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Sample records for borovac southern serbia

  1. Environmental radioactivity in southern Serbia at locations where depleted uranium was used.

    PubMed

    Sarap, Nataša B; Janković, Marija M; Todorović, Dragana J; Nikolić, Jelena D; Kovačević, Milojko S

    2014-06-01

    In the 1999 bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. The cleaning of depleted uranium that followed was performed in southern Serbia by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences between 2002 and 2007 at the locations of Pljačkovica, Borovac, Bratoselce, and Reljan. This paper presents detailed results of radioactivity monitoring four years after cleaning (2011), which included the determination of gamma emitters in soil, water, and plant samples, as well as gross alpha and beta activities in water samples. The gamma spectrometry results showed the presence of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U, and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). In order to evaluate the radiological hazard from soil, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma dose rate, the external hazard index, and the annual effective dose were calculated. Considering that a significant number of people inhabit the studied locations, the periodical monitoring of radionuclide content is vital. PMID:24778342

  2. New constrains on the thermal history of the Miocene Jarando basin (Southern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrić, Nevena; Životić, Dragana; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Cvetković, Vladica

    2013-04-01

    The Jarando basin, located in the internal Dinarides, formed in the course of the Miocene extension affecting the whole Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaride system (Schmid et al., 2008). In the study area Miocene extension led to the formation of a core-complex in the Kopaonik area (Schefer et al., 2011) with the Jarando basin located in the hanging wall of the detachment fault. The Jarando basin is characterized by the presence of bituminous coals, whereas in the other intramontane basins in Serbia coalification did not exceed the subbituminous stage within the same stratigraphic level. Furthermore, the basin hosts boron mineralizations (borates and howlite) and a magnesite deposit, which again implies elevated temperatures. This thermal overprint is possibly due to post-magmatic activity related to the emplacement of Oligocene I-type Kopaonik and Miocene S-type Polumir granitoid (Schefer et al., 2011.). This research project is aimed at providing new information about the thermal history of the Jarando basin. Fifteen core samples from three boreholes and 10 samples from the surrounding outcrops were processed for apatite fission-track analysis. Additionally, vitrinite reflectance was measured for 11 core samples of shales from one borehole and 5 samples of coal from an underground mine. VR data of Early to Middle Miocene sediments reveal a strong post-depositional overprint. Values increase with the depth from 0.66-0.79% to 0.83-0.90%. Thus organic matter reached the bituminous stage and experienced temperatures of around 110-120˚C (Barker and Pawlewicz, 1994). FT single grain ages for apatite scatter between 45 Ma to 10 Ma with a general trend towards younger ages with depth. Both, the spread in single grain ages together with the bimodal track lengths distribution clearly point to partial annealing of the detrital apatites. With the temperature given from the VR values the partial annealing points to a rather short-lived thermal event. This is assisted by thermal

  3. Distribution and mobility of heavy elements in floodplain agricultural soils along the Ibar River (Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo). Chemometric investigation of pollutant sources and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Barać, Nemanja; Škrivanj, Sandra; Bukumirić, Zoran; Živojinović, Dragana; Manojlović, Dragan; Barać, Milan; Petrović, Rada; Ćorac, Aleksandar

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the influence of a high-magnitude flood event on heavy elements (HEs) pollution and mobility in the agricultural soils along Ibar River in Southern Serbia and Northern Kosovo. The study area was one of the most important Pb/Zn industrial regions in Europe. Soil samples (n = 50) collected before and after the floods in May 2014 were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The results indicated that the floods significantly increased not only the pseudo total concentrations of HEs in the soil but also their mobile and potentially bioavailable amounts. Moreover, higher concentrations (both pseudo total and potentially bioavailable) were found in the agricultural soils closer to the industrial hotspots. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis successfully grouped the analyzed elements according to their anthropogenic or natural origin. The floods significantly increased the potential ecological risk of HEs associated with Pb/Zn industrial activities in the study area. The potential ecological risk of Cd after the floods was highest and should be of special concern. PMID:26822217

  4. How tectonics controlled post-collisional magmatism within the Dinarides: Inferences based on study of tectono-magmatic events in the Kopaonik Mts. (Southern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenović, Ana; Trivić, Branislav; Cvetković, Vladica

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we report evidence about coupling between tectonic and magmatic processes in a complex orogenic system. The study focuses on the Kopaonik Mts. situated between the Dinarides and the Carpatho-Balkanides (Southern Serbia), and a perfect area for investigating tectono-magmatic evolution. We combine a new data set on tectonic paleostress tensors with the existing information on Cenozoic magmatic rocks in the wider Kopaonik Mts. area. The paleostress study revealed the presence of four brittle deformational phases. The established link between fault mechanism and igneous processes suggests that two large tectono-magmatic events occurred in this area. The Late Eocene-Early Miocene tectono-magmatic event was generally characterized by transpressional tectonics that provided conditions for formation of basaltic underplating and subsequent lower crustal melting and generation of I-type magmas. Due to predominant compression in the first half of this event, these magmas could not reach the upper crustal levels. Later on, limited extensional pulses that occurred before the end of this event opened pathways for newly formed mantle melts to reach shallower crustal levels and mix with the evolving I-type magmas. The second event is Middle-Late Miocene in age. It was first associated with clear extensional conditions that caused advancing of basaltic melts to mid-crustal levels. This, in turn, induced the elevation of geotherms, melting of shallow crust and S-type granite formation. This event terminated with transpression that produced small volumes of basaltic melts and finally closed the igneous scene in this part of the Balkan Peninsula. Although we agree that the growth of igneous bodies is usually internally controlled and can be independent from the ambient structural pattern, we have strong reasons to believe that the integration of regional scale observations of fault kinematics with crucial petrogenetic information can be used for establishing spatial

  5. Dating intrusion and cooling of Cenozoic granitoids in the Dinarides of Southern Serbia and discussion of the geodynamic setting of Paleocene-Miocene magmatism in the Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senecio, Schefer; Cvetković, Vladica; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Kounov, Alexandre; Ovtcharova, Maria; Schaltegger, Urs; Schmid, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of high precision single grain U-Pb dating and Hf isotope analyses of thermally annealed and chemically abraded zircons from the Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin, Golija and Polumir intrusions in the inner Dinarides of southern Serbia. In addition, new zircon and apatite fission-track data together with local structural observations, allow for constraining the subsequent exhumation history of these intrusions. Two age groups were determined for the granitoid intrusions: (i) Oligocene intrusive bodies (Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin) ranging in age from 31.7 to 30.6 Ma and (ii) Miocene Golija and Polumir intrusions which emplaced at 20.58-20.17 and 18.06-17.74 Ma, respectively. The apatite fission-track modelling combined with zircon central ages show rapid cooling from above 300 to ca. 80 °C between 16 and 10 Ma for granitoids of both age groups, followed by rather slow cooling to surface temperatures for the last 10 Ma. Fast Middle Miocene cooling between 16 and 10 Ma is caused by extensional exhumation of the plutons that are located in the footwall of core-complexes. This documents that Miocene magmatism and core-complex formation leading to formation of the Pannonian basin also affected a part of the mountainous areas of the internal Dinarides. The discussion of an extensive set of age data from the literature and the geodynamic setting of the Balkan Peninsula reveals that there is no direct connection of the Dinaridic Late Eocene to earliest Miocene magmatic belt with contemporaneous Periadriatic intrusions in the Alps and along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone as proposed in the literature. We insist on the fact that the subduction polarity in the Alps, including that within the Western Carpathians north of the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, is opposite to that of the Dinarides during the given time span. Instead, we propose that Late Eocene to Oligocene magmatism, which affects the Adria-derived lower plate units of the internal Dinarides, may be

  6. Maize redness in Serbia caused by stolbur phytoplasma is transmitted by Reptalus panzeri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR) causes midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize in Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. High populations of the ciixid Reptalus panzeri were found in MR affected maize fields in the southern Banat region of Serbia in 2005 and 2006, and stolbur phytoplasma w...

  7. Roles of Stolbur phytoplasma and Reptalus panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the epidemiology of Maize redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  8. Roles of Stolbur Phytoplasma and Reptalus Panzeri (Cixiinae, Auchenorrhyncha) in the Epidemiology of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), a disease causing midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development in maize, has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years. Recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40-90% in southern Banat, Serbia. MR was recently associated with the presence of th...

  9. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  10. Observational projects in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vince, O.; Cvetković, Z.; Pavlović, R.; Damljanović, G.; Djurašević, G.

    2014-03-01

    A new era of astronomical observations in Serbia started in 2010, when a 60 cm telescope was installed on the summit of the mountain Vidojevica. Despite the small number of active observers and all the problems that usually follows the usage of a new instrument, we developed several observational projects, joined several international observational networks and follow-up projects. In this paper, we will shortly introduce all the projects and people involved in them, as well as the instruments that are used for observations.

  11. Canine Babesioses in Noninvestigated Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Otašević, Suzana; Ignjatović, Aleksandra; Savić, Sara; Fraulo, Maurizio; Arsić-Arsenijević, Valentina; Momčilović, Stefan; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    During the years 2012-2014, a total of 158 outdoor dogs from Pančevo and Đurđevo (northern Serbia) and Niš and Prokuplje (southern Serbia) were submitted to molecular analyses (PCR and sequencing) for canine babesioses. An overall prevalence of 21.5% was found, due to the species Babesia sp. 'spanish dog' (10.1%), B. gibsoni (5.7%), B. canis vogeli (1.9%), B. caballi (1.9%), and B. microti (1.9%). In addition, sequence analysis showed the presence of Hepatozoon canis in a dog from Niš. No significant difference between infected and noninfected dogs was found by age, sex, and place of residence, whereas there was difference regarding the presence of ticks (p<0.005) and application of preventive measures such as applying of antitick drugs/devices. Moreover, a significant difference was established by area: Dogs from Prokuplje showed infection rates (59.1%) higher than dogs from Pančevo (11.9%), Niš (4.5), and Đurđevo (where infected dogs were not found), and a different geographical distribution of the species was found. The presence of so many Babesia species and the first identification of H. canis will allow investigations on the pathogenic role played by each one and suggests entomological studies on the tick species that are more suitable vectors for each of them. Finally, the presence of so many infected dogs offers the opportunity of evaluating the hypothesis of a possible zoonotic role of babesial species affecting dogs. PMID:26348245

  12. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, A; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a

  13. Astronomy development in Serbia in view of the IAU Strategic Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanacković, Olga

    2015-03-01

    An overview of astronomy development in Serbia in view of the goals envisaged by the IAU Strategic Plan is given. Due attention is paid to the recent reform of education at all levels. In the primary schools several extra topics in astronomy are introduced in the physics course. Attempts are made to reintroduce astronomy as a separate subject in the secondary schools. Special emphasis is put to the role and activities of the Petnica Science Center the biggest center for informal education in SE Europe, and to a successful participation of the Serbian team in International astronomy olympiads. Astronomy topics are taught at all five state universities in Serbia. At the University of Belgrade and Novi Sad students can enroll in astronomy from the first study year. The students have the training at the Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic) and at the astronomical station on the mountain Vidojevica in southern Serbia. Astronomy research in Serbia is performed at the Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade and the Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade. There are about 70 researchers in astronomy in Serbia (and about as many abroad) who participate in eight projects financed by the Ministry of Education and Science and in several international cooperations and projects: SREAC, VAMDC, Belissima (recruitment of experienced expatriate researchers), Astromundus (a 2-year joint master program with other four European universities), LSST. One of the goals in near future is twinning between universities in the SEE region and worldwide. The ever-increasing activities of 20 amateur astronomical societies are also given.

  14. Scottish Women's Hospitals--the 90th anniversary of their work in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mikić, Zelimir

    2005-01-01

    The Scottish Women's Hospitals (SWH), a unique health institution in the history of medicine, staffed entirely by women, was founded soon after the outbreak of the First World War, August 12, 1914 in Edinburgh, by the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies. The founder and the main driving force behind this organisation was Dr. Elsie Inglis (1864-1917). Although her proposition to the British War Office had been rejected, she offered her services to the Allies (France, Belgium, Russia and Serbia). The first 200 bed SWH unit was sent to France in November 1914, and soon after followed other units, so at the end there were 13 very well equipped SWH units working in the various theatres of war in Belgium, Serbia, Russia, Rumania and Greece. The first unit of SWH came to Serbia in early January 1915, and was located at Kragujevac. Soon after, three other SWH units arrived to Serbia and were stationed at Mladenovac, Valjevo and Lazarevac. It was an enormous help to Serbia, full of wounded and sick people, due to the dreadful typhus epidemic which was devastating the country. A large SWH unit, attached to the Southern Slav Volunteer Division, had worked on the Dobrudja front, and there were three hospitals and a special transport unit on the Salonika Front, which were all engaged in the treatment of Serbian wounded soldiers until the end of the First World War. Two other SWH units, located in France, were treating the Serbian refugees. Serving bravely and honorably on the various theatres of war, the legendary Scottish Women's Hospitals made enormous contributions to the allied war efforts, and helped Serbian people a great deal. PMID:16673866

  15. Imported parasitic infections in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Dakić, Z.; Nikolić, A.; Lavadinović, L.; Pelemiš, M.; Klun, I.; Dulović, O.; Milošević, B.; Stevanović, G.; Ofori-Belić, I.; Poluga, J.; Pavlović, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Travel to the tropics is associated with a risk of parasitic infection, which is increasing in parallel with the rise in travel to these areas. We thus examined the prevalence and trend in the occurrence of parasitic infections in Serbian travelers. Methods A retrospective analysis of the medical records of all travelers returning from tropical and subtropical areas, who presented at the Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Belgrade between January 2001 and January 2008, was performed. Results Of a total of 2440 travelers, 169 (6.9%) were diagnosed with a parasitic infection, including malaria in 79, intestinal parasites in 84 (pathogenic species in 30 and non-pathogenic in 54), filariasis in four, and visceral leishmaniasis and fascioliasis in one patient each. Importantly, of the whole series only 583 (23.9%) were symptomatic, of which 19.4% were found to be infected with a parasite. The single pathogenic parasite occurring in asymptomatic patients was Giardia intestinalis. Conclusions Parasitic infection causing symptomatic disease among travelers returning from tropical areas to Serbia is not infrequent. In view of the expected increase in travel to the tropics, diagnostic protocols for tropical parasitic diseases should take these data into account. PMID:24466436

  16. Differential Selection into Secondary Schools in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baucal, Aleksandar; Pavlovic-Babic, Dragica; Willms, J. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In Serbia there are four levels of education: pre-school (until 7 years of age); primary education consisting of eight grades (ages 7-14); secondary education lasting two, three or four years; and higher education lasting from three to six years. Primary education is compulsory for all children. It consists of two cycles, each lasting four years,…

  17. Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

  18. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections. PMID:27078664

  19. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections.

  20. A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Nastas; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2015-09-30

    A checklist of all taxa of the family Cerambycidae (longhorn beetles) from Serbia is presented. The checklist is based on compilation of data gathered both from authors and available literature published up to now. A total of 265 species and 92 subspecies belonging to 109 genera, 48 tribes, and six subfamilies are recorded for Serbia. However, the presence of 28 species listed in Serbia may be questionable. Known distribution and biology of Serbian taxa are provided. The diversity of the fauna of longhorn beetles in Serbia is compared with the surrounding areas in the Balkan Peninsula.

  1. Present status of trichinellosis in Yugoslavia: Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cuperlovic, K; Djordjevic, M; Pavlovic, S; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, L

    2001-06-01

    Trichinellosis was recognized almost one century ago as a health and animal husbandry problem in Serbia. In the last 10 years, trichinellosis has been expanding from three endemic regions (Srem, Macva and Negotinska Krajina) to neighbouring regions. The infection rate detected by veterinary inspection in 1999 year was 0.17% in slaughtered swines. Simultaneously, the number of infected humans increased three-five times in comparison with the period 1980-1990. For instance, 555 individuals were registered in 1999 as infected after the consummation of non-inspected pork from domestic swine or wild boar. Prevalence of trichinellosis in wild animals was examined more than a 20 years ago. The trichinellosis in horses has not been detected in the country, but infected horses imported from Serbia were detected in France and Italy.

  2. Education in Medical Biochemistry in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Medical biochemistry is the usual name for clinical biochemistry or clinical chemistry in Serbia. Medical biochemistry laboratories and medical biochemists as a profession are part of Health Care System and are regulated through: the Health Care Law and rules issued by the Chamber of Medical Biochemists of Serbia. The first continuous and organized education for Medical Biochemists in Serbia dates from 1945, when Department of Medical Biochemistry was established at Pharmaceutical Faculty in Belgrade. In 1987 at the same Faculty a five years undergraduate branch was established, educating Medical Biochemists under a special program. Since 2006 the new five year undergraduate (according to Bologna Declaration) and postgraduate program of four-year specialization according to EC4 European Syllabus for Post-Graduate Training in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine has been established. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health accredits the programs. There are four requirements for practicing medical biochemistry in the Health Care System: University Diploma of the Faculty of Pharmacy (Medical Biochemistry), successful completion of the profession exam at the Ministry of Health after completion of one additional year of obligatory practical training in medical laboratories, membership in the Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists and licence for skilled work issued by Serbian Chamber of Medical Biochemists.

  3. Drought analysis in Serbia using the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosic, I.; Krzic, A.; Djurdjevic, V.; Unkasevic, M.; Rajkovic, B.

    2010-09-01

    the SPI-12 for August during the period 2071-2100 were drawn to determine the spatial changes of droughts. According to the obtained results, moderately dry climate is expected over greater part of the southern Europe, while severely dry climate is expected in southern Greece. From the analysis we can conclude that the EBU-POM model could capture the climatic data and also the drought indices well. Also, this analysis showed how SPI12 can be used to monitor drought conditions in Serbia. Djurdjevic, V., B. Rajkovic (2008) Verification of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model using satellite observations over the Adriatic Sea. Annales Geophysicae, 26, 1935-1954 McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, J. Kleist (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Preprints, Eighth Conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 179-184 Unkasevic, M., I. Tosic, D. Vujovic, 2004: Variability and probability of annual and extreme precipitation over Serbia and Montenegro, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 79, 103-109

  4. 31 CFR 585.313 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 585.313 Section 585.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and...

  5. Roman mystery iron blades from Serbia

    SciTech Connect

    Balos, Sebastian; Benscoter, Arlan; Pense, Alan

    2009-04-15

    A First to Forth Century Roman spear blade from Serbia was found to have an unusual microstructure inconsistent with typical Roman Period iron. An analysis of the blade undertaken at Lehigh University in the US and at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad, Serbia established that it was metallic in appearance, magnetic and had an external layer of red rust. But as metallographically polished, it appeared to contain multiple internal phases and internal cracking. Even after aggressive etching, no typical low carbon microstructure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, classical and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the specimen was essentially iron, although its microhardness was too high for typical Roman iron. It was then dubbed 'Mystery Iron.' Analysis of all the data led to the proposal that it was essentially a Roman iron 'fossil' in which the iron had been converted to high temperature iron oxide while retaining the form of the blade, conversion probably occurring in a fire. Subsequent X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the blade consisted of FeO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the mystery of the iron fossil was at least partially solved. A hypothesis is proposed regarding a potential cause for the fire.

  6. 31 CFR 586.204 - Prohibited new investment within Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... persons designated in or pursuant to 31 CFR § 587.201(a), the new investment activities of United States... (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.204 Prohibited new investment...

  7. Astronomy and public outreach in Serbia (1934-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-06-01

    The astronomical community in Serbia has grown significantly over the last few decades, despite the departure overseas of much home-grown talent. Serbia celebrates three important anniversaries in 2007 - 150 years since the birth of Milan Nedeljkovic, who introduced the first astronomical subjects to the Faculty of Mathematics in 1884, and founded the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade in 1887; 120 years of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory and 75 years since the construction of the complex of buildings and telescopes at the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade. The Astronomy Department at the Faculty of Mathematics in Belgrade has produced many excellent scientists working today at telescopes (Arecibo, Sidney, VLA, Hawaii etc.) and universities (California, Toronto, Sidney, Illinois, MIT etc.) around the world. Since 2005, students have also been able to study astronomy at the University of Novi Sad, Serbia (Faculty of Physics). Today there are more than 20 amateur astronomical societies in Serbia, two magazines of popular astronomy, one Youth Science Centre (Petnica), two Public Observatories and two Planetariums. If the social and media network formed in October 2007 can deliver even the minimum of the expected results, six million people in Serbia should easily be familiar with IYA2009 goals, related Cornerstone Projects and particular goals in Serbia for 2009.

  8. Biomass in Serbia - potential of beech forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasanac-Bosanac, Lj.; Cirkovic-Mitrovic, T.; Popovic, V.; Jokanovic, D.

    2012-04-01

    As for the renewable sources for energy production, biomass from forests and wood processing industry comes to the second place. The woody biomass accounts for 1.0 Mtoe, that is equivalent with 1.0 Mtoe of oil. Due to current evaluations, the greatest part of woody biomass would be used for briquettes and pallets production. As the biomass from forests is increasingly becoming the interest of national and international market, a detailed research on overall potential of woody supply from Serbian forests is required. Beech forests account for 29.4 % of forest cover of Serbia. They also have the greatest standing volume (42.4 % of the overall standing volume) and the greatest mean annual increment (32.3 %)(Bankovic,et.al.2009). Herewith, the aim of this poster is to determine the long-term biomass production of these forests.For this purpose a management unit called Lomnicka reka has been chosen. As these beech forests have similar structural development, this location is considered representative for whole Serbia. DBH of all trees were measured with clipper and the accuracy of 0.01 mm, and the heights with a Vertex 3 device (with accuracy of 0.1 m). All measurements were performed on the fields each 500 m2 (square meters). The overall quantity of root biomass was calculated using the allometric equations. The poster shows estimated biomass stocks of beech forests located in Rasina area. Dates are evaluated using non-linear regression (Wutzler,T.et.al.2008). Biomass potential of Serbian beech forests will enable the evaluation of long-term potential of energy generation from woody biomass in agreement with principles of sustainable forest management. The biomass from such beech forests can represent an important substitution for energy production from fossil fuels (e.g. oil) and herewith decrease the CO2 emissions.

  9. Seroreactivity to Dirofilaria antigens in people from different areas of Serbia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Northern part of Serbia is hyperendemic-endemic for canine dirofilarioses. Considering this fact, many human dirofilarial infections could be expected, however only about 30 cases in Serbia have been described until today. Aims of this survey were to assess the people reactivity to the antigens of D. repens and D. immitis and to identify risk factors for the contact exposure. Methods Investigation included sera taken from 297 people (179 women and 118 men) living in different areas of Serbia (Pančevo, Novi Sad, Zaječar, Leskovac, Vranje, Niš, Pirot). Sera were analysed by means of two indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) home-designed that use as antigens adult somatic/metabolic polyproteins of D. repens (DR) and D. immitis (DI), respectively. The results were elaborated using the statistical method of descriptive and quantitative analysis. Results Significant differences by area in the reactivity of human sera to dirofilarial antigens were not observed (p = 0.056). A high seroreactivity was demonstrated in people from the towns of northern Serbia (Pančevo = 27,1%; Novi Sad = 16,3%), as well as in people from Zaječar (eastern Serbia = 15,8%) and Vranje (southern Serbia = 15,1%). No differences were evidenced between people reactivity to polyproteins of the two dirofilarial species, nor differences related to the gender of examinees. Factor risks evidenced were: i) place of residence; ii) spending work time outdoors during the mosquito season; iii) spending time outdoors and nearby rivers, lakes, swamps or canals; unespectedly, iv) cat owning. Conclusion The findings emerging from this investigation indicate that clinicians and public health authorities should pay greater attention to this zoonosis. Continuing education and training of physicians will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the actual impact of filarial worms on animal and public health, and allow for the planning of suitable measures to prevent the

  10. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    PubMed Central

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Background Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter – regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Methods Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost – YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p ≤ 0.05. Results According to the mortality pattern, Serbia was similar to EURO B, but with a lower average YLL per death case. YLL patterns indicated similarities between Serbia and EURO A, while SRR YLL had similarities between Serbia and EURO B. Compared to all Europe sub-regions, Serbia had a major excess of premature mortality in neoplasms and diabetes mellitus. Serbia had lost more years of life than EURO A due to cardiovascular, genitourinary diseases, and intentional injuries. Yet, Serbia was not as burdened with communicable diseases and injuries as were EURO B and EURO C. Conclusion With a premature mortality pattern, Serbia is placed in the middle position of the Europe triangle. The main excess of YLL in Serbia was due to cardiovascular, malignant diseases, and diabetes mellitus. The results

  11. 31 CFR 586.304 - Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). 586.304 Section 586.304 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.304 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro); FRY (S&M). The term Federal Republic of...

  12. 31 CFR 585.418 - Vessels of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 585.418 Section 585.418 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO) AND BOSNIAN SERB-CONTROLLED AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BOSNIA... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). Any vessel in which a majority or controlling interest is held by...

