conditions. 2. Crystal structure and chemical bonding (new crystal structures, nonstoichiometry, defects, clusters, quantum-chemical calculations). 3. Physical and chemical properties (band structure, phonon spectra, superconductivity; optical, electrical, magnetic, emissive, mechanical properties; phase diagrams, thermodynamics, catalytic activity, etc) in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. 4. Applications and prospects (thermoelectric converters, composites, ceramics, coatings, etc) There were a few discoveries of new materials, such as nanomaterials, and developments in applications. Many contributions were related to 4f heavy Fermion systems of rare-earth borides. Exotic mechanisms of magnetism and Kondo effects have been discussed, which may indicate another direction of development of boride. Two special sessions

  15. In silico identification and construction of microbial gene clusters associated with biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Garima; Kumari, Anjani; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Srivastava, Prachi

    2018-01-01

    Chemical substances not showing any importance in existence of biological systems and causing serious health hazards may be designated as Xenobiotic compound. Elimination or degradation of these unwanted substances is a major issue of concern for current time research. Process of biodegradation is a very important aspect of current research as discussed in current manuscript. Current study focuses on the detailed mining of data for the construction of microbial consortia for wide range of xenobiotics compounds. Intensive literature search was done for the construction of this library. Desired data was retrieved from NCBI in fasta format. Data was analysed through homology approaches by using BLAST. This homology based searched enriched with a great vision that not only bacterial population but many other cheap and potential sources are available for different xenobiotic degradation. Though it was focused that bacterial population covers a major part of biodegradation which is near about 90.6% but algae and fungi are also showing promising future in degradation of some important xenobiotic compounds. Analysis of data reveals that Pseudomonas putida has potential for degrading maximum compounds. Establishment of correlation through cluster analysis signifies that Pseudomonas putida, Aspergillus niger and Skeletonema costatum can have combined traits that can be used in finding out actual evolutionary relationship between these species. These findings may also givea new outcome in terms of much cheaper and eco-friendly source in the area of biodegradation of specified xenobiotic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High Purity and Yield of Boron Nitride Nanotubes Using Amorphous Boron and a Nozzle-Type Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaewoo; Seo, Duckbong; Yoo, Jeseung; Jeong, Wanseop; Seo, Young-Soo; Kim, Jaeyong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancement of the production yield of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with high purity was achieved using an amorphous boron-based precursor and a nozzle-type reactor. Use of a mixture of amorphous boron and Fe decreases the milling time for the preparation of the precursor for BNNTs synthesis, as well as the Fe impurity contained in the B/Fe interdiffused precursor nanoparticles by using a simple purification process. We also explored a nozzle-type reactor that increased the production yield of BNNTs compared to a conventional flow-through reactor. By using a nozzle-type reactor with amorphous boron-based precursor, the weight of the BNNTs sample after annealing was increased as much as 2.5-times with much less impurities compared to the case for the flow-through reactor with the crystalline boron-based precursor. Under the same experimental conditions, the yield and quantity of BNNTs were estimated as much as ~70% and ~1.15 g/batch for the former, while they are ~54% and 0.78 g/batch for the latter. PMID:28788161

  17. High Purity and Yield of Boron Nitride Nanotubes Using Amorphous Boron and a Nozzle-Type Reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewoo; Seo, Duckbong; Yoo, Jeseung; Jeong, Wanseop; Seo, Young-Soo; Kim, Jaeyong

    2014-08-11

    Enhancement of the production yield of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with high purity was achieved using an amorphous boron-based precursor and a nozzle-type reactor. Use of a mixture of amorphous boron and Fe decreases the milling time for the preparation of the precursor for BNNTs synthesis, as well as the Fe impurity contained in the B/Fe interdiffused precursor nanoparticles by using a simple purification process. We also explored a nozzle-type reactor that increased the production yield of BNNTs compared to a conventional flow-through reactor. By using a nozzle-type reactor with amorphous boron-based precursor, the weight of the BNNTs sample after annealing was increased as much as 2.5-times with much less impurities compared to the case for the flow-through reactor with the crystalline boron-based precursor. Under the same experimental conditions, the yield and quantity of BNNTs were estimated as much as ~70% and ~1.15 g/batch for the former, while they are ~54% and 0.78 g/batch for the latter.

  18. Boron stripper foils for particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeisler, Stefan K.; Brigham, Michael; Kaur, Ishneet; Jaggi, Vinder

    2018-05-01

    Micromatter Technologies Inc., now located in Surrey B.C., Canada, is a worldwide supplier of pure and boron containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ranging from 10 nm to 10 μm. These foils are manufactured in-house using pulsed laser deposition. Continuing our research into novel production methods and alternative materials to be used as beam strippers for heavy elements and in particular for tandem particle accelerators, pure boron foils were prepared by laser plasma ablation of a disc shaped boron sputter target. Foil thickness between 10 nm to approximately 0.7 μm were achieved. The new boron foils showed considerably less stress, higher mechanical strength and better flexibility than comparable DLC films.

  19. Halogenated boron-dipyrromethenes: synthesis, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Vellanki; Rao, Malakalapalli Rajeswara; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2015-03-07

    Boron-dipyrromethene dyes (BODIPYs) containing halogens at pyrrole carbons are very useful synthons for the synthesis of a variety of BOIDPYs for a wide range of applications. Among the functional groups, halogens are the functional groups which can be regiospecifically introduced at any desired pyrrole carbon of the BODIPY framework by adopting appropriate synthetic strategies. The halogenated BODIPYs can undergo facile nucleophilic substitution reactions to prepare several interesting BODIPY based compounds. This review describes the synthesis, properties and potential applications of halogenated BODIPYs containing one to six halogens at the pyrrole carbons of the BODIPY core as well as properties and applications of some of the substituted BODIPYs derived from halogenated BODIPYs.

  20. Structure prediction of boron-doped graphene by machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Dieb, Thaer; Hou, Zhufeng; Tsuda, Koji

    2018-06-01

    Heteroatom doping has endowed graphene with manifold aspects of material properties and boosted its applications. The atomic structure determination of doped graphene is vital to understand its material properties. Motivated by the recently synthesized boron-doped graphene with relatively high concentration, here we employ machine learning methods to search the most stable structures of doped boron atoms in graphene, in conjunction with the atomistic simulations. From the determined stable structures, we find that in the free-standing pristine graphene, the doped boron atoms energetically prefer to substitute for the carbon atoms at different sublattice sites and that the para configuration of boron-boron pair is dominant in the cases of high boron concentrations. The boron doping can increase the work function of graphene by 0.7 eV for a boron content higher than 3.1%.

  1. Investigation of Hard Boron Rich Solids: Osmium Diboride and β-Rhombohedral Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbache, M.; Živković, D.

    Recently, we succeeded in synthesizing three osmium borides, i.e., OsB1.1, Os2B3 and OsB2. Up to date, almost nothing is known about the physical properties of these materials. Microhardness measurements show that OsB2 is extremely hard. Ab initio calculations show that it is due to formation of covalent bonds between boron atoms. OsB2 is also a low compressibility material. It can be used for hard coatings. The β-rhombohedral polymorph of boron is the second hardest elemental crystal (H ≈ 33 GPa). It is also very light and a p-type semiconductor. In early 1970s, it has been shown that the doping of boron with 3d transition elements enhances its hardness by about 25%. We predict that, in general, heavily doped samples MBx, with x ≤ 31 or equivalently a dopant concentration larger than 3.2 at.%, should be ultrahard, i.e., H > 43 GPa. The relevant dopants M are Al, Cu, Sc, Mn, Mg and Li. In addition to these properties, boron-rich materials have a very low volatility, a high chemical inertness and high melting point. They are suitable for applications under extreme conditions and thermoelectric equipment.

  2. Probing the General Time Scale Question of Boronic Acid Binding with Sugars in Aqueous Solution at Physiological pH

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Nanting; Laughlin, Sarah; Wang, Yingji; Feng, You; Zheng, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    The boronic acid group is widely used in chemosensor design due to its ability to reversibly bind diol-containing compounds. The thermodynamic properties of the boronic acid-diol binding process have been investigated extensively. However, there are few studies of the kinetic properties of such binding processes. In this report, stopped-flow method was used for the first time to study the kinetic properties of the binding between three model arylboronic acids, 4-, 5-, and 8-isoquinolinylboronic acids, and various sugars. With all the boronic acid-diol pair sexamined, reactions were complete within seconds. The kon values with various sugars follow the order of D-fructose >D-tagatose>D-mannose >D-glucose. This trend tracks the thermodynamic binding affinities for these sugars and demonstrates that the “on” rate is the key factor determining the binding constant. PMID:22464680

  3. Structural analysis of pyridine-imino boronic esters involving secondary interactions on solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Portillo, Paola; Arenaza-Corona, Antonino; Hernández-Ahuactzi, Irán F.; Barba, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Twelve boronic esters (1a-1l) synthesized from 4-halo- substituted arylboronic acids (halo = F, Cl, Br, I and CF3) with 2-amino-2- alkyl (H, Me) -1,3-propanediol in presence of (3- or 4)-pyridine carboxaldehyde are described. A solvent mixture toluene/methanol 1:4 ratio was used. All compounds include both donor/acceptor functional groups, which are the necessary elements to self-assembly of the molecular species. Several secondary interactions as I⋯N, Br⋯Br, Br⋯B, F⋯B, Csbnd H⋯N, Csbnd H⋯O, Br⋯π and Csbnd H⋯π support the 1D and 2D polymeric frameworks in solid state. The coordination of the nitrogen atom from the pyridine moiety with the boron atom was not observed in either solution or solid state.

  4. Uptake and metabolism of boronophenylalanine in human uveal melanoma cells in culture Relevance to boron neutron capture therapy of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Belkhou, R; Abbé, J C; Pham, P; Jasner, N; Sahel, J; Dreyfus, H; Moutaouakkil, M; Massarelli, R

    1995-06-01

    The transport of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and its metabolic fate have been studied in a human uveal melanoma cell line isolated from a primary enucleated tumor. The boronated compound was rapidly incorporated into the cells reaching a peak of incorporation in two hours. This was followed by a trough between 10 and 24 hours and by an increase thereafter. The analogy with the amino acids phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) was studied in competition experiments incubating cultures of cell line MK-T, isolated in this laboratory, with [(3)H]-Phe and [(125)I]-Tyr, in the presence or absence of various concentrations of BPA, between 0 and 5 min. The presence of BPA severely reduced the uptake of both amino acids. The kinetics of the transport of [(3)H]-Phe and [(3)H]-Tyr in the presence of BPA, measured after 10 sec of incubation, showed that the boronated compound exerted a competitive inhibition on both transport systems. The intracellular metabolism of BPA was followed by measuring boron concentration (measured with Ionization Coupled Mass Spectrometry) in subcellular fractions and after membrane extraction by the detergent Triton X-100. The results showed that BPA remained in the supernatant and was not metabolized into macromolecules. These results and the relative absence of melanine in these cells, as observed by electron microscopy, suggest that BPA may be actively transported into melanoma cells but not metabolized. The results may have a relevance in studies on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

  5. Characterization of boron carbide with an electron microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteudi, G.; Ruste, J.

    1983-01-01

    Within the framework of a study of heterogeneous materials (Matteudi et al., 1971: Matteudi and Verchery, 1972) thin deposits of boron carbide were characterized. Experiments using an electronic probe microanalyzer to analyze solid boron carbide or boron carbide in the form of thick deposits are described. Quantitative results on boron and carbon are very close to those obtained when applying the Monte Carlo-type correction calculations.

  6. Boron uptake in tumors, cerebrum and blood from (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-03-11

    A stable boronated (/sup 10/B-labeled) compound, sodium mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate is infused in the form of the disulfide dimer, (/sup 10/B)Na/sub 4/B/sub 24/H/sub 22/S/sub 2/, at a dose of about 200 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight. The infusion is preformed into the blood or peritoneal cavity of the patient slowly over a period of many days, perhaps one week or more, at the rate of roughly 1 ..mu..g /sup 10/B per gm body weight per hour. Use of this particular boronated dimer in the manner or similarly to the manner so described permits radiotherapeutically effective amounts of boron to accumulate in tumors to be treated by boron neutron capture radiation therapy and also permits sufficient retention of boron in tumor after the cessation of the slow infusion, so as to allow the blood concentration of /sup 10/B to drop or to be reduced artificially to a radiotherapeutically effective level, less than one-half of the concentration of /sup 10/B in the tumor. 1 tab.

  7. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  8. Intramolecular B-B Linkage Between Polyhedral Cages in a Commo-Metallacarborane. Synthesis and Structure of a Fluxional Metal-Boron Cluster, (n(5)-C5(CH3)5)2Co3(CH3)4C4B8H7.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    FINSTER , E SINN, R N GRIMES N0001475--0305 UNCLASSIFIED TR-35 NL’ minimnmlhnnnhu ,IIIIIIIIIIIIIl hEIIIIIIIIEIII EEEEEEEEEEEL 1.8 MICROCOPY’ RESOLUTION...David C./ Finster Ekk/inn Russell . Grimes Department of Chemistry ",00t University ofLyirginla ’ Charlottesville, Va. 22901 Prepared for Publication In...a Commo-Metallacarborane. Synthesis and Structure of a Fluxi:. Metal-Boron Cluster, [n5C 5 (CCB3)512HCo3(C13)4C4B8H7 David C. Finster , Ekk Sinn, and

  9. Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Li, Shuai; Li, Hui; Cheng, Peng; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2016-06-01

    A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp2 hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future.

  10. Boron detection from blood samples by ICP-AES and ICP-MS during boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Linko, S; Revitzer, H; Zilliacus, R; Kortesniemi, M; Kouri, M; Savolainen, S

    2008-01-01

    The concept of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involves infusion of a (10)B containing tracer into the patient's bloodstream followed by local neutron irradiation(s). Accurate estimation of the blood boron level for the treatment field before irradiation is required. Boron concentration can be quantified by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), spectrofluorometric and direct current atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) or by prompt gamma photon detection methods. The blood boron concentrations were analysed and compared using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to ensure congruency of the results if the analysis had to be changed during the treatment, e.g. for technical reasons. The effect of wet-ashing on the results was studied in addition. The mean of all samples analysed with ICP-MS was 5.8 % lower than with ICP-AES coupled to wet-ashing (R (2) = 0.88). Without wet-ashing, the mean of all samples analysed with ICP-MS was 9.1 % higher than with ICP-AES (R (2) = 0.99). Boron concentration analysed from whole blood samples with ICP-AES correlated well with the values of ICP-MS with wet-ashing of the sample matrix, which is generally considered the reference method. When using these methods in parallel at certain intervals during the treatments, reliability of the blood boron concentration values remains satisfactory, taking into account the required accuracy of dose determination in the irradiation of cancer patients.