  13. 31 CFR 586.306 - Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). 586.306 Section 586.306 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.306 Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The term Government of the...

  14. [The system of biomedical scientific information of Serbia].

    PubMed

    Dacić, M

    1995-09-01

    Building of the System of biomedical scientific information of Yugoslavia (SBMSI YU) began, by the end of 1980, and the system became operative officially in 1986. After the political disintegration of former Yugoslavia SBMSI of Serbia was formed. SBMSI is developed according to the policy of developing of the System of scientific technologic information of Serbia (SSTI S), and with technical support of SSTI S. Reconstruction of the System is done by using former SBMSI YU as a model. Unlike the former SBMSI YU, SBMSI S owns besides the database Biomedicina Serbica, three important databases: database of doctoral dissertations promoted at University Medical School in Belgrade in the period from 1955-1993, database of Master's theses promoted at the University School of Medicine in Belgrade from 1965-1993; A database of foreign biomedical periodicals in libraries of Serbia.

  15. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djokic, Vitomir; Klun, Ivana; Musella, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica

    2014-05-01

    A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS). Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012), almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001) and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027). Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004). The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not. PMID:24893025

  16. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  17. The Geographic Information System (GIS) in Secondary Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlenovic, Djurdjica; Manic, Emilija; Malinic, Dusica

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the application of new educational technologies in geography classes. The research involved 126 students from vocational secondary schools in Serbia taking geography as a compulsory subject. We developed and applied a questionnaire for this research. The results indicate that out of several ICTs available, the majority of…

  18. A sustainability analysis of an incineration project in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mikic, Miljan; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-11-01

    The only option for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment adopted so far in Serbia is landfilling. Similarly to other south-eastern European countries, Serbia is not recovering any energy from MSW. Fifty percent of electricity in Serbia is produced in coal-fired power plants with emission control systems dating from the 1980s. In this article, the option of MSW incineration with energy recovery is proposed and examined for the city of Novi Sad. A sustainability analysis consisting of financial, economic and sensitivity analyses was done in the form of a cost-benefit analysis following recommendations from the European Commission. Positive and negative social and environmental effects of electricity generation through incineration were valuated partly using conversion factors and shadow prices, and partly using the results of previous studies. Public aversion to MSW incineration was considered. The results showed that the incineration project would require external financial assistance, and that an increase of the electricity and/or a waste treatment fee is needed to make the project financially positive. It is also more expensive than the landfilling option. However, the economic analysis showed that society would have net benefits from an incineration project. The feed-in tariff addition of only €0.03 (KWh)(-1) to the existing electricity price, which would enable the project to make a positive contribution to economic welfare, is lower than the actual external costs of electricity generation from coal in Serbia.

  19. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marić, Saša; Sušnik, Simona; Simonović, Predrag; Snoj, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one haplotype (ATcs1), found only in two individuals originating from two stocked rivers, corresponded to the Atlantic lineage and was considered introduced. Native haplotypes exhibited a strong geographic pattern of distribution: the Danubian haplotypes were strictly confined to the Danubian drainage, while the Adriatic haplotypes dominated in the Aegean and Adriatic drainages; most of the total molecular variance (69%) was attributed to differences among the drainages. Phylogenetic reconstruction, supplemented with seven haplotypes newly described in this study, suggested a sister position of the Atlantic-Danubian and Adriatic-Mediterranean-marmoratus ("southern") phylogenetic group, and pointed to the existence of a distinct clade, detected within the "southern" group. The data obtained confirmed our expectation of the existence of high genetic diversity in Balkan trout populations, and we recommend more widespread surveys covering trout stocks from the region. PMID:16790230

  20. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 μg/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention.

  1. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Djordjevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-01-15

    Various chemometric techniques were used to analyze the quality of groundwater data sets. Seventeen water quality parameters: the cations Na, K, Ca, Mg, the anions Cl, SO4, NO3, HCO3 and nine trace elements Pb, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cr were measured at 66 different key sampling sites in ten representative areas (low land-Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina and central Serbia) for the summer period of 2009. HCA grouped the sample sites into four clusters based on the similarities of the characteristics of the groundwater quality. DA showed two parameters, HCO3 and Zn, affording more than 90% correct assignments in the spatial analysis of four/three different regions in Serbia. Factor analysis was applied on the log-transformed data sets and allowed the identification of a reduced number of factors with hydrochemical meaning. The results showed severe pollution with Mn, As, NO3, Ni, Pb whereby anthropogenic origin of these contaminants was indicated. The pollution comes from both scattered point sources (industrial and urban effluent) and diffuse source agricultural activity. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption; the water quality belongs to class III/IV (contaminated). The Fe anomalies (7.1mg/L) in the water from the Vetrnica site can be attributed to natural sources, such as the dissolution of rock masses and rock fragments. The serious groundwater contamination with As (25.7-137.8 μg/L) in the area of Banat (Northern Autonomous Province of Serbia, Vojvodina) and a sample No. 9 at the Great Morava River requires urgent attention. PMID:24080418

  2. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards.

  3. Health care economics in Serbia: current problems and changes.

    PubMed

    Stosić, Sanja; Karanović, Nevena

    2014-11-01

    One of the fundamental rights of every human being is to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health". Achieving better health requires no only adequate medical knowledge and technologies, laws and social measures in the field of health care, but also sufficient funding for fulfilling people's right to health. However, economic crisis has left every community with limited possibility of investing in health care and forced them to use the available resources more efficiently. This is the reason why health financing policy represents an important and integral part of the health system concerned with how financial resources are generated, allocated and used. Development of new drugs and medical technologies, population aging, increased incidence of chronic diseases as well as the peoples' rising demands from health care providers lead to a constant increase of health system costs worldwide. In these circumstances, countries in transition, like Serbia, face difficult challenges in financing their health systems. Current economic crisis and budget constraints do not allow the Government to simply allocate more public revenues for health and solve the people's expectations by increasing the spending. Instead, Serbia is forced to start reforms to provide a more efficient health system. The reform processes are positioned within the wider context of European integration and public administration reforms. This paper provides a short description of the health care system in Serbia focusing on the healthcare economics and reforms and their influence on financial sustainability.

  4. Trends of cold and heat waves in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    The series of the daily minimum and maximum temperatures at fifteen stations in Serbia were used to calculate the cold and warm spell duration indicators, from which the duration and severity of the cold and heat waves were estimated. The trend analysis for all seasons was presented using the data from 1949 to 2012. The most important result of this study is the significant decreasing trends in the frequency of cold waves and increasing trends of heat waves in Serbia. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures almost at all meteorological stations revealed that the longest and most severe cold waves were observed in winter of 1956, spring of 1987, summer of 1962 and 1996, and during the autumn 1983 and 1988. The longest and most severe heat waves, based on the analysis of the daily maximum temperatures, were recorded in winter of 2007, spring of 2003, summer of 2012, and after 1989 during the autumn. The longest heat waves observed in 2012 did not reach the severity of the heat waves in 2007 at ten of fifteen stations. The obtained results indicated that the warming in Serbia was more related to increase in frequency of heat waves than to reduction in cold waves.

  5. Topographic maps of Serbia prior to the WWI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, B.

    2009-04-01

    Compilation of high or medium scale topographic surveys always played an important role in the geosciences of newly independent countries. Serbia formally has gained back its independency from the Turkish Empire sortly after the 1878 Congress of Berlin. The newly founded Institute of Military Geography in Beograd made efforts to complete a topographic series of 1:75,000 scale. Actually two serieses have been completed prior to the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, one with Latin and the other with the Cyrillic name descriptions, in French and Serbian languages, respectively. The scale of these map systems are identical to the Habsburg general mapping of Central Europe, covering also Serbia. As the Habsburg maps used the prime meridian of Ferro, their Serbian counterparts were using the one of Paris, which is a mere longitude shift of 20 degrees in round numbers. The geodetic basis behind the Serbian maps is probably the Habsburg triangulation in the Balkans (1871-75) - this would explain why the Vienna-centered Hermannskogel datum has been used also in Yugoslavia and Serbia even till nowadays. The French language series has red planar graphic elements (only the names, elevations and the railroad lines are written or drawn in back), blue, brown and green prints were used for waters, contours and vegetation. The Serbian language series mostly reminds to the modern maps albeit it has only three colors (black, brown and green).

  6. Morphogenetic variability and handedness in Montenegro and Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petricevic, B; Cvjeticanin, S

    2011-03-01

    This study tries to establish correlations between the types of handedness and several morpho-physiological characteristics, controlled by one or a small number of genes with alternative dominant recessive manifestation. The population-genetic homozygosity degree study includes the analysis of the presence, distribution and individual traits combination in left-handed and right-handed persons. It was conducted at three localities in two states, Serbia (SRB) and Montenegro (MNE). Our hypothesis is that a possible genetic load due to increased recessive homozygosity, being a potential population-genetic parameter of left-handedness manifestation, may cause some change in other morpho-physiological characters. The average proportion of 23 studied homozygously-recessive characters (HRC's) was similar among observed left-handed individuals in the studied localities. It varied from 10.5 +/- 0.4 in Serbia to 10.7 +/- 0.3 in MNE. The differences were somewhat bigger among right-handed persons, varying from 8.7 +/- 0.3 in MNE to 9.1 +/- 0.3 HRC's in Serbia. However, in all localities the average homozygosity was significantly higher among left-handed school children. The number of HRC's among 400 individuals varied from 2 to 16 among right-handed and from 4 to 19 among left-handed persons. There were no differences in scholar scores between left-handed and right-handed children, although small differences were found between two state samples.

  7. Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection*

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, A.; Klun, I.; Bobić, B.; Ivović, V.; Vujanić, M.; Živković, T.; Djurković-Djaković, O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797

  8. Heavy metals, organics and radioactivity in soil of western Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dugalic, Goran; Krstic, Dragana; Jelic, Miodrag; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Milenkovic, Biljana; Pucarevic, Mira; Zeremski-Skoric, Tijana

    2010-05-15

    Western Serbia is a region well-known for potato production. Concentrations of selected metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and radioactivity were measured in the soil in order to evaluate the quality and characteristics. The examined soils (Luvisol and Pseudogley) showed unsuitable agrochemical characteristics (acid reaction, low content of organic matter and potassium). Some samples contained Ni, Mn and Cr above the maximal permissible concentration (MPC). The average concentration of total PAHs was 1.92 mg/kg, which is larger than the maximal permissible concentration in Serbia but below the threshold values in the European Union for food production. The average radioactivity of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and the fission product (137)Cs were 60.4+/-26.2, 33.2+/-13.4, 49.1+/-18.5, 379+/-108 and 36.4+/-23.3 Bq/kg. Enhanced radioactivity in the soils was found. The total absorbed dose rate in air above the soil at 1m height calculated for western Serbia was 73.4 nGy/h and the annual effective dose was 90 microSv, which are similar to earlier reports for the study region.

  9. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards. PMID:27145580

  10. Mapping the governance of human resources for health in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Vasic, Milena; Edwards, Matt

    2015-12-01

    This article maps the current governance of human resources for health (HRH) in relation to universal health coverage in Serbia since the health sector reforms in 2003. The study adapts the Global Health Workforce Alliance/World Health Organization four-dimensional framework of HRH in the context of governance for universal health coverage. A set of proxies was established for the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of HRH. Analysis of official HRH documentation from relevant institutions and reports were used to construct a governance profile of HRH for Serbia from the introduction of the reform in 2003 up to 2013. The results show that all Serbian districts (except Sremski) surpass the availability threshold of 59.4 skilled midwives, nurses and physicians per 10,000 inhabitants. District accessibility of health workforce greatly differed from the national average with variances from +26% to -34%. Analysis of national averages and patient load of general practitioners showed variances among districts by ± 21%, whilst hospital discharges per 100 inhabitants deviated between +52% and -45%. Pre-service and in-service education of health workforce is regulated and accredited. However, through its efforts to respond to population health needs Serbia lacks a single coordinating entity to take overall responsibility for effective and coordinated HRH planning, management and development within the broader landscape of health strategy development.

  11. 31 CFR 585.414 - Services performed in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or by the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or by the Government of the FRY (S&M). 585.414 Section 585... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA (SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO... Interpretations § 585.414 Services performed in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) or...

  12. The Role of Comparative Pedagogy in the Training of Pedagogues in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spasenovic, Vera; Vujisic Zivkovic, Natasa; Ermenc, Klara Skubic

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers three issues arising from the study of the development and the current state of Comparative Pedagogy in Serbia and Slovenia. First, the development of Comparative Pedagogy as a distinctive discipline in Serbia and Slovenia is discussed. Second, the role and the content of Comparative Pedagogy courses in university programmes…

  13. Empowering Schools to Serve as Safety Nets for Children with Behavior Problems in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlesic, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Children with special needs have been a focus of institutional reforms in Serbia for nearly two decades. Historically, as in other Eastern European countries, children with severe developmental, emotional, and/or behavior disorders in Serbia were often placed in institutions far from their families for much of their lives. Since the fall of…

  14. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  15. [Pharmacotherapeutical possibilities in mental disorders: current status in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Lečić-Toševski, Dušica; Mihajlović, Goran; Borovčanin, Milica; Simič-Vukomanovič, Ivana

    2011-12-01

    The new therapeutical approaches have direct implications on living in order to accomplish remission, stop further progression of illnesses or improve the quality of life. The life expectancy has been increased up to 10 years in the last 55 years, probably owing to the innovative drugs. The innovative drugs application in our everyday clinical practice should be analyzed, related to economical aspects and to the transitional status of a country, but also in the context of fears and misconceptions of therapists. The cost of therapy is not equal to the cost of prescribed drugs, however it also includes direct and indirect costs and medical and nonmedical burden. Countries in our region spend 4-7.3% of the total budget for antipsychotic drugs, while the costs in Serbia are about 1.5%. The new antipsychotics and the new formulations of the available antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia are pharmacoeconomically justified. On the other side, the substance abuse needs other strategies, including new substitution treatments. In our country only methadone maintenance therapy is available. It is necessary to provide adequate legislation to improve the process of drug registration. In the European Union it takes from 0 to 400 days for a drug to be registered, but in Serbia the process last longerthan 3 years. Important laws approved in 2006 and 2009, are only a part of the destigmatiazation of patients with mental disorders. Treatment guidelines also help in resolving these issues. Taking all of the above into consideration, the treatment of mental disorders with innovative drugs is financially justified, but still unreachable for patients in Serbia. The voice of the professionals should be heard in these matters in order to provide the adequate treatment of people with mental health problems.

  16. Reproductive rights and the state in Serbia and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Skrabalo, Marina; Subotic, Jelena

    2002-02-01

    The global reproductive rights movement arose in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a challenge to the population control paradigm that has dominated family planning policy for almost half a century. The essence of the challenge is to place women into the center of population discussions as subjects, not objects of policy, and to reorient family planning and health programs toward meeting the broad reproductive health needs of individuals, rather than the narrow population control objectives of states. Reproductive rights advocates argue that the use of family planning programs for developmentalist-oriented population control objectives is illegimate, and inevitably relegates women to the status of depersonalized policy "targets". The cases of Croatia and Serbia, the two dominant partners in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, offer interesting twists on these reproductive rights issues. In Croatia and Serbia, unlike in many nations, the governments are deliberately seeking to increase rather than decrease fertility levels. Moreover, the objective concerns identity politics, more so than development: the governments have encouraged increased fertility to safeguard the survival of their nations and to strengthen national power amidst threatening internal and external environments of ethnic conflict. In this paper, we examine the dynamics of pro-natalist fertility policy in Croatia and Serbia. We do so with a view to explaining why, despite similarities, the two have followed divergent paths. While reproductive rights violations have occurred in both nations, they have been markedly higher in Serbia than Croatia. To explain this divergence we look at a series of sociopolitical factors, including the space available for groups to mobilize in each political system; the degree of nationalistic extremism present in the discourse of central political leaders; and perceptions of threats and opportunities in external geopolitical environments. In conducting this

  17. Reproductive rights and the state in Serbia and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Skrabalo, Marina; Subotic, Jelena

    2002-02-01

    The global reproductive rights movement arose in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a challenge to the population control paradigm that has dominated family planning policy for almost half a century. The essence of the challenge is to place women into the center of population discussions as subjects, not objects of policy, and to reorient family planning and health programs toward meeting the broad reproductive health needs of individuals, rather than the narrow population control objectives of states. Reproductive rights advocates argue that the use of family planning programs for developmentalist-oriented population control objectives is illegimate, and inevitably relegates women to the status of depersonalized policy "targets". The cases of Croatia and Serbia, the two dominant partners in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, offer interesting twists on these reproductive rights issues. In Croatia and Serbia, unlike in many nations, the governments are deliberately seeking to increase rather than decrease fertility levels. Moreover, the objective concerns identity politics, more so than development: the governments have encouraged increased fertility to safeguard the survival of their nations and to strengthen national power amidst threatening internal and external environments of ethnic conflict. In this paper, we examine the dynamics of pro-natalist fertility policy in Croatia and Serbia. We do so with a view to explaining why, despite similarities, the two have followed divergent paths. While reproductive rights violations have occurred in both nations, they have been markedly higher in Serbia than Croatia. To explain this divergence we look at a series of sociopolitical factors, including the space available for groups to mobilize in each political system; the degree of nationalistic extremism present in the discourse of central political leaders; and perceptions of threats and opportunities in external geopolitical environments. In conducting this

  18. Historical Review of Astro-Geodetic Observations in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrizovic, V.; Delcev, S.; Vasilic, V.; Gucevic, J.

    2008-10-01

    Astro-geodetic determinations of vertical deflections in Serbia began during the first years of 20th century. The first field works were led by S. Bo\\vsković. After the 2nd World War, Military Geographic Institute, Department of Geodesy from the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Federal Geodetic Directorate continued the determinations, needed for reductions of terrestrial geodetic measurements and the astro-geodetic geoid determination. Last years improvements of the astro-geodetic methods are carried out in the area of implementing modern measurement equipment and technologies.

  19. [Dr. Elizabeth Ross: heroine and victim of the World War I in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Mikić, Želimir; Lešić, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of 1915, several months after the World War I started, Serbia was in an extremely difficult situation.The country was war-ravaged, full of sick and wounded soldiers, there was a desperate shortage of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel, and the epidemic of typhus fever exploded and violently attacked the entire country. At that time, however, a number of both foreign allied medical missions and individual volunteers, from various countries, mostly from Great Britain, came to Serbia to help. Among them mostly were women, and they were of enormous support to Serbia in that grave situation. It is estimated that there were more than 600 foreign women volunteers in Serbia at that time and that 22 of them died there. Dr. Elizabeth Ross was one of those brave volunteers who came to Serbia early in 1915. That noble Scottish lady doctor was born in 1878 and finished her medical studies at the University of Glasgow in 1901. After graduation she worked in various places in Great Britain until 1909, when she went to Persia (Iran), where she worked until the beginning of the so called Great War. When she heard of the urgent need in Serbia she left Persia as soon as she could and volunteered to serve in Serbia. She came to Kragujevac at the beginning of January 1915, where she worked at the First Military Reserve Hospital, which at that time was actually a typhus hospital. Working there intensively and devotedly for several weeks under shocking conditions she contracted typhus herself and died there on her 37th birthday on February 14th, 1915. She was buried in Kragujevac, next to two British ladies who also died in Serbia of typhus. Her grave was restored in 1980 when the town of Kragujevac started holding commemorations at the graveside every February 14th at noon to honor her and all other brave and noble women who lost their lives helping Serbia at that unfortunate time.

  20. Torrential floods and town and country planning in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, R.; Kostadinov, S.; Abolmasov, B.; Dragićević, S.; Trivan, G.; Radić, B.; Trifunović, M.; Radosavljević, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Torrential floods are the most frequent natural catastrophic events in Serbia, causing the loss of human lives and huge material damage, both in urban and rural areas. The analysis of the intra-annual distribution of maximal discharges aided in noticing that torrential floods have a seasonal character. The erosion and torrent control works (ETCWs) in Serbia began at the end of the 19th century. Effective protection from torrential floods encompasses biotechnical works on the slopes in the watershed and technical works on the torrent beds, within a precisely defined administrative and spatial framework in order to achieve maximal safety for people and their property. Cooperation to overcome the conflicts between the sectors of the water resources management, forestry, agriculture, energetics, environmental protection and local economic development groups is indispensable at the following levels: policy, spatial planning, practice, investments and education. The lowest and most effective level is through the Plans for Announcement of Erosive Regions (PAERs) and the Plans for Protection from Torrential Floods (PPTFs), with Hazard Zones (HZs) and Threatened Areas (TAs) mapping on the basis of the hydrologic, hydraulic and spatial analysis of the factors that are important for the formation of torrential floods. Solutions defined through PAERs and PPTFs have to be integrated into Spatial Plans at local and regional levels.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsiae in different regions of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Svetomir; Marinkovic, Tatjana; Marinkovic, Dragan; Djuricic, Bosiljka; Ristanovic, Elizabeta; Simovic, Tatjana; Lako, Branislav; Vukov, Biljana; Bozovic, Bojana; Gligic, Ana

    2008-04-01

    We assayed the presence of antibodies specific for Rickettsia typhi, R. akari, and R. conorii in sera of persons from several localities in Serbia with different geographic, climatic, and lifestyle characteristics. Sera from 140 patients with unclear clinical symptoms and 273 healthy persons were tested for the presence of rickettsiae-specific antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In this study, for the first time we detected the presence of rickettsiae from the spotted fever group in Serbia. We detected the presence of antibodies against R. conorii in the samples from all tested localities. The proportion of positive cases was low in the plain agricultural areas but reached up to 23% in the mountain areas. We also observed a significant number of cases positive for antibodies against R. akari. Antibodies specific for the antigens of R. typhi were detected in only 2 samples from the municipality of Pec (Kosovo region). These findings contribute to the prevalence of Rickettsia species in Southeast Europe. Our study also revealed a dramatic lack of awareness of rickettsioses among medical personnel and pointed to the need for urgent measures that would help improve the current situation in the region. PMID:18240971

  2. State of psychiatry in Serbia--problems, advances and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tosevski, Dusica Lecic; Gajic, Saveta Draganic; Milovancevic, Milica Pejovic

    2012-08-01

    Serbia has been exposed to many severe stressors during the last 20 years and as a result there is an increase of the incidence of mental health problems in its population, so that mental disorders are the second largest public health problem, after cardiovascular diseases. The National Strategy for Development of Mental Health Care was approved by the government in January 2007 which initiated the reform of psychiatry in the country. The major advantages of the existing organization of mental healthcare are a sufficient number of psychiatric services and the number of well educated professionals, but there are considerable problems in big psychiatric hospitals which are significantly overcrowded with patients, as well as with the lack of a network of community services. In the future, key points of mental health reform aim to focus on improved cooperation and collaboration between primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare levels, definition of catchment areas and responsibilities, continuing education of general practitioners in mental health issues, and better cooperation between psychiatric and social welfare institutions. The profile of the Institute for Mental Health is described as a case of good practice in the field of mental healthcare in Serbia.

  3. Variability of the honey bee mite Varroa destructor in Serbia, based on mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Gajic, Bojan; Radulovic, Zeljko; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Kulisic, Zoran; Vucicevic, Milos; Simeunovic, Predrag; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2013-09-01

    Only two mitochondrial haplotypes (Korea and Japan) of Varroa destructor, the ectoparasitic honey bee mite, are known to be capable of infesting and successfully reproducing in Apis mellifera colonies worldwide. Varroa destructor (then called Varroa jacobsoni) was observed in Serbia for the first time in 1976. In order to obtain insight into the genetic variability of the mites parasitizing A. mellifera we analyzed 45 adult female mites sampled from nine localities dispersed throughout Serbia. Four fragments within cox1, atp6, cox3 and cytb mtDNA genes were sequenced. The Korea haplotype of V. destructor was found to be present at all localities, but also two new haplotypes (Serbia 1 and Peshter 1) were revealed, based on cox1 and cytb sequence variability. The simultaneous occurrence of Korea and Serbia 1 haplotypes was observed at five localities, whereas Peshter 1 haplotype was identifed at only one place.

  4. Arsenic occurrence in drinking water supply systems in ten municipalities in Vojvodina Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dragana; Jakovljević, Branko; Rašić-Milutinović, Zorica; Paunović, Katarina; Peković, Gordana; Knezević, Tanja

    2011-02-01

    Vojvodina, a northern region of Serbia, belongs to the Pannonian Basin, whose aquifers contain high concentrations of arsenic. This study represents arsenic levels in drinking water in ten municipalities in Serbia. Around 63% of all water samples exceeded Serbian and European standards for arsenic in drinking water. Large variations in arsenic were observed among supply systems. Arsenic concentrations in public water supply systems in Vojvodina were much higher than in other countries in the Pannonian Basin.

  5. Radioactivity in the indoor building environment in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Natasa; Bikit, Istvan; Vesković, Miroslav; Krmar, Miodrag; Mrđa, Dusan; Forkapić, Sofija; Hansman, Jan; Nikolov, Jovana; Bikit, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of activity concentrations of radionuclides in building materials and radon in indoor space is important in the assessment of population exposures, as most individuals spend 80 % of their time indoors. This paper presents the results of activity concentration measurements of: radon emanated from the soil, radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil, indoor radon in the city of Novi Sad (the capital city of Vojvodina) using charcoal canisters and indoor radon in the Vojvodina region using alpha-track detectors and the radioactivity of some building materials. Influences of floor level, space under the rooms, boarding, and the heating system on indoor radon accumulation in the Vojvodina province, situated in the northern part of Serbia, are also presented in this paper. The total effective dose and the activity concentration index are calculated applying the dose criteria recommended by the European Union for building materials.

  6. Public exposure to radon in drinking water in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Natasa; Nikolov, Jovana; Forkapic, Sofija; Bikit, Istvan; Mrdja, Dusan; Krmar, Miodrag; Veskovic, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Radon is the main source of natural radiation that is received by population. The results of radon activity measurements in water from public drinking fountain, from bottled drinking water and from tap water in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The corrected value of radon concentration in one sample exceeded the European Commission recommendation reference level for radon in drinking water of 100 Bql(-1). In order to make the correlation between radon and radium concentrations in the tap water and in the water from public drinking fountain, the gamma-spectrometric measurements were performed. The results of (222)Rn activity concentration measurements from soil in the city of Novi Sad using RAD 7 detector are presented.

  7. Southern Africa

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Southern Africa     View larger JPEG image ... visibility of smoke plumes and haze. The southern tip of South Africa is at the bottom of the image, and Zambia is at the top. ... MISR Team. Aug 25, 2000 - South Africa to Zambia including the Okavango Delta. project:  ...

  8. Molecular detection of emerging tick-borne pathogens in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon

    2016-02-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission globally due to their capability to serve as vectors for human and animal pathogens. The Republic of Serbia is an endemic area for a large number of tick-borne diseases. However, current knowledge on these diseases in Serbia is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of new emerging tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 187 ticks, including 124 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 45 Ixodes ricinus and 18 Dermacentor reticulatus were collected from dogs. In addition, 26 questing I. ricinus ticks were collected from the vegetation, using the flagging method, from 4 different localities in Vojvodina, Serbia. DNA was extracted from each tick individually and samples were tested by either conventional or real-time PCR assays for the presence of Rickettsia spp.-DNA (gltA and ompA gene fragments), Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.-DNA (16S rRNA gene fragment) and Hepatozoon spp./Babesia spp.-DNA (18S rRNA gene fragment). In addition, all I. ricinus DNA samples were tested for Bartonella spp.-DNA (ITS locus) by real-time PCR. In this study, the presence of novel emerging tick-borne pathogens including Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia massiliae, Babesia venatorum, Babesia microti, Hepatozoon canis and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis was identified for the first time in Serbia. Our findings also confirmed the presence of Rickettsia monacensis, Babesia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks from Serbia. The findings of the current study highlight the great diversity of tick-borne pathogens of human and animal importance in Serbia. Physicians, public health workers and veterinarians should increase alertness to the presence of these tick-borne pathogens in this country. PMID:26565929

  9. Črvenka loess-paleosol sequence revisited: local and regional Quaternary biogeographical inferences of the southern Carpathian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sümegi, Pál; Marković, Slobodan B.; Molnár, Dávid; Sávai, Szilvia; Náfrádi, Katalin; Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Novák, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    Studies of Quaternary malacological assemblages from the loess-paleosol section of Črvenka (Vojvodina region, Serbia) provided the opportunity to examine the paleobiogeographic dynamics of the southern part of the Carpathian Basin. The results of quantitative-statistical, paleoecological and paleobiogeographical analyses performed on 9185 specimens of 38 mollusc species from six stratigraphic units showed that the study area was a transition area between the refuge areas in the Carpathian Basin during the Pleistocene.

  10. Concentrations of particulate matter and arsenic in Bor (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Serbula, S M; Antonijević, M M; Milosević, N M; Milić, S M; Ilić, A A

    2010-09-15

    Measurements of air quality in the territory of Bor (Serbia) were performed at the sampling sites in the urban-industrial, suburban and rural area during the 2003-2008 period. A high level of arsenic (As) concentration in suspended particulate matter (PM) is of a predominantly industrial origin. The major source of pollution is the copper smelter which is situated in the close vicinity of the urban area of Bor. The ambient level of PM and As is influenced by meteorological parameters as well as the remoteness from the copper smelter. Continual exceedances of the annual limit value (LV) for As (6 ng m(-3)) were recorded at the sampling sites in the urban-industrial and suburban area. Maximum annual As concentrations were recorded at Town Park (46.5 ng m(-3)) in 2004, Institute (95.4 ng m(-3)) in 2004 and Jugopetrol (74.5 ng m(-3)) in 2003. In the past 15 years not a single mean annual As concentration recorded at the sampling sites Town Park, Institute and Jugopetrol has been within the LV. When the average annual and maximum monthly As concentrations are compared, it can be concluded that the level of pollution is higher in the urban-industrial and suburban areas than in the rural area. PMID:20510514

  11. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  12. [Legal status of persons with mental illness in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Aleksandar A

    2004-01-01

    In this study, legal status of the mentally ill has been discussed in the context of Serbian legislation. The topics covered are the following: 1) the admission of persons with mental illness to psychiatric institution, 2) general (legal) competence, 3) marital relations of persons with mental illness, 4) legal definitions of sanity and security measures of medical character. Serbia still has no general law on mental health which would be in accordance with European standards, and the existing legislation which deals with the rights of persons with mental illness is, to a large extent, incomplete and obsolete. The author appeals for passing the law on mental health which should: a) follow modern trends in psychiatry concerning the protection of human rights with the basic goal to protect society and mentally ill persons, b) to protect the professional and moral integrity of psychiatrists, c) to provide ethically and professionally acceptable authorization for the use of force, if necessary, in order to prevent criminal acts and/or self-injuries in patients suffering from severe psychical disorders, d) to conceptualize forensic psychiatric treatment (the security measures, corrective psychiatry) and the programs of rehabilitation as an integral part of the community mental health protection system.

  13. Circulation weather types and their influence on precipitation in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putniković, Suzana; Tošić, Ivana; Đurđević, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    An objective classification scheme of atmospheric circulation, in which daily circulation is determined by the strength, direction, and vorticity of geostrophic flow, has been applied to the atmosphere over Serbia for the time period 1961-2010. The results for the sea level and isobaric level of 500 hPa for winter and summer are presented. The 26 circulation types (eight pure direction, 16 hybrid, cyclonic, and anticyclonic types) are determined and described. Each of the circulation types has a distinct underlying synoptic pattern that produces the expected type and direction of flow over the study area. The relative frequencies of the circulation types, and the relationship between the precipitation and circulation types at three stations on a seasonal time scale are analyzed. The anticyclonic weather type dominates in winter (18.93 %) and summer (18.70 %), followed by the northeasterly type (16.65 %) in summer, and the cyclonic type (12.83 %) in winter. The cyclonic types (C and hybrid) have a higher than average probability of rain at all stations. Conversely, the anticyclonic types are associated with a lower than average probability and intensity of rainfall.

  14. Celiac disease prevalence in epileptic children from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djurić, Zlatko; Nagorni, Aleksandar; Jocić-Jakubi, Bosa; Dimić, Milena; Novak, Martin; Milićević, Radovan; Radenković, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a genetically determined autoimmune enteropathy, induced by gluten ingestion. To date, different prevalences of CD in children with epilepsy have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine CD prevalence in our patients with epilepsy, using anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies as a screening test. One hundred twenty-five children (72 girls, 53 boys; age range: 2-18 years, mean age: 10.51 +/- 3.53) with idiopathic epilepsy from South East Serbia were tested for immunoglobulin (IgA) tTG antibodies. All positive patients were offered endoscopic small bowel biopsy. Biopsies were examined histopathologically in order to confirm the CD diagnosis. The control group consisted of 150 healthy children. Three patients with epilepsy were positive for IgA tTG antibodies. In all of them, small bowel biopsy was performed, and only one was proven to have CD by histopathology (Marsh IIIa grade). The prevalence of biopsy-proven CD in children with epilepsy was not significantly higher in the study group compared to controls (0.8% vs.0.6%, p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that children with idiopathic epilepsy from our region should not be routinely tested for CD. PMID:23094534

  15. OCCUPATIONAL DOSE ASSESSMENT IN INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Kaljevic, J; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Bozovic, P; Antic, V

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the occupational dose in interventional cardiology in a large hospital in Belgrade, Serbia. A double-dosimetry method was applied for the estimation of whole-body dose, using thermoluminescent dosemeters, calibrated in terms of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Besides the double-dosimetry method, eye dose was also estimated by means of measuring ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and doses per procedure were reported. Doses were assessed for 13 physicians, 6 nurses and 10 radiographers, for 2 consequent years. The maximum annual effective dose assessed was 4.3, 2.1 and 1.3 mSv for physicians, nurses and radiographers, respectively. The maximum doses recorded by the dosemeter worn at the collar level (over the apron) were 16.8, 11.9 and 4.5 mSv, respectively. This value was used for the eye lens dose assessment. Estimated doses are in accordance with or higher than annual dose limits for the occupational exposure. PMID:26464526

  16. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  17. Genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) in central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, M; Nikolic, V; Stajkovic, N; Stamenkovic, G; Bozovic, B; Cekanac, R; Marusic, P; Gligic, A

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkans, particularly in Serbia, where sporadic cases and/or outbreaks of hantaviral human disease have been reported repeatedly, and evidenced serologically. Here, we present genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) hantaviral sequences in wild rodents trapped in central Serbia. All the animals were pre-screened serologically by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test and only those with a positive finding of hantaviral antigens were further tested by polymerase chain reaction. Of the total of 104 trapped animals, 20 were found to be IF positive and of those three were positive for hantaviral RNA: one Microtus arvalis for Tula virus, and one each of Apodemus agrarius and Glis glis for DOBV. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences implies putative DOBV spillover infection of A. agrarius and G. glis from Apodemus flavicollis. However, future investigations should help to identify the most common natural host and geographical distribution of DOBV in its reservoir hosts in Serbia. PMID:24762257

  18. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Ćirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  19. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

  20. Application of kriging meteode the example Krupanj municipality, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perovic, Veljko; Jaramaz, Darko; Saljnikov, Elmira; Cakmak, Dragan; Zivotic, Ljubomir; Mrvic, Vesna; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana

    2010-05-01

    Application of kriging meteode the example Krupanj municipality, Serbia 1Veljko Perovic, 1Darko Jaramaz, 1Elmira Saljnikov, 1Dragan Cakmak, 2Ljubomir Zivotic, 1Vesna Mrvic, 1Ljiljana Kostic - Kravljanac 1 Institute of Soil Science, Belgrade 2 Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade keywords: kriging, geostatistics, layers The basic idea of geostatistics is the use of spatial coorelation under the spatial property which is analysed in order to improve its spatial interpolation. There is number of geostatistical methods for the interpolation of the spatial data. In the paper using of Kriging method, which belongs to the often used geostatistical techniques in cartography is discussed. Kriging as a method contains a number of techniques, such as: simple kriging, ordinary kriging, indicator kriging, universal kriging and disjunctive kriging. Kriging estimation is based on the use of data from the control points, which are assigned to the corresponding coefficients. Control points actually represent sampling sites with their characteristics. Area was explored us Krupanj, located in the western part of Serbia. Krupanj lies at 44 ° 21 '34 " latitude and 19 ° 21' 26" longitude. The area of 342 km2 was rfesearched where 800 samples of surface soil were taken for further analysis. The data obtained were proceeded to thematic maps (pH in nKCl, K2O, P2O5, and humus). During data processing we used the ArcGIS program and its extension Geostatistical Analyst. In a given extension the ordinary kriging with irregular arrangement of points was used. The technique of ordinary kriging assumes that the local mean value is not close or equal to the mean value of total nimber of sampling points. The estimation was made only based on the nearest sampling points. After the completion of the assessment in the selected grid, the determination of the predicted and actual error estimates, which convirms the reliability estimates and the spatial quality of the selected model was computed using the

  1. DRIHM Project: Floods in Serbia in May 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivkovic, Marija; Dimitrijevic, Vladimir; Dekic, Ljiljana; Mihalovic, Ana; Pejanovic, Goran

    2015-04-01

    The central parts of Balkans were affected with very deep cyclone named "Tamara" form 13th until 16th of May. Stations in western parts of Serbia recorded precipitation four times greater than average precipitation sums. Two third of that amount has felt in three days. Devastating floods occurred on Sava, Kolubara and Jadar river basins causing damage of 1.7 billion Euros, and loss of 24 human lives. Three days before the event, a first warning was issued pointing that the precipitation amounts will exceed 40 mm of rain for 12 hours, accompanied with the hydrological information that the water level on Sava and Kolubara rivers will significantly rise. Within the DRIHM project and its e-infrastructure it was possible to test a combination of different Numerical Weather Prediction models together with stochastic downscaling algorithms to enable the production of more effective quantitative rainfall predictions for this severe meteorological event. Hydrometeorological models in DRIHM are building blocks that can be easily linked together in a form of hydrometeorological chain. For this case the HBV model, distributed hydrological model, was used as the hydrological component in the model chain and RainFARM as stochastic downscaling tool. Results obtained with these models are shown and compared with Hyprom, one of the hydrological models also used in RHMSS with the aim of scoping the current capabilities for the early warning of the extreme events. The information where and when the High Impact Weather Event (HIWE) can occur is very important for the proper overview of the possible overall influence. Different precipitation distribution both in space and in time is allowing us to estimate the future state of the system but also to see the range of the possible outcomes.

  2. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  3. Monitoring West Nile virus (WNV) infection in wild birds in Serbia during 2012: first isolation and characterisation of WNV strains from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrović, T; Blazquez, A B; Lupulović, D; Lazić, G; Escribano-Romero, E; Fabijan, D; Kapetanov, M; Lazić, S; Saiz, Jc

    2013-10-31

    West Nile virus (WNV), a neurovirulent mosquito-transmissible zoonotic virus, has caused recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia from August until October 2012. Although humans can be infected, birds are the main natural WNV reservoir. To assess WNV circulation in northern Serbia, 133 wild birds were investigated. These comprised resident and migratory birds, collected between January and September 2012 in the Vojvodina province. The birds belonged to 45 species within 27 families. Blood sera (n=92) and pooled tissues from respective birds (n=81) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). WNV antibodies were detected in seven (8%) sera: four from Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), two from White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicillas), and one from a Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus). Five sera neutralised WNV but not Usutu virus. For the first time in Serbia, WNV RNA was detected by RT-qPCR in pooled tissue samples of eight respective birds. WNV RNA was also derived from an additional bird, after a serum sample resulted infective in cell culture. The total nine WNV RNA positive birds included three Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), two White-tailed Eagles, one Legged Gull (Larus michahelis), one Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), one Bearded Parrot-bill (Panarus biramicus), and one Common Pheasant. Phylogenetic analysis of partial E region sequences showed the presence of, at least, two lineage 2 Serbian clusters closely related to those responsible for recent human and animal outbreaks in Greece, Hungary and Italy. Full genomic sequence from a goshawk isolate corroborated this data. These results confirm WNV circulation in Serbia and highlight the risk of infection for humans and horses, pointing to the need for implementing WNV surveillance programmes.

  4. Seasonal analysis of cold and heat waves in Serbia during the period 1949-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkašević, Miroslava; Tošić, Ivana

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has become one of the subjects most analysed by researchers, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that have hit the globe. A series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures at 15 stations in Serbia were used to calculate temperature indices, from which the duration and severity of cold and heat waves were estimated. Seasonal analysis was based on data from 1949 to 2012. The year 2012 saw severe cooling in Serbia, the longest heat waves during the summer and the worst drought since observations began — three major climate anomalies all in 1 year. An analysis of the daily minimum temperatures at almost all meteorological stations during the winter season revealed that the longest cold waves were observed in 1956. The longest heat waves were observed during the summer of 2012 in Serbia at ten out of 15 stations, but they did not reach the severity of those in July 2007. In addition, the main characteristics of the circulation conditions which caused the longest cold and heat waves in Serbia were analysed.

  5. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  6. Who Is Responsible for Vulnerable Pupils? The Attitudes of Teacher Candidates in Serbia and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica

    2012-01-01

    In the ongoing trend towards inclusive education, initial teacher education programmes must ensure that prospective teachers are prepared to teach all pupils effectively. The study presented in this paper aimed to explore the attitudes of teacher candidates in Serbia and Slovenia towards responsibility for the teaching and learning of vulnerable…

  7. The impact of educational reform and categorization of scientific journals and scientists on physics in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Mirjana; Davidović, Milena; Kapor, Agneš; Knežević, Dragica; Pavkov-Hrvojević, Milica; Puač, Nevena; Savić, Ilija; Stojanović, Maja; Marković-Topalović, Tatjana

    2013-03-01

    The trend of the increasing participation and importance of female physicists in Serbia continues. Many women have taken leading position in research and faculty governance and are contributing significantly to educational reform and the improvement of physics education in the primary and secondary schools.

  8. Legal Framework and Retirement Policies in Serbia from 1990 to 2016 – Gendered Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Olivera; Radevic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Retirement policy is an unavoidable factor for the economic and social stability of the state. In our country, Serbia, the total number of pensioners in 2015 was almost 1.8 million, which is higher in comparison to the time period from 2002 to 2014. According to increased number of pensioners, pension reforms are a crucial step of economic stability for less developed country, such as Serbia. The first step in this question in Serbia was made in 2001, and this change was referred to the raise in the retirement age. Next step was made in 2003 and involved wider ranges of changes than the previous step. Another change in this field was followed by 2005, and it was related to age limit for retirement, which was supposed to increase for 6 months each year during the period from 2008 to 2011, while another change was a gradual pension adjustment. The last step in this road of pension reforms in Serbia has become with adopted Law on Pension and Disability Insurance that entered into force in January 2015, when age limit for retirement was extended for both genders, whereby it is clear that the aim of this measure is to equalize years of service for genders by 2023 and age limit by 2032 when 65 years will be the age limit. PMID:27730121

  9. International Meteor Conference 2017, Petnica, Serbia, September 21-24, 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlović, D.; Todorović, S.; Živanović, M.

    2016-01-01

    The International Meteor Conference 2017 will be hosted by Petnica Science Center in Petnica, a village near the city of Valjevo, Serbia, from September 21 to September 24, 2017. Here we present some basic information about this conference, as presented at the International Meteor Conference 2016 in Egmond, the Netherlands.

  10. Application of SMOS and ASCAT soil moisture estimations to hydrological modelling in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanovic, Nikola; Ivkovic, Marija; Drobnjak, Aleksandar

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the performance of satellite-based soil moisture products from satellites SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, measuring brightness temperatures in the L-Band at 1.4 GHz) and ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer, measuring surface backscattering coefficients in the C-band at 5.255 GHz) for hydrological application. Firstly, SMOS and ASCAT Level 2 soil moisture data were compared to in situ data over Serbia at available sites. All available in situ ground-based point measurements of soil moisture, from the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia and other independent stations, were collected for the overlapping period with satellite observations and compared against remotely sensed satellite-based soil moisture products. Two approaches are presented in this study to evaluate the applicability of satellite-based SMOS and ASCAT soil moisture products to basin-scale hydrological modelling in a case study catchment in Serbia. The first approach was based on a continuous conceptual forecast-based rainfall-runoff model (using distributed HBV model), where satellite-based soil moisture data helped perform corrections to calculated model soil moisture. The second approach analysed individual event-based rainfall-runoff modelling (using HEC-HMS), where initial (pre-event) model parameters were estimated using satellite-based soil moisture data. Both approaches involved calibration of the hydrological models with and without satellite-based soil moisture data on a case study in Serbia.

  11. The Impact of Leadership on the Communication Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terek, Edit; Glušac, Dragana; Nikolic, Milan; Tasic, Ivan; Gligorovic, Bojana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research into the effects of leadership on the communication satisfaction of teachers. The data was obtained by giving questionnaires to 362 teachers from 57 primary schools in Serbia. Leadership is shown to have a strong and positive impact on the communication satisfaction of teachers in Serbian primary…

  12. Prospects for Inclusive Education in European Countries Emerging from Economic and Other Trauma: Serbia and Albania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radoman, Vesna; Nano, Virxhil; Closs, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines recent historical, social and economic factors in Albania and Serbia, identifying similarities and differences that have a bearing on the provision of education. The focus is on the education of children with difficulties in learning and/or disabilities (the term "special needs" is used for brevity). The paper provides a…

  13. Teaching for Humanity in a Neoliberal World: Visions of Education in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    In Serbia, teachers and policy makers express different and sometimes competing visions of education. Teachers express their desire to "awaken" students by using progressive pedagogies, while European Union and World Bank reformers appropriate progressive education in the service of neoliberal goals. The research findings presented here indicate…

  14. Structure of Vocational Interests in Serbia: Evaluation of the Spherical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrih, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    To explore the structure of vocational interests in Serbia, 1063 participants of various age, education and gender completed the Serbian version of the Personal Globe Inventory [PGI, Tracey, T. (2002). "Personal Globe Inventory: Measurement of the spherical model of interests and competence beliefs." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 6, 113-172].…

  15. Architecture of Primary Schools in Serbia in the 21st Century: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, when education reform in Serbia began education goals, teachers' training, curriculum and teaching/learning methods have been modernised and improved. However, a closer examination of the schools built from 2000 onwards reveals that architectural design of primary schools rests on standardised school design schemes from socialist…

  16. Best Practice for Rainfall Measurement, Torrential Flood Monitoring and Real Time Alerting System in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovic, Milutin; Milojevic, Mileta; Zlatanovic, Nikola

    2014-05-01

    Serbia occupies 88.000 km2 and its confined zone menaced with torrent flood occupies 50.000km2. Floods on large rivers and torrents are the most frequent natural disasters in Serbia. This is the result of a geographic position and relief of Serbia. Therefore, defense from these natural disasters has been institutionalized since the 19th century. Through its specialized bodies and public companies, the State organized defense from floods on large rivers and protection of international and other main roads. The Topčiderska River is one of a number of rivers in Serbia that is a threat to both urban and rural environments. In this text, general characteristics of this river will be illustrated, as well as the historical natural hazards that have occurred in the part of Belgrade near Topčiderska River. Belgrade is the capital of Serbia, its political, administrative and financial center, which means that there are significant financial capacities and human resources for investments in all sectors, and specially in the water resources sector. Along the Topčiderska catchment there are many industrial, traffic and residential structures that are in danger of floods and flood protection is more difficult with rapid high flows. The goal is to use monitoring on the Topčiderska River basin to set up a modern system for monitoring in real time and forecast of torrential floods. This paper represents a system of remote detection and monitoring of torrential floods and rain measurements in real time on Topciderka river and ready for a quick response.

  17. Selenium in soil, grass, and human serum in the Zlatibor mountain area (Serbia): geomedical aspects.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Z; Rsumović, M; Jović, V; Kosanović, M; Jovanović, T

    1998-01-01

    The Zlatibor district in Serbia has lower mortality rates of malignant and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) compared with other regions in Serbia. To better understand the influence of the geochemical environment, we collected and analyzed soil from various bedrocks and the grass growing on them. We also analyzed spring and stream waters, including large water supply accumulations, for major chemical elements and examined the serum of healthy adults in the large area of Zlatibor for selenium (Se) and magnesium (Mg). Our studies included villages, small towns, and the town of Uzice. Our results showed a variable Se content in the soil over different bedrocks. In general, soil in this area has a higher Se content than in other regions of Serbia. The Se content of the grass is influenced by bedrock and soil mineralogy, but mostly by soil pH and the date of collection. For example, in late summer, grass contains twice as much Se than in spring. Mg2+HCO3(-)-type waters occur in the ultramafic massif of Zlatibor in a concentration of 44 to 68 mgMg/L. The serum Se values were higher in the Zlatibor area than in other regions of Serbia (62.6 +/- 14.9 microgSe/L; n = 158). The serum Mg content (22.7 +/- 2.2 mg/L; n = 158) was in the uppermost part of the reference range. Taking into account their biological role, the Se and Mg levels in the human population in the Zlatibor area could influence the lower mortality rates of cancer and CVD in this region compared with other regions in Serbia.