  11. Apoptosis through Bcl-2/Bax and Cleaved Caspase Up-Regulation in Melanoma Treated by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Faião-Flores, Fernanda; Coelho, Paulo Rogério Pinto; Toledo Arruda-Neto, João Dias; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Tiago, Manoela; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Giorgi, Ricardo Rodrigues; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary treatment involving selective accumulation of boron carriers in a tumor followed by irradiation with a thermal or epithermal neutron beam. The neutron capture reaction with a boron-10 nucleus yields high linear energy transfer (LET) particles, alpha and 7Li, with a range of 5 to 9 µm. These particles can only travel very short distances and release their damaging energy directly into the cells containing the boron compound. We aimed to evaluate proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) modifications of B16F10 melanoma and normal human melanocytes after BNCT. The amounts of soluble collagen and Hsp47, indicating collagen synthesis in the ECM, as well as the cellular markers of apoptosis, were investigated. BNCT decreased proliferation, altered the ECM by decreasing collagen synthesis and induced apoptosis by regulating Bcl-2/Bax in melanoma. Additionally, BNCT also increased the levels of TNF receptor and the cleaved caspases 3, 7, 8 and 9 in melanoma. These results suggest that multiple pathways related to cell death and cell cycle arrest are involved in the treatment of melanoma by BNCT. PMID:23527236

  12. Low pressure growth of cubic boron nitride films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, Tiong P. (Inventor); Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method for forming thin films of cubic boron nitride on substrates at low pressures and temperatures. A substrate is first coated with polycrystalline diamond to provide a uniform surface upon which cubic boron nitride can be deposited by chemical vapor deposition. The cubic boron nitride film is useful as a substitute for diamond coatings for a variety of applications in which diamond is not suitable. any tetragonal or hexagonal boron nitride. The cubic boron nitride produced in accordance with the preceding example is particularly well-suited for use as a coating for ultra hard tool bits and abrasives, especially those intended to use in cutting or otherwise fabricating iron.

  13. Immunocytochemistry by electron spectroscopic imaging using well defined boronated monovalent antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Kessels, M M; Qualmann, B; Sierralta, W D

    1996-01-01

    Contributing to the rapidly developing field of immunoelectron microscopy a new kind of markers has been created. The element boron, incorporated as very stable carborane clusters into different kinds of peptides, served as a marker detectable by electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI)--an electron microscopic technique with high-resolution potential. Covalently linked immunoreagents conspicuous by the small size of both antigen recognizing part and marker moiety are accessible by using peptide concepts for label construction and their conjugation with Fab' fragments. Due to a specific labeling of the free thiol groups of the Fab' fragments, the antigen binding capacity was not affected by the attachment of the markers and the resulting immunoprobes exhibited an elongated shape with the antigen combining site and the label located at opposite ends. The labeling densities observed with these reagents were found to be significantly higher than those obtained by using conventional colloidal gold methods. Combined with digital image processing and analysis systems, boron-based ESI proved to be a powerful approach in ultrastructural immunocytochemistry employing pre- and post-embedding methods.

  14. OsNIP3;1, a rice boric acid channel, regulates boron distribution and is essential for growth under boron-deficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Hideki; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Takano, Junpei; Tanaka, Mayuki; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-06-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for higher plants. Boron deficiency is an important agricultural issue because it results in loss of yield quality and/or quantity in cereals and other crops. To understand boron transport mechanisms in cereals, we characterized OsNIP3;1, a member of the major intrinsic protein family in rice (Oryza sativa L.), because OsNIP3;1 is the most similar rice gene to the Arabidopsis thaliana boric acid channel genes AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1. Yeast cells expressing OsNIP3;1 imported more boric acid than control cells. GFP-tagged OsNIP3;1 expressed in tobacco BY2 cells was localized to the plasma membrane. The accumulation of OsNIP3;1 transcript increased fivefold in roots within 6 h of the onset of boron starvation, but not in shoots. Promoter-GUS analysis suggested that OsNIP3;1 is expressed mainly in exodermal cells and steles in roots, as well as in cells around the vascular bundles in leaf sheaths and pericycle cells around the xylem in leaf blades. The growth of OsNIP3;1 RNAi plants was impaired under boron limitation. These results indicate that OsNIP3;1 functions as a boric acid channel, and is required for acclimation to boron limitation. Boron distribution among shoot tissues was altered in OsNIP3;1 knockdown plants, especially under boron-deficient conditions. This result demonstrates that OsNIP3;1 regulates boron distribution among shoot tissues, and that the correct boron distribution is crucial for plant growth. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Fragment approach to the electronic structure of τ -boron allotrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmodak, Naiwrit; Jemmis, Eluvathingal D.

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nonconventional bonding features is an intriguing part of elemental boron. The recent addition of τ boron to the family of three-dimensional boron allotropes is no exception. We provide an understanding of the electronic structure of τ boron using a fragment molecular approach, where the effect of symmetry reduction on skeletal bands of B12 and the B57 fragments are examined qualitatively by analyzing the projected density of states of these fragments. In spite of the structural resemblance to β boron, the reduction of symmetry from a rhombohedral space group to the orthorhombic one destabilizes the bands and reduces the electronic requirements. This suggests the presence of the partially occupied boron sites, as seen for a β boron unit cell, and draws the possibility for the existence of different energetically similar polymorphs. τ boron has a lower binding energy than β boron.

  16. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  17. A Hypoxia-Targeted Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Agent for the Treatment of Glioma.

    PubMed

    Luderer, Micah John; Muz, Barbara; de la Puente, Pilar; Chavalmane, Sanmathi; Kapoor, Vaishali; Marcelo, Raymundo; Biswas, Pratim; Thotala, Dinesh; Rogers, Buck; Azab, Abdel Kareem

    2016-10-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential to become a viable cancer treatment modality, but its clinical translation has been limited by the poor tumor selectivity of agents. To address this unmet need, a boronated 2-nitroimidazole derivative (B-381) was synthesized and evaluated for its capability of targeting hypoxic glioma cells. B-381 has been synthesized from a 1-step reaction. Using D54 and U87 glioma cell lines, the in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular accumulation of B-381 has been evaluated under normoxic and hypoxic conditions compared to L-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Furthermore, tumor retention of B-381 was evaluated in vivo. B-381 had low cytotoxicity in normal and cancer cells. Unlike BPA, B-381 illustrated preferential retention in hypoxic glioma cells compared to normoxic glioma cells and normal tissues in vitro. In vivo, B-381 illustrated significantly higher long-term tumor retention compared to BPA, with 9.5-fold and 6.5-fold higher boron levels at 24 and 48 h, respectively. B-381 represents a new class of BNCT agents in which their selectivity to tumors is based on hypoxic tumor metabolism. Further studies are warranted to evaluate B-381 and similar compounds as preclinical candidates for future BNCT clinical trials for the treatment of glioma.

  18. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications Of Boron Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes synthesis, properties, and applications of boron nitride. Especially in thin-film form. Boron nitride films useful as masks in x-ray lithography; as layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits; insulating films; hard, wear-resistant, protective films for optical components; lubricants; and radiation detectors. Present status of single-crystal growth of boron nitride indicates promising candidate for use in high-temperature semiconductor electronics.

  19. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, G.D.; Reynolds, J.S.; Brown, L.K.

    1998-06-09

    A method of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried, with the boron film then being driven into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out into piles and melted/fused with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements. 2 figs.

  20. Fe-Cluster Compounds of Chalcogenides: Candidates for Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnet and Magnetic Nodal-Line Topological Material.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Kim, Minsung; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2017-12-04

    Fe-cluster-based crystal structures are predicted for chalcogenides Fe 3 X 4 (X = S, Se, Te) using an adaptive genetic algorithm. Topologically different from the well-studied layered structures of iron chalcogenides, the newly predicted structures consist of Fe clusters that are either separated by the chalcogen atoms or connected via sharing of the vertex Fe atoms. Using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that these structures have competitive or even lower formation energies than the experimentally synthesized Fe 3 X 4 compounds and exhibit interesting magnetic and electronic properties. In particular, we show that Fe 3 Te 4 can be a good candidate as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet and Fe 3 S 4 can be a magnetic nodal-line topological material.

  1. Boron exposure through drinking water during pregnancy and birth size.

    PubMed

    Igra, Annachiara Malin; Harari, Florencia; Lu, Ying; Casimiro, Esperanza; Vahter, Marie

    2016-10-01

    Boron is a metalloid found at highly varying concentrations in soil and water. Experimental data indicate that boron is a developmental toxicant, but the few human toxicity data available concern mostly male reproduction. To evaluate potential effects of boron exposure through drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. In a mother-child cohort in northern Argentina (n=194), 1-3 samples of serum, whole blood and urine were collected per woman during pregnancy and analyzed for boron and other elements to which exposure occurred, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Infant weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth. Drinking water boron ranged 377-10,929μg/L. The serum boron concentrations during pregnancy ranged 0.73-605μg/L (median 133μg/L) and correlated strongly with whole-blood and urinary boron, and, to a lesser extent, with water boron. In multivariable-adjusted linear spline regression analysis (non-linear association), we found that serum boron concentrations above 80μg/L were inversely associated with birth length (B-0.69cm, 95% CI -1.4; -0.024, p=0.043, per 100μg/L increase in serum boron). The impact of boron appeared stronger when we restricted the exposure to the third trimester, when the serum boron concentrations were the highest (0.73-447μg/L). An increase in serum boron of 100μg/L in the third trimester corresponded to 0.9cm shorter and 120g lighter newborns (p=0.001 and 0.021, respectively). Considering that elevated boron concentrations in drinking water are common in many areas of the world, although more screening is warranted, our novel findings warrant additional research on early-life exposure in other populations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Cobalt Doping of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Using Cobaltocene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    COBALT DOPING OF SEMICONDUCTING BORON CARBIDE USING COBALTOCENE THESIS Lonnie Carlson, Major...DOPING OF SEMICONDUCTING BORON CARBIDE USING COBALTOCENE THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT/GNE/ENP/07-01 COBALT DOPING OF SEMICONDUCTING BORON CARBIDE USING COBALTOCENE Lonnie

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of boron hyperaccumulation mechanisms in Puccinellia distans.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Saniye Elvan; Göktay, Mehmet; Has, Canan; Babaoğlu, Mehmet; Allmer, Jens; Doğanlar, Sami; Frary, Anne

    2018-05-01

    Puccinellia distans, common alkali grass, is found throughout the world and can survive in soils with boron concentrations that are lethal for other plant species. Indeed, P. distans accumulates very high levels of this element. Despite these interesting features, very little research has been performed to elucidate the boron tolerance mechanism in this species. In this study, P. distans samples were treated for three weeks with normal (0.5 mg L -1 ) and elevated (500 mg L -1 ) boron levels in hydroponic solution. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from shoot tissue were analyzed by RNA sequencing to identify genes up and down-regulated under boron stress. In this way, 3312 differentially expressed transcripts were detected, 67.7% of which were up-regulated and 32.3% of which were down-regulated in boron-treated plants. To partially confirm the RNA sequencing results, 32 randomly selected transcripts were analyzed for their expression levels in boron-treated plants. The results agreed with the expected direction of change (up or down-regulation). A total of 1652 transcripts had homologs in A. thaliana and/or O. sativa and mapped to 1107 different proteins. Functional annotation of these proteins indicated that the boron tolerance and hyperaccumulation mechanisms of P. distans involve many transcriptomic changes including: alterations in the malate pathway, changes in cell wall components that may allow sequestration of excess boron without toxic effects, and increased expression of at least one putative boron transporter and two putative aquaporins. Elucidation of the boron accumulation mechanism is important in developing approaches for bioremediation of boron contaminated soils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Boron removal from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Deyin; Wang, Jun; Sun, Xiangcheng; Luan, Zhaokun; Zhao, Changwei; Ren, Xiaojing

    2010-05-15

    The removal of boron from aqueous solution by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was studied with self-prepared polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes in the present work. The effect of pH, boron concentration, temperature and salt concentration of the feed solution on the boron rejection was investigated. The experimental results indicated that boron rejection was less dependent on the feed pH and salt concentration. DCMD process had high boron removal efficiency (>99.8%) and the permeate boron was below the maximum permissible level even at feed concentration as high as 750 mg/L. Although the permeate flux was enhanced exponentially with the feed temperature increasing, the influence of feed temperature on the boron rejection could be neglected. Finally, the natural groundwater sample containing 12.7 mg/L of boron was treated by DCMD process. The permeate boron kept below 20 microg/L whether the feed was acidified or not, but pre-acidification was helpful to maintain the permeate flux stability. All the experimental results indicated that DCMD could be efficiently used for boron removal from aqueous solution. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Chemistry of Formazan Dyes: Synthesis and Characterization of a Stable Verdazyl Radical and a Related Boron-Containing Heterocycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David E.; Hicks, Robin G.; Gilroy, Joe B.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis and characterization of a formazan dye, and its subsequent conversion to a stable verdazyl radical and a boron-nitrogen heterocycle (boratatetrazine). Each of these compounds is intensely colored and is prepared and handled under aerobic conditions, which often surprises students as free radicals are…

  6. Comparison between proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): a monte carlo study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Young; Yoon, Do-Kun; Barraclough, Brendan; Lee, Heui Chang; Suh, Tae Suk; Lu, Bo

    2017-06-13

    The aim of this study is to compare between proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and to analyze dose escalation using a Monte Carlo simulation. We simulated a proton beam passing through the water with a boron uptake region (BUR) in MCNPX. To estimate the interaction between neutrons/protons and borons by the alpha particle, the simulation yielded with a variation of the center of the BUR location and proton energies. The variation and influence about the alpha particle were observed from the percent depth dose (PDD) and cross-plane dose profile of both the neutron and proton beams. The peak value of the maximum dose level when the boron particle was accurately labeled at the region was 192.4% among the energies. In all, we confirmed that prompt gamma rays of 478 keV and 719 keV were generated by the nuclear reactions in PBFT and BNCT, respectively. We validated the dramatic effectiveness of the alpha particle, especially in PBFT. The utility of PBFT was verified using the simulation and it has a potential for application in radiotherapy.

  7. Comparison between proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): a Monte Carlo study

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Brendan; Lee, Heui Chang; Suh, Tae Suk; Lu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare between proton boron fusion therapy (PBFT) and boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and to analyze dose escalation using a Monte Carlo simulation. We simulated a proton beam passing through the water with a boron uptake region (BUR) in MCNPX. To estimate the interaction between neutrons/protons and borons by the alpha particle, the simulation yielded with a variation of the center of the BUR location and proton energies. The variation and influence about the alpha particle were observed from the percent depth dose (PDD) and cross-plane dose profile of both the neutron and proton beams. The peak value of the maximum dose level when the boron particle was accurately labeled at the region was 192.4% among the energies. In all, we confirmed that prompt gamma rays of 478 keV and 719 keV were generated by the nuclear reactions in PBFT and BNCT, respectively. We validated the dramatic effectiveness of the alpha particle, especially in PBFT. The utility of PBFT was verified using the simulation and it has a potential for application in radiotherapy. PMID:28427153

  8. Boronic acid-based chemical sensors for saccharides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Tai; Liu, Guang-Jian; Ning, Zhang-Wei; Xing, Guo-Wen

    2017-11-27

    During the past decades, the interaction between boronic acids-functionalized sensors and saccharides is of great interest in the frontier domain of the interdiscipline concerning both biology and chemistry. Various boronic acid-based sensing systems have been developed to detect saccharides and corresponding derivatives in vitro as well as in vivo, which embrace unimolecular sensors, two-component sensing ensembles, functional assemblies, and boronic acid-loaded nanomaterials or surfaces. New sensing strategies emerge in endlessly with excellent selectivity and sensitivity. In this review, several typical sensing systems were introduced and some promising examples were highlighted to enable the deep insight of saccharides sensing on the basis of boronic acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient Boron Nitride Nanotube Formation via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z) The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B(sub x)C(sub y)N(sub z).