  18. Phototrophic microorganisms in biofilm samples from Vernjika Cave, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, Slađana; Jovanović, Jelena; Predojević, Dragana; Trbojević, Ivana; Blagojević, Ana; Subakov Simić, Gordana

    2016-04-01

    Caves represent specific natural monuments in terms of structure, complexity and beauty which can be found worldwide. Even though they are considered extreme environments, they are still a unique habitat for a large number of organisms that grow and proliferate here. Often can be seen that the cave walls are differently coloured as a consequence of the biofilm development. Biofilms represent complex communities of microorganisms that can develop on different kind of surfaces, including various rock surfaces. Each microbe species play a different role in a community, but their development on stone surfaces can cause substantial damage to the substrates through different mechanisms of biodeterioration and degradation. There is an increased interest in the phototrophic component of biofilms (aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae), especially cyanobacteria, an ancient microorganisms capable to survive the most diverse extreme conditions. These phototrophs can easily be found at cave entrances illuminated by direct or indirect sunlight and areas near artificial lights. Cyanobacteria and algae were investigated in biofilm samples taken from the entrance of Vernjika Cave in Eastern Serbia. Cyanobacteria, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta were documented, with Cyanobacteria as a group with the highest number of recorded taxa. Chroococcalean species were the most diverse with the most frequently encountered species from the genus Gloeocapsa. Phormidium and Nostoc species were commonly recorded Oscillatoriales and Nostocles, respectively. Among Oscillatoriales species, it was noticed that one Phormidium species precipitates CaCO3 on it's sheats. Trebouxia sp. and Desmococcus olivaceus were frequently documented Chlorophyta, and representatives of Bacillariophyta were exclusively aerophytic taxa, mostly belonging to the genera Luticola and Humidophila. Measured ecological parameters, temperature and relative humidity, were influenced by the external climatic changes, while light

  19. Origin and significance of high nickel and chromium concentrations in pliocene lignite of the Kosovo Basin, Serbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.; Finkelman, R.; Boti, E.; Milosavljevic, M.; Tewalt, S.; Simon, N.; Dulong, F.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element data from 59 Pliocene lignite cores from the lignite field in the Kosovo Basin, southern Serbia, show localized enrichment of Ni and Cr (33-304 ppm and 8-176 ppm, respectively, whole-coal basis). Concentrations of both elements decrease from the western and southern boundaries of the lignite field. Low-temperature ash and polished coal pellets of selected bench and whole-coal samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyses. These analyses show that most of the Ni and Cr are incorporated in detrital and, to a lesser degree, in authigenic minerals. The Ni- and Cr-bearing detrital minerals include oxides, chromites, serpentine-group minerals and rare mixed-layer clays. Possible authigenic minerals include Ni-Fe sulfates and sulfides. Analyses of three lignite samples by a supercritical fluid extraction technique indicate that some (1-11%) of the Ni is organically bound. Ni- and Cr-bearing oxides, mixed-layer clays, chromites and serpentine-group minerals were also identified in weathered and fresh samples of laterite developed on serpentinized Paleozoic peridotite at the nearby Glavica and C??ikatovo Ni mines. These mines are located along the western and northwestern rim, respectively, of the Kosovo Basin, where Ni contents are highest. The detrital Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals identified in lignite samples from the western part of the Kosovo Basin may have been transported into the paleoswamp by rivers that drained the two Paleocene laterites. Some Ni may have been transported directly into the paleoswamp in solution or, alternatively, Ni may have been leached from detrital minerals by acidic peat water and adsorbed onto organic matter and included into authigenic mineral phases. No minable source of Ni and Cr is known in the southern part of the lignite field; however, the mineral and chemical data from the lignite and associated rocks suggest that such a source area may exist.

  20. Reclamation of coppice forests in order to increase the potential of woody biomass in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelanovic, I.; Krstic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass makes 63% of the total renewable energy potential of Serbia. Here, the biomass from forests together with wood processing industry waste represent the second most important renewable source for energy production. The Action Plan for Biomass of Serbia (2010) shows that the technically exploitable biomass in the Republic of Serbia amounts annually 2.7 Mtoe. Here, the woody biomass (fuelwood, forest residue, wood processing industry residue, wood from trees outside the forest) accounts for 1.0 Mtoe while the rest originates from agricultural sources. According to the national forest inventory (2008), forest cover in Serbia accounts for 29% of the country area, having standing volume of 362.5 mil. m3 and annual increment of 9.1 mil. m3. More than half is state-owned and the rest 47% is in the private ownership. Coppice forests dominate in the forest stock (65%). According to Glavonjić (2010), northeastern and southwestern Serbia are the regions with greatest spatial forest distribution. The general forest condition is characterised by insufficient production volume, unsatisfactory stock density and forest cover, high percentage of degraded forests, unfavorable age structure, unfavorable health condition and weeded areas. Herewith, the basic measures for the improvement of forest fund (Forestry Development Strategy for Serbia, 2006) represent conversion of coppice forests, increase of forest cover and productivity of forest ecosystems by the ecologically, economically and socially acceptable methods. The actions include reclamation of degraded forests, re- and afforestation activities on abandoned agricultural, degraded and other treeless lands. The average standing volume of high forests is 254 m3·ha-1 with an annual increment of 5.5 m3·ha-1. On the contrary, coppice forests dispose 124 m3·ha-1 of standing volume, having an annual increment of 3.1 m3·ha-1. Here, estimated losses from coppice forests amount up to 3.5 mil. m3 wood annually. These data

  1. Physician and nurse supply in Serbia using time-series data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unemployment among health professionals in Serbia has risen in the recent past and continues to increase. This highlights the need to understand how to change policies to meet real and projected needs. This study identified variables that were significantly related to physician and nurse employment rates in the public healthcare sector in Serbia from 1961 to 2008 and used these to develop parameters to model physician and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector through to 2015. Methods The relationships among six variables used for planning physician and nurse employment in public healthcare sector in Serbia were identified for two periods: 1961 to 1982 and 1983 to 2008. Those variables included: the annual total national population; gross domestic product adjusted to 1994 prices; inpatient care discharges; outpatient care visits; students enrolled in the first year of medical studies at public universities; and the annual number of graduated physicians. Based on historic trends, physician supply and nurse supply in the public healthcare sector by 2015 (with corresponding 95% confidence level) have been modeled using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) / Transfer function (TF) models. Results The ARIMA/TF modeling yielded stable and significant forecasts of physician supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.71) and nurse supply (stationary R2 squared = 0.92) in the public healthcare sector in Serbia through to 2015. The most significant predictors for physician employment were the population and GDP. The supply of nursing staff was, in turn, related to the number of physicians. Physician and nurse rates per 100,000 population increased by 13%. The model predicts a seven-year mismatch between the supply of graduates and vacancies in the public healthcare sector is forecasted at 8,698 physicians - a net surplus. Conclusion The ARIMA model can be used to project trends, especially those that identify significant mismatches between forecasted

  2. Organic geochemical characterization of Aleksinac oil shale deposit (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Kostić, Aleksandar; Jovančićević, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    Oil shales represent a good source of energy and industrial raw material. The Aleksinac oil shale deposit is the biggest and most important oil shale deposit in Serbia. It covers an area of over 20 km2, and it has three fields: "Dubrava", "Morava" and "Logorište". The potential reserves of oil shale in the Aleksinac deposit are estimated at about 2.1 billion tons. The genesis of oil shales is associated with the lacustrine depositional environments, which existed from Upper to Lower Miocene. In order to determine the generative potential, type of organic matter (OM) and thermal maturity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis was used. In analyzed oil shale samples the content of total organic carbon (TOC), as a general indicator of petroleum generation potential, range from 1.48 to 29.57%. The content of naturally generated hydrocarbons, expressed as S1 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in most analyzed samples have extremely low values 0.002-0.28, which indicate low maturity level [1]. The pyrolysable hydrocarbons expressed as S2 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis, represent the potential to generate hydrocarbons and with that the potential of oil generation through thermal decomposition of kerogen. S2 ranging 3.93-141.36 mg HC/g rock is higher than 20 mg HC/g rock and indicates excellent source rock potential [1]. In order to accept a formation as a source rock, it should exhibit TOC more than 0.5 % and sufficient maturity, but also OM types should be suitable for the oil and gas generation. The kerogen type is determined by Hydrogen Index (HI) and diagram HI vs. Tmax (temperature, corresponding to S2 peak maximum). HI in range 265-728 mg HC/g TOC, indicates Type I and Type II kerogen or their mixture i.e. oil prone kerogen [1], whereas only one sample appears to be oil/gas prone (Type II/III). Similar results are obtained by plotting the Tmax against HI. Maturation degree depends on the overall thermal history of the evaluated rocks; it is very important parameter for evaluation

  3. Acid soils of western Serbia and their further acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna

    2010-05-01

    Acid soils cause many unfavorable soil characteristics from the plant nutrition point of view. Because of increased soil acidity the violation of buffering soil properties due to leaching of Ca and Mg ions is taking place that also can cause soil physical degradation via peptization of colloids. Together with increasing of soil acidity the content of mobile Al increases that can be toxic for plants. Easily available nutritive elements transforms into hardly avaialble froms. The process of deactivation is especially expressed for phosphorous that under such conditions forms non-soluble compounds with sesqui-oxides. From the other hand the higher solubility of some microelements (Zn and B) can cause their accelerated leaching from root zone and therefore, result in their deficiency for plant nutrition. Dangerous and toxic matters transforms into easly-available forms for plants, especially, Cd and Ni under the lower soil pH. The studied soil occupies 36675 hectare in the municipality of Krupan in Serbia, and are characterized with very unfavorable chemical properties: 26% of the territory belongs to the cathegory of very acidic, and 44 % belongs to the cathegory of acidic. The results showed that the soil of the territory of Krupan is limited for agricultural land use due to their high acidity. Beside the statement of negative soil properties determined by acidity, there is a necessity for determination of soil sensitivity for acidification processes toward soil protection from ecological aspect and its prevention from further acidification. Based on such data and categorization of soils it is possible to undertake proper measures for soil protection and melioration of the most endangered soil cover, where the economic aspect of these measures is very important. One of the methods of soil classification based on sensitivity for acidification classification the determination of soil categories is based on the values of soil CEC and pH in water. By combination of these

  4. Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support, resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This unit describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, and subsequent immobilization by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in the second alternate protocol is therefore more rapid and can result in more complete transfer. PMID:18432697

  5. Religion, politics and gender in the context of nation-state formation: the case of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Drezgić, Rada

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that nationalism has connected religion with secular politics in Serbia but that their rapprochement has been a gradual process. In order to demonstrate the transition from a limited influence of religion on politics to a much tighter relationship between the two, this article discusses the abortion legislation reform and the introduction of religious education in public schools, respectively. It argues that, while illustrative of different types of connection between religion and politics, these two issues had similar implications for gender equality-they produced discourses that recreated and justified patriarchal social norms. After religion gained access to public institutions, its (patriarchal) discourses on gender were considerably empowered. The article points to some tangible evidence of a re-traditionalisation and re-patriarchalisation of gender roles within the domestic realm in Serbia. PMID:20857571

  6. Therapeutic Fascism: re-educating communists in Nazi-occupied Serbia, 1942-44.

    PubMed

    Antic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This article probes the relationship between psychoanalysis and right-wing authoritarianism, and analyses a unique psychotherapeutic institution established by Serbia's World War II collaborationist regime. The extraordinary Institute for compulsory re-education of high-school and university students affiliated with the Communist resistance movement emerged in the context of a brutal civil war and violent retaliations against Communist activists, but its openly psychoanalytic orientation was even more astonishing. In order to stem the rapid spread of Communism, the collaborationist state, led by its most extreme fascistic elements, officially embraced psychotherapy, the 'talking cure' and Freudianism, and conjured up its own theory of mental pathology and trauma - one that directly contradicted the Nazi concepts of society and the individual. In the course of the experiment, Serbia's collaborationists moved away from the hitherto prevailing organicist, biomedical model of mental illness, and critiqued traditional psychiatry's therapeutic pessimism.

  7. Therapeutic Fascism: re-educating communists in Nazi-occupied Serbia, 1942-44.

    PubMed

    Antic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    This article probes the relationship between psychoanalysis and right-wing authoritarianism, and analyses a unique psychotherapeutic institution established by Serbia's World War II collaborationist regime. The extraordinary Institute for compulsory re-education of high-school and university students affiliated with the Communist resistance movement emerged in the context of a brutal civil war and violent retaliations against Communist activists, but its openly psychoanalytic orientation was even more astonishing. In order to stem the rapid spread of Communism, the collaborationist state, led by its most extreme fascistic elements, officially embraced psychotherapy, the 'talking cure' and Freudianism, and conjured up its own theory of mental pathology and trauma - one that directly contradicted the Nazi concepts of society and the individual. In the course of the experiment, Serbia's collaborationists moved away from the hitherto prevailing organicist, biomedical model of mental illness, and critiqued traditional psychiatry's therapeutic pessimism. PMID:24594820

  8. Radon in thermal waters in south-east part of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša; Bikit, Ištvan; Pantić, Tanja Petrović; Forkapić, Sofija; Mrđa, Dušan; Bikit, Kristina

    2014-07-01

    There are several occurrences of thermal waters in the south-eastern part of Serbia, which are originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks. These waters are mainly used in balneology, but some of them are used for drinking purposes and in water supply to heat buildings, for greenhouses and to irrigate land. In this region, there is the well-known Niška banja spa, which has elevated levels of radon. Water samples were examined from other spas in the south-eastern part of Serbia in order to determine radon activity concentration. A detailed discussion of a possible correlation between determined radon activity concentration and the geology of this area is also given. PMID:24707000

  9. Radon in thermal waters in south-east part of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša; Bikit, Ištvan; Pantić, Tanja Petrović; Forkapić, Sofija; Mrđa, Dušan; Bikit, Kristina

    2014-07-01

    There are several occurrences of thermal waters in the south-eastern part of Serbia, which are originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks. These waters are mainly used in balneology, but some of them are used for drinking purposes and in water supply to heat buildings, for greenhouses and to irrigate land. In this region, there is the well-known Niška banja spa, which has elevated levels of radon. Water samples were examined from other spas in the south-eastern part of Serbia in order to determine radon activity concentration. A detailed discussion of a possible correlation between determined radon activity concentration and the geology of this area is also given.

  10. Pharmaceutical residues in the Danube River Basin in Serbia - a two-year survey.

    PubMed

    Radović, Tanja; Grujić, Svetlana; Dujaković, Nikolina; Radišić, Marina; Vasiljević, Tatjana; Petković, Anđelka; Boreli-Zdravković, Dulija; Dimkić, Milan; Laušević, Mila

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are emerging contaminants with damaging effects to the environment and human health. Their presence in surface and especially groundwaters is regarded as detrimental, as they can ultimately reach drinking water. The aim of this work was to monitor pharmaceutical contamination of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, and to assess the potential of their passing through all natural filtrations and reaching the groundwater. A total of 70 surface and groundwater samples was collected at 38 sampling sites at the Danube in Serbia. They were taken in five sampling campaigns performed in summer and autumn of 2009 and winter, spring and autumn of 2010. Samples were analyzed using a previously developed method which includes solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

  11. Radiation exposure during X-ray examinations in a large paediatric hospital in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Gavrilovic, Marijana; Arandjic, Danijela; Vujovic, Milan; Bozovic, Predrag

    2015-07-01

    Objective of this work is to evaluate radiation exposure from X-ray examinations in a large paediatric hospital in Serbia, including radiographic, fluoroscopic and computed tomography (CT) examinations in four age groups: 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 y. Incident air kerma was assessed for the following radiographies: chest (AP, PA, LAT), spine (AP, LAT), pelvis (AP), urinary tract (AP, PA) and skull (AP, PA, LAT). Kerma-area product was measured for the fluoroscopy examinations: barium swallow, barium meal, barium enema and micturating cystography. Dose in CT was assessed in terms of volume CT dose index and dose-length product for examinations of the head, chest and abdomen. The collected data were compared with other similar studies, which indicated a need to expand such survey to other paediatric hospitals in Serbia. PMID:25821208

  12. New findings of the butterfly Phengaris teleius at the border between Hungary and Serbia (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Šašić, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to its interesting life cycle, vulnerability and conservation importance, the butterfly Phengaris teleius is one of the most studied insects in Europe. It was discovered in Serbia only in 2012 and there were no data on its distribution from the south of Hungary. New information Phengaris teleius was recorded for the first time in four localities in Hungary and in additional locality in Serbia. This suggests that the local populations are more interconnected than previousely thought and that conservation efforts should be done in collaboration between the two countries. All localities are inside protected areas and management measures for preserving several target species already exist. This represents a solid base for the conservation of newly discovered populations of P. teleius. PMID:27099563

  13. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Jankulovic, Aleksandar; Runic, Jovana; Lucic, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, DeLone and McLean's updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for…

  14. First insights into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Debeljak, Zoran; Boufana, Belgees; Interisano, Maria; Vidanovic, Dejan; Kulisic, Zoran; Casulli, Adriano

    2016-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection which is endemic in Serbia where it is subject to mandatory reporting. However, information on the incidence of the disease in humans and prevalence of hydatid infection in livestock remains limited. We used sequenced data of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) mitochondrial gene to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) from intermediate hosts from Serbia. We also compared our generated nucleotide sequences with those reported for neighbouring European countries. Echinococcus canadensis was molecularly confirmed from pig and human hydatid isolates. E. granulosus (G1) was confirmed from sheep and cattle hydatid isolates as well as the first molecular confirmation in Serbia of E. granulosus G2 in sheep and E. granulosus G3 in sheep and cattle hydatid isolates. The Serbian E. granulosus (s.s.) parsimony network displayed 2 main haplotypes (SB02 and SB05) which together with the neutrality indices were suggestive of bottleneck and/or balancing selection. Haplotype analysis showed the presence of the common E. granulosus haplotype described from other worldwide regions. Investigation of the pairwise fixation (Fst) index suggested that Serbian populations of E. granulosus (s.s.) from sheep and cattle hosts showed moderate genetic differentiation. Six of the Serbian haplotypes (SB02-SB07) were shared with haplotypes from Bulgaria, Hungary and/or Romania. Further studies using a larger number of hydatid isolates from various locations across Serbia will provide more information on the genetic structure of E. granulosus (s.s.) within this region.

  15. Low levels of arsenic in drinking water and type 2 diabetes in Middle Banat region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dragana; Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Paunovic, Katarina; Jakovljevic, Branko; Plavsic, Snezana; Milosevic, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water presents a serious public health problem in Serbia, but its relationship with diabetes has not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to explore the association between exposure to arsenic in drinking water and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in Middle Banat region, Serbia. This cross-sectional study comprised two populations. Exposed population in Middle Banat region consumes drinking water with arsenic (mean = 56 μg/L); unexposed population from six regions in Central Serbia consumes arsenic below detection limit (2 μg/L). Newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were obtained from the National Registry of Diabetes in 2008. The Registry included age, gender, family history of diabetes, presence of overweight, central obesity, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. In addition, the number of cases of diabetes reported in years 2006, 2007 and 2009 was used to calculate standardized incidence rates for both populations. Two populations were comparable by age, family history of diabetes and prevalence of overweight persons. Unexposed population was more likely to have central obesity, and high total cholesterol and triglycerides. Standardized incidence rates of type 2 diabetes were higher in exposed population. Odds ratios for type 2 diabetes were significantly higher for the exposed population, both men and women, in the period from 2006 to 2009, when compared with the unexposed population. The population from Middle Banat region, consuming drinking water with low levels of arsenic, was at higher risk for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in comparison to the unexposed population in Central Serbia.

  16. Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  17. The framework of family therapy in clinical practice and research in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Pantovic, Maja; Dunjic-Kostic, Bojana; Ivkovic, Maja; Damjanovic, Aleksandar; Jovanovic, Aleksandar A

    2012-04-01

    In the last two decades, Serbia has had to deal with multiple social and economic problems reflecting on society's demographics and seemed to weaken its core cell - the family. The paper describes the framework of family therapy in clinical practice and research, within the recent transition of the Serbian family. Family therapy treatment in Serbia uses the systemic family therapy (SFT) approach, applied according to the standards of the European Association for Psychotherapy. A large number of professionals who practise in Serbia hold European qualifications, setting high standards in education, clinical practice, and research. Although SFT is also available in the private sector, the majority of patients are still treated in state institutions. Family therapy is often used for adults and adolescents with psychosis and addictions in psychiatric hospital settings. However, in counselling centres it is used for marital and relationship problems. Interestingly, family therapy has recently started to emerge as a more frequent tool in consultation-liaison, particularly psycho-oncology but also in correctional institutions. The clinical practice and research interests are interlinked with changes in social settings.

  18. Corn yield estimation in Serbia using MODIS 13Q1 product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govedarica, Miro; Jovanović, Dušan; Sabo, Filip

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to verify the accuracy and the usability of Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) 13Q1 product for corn yield estimation on a local level for 2014 year. Product 13Q1 consists of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) 16-day composites with 250 m spatial resolution. The estimation is based on ground truth data (sowing structures for 8 years) which was provided by local agricultural organization in Vojvodina, Serbia. The indices were used in linear regression, where the average yield for corn was the dependent variable, NDVI and EVI were independent variables. Average corn yield was estimated approximately 15 days before the beginning of the harvest and compared with official results. Depending on the used linear method, relative errors ranged from 0.6 % to 7.4 %. Overall, coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.66 to 0.75 and were significant at 0.05. The smallest difference between official results for corn yield and our estimate when using NDVI was 0.59 t/ha, when using EVI the smallest difference was 0.07 t/ha. Paper showed that NDVI and EVI from MODIS follow linear relationship with average corn yield and can be used in estimation of crop yields in Serbia and also that EVI produces better prediction results than NDVI. The crop yield estimation can be used for similar cultivated plants in Serbia and for longer period dataset.

  19. Benefits of environmental conditions for growing coriander in Banat Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Acimovic, Milica; Oljaca, Snezana; Jacimovic, Goran; Drazic, Slobodan; Tasic, Slavoljub

    2011-10-01

    As one of the oldest multi-purpose plants (spice, aromatic, honey and medicinal), coriander is widespread across Europe. Although in Serbia there are favorable conditions for its growth and development, it is grown on relatively small areas. During both investigated years it took more than 1200 degrees C for transfer from vegetative to generative phase of development and over 2000 degrees C for it to be ready for harvesting. Coriander is a photophilic plant, which requires around 1000 hours of light from sowing to ripening.. As for humidity, coriander grows well, if there are more than 200 mm of rainfall during growing season. In 2009 and 2010, the experiment carried out at the experimental field in Ostojićevo (Banat, Vojvodina province, Serbia) monitored the effect of parameters mentioned above on development of coriander plants, seed yield and essential oil content. The average yields of 1866 kg ha(-1) (2009) and 2470 kg ha(-1) (2010), and relatively high content of essential oil (1.06% in both years) indicate a great potential of this plant species in Serbia, which is, however, greatly dependent on environmental conditions during year.

  20. Evaluation of the Ecochemical Status of the Danube in Serbia in Terms of Water Quality Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Takić, Ljiljana; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana; Vuković, Milovan; Mladenović, Ilija

    2012-01-01

    The Danube is an international river passing partly through Serbia. The protection of the environment and sustainable use of water resources is a primary task that implies constant monitoring of the quality status and evaluation of ecochemical status of the water in the Danube basin. The investigation includes calculation of all-inclusive water quality by the Serbian water quality index (SWQI) method and an evaluation of eco-chemical status of the Danube water in terms of water quality parameters from the entry to the exit point along its course through Serbia in the year of 2009. The results show that the overall quality of the Danube water on the territory of Serbia corresponds to the descriptive indicator of “very good” water. According to the Council Directive75/440/EEC, the evaluation of the ecostatus, with slight deviation of individual parameters at Pančevo, corresponds to A1 category of the surface water quality intended for the abstraction of drinking water supplies in member states. PMID:22645471

  1. Application of GIS in epizootiological surveillance of swine trichinellosis in one endemic district in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, L; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2010-12-01

    Application of new tools for epizootiological investigations in veterinary medicine, such as Geographical Information Systems (GIS), offers a new approach and possibilities for the eradication or control of infectious diseases. GIS is particularly useful for research conducted in small areas strongly impacted by man. Trichinellosis is a world-wide zoonosis, which is endemic in some European countries, Balkan district and Serbia in particular. There are very few data on GIS application in the field of trichinellosis. We here present the application of GIS for mapping Trichinella spp. occurrence and spatial and temporal patterns of Trichinello infection in one endemic district in Serbia. Settlements with trichinellosis were marked and particular points of interest were designated. Data on prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic swine accompanied by location of foci indicated the existence of disease geographical stationarity. This first report on GIS application in Serbia will facilitate trichinellosis surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella spp. circulation among domestic pigs, and populations of synanthropic and sylvatic animals.