  10. Efficient boron nitride nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, R. Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael

    2014-03-18

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  11. Processing and characterization of boron carbide-hafnium diboride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James

    Hafnium diboride based ceramics are promising candidate materials for advanced aerospace and nuclear reactor components. The effectiveness of boron carbide and carbon as HfB2 sintering additives was systematically evaluated. In the first stage of the research, boron carbide and carbon additives were found to improve the densification behavior of milled HfB2 powder in part by removing oxides at the HfB2 surface during processing. Boron carbide additives reduced the hot pressing temperature of HfB2 by 150°C compared to carbon, which reduced the hot pressing temperature by ˜50°C. Reduction of oxide impurities alone could not explain the difference in sintering enhancement, however, and other mechanisms of enhancement were evaluated. Boron carbides throughout the homogeneity range were characterized to understand other mechanisms of sintering enhancement in HfB2. Heavily faulted carbon rich and boron rich boron carbides were synthesized for addition to HfB2. The greatest enhancement to densification was observed in samples containing boron- and carbon-rich compositions whereas B6.5 C provided the least enhancement to densification. It is proposed that carbon rich and boron rich boron carbides create boron and hafnium point defects in HfB2, respectively, which facilitate densification. Evaluation of the thermal conductivity (kth) between room temperature and 2000°C suggested that the stoichiometry of the boron carbide additives did not significantly affect kth of HfB2-BxC composites. The improved sinterability and the high kth (˜110 W/m-K at 300K and ˜90 W/m-K at 1000°C ) of HfB2-BxC ceramics make them excellent candidates for isotopically enriched reactor control materials.

  12. Breaking the icosahedra in boron carbide

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kelvin Y.; An, Qi; Sato, Takanori; Breen, Andrew J.; Ringer, Simon P.; Goddard, William A.; Cairney, Julie M.; Hemker, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Findings of laser-assisted atom probe tomography experiments on boron carbide elucidate an approach for characterizing the atomic structure and interatomic bonding of molecules associated with extraordinary structural stability. The discovery of crystallographic planes in these boron carbide datasets substantiates that crystallinity is maintained to the point of field evaporation, and characterization of individual ionization events gives unexpected evidence of the destruction of individual icosahedra. Statistical analyses of the ions created during the field evaporation process have been used to deduce relative atomic bond strengths and show that the icosahedra in boron carbide are not as stable as anticipated. Combined with quantum mechanics simulations, this result provides insight into the structural instability and amorphization of boron carbide. The temporal, spatial, and compositional information provided by atom probe tomography makes it a unique platform for elucidating the relative stability and interactions of primary building blocks in hierarchically crystalline materials. PMID:27790982

  13. The prospects for composites based on boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naslain, R.

    1978-01-01

    The fabrication of boron filaments and the production of composite materials consisting of boron filaments and organic or metallic matrices are discussed. Problem involving the use of tungsten substrates in the filament fabrication process, the protection of boron fibers with diffusion barrier cladings, and the application of alloy additives in the matrix to lessen the effects of diffusion are considered. Data on the kinetics of the boron fiber/matrix interaction at high temperatures, and the influence of the fiber/matrix interaction on the mechanical properties of the composite are presented.

  14. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  15. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  16. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1993-04-20

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  17. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1995-02-14

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 6 figs.

  18. Boron doping a semiconductor particle

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Gary Don; Reynolds, Jeffrey Scott; Brown, Louanne Kay

    1998-06-09

    A method (10,30) of boron doping a semiconductor particle using boric acid to obtain a p-type doped particle. Either silicon spheres or silicon powder is mixed with a diluted solution of boric acid having a predetermined concentration. The spheres are dried (16), with the boron film then being driven (18) into the sphere. A melt procedure mixes the driven boron uniformly throughout the sphere. In the case of silicon powder, the powder is metered out (38) into piles and melted/fused (40) with an optical furnace. Both processes obtain a p-type doped silicon sphere with desired resistivity. Boric acid is not a restricted chemical, is inexpensive, and does not pose any special shipping, handling, or disposal requirements.

  19. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,αγ)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'γ)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'γ)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology.

  20. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery.

    PubMed

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Boron Steels for Army Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    I IA-79-0120 5 ys-g Aofc34V5 TECHNICAL LIBRARY AD ASSESSMENT OF BORON STEELS FOR ARMVlysr 3 ,% gL&tm tew^ / „»-^~ « "’"s4...ej ASSESSMENT OF BORON STEELS FOR ARMY USE 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Final Report 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7...reverse side 11 necessery rmd identify by block number) Boron steels Alloy conservation Alloy substitution Materials shortages 20. ABSTRACT

  2. Isotopic Enrichment of Boron in the Sputtering of Boron Nitride with Xenon Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.; Shutthanandan, V.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental study is described to measure the isotopic enrichment of boron. Xenon ions from 100 eV to 1.5 keV were used to sputter a boron nitride target. An ion gun was used to generate the ion beam. The ion current density at the target surface was approximately 30 microA/sq cm. Xenon ions impinged on the target surface at 50 deg angle to the surface normal. Since boron nitride is an insulator, a flood electron gun was used in our experiments to neutralize the positive charge buildup on the target surface. The sputtered secondary ions of boron were detected by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The spectrometer entrance aperture was located perpendicular to the ion beam direction and 10 mm away from the target surface. The secondary ion flux was observed to be enriched in the heavy isotopes at lower ion energies. The proportion of heavy isotopes in the sputtered secondary ion flux was found to decrease with increasing primary ion energy from 100 to 350 eV. Beyond 350 eV, light isotopes were sputtered preferentially. The light isotope enrichment factor was observed to reach an asymptotic value of 1.27 at 1.5 keV. This trend is similar to that of the isotopic enrichment observed earlier when copper was sputtered with xenon ions in the same energy range.

  3. Boron removal in radioactive liquid waste by forward osmosis membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Doo Seong Hwang; Hei Min Choi; Kune Woo Lee

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the treatment of boric acid contained in liquid radioactive waste using a forward osmosis membrane. The boron permeation through the membrane depends on the type of membrane, membrane orientation, pH of the feed solution, salt and boron concentration in the feed solution, and osmotic pressure of the draw solution. The boron flux begins to decline from pH 7 and increases with an increase of the osmotic driving force. The boron flux decreases slightly with the salt concentration, but is not heavily influenced by a low salt concentration. The boron flux increases linearly with the concentration of boron.more » No element except for boron was permeated through the FO membrane in the multi-component system. The maximum boron flux is obtained in an active layer facing a draw solution orientation of the CTA-ES membrane under conditions of less than pH 7 and high osmotic pressure. (authors)« less

  4. Asymmetric homologation of boronic esters bearing azido and silyloxy substituents.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Matteson, D S

    2000-10-06

    In the asymmetric homologation of boronic esters with a (dihalomethyl)lithium, substituents that can bind metal cations tend to interfere. Accordingly, we undertook the introduction of weakly basic oxygen and nitrogen substituents into boronic esters in order to maximize the efficiency of multistep syntheses utilizing this chemistry. Silyloxy boronic esters cannot be made efficiently by direct substitution, but a (hydroxymethyl)boronic ester has been silylated in the usual manner. Conversion of alpha-halo boronic esters to alpha-azido boronic esters has been carried out with sodium azide and a tetrabutylammonium salt as phase-transfer catalyst in a two-phase system with water and either nitromethane or ethyl acetate. These are safer solvents than the previously used dichloromethane, which can form an explosive byproduct with azide ion. Boronic esters containing silyloxy or alkoxy and azido substituents have been shown to react efficiently with (dihalomethyl)lithiums, resulting in efficient asymmetric insertion of the halomethyl group into the carbon-boron bond.

  5. Methylboronic acid fertilization alleviates boron deficiency symptoms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Duran, Catherine; Arce-Johnson, Patricio; Aquea, Felipe

    2018-07-01

    Our results showed that methylboronic acid is capable of alleviating boron deficiency, enhancing plant growth, and is less toxic than boric acid at higher concentrations. Boron is an essential plant micronutrient and its deficiency occurs in several regions globally, resulting in impaired plant growth. Boron fertilization is a common agricultural practice, but the action range of boron is narrow, sharply transitioning from deficiency to toxicity. Boric acid (BA) is the most common chemical form used in agriculture. In this work, we describe that methylboronic acid (MBA) is capable of alleviating boron deficiency in Arabidopsis. MBA is a boronic acid, but does not naturally occur in soils, necessitating synthesis. Other boronic acids have been described as boron competitors in plants, inhibiting auxin biosynthesis and root development. MBA is more water-soluble than BA and delivers the same amount of boron per molecule. We observed that Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the presence of MBA presented higher numbers of lateral roots and greater main root length compared to plants grown in BA. In addition, root hair length and leaf surface area were increased using MBA as a boron fertilizer. Finally, MBA was less toxic than BA at high concentrations, producing a slight reduction in the main root length but no decrease in total chlorophyll. Our results open a new opportunity to explore the use of a synthetic form of boron in agriculture, providing a tool for future research for plant nutrition.

  6. Method for wetting a boron alloy to graphite

    DOEpatents

    Storms, E.K.

    1987-08-21

    A method is provided for wetting a graphite substrate and spreading a a boron alloy over the substrate. The wetted substrate may be in the form of a needle for an effective ion emission source. The method may also be used to wet a graphite substrate for subsequent joining with another graphite substrate or other metal, or to form a protective coating over a graphite substrate. A noneutectic alloy of boron is formed with a metal selected from the group consisting of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) with excess boron, i.e., and atomic percentage of boron effective to precipitate boron at a wetting temperature of less than the liquid-phase boundary temperature of the alloy. The alloy is applied to the substrate and the graphite substrate is then heated to the wetting temperature and maintained at the wetting temperature for a time effective for the alloy to wet and spread over the substrate. The excess boron is evenly dispersed in the alloy and is readily available to promote the wetting and spreading action of the alloy. 1 fig.

  7. Fe-Cluster Compounds of Chalcogenides: Candidates for Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnet and Magnetic Nodal-Line Topological Material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Kim, Minsung

    Here, Fe-cluster-based crystal structures are predicted for chalcogenides Fe 3X 4 (X = S, Se, Te) using an adaptive genetic algorithm. Topologically different from the well-studied layered structures of iron chalcogenides, the newly predicted structures consist of Fe clusters that are either separated by the chalcogen atoms or connected via sharing of the vertex Fe atoms. Additionally, using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that these structures have competitive or even lower formation energies than the experimentally synthesized Fe 3X 4 compounds and exhibit interesting magnetic and electronic properties. In particular, we show that Fe 3X 4 can be a good candidatemore » as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet and Fe 3X 4 can be a magnetic nodal-line topological material.« less

  8. Fe-Cluster Compounds of Chalcogenides: Candidates for Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnet and Magnetic Nodal-Line Topological Material

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Kim, Minsung; ...

    2017-11-13

    Here, Fe-cluster-based crystal structures are predicted for chalcogenides Fe 3X 4 (X = S, Se, Te) using an adaptive genetic algorithm. Topologically different from the well-studied layered structures of iron chalcogenides, the newly predicted structures consist of Fe clusters that are either separated by the chalcogen atoms or connected via sharing of the vertex Fe atoms. Additionally, using first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that these structures have competitive or even lower formation energies than the experimentally synthesized Fe 3X 4 compounds and exhibit interesting magnetic and electronic properties. In particular, we show that Fe 3X 4 can be a good candidatemore » as a rare-earth-free permanent magnet and Fe 3X 4 can be a magnetic nodal-line topological material.« less

  9. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets. [B/sub 4/C-Al

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, D.C.; Pyzik, A.J.; Aksay, I.A.

    1985-05-06

    Hard, tough, lighweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidated step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modules of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi..sqrt..in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  10. Thermodynamical and thermoelectric properties of boron doped YPd{sub 3} and YRh{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Shalini; Sharma, Yamini, E-mail: sharma.yamini62@gmail.com; Sharma, Ramesh

    2016-05-23

    The structural, electronic, thermal, and optical properties of borides of cubic non-magnetic YX{sub 3} (X=Rh, Pd) compounds and their borides which crystallize in the AuCu{sub 3} structure have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT). The flat bands in the vicinity of E{sub F} which are associated with superconductivity appear in YPd{sub 3} and YRh{sub 3} band structures. However, the B s-states enhance the flat band only in YRh{sub 3}B. The optical properties clearly show that boron insertion modifies the absorption and transmittance. The YX{sub 3} alloys and their borides exhibit valuable changes in the thermopower and ZT. Itmore » is observed that the properties of the Y-X intermetallics change significantly for the Y-Rh and Y-Pd alloys and the presence of single boron atom modifies the properties to a great extent.« less

  11. Chemical and structural characterization of boron carbide powders and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwelkar, Kanak Anant

    Boron carbide is the material of choice for lightweight armor applications due to its extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and low specific weight. The homogeneity range in boron carbide extends from 9 to 20 at% carbon with the solubility limits not uniquely defined in literature. Over the homogeneity range, the exact lattice positions of boron and carbon atoms have not been unambiguously established, and this topic has been the consideration of significant debate over the last 60 years. The atomic configuration and positions of the boron and carbon atoms play a key role in the crystal structure of the boron carbide phases. Depending on the atomic structure, boron carbide exhibits different mechanical properties which may alter its ballistic performance under extreme dynamic conditions. This work focusses on refinement and development of analytical and chemical methods for an accurate determination of the boron carbide stoichiometry. These methods were then utilized to link structural changes of boron carbide across the solubility range to variations in mechanical properties. After an extensive assessment of the currently employed characterization techniques, it was discerned that the largest source of uncertainty in the determination of the boron carbide stoichiometry was found to arise from the method utilized to evaluate the free carbon concentration. To this end, a modified spiking technique was introduced for free carbon determination where curve fitting techniques were employed to model the asymmetry of the 002 free carbon diffraction peak based on the amorphous, disordered and graphitic nature of carbon. A relationship was then established between the relative intensities of the carbon and boron carbide peaks to the percentage of added carbon and the free-carbon content was obtained by extrapolation. Samples with varying chemistry and high purity were synthesized across the solubility range by hot pressing mixtures of amorphous boron and boron carbide

  12. Boronated tartrolon antibiotic produced by symbiotic cellulose-degrading bacteria in shipworm gills.

    PubMed

    Elshahawi, Sherif I; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Hanora, Amro; Han, Andrew W; Flores, Malem S; Vizzoni, Vinicius; Schrago, Carlos G; Soares, Carlos A; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Dan L; Schmidt, Eric W; Haygood, Margo G

    2013-01-22

    Shipworms are marine wood-boring bivalve mollusks (family Teredinidae) that harbor a community of closely related Gammaproteobacteria as intracellular endosymbionts in their gills. These symbionts have been proposed to assist the shipworm host in cellulose digestion and have been shown to play a role in nitrogen fixation. The genome of one strain of Teredinibacter turnerae, the first shipworm symbiont to be cultivated, was sequenced, revealing potential as a rich source of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of two macrodioloide polyketides belonging to the tartrolon class. Both compounds were found to possess antibacterial properties, and the major compound was found to inhibit other shipworm symbiont strains and various pathogenic bacteria. The gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of these compounds was identified and characterized, and the ketosynthase domains were analyzed phylogenetically. Reverse-transcription PCR in addition to liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry revealed the transcription of these genes and the presence of the compounds in the shipworm, suggesting that the gene cluster is expressed in vivo and that the compounds may fulfill a specific function for the shipworm host. This study reports tartrolon polyketides from a shipworm symbiont and unveils the biosynthetic gene cluster of a member of this class of compounds, which might reveal the mechanism by which these bioactive metabolites are biosynthesized.

  13. Amorphous boron gasket in diamond anvil cell research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Shu, Jinfu; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.; Shen, Guoyin

    2003-11-01

    Recent advances in high-pressure diamond anvil cell experiments include high-energy synchrotron x-ray techniques as well as new cell designs and gasketing procedures. The success of high-pressure experiments usually depends on a well-prepared sample, in which the gasket plays an important role. Various gasket materials such as diamond, beryllium, rhenium, and stainless steel have been used. Here we introduce amorphous boron as another gasket material in high-pressure diamond anvil cell experiments. We have applied the boron gasket for laser-heating x-ray diffraction, radial x-ray diffraction, nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, and inelastic x-ray scattering. The high shear strength of the amorphous boron maximizes the thickness of the sample chamber and increases the pressure homogeneity, improving the quality of high-pressure data. Use of amorphous boron avoids unwanted x-ray diffraction peaks and reduces the absorption of incident and x rays exiting the gasket material. The high quality of the diffraction patterns makes it possible to refine the cell parameters with powder x-ray diffraction data under high pressure and high temperature. The reactivity of boron prevents its use at high temperatures, however. When heated, boron may also react with the specimen to produce unwanted phases. The relatively porous boron starting material at ambient conditions also poses some challenges for sample preparation.

  14. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics between L-BPA and L-FBPA using the same administration dose and protocol: a validation study for the theranostic approach using [18F]-L-FBPA positron emission tomography in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Hattori, Yoshihide; Ohta, Youichiro; Ishimura, Miki; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Sanada, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Kirihata, Mitsunori

    2016-11-08

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. L-p-Boronophenylalanine (L-BPA) is a boron compound now widely used in clinical situations. Determination of the boron distribution is required for successful BNCT prior to neutron irradiation. Thus, positron emission tomography with [ 18 F]-L-FBPA, an 18 F-labelled radiopharmaceutical analogue of L-BPA, was developed. However, several differences between L-BPA and [ 18 F]-L-FBPA have been highlighted, including the different injection doses and administration protocols. The purpose of this study was to clarify the equivalence between L-BPA and [ 19 F]-L-FBPA as alternatives to [ 18 F]-L-FBPA. SCC-VII was subcutaneously inoculated into the legs of C3H/He mice. The same dose of L-BPA or [ 19 F]-L-FBPA was subcutaneously injected. The time courses of the boron concentrations in blood, tumour tissue, and normal tissue were compared between the groups. Next, we administered the therapeutic dose of L-BPA or the same dose of [ 19 F]-L-FBPA by continuous infusion and compared the effects of the administration protocol on boron accumulation in tissues. There were no differences between L-BPA and [ 19 F]-L-FBPA in the transition of boron concentrations in blood, tumour tissue, and normal tissue using the same administration protocol. However, the normal tissue to blood ratio of the boron concentrations in the continuous-infusion group was lower than that in the subcutaneous injection group. No difference was noted in the time course of the boron concentrations in tumour tissue and normal tissues between L-BPA and [ 19 F]-L-FBPA. However, the administration protocol had effects on the normal tissue to blood ratio of the boron concentration. In estimating the BNCT dose in normal tissue by positron emission tomography (PET), we should consider the possible overestimation of the normal tissue to

  15. Efficient Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Nanotube Formation Via Combined Laser-Gas Flow Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, R. Roy (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula BxCyNz.

  16. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for HER2+ breast cancers: A feasibility study evaluating BNCT for potential role in breast conservation therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Peter Anthony

    A novel Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) regimen for the treatment of HER2+ breast cancers has been proposed as an alternative to whole breast irradiation for breast conservation therapy patients. The proposed therapy regimen is based on the assumed production of boron delivery agents that would be synthesized from compounds of Trastuzumab (Herceptin ®) and oligomeric phosphate diesters (OPDs). The combination of the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody and the high boron loading capability of OPDs has led to the assumption that boron could be delivered to the HER2+ cancer cells at Tumor to Healthy Tissue ratios (T:H) of up to 35:1 and boron concentrations above 50 μg/g. This significantly increased boron delivery efficiency has opened new BNCT possibilities. This proof of concept study examined treatment parameters derived as the results in previous efforts in the context of patient-specific geometry and compared calculated dose results to those observed during actual patient therapy. These results were based on dose calculations performed with a set of calculated Kerma coefficients derived from tissues specific to the regions of interest for breast cancer. A comparison was made of the dose to the tumor region, the patient's skin, and the peripheral organs. The results of this study demonstrated that, given the performance of the proposed boron delivery agent, the BNCT treatment regimen is feasible. The feasibility is based on the findings that the equivalent dose could be delivered to the treatment volume with less dose to the skin and peripheral organs. This is anticipated to improve the treatment outcomes by maintaining local control of tumor cells while reducing dose to healthy tissues.

  17. The Effect of Boronizing on Metallic Alloys for Automotive Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Roumiana S.; Suwattananont, Naruemon; Samardzic, Veljko

    2008-06-01

    In this study the wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and oxidation resistance of boronized metallic alloys were investigated. Thermochemical treatment was performed by powder pack boronizing process at temperature 850-950 °C for 4 h. Saw-tooth morphology and smooth interface microstructures were observed with an optical microscope; microhardness was measured across the coating depth. The phases present in the boron coatings depend on the substrate material. High-temperature oxidation resistance was investigated and it was found that boron coating on ferrous alloys can resist temperatures up to 800 °C. The corrosion resistance of the boronized samples was improved and the corrosion rate was calculated for boronized and plain specimens. Wear testing was conducted by following the procedures of ASTM G99, ASTM D2526, and ASTM D4060. The obtained experimental results revealed that boronizing significantly improves the wear-resistance, corrosion-resistance, and oxidation resistance of metallic alloys.

  18. Dietary boron: possible roles in human and animal physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Boron is a bioactive element of low molecular weight. Since discovery of the first boron biomolecule, boromycin, in 1967, several other similar biomolecules are now well-characterized. Most recently described was a bacterial cell-to-cell communication signal that requires boron, autoinducer-II. Boro...

  19. Nothing Boring About Boron.

    PubMed

    Pizzorno, Lara

    2015-08-01

    The trace mineral boron is a micronutrient with diverse and vitally important roles in metabolism that render it necessary for plant, animal, and human health, and as recent research suggests, possibly for the evolution of life on Earth. As the current article shows, boron has been proven to be an important trace mineral because it (1) is essential for the growth and maintenance of bone; (2) greatly improves wound healing; (3) beneficially impacts the body's use of estrogen, testosterone, and vitamin D; (4) boosts magnesium absorption; (5) reduces levels of inflammatory biomarkers, such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α); (6) raises levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase; (7) protects against pesticide-induced oxidative stress and heavy-metal toxicity; (8) improves the brains electrical activity, cognitive performance, and short-term memory for elders; (9) influences the formation and activity of key biomolecules, such as S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)); (10) has demonstrated preventive and therapeutic effects in a number of cancers, such as prostate, cervical, and lung cancers, and multiple and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and (11) may help ameliorate the adverse effects of traditional chemotherapeutic agents. In none of the numerous studies conducted to date, however, do boron's beneficial effects appear at intakes > 3 mg/d. No estimated average requirements (EARs) or dietary reference intakes (DRIs) have been set for boron-only an upper intake level (UL) of 20 mg/d for individuals aged ≥ 18 y. The absence of studies showing harm in conjunction with the substantial number of articles showing benefits support the consideration of boron supplementation of 3 mg/d for any individual who is consuming a diet lacking in fruits and vegetables or who is at risk for or has osteopenia; osteoporosis; osteoarthritis (OA

  20. Evaluation of Ground-Water and Boron Sources by Use of Boron Stable-Isotope Ratios, Tritium, and Selected Water-Chemistry Constituents near Beverly Shores, Northwestern Indiana, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Fitzpatrick, John A.; Watson, Lee R.; Kay, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of boron greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 900 ?g/L removal action level (RAL) standard were detected in water sampled by the USEPA in 2004 from three domestic wells near Beverly Shores, Indiana. The RAL regulates only human-affected concentrations of a constituent. A lack of well logs and screened depth information precluded identification of whether water from sampled wells, and their boron sources, were from human-affected or natural sources in the surficial aquifer, or associated with a previously defined natural, confined aquifer source of boron from the subtill or basal sand aquifers. A geochemically-based classification of the source of boron in ground water could potentially determine the similarity of boron to known sources or mixtures between known sources, or classify whether the relative age of the ground water predated the potential sources of contamination. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, investigated the use of a geochemical method that applied boron stable isotopes, and concentrations of boron, tritium, and other constituents to distinguish between natural and human-affected sources of boron in ground water and thereby determine if the RAL was applicable to the situation. Boron stable-isotope ratios and concentrations of boron in 17 ground-water samples and tritium concentrations in 9 ground-water samples collected in 2004 were used to identify geochemical differences between potential sources of boron in ground water near Beverly Shores, Indiana. Boron and d11B analyses for this investigation were made on unacidified samples to assure consistency of the result with unacidified analyses of d11B values from other investigations. Potential sources of boron included surficial-aquifer water affected by coal-combustion products (CCP) or domestic-wastewater, upward discharge of ground water from confined aquifers, and unaffected water from the surficial aquifer that was distant

  1. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1991-01-01

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  2. Apparatus for the production of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin

    2014-06-17

    An apparatus for the large scale production of boron nitride nanotubes comprising; a pressure chamber containing; a continuously fed boron containing target; a source of thermal energy preferably a focused laser beam; a cooled condenser; a source of pressurized nitrogen gas; and a mechanism for extracting boron nitride nanotubes that are condensed on or in the area of the cooled condenser from the pressure chamber.

  3. Stabilization of fullerene-like boron cages by transition metal encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jian; Wang, Yanchao; Zhang, Lijun; Lin, Haiqing; Zhao, Jijun; Ma, Yanming

    2015-06-01

    The stabilization of fullerene-like boron (B) cages in the free-standing form has been long sought after and a challenging problem. Studies that have been carried out for more than a decade have confirmed that the planar or quasi-planar polymorphs are energetically favored ground states over a wide range of small and medium-sized B clusters. Recently, the breakthroughs represented by Nat. Chem., 2014, 6, 727 established that the transition from planar/quasi-planar to cage-like Bn clusters occurs around n = ~38-40, paving the way for understanding the intriguing chemistry of B-fullerene. We herein demonstrate that the transition demarcation, n, can be significantly reduced with the help of transition metal encapsulation. We explore via extensive first-principles swarm-intelligence based structure searches the free energy landscapes of B24 clusters doped by a series of transition metals and find that the low-lying energy regime is generally dominated by cage-like isomers. This is in sharp contrast to that of bare B24 clusters, where the quasi-planar and rather irregular polyhedrons are prevalent. Most strikingly, a highly symmetric B cage with D3h symmetry is discovered in the case of Mo or W encapsulation. The endohedral D3h cages exhibit robust thermodynamic, dynamic and chemical stabilities, which can be rationalized in terms of their unique electronic structure of an 18-electron closed-shell configuration. Our results indicate that transition metal encapsulation is a feasible route for stabilizing medium-sized B cages, offering a useful roadmap for the discovery of more B fullerene analogues as building blocks of nanomaterials.The stabilization of fullerene-like boron (B) cages in the free-standing form has been long sought after and a challenging problem. Studies that have been carried out for more than a decade have confirmed that the planar or quasi-planar polymorphs are energetically favored ground states over a wide range of small and medium-sized B clusters

  4. Tumor-specific delivery of BSH-3R for boron neutron capture therapy and positron emission tomography imaging in a mouse brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Yoshiya; Michiue, Hiroyuki; Kitamatsu, Mizuki; Hayashi, Yuri; Takenaka, Fumiaki; Nishiki, Tei-Ichi; Matsui, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Glioblastoma, a malignant brain tumor with poor disease outcomes, is managed in modern medicine by multimodality therapy. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an encouraging treatment under clinical investigation. In malignant cells, BNCT consists of two major factors: neutron radiation and boron uptake. To increase boron uptake in cells, we created a mercapto-closo-undecahydrododecaborate ([B12HnSH](2-)2Na(+), BSH) fused with a short arginine peptide (1R, 2R, 3R) and checked cellular uptake in vitro and in vivo. In a mouse brain tumor model, only BSH with at least three arginine domains could penetrate cell membranes of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, to monitor the pharmacokinetic properties of these agents in vivo, we fused BSH and BSH-3R with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA); DOTA is a metal chelating agent for labeling positron emission tomography (PET) probe with (64)Cu. We administered BSH-DOTA-(64)Cu and BSH-3R-DOTA-(64)Cu to the tumor model through a mouse tail vein and determined the drugs' pharmacokinetics by PET imaging. BSH-3R showed a high uptake in the tumor area on PET imaging. We concluded that BSH-3R is the ideal boron compound for clinical use during BNCT and that in developing this compound for clinical use, the BSH-3R PET probe is essential for pharmacokinetic imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Folate receptor-mediated boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for boron neutron capture therapy of nonfunctional pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Dai, Congxin; Cai, Feng; Hwang, Kuo Chu; Zhou, Yongmao; Zhang, Zizhu; Liu, Xiaohai; Ma, Sihai; Yang, Yakun; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Bao, Xinjie; Li, Guilin; Wei, Junji; Jiao, Yonghui; Wei, Zhenqing; Ma, Wenbin; Wang, Renzhi

    2013-02-01

    Invasive nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are difficult to completely resect and often develop tumor recurrence after initial surgery. Currently, no medications are clinically effective in the control of NFPA. Although radiation therapy and radiosurgery are useful to prevent tumor regrowth, they are frequently withheld because of severe complications. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy that selectively and maximally damages tumor cells without harming the surrounding normal tissue. Folate receptor (FR)-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles is a novel boron delivery agent that can be selectively taken up by FR-expressing cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. In this study, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles were selectively taken up by NFPAs cells expressing FR but not other types of non-FR expressing pituitary adenomas. After incubation with boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles and following irradiation with thermal neutrons, the cell viability of NFPAs was significantly decreased, while apoptotic cells were simultaneously increased. However, cells administered the same dose of FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles without neutron irradiation or received the same neutron irradiation alone did not show significant decrease in cell viability or increase in apoptotic cells. The expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated and the expression of Bax was up-regulated in NFPAs after treatment with FR-mediated BNCT. In conclusion, FR-targeted boron-10 containing carbon nanoparticles may be an ideal delivery system of boron to NFPAs cells for BNCT. Furthermore, our study also provides a novel insight into therapeutic strategies for invasive NFPA refractory to conventional therapy, while exploring these new applications of BNCT for tumors, especially benign tumors.