  2. Police violence and sexual risk among female and transvestite sex workers in Serbia: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Simić, Milena; Baroš, Sladjana; Platt, Lucy; Žikić, Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore female and transvestite sex workers’ perceptions of risk in the sex work environment in Serbia. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Street based locations for sex work in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Participants 31 female and transvestite sex workers. Results Violence, including police violence, was reported as a primary concern in relation to risk. Violence was linked to unprotected sex and the reduced capacity for avoiding sexual risk. Participants reported that coerced sex was routinely provided to the police in exchange for freedom from detainment, arrest, or fine, and was enforced by the perceived threat of violence, sometimes realised. Accounts contained multiple instances of physical and sexual assault, presented as abuses of police authority, and described policing as a form of moral punishment. This was largely through non-physical means but was also enforced through physical violence, especially towards transvestite and Roma sex workers, whose experience of police violence was reported as relentless and brutal and connected with broader social forces of discrimination in this setting, especially towards Roma. Conclusion Preventing violence towards sex workers, which can link with vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections, is a priority in Serbia. This requires monitoring perpetrators of violence, providing legal support to sex workers, and creating safer environments for sex work. PMID:18667468

  3. Epidemiology of cancers in Serbia and possible connection with cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Svirčev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Lužanin, Zorana; Munjas, Ana Marija; Nikolin, Branislava; Vuleta, Dušan; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce toxic metabolites known as cyanotoxins. These bioactive compounds can cause acute poisoning, and some of them may promote cancer through chronic exposure. Direct ingestion of and contact with contaminated water is one of the many exposure routes to cyanotoxins. The aim of this article was to review the incidence of 13 cancers during a 10-year period in Serbia and to assess whether there is a correlation between the cancer incidences and cyanobacterial bloom occurrence in reservoirs for drinking water supply. The types of cancers were chosen and subjected to epidemiological analyses utilizing previously published data. Based on the epidemiological and statistical analysis, the group of districts in which the incidences of cancers are significant, and may be considered as critical, include Nišavski, Toplički, and Šumadijski district. A significantly higher incidence of ten cancers was observed in the three critical districts as compared to the remaining 14 districts in Central Serbia. These elevated incidences of cancer include: brain cancer, heart, mediastinum and pleura cancer, ovary cancer, testicular cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, retroperitoneum and peritoneum cancer, leukemia, malignant melanoma of skin, and primary liver cancer. In addition, the mean incidence of five chosen cancers was the highest in the three critical regions, then in the rest of Central Serbia, while the lowest values were recorded in Vojvodina. Persistent and recurrent cyanobacterial blooms occur during summer months in reservoirs supplying water to waterworks in the three critical districts. People in Central Serbia mainly use surface water as water supply (but not all the water bodies are blooming) while in Vojvodina region (control region in this study) only groundwater is used. Among the 14 "noncritical" districts, reservoirs used for drinking water supply have been affected by recurrent cyanobacterial blooms in two districts (Rasinski and Zaje

  4. High-resolution numerical modeling of meteorological and hydrological conditions during May 2014 floods in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Vukovic, Ana; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Rajkovic, Borivoj; Djordjevic, Marija

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014 west Balkan region was affected by catastrophic floods in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and eastern parts of Croatia. Observed precipitation amount were extremely high, on many stations largest ever recorded. In the period from 12th to 18th of May, most of Serbia received between 50 to 100 mm of rainfall, while western parts of the country, which were influenced the most, had over 200 mm of rainfall, locally even more than 300 mm. This very intense precipitation came when the soil was already saturated after a very wet period during the second half of April and beginning of May, when most of Serbia received between 120 i 170 mm of rainfall. New abundant precipitation on already saturated soil increased surface and underground water flow, caused floods, soil erosion and landslides. High water levels, most of them record breaking, were measured on the Sava, Drina, Dunav, Kolubara, Ljig, Ub, Toplica, Tamnava, Jadar, Zapadna Morava, Velika Morava, Mlava and Pek river. Overall, two cities and 17 municipals were severely affected by the floods, 32000 people were evacuated from their homes, while 51 died. Material damage to the infrastructure, energy power system, crops, livestock funds and houses is estimated to more than 2 billion euro. Although the operational numerical weather forecast gave in generally good precipitation prediction, flood forecasting in this case was mainly done through the expert judgment rather than relying on dynamic hydrological modeling. We applied an integrated atmospheric-hydrologic modelling system to some of the most impacted catchments in order to timely simulate hydrological response, and examine its potentials as a flood warning system. The system is based on the Non-hydrostatic Multiscale Model NMMB, which is a numerical weather prediction model that can be used on a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Its non-hydrostatic module allows high horizontal resolution and resolving cloud systems as well as large

  5. Two new high-altitude subspecies of Tapinopterus (Tapinopterus) cognatus (Dejean, 1831) (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae) from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćurčić, Srećko; Ilić, Nastas; Vesović, Nikola; Antić, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858 currently comprises around 60 species belonging to eight subgenera, inhabiting mostly the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor (Schatzmayr 1942, 1943; Bousquet 2003; Ćurčić et al. 2008; Arndt et al. 2011; Lohaj et al. 2012). The taxa live in limited geographic areas and are mostly montane (Trautner & Geigenmüller 1987; Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev 1998). The territory of Serbia is inhabited by two species of Tapinopterus, T. (T.) cognatus (Dejean, 1831) (recorded in Bulgaria and Romania as well) and T. (T.) miridita (Apfelbeck, 1904) (recorded in Albania and the Republic of Macedonia as well), as well as by the three subspecies, T. (T.) cognatus cognatus (Dejean, 1831) (known from Mt. Suva Planina in Serbia and from Bulgaria), T. (T.) cognatus winkleri Mandl, 1936 (known from the Svrljiške Planine Mts. and Mt. Stara Planina in both Serbia and Bulgaria), and T. (T.) miridita miridita (Apfelbeck, 1904) (known from Mt. Šar Planina in both Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia), respectively (Mandl 1936; Schatzmayr 1942, 1943; Guéorguiev & Guéorguiev 1995; Drovenik & Peks 1999; Bousquet 2003; Ćurčić et al. 2007; Guéorguiev & Giachino 2008). In our opinion, T. (T.) cognatus cognatus does not live in Bulgaria (as was previously reported) (Bousquet 2003), while the older Schatzmayr's (1943) record "Klisura" should refer to the Iron Gate Gorge in SW Romania and NE Serbia, not to any Bulgarian place. The other mentioned locality, i.e., Mt. Suva Planina in Serbia, is situated far from the type locality (Iron Gate). Since nearly all Tapinopterus taxa are regional or local endemics, this southernmost record in SE Serbia for T. cognatus cognatus seems unlikely. In view of the high diversity of Tapinopterus on the Balkan Peninsula, it is expected that new taxa exist in border areas of the distribution in Serbia. During the last years, the first (SĆ), second (NI) and fourth author (DA) of the paper investigated a number of epigean montane

  6. The recent fault kinematics in the westernmost part of the Getic nappe system (Eastern Serbia): Evidence from fault slip and focal mechanism data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenović, Ana; Trivić, Branislav; Antić, Milorad; Cvetković, Vladica; Pavlović, Radmila; Radovanović, Slavica; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    In this study we performed a calculation of the tectonic stress tensor based on fault slip data and all available focal mechanisms in order to determine the principal stress axes and the recent tectonic regime of the westernmost unit of the Getic nappe system (Gornjak-Ravanica Zone, Eastern Serbia). The study is based on a combined dataset involving paleostress analyses, the inversion of focal mechanisms and remote sensing. The results show dominant strike-slip kinematics with the maximal compression axis oriented NNE-SSW. This is compatible with a combined northward motion and counterclockwise rotation of the Adria plate as the controlling factor. However, the local stress field is also shown to be of great importance and is superimposed on the far-field stress. We managed to distinguish three areas with distinct seismic activity. The northern part of the research area is characterized by transtensional tectonics, possibly under the influence of the extension in the areas situated more to the northeast. The central and seismically most active part is dominated by strike-slip tectonics whereas the southern area is slightly transpressional, possibly under the influence of the rigid Moesian Platform situated to the east of the research area. The dominant active fault systems are oriented N-S (to NE-SW) and NW-SE and they occur as structures of either regional or local significance. Regional structures are active in the northern and central part of the study area, while the active fault systems in the southern part are marked as locally important. This study suggests that seismicity of this area is controlled by the release of accumulated stress at local accommodation zones which are favourably oriented in respect to the active regional stress field.

  7. Molecular characterization of macrolide resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from pharyngitis patients in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Opavski, Natasa; Gajic, Ina; Borek, Anna L; Obszańska, Katarzyna; Stanojevic, Maja; Lazarevic, Ivana; Ranin, Lazar; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Mijac, Vera

    2015-07-01

    A steady increase in macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes, group A streptococci (GAS) was reported in Serbia during 2004-2009 (9.9%). However, there are no data on the molecular epidemiology of pharyngeal macrolide resistance GAS (MRGAS) isolates. Therefore, the aims of this first nationwide study were to examine the prevalence of macrolide resistance in Serbian GAS and to determine their resistance phenotypes, genotypes and clonal relationships. Overall 3893 non-duplicate pharyngeal S. pyogenes isolates from outpatients with GAS infection were collected throughout country during 2008 and 2009. Among 486 macrolide resistant pharyngeal isolates collected, 103 were further characterized. Macrolide resistance phenotypes and genotypes were determined by double-disk diffusion test and PCR, respectively. Strain relatedness was determined by emm typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), phage profiling (PP) and virulence factor profiling (VFP). Overall, macrolide resistance among GAS isolates in Serbia was 12.5%. M phenotype was the most common (71.8%), followed by iMLS (18.4%) and cMLS (9.7%). Three clonal complexes--emm75/mefA/ST49, emm12/mefA/ST36 and emm77/ermA/tetO/ST63 comprised over 90% of the tested strains. Although MLVA, PP and VFP distinguished 10, 20 and 12 different patterns, respectively, cluster analysis disclosed only small differences between strains which belonged to the same emm/ST type. Our data indicate dominance of three major internationally widely disseminated macrolide resistant clones and a high genetic homogeneity among the Serbian MRGAS population. Continued surveillance of macrolide resistance and clonal composition in MRGAS in Serbia in future is necessary to determine stability of MRGAS clones and to guide therapy strategies.

  8. Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Cakmak, Dragan; Pivic, Radmila; Saljnikov, Elmira; Nikoloski, Mile; Perovic, Veljko

    2010-05-01

    Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia V. Mrvic, Lj. Kostic-Kravljanac, D. Čakmak, R. Pivić, E. Saljnikov, M. Nikoloski, V. Perović Institute of Soil Science, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia (vesnavmrvic@yahoo.com) Main characteristic of surface soil layer (pH in KCl, humus, available P and K), and content of trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Hg) were analysed on area of southwestern Serbia, covering total 959 000 ha (one sample represents 1000 ha) . About 30 % of samples have very acid reaction. Main portion of soil samples (86%) is poorly suplied with available phosphorus (<8 mg/100g), and these are located under forests, meadows, pastures and orchards. Supplies of available potasium and humus are well. On the other hand, in small number of soil samples (4%), mostly on fertile alluvial soils, there are high P and K concentration, which are consequence of inadequate usage of mineral fertilizers. Content of trace elements in 70 % of soil samples is bellow maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The most frequente potential pollutants are Cr and Ni, which is assosiated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are common in this region (mountains naerby river Ibar - Troglav, Stolovi, Čemerno, Željin, Golija, Kopaonik; near Sjenica- peridotites of mn. Ozren). There are dominace of Eutric Leptosols soil type, with Ni content above 100 mg/kg, and in some samples above 1000 mg/kg. In smaller number of samples arsenic and lead exceed MAC, while other elements exceed MAD very rarelly. There are elevated Pb content in Kopaonik mountain area, and elevated As content besides this region, are in mine zone of Golija and Cemerno. These are mountain soils formed on acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are enriched with ores of Pb, Zn and other elements. Eventually negative influences of these elements on plants and other components of ecosystem may be esstimated only after detalied investigation.

  9. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by −2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P = 0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  10. Development a Comprehensive Food Safety System in Serbia- A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    RADOVIĆ, Vesela; KEKOVIĆ, Zoran; AGIĆ, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Food safety issues are not a new issue in science, but due to the dynamic changes in the modern world it is as equally important as decades ago. The aim of the study was to address the efforts in the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia, and make specific recommendations regarding the improvement of epidemiological investigation capacity as a useful tool which contributes to improving the public health by joint efforts of epidemiologists and law enforcement. Methods We used the methodology appropriate for social sciences. Results The findings show the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system and present some most important weaknesses which have to be overcome. Policy makers need timely and reliable information so that they can make informed decisions to improve the population health in an ongoing process of seeking full membership in the European Union. Conclusion Serbia has to apply significant changes in practice because the current state-of-affairs in the area of food safety and health care system is not so favourable due to numerous both objective and subjective factors. Hence, the policy-makers must work on the development of epidemiological investigation capacities as a firm basis for greater efficiency and effectiveness. Epidemiologists would not stay alone in their work. Law enforcement as well as many other stakeholders should recognize their new role in the process of the development of epidemiological investigation capacity as a tool for the development of a comprehensive food safety system in Serbia. PMID:25909057

  11. Some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro as the potential sources of drugs.

    PubMed

    Aljancić, I S; Vajs, V E; Tesević, V V; Milosavljević, S M

    2008-01-01

    The results of phytochemical investigation, over the last decade, of some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro belonging to the families Asteraceae, Guttiferae and Gentianaceae are reported. Most of the investigated species are endemites and the emphasis in this report is on those exhibiting biological activities that could be regarded as the potential sources of drugs. This review comprises 154 compounds, e.g. sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids (Asteraceae), xanthones, secoiridoids and C-glucoflavonoids (Gentanaceae) and prenylated phloroglucinols (Guttiferae) as well as some other secondary metabolites, produced by the above families, which could be of pharmacological interest.

  12. First Report on the Efficiency of Oral Vaccination of Foxes against Rabies in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lupulovic, D; Maksimovic Zoric, J; Vaskovic, N; Bugarski, D; Plavsic, B; Ivanovic, N; Petrovic, T; Pusic, I; Marcic, D; Grgic, Z; Lazic, S

    2015-12-01

    Rabies is one of the oldest known zoonotic diseases that has significant impact on public health, but still remains neglected in Serbia. Rabies virus can infect humans and other mammals and causes inflammation of the brain associated with encephalomyelitis and neurological symptoms. In 2010, Veterinary Directorate (national Competent Authority for animal health in Serbia) has started multi-annual project of oral rabies vaccination of foxes and other wild carnivores (e.g. jackals), as support of long-term programme of eradication of rabies in Serbia, co-funded by EU (financed by Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance). Monitoring of the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns has been carried out in continuation from 2011 and was based on: (i) post-mortem laboratory examination of brain tissue of target animals (foxes, jackals and other carnivores) by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), (ii) detection of antibodies against rabies virus in serum samples by ELISA and (iii) detection of tetracycline biomarker in the mandibles for the evaluation of vaccine bait uptake. From September 2011 to May 2014, the total number of 4943 brain tissue samples, 4241 sera and 4971 mandibles were analysed. Confirmed rabies-positive brains decreased from 10 in 2011/2012 to 6 in 2012/2013 and eventually to 1 positive case in 2013/2014. The seroconversion rate increased from 10.48% (133/1269) in 2011/2012 to 20.11% (362/1800) in 2012/2013 and 42.23% (495/1172) in 2013/2014. Along with the seroconversion, the number of detected tetracycline-positive mandibles demonstrated an increasing tendency in the same period, being 49.67% (682/1373) in 2011/2012, 62.60% (1294/2067) in 2012/2013 and 90.33% (1383/1531) in the monitoring programme carried out in 2013/2014. Presented results confirmed that ORV of foxes and other wildlife in Serbia against rabies was successful and characterized by steady increase of vaccine baits uptake and immunization of animals. PMID:25903646

  13. First Report on the Efficiency of Oral Vaccination of Foxes against Rabies in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lupulovic, D; Maksimovic Zoric, J; Vaskovic, N; Bugarski, D; Plavsic, B; Ivanovic, N; Petrovic, T; Pusic, I; Marcic, D; Grgic, Z; Lazic, S

    2015-12-01

    Rabies is one of the oldest known zoonotic diseases that has significant impact on public health, but still remains neglected in Serbia. Rabies virus can infect humans and other mammals and causes inflammation of the brain associated with encephalomyelitis and neurological symptoms. In 2010, Veterinary Directorate (national Competent Authority for animal health in Serbia) has started multi-annual project of oral rabies vaccination of foxes and other wild carnivores (e.g. jackals), as support of long-term programme of eradication of rabies in Serbia, co-funded by EU (financed by Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance). Monitoring of the effectiveness of oral vaccination campaigns has been carried out in continuation from 2011 and was based on: (i) post-mortem laboratory examination of brain tissue of target animals (foxes, jackals and other carnivores) by fluorescent antibody test (FAT), (ii) detection of antibodies against rabies virus in serum samples by ELISA and (iii) detection of tetracycline biomarker in the mandibles for the evaluation of vaccine bait uptake. From September 2011 to May 2014, the total number of 4943 brain tissue samples, 4241 sera and 4971 mandibles were analysed. Confirmed rabies-positive brains decreased from 10 in 2011/2012 to 6 in 2012/2013 and eventually to 1 positive case in 2013/2014. The seroconversion rate increased from 10.48% (133/1269) in 2011/2012 to 20.11% (362/1800) in 2012/2013 and 42.23% (495/1172) in 2013/2014. Along with the seroconversion, the number of detected tetracycline-positive mandibles demonstrated an increasing tendency in the same period, being 49.67% (682/1373) in 2011/2012, 62.60% (1294/2067) in 2012/2013 and 90.33% (1383/1531) in the monitoring programme carried out in 2013/2014. Presented results confirmed that ORV of foxes and other wildlife in Serbia against rabies was successful and characterized by steady increase of vaccine baits uptake and immunization of animals.

  14. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high

  15. Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Intersection of Southern Parkway and Southern Heights, looking toward the Beechmont Historic District, showing changes in landscaping, northeast - Southern Heights-Beechmont District Landscapes, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  16. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of mountain region of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, B; Vitorović, G; Vitorović, D; Pantelić, G; Adamović, I

    2009-02-01

    The activity concentrations of (40)K, (238)U, (232)Th and (137)Cs have been measured using a gamma spectrometric method in different samples from the environment of two mountains in Serbia (altitude 1000-1100 m), during the period 2002-2007. The mountains Maljen and Tara (popular tourist destinations) are near Belgrade. On mountain Maljen, samples were taken at 4 different altitudes (200 m, 650 m, 1000 m and 1100 m), and on mountain Tara at altitudes of 1000 m and 1100 m. On mountain Maljen it was found that the level of (137)Cs activity increased with altitude in samples of soil, grass, hay and cow, sheep and goat milk. On the contrary, (40)K activity decreased with altitude in samples of soil, grass and hay. The highest activity concentrations of (137)Cs were found in bioindicators: sheep meat, venison, wild boar meat, moss and mushrooms. These results indicate that (137)Cs is present in mountain region of Serbia even 20 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. Deposition of (137)Cs was almost two times higher on the Maljen mountain compared to Tara mountain. An average annual dose arising from (137)Cs was 7.4 microSv due to ingestion of cow milk and 6.3 microSv due to ingestion of mushrooms at the Maljen mountain. PMID:19212597

  17. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase. PMID:23941681

  18. Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija; Pešić, Radmilo; Cvejić, Slobodan; Simonović, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Bačka Palanka, Bačko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River.

  19. Economic Sanctions, Military Activity, and Road Traffic Crashes in Vojvodina, Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Ðurić, Predrag; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Political violence has not been examined as a risk factor for traumatic injuries from road traffic crashes. We identify trends in road traffic crashes related to war-related military activity and international economic sanctions in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Methods Overall road traffic crashes and crashes leading to hospitalization and fatality in Vojvodina, Serbia were examined from 1996 through 2001. Rates were calculated per 100,000 population and per 10,000 registered vehicles. Three time periods were examined: years with international sanctions and military activity; years with international sanctions but no military activity; and, years with neither sanctions nor military activity. Results Compared to the period with neither sanctions nor military activity, severe injury crashes were 1.23 times more frequent (95% CI = 1.19 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions and military activity and 1.21 times more frequent (95% CI= 1.16 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions but no military activity. Conclusions Our data suggest that vehicle travel became safer following the end of military action and economic sanctions. Road traffic safety needs to be a priority both during periods of political unrest and its recovery phase. PMID:19074242

  20. Clinical babesiosis and molecular identification of Babesia canis and Babesia gibsoni infections in dogs from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Tomanovic, Snezana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2015-06-01

    Canine babesiosis is a frequent and clinically significant tick-borne disease. Sixty symptomatic dogs with clinical findings compatible with babesiosis were included in this study conducted in Serbia. After clinical examination, blood samples were taken for microscopic examination, complete blood count (CBC), Canine SNAP 4Dx Test, DNA analyses and sequencing. The main clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, fever, brown/red discoloration of urine, pale mucous membranes, icterus, splenomegaly, and vomiting. The main clinicopathological findings in Babesia infections were a slight to severe thrombocytopenia and a mild to very severe normocytic normochromic anaemia. Microscopic evaluation revealed 58 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 57 and 1 sample(s), respectively. No co-infections were found using SNAP test. Two Babesia species, B. canis (58/60) and B. gibsoni (2/60), were differentiated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Species identification was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of B. gibsoni samples and six randomly selected B. canis samples. All dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6.6 mg/kg of body weight), given intramuscularly twice at an interval of 14 days. This report presents the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni and B. canis, confirmed by DNA sequencing, in sick dogs from Serbia. PMID:26051258

  1. Environmental waters as a source of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus species in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Veljović, Katarina; Popović, Nikola; Vidojević, Amarela Terzić; Tolinački, Maja; Mihajlović, Sanja; Jovčić, Branko; Kojić, Milan

    2015-09-01

    Despite the number of studies on antibiotic-resistant enterococci from Serbian clinical settings, there are no data about environmental contamination with these bacteria. Thus, this study investigated the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in Belgrade, Serbia. Enterococcus species collected from ten surface water sites, including a lake, two major river systems, and springs, were tested. Among enterococci, we found single (21.7 %), double (17.4 %), and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns (56.3 %). Vancomycin-resistant strains were not found, indicating that their abundance in Belgrade is tightly linked to clinical settings. The multiple drug-resistant strains Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus mundtii were frequently detected in the lake during the swimming season and in the rivers near industrial zones. We confirmed the presence of ermB, ermC, ant(6)-Ia, tetM, and tetL and mutations in gyrA genes. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of E. faecium isolates that harbor esp gene classified them into two groups based on high-bootstraps scores in the tree analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of antibiotic-resistant enterococci revealed genomic similarity ranging from 75 to 100 %. This study indicates the importance of anthropogenic impact to the spread of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in environmental waters of Belgrade, Serbia.

  2. Psychosocial Stress and Risk of Myocardial Infarction: A Case-Control Study in Belgrade (Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Isidora; Vlajinac, Hristina; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Vasiljevic, Zorana; Matanovic, Dragana; Maksimovic, Jadranka; Sipetic, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate which psychosocial risk factors show the strongest association with occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the population of Belgrade in peacetime, after the big political changes in Serbia. Methods A case-control study was conducted involving 154 consecutive newly diagnosed patients with MI, and 308 controls matched by gender, age, and place of residence. Results According to conditional logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for conventional coronary risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for work-related stressful events, financial stress, deaths and diseases, and general stress were 3.78 (1.83-7.81), 3.80 (1.96-7.38), 1.69 (1.03-2.78), and 3.54 (2.01-6.22), respectively. Among individual stressful life events, the following were independently related to MI: death of a close family member, 2.21 (1.01-4.84); death of a close friend, 42.20 (3.70-481.29); major financial problems, 8.94 (1.83-43.63); minor financial problems, 4.74 (2.02-11.14); changes in working hours, 4.99 (1.64-15.22); and changes in working conditions, 30.94 (5.43-176.31). Conclusions During this political transition period , stress at work, financial stress, and stress in general as they impacted the population of Belgrade, Serbia were strongly associated with occurence of MI. PMID:27274168

  3. Freshwater environmental quality parameters of man-made lakes of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Devic, Gordana; Dorđevic, Dragana; Sakan, Sanja

    2014-08-01

    In this study, 28 lakes were selected from the freshwater resources of the network of man-made lakes throughout the Vojvodina Province and the central part of Serbia. Samples were analyzed for the physicochemicals indicators of the water and nutrients. Most of the values of the chemicals indicators and nutrients of the samples from the Vojvodina Province exceeded the Water Act and Regulations on the Monitoring of Water Quality introduced by the Government of the Republic of Serbia (MWQ) and/or the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standards. These samples may not be suitable for human consumption. The sample from Lake Međuvršje, where the NH4 (+) concentration was 0.28 mg/L, and the sample from Ovcar Banja, where the total phosphorus (TP) content was 0.15 mg/L with a high total nitrogen (TN) content of 1.21 mg/L, are particularly noteworthy. These high concentrations exceeded the proposed guidelines for safe drinking water; therefore, water from these lakes should be used with care as harmful health effects may occur. The majority of the Serbian lakes are characterized by phosphorus-limited photosynthesis. PMID:24740390

  4. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of mountain region of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, B; Vitorović, G; Vitorović, D; Pantelić, G; Adamović, I

    2009-02-01

    The activity concentrations of (40)K, (238)U, (232)Th and (137)Cs have been measured using a gamma spectrometric method in different samples from the environment of two mountains in Serbia (altitude 1000-1100 m), during the period 2002-2007. The mountains Maljen and Tara (popular tourist destinations) are near Belgrade. On mountain Maljen, samples were taken at 4 different altitudes (200 m, 650 m, 1000 m and 1100 m), and on mountain Tara at altitudes of 1000 m and 1100 m. On mountain Maljen it was found that the level of (137)Cs activity increased with altitude in samples of soil, grass, hay and cow, sheep and goat milk. On the contrary, (40)K activity decreased with altitude in samples of soil, grass and hay. The highest activity concentrations of (137)Cs were found in bioindicators: sheep meat, venison, wild boar meat, moss and mushrooms. These results indicate that (137)Cs is present in mountain region of Serbia even 20 years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. Deposition of (137)Cs was almost two times higher on the Maljen mountain compared to Tara mountain. An average annual dose arising from (137)Cs was 7.4 microSv due to ingestion of cow milk and 6.3 microSv due to ingestion of mushrooms at the Maljen mountain.