  6. Spherical boron nitride particles and method for preparing them

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Jonathan; Gleiman, Seth S.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2003-11-25

    Spherical and polyhedral particles of boron nitride and method of preparing them. Spherical and polyhedral particles of boron nitride are produced from precursor particles of hexagonal phase boron nitride suspended in an aerosol gas. The aerosol is directed to a microwave plasma torch. The torch generates plasma at atmospheric pressure that includes nitrogen atoms. The presence of nitrogen atoms is critical in allowing boron nitride to melt at atmospheric pressure while avoiding or at least minimizing decomposition. The plasma includes a plasma hot zone, which is a portion of the plasma that has a temperature sufficiently high to melt hexagonal phase boron nitride. In the hot zone, the precursor particles melt to form molten particles that acquire spherical and polyhedral shapes. These molten particles exit the hot zone, cool, and solidify to form solid particles of boron nitride with spherical and polyhedral shapes. The molten particles can also collide and join to form larger molten particles that lead to larger spherical and polyhedral particles.

  7. Boron Abundances in A and B-type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Boron abundances in A- and B-type stars may be a successful way to track evolutionary effects in these hot stars. The light elements - Li, Be, and B - are tracers of exposure to temperatures more moderate than those in which the H-burning CN-cycle operates. Thus, any exposure of surface stellar layers to deeper layers will affect these light element abundances. Li and Be are used in this role in investigations of evolutionary processes in cool stars, but are not observable in hotter stars. An investigation of boron, however, is possible through the B II 1362 A resonance line. We have gathered high resolution spectra from the IUE database of A- and B-type stars near 10 solar mass for which nitrogen abundances have been determined. The B II 1362 A line is blended throughout; the temperature range of this program, requiring spectrum syntheses to recover the boron abundances. For no star could we synthesize the 1362 A region using the meteoritic/solar boron abundance of log e (B) = 2.88; a lower boron abundance was necessary which may reflect evolutionary effects (e.g., mass loss or mixing near the main-sequence), the natal composition of the star forming regions, or a systematic error in the analyses (e.g., non-LTE effects). Regardless of the initial boron abundance, and despite the possibility of non-LTE effects, it seems clear that boron is severely depleted in some stars. It may be that the nitrogen and boron abundances are anticorrelated, as would be expected from mixing between the H-burning and outer stellar layers. If, as we suspect, a residue of boron is present in the A-type supergiants, we may exclude a scenario in which mixing occurs continuously between the surface and the deep layers operating the CN-cycle. Further exploitation of the B II 1362 A line as an indicator of the evolutionary status of A- and B-type stars will require a larger stellar sample to be observed with higher signal-to-noise as attainable with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  8. Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use

    DOEpatents

    Miura, Michiko; Shelnutt, John A.; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy.

  9. Novel boronic acid derivatives of bis(indolyl) methane as anti-MRSA agents.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Pegu, Rupa; Porto, William F; Franco, Octavio L; Pratihar, Sanjay

    2017-05-15

    Towards the search for a new generation of antibiotics to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the design and synthesis of various bis indolyl methane (BIM) derivatives based on their different electron donor and acceptor properties of the substituents have been made, in which boronic acid derivatives of BIM are found to be active against MRSA. The observed evidence with the lead compound reveals their strong anti-MRSA activity, which paves the way of design and further development of a new generation antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sunlight Modulates Fruit Metabolic Profile and Shapes the Spatial Pattern of Compound Accumulation within the Grape Cluster.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Walbaum, Natasha; Agam, Nurit; Fait, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    correlations between metabolites in both pulp and skin. This integrated study of micrometeorology and metabolomics provided insights into the grape-cluster pattern of accumulation of 70 primary and secondary metabolites as a function of spatial variations in SI. Studying compound-specific responses against an extended gradient of quantified conditions improved our knowledge regarding the modulation of berry metabolism by SI, with the aim of using sunlight regulation to accurately modulate fruit composition in warm and arid/semi-arid regions.

  11. Sunlight Modulates Fruit Metabolic Profile and Shapes the Spatial Pattern of Compound Accumulation within the Grape Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Reshef, Noam; Walbaum, Natasha; Agam, Nurit; Fait, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    correlations between metabolites in both pulp and skin. This integrated study of micrometeorology and metabolomics provided insights into the grape-cluster pattern of accumulation of 70 primary and secondary metabolites as a function of spatial variations in SI. Studying compound-specific responses against an extended gradient of quantified conditions improved our knowledge regarding the modulation of berry metabolism by SI, with the aim of using sunlight regulation to accurately modulate fruit composition in warm and arid/semi-arid regions. PMID:28203242

  12. Mechanisms implicated in the effects of boron on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Nzietchueng, Rosine Mayap; Dousset, Brigitte; Franck, Patricia; Benderdour, Mohamed; Nabet, Pierre; Hess, Ketsia

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that boron modulates the turnover of the extracellular matrix and increases TNFalpha release. In the present study, we used an in vitro test to investigate the direct effect of boron on specific enzymes (elastase, trypsin-like enzymes, collagenase and alkaline phosphatase) implicated in extracellular matrix turnover. Boron decreased the elastase and alkaline phosphatase activity, but had no effect on trypsin and collagenase activities. The effect of boron on the enzyme activities was also tested in fibroblasts considered as an in vivo test. In contrast to the results obtained in vitro, boron enhanced the trypsin-like, collagenase, and cathepsin D activities in fibroblasts. Boron did not modify the generation of free radicals compared to the control and did not seem to act on the intracellular alkaline phosphatase activity, However, as it did enhance phosphorylation, it can be hypothesized that boron may affect living cells via a mediator, which could be TNFalpha whose transduction signal involves a cascade of phosphorylations.

  13. Efficient boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, R Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael W

    2015-03-24

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  14. Boron carbide nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhe

    Bulk boron carbide has been widely used in ballistic armored vest and the property characterization has been heavily focused on mechanical properties. Even though boron carbides have also been projected as a promising class of high temperature thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, the research has been limited in this field. Since the thermal conductivity of bulk boron carbide is still relatively high, there is a great opportunity to take advantage of the nano effect to further reduce it for better thermoelectric performance. This dissertation work aims to explore whether improved thermoelectric performance can be found in boron carbide nanowires compared with their bulk counterparts. This dissertation work consists of four main parts. (1) Synthesis of boron carbide nanowires. Boron carbide nanowires were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of diborane and methane at low temperatures (with 879 °C as the lowest) in a home-built low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. The CVD-based method is energy efficient and cost effective. The as-synthesized nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy extensively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the nanowires are single crystalline with planar defects. Depending on the geometrical relationship between the preferred growth direction of the nanowire and the orientation of the defects, the as-synthesized nanowires could be further divided into two categories: transverse fault (TF) nanowires grow normal to the defect plane, while axial fault (AF) ones grow within the defect plane. (2) Understanding the growth mechanism of as-synthesized boron carbide nanowires. The growth mechanism can be generally considered as the famous vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. TF and AF nanowires were found to be guided by Ni-B catalysts of two phases. A TF nanowire is lead by a hexagonal phase catalyst, which was proved to be in a liquid state during reaction. While an AF nanowires is catalyzed by a

  15. Update on human health effects of boron.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    In vitro, animal, and human experiments have shown that boron is a bioactive element in nutritional amounts that beneficially affects bone growth and central nervous system function, alleviates arthritic symptoms, facilitates hormone action and is associated with a reduced risk for some types of cancer. The diverse effects of boron suggest that it influences the formation and/or activity of substances that are involved in numerous biochemical processes. Several findings suggest that this influence is through the formation of boroesters in biomolecules containing cis-hydroxyl groups. These biomolecules include those that contain ribose (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine, diadenosine phosphates, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). In addition, boron may form boroester complexes with phosphoinositides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids that affect cell membrane integrity and function. Both animal and human data indicate that an intake of less than 1.0mg/day inhibits the health benefits of boron. Dietary surveys indicate such an intake is not rare. Thus, increasing boron intake by consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts and pulses should be recognized as a reasonable dietary recommendation to enhance health and well-being. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Phonon transport in single-layer boron nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Peng, Qing; Chen, Yuanping

    2016-11-01

    Inspired by the successful synthesis of three two-dimensional (2D) allotropes, the boron sheet has recently been one of the hottest 2D materials around. However, to date, phonon transport properties of these new materials are still unknown. By using the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) combined with the first principles method, we study ballistic phonon transport in three types of boron sheets; two of them correspond to the structures reported in the experiments, while the third one is a stable structure that has not been synthesized yet. At room temperature, the highest thermal conductance of the boron nanoribbons is comparable with that of graphene, while the lowest thermal conductance is less than half of graphene’s. Compared with graphene, the three boron sheets exhibit diverse anisotropic transport characteristics. With an analysis of phonon dispersion, bonding charge density, and simplified models of atomic chains, the mechanisms of the diverse phonon properties are discussed. Moreover, we find that many hybrid patterns based on the boron allotropes can be constructed naturally without doping, adsorption, and defects. This provides abundant nanostructures for thermal management and thermoelectric applications.

  17. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  18. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  19. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Mao, Ho-Kwang [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Yan, Chih-Shiue [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC ; Liang, Qi [Carnegie Inst. for Science, Washington, DC

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  20. Axial residual stresses in boron fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The axial residual stress distribution as a function of radius was determined from the fiber surface to the core including the average residual stress in the core. Such measurements on boron on tungsten (B/W) fibers show that the residual stresses for 102, 142, 203, and 366 micron diameter fibers were similar, being compressive at the surface and changing monotonically to a region of tensile within the boron. At approximately 25 percent of the original radius, the stress reaches a maximum tensile stress of about 860 mn/sq.m and then decreases to a compressive stress near the tungsten boride core. Data were presented for 203 micron diameter B/W fibers that show annealing above 900 C reduces the residual stresses. A comparison between 102 micron diameter B/W and boron on carbon (b/C) shows that the residual stresses were similar in the outer regions of the fibers, but that large differences near and in the core were observed. The effects of these residual stresses on the fracture of boron fibers were discussed.

  1. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Janet; Hull, David; Gorican, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) are of significant interest to the scientific and technical communities for many of the same reasons that carbon nanotubes (CNT) have attracted wide attention. Both materials have potentially unique and important properties for structural and electronic applications. However of even more consequence than their similarities may be the complementary differences between carbon and boron nitride nanotubes While BNNT possess a very high modulus similar to CNT, they also possess superior chemical and thermal stability. Additionally, BNNT have more uniform electronic properties, with a uniform band gap of 5.5 eV while CNT vary from semi-conductive to highly conductive behavior. Boron nitride nanotubes have been synthesized both in the literature and at NASA Glenn Research Center, by a variety of methods such as chemical vapor deposition, arc discharge and reactive milling. Consistent large scale production of a reliable product has proven difficult. Progress in the reproducible synthesis of 1-2 gram sized batches of boron nitride nanotubes will be discussed as well as potential uses for this unique material.

  2. Boronated porhyrins and methods for their use

    DOEpatents

    Miura, M.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention covers boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies such as boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. 3 figs.

  3. Synthesis of Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Janet; Hull, David; Gorican, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Boron Nitride nanotubes (BNNT) are of interest to the scientific and technical communities for many of the same reasons that carbon nanotubes (CNT) have attracted large amounts of attention. Both materials have potentially unique and significant properties which may have important structural and electronic applications in the future. However of even more interest than their similarities may be the differences between carbon and boron nanotubes. Whilt boron nitride nanotubes possess a very high modulus similaar to CNT, they are also more chemically and thermally inert. Additionally BNNT possess more uniform electronic properties, having a uniform band gap of approximately 5.5 eV while CNT vary from semi-conductin to conductor behavior. Boron Nitride nanotubes have been synthesized by a variety of methods such as chemical vapor deposition, arc discharge and reactive milling. Consistently producing a reliable product has proven difficult. Progress in synthesis of 1-2 gram sized batches of Boron Nitride nanotubes will be discussed as well as potential uses for this unique material.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Elliott, Amy M.

    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to anmore » azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.« less

  5. Boron- and salt-tolerant trees and shrubs for northern Nevada

    Treesearch

    Heidi Kratsch

    2012-01-01

    Boron is a mineral that, in small quantities, is essential for plant growth and development , but becomes toxic at levels above 0.5 to 1 part per million (ppm) in the soil. Excess boron may be naturally present in the soil, and it can accumulate by irrigating with water high in boron. Boron occurs naturally in arid soils originating from geologically young deposits. It...

  6. Structure of transition-metal cluster compounds: Use of an additional orbital resulting from the f, g character of spd bond orbitals*

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1977-01-01

    A general theory of the structure of complexes of the transition metals is developed on the basis of the enneacovalence of the metals and the requirements of the electroneutrality principle. An extra orbital may be provided through the small but not negligible amount of f and g character of spd bond orbitals, and an extra electron or electron pair may be accepted in this orbital for a single metal or a cluster to neutralize the positive electric charge resulting from the partial ionic character of the bonds with ligands, such as the carbonyl group. Examples of cluster compounds of cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and gold are discussed. PMID:16592470

  7. Structure of transition-metal cluster compounds: Use of an additional orbital resulting from the f, g character of spd bond orbitals.

    PubMed

    Pauling, L

    1977-12-01

    A general theory of the structure of complexes of the transition metals is developed on the basis of the enneacovalence of the metals and the requirements of the electroneutrality principle. An extra orbital may be provided through the small but not negligible amount of f and g character of spd bond orbitals, and an extra electron or electron pair may be accepted in this orbital for a single metal or a cluster to neutralize the positive electric charge resulting from the partial ionic character of the bonds with ligands, such as the carbonyl group. Examples of cluster compounds of cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and gold are discussed.

  8. Conversion of radioactive ferrocyanide compounds to immobile glasses

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.; Dressen, A. Louise

    1977-04-26

    Complex radioactive ferrocyanide compounds result from the scavenging of cesium from waste products produced in the chemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel. These ferrocyanides, in accordance with this process, are converted to an immobile glass, resistant to leaching by water, by fusion together with sodium carbonate and a mixture of (a) basalt and boron trioxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3) or (b) silica (SiO.sub.2) and lime (CaO).

  9. Anode performance of boron-doped graphites prepared from shot and sponge cokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Luo, Ruiying; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    The structures and anode performances of graphitized pristine and boron-doped shot and sponge cokes have been comparatively studied by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and galvanostatic measurement. The results show that high degree of graphitization can be obtained by the substituted boron atom in the carbon lattice, and boron in the resultant boron-doped graphites mainly exist in the form of boron carbide and boron substituted in the carbon lattice. Both of boron-doped graphites from shot and sponge cokes obtain discharge capacity of 350 mAh g -1 and coulombic efficiency above 90%. Apart from commonly observed discharge plateau for graphite, boron-doped samples in this study also show a small plateau at ca. 0.06 V. This phenomenon can be explained that Li ion stores in the site to be void-like spaces that are produced by "molecular bridging" between the edge sites of graphene layer stack with a release of boron atoms substituted at the edge of graphene layer. The effect of the amount of boron dopant and graphitization temperature on the anode performance of boron-doped graphite are also investigated in this paper.

  10. Development of rapidly quenched nickel-based non-boron filler metals for brazing corrosion resistant steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivannikov, A.; Kalin, B.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion-resistant steels are stably applied in modern rocket and nuclear technology. Creating of permanent joints of these steels is a difficult task that can be solved by means of welding or brazing. Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing filler metals is perspective. However, the use of such alloys leads to the formation of brittle borides in brazing zone, which degrades the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the compounds. Therefore, the development of non-boron alloys for brazing stainless steels is important task. The study of binary systems Ni-Be and Ni-Si revealed the perspective of replacing boron in Ni-based filler metals by beryllium, so there was the objective of studying of phase equilibrium in the system Ni-Be-Si. The alloys of the Ni-Si-Be with different contents of Si and Be are considered in this paper. The presence of two low-melting components is revealed during of their studying by methods of metallography analysis and DTA. Microhardness is measured and X-ray diffraction analysis is conducted for a number of alloys of Ni-Si-Be. The compositions are developed on the basis of these data. Rapidly quenched brazing alloys can be prepared from these compositions, and they are suitable for high temperature brazing of steels.