  5. Estimated daily intake of benzoic acid through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Konstansa; Stojanović, Dusica; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean estimated intake of benzoic acid -0.32 mg/kg of body weight (bw) per day was below acceptable daily intake (ADI). Dietary exposure to benzoic acid (0.36 mg/kg of bw/day; 7.2% ADI) (consumer only), also did not exceed ADI. The main contributors of benzoic acid to dietary intake were non alcoholic beverages (43.1%), ketchup and tomato products (36.1%), and domestic pickled vegetables (19.4%). The results of this study indicate that dietary exposure to benzoic acid and its salts through food preservatives does not represent a public health risk for the adult population of South East Serbia. PMID:22432399

  6. Levels of infection of intestinal helminth species in the golden jackal Canis aureus from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, D; Pavlović, I; Penezić, A; Kulišić, Z; Selaković, S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, golden jackal populations have substantially increased, yet little is known of their potential for transmitting parasites within animal and human hosts. In the present study, between 2005 and 2010, 447 jackals from six localities in Serbia were examined for intestinal parasites. Two species of trematodes (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum), three nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Gongylonema sp.), and seven cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia hydatigena, Multiceps multiceps, Multiceps serialis, Mesocestoides lineatus, Mesocestoides litteratus, Dipylidium caninum) were identified. Pseudamphistomum truncatum and M. serialis species were recorded for the first time. The overall prevalence of parasitic infection was 10.3%. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of infection between males and females (P>0.817), between localities (P>0.502), or with regard to annual cycles (P>0.502). In the infected jackal population, 65% harboured multiple infections and one individual was a host to five different types of parasite species, the highest number of parasites we recorded in a single host. These findings indicate that although the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in the jackal population in Serbia is significantly lower than expected from earlier studies, further monitoring is required given the jackal's rapid population increase.

  7. Higher Education in Serbia: From Socialism to the Free Market Economy and Implications for the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smirnov, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationships between higher education and the labour market in Serbia. In order to understand this relationship better, this paper will first provide a brief history of the country and the history of its higher education structures. The paper will then discuss higher education from post Second World War until the fall of…

  8. Educating Educators in a Volatile Climate--The Challenge of Modernising Higher Business Schools in Serbia and Montenegro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinshead, Graham

    2006-01-01

    This study is set in the rapidly changing higher educational environment that has ensued in Serbia and Montenegro in the post Milosevic era. Its primary focus is a "Training Trainers" initiative, mounted by the GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit/Society for Technical Co-operation), designed to upgrade the teaching capacity of…

  9. Stolbur Phytoplasma Transmission to Maize by Reptalus panzeri and the Disease Cycle of Maize Redness in Serbia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize redness (MR), induced by stolbur phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, subgroup 16SrXII-A), is characterized by midrib, leaf and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development. MR has been reported from Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria for 50 years, and recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 4...

  10. Poor, Rural, and Southern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robert E., Jr.

    Despite political gains and the lowering of social barriers, most Southern blacks still face formidable economic obstacles. More than half of rural Southern black families are living at or below poverty level. Efforts to improve their lot have included a number of cooperative and self-help community programs. The Southern Cooperative Development…

  11. Early Warning System for reducing disaster risk: the technological platform DEWETRA for the Republic of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Molini, Luca; Kostic, Bojan; Campanella, Paolo; Stevanovic, Slavimir

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk reduction has long been recognized for its role in mitigating the negative environmental, social and economic impacts of natural hazards. Flood Early Warning System is a disaster risk reduction measure based on the capacities of institutions to observe and predict extreme hydro-meteorological events and to disseminate timely and meaningful warning information; it is furthermore based on the capacities of individuals, communities and organizations to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss. An operational definition of an Early Warning System has been suggested by ISDR - UN Office for DRR [15 January 2009]: "EWS is the set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.". ISDR continues by commenting that a people-centered early warning system necessarily comprises four key elements: 1-knowledge of the risks; 2-monitoring, analysis and forecasting of the hazards; 3-communication or dissemination of alerts and warnings; and 4- local capabilities to respond to the warnings received." The technological platform DEWETRA supports the strengthening of the first three key elements of EWS suggested by ISDR definition, hence to improve the capacities to build real-time risk scenarios and to inform and warn the population in advance The technological platform DEWETRA has been implemented for the Republic of Serbia. DEWETRA is a real time-integrate system that supports decision makers for risk forecasting and monitoring and for distributing warnings to end-user and to the general public. The system is based on the rapid availability of different data that helps to establish up-to-date and reliable risk scenarios. The integration of all relevant data for risk management significantly

  12. Monitoring of aphid flight activities in seed potato crops in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vučetić, Andja; Vukov, Tanja; Jovičić, Ivana; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    Aphid flight activities in seed potato fields have been studied by the yellow water traps. It is a good method for monitoring aphids as vectors of viruses, but this study also showed it is a suitable method for insect-diversity research. During the four-year studies, over 11.500 specimens were collected and a total of 107 different taxa of aphids were identified. The most abundant species were polyphagous species, such as: Acyrthosiphon pisum (Haris), Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Gloverand Brachycaudus helichrysi (Kaltenbach). The results of the studies show that diversity of aphids in different regions of Serbia is similar regardless of the altitude and the diversity of terrain. At most sites it ranged from 2 to 3. The highest value was recorded in Begeč, locality in northern part of Serbia, in year 2008, and it was 2.92. The maximum values of the Shannon-Weaver diversity index at all sites were recorded in the first weeks of the monitoring of aphid flight activities. Morisita-Horn similarity index shows no significant differences between sites regardless of altitudes. The sites are grouped by year, not by similarity of relief. In spite of these results, the Chi-square analysis showed highly significant difference in vector frequencies among seasons and sites with more pronounced differences for PVY. As a consequence of differences in vector frequencies, the vector pressure index in some regions was different also. The number of vectors and vector pressure index vary depending on the altitude of localities. At localities at altitudes under 1000 m, they were high. The highest index was at Kotraža, locality in central part of Serbia, in 2007, when PVY index exceeded the value of 180, while for PLRV it was 60. At high altitudes on mountain Golija, above 1100 m, the number of aphids was low, as well as the vector pressure index which indicates that these regions are suitable for producing virus-free seed potato. PMID:24039529

  13. The analysis of limbs acute ischemia during seasons on the territory of South Serbia.

    PubMed

    Damnjanović, Zoran; Jovanović, Milan; Janković, Irena; Cvetanović, Vladan; Smiljković, Igor; Janković, Dimitrije

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the seasons variations in incidence of limbs acute ischemia (LAI) as well as the connection between seasons with location of LAI, old age and gender. During the three year period between January 2009 and December 2011, at the Clinic for Vascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Nis, Serbia, 167 patients were hospitalized diagnosed with limbs acute ischemia. There was no statistically significant difference in patients distribution with LAI compared with seasons (p=0.726) and months of the year (p=0.0741). There was no statistically significant difference in patients age (p=0.066), sex (p=0.923) and LAI localization (p=0.219 ) in different seasons. The absence of seasonal and monthly patterns for the AIE creation as well as its localization is followed by the absence of a connection between the age and the sex..

  14. Essential Oil Chemical Composition and Headspace Volatiles Profile of Achillea coarctata from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kostevski, Ivana R; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Stamenković, Jelena G; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the essential oil composition and headspace volatiles profile of Achillea coarctata Poir. from Serbia. The inflorescences, stems and leaves, and the aerial parts of A. coarctata were analyzed separately. Germacrene D, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents of the aerial parts essential oil; 1,8-cineole, cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol and α-terpineol were the most dominant compounds in the inflorescence essential oil, while the most abundant components in the stem and leaf oil were germacrene D, cis-cadin-4-en-7-ol and ledol. The percentages of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids in the aerial parts were the same, while there were differences in distribution of these compound classes in inflorescence and stem and leaf essential oils. The major components of the headspace volatiles were the same for aerial parts, inflorescence and stem and leaves: 1,8-cineole, β-pinene and α-pinene. PMID:27396214

  15. Early late Visean ammonoid faunas from the Jadar Block (NW Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Dieter; Jovanović, Divna; Novak, Matevž; Sudar, Milan N.

    2010-10-01

    The outcrop at Milivojevića Kamenjar in Družetić (Jadar Block, Vardar Zone, NW Serbia), which exposes a fossiliferous limestone olistolith, is one of the key sites for Carboniferous stratigraphy and paleogeography in the Balkan Peninsula. Its age has been debated several times, and re-examination of the succession was required. Based on ammonoids and conodonts, an interval spanning from the latest Devonian to the basal Serpukhovian is represented. From the early late Visean portion of the section, the new ammonoid genus and species Ubites filipovici gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described. Entogonites tetragonus (Kullmann, 1962), a formerly misinterpreted ammonoid species, is revised.

  16. Developing a questionnaire for measuring safety climate in the workplace in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milijic, Nenad; Mihajlovic, Ivan; Strbac, Nada; Zivkovic, Zivan

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted because a real method for measuring safety climate had never been developed and assessed in Serbian industry. The aim of this paper was to start the process of developing a safety climate questionnaire that could be used in Serbia. As a starting point a 21-item questionnaire was adopted after an extensive literature review. The questionnaire was distributed at several Serbian factories; 1098 workers responded. After a statistical analysis of the data obtained with the questionnaire and a critical comparison with the available reference results, a final questionnaire with 21 questions, divided into 7 groups, was developed. The 7 groups of questions (factors) were safety awareness and competence, safety communication, organizational environment, management support, risk judgment and management reaction, safety precautions and accident prevention, and safety training. PMID:24321642

  17. Radiation doses in adult computed tomography practice in Serbia: initial results.

    PubMed

    Arandjic, Danijela; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Hadnadjev, Darka; Stojanovic, Sanja; Bozovic, Predrag; Ceklic, Sandra; Lazarevic, Djordje

    2014-11-01

    This work presents initial data on radiation doses in adult computed tomography (CT) in Serbia. Data were collected in terms of CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) values for head, chest and abdomen examination. The range of CTDIvol values was found to be 53-98, 11-34 and 8.5-227 mGy whereas for DLP was 803-1066, 350-845 and 1066-3078 mGy cm(-1) for head, chest and abdomen examination, respectively. Except for abdomen on one CT unit, all estimated values were in line with the reported data. This work also presents simple method on how to reduce radiation doses when scanning head. Using axial (step-and-shot) instead of helical mode and decreasing tube current-time product leads to significant dose reduction. CTDIvol was decreased by 20 % whereas DLP was reduced for a factor 2. PMID:25063787

  18. Neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows and domestic dogs from Vojvodina, Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Kuruca, Ljiljana; Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Simin, Stanislav; Savović, Milan; Lauš, Saša; Lalošević, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is a protozoan parasite responsible for high rate of abortion in cattle worldwide. In dogs, consequences of infection vary from severe neuromuscular disorders to asymptomatic infection and shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts. In this study, we determined the occurrence of N. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and dogs in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia) and possible risk factors. N. caninum antibodies were found in 15.4% (55/356, CI 95%:12.0–19.6) of cows and 17.2% (17/99, CI 95%: 10.8–26.2) of dogs. Cows from smallholdings showed significantly greater odds (OR = 5.28, CI 95%: 2.0–13.6, p = 0.0006) of being seropositive in comparison to the farm cows. Epidemiological importance of results is discussed. PMID:24152767

  19. Survey of ELF magnetic field levels in households near overhead power lines in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vulevic, B; Osmokrovic, P

    2011-06-01

    During the last eight years, 'VINČA' Institute--Radiation and Environmental Protection Laboratory has performed environmental 'spot' broadband measurements of extremely low frequency (ELF-50 Hz) electric and magnetic fields and RF (100 kHz-3 GHz) electromagnetic fields in over 35 municipalities in Serbia. These investigations were motivated by the local population requesting information about levels of general public exposure to time-varying electric and magnetic fields in living spaces. This paper presents a summary of values measured in households under overhead power lines. These measurements will be useful in determining the exposure levels of the general public, which in turn determines whether the exposure levels are within reference levels recommended by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guidelines. It has turned out that measured values are far below the recommended safe levels. PMID:21273197

  20. Use of enzymatic tools for biomonitoring inorganic pollution in aquatic sediments: a case study (Bor, Serbia)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sediment bacterial communities are key players in biogeochemical cycling of elements in the aquatic environment. Copper mining, smelting, and processing operations located in Bor area (Serbia) are major environmental hot spots in the lower Danube Basin and Western Balkans. In the present study, we evaluate the influence of trace element (TE) concentration in sediments and physico-chemical properties of water on sediment microbial communities in water streams adjacent to the Copper Smelter Complex Bor (RTB Bor, Serbia). The degree to which metabolic activities of bacterial biota inhabiting differently polluted sites is inhibited by inorganic pollution were compared using selected enzymatic bioindicators. Results Cu, Zn, Pb, and As concentrations systematically exceeded the target values for metal loadings in aquatic sediments. Water electrical conductivity (WEC) followed the same pattern of spatial variation, irrespective of season. Interestingly, the most intense enzymatic activity occurred at the reference site although this site showed the greatest TE levels in aquatic sediments. Catalase activity (CA), potential dehydrogenase activity (PDA), actual dehydrogenase activity (ADA), urease activity (UA), and phosphatase activity (PA) in aquatic sediments displayed heterogeneous patterns of spatio-temporal variation. Inorganic pollution greatly affected CA, ADA, and PDA, but much less so UA and PA. Canonical correlation analysis showed that pH and WEC were the strongest determinants of enzymatic activity in bacterial biota, with the latter variable being reversely correlated with the enzymatic indicator of sediment quality (EISQ). The median values of EISQ increased with distance from the major sources of pollution. In addition, it was found that sites with different degrees of inorganic pollution can be appropriately classified by applying cluster analysis to EISQ, TE levels in sediments, and physico-chemical properties of water. Conclusions Because EISQ

  1. Evaluation of probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from traditional cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Čadež, Neža; Uroić, Ksenija; Miljković, Marija; Tolinački, Maja; Doušova, Petra; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Raspor, Peter; Topisirović, Ljubiša; Golić, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic potential of dairy yeast isolates from artisanal cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia. Materials and Methods: Twelve yeast strains isolated from artisanal fresh soft and white brined cheeses manufactured in Serbia and Croatia were used in the study. Survival in chemically-simulated gastrointestinal conditions, adherence to epithelial intestinal cells and proliferation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells were evaluated. Results: The results revealed that two strains of Kluyvereomyces lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM 2453 grew above one log unit (Δ log CFU/ml) in the complex colonic medium during 24 h of cultivation, while Torulaspora delbrueckii ZIM 2460 was the most resistant isolate in chemically-simulated conditions of gastric juice and upper intestinal tract. It was demonstrated that the strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and ZIM2441 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIM 2415 were highly adhesive to Caco-2 cells, while strains K. lactis ZIM 2408 and Debaryomyces hansenii ZIM 2415 exhibit the highest adhesion percentage to HT29-MTX cells. All strains significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased the proliferation of GALT cells, suggesting the possible strain-specific immunomodulatory potential of the isolates. Conclusion: The dairy yeast isolates exhibit strain-specific probiotic properties, particularly the strain K. lactis ZIM 2408, which appears to be the best probiotic candidate in terms of all three criteria. Taking into account their immunomodulatory potential, the yeast isolates could be further tested for specific probiotic applications and eventually included in functional food formulated for patients suffering from diseases associated with an increased inflammatory status. PMID:26401378

  2. West Nile virus serosurveillance in pigs, wild boars, and roe deer in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Escribano-Romero, Estela; Lupulović, Diana; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Lazić, Gospava; Lazić, Sava; Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Petrović, Tamaš

    2015-04-17

    West Nile virus (WNV) is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between birds and mosquitoes, but it also infects many other vertebrates, including humans and horses, in which it can induce severe neurological diseases; however, data about virus circulation in other mammals is scarce. WNV has a history of recent outbreaks in Europe, including Serbia, where it was identified for the first time in 2010 in mosquitoes and in 2012 in birds and humans, being responsible for over 300 confirmed human cases and 35 deaths there along 2013. To assess WNV circulation among mammals in the country, 688 samples obtained from 279 farm pigs, 318 wild boars, and 91 roe deer were investigated for the presence of antibodies to WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and viral neutralization test (VNT), and the specificity of their reactivity was assayed against Usutu virus (USUV). ELISA-reactive sera were identified in 43 (15.4%) pigs, 56 (17.6%) wild boars, and 17 (18.7%) roe deer. Of these, 6 (14%), 33 (59%), and 4 (23.5%) respectively, neutralized WNV. One out of the 45 ELISA negative sera tested, from a roe deer, neutralized WNV. Cross-reactivity neutralization test indicated that all deer and pigs neutralizing sera were WNV specific, while in 5 (15.2%) of the wild boar samples the specificity could not be established. Four wild boar sera showed USUV specificity. All these data confirm the circulation of both flaviviruses in Serbia, and highlight the need for the implementation of global coordinated surveillance programs in the region.

  3. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  4. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    PubMed

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  5. Role of the Science Society in the Project Ruka u Testu (La main 30 la pate) in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokic, S.

    The operation "Ruka u testu" found in Serbia a favourable ground for its development. Started in 2001, it received a broad echo in the public opinion, well beyond the teacher's world. The operation was also supported by many institutions as well as a great number of university professors and researchers. Since 2003, the Serbian Ministry of Education decided to propose an option "Ruka u testu - Discovering the World" for pupils of 6-8 years old. This option allows children to enter a process of self-discovery of sciences by experimenting. The first South-East European Summer School for Hands on Primary Science Education, has been organized in Serbia. The help of Pierre Léna during all our activities was very important and estimable.

  6. The assessment of soil availability and wheat grain status of zinc and iron in Serbia: Implications for human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Nina; Kostic, Ljiljana; Pavlovic, Jelena; Bosnic, Predrag; Stevic, Nenad; Savic, Jasna; Hristov, Nikola

    2016-05-15

    The deficiency of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) is a global issue causing not only considerable yield losses of food crops but also serious health problems. We have analysed Zn and Fe concentrations in the grains of two bread wheat cultivars along native gradient of micronutrient availability throughout Serbia. Although only 13% of the soil samples were Zn deficient and none was Fe deficient, the levels of these micronutrients in grain were rather low (median values of 21 mg kg(-1) for Zn and 36 mg kg(-1) for Fe), and even less adequate in white flour. Moreover, excessive P fertilization of calcareous soils in the major wheat growing areas strongly correlated with lower grain concentration of Zn. Our results imply that a latent Zn deficiency in wheat grain poses a high risk for grain quality relevant to human health in Serbia, where wheat bread is a staple food. PMID:26925726

  7. First- and fifth-year medical students' intention for emigration and practice abroad: a case study of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena M; Terzic-Supic, Zorica J; Matejic, Bojana R; Vasic, Vladimir; Ricketts, Thomas C

    2014-11-01

    Health worker migration is causing profound health, safety, social, economic and political challenges to countries without special policies for health professionals' mobility. This study describes the prevalence of migration intentions among medical undergraduates, identifies underlying factors related to migration intention and describes subsequent actions in Serbia. Data were captured by survey of 938 medical students from Belgrade University (94% response rate), representing two thirds of matching students in Serbia stated their intentions, reasons and obstacles regarding work abroad. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and a sequential multivariate logistic regression. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics we were able to predict the profile of first and fifth year medical students who intend or have plans to work abroad. This study contributes to our understanding of the causes and correlates of intent to migrate and could serve to raise awareness and point to the valuable policy options to manage migration.

  8. Effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory symptoms of non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Results A strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant. Conclusions Indoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. PMID:22958910

  9. Q fever outbreak in the village of Noćaj, Srem County, Vojvodina Province, Serbia, January to February 2012.

    PubMed

    Medić, S; Kaluski, D Nitzan; Seguljev, Z; Obrenović, J; Rudan, P; Lazarević, M; Kočić, J Jandrić; Sajenković, D; Pusić, I; Bugarski, D; Vidanović, D; Sekler, M

    2012-04-12

    From 27 January to 10 February 2012, a total of 43 cases of Q fever were notified in the village of Noćaj, Srem county, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. Q fever was laboratory confirmed in 37 notified cases. Alhough, the outbreak is considered over, the outbreak investigation is still ongoing in order to identify aetiologic factors relevant for this outbreak.

  10. Gender disparities in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, 1991-2014: a time of civil wars and global crisis.

    PubMed

    Ilic, M; Ilic, I

    2016-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to analyse the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia (excluding the Autonomous Province of Kosovo & Metohia) from 1991 to 2014 using joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates from infectious diseases were found to have increased markedly from 1991 to 1994 (+12·4% per year), followed by a significant decline from 1994 to 2009 (-4·6% per year) and then another increase from 2009 to 2014 (+4·3% per year). Throughout the study period, mortality rates were consistently higher in men than in women. Although a substantial decline was observed for young people of both sexes, no consistent pattern was evident for the middle-aged nor the elderly. Since 1991, septicaemia has emerged as a leading cause of infectious disease mortality, particularly in older men. The Yugoslav civil wars in the 1990s and the global financial crisis in 2008 corresponded with changes in the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, with the elderly showing particular vulnerability during those time periods. Data presented in this study might be useful to improve control of infectious diseases in Serbia.

  11. Canyons and gorges as potential geotourism destinations in Serbia: comparative analysis from two perspectives - general geotourists' and pure geotourists'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Božić, Sanja; Tomić, Nemanja

    2015-10-01

    Serbia represents one of those countries which have not yet differentiated themselves on the world tourism map. However, it has an immense but still unrevealed potential for geotourism development. In this paper we analyzed several remarkable canyons and gorges of great scientific importance and geotourism potential. These sites include the Djerdap Gorge and Lazar River Canyon, located in Eastern Serbia and the Ovcar-Kablar Gorge and Uvac Canyon located in Western Serbia. One of the main goals of this paper was to analyze and compare the current state and tourism potential of these geosites by using the M-GAM model for geosite assessment. However, the principal aim of the paper is to analyze how important is each subindicator in the assessment process for different market segments. In this paper, we also analyzed how giving different importance to subindicators can influence the position of the geosites in the matrix indicating different assessment done by two chosen market segments. The research showed that general geotourists appreciate considerably different values when assessing a geosite in comparison to pure geotourists. The paper can be used as framework for developing the tourism management strategy of geosites taking into consideration the needs and preferences of the target market segments.

  12. Interval linear programming model for long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Simic, Vladimir; Dimitrijevic, Branka

    2015-02-01

    An interval linear programming approach is used to formulate and comprehensively test a model for optimal long-term planning of vehicle recycling in the Republic of Serbia. The proposed model is applied to a numerical case study: a 4-year planning horizon (2013-2016) is considered, three legislative cases and three scrap metal price trends are analysed, availability of final destinations for sorted waste flows is explored. Potential and applicability of the developed model are fully illustrated. Detailed insights on profitability and eco-efficiency of the projected contemporary equipped vehicle recycling factory are presented. The influences of the ordinance on the management of end-of-life vehicles in the Republic of Serbia on the vehicle hulks procuring, sorting generated material fractions, sorted waste allocation and sorted metals allocation decisions are thoroughly examined. The validity of the waste management strategy for the period 2010-2019 is tested. The formulated model can create optimal plans for procuring vehicle hulks, sorting generated material fractions, allocating sorted waste flows and allocating sorted metals. Obtained results are valuable for supporting the construction and/or modernisation process of a vehicle recycling system in the Republic of Serbia.

  13. Gender disparities in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, 1991-2014: a time of civil wars and global crisis.

    PubMed

    Ilic, M; Ilic, I

    2016-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The aim of this descriptive epidemiological study was to analyse the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia (excluding the Autonomous Province of Kosovo & Metohia) from 1991 to 2014 using joinpoint regression analysis. The mortality rates from infectious diseases were found to have increased markedly from 1991 to 1994 (+12·4% per year), followed by a significant decline from 1994 to 2009 (-4·6% per year) and then another increase from 2009 to 2014 (+4·3% per year). Throughout the study period, mortality rates were consistently higher in men than in women. Although a substantial decline was observed for young people of both sexes, no consistent pattern was evident for the middle-aged nor the elderly. Since 1991, septicaemia has emerged as a leading cause of infectious disease mortality, particularly in older men. The Yugoslav civil wars in the 1990s and the global financial crisis in 2008 corresponded with changes in the trends in mortality from infectious diseases in Serbia, with the elderly showing particular vulnerability during those time periods. Data presented in this study might be useful to improve control of infectious diseases in Serbia. PMID:27483375

  14. Assessment of the environmental significance of nutrients and heavy metal pollution in the river network of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Dević, Gordana; Sakan, Sanja; Đorđević, Dragana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the data for ten water quality variables collected during 2009 at 75 monitoring sites along the river network of Serbia are considered. The results are alarming because 48% of the studied sites were contaminated by Ni, Mn, Pb, As, and nutrients, which are key factors impairing the water quality of the rivers in Serbia. Special attention should be paid to Zn and Cu, listed in the priority toxic pollutants of US EPA for aquatic life protection. The employed Q-model cluster analysis grouped the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high). Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) were in the main rivers, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) were in the large and small tributaries/hydro-system. Principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) showed that the dissolved metals and nutrients in the Serbian rivers varied depending on the river, the heterogeneity of the anthropogenic activities in the basins (influenced primarily by industrial wastewater, agricultural activities, and urban runoff pollution), and natural environmental variability, such as geological characteristics. In LP dominated non-point source pollution, such as agricultural and urban runoff, whereas mixed source pollution dominated in the MP and HP zones. These results provide information to be used for developing better pollution control strategies for the river network of Serbia.

  15. Human milk POPs and neonatal risk trend from 1982 to 2009 in the same geographic region in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vukavić, T; Vojinović Miloradov, M; Mihajlović, I; Ristivojević, A

    2013-04-01

    Three groups of POPs - DDT, HCH and PCBs were monitored in early human milk for 27 years (1982-2009), as a measure of environmental pollution in the same geographic region (South Bačka, Voyvodina, Serbia). Measurements were performed using ECD GC Varian 3400. Concetrations of DDT and HCH had general decreasing trend from 1982 to 2009. However, the concentrations of both groups of compounds showed small rises in 1994. Concentrations of PCBs had general decreasing trend from 1982 to 2009 - smooth and steep only till 1994 and with two small peaks in 2003 and 2009. The latest estimated daily intake of DDT and HCH was well below the EU upper limit for pesticides in food intended for infants and small children. Although the estimated daily intake of PCBs was far below the upper limit for daily milk products in Serbia, its increase in 2003 and 2009 is a clear indication of environmental influx of these compounds after the 1994 measurements. The likely explanation for such POP profiles in South Bačka could have been a series of negative environmental impacts escalating in 1999, after which four hot spots were identified in Serbia (Novi Sad, Pančevo, Bor and Kragujevac) by UNEP. The results of this monitoring showed that although a long standing environmental presence of POPs has a decreasing trend, their occasional output in the environment may cause bioaccumulation and biomagnification in human organisms which already start in the neonatal age through mother-child transfer via human milk.

  16. Southern Ocean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Collins, Martin A; Rodhouse, Paul G K

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Ocean cephalopod fauna is distinctive, with high levels of endemism in the squid and particularly in the octopodids. Loliginid squid, sepiids and sepiolids are absent from the Southern Ocean, and all the squid are oceanic pelagic species. The octopodids dominate the neritic cephalopod fauna, with high levels of diversity, probably associated with niche separation. In common with temperate cephalopods, Southern Ocean species appear to be semelparous, but growth rates are probably lower and longevity greater than temperate counterparts. Compared with equivalent temperate species, eggs are generally large and fecundity low, with putative long development times. Reproduction may be seasonal in the squid but is extended in the octopodids. Cephalopods play an important role in the ecology of the Southern Ocean, linking the abundant mesopelagic fish and crustaceans with higher predators such as albatross, seals and whales. To date Southern Ocean cephalopods have not been commercially exploited, but there is potential for exploitation of muscular species of the Family Ommastrephidae.

  17. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  18. A large-scale study of the Trichinella genus in the golden jackal (Canis aureus) population in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, Duško; Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Klun, Ivana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2015-09-15

    Over the last decades the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has significantly expanded its range throughout Southeast and Central Europe, and the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be a core area of the species distribution in this part of the range. Due to its increasing number, ability of long distance movement through a wide range of landscapes and opportunistic feeding habits, the golden jackal may represent an important reservoir and transmitter of a variety of zoonotic agents, including parasites. The Balkans, Serbia included, remain an endemic area for various zoonotic parasites including Trichinella spp. Trichinella has recently been recorded in jackals in Serbia, which prompted us to carry out a large-scale survey of its prevalence, distribution and species identification in this host. In cooperation with local hunters, carcasses of a total of 738 legally hunted golden jackals were collected at 24 localities over an 11-year period (2003-2013). Analysis of tongue base tissue revealed Trichinella larvae in 122, indicating a prevalence of infection of 16.5%. No difference in the prevalence of infection was found between genders [16.2% in males and 16.9% in females (χ(2)=0.05, p=0.821)], or among the study years (G=7.22, p=0.705). Trichinella larvae were found in 13 out of the 24 examined localities. Molecular identification was performed for 90 isolates, and 64 (71.1%) larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis and 25 (27.9%) as Trichinella britovi. Mixed infection (T. spiralis and T. britovi) was recorded in a single case. Although T. spiralis was more prevalent, T. britovi had a wider distribution, and was the only recorded species in jackal populations from the mountainous region of eastern Serbia. On the other hand, T. spiralis was dominant in jackals in the lowlands of central and northern Serbia, where domestic pigs are mostly reared. These results show that the golden jackal is involved in both the domestic and sylvatic cycle, and that it has emerged as

  19. A large-scale study of the Trichinella genus in the golden jackal (Canis aureus) population in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ćirović, Duško; Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Klun, Ivana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2015-09-15

    Over the last decades the golden jackal (Canis aureus) has significantly expanded its range throughout Southeast and Central Europe, and the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be a core area of the species distribution in this part of the range. Due to its increasing number, ability of long distance movement through a wide range of landscapes and opportunistic feeding habits, the golden jackal may represent an important reservoir and transmitter of a variety of zoonotic agents, including parasites. The Balkans, Serbia included, remain an endemic area for various zoonotic parasites including Trichinella spp. Trichinella has recently been recorded in jackals in Serbia, which prompted us to carry out a large-scale survey of its prevalence, distribution and species identification in this host. In cooperation with local hunters, carcasses of a total of 738 legally hunted golden jackals were collected at 24 localities over an 11-year period (2003-2013). Analysis of tongue base tissue revealed Trichinella larvae in 122, indicating a prevalence of infection of 16.5%. No difference in the prevalence of infection was found between genders [16.2% in males and 16.9% in females (χ(2)=0.05, p=0.821)], or among the study years (G=7.22, p=0.705). Trichinella larvae were found in 13 out of the 24 examined localities. Molecular identification was performed for 90 isolates, and 64 (71.1%) larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis and 25 (27.9%) as Trichinella britovi. Mixed infection (T. spiralis and T. britovi) was recorded in a single case. Although T. spiralis was more prevalent, T. britovi had a wider distribution, and was the only recorded species in jackal populations from the mountainous region of eastern Serbia. On the other hand, T. spiralis was dominant in jackals in the lowlands of central and northern Serbia, where domestic pigs are mostly reared. These results show that the golden jackal is involved in both the domestic and sylvatic cycle, and that it has emerged as

  20. The Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in Begej Canal (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krčmar, Dejan; Trickovic, Jelena; Grba, Nenad; Becelic Tomin, Milena; Pesic, Vesna; Varga, Natasa; Dalmacija, Bozo

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals in aquatic systems has received huge concern due to their toxicity, persistence and subsequent accumulation in aquatic sediments. One of the most crucial properties of the metals, which differentiate them from organic pollutants, is that they are not biodegradable in the environment. Metals are part of biogeochemical cycles with aquatic sediments acting as their ultimate sinks for longer periods of time. However, when environmental conditions change (pH, redox potential, etc.) sediments act as secondary sources of metal pollution. The toxicity and mobility of metals depend strongly on the way they are associated with sediments. Therefore, information on the total concentrations of metals in sediment alone should not be used to assess the environmental impact of polluted sediments. The Begej Canal is navigation canal between Romania and Serbia and it is a part of Danube-Tisa-Danube hydrosystem in Vojvodina (Northern Province of Serbia). Approximately, 500,000 m3 of sediment is accumulated in Begej canal which currently prevents canal's primary function - navigability. The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical quality of Begej canal sediments regarding heavy metals content. The concentrations of heavy metals were as follows: Cd - 2.4-4.9 mg/kg, Cr - 125-349 mg/kg, Cu - 65-124 mg/kg, Pb - 47-113 mg/kg, Ni - 45-88 mg/kg and Zn - 362-602 mg/kg. According to Serbian legislation (Official gazette, no. 50/12), sediment of Begej canal is the third class sediment which means that special measures should be taken in case of its removal from watercourse and final disposal in order to prevent contamination of other environmental compartments (soil, ground waters, surface waters, wildlife). Therefore, determination of third class has important economic and social implications. Additional tests to assess sediment quality included determination of contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF). In

  1. Alternaria toxins in wheat from the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia: a preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Orčić, Dejan; Torbica, Aleksandra; Kos, Jovana; Mastilović, Jasna; Škrinjar, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Although Fusarium species remain a main source of mycotoxin contamination of wheat, in recent years, due to the evident climatic changes, other mycotoxigenic fungi have been recognised as important wheat contaminants. Alternaria species, especially A. alternata, have been found as contaminants of wheat as well as wheat-based products. Under favourable conditions A. alternata very often produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA) and others Alternaria toxins. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of three Alternaria toxins (AOH, AME and TeA) in wheat samples harvested during three years (2011-13). To this end, 92 samples were collected during wheat harvesting from different growing regions of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, which represents the most important wheat-growing area in Serbia. The presence of Alternaria toxins was analysed by HPLC with electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Among all the analysed wheat samples, 63 (68.5%) were contaminated with TeA, 11 (12.0%) with AOH and 6 (6.5%) with AME. Furthermore, the maximum and mean toxin concentrations were 2676 and 92.4 µg kg(-1), 48.9 and 18.6 µg kg(-1), and 70.2 and 39.0 µg kg(-1) for TeA, AOH and AME, respectively. Co-occurrence of three Alternaria toxins in wheat samples was detected in six samples; a combination of two toxins was found in two samples; and 64 samples contained one toxin. The results showed that among 92 analysed wheat samples, only 20 (21.7%) samples were without Alternaria toxins. The presence of Alternaria toxins was also investigated in terms of weather conditions recorded during the period of investigation, as well as with the sampling region. This study represents the first preliminary report of the natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) from Serbia.

  2. Geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks in Kremna, basin (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perunović, Tamara; Jovančićević, Branimir; Brčeski, Ilija; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Simić, Vlada; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica

    2014-05-01

    Studying lacustrine sediments is important because of their potential economic value since they often bear coal, oil shales and non-metallic mineral raw materials. Besides this, lacustrine sediments offer valuable information on the climate conditions which existed during the sedimentation. In Serbia there are 14 lacustrine basins spanning in age from Oligocene to Lower Pliocene. The aim of this study was to examine Lower Miocene Kremna basin, located in southwest Serbia. Kremna basin is a small basin, covering 15km2, but sedimentologically very interesting. For the purpose of this study, 43 sediment samples were taken from a borehole at different depths, from surface to 343 m depth of the basin. The borehole ended in weathered serpentinite. Mineralogical composition of sediments was determined using thin-sections and X-ray diffraction analysis, contents of macro-and microelements and rare-earth elements were determined by ICP-ES and ICP-MS techniques. Also, elemental analysis was applied to determine the contents of carbon, sulphur and nitrogen and n-alkanes, isoprenoide aliphatic alkanes and bitumen were also determined using GC-MS technique. Mineralogical analyses proved presents of several lithological types in Kremna basin: clastic sediments, tuffs, tuffaceous sediments, marlstones, dolomites, magnezites, and coal of non-economic value. Occurrence of sirlezite and sepiolite was also determined. Furthermore, according to all obtained results two faciae were determined: alluvial-marginal lacustrine and intrabasinal. Alluvial-marginal facies originated from predominantly ultramafic rocks which underlie the basin. Magnezites and Mg-marls and Mg-dolomites are dominant sediments in this facies. These sediments formed under arid, slightly saline conditions. Intrabasinal facies is represented mostly with marls, Mg-marls and dolomitic limestones. These sediments were deposited under a more humid climate with increase in paleoproductivity. The uppermost sediments of

  3. Variability of Climate In Serbia In The Second Half of The 20thc Entury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanovic, M.; Ducic, V.

    According to data of IPCC, the global surface temperature increased to 0.6 °C in the 20th century. It is claimed that the most studies registered significant changes of climate and that those changes also show that there is a small probability that the registered trend of worming is caused in general by natural factors . Weber quotes that the increase of global temperature in the last 140 years is 0.3 °C, and that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the system of 20 climatic stations. Until 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase that was less than 0.1 °C was registered from 1951. Explorers from Bulgaria and Hungary came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade the picture is changed and the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south - eastern part of the country and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions. That regional differentiation referred us to search for circulation reasons of temperature change. Using Dzerdzevski division on three main types of circulation in the south hemisphere, we found that the incr ease of temperatures in the last decade is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the meridian south to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations. On the basis of analogy with warm periods of Holocene that Budiko and Zubakov give it is

  4. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals is one of the most powerful factors destroying biosphere components that directly affecting agricultural production quality and therefore health of human and animals. Regional soil contamination by heavy metals occurs mainly in industrial areas and in big cities. However, pollutants can be air-and/or water-transferred to big distances and may accumulated far from industrial zone what makes difficult to distinguish original background concentrations of heavy metals in soil. Our study covers south-eastern part of Serbia and is a part of a big project studying soil fertility and heavy metal contamination all around Serbia. Diverse natural characteristics and heterogeneity of soil cover, as well as, human activity greatly influenced soil fertility parameters, while, diverse geological substrate and human activity determined the level of potential geochemical pollution. There are number of industrial factories functioning from the last century on the studied area. Also, close to studied area, there was a mining in the middle of the last century. About 600 soil samples from surface 0-30 cm were investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) and concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46% of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41% of soil samples were below 3%. The most of the soils (71%) are weakly supplied available phosphorus. While available potassium in more than 70% is presented in the concentrations enough for good soil quality. So, about 75% of studied area is characterized with unfavorable soil fertility properties (extremly low soil pH, very low content of available P, about half of the area maintained low soil humus) that is located under forests, meadows and pastures. Content of heavy metals on studied area in 80% of sampled soils was below maximum allowed concentrations

  5. Identifying gaps between current and expected ICT competencies of nurses in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Paunic, Sanja; Stojkovic, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Introducing of ICT in the health care system in Serbia started 19 years ago and systematic training of nurses and technicians has not been realized yet. The primary objective of this paper is to determine the gap between the sets of ICT competencies of nurses and technicians acquiring education and experience and the necessary skill set required for their daily work. The qualitative research included questioning of the focus group of experts and 400 nurses and technicians employed in secondary and tertiary health institutions in Serbia. Based on the analysis of existing literature we choose the Informatics competencies for nurses at four levels of practice (Staggers, Gassert, Curran, 2001), and for the purposes of this study, we used a list of competencies of the first, and partially of the second and third level. At the start, the group of 12 experts had the task to eliminate some of listed competencies to express the subjective expectations of the ICT competencies of nurses. After that nurses and medical technicians were expected to grade, by Likert scale, their level of knowledge and skills for each of the 39 competencies, respectively. The answers were analyzed using measure of central tendency and distribution of results was done by median. Comparison of perceived competence of the nurses and the desired/expected level by managers shows that there is difference in 25 of the 39 offered statements. Managers expect that nurses are great users of administrative applications for staff scheduling and for maintaining employee records, while nurses declared that these programs they use relatively poorly or not at all. The larger gap is also observed when it comes to computer skill for documenting patient care--experts expect that nurses do it well, and nurses, again, estimate that their documentation skills are relatively poor. The same situation is with use of ICT for patient education. It can be concluded that further training is required in the field of ICT, either

  6. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  7. A conceptual model of mildly alkaline water discharging from the Zlatibor ultramafic massif, western Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikić, Zoran; Srećković-Batoćanin, Danica; Burazer, Milenko; Ristić, Ratko; Papić, Petar; Nikolić, Vesna

    2013-08-01

    Ultramafic rocks are generally taken to be `waterless' or bearing little water. The mountain Zlatibor, western Serbia, largely built of Upper Jurassic ultramafics, is without perennial springs. However, in Gruda, an area on the NE side of Zlatibor, there are two perennial ascending springs with uniform discharge: Bijela Česma and Hajdučko Vrelo. The water from both springs is naturally mildly alkaline (pH ˜8.4), of Mg-HCO3 type, and temperature ˜11 °C. The springs have been investigated with respect to derivation, dynamics and chemistry with a view to commercial use of the water. The results indicate zones of rocks fractured during tectonic events and/or under lithostatic pressure. Deep ultramafic rocks, equivalent to abyssal peridotites (the least depleted rocks of the upper mantle, rich in magnesium), include fractured aquifers characterized by heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater arriving at the land surface derives from atmospheric precipitation, and its quality is converted through the process of serpentine acid hydrolysis into mildly alkaline Mg-HCO3 water. Both quantity and quality of water from these springs are stable and are unaffected by atmospheric precipitation or other external influences. A conceptual model of the structure, hydrogeological character of the aquifer, and the mechanism of groundwater derivation is developed for both springs.

  8. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niska Banja, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zunic, Z S; Yarmoshenko, I V; Birovljev, A; Bochicchio, F; Quarto, M; Obryk, B; Paszkowski, M; Celiković, I; Demajo, A; Ujić, P; Budzanowski, M; Olko, P; McLaughlin, J P; Waligorski, M P R

    2007-01-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niska Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium sediment formations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 102 living rooms and bedrooms of 65 family houses. In about 50% of all measurement sites, radon concentration was measured over each season separately, making it possible to estimate seasonal variations, which were then used to correct values measured over different periods, and to estimate annual values. The average annual indoor radon concentration was estimated at over 1500 Bq/m3 and at about 650 Bq/m3 in parts of Niska Banja located over travertine and alluvium sediment formations, respectively, with maximum values exceeding 6000 Bq/m3. The average value of outdoor annual radon concentration was 57 Bq/m3, with a maximum value of 168 Bq/m3. The high values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations found at Niska Banja make this region a high natural background radiation area. Statistical analysis of our data confirms that the level of indoor radon concentration depends primarily on the underlying soil and building characteristics. PMID:17196309

  9. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niska Banja, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zunic, Z S; Yarmoshenko, I V; Birovljev, A; Bochicchio, F; Quarto, M; Obryk, B; Paszkowski, M; Celiković, I; Demajo, A; Ujić, P; Budzanowski, M; Olko, P; McLaughlin, J P; Waligorski, M P R

    2007-01-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niska Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium sediment formations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 102 living rooms and bedrooms of 65 family houses. In about 50% of all measurement sites, radon concentration was measured over each season separately, making it possible to estimate seasonal variations, which were then used to correct values measured over different periods, and to estimate annual values. The average annual indoor radon concentration was estimated at over 1500 Bq/m3 and at about 650 Bq/m3 in parts of Niska Banja located over travertine and alluvium sediment formations, respectively, with maximum values exceeding 6000 Bq/m3. The average value of outdoor annual radon concentration was 57 Bq/m3, with a maximum value of 168 Bq/m3. The high values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations found at Niska Banja make this region a high natural background radiation area. Statistical analysis of our data confirms that the level of indoor radon concentration depends primarily on the underlying soil and building characteristics.

  10. Quantification and assessment of heat and cold waves in Novi Sad, Northern Serbia.

    PubMed

    Basarin, Biljana; Lukić, Tin; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been applied to the analysis of heat and cold waves and human thermal conditions in Novi Sad, Serbia. A series of daily minimum and maximum air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and cloud cover was used to calculate PET for the investigated period 1949-2012. The heat and cold wave analysis was carried out on days with PET values exceeding defined thresholds. Additionally, the acclimatization approach was introduced to evaluate human adaptation to interannual thermal perception. Trend analysis has revealed the presence of increasing trend in summer PET anomalies, number of days above defined threshold, number of heat waves, and average duration of heat waves per year since 1981. Moreover, winter PET anomaly as well as the number of days below certain threshold and number of cold waves per year until 1980 was decreasing, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The highest number of heat waves during summer was registered in the last two decades, but also in the first decade of the investigated period. On the other hand, the number of cold waves during six decades is quite similar and the differences are very small.

  11. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff involved in PET/CT practice in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Todorovic, N; Lucic, S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine (NM) staff in the two positron emission tomography-computed tomography centres in Serbia and to investigate the possibilities for dose reduction. Dose levels in terms of Hp(10) for whole body and Hp(0.07) for hands of NM staff were assessed using thermoluminescence and electronic personal dosemeters. The assessed doses per procedure in terms of Hp(10) were 4.2-7 and 5-6 μSv, in two centres, respectively, whereas the extremity doses in terms of Hp(0.07) in one of the centres was 34-126 μSv procedure(-1). The whole-body doses per unit activity were 17-19 and 21-26 μSv GBq(-1) in two centres, respectively, and the normalised finger dose in one centre was 170-680 μSv GBq(-1). The maximal estimated annual whole-body doses in two centres were 3.4 and 2.0 mSv, while the corresponding extremity dose in the later one was 45 mSv. Improvements as introduction of automatic dispensing system and injection and optimisation of working practice resulted in dose reduction ranging from 12 up to 67 %.

  12. Toxicity of mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid, and difenoconazole to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Stević, Milan; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Field isolates of Didymella applanata, the causal agent of spur blight of raspberry, were evaluated in vitro for their sensitivity to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid and difenoconazole. A total of 10 isolates, collected during 2013 at five localities in the major raspberry growing region in Serbia, and characterized as copper hydroxide, dithianon, and tebuconazole (sensitive), pyraclostrobin (sensitive or highly resistant) and fluazinam (sensitive or moderately resistant), were used in this study. The EC50 values for the isolates ranged from 1.33 to 2.88 mg L(-1) for mancozeb, from 3.18 to 6.65 mg L(-1) for chlorothalonil, from 15.75 to 24.69 mg L(-1) for captan and from 1.80 to 8.20 mg L(-1) for fluopyram. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for difenoconazole (0.23-0.49 mg L(-1)), whereas the widest range was obtained for boscalid (4.49-49.25 mg L(-1)). The calculated resistance factors showed that all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, and difenoconazole. Four isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, while three of them were also moderately resistant to fluopyram. This finding of moderately resistant isolates to these SDHI fungicides indicates a possible cross-resistance which should be clarified in further investigations.