  11. Endohedral gallide cluster superconductors and superconductivity in ReGa5

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weiwei; Luo, Huixia; Phelan, Brendan F.; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Cevallos, Francois Alexandre; Cava, Robert Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We present transition metal-embedded (T@Gan) endohedral Ga-clusters as a favorable structural motif for superconductivity and develop empirical, molecule-based, electron counting rules that govern the hierarchical architectures that the clusters assume in binary phases. Among the binary T@Gan endohedral cluster systems, Mo8Ga41, Mo6Ga31, Rh2Ga9, and Ir2Ga9 are all previously known superconductors. The well-known exotic superconductor PuCoGa5 and related phases are also members of this endohedral gallide cluster family. We show that electron-deficient compounds like Mo8Ga41 prefer architectures with vertex-sharing gallium clusters, whereas electron-rich compounds, like PdGa5, prefer edge-sharing cluster architectures. The superconducting transition temperatures are highest for the electron-poor, corner-sharing architectures. Based on this analysis, the previously unknown endohedral cluster compound ReGa5 is postulated to exist at an intermediate electron count and a mix of corner sharing and edge sharing cluster architectures. The empirical prediction is shown to be correct and leads to the discovery of superconductivity in ReGa5. The Fermi levels for endohedral gallide cluster compounds are located in deep pseudogaps in the electronic densities of states, an important factor in determining their chemical stability, while at the same time limiting their superconducting transition temperatures. PMID:26644566

  12. Endohedral gallide cluster superconductors and superconductivity in ReGa5.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weiwei; Luo, Huixia; Phelan, Brendan F; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Cevallos, Francois Alexandre; Cava, Robert Joseph

    2015-12-22

    We present transition metal-embedded (T@Gan) endohedral Ga-clusters as a favorable structural motif for superconductivity and develop empirical, molecule-based, electron counting rules that govern the hierarchical architectures that the clusters assume in binary phases. Among the binary T@Gan endohedral cluster systems, Mo8Ga41, Mo6Ga31, Rh2Ga9, and Ir2Ga9 are all previously known superconductors. The well-known exotic superconductor PuCoGa5 and related phases are also members of this endohedral gallide cluster family. We show that electron-deficient compounds like Mo8Ga41 prefer architectures with vertex-sharing gallium clusters, whereas electron-rich compounds, like PdGa5, prefer edge-sharing cluster architectures. The superconducting transition temperatures are highest for the electron-poor, corner-sharing architectures. Based on this analysis, the previously unknown endohedral cluster compound ReGa5 is postulated to exist at an intermediate electron count and a mix of corner sharing and edge sharing cluster architectures. The empirical prediction is shown to be correct and leads to the discovery of superconductivity in ReGa5. The Fermi levels for endohedral gallide cluster compounds are located in deep pseudogaps in the electronic densities of states, an important factor in determining their chemical stability, while at the same time limiting their superconducting transition temperatures.

  13. Weighted similarity-based clustering of chemical structures and bioactivity data in early drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Perualila-Tan, Nolen Joy; Shkedy, Ziv; Talloen, Willem; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Moerbeke, Marijke Van; Kasim, Adetayo

    2016-08-01

    The modern process of discovering candidate molecules in early drug discovery phase includes a wide range of approaches to extract vital information from the intersection of biology and chemistry. A typical strategy in compound selection involves compound clustering based on chemical similarity to obtain representative chemically diverse compounds (not incorporating potency information). In this paper, we propose an integrative clustering approach that makes use of both biological (compound efficacy) and chemical (structural features) data sources for the purpose of discovering a subset of compounds with aligned structural and biological properties. The datasets are integrated at the similarity level by assigning complementary weights to produce a weighted similarity matrix, serving as a generic input in any clustering algorithm. This new analysis work flow is semi-supervised method since, after the determination of clusters, a secondary analysis is performed wherein it finds differentially expressed genes associated to the derived integrated cluster(s) to further explain the compound-induced biological effects inside the cell. In this paper, datasets from two drug development oncology projects are used to illustrate the usefulness of the weighted similarity-based clustering approach to integrate multi-source high-dimensional information to aid drug discovery. Compounds that are structurally and biologically similar to the reference compounds are discovered using this proposed integrative approach.

  14. Boron Partitioning Coefficient above Unity in Laser Crystallized Silicon.

    PubMed

    Lill, Patrick C; Dahlinger, Morris; Köhler, Jürgen R

    2017-02-16

    Boron pile-up at the maximum melt depth for laser melt annealing of implanted silicon has been reported in numerous papers. The present contribution examines the boron accumulation in a laser doping setting, without dopants initially incorporated in the silicon wafer. Our numerical simulation models laser-induced melting as well as dopant diffusion, and excellently reproduces the secondary ion mass spectroscopy-measured boron profiles. We determine a partitioning coefficient k p above unity with k p = 1 . 25 ± 0 . 05 and thermally-activated diffusivity D B , with a value D B ( 1687 K ) = ( 3 . 53 ± 0 . 44 ) × 10 - 4 cm 2 ·s - 1 of boron in liquid silicon. For similar laser parameters and process conditions, our model predicts the anticipated boron profile of a laser doping experiment.

  15. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TRACES OF BORON IN THORIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, H.; Ishiwatari, N.; Nagai, H.

    1960-12-01

    A procedure is described for the spectrophotometric determination of a few tenths of a pant per million of boron ia thorium oxide or thorium. The sample is dissolved in strong phosphoric acid. After diluting the solution with water, boron is separated by distillation as methyl borate and finally determined by the curcumin method. The error is not likely to exceed plus or minus O.l ppm for 0.2 to 1 ppm of boron. (auth)

  16. pH dependent salinity-boron interactions impact yield, biomass, evapotranspiration and boron uptake in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil pH is known to influence many important biochemical processes in plants and soils, however its role in salinity - boron interactions affecting plant growth and ion relations has not been examined. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the interactive effects of salinity, boron and soil ...

  17. Dispersible shortened boron nitride nanotubes with improved molecule-loading capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Chunyi; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2011-09-05

    The oxidation process of boron nitride nanotubes was thoroughly investigated, and a slow oxidation characteristic was clearly revealed. Subsequently, the controllable oxidation process was utilized to break the sturdy structure of the boron nitride nanotubes to fabricate shortened nanotubes. The shortened boron nitride nanotubes were found to possess good solubility in water and many organic solvents. Further experiments demonstrated remarkably improved molecule-loading capacity of the shortened boron nitride nanotubes. These dispersible shortened boron nitride nanotubes might have the potential to be developed as effective delivery systems for various molecules, which may find applications in bio-related fields. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Boron concentration measurements by alpha spectrometry and quantitative neutron autoradiography in cells and tissues treated with different boronated formulations and administration protocols.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, Silva; Ciani, Laura; Postuma, Ian; Protti, Nicoletta; Luca Reversi; Bruschi, Piero; Ferrari, Cinzia; Cansolino, Laura; Panza, Luigi; Ristori, Sandra; Altieri, Saverio

    2014-06-01

    The possibility to measure boron concentration with high precision in tissues that will be irradiated represents a fundamental step for a safe and effective BNCT treatment. In Pavia, two techniques have been used for this purpose, a quantitative method based on charged particles spectrometry and a boron biodistribution imaging based on neutron autoradiography. A quantitative method to determine boron concentration by neutron autoradiography has been recently set-up and calibrated for the measurement of biological samples, both solid and liquid, in the frame of the feasibility study of BNCT. This technique was calibrated and the obtained results were cross checked with those of α spectrometry, in order to validate them. The comparisons were performed using tissues taken form animals treated with different boron administration protocols. Subsequently the quantitative neutron autoradiography was employed to measure osteosarcoma cell samples treated with BPA and with new boronated formulations. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Boron Dissolved and Particulate Atmospheric Inputs to a Forest Ecosystem (Northeastern France).

    PubMed

    Roux, Philippe; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Kirchen, Gil; Redon, Paul-Olivier; Lemarchand, Damien

    2017-12-19

    Boron concentrations and isotopic compositions of atmospheric dust and dissolved depositions were monitored over a two-year period (2012-2013) in the forest ecosystem of Montiers (Northeastern France). This time series allows the determination of the boron atmospheric inputs to this forest ecosystem and contributes to refine our understanding of the sources and processes that control the boron atmospheric cycle. Mean annual dust and dissolved boron atmospheric depositions are comparable in size (13 g·ha -1 ·yr -1 and 16 g·ha -1 ·yr -1 , respectively), which however show significant intra- and interannual variations. Boron isotopes in dust differ from dissolved inputs, with an annual mean value of +1 ‰ and +18 ‰ for, respectively. The notable high boron contents (190-390 μg·g -1 ) of the dust samples are interpreted as resulting from localized spreading of boron-rich fertilizers, thus indicating a significant local impact of regional agricultural activities. Boron isotopes in dissolved depositions show a clear seasonal trend. The absence of correlation with marine cyclic solutes contradicts a control of atmospheric boron by dissolution of seasalts. Instead, the boron data from this study are consistent with a Rayleigh-like evolution of the atmospheric gaseous boron reservoir with possible but limited anthropogenic and/or biogenic contributions.

  20. Thermally-Activated, Delayed Fluorescence in O,B,O- and N,B,O-Strapped Boron Dipyrromethene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Stachelek, Patrycja; Alsimaree, Abdulrahman A; Alnoman, Rua B; Harriman, Anthony; Knight, Julian G

    2017-03-16

    A small series of boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes has been synthesized whereby the boron atom is constrained in a five-membered ring formed from either o-dihydroxypyridine or o-aminophenol. In the latter case, the amino group has been converted into the corresponding amide derivative so as to curtail the possibility for light-induced charge transfer from strap to BODIPY. These compounds are weakly emissive in fluid solution but cleavage of the strap, by treatment with a photoacid generator, restores strong fluorescence. Surprisingly, the same compounds remain weakly fluorescent in a rigid glass at 80 K where light-induced charge transfer is most unlikely. In fluid solution, the fluorescence quantum yield increases with increasing temperature due to a thermally activated step but does not correlate with the thermodynamics for intramolecular charge transfer. It is proposed that the strap causes rupture of the potential energy surface for the excited state, creating traps that provide new routes by which the wave packet can return to the ground state. Access to the trap from the excited state is reversible, leading to the delayed emission. Analysis of the temperature dependent emission intensities allows estimation of the kinetic parameters associated with entering and leaving the trap.

  1. Theoretical investigations of open-shell systems: 1. Spectral simulation of the 2s(2)p(2) (2)D <- 2s(2)2p (2)P(o) valence transition in the boron diargon cluster, and 2. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of boron in solid molecular hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumrine, Jennifer Rebecca

    This dissertation is concerned in part with the construction of accurate pairwise potentials, based on reliable ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES's), which are fully anisotropic in the sense that multiple PES's are accessible to systems with orientational electronic properties. We have carried out several investigations of B (2s 22p 2Po) with spherical ligands: (1)an investigation of the electronic spectrum of the BAr2 complex and (2)two related studies of the equilibrium properties and spectral simulation of B embedded in solid pH 2. Our investigations suggest that it cannot be assumed that nuclear motion in an open-shell system occurs on a single PES. The 2s2p2 2 D <-- 2s22p 2Po valence transition in the BAr 2 cluster is investigated. The electronic transition within BAr 2 is modeled theoretically; the excited potential energy surfaces of the five-fold degenerate B(2s2p2 2D) state within the ternary complex are computed using a pairwise-additive model. A collaborative path integral molecular dynamics investigation of the equilibrium properties of boron trapped in solid para-hydrogen (pH2) and a path integral Monte Carlo spectral simulation. Using fully anisotropic pair potentials, coupling of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is observed, and is found to be an essential feature in understanding the behavior and determining the energy of the impure solid, especially in highly anisotropic matrices. We employ the variational Monte Carlo method to further study the behavior of ground state B embedded in solid pH2. When a boron atom exists in a substitutional site in a lattice, the anisotropic distortion of the local lattice plays a minimal role in the energetics. However, when a nearest neighbor vacancy is present along with the boron impurity, two phenomena are found to influence the behavior of the impure quantum solid: (1)orientation of the 2p orbital to minimize the energy of the impurity and (2)distortion of the local lattice structure to

  2. Biological effects of tolerable level chronic boron intake on transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Orenay Boyacioglu, Seda; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kahraman, Erkan; Yildirim, Hatice; Bora, Selin; Ataman, Osman Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of boron effect on human transcription and translation has not been fully understood. In the current study it was aimed to reveal the role of boron on the expression of certain transcription factors that play key roles in many cellular pathways on human subjects chronically exposed to low amounts of boron. The boron concentrations in drinking water samples were 1.57±0.06mg/l for boron group while the corresponding value for the control group was 0.016±0.002mg/l. RNA isolation was performed using PAX gene RNA kit on the blood samples from the subjects. The RNA was then reverse transcribed into cDNA and analyzed using the Human Transcription Factors RT 2 Profiler™ PCR Arrays. While the boron amount in urine was detected as 3.56±1.47mg/day in the boron group, it was 0.72±0.30mg/day in the control group. Daily boron intake of the boron and control groups were calculated to be 6.98±3.39 and 1.18±0.41mg/day, respectively. The expression levels of the transcription factor genes were compared between the boron and control groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (P>0.05). The data suggest that boron intake at 6.98±3.39mg/day, which is the dose at which beneficial effects might be seen, does not result in toxicity at molecular level since the expression levels of transcription factors are not changed. Although boron intake over this level will seem to increase RNA synthesis, further examination of the topic is needed using new molecular epidemiological data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Boron stress response and accumulation potential of the extremely tolerant species Puccinellia frigida.

    PubMed

    Rámila, Consuelo D P; Contreras, Samuel A; Di Domenico, Camila; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Vega, Andrea; Handford, Michael; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E

    2016-11-05

    Phytoremediation is a promising technology to tackle boron toxicity, which restricts agricultural activities in many arid and semi-arid areas. Puccinellia frigida is a perennial grass that was reported to hyperaccumulate boron in extremely boron-contaminated sites. To further investigate its potential for phytoremediation, we determined its response to boron stress under controlled conditions (hydroponic culture). Also, as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying its extreme tolerance, we evaluated the presence and expression of genes related with boron tolerance. We found that P. frigida grew normally even at highly toxic boron concentrations in the medium (500mg/L), and within its tissues (>5000mg/kg DW). We postulate that the strategies conferring this extreme tolerance involve both restricting boron accumulation and an internal tolerance mechanism; this is consistent with the identification of putative genes involved in both mechanisms, including the expression of a possible boron efflux transporter. We also found that P. frigida hyperaccumulated boron over a wide range of boron concentrations. We propose that P. frigida could be used for boron phytoremediation strategies in places with different soil characteristics and boron concentrations. Further studies should pave the way for the development of clean and low-cost solutions to boron toxicity problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Boron in Calcium Sulfate Vein at Catabola, Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-13

    The highest concentration of boron measured on Mars, as of late 2016, is in this mineral vein, called "Catabola," examined with the Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) instrument on NASA's Curiosity rover on Aug, 25, 2016, during Sol 1441 of the mission. This two-part illustration shows the context of the erosion-resistant, raised vein, in an image from Curiosity's Mast Camera (Mastcam), and a detailed inset image from ChemCam's remote micro-imager. The inset includes indicators of the boron content measured at 10 points along the vein that were analyzed with ChemCam's laser-firing spectrometer. The vein's main component is calcium sulfate. The highest boron content identified is less than one-tenth of one percent. The heights of the orange bars at each point indicate relative abundance of boron, compared with boron content at other points. The scale bar for the inset is 9.2 millimeters, or about 0.36 inch. The ChemCam image is enhanced with color information from Mastcam. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21251

  5. Salinity’s influence on boron toxicity in broccoli: II. Impacts on boron uptake, uptake mechanisms and tissue ion relations.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited research has been conducted on the interactive effects of salinity and boron stresses on plants despite their common occurrence in natural systems. The purpose of this research was to determine and quantify the interactive effects of salinity, salt composition and boron on broccoli (Brassica...

  6. The performance of a boron-loaded gel-fuel ramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, A.; Natan, B.; Arieli, R.

    2011-10-01

    The present work focuses on the possibility of combining the advantages of ramjet propulsion with the high energetic potential of boron. However, the use of boron poses two major challenges. The first, common to all solid additives to liquid fuels is particle sedimentation and poor dispersion. This problem is solved through the use of a gel fuel. The second obstacle, specific to boron-enriched fuels, is the difficulty in realizing the full energetic potential of boron. This could be overcome by means of an aft-combustion chamber, where fuel-rich combustion products are mixed with cold bypass air. Cooling causes the gaseous boron oxide to condense and, as a consequence, the heat of evaporation trapped in the gaseous oxide is released. The merits of such a combination are assessed through its ability to power an air-to-surface missile of relatively small size, capable of delivering a large payload to over a distance of about 1000 km in short time. The paper presents a preliminary design of a ramjet missile using a gel fuel loaded with boron. The thermochemical aspects of the two-stage combustion of the fuel are considered. A comparison with a solid rocket motor (SRM) missile launched under the same conditions as the ramjet missile is made. The boron-loaded gel-fuel ramjet is found superior for this mission.

  7. Template growth of Au, Ni and Ni–Au nanoclusters on hexagonal boron nitride/Rh(111): a combined STM, TPD and AES study

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fanglue; Huang, Dali; Yue, Yuan

    In this study, the template growth of Au, Ni, and Ni–Au bimetallic nanoclusters on hexagonal boron nitride/Rh(111), i.e. h-BN/Rh(111), was investigated via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), temperature programmed-desorption (TPD), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). STM study shows that template growth of Au clusters on h-BN/Rh(111) forms mainly well-dispersed monolayer clusters. In contrast, Ni forms large multilayer clusters showing a relatively high diffusivity on h-BN/Rh(111) substrate. Ni–Au bimetallic clusters are effectively formed first by Au deposition followed by Ni deposition, with the Au clusters functioning as nucleation sites for the subsequently deposited Ni. Further structural analysis was carried out via TPDmore » and AES. The resulting TPD and AES data show the surface composition and charge transfer between Au and Ni of the bimetallic clusters. These results suggest that the h-BN/Rh(111) substrate represents a unique candidate for supporting Ni–Au bimetallic clusters in further catalytic reactions.« less

  8. Template growth of Au, Ni and Ni–Au nanoclusters on hexagonal boron nitride/Rh(111): a combined STM, TPD and AES study

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Fanglue; Huang, Dali; Yue, Yuan; ...

    2017-09-12

    In this study, the template growth of Au, Ni, and Ni–Au bimetallic nanoclusters on hexagonal boron nitride/Rh(111), i.e. h-BN/Rh(111), was investigated via scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), temperature programmed-desorption (TPD), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). STM study shows that template growth of Au clusters on h-BN/Rh(111) forms mainly well-dispersed monolayer clusters. In contrast, Ni forms large multilayer clusters showing a relatively high diffusivity on h-BN/Rh(111) substrate. Ni–Au bimetallic clusters are effectively formed first by Au deposition followed by Ni deposition, with the Au clusters functioning as nucleation sites for the subsequently deposited Ni. Further structural analysis was carried out via TPDmore » and AES. The resulting TPD and AES data show the surface composition and charge transfer between Au and Ni of the bimetallic clusters. These results suggest that the h-BN/Rh(111) substrate represents a unique candidate for supporting Ni–Au bimetallic clusters in further catalytic reactions.« less

  9. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca(2+)]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca(2+)]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca(2+)]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  10. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca2+]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca2+]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca2+]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth. PMID:26955377

  11. Method for production of free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film

    DOEpatents

    Baughman, Richard J.; Ginley, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A process for producing a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film comprises growing a film of boron phosphide in a vertical growth apparatus on a metal substrate. The metal substrate has a coefficient of thermal expansion sufficiently different from that of boron phosphide that the film separates cleanly from the substrate upon cooling thereof, and the substrate is preferably titanium. The invention also comprises a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film for use in electronic device fabrication.

  12. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Si, M. S.; Gao, Daqiang, E-mail: gaodq@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xueds@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, Dezheng

    2014-05-28

    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstratemore » such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.« less

  13. Magneto-Resistance in thin film boron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, Elena; Luo, Guangfu; Liu, J.; Mei, Wai-Ning; Pasquale, F. L.; Colon Santanta, J.; Dowben, P. A.; Zhang, Le; Kelber, J. A.

    2013-03-01

    Chromium doped semiconducting boron carbide devices were fabricated based on a carborane icosahedra (B10C2H12) precursor via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the transition metal atoms found to dope pairwise on adjacent icosahedra site locations. Models spin-polarized electronic structure calculations of the doped semiconducting boron carbides indicate that some transition metal (such as Cr) doped semiconducting boron carbides may act as excellent spin filters when used as the dielectric barrier in a magnetic tunnel junction structure. In the case of chromium doping, there may be considerable enhancements in the magneto-resistance of the heterostructure. To this end, current to voltage curves and magneto-transport measurements were performed in various semiconducting boron carbide both in and out plane. The I-V curves as a function of external magnetic field exhibit strong magnetoresistive effects which are enhanced at liquid Nitrogen temperatures. The mechanism for these effects will be discussed in the context of theoretical calculations.

  14. Sputtered boron indium oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Kevin A.; Gouliouk, Vasily; Keszler, Douglas A.; Wager, John F.

    2017-11-01

    Boron indium oxide (BIO) is studied for thin-film transistor (TFT) channel layer applications. Sputtered BIO thin films exhibit an amorphous phase over a wide range of B2O3/In2O3 ratios and remain amorphous up to 500 °C. The band gap decreases linearly with decreasing boron content, whereas device performance generally improves with decreasing boron content. The best amorphous BIO TFT exhibits a field-effect mobility of 10 cm2 V-1 s-1, turn-on voltage of 2.5 V, and sub-threshold swing of 0.72 V/dec. Decreasing the boron content to 12.5% leads to a polycrystalline phase, but further increases the mobility up to 20-40 cm2 V-1 s-1. TCAD simulation results suggest that the reason for higher performance after increasing the anneal temperature from 200 to 400 °C is due to a lower defect density in the sub-bandgap region of the BIO channel layer.

  15. Boron and oxygen-codoped porous carbon as efficient oxygen reduction catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhidan; Chen, Hongbiao; Yang, Mei; Yang, Duanguang; Li, Huaming

    2017-12-01

    A low-cost boron- and oxygen-codoped porous carbon electrocatalyst towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been fabricated by a facile one-step pyrolysis approach, while a boron- and oxygen-rich polymer network was used as precursor. The boron- and oxygen-codoped carbon catalyst with high ORR electrocatalytic activity is comparable to that of Pt/C and is superior to that of catalysts doped solely with boron atoms or with oxygen atoms. Furthermore, the optimized boron- and oxygen-codoped carbon catalyst possesses excellent methanol tolerance and long-term durability in alkaline media. The high electrocatalytic activity of the dual-doped carbon catalysts can be attributed to the synergistic effects of high surface area, predominant mesostructure, abundant active oxygen-containing groups, and effective boron doping. The present results show that this boron- and oxygen-codoping strategy could be as a promising way for the preparation of highly efficient ORR catalysts.

  16. Structure and energetics of carbon, hexagonal boron nitride, and carbon/hexagonal boron nitride single-layer and bilayer nanoscrolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahlo, Andrei I.; Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Lebedev, Alexander V.; Lebedeva, Irina V.; Popov, Andrey M.; Vyrko, Sergey A.; Knizhnik, Andrey A.; Lozovik, Yurii E.

    2018-03-01

    Single-layer and bilayer carbon and hexagonal boron nitride nanoscrolls as well as nanoscrolls made of bilayer graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructure are considered. Structures of stable states of the corresponding nanoscrolls prepared by rolling single-layer and bilayer rectangular nanoribbons are obtained based on the analytical model and numerical calculations. The lengths of nanoribbons for which stable and energetically favorable nanoscrolls are possible are determined. Barriers to rolling of single-layer and bilayer nanoribbons into nanoscrolls and barriers to nanoscroll unrolling are calculated. Based on the calculated barriers nanoscroll lifetimes in the stable state are estimated. Elastic constants for bending of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride layers used in the model are found by density functional theory calculations.

  17. Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity in Zintl Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhong -Ming; Liu, Chao; Popov, Ivan Aleksandrovich

    Originally, the concepts of aromaticity and antiaromaticity were introduced to explain the stability and reactivity of unsaturated organic compounds. Since then, they have been extended to other species with delocalized electrons including various saturated systems, organometallic compounds, and even inorganic clusters and molecules. In this study, we focus on the most recent progress of using these concepts to guide experimental synthesis and rationalize geometrical and electronic structures of a particular family of polyanions composed of Group 14 and 15 elements, namely Zintl clusters.

  18. Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity in Zintl Clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhong -Ming; Liu, Chao; Popov, Ivan Aleksandrovich; ...

    2018-05-18

    Originally, the concepts of aromaticity and antiaromaticity were introduced to explain the stability and reactivity of unsaturated organic compounds. Since then, they have been extended to other species with delocalized electrons including various saturated systems, organometallic compounds, and even inorganic clusters and molecules. In this study, we focus on the most recent progress of using these concepts to guide experimental synthesis and rationalize geometrical and electronic structures of a particular family of polyanions composed of Group 14 and 15 elements, namely Zintl clusters.

  19. Evolution of anisotropy in bcc Fe distorted by interstitial boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gölden, Dominik; Zhang, Hongbin; Radulov, Iliya; Dirba, Imants; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Erwin; Alff, Lambert

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic anisotropy in bcc Fe as a function of interstitial boron atoms was investigated in thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions during film growth allowed one to stabilize an interstitial boron content of about 14 at .% accompanied by lattice tetragonalization. The c /a ratio scaled linearly with the boron content up to a maximum value of 1.05 at 300 °C substrate growth temperature, with a room-temperature magnetization of. In contrast to nitrogen interstitials, the magnetic easy axis remained in-plane with an anisotropy of approximately -5.1 ×106erg /cm3 . Density functional theory calculations using the measured lattice parameters confirm this value and show that boron local ordering indeed favors in-plane magnetization. Given the increased temperature stability of boron interstitials as compared to nitrogen interstitials, this study will help to find possible ways to manipulate boron interstitials into a more favorable local order.

  20. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.

  1. Biomass-directed synthesis of 20 g high-quality boron nitride nanosheets for thermoconductive polymeric composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Weng, Qunhong; Wang, Xi; Li, Xia; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Xiang-Fen; Guo, Hongxuan; Xu, Ningsheng; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

    2014-09-23

    Electrically insulating boron nitride (BN) nanosheets possess thermal conductivity similar to and thermal and chemical stabilities superior to those of electrically conductive graphenes. Currently the production and application of BN nanosheets are rather limited due to the complexity of the BN binary compound growth, as opposed to massive graphene production. Here we have developed the original strategy "biomass-directed on-site synthesis" toward mass production of high-crystal-quality BN nanosheets. The strikingly effective, reliable, and high-throughput (dozens of grams) synthesis is directed by diverse biomass sources through the carbothermal reduction of gaseous boron oxide species. The produced BN nanosheets are single crystalline, laterally large, and atomically thin. Additionally, they assemble themselves into the same macroscopic shapes peculiar to original biomasses. The nanosheets are further utilized for making thermoconductive and electrically insulating epoxy/BN composites with a 14-fold increase in thermal conductivity, which are envisaged to be particularly valuable for future high-performance electronic packaging materials.

  2. Excellent electrical conductivity of the exfoliated and fluorinated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yafang; Liu, Qian; He, Guanjie; Xu, Kaibing; Jiang, Lin; Hu, Xianghua; Hu, Junqing

    2013-01-24

    The insulator characteristic of hexagonal boron nitride limits its applications in microelectronics. In this paper, the fluorinated hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets were prepared by doping fluorine into the boron nitride nanosheets exfoliated from the bulk boron nitride in isopropanol via a facile chemical solution method with fluoboric acid; interestingly, these boron nitride nanosheets demonstrate a typical semiconductor characteristic which were studied on a new scanning tunneling microscope-transmission electron microscope holder. Since this property changes from an insulator to a semiconductor of the boron nitride, these nanosheets will be able to extend their applications in designing and fabricating electronic nanodevices.

  3. Functional characterization of Citrus macrophylla BOR1 as a boron transporter.

    PubMed

    Cañon, Paola; Aquea, Felipe; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2013-11-01

    Plants have evolved to develop an efficient system of boron uptake and transport using a range of efflux carriers named BOR proteins. In this work we isolated and characterized a boron transporter of citrus (Citrus macrophylla), which was named CmBOR1 for its high homology to AtBOR1. CmBOR1 has 4403 bp and 12 exons. Its coding region has 2145 bp and encodes for a protein of 714 amino acids. CmBOR1 possesses the molecular features of BORs such as an anion exchanger domain and the presence of 10 transmembrane domains. Functional analysis in yeast indicated that CmBOR1 has an efflux boron transporter activity, and transformants have increased tolerance to excess boron. CmBOR1 is expressed in leaves, stem and flowers and shows the greatest accumulation in roots. The transcript accumulation was significantly increased under boron deficiency conditions in shoots. In contrast, the accumulation of the transcript did not change in boron toxicity conditions. Finally, we observed that constitutive expression of CmBOR1 was able to increase tolerance to boron deficiency conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that CmBOR1 is a xylem loading boron transporter. Based on these results, it was determined that CmBOR1 encodes a boric acid/borate transporter involved in tolerance to boron deficiency in plants. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Enhanced-wetting, boron-based liquid-metal ion source and method

    DOEpatents

    Bozack, Michael J.; Swanson, Lynwood W.; Bell, Anthony E.; Clark Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Storms, Edmund K.

    1999-01-01

    A binary, boron-based alloy as a source for field-emission-type, ion-beam generating devices, wherein boron predominates in the alloy, preferably with a presence of about 60 atomic percent. The other constituent in the alloy is selected from the group of elements consisting of nickel, palladium and platinum. Predominance of boron in these alloys, during operation, promotes combining of boron with trace impurities of carbon in the alloys to form B.sub.4 C and thus to promote wetting of an associated carbon support substrate.

  5. No evidence that boron influences tree species distributions in lowland tropical forests of Panama.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L; Zalamea, Paul-Camilo; Condit, Richard; Winter, Klaus; Wright, S Joseph; Dalling, James W

    2017-04-01

    It was recently proposed that boron might be the most important nutrient structuring tree species distributions in tropical forests. Here we combine observational and experimental studies to test this hypothesis for lowland tropical forests of Panama. Plant-available boron is uniformly low in tropical forest soils of Panama and is not significantly associated with any of the > 500 species in a regional network of forest dynamics plots. Experimental manipulation of boron supply to seedlings of three tropical tree species revealed no evidence of boron deficiency or toxicity at concentrations likely to occur in tropical forest soils. Foliar boron did not correlate with soil boron along a local scale gradient of boron availability. Fifteen years of boron addition to a tropical forest increased plant-available boron by 70% but did not significantly change tree productivity or boron concentrations in live leaves, wood or leaf litter. The annual input of boron in rainfall accounts for a considerable proportion of the boron in annual litterfall and is similar to the pool of plant-available boron in the soil, and is therefore sufficient to preclude boron deficiency. We conclude that boron does not influence tree species distributions in Panama and presumably elsewhere in the lowland tropics. No claim to original US government works New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Synthesis, salvage, and catabolism of uridine nucleotides in boron-deficient squash roots.

    PubMed

    Lovatt, C J; Albert, L S; Tremblay, G C

    1981-12-01

    Previous work has provided evidence that plants may require boron to maintain adequate levels of pyrimidine nucleotides, suggesting that the state of boron deficiency may actually be one of pyrimidine starvation. Since the availability of pyrimidine nucleotides is influenced by their rates of synthesis, salvage, and catabolism, we compared these activities in the terminal 3 centimeters of roots excised from boron-deficient and -sufficient squash plants (Cucurbita pepo L.). Transferring 5-day-old squash plants to a boron-deficient nutrient solution resulted in cessation of root elongation within 18 hours. However, withholding boron for up to 30 hours did not result in either impaired de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis or a change in the sensitivity of the de novo pathway to regulation by end product inhibition. Boron deprivation had no significant effect on pyrimidine salvage or catabolism. These results provide evidence that boron-deficient plants are not starved for uridine nucleotides collectively. Whether a particular pyrimidine nucleotide or derivative is limiting during boron deprivation remains to be examined.

  7. Study of Synthesis of N-Nitroborazine Compounds. I. Nitryl Chloride as Nitrating Agent.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as the solid complexes of boron trifluoride (BF3). Nearly water-white nitryl chloride was obtained in this manner. A tinge of...yellow was attributed to the presence of chlorine . The reaction of nitryl chloride with a model compound, lithium dimethylamide, was found to yield

  8. Structure, Mechanics and Synthesis of Nanoscale Carbon and Boron Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldo, Steven G.

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I, we examine the properties of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride. We begin with an introduction to the theory of elastic sheets, where the stretching and bending modes are considered in detail. The coupling between stretching and bending modes is thought to play a crucial role in the thermodynamic stability of atomically-thin 2D sheets such as graphene. In Chapter 2, we begin by looking at the fabrication of suspended, atomically thin sheets of graphene. We then study their mechanical resonances which are read via an optical transduction technique. The frequency of the resonators was found to depend on their temperature, as was their quality factor. We conclude by offering some interpretations of the data in terms of the stretching and bending modes of graphene. In Chapter 3, we look briefly at the fabrication of thin sheets of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes. We examine the structure of the sheets using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM, respectively). We then show a technique by which one can make sheets suspended over a trench with adjustable supports. Finally, DC measurements of the resistivity of the sheets in the temperature range 600 -- 1400 C are presented. In Chapter 4, we study the folding of few-layer graphene oxide, graphene and boron nitride into 3D aerogel monoliths. The properties of graphene oxide are first considered, after which the structure of graphene and boron nitride aerogels is examined using TEM and SEM. Some models for their structure are proposed. In Part II, we look at synthesis techniques for boron nitride (BN). In Chapter 5, we study the conversion of carbon structures of boron nitride via the application of carbothermal reduction of boron oxide followed by nitridation. We apply the conversion to a wide variety of morphologies, including aerogels, carbon fibers and nanotubes, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In the latter chapters, we look at the

  9. Realizing performance improvement of blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecule DABNA by introducing substituents on the para-position of boron atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ying; Pan, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Liang; Geng, Yun; Su, Tan; Gao, Ting; Su, Zhong-Min

    2018-06-01

    To seek effective thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules, we have designed compounds 1-4 by introducing substituents on the para-position of boron atom of blue TADF molecule (DABNA-1). The results indicate that 1-4 not only retain the blue emission from 454 to 466 nm, but also possess larger oscillator strength. Besides, the fluorescence radiative rates (kr) of 1-4 are higher than that of DABNA-1. The singlet-triplet energy splitting (ΔΕST) values of designed compounds are smaller than that of DABNA-1. Taking both ΔΕST and kr into account, designed compounds show better TADF performances, indicating their potential as TADF materials.

  10. A first-principles study on the B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup +/0} and B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup −} clusters: The boron oxide analogs of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}{sup +/0} and CH{sub 3}Cl

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Wen-Juan; You, Xue-Rui; Ou, Ting

    2015-08-14

    The concept of boronyl (BO) and the BO/H isolobal analogy build an interesting structural link between boron oxide clusters and hydrocarbons. Based upon global-minimum searches and first-principles electronic structural calculations, we present here the perfectly planar C{sub 2v} B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup +} (1, {sup 1}A{sub 1}), C{sub 2v} B{sub 5}O{sub 5} (2, {sup 2}A{sub 1}), and tetrahedral C{sub s} B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup −} (3, {sup 1}A′) clusters, which are the global minima of the systems. Structural and molecular orbital analyses indicate that C{sub 2v} B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup +} (1) [B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(BO){sub 2}{sup +}] and C{sub 2v} B{sub 5}O{sub 5}more » (2) [B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(BO){sub 2}] feature an aromatic six-membered boroxol (B{sub 3}O{sub 3}) ring as the core with two equivalent boronyl terminals, similar to the recently reported boronyl boroxine D{sub 3h} B{sub 6}O{sub 6} [B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(BO){sub 3}]; whereas C{sub s} B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup −} (3) [B(BO){sub 3}(OBO){sup −}] is characterized with a tetrahedral B{sup −} center, terminated with three BO groups and one OBO unit, similar to the previously predicted boronyl methane T{sub d} B{sub 5}O{sub 4}{sup −} [B(BO){sub 4}{sup −}]. Alternatively, the 1–3 clusters can be viewed as the boron oxide analogs of phenyl cation C{sub 6}H{sub 5}{sup +}, phenyl radical C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, and chloromethane CH{sub 3}Cl, respectively. Chemical bonding analyses also reveal a dual three-center four-electron (3c-4e) π hyperbond in C{sub s} B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup −} (3). The infrared absorption spectra of B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup +} (1), B{sub 5}O{sub 5} (2), and B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup −} (3) and anion photoelectron spectrum of B{sub 5}O{sub 5}{sup −} (3) are predicted to facilitate their forthcoming experimental characterizations. The present work completes the B{sub n}O{sub n}{sup +/0/−} series for n = 1–6 and enriches the analogous relationship between boron oxides and hydrocarbons.« less

  11. Boron analysis for neutron capture therapy using particle-induced gamma-ray emission.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kei; Yamamoto, Yohei; Okamoto, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Fumiyo; Matsumura, Akira; Yamada, Naoto; Kitamura, Akane; Koka, Masashi; Satoh, Takahiro

    2015-12-01

    The neutron source of BNCT is currently changing from reactor to accelerator, but peripheral facilities such as a dose-planning system and blood boron analysis have still not been established. To evaluate the potential application of particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) for boron measurement in clinical boron neutron capture therapy, boronophenylalanine dissolved within a cell culture medium was measured using PIGE. PIGE detected 18 μgB/mL f-BPA in the culture medium, and all measurements of any given sample were taken within 20 min. Two hours of f-BPA exposure was required to create a boron distribution image. However, even though boron remained in the cells, the boron on the cell membrane could not be distinguished from the boron in the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tubes of rhombohedral boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, L.; Bando, Y.; Sato, T.

    2000-08-01

    The structure of boron nitride bamboo-like tubular whiskers grown from boron nitride powder is investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Despite the relatively small size of the tubes (20-200 nm in diameter), they all exhibit rhombohedral-like ordering in their layer stacking. The tubular sheets also tend to have their [10 bar 1 0] direction parallel to the fibre axis. Particles of iron alloys are commonly found encapsulated inside or at the end of the filaments. It is suggested that iron plays an active role in the growth of the fibres.

  13. Vertically Aligned BCN Nanotubes as Efficient Metal-Free Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction: A Synergetic Effect by Co-Doping with Boron and Nitrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    difficulties.[20–22] In most of the previous studies, ternary compounds (e.g., ferrocene , melamine, boron oxide) were used as precursors for nanotube...the onset/peak potential and current density, though the VA- NCNT (4.1% N) prepared by pyrolysis of ferrocene under ammonia (see Supporting

  14. Interface formation in monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Sutter, P; Cortes, R; Lahiri, J; Sutter, E

    2012-09-12

    The ability to control the formation of interfaces between different materials has become one of the foundations of modern materials science. With the advent of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, low-dimensional equivalents of conventional interfaces can be envisioned: line boundaries separating different materials integrated in a single 2D sheet. Graphene and hexagonal boron nitride offer an attractive system from which to build such 2D heterostructures. They are isostructural, nearly lattice-matched, and isoelectronic, yet their different band structures promise interesting functional properties arising from their integration. Here, we use a combination of in situ microscopy techniques to study the growth and interface formation of monolayer graphene-boron nitride heterostructures on ruthenium. In a sequential chemical vapor deposition process, boron nitride grows preferentially at the edges of existing monolayer graphene domains, which can be exploited for synthesizing continuous 2D membranes of graphene embedded in boron nitride. High-temperature growth leads to intermixing near the interface, similar to interfacial alloying in conventional heterostructures. Using real-time microscopy, we identify processes that eliminate this intermixing and thus pave the way to graphene-boron nitride heterostructures with atomically sharp interfaces.

  15. Photoinduced doping in heterostructures of graphene and boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Ju, L; Velasco, J; Huang, E; Kahn, S; Nosiglia, C; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yang, W; Taniguchi, T; Watanabe, K; Zhang, Y; Zhang, G; Crommie, M; Zettl, A; Wang, F

    2014-05-01

    The design of stacks of layered materials in which adjacent layers interact by van der Waals forces has enabled the combination of various two-dimensional crystals with different electrical, optical and mechanical properties as well as the emergence of novel physical phenomena and device functionality. Here, we report photoinduced doping in van der Waals heterostructures consisting of graphene and boron nitride layers. It enables flexible and repeatable writing and erasing of charge doping in graphene with visible light. We demonstrate that this photoinduced doping maintains the high carrier mobility of the graphene/boron nitride heterostructure, thus resembling the modulation doping technique used in semiconductor heterojunctions, and can be used to generate spatially varying doping profiles such as p-n junctions. We show that this photoinduced doping arises from microscopically coupled optical and electrical responses of graphene/boron nitride heterostructures, including optical excitation of defect transitions in boron nitride, electrical transport in graphene, and charge transfer between boron nitride and graphene.

  16. Mathematical modeling based evaluation and simulation of boron removal in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Ping, Qingyun; Abu-Reesh, Ibrahim M; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Boron removal is an arising issue in desalination plants due to boron's toxicity. As an emerging treatment concept, bioelectrochemical systems (BES) can achieve potentially cost-effective boron removal by taking advantage of cathodic-produced alkali. Prior studies have demonstrated successful removal of boron in microbial desalination cells (MDCs) and microbial fuel cells (MFCs), both of which are representative BES. Herein, mathematical models were developed to further evaluate boron removal by different BES and understand the key operating factors. The models delivered very good prediction of the boron concentration in the MDC integrated with Donnan Dialysis (DD) system with the lowest relative root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.00%; the predication of the MFC performance generated the highest RMSE of 18.55%. The model results of salt concentration, solution pH, and current generation were well fitted with experimental data for RMSE values mostly below 10%. The long term simulation of the MDC-DD system suggests that the accumulation of salt in the catholyte/stripping solution could have a positive impact on the removal of boron due to osmosis-driven convection. The current generation in the MDC may have little influence on the boron removal, while in the MFC the current-driven electromigration can contribute up to 40% of boron removal. Osmosis-induced convection transport of boron could be the major driving force for boron removal to a low level <2mgL(-1). The ratio between the anolyte and the catholyte flow rates should be kept >22.2 in order to avoid boron accumulation in the anolyte effluent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and Performance of Boron Carbide-Based Smoke Compositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-06

    DOI: 10.1002/prep.201200166 Development and Performance of Boron Carbide -Based Smoke Compositions Anthony P. Shaw,*[a] Jay C. Poret,[a] Robert A...volatilized and recondense to give smoke. Boron carbide was recognized as a pyrotechnic fuel many years ago, but it has since been overlooked. A 1961...Abstract : Pyrotechnic smoke compositions for visual ob- scuration containing boron carbide , potassium nitrate, po- tassium chloride, and various lubricants

  18. Biodistribution of boron after intravenous 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion in meningioma and schwannoma patients: A feasibility study for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kulvik, Martti; Kallio, Merja; Laakso, Juha; Vähätalo, Jyrki; Hermans, Raine; Järviluoma, Eija; Paetau, Anders; Rasilainen, Merja; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Seppälä, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    We studied the uptake of boron after 100 mg/kg BPA infusion in three meningioma and five schwannoma patients as a pre-BNCT feasibility study. With average tumour-to-whole blood boron concentrations of 2.5, we discuss why BNCT could, and probably should, be developed to treat severe forms of the studied tumours. However, analysing 72 tumour and 250 blood samples yielded another finding: the plasma-to-whole blood boron concentrations varied with time, suggesting that the assumed constant boron ratio of 1:1 between normal brain tissue and whole blood deserves re-assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced-wetting, boron-based liquid-metal ion source and method

    DOEpatents

    Bozack, M.J.; Swanson, L.W.; Bell, A.E.; Clark, W.M. Jr.; Utlaut, M.W.; Storms, E.K.

    1999-02-16

    A binary, boron-based alloy as a source for field-emission-type, ion-beam generating devices, wherein boron predominates in the alloy, preferably with a presence of about 60 atomic percent is disclosed. The other constituent in the alloy is selected from the group of elements consisting of nickel, palladium and platinum. Predominance of boron in these alloys, during operation, promotes combining of boron with trace impurities of carbon in the alloys to form B{sub 4}C and thus to promote wetting of an associated carbon support substrate. 1 fig.

  20. Combustion Performance of a Staged Hybrid Rocket with Boron addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Lee, C.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of boron on overall system specific impulse was investigated. Additionally, a series of combustion tests was carried out to analyze and evaluate the effect of boron addition on O/F variation and radial temperature profiles. To maintain the hybrid rocket engine advantages, upper limit of boron contents in solid fuel was set to be 10 wt%. The results also suggested that, when adding boron to solid fuel, it helped to provide more uniform radial temperature distribution and also to increase specific impulse by 3.2%.