  13. Metal accumulation capacity of parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) from Rasina region (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Violeta; Trifković, Jelena; Mutić, Jelena; Tešić, Živoslav

    2016-07-01

    During many years of industrial development, soil system was contaminated with large amounts of toxic metals. In order to investigate the mobility and availability of metals from soil to mushrooms, the content of 13 elements (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, and Zn), in caps and stipes of wild-grown edible mushroom Macrolepiota procera and soil substrates, collected from five sites in Rasina region in central Serbia, was determined. Soil samples were subjected to the sequential extraction procedure proposed by the Community Bureau of Reference in order to fractionate acid-soluble/exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable, and residual fractions. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and the results subjected to multivariate data analysis. A principal component analysis distinguished mushrooms samples from different geographical areas and revealed the influence of soil composition on metal content in mushrooms. Hierarchical cluster analyses confirmed that the first three phases of extraction were the most important for metal uptake by mushrooms from soil. The bioconcentration factors and translocation factors for each metal were also calculated. These results showed that M. procera could serve as a good dietary source of essential elements, especially Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe but the consumption of mushrooms may pose a health risk for consumers during the "season of mushrooms," due to the presence of cadmium. PMID:27023804

  14. Toxicity of mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid, and difenoconazole to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Stević, Milan; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Field isolates of Didymella applanata, the causal agent of spur blight of raspberry, were evaluated in vitro for their sensitivity to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, fluopyram, boscalid and difenoconazole. A total of 10 isolates, collected during 2013 at five localities in the major raspberry growing region in Serbia, and characterized as copper hydroxide, dithianon, and tebuconazole (sensitive), pyraclostrobin (sensitive or highly resistant) and fluazinam (sensitive or moderately resistant), were used in this study. The EC50 values for the isolates ranged from 1.33 to 2.88 mg L(-1) for mancozeb, from 3.18 to 6.65 mg L(-1) for chlorothalonil, from 15.75 to 24.69 mg L(-1) for captan and from 1.80 to 8.20 mg L(-1) for fluopyram. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for difenoconazole (0.23-0.49 mg L(-1)), whereas the widest range was obtained for boscalid (4.49-49.25 mg L(-1)). The calculated resistance factors showed that all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to mancozeb, chlorothalonil, captan, and difenoconazole. Four isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, while three of them were also moderately resistant to fluopyram. This finding of moderately resistant isolates to these SDHI fungicides indicates a possible cross-resistance which should be clarified in further investigations. PMID:26252498

  15. Toxicity of metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, dimethomorph, cymoxanil, zoxamide and mancozeb to Phytophthora infestans isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Rekanović, Emil; Potočnik, Ivana; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana; Mihajlović, Milica

    2012-01-01

    A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 12 isolates of Phytophthora infestans to metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, dimethomorph, cymoxanil, zoxamide and mancozeb, was conducted. The isolates derived from infected potato leaves collected at eight different localities in Serbia during 2005-2007. The widest range of EC(50) values for mycelial growth of the isolates was recorded for metalaxyl. They varied from 0.3 to 3.9 μg mL(-1) and were higher than those expected in a susceptible population of P. infestans. The EC(50) values of the isolates were 0.16-0.30 μg mL(-1) for dimethomorph, 0.27-0.57 μg mL(-1) for cymoxanil, 0.0026-0.0049 μg mL(-1) for zoxamide and 2.9-5.0 μg mL(-1) for mancozeb. The results indicated that according to effective concentration (EC(50)) the 12 isolates of P. infestans were sensitive to azoxystrobin (0.019-0.074 μg mL(-1)), and intermediate resistant to metalaxyl, dimethomorph and cymoxanil. According to resistance factor, all P. infestans isolates were sensitive to dimethomorph, cymoxanil, mancozeb and zoxamide, 58.3% of isolates were sensitive to azoxystrobin and 50% to metalaxyl. Gout's scale indicated that 41.7% isolates were moderately sensitive to azoxystrobin and 50% to metalaxyl. PMID:22424065

  16. Natural radionuclide uptake by mosses in eastern Serbia in 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Čučulović, Ana Č; Sabovljević, Marko; Čučulović, Rodoljub Č; Veselinović, Dragan

    2016-03-01

    The results of the study on natural radionuclide content in 102 samples of the moss species randomly collected in 2008- 2013 at 30 locations of eastern Serbia are presented in the paper. The activity concentration values of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 7Be determined by gamma spectrometry were within the intervals: 238U (1.1-50) Bq kg(-1), 226Ra (1.1-41) Bq kg(-1), 232Th (1.4-28) Bq kg(-1), 40K (64-484) Bq kg(-1) and 7Be (88-227) Bq kg(-1), not standing out of the average data reported for this region. The distribution of the obtained data for 226Ra, 232Th, and 238U activity concentration in the analysed mosses has shown values up to 10 Bq kg(-1) with frequencies 47.1 %, 54.9 % and 48.0 %, respectively. The obtained activity concentration values of primordial 40K and cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be were up to 500 Bq kg(-1) and about 90 % of all the results for 7Be uptake by mosses were in the 200-250 Bq kg(-1) concentration range. PMID:27092637

  17. Toxicity of copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin to Didymella applanata isolates from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mirković, Biljana; Tanović, Brankica; Hrustić, Jovana; Mihajlović, Milica; Stević, Milan; Delibašić, Goran; Vukša, Petar

    2015-01-01

    A study of the in vitro sensitivity of 10 isolates of Didymella applanata to copper hydroxide, dithianon, fluazinam, tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin, was conducted. The isolates were derived from diseased raspberry canes sampled during 2013 at five localities in western part of Serbia, known as the main raspberry growing region of the country. Prior to sensitivity testing experimental conditions for radial growth assay were optimized. The results showed that the temperature of 22 °C, oatmeal agar medium and 12/12 hrs light/ darkness light regimen provided the best conditions for sensitivity tests. Most of D. applanata isolates were sensitive to the tested fungicides. The narrowest range of EC50 values was recorded for tebuconazole (1.42-2.66 mg L(-1)). The widest range of EC50 values was obtained for pyraclostrobin, ranging from 0.17 mg L(-1) to 55.33 mg L(-1). The EC50 values for the studied isolates were 39.48-51.19 mg L(-1) for copper hydroxide, 12.12-18.73 mg L(-1) for dithianon and 5.72-42.56 mg L(-1) for fluazinam. According to resistance factor values, all D. applanata isolates were sensitive to copper hydroxide, dithianon and tebuconazole. Among tested isolates, six were highly resistant to pyraclostrobin (RFs in the range of 207.1-325.5) and two moderately resistant to fluazinam (RFs were 3 and 7.4), respectively. PMID:25602150

  18. Women's expectations of healthcare professionals in case of intimate partner violence in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie; Stevanovic, Snezana; Celik, Halime; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2011-11-01

    Women who have experienced intimate partner violence use health care services more often than non-abused women, but it is unclear what they expect from physicians in relation to their intimate partner violence experience. In this study the authors explored whether women in Serbia expect physicians to help them after having experienced intimate partner violence, what kind of help the women expected, and if none, why none is expected. The authors of this study conducted structured interviews with 120 women who visited six primary healthcare centres. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed applying content analyses. The majority of women (81.7%) expected healthcare professionals to help them in the event of intimate partner violence, mainly through giving advice, information, contacting other institutions, services, and providing understanding and support. Fewer women expected help in the form of documenting violence and contacting police. Only a minority (8.3%) did not expect help, noting that intimate partner violence is beyond the scope of healthcare professionals' interest or competencies, and/or that violence was a private problem, while 10% were unsure about the role of physicians in the case of intimate partner violence. The majority of women in this study expected help with intimate partner violence. Physicians should be aware of these expectations and how to provide support to women experiencing intimate partner violence.

  19. A re-examination of the human fossil specimen from Bački Petrovac (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Radović, Predrag; Lindal, Joshua Allan; Roksandic, Mirjana

    2014-08-01

    A fragmented human calotte was discovered during the early 1950s near Bački Petrovac (Serbia), in association with Palaeolithic stone tools. After its initial publication, the fossil specimen remained largely unknown outside of the Serbian academe and no detailed comparative study has ever been carried out. Since the whereabouts of the fossil itself are currently unknown, and given its potential significance for the Pleistocene human evolution, we re-examine the data published by Živanović (1966, 1975). Using the original measurements, mostly taken on the frontal bone, and a wide comparative sample of 68 fossil specimens, the fossil was compared and analyzed by statistical multivariate methods. We also conducted a visual examination of the morphology based on the available photographic material. Our analysis reveals phenetic similarity with Middle Pleistocene archaic Homo from Africa and anatomically modern Homo sapiens. However, the absence of primitive cranial traits in Bački Petrovac indicates a clear modern Homo sapiens designation. Although lost at the moment, there is a chance for the re-discovery of the fossil in the years to come. This would give us an opportunity to acquire absolute dates and to study the specimen in a more detailed manner.

  20. An Upper Pleistocene to Holocene limnic record from the Carpathian Basin near Vrsac (Vojvodina, Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Fisher, Peter; Obreht, Igor; Schulte, Philipp; Bösken, Janina; Wennrich, Voelker; Schäbitz, Frank; Klasen, Nicole; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Veres, Daniel; Markovic, Slobodan; Vött, Andreas; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Upper Pleistocene geoarchives in the Pannonian Basin are predominantly composed of loess-paleosol sequences accompanied by only few fluvial archives dating to this time frame. In 2015 a 10 m sediment core was recovered within an extensive loess area by means of vibracoring, with the recovered sedimentary succession mainly composed of limnic sediments. Coring was conducted within a depression northwest of Vrsac and east of the Banat Sands in the eastern Carpathian Basin (North-Eastern Serbia) in a region still lacking in paleoenvironmental records but which must have played a crucial role in the spread of modern human into Europe along the main rivers valley tributary to the Danube. Radiocarbon dating places the upper half of the core within the last ca. 20 ka, whereas luminescence dating is on going. Sedimentological analyses give evidence of phases of eolian sediment input within a predominantly limnic depositional environment. Aeolian sediment input has been altered, and early diagenesis is expected to have superimposed the eolian sediment. In addition, levels of carbonate precipitation can be observed in the core, some intervals being very rich in clay and decalcified; both show strong alteration of original sediment. No indications for fluvial input are apparent, suggesting a continuous sedimentation during the Upper Pleistocene and into the Holocene. Here preliminary results are presented including core images and description, XRF scans, grain-size data and an age model in progress. Based on these findings a detailed interpretation on the sedimentary system and (paleo)environmental processes involved are given.

  1. Distribution of natural radionuclides in surface soils in the vicinity of abandoned uranium mines in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Momčilović, Milan; Kovačević, Jovan; Tanić, Milan; Dorđević, Milan; Bačić, Goran; Dragović, Snežana

    2013-02-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soils from the area affected by uranium mining at Stara Planina Mountain in Serbia were studied and compared with the results obtained from an area with no mining activities (background area). In the affected area, the activity concentrations ranged from 1.75 to 19.2 mg kg(-1) for uranium and from 1.57 to 26.9 mg kg(-1) for thorium which is several-fold higher than those in the background area. The Th/U, K/U, and K/Th activity ratios were also determined and compared with data from similar studies worldwide. External gamma dose rate in the air due to uranium, thorium, and potassium at 1 m above ground level in the area affected by uranium mining was found to be 91.3 nGy h(-1), i.e., about two-fold higher than that in background area. The results of this preliminary study indicate the importance of radiological evaluation of the area and implementation of remedial measures in order to prevent further dispersion of radionuclides in the environment.

  2. Radioactivity levels and heavy metals in the urban soil of Central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, B; Stajic, J M; Gulan, Lj; Zeremski, T; Nikezic, D

    2015-11-01

    Radioactivity concentrations and heavy metal content were measured in soil samples collected from the area of Kragujevac, one of the largest cities in Serbia. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in 30 samples were measured by gamma spectrometry using an HPGe semiconductor detector. The average values ± standard deviations were 33.5 ± 8.2, 50.3 ± 10.6, 425.8 ± 75.7 and 40.2 ± 26.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (137)Cs have shown normal distribution. The annual effective doses, radium equivalent activities, external hazard indexes and excess lifetime cancer risk were also estimated. A RAD7 device was used for measuring radon exhalation rates from several samples with highest content of (226)Ra. The concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured, as well as their EDTA extractable concentrations. Wide ranges of values were obtained, especially for Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The absence of normal distribution indicates anthropogenic origin of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. Correlations between radionuclide activities, heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties of analysed soil were determined by Spearman correlation coefficient. Strong positive correlation between (226)Ra and (232)Th was found.

  3. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

  4. Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district. PMID:23453823

  5. Comparison of spectrolyser device measurements with standard analysis of wastewater samples in Novi Sad, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihajlović, I; Pap, S; Sremački, M; Brborić, M; Babunski, D; Dogo, M

    2014-09-01

    On-line monitoring was performed using spectrolyser equipment, coupled with laboratory analysis for samples collected from wastewater discharge in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, during first 24 h of three and 48 h of six monitoring campaigns from December of 2012 to April of 2013. Significant correlation with R(2) > 0.9 was observed between laboratory analysis and spectrolyser measurements for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations. COD/BOD5 ratio in combined industrial and municipal wastewater ranged from 1.2 to 2.0 indicating the presence of biodegradable organic matter which could be easily removed using aeration treatment process. Micro/trace element and/or heavy metals in wastewater samples were within the limits as per the standard prescribed for wastewater, and should not pose any serious hazard risk. However BOD, COD, ammonia and total phosphorus concentrations were measured above the limit value according to Serbian and EU legislation and should be reduced before discharging wastewater directly into the Danube River. PMID:24990395

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity in the environment of Kopaonik mountain, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava; Ajtić, Jelena; Lazić, Marko; Andrić, Velibor; Krstić, Nikola; Vranješ, Borjana; Vićentijević, Mihajlo

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the state of the environment in Kopaonik, a mountain in Serbia, the activity concentrations of (4) K, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (137)Cs in five different types of environmental samples are determined by gamma ray spectrometry, and radiological hazard due to terrestrial radionuclides is calculated. The mean activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil are higher than the global average. However, with an exception of two sampling locations, the external radiation hazard index is below one, implying an insignificant radiation hazard. Apart from (40)K, content of the natural radionuclides is predominantly below minimum detectable activities in grass and cow milk, but not in mosses. Although (137)Cs is present in the soil, grass, mosses and herbal plants, its specific activity in cow milk is below minimum detectable activity. Amongst the investigated herbal plants, Vaccinium myrtillus L. shows accumulating properties, as a high content of (137)Cs is detected therein. Therefore, moderation is advised in consuming Vaccinium myrtillus L. tea. PMID:27213569

  7. Simulation Of Mine Water Inflow: Case Study Of The Štavalj Coal Mine (Southwestern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miladinović, Branko; Vakanjac, Vesna Ristić; Bukumirović, Dragomir; Dragišić, Veselin; Vakanjac, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The inflow of mine water to mining operations is often caused by random events such as precipitation. Consequently, the mine water inflow regime can be defined as a function of random events applying the theory of random processes. Regression models of the multiple linear correlation type have been used to simulate the inflow of mine water into mining operations, produce short-range predictions and facilitate rapid response inside the mine. The significance of such models lies in the ability to simulate and predict the consequences (mine water inflow), caused by events of a random nature (meteorological parameters: precipitation and air temperature). The presented prognostic models have been calibrated for mine water inflow to the Štavalj Coal Mine in southwestern Serbia. Mathematical dependencies were defined based on daily mine water inflow rates recorded during the period from 2003 to 2011, which can be used to generate short-range (1-7 day) predictions of mean daily mine water inflow rates to the Štavalj Coal Mine. A strong correlation (coefficient of correlation r = 0.93, Sig. = 0.00) was derived for the one-day forecast. The coefficients of correlation for predictions of mean daily mine water inflow rates related to time periods of two, three...seven days gradually declined to 0.63 (7-day mean daily inflow rate).

  8. Evaluation of the origin of nitrate influencing the Ključ groundwater source, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Miljević, Nada; Boreli-Zdravković, Djulija; Obradović, Vesna; Golobočanin, Dušan; Mayer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of the dual isotope method involving δ(15)N and δ(18)O measurements of dissolved nitrates to assess the origin and fate of groundwater nitrate at the Ključ groundwater source, Serbia. A sampling campaign was conducted in September 2007 during flow conditions obtaining groundwater from observation wells and river water fed by a shallow aquifer hosted in alluvial (sandy-gravel) sediments. Nitrate isotope ratios ranged from +5.3 to +16.9‰ and δ(18)O(NO(3)) values varied from -2.3 to +5.0‰. Two major contamination sources were identified with isotopic compositions characteristic for nitrate derived from nitrification of soil organic nitrogen (+5.3 to +7.8‰ for δ(15)N) resulting in nitrate concentrations of 33.6 and 78.8 mg/L and nitrate derived from animal wastes or human sewage, e.g. via septic systems, yielding δ(15)N values of +9.9 to +11.9‰ and elevated nitrate concentrations of 31.2-245.8 mg/L. The occurrence of nitrification and denitrification was also revealed based on concentration and isotope data for dissolved nitrate.

  9. Quantification and assessment of heat and cold waves in Novi Sad, Northern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basarin, Biljana; Lukić, Tin; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been applied to the analysis of heat and cold waves and human thermal conditions in Novi Sad, Serbia. A series of daily minimum and maximum air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and cloud cover was used to calculate PET for the investigated period 1949-2012. The heat and cold wave analysis was carried out on days with PET values exceeding defined thresholds. Additionally, the acclimatization approach was introduced to evaluate human adaptation to interannual thermal perception. Trend analysis has revealed the presence of increasing trend in summer PET anomalies, number of days above defined threshold, number of heat waves, and average duration of heat waves per year since 1981. Moreover, winter PET anomaly as well as the number of days below certain threshold and number of cold waves per year until 1980 was decreasing, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The highest number of heat waves during summer was registered in the last two decades, but also in the first decade of the investigated period. On the other hand, the number of cold waves during six decades is quite similar and the differences are very small.

  10. Anthropogenic impact on the change hydrological and erosion regime in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Irina; Stefanovic, Milutin; Gavrilovic, Zoran

    2010-05-01

    Serbia in the first half of the twentieth century has experienced extreme denudation and increase torrent flooding and erosion. The problem has become a nightmare for the state. It is possible that the scale of the state enforce a set of measures that are confirmed in practice the impact of land use on water regime and sediment... In the second half of the twentieth century carried out a large volume of soil and water conservation, torrent control works and other measures that are bare and barren spaces turned into green and fertile. Another contribution to these works and measures are impact of changing the water and sediment regime. All these changing of water and sediment regime were measurable and comparable. Changing water and sediment regimes is important for long-term survival and function of reservoirs that serve the population for water supply and power. So follow all the changes that can have positive or negative impact. The paper presents results achieved changes, which have enabled the construction of reservoirs and survival in earlier torrent extreme flows. Key words: Land use, Erosion, torrents, Soil and water conservation,

  11. A need for holistic approach to the occupational health developing (in Serbia).

    PubMed

    Arandjelovic, Mirjana

    2011-09-01

    Countries in transition, such as Serbia, have been going through obligatory system reforms, including the reform of the healthcare system. As a rule, occupational health becomes marginalized by the authorities who decide on medical care. In spite of the fact that this branch of medicine cares for working population that mostly carries the burden of transition, when material situation equals the existential minimum, its potentials are not recognized. On the other hand, the World Health Organization makes a remark that such population's health is undermined now more than ever, and adopts a binding global plan for member countries and their experts in occupational health to take urgent measures for overall working people's health according to their needs. It seems that former work method of biomedicine specialists could not realize such ambition. This paper discusses the possibilities of occupational health future orientation toward holistic medicine, for the sake of workers' well-being and better quality of their lives, then creation of more humane society and vocational affirmation. Health promotion at workplace and salutogenic concept may have crucial roles. This concept is a huge challenge for academic public and vocational practitioners in poor countries in transition that are already burdened with the current economic and financial crisis. Each in their own way, helped by self-education and education, without big material investments, together they may take their countries to the road of health, the road still rarely taken, yet more secure.

  12. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections.

  13. Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district.

  14. A need for holistic approach to the occupational health developing (in Serbia).

    PubMed

    Arandjelovic, Mirjana

    2011-09-01

    Countries in transition, such as Serbia, have been going through obligatory system reforms, including the reform of the healthcare system. As a rule, occupational health becomes marginalized by the authorities who decide on medical care. In spite of the fact that this branch of medicine cares for working population that mostly carries the burden of transition, when material situation equals the existential minimum, its potentials are not recognized. On the other hand, the World Health Organization makes a remark that such population's health is undermined now more than ever, and adopts a binding global plan for member countries and their experts in occupational health to take urgent measures for overall working people's health according to their needs. It seems that former work method of biomedicine specialists could not realize such ambition. This paper discusses the possibilities of occupational health future orientation toward holistic medicine, for the sake of workers' well-being and better quality of their lives, then creation of more humane society and vocational affirmation. Health promotion at workplace and salutogenic concept may have crucial roles. This concept is a huge challenge for academic public and vocational practitioners in poor countries in transition that are already burdened with the current economic and financial crisis. Each in their own way, helped by self-education and education, without big material investments, together they may take their countries to the road of health, the road still rarely taken, yet more secure. PMID:21833693

  15. Chemical composition of two different extracts of berries harvested in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Aleksandra V; Dabić, Dragana Č; Momirović, Nebojša M; Dojčinović, Biljana P; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka M; Tešić, Zivoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2013-05-01

    Total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), free and total ellagic acid content, sugars, minerals, and radical-scavenging activity were determined in nine berries harvested in Serbia. More than 30 phenolic compounds were identified; among them, 11 polyphenols and cis,trans-abscisic acid were quantified using UHPLC coupled with an LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass analyzer. For the first time chrysin, naringenin, pinocembrin, and galangin were quantified in some of the investigated berry species. The extraction efficiency of the two extraction systems, methanol and acetone, was investigated. It was found that acetone is a better extracting solvent for TPC, whereas more TAC was extracted by methanol. TPC in acetone extracts ranged from 177.51 to 459.71 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g frozen weight. TAC ranged from 5.39 to 96.94 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/100 g frozen weight in methanol extracts. The amounts of both free and total ellagic acid were found to be higher in the acetone extract in comparison to the methanol extract. PMID:23600608

  16. Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Žunić, Z S; Kritsananuwat, R; Zagrodzki, P; Bossew, P; Veselinovic, N; Mishra, S; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-07-01

    Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them.

  17. Palaeoenvironment and fluvial history of river Danube between the Neolithic settlement sites of Vinca and Starcevo, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penezic, Kristina; Kadereit, Annette; Thiemeyer, Heinrich

    2013-04-01

    The Neolithic site of Vinca - Belo brdo (ca. 5600 - 4200 BC) is located on the right bank of the Danube River, some 14 km downstream of the city of Belgrade in Serbia. The significance of the Vinca settlement is in its long occupational history, which produced more than 9 meters of settlement layers that provided archaeologists with an understanding of the chronological sequencing and development from the Middle to Late Neolithic in central Serbia. Vinca - Belo brdo was designated as the locus typicus for the Vinca Culture and is considered by many archaeologists as one of the most important sites of the European Neolithic. On the opposite, left side of the river Danube, the early Neolithic site of Starcevo is situated. It spans through the early Neolithic period dated to the seventh and the sixth millennium BC and it is the locus typicus for the Starcevo culture that on the territory of modern-day Serbia precedes the Vinca culture. The vicinity of the Danube influenced the development of these settlements and the relationship between them. Serving as a landmark, border, source of food, but also endangering the sites by a shifting stream course, the Danube is essential. Therefore it is important to define the position of the river during the occupational span of the Neolithic settlements and later. In our study, the early to mid-Holocene environmental changes of the fluvial landscape between the two Neolithic settlement sites are explored. We present preliminary results of recent geomorphological, sedimentological and archaeological investigations, as well as OSL dating, which were combined with relevant information from historical maps and satellite imagery in order to reconstruct the fluvial palaeolandscape.

  18. Latest research related to climate change analysis with applications in impact studies over the territory of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukovic, Ana; Vujadinovic, Mirjam; Djurdjevic, Vladimir; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Djordjevic, Marija; Ruml, Mirjana; Rankovic-Vasic, Zorica; Przic, Zoran; Stojicic, Djurdja; Krzic, Aleksandra; Rajkovic, Borivoj

    2015-04-01

    Serbia is a country with relatively small scale terrain features with economy mostly based on local landowners' agricultural production. Climate change analysis must be downscaled accordingly, to recognize climatological features of the farmlands. Climate model simulations and impact studies significantly contribute to the future strategic planning in economic development and therefore impact analysis must be approached with high level of confidence. This paper includes research related to climate change and impacts in Serbia resulted from cooperative work of the modeling and user community. Dynamical downscaling of climate projections for the 21st century with multi-model approach and statistical bias correction are done in order to prepare model results for impact studies. Presented results are from simulations performed using regional EBU-POM model, which is forced with A1B and A2 SRES/IPCC (2007) with comparative analysis with other regional models and from the latest high resolution NMMB simulations forced with RCP8.5 IPCC scenario (2012). Application of bias correction of the model results is necessary when calculated indices are not linearly dependent on the model results and delta approach in presenting results with respect to present climate simulations is insufficient. This is most important during the summer over the north part of the country where model bias produce much higher temperatures and less precipitation, which is known as "summer drying problem" and is common in regional models' simulations over the Pannonian valley. Some of the results, which are already observed in present climate, like higher temperatures and disturbance in the precipitation pattern, lead to present and future advancement of the start of the vegetation period toward earlier dates, associated with an increased risk of the late spring frost, extended vegetation period, disturbed preparation for the rest period, increased duration and frequency of the draught periods, etc

  19. Smectite clays of Serbia and their application in adsorption of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, Maja; Logar, Mihovil

    2014-05-01

    Colorants and dyes are currently available in over a 100.000 different species and several biggest industries are using them daily in their manufacture processes (textile, cosmetics, food industry, etc.). Since colorants are easily dissoluble in water they pass through filter membranes without further decomposing and in that manner they end up in the environment. The main goal of this work is to apply certain methods in determining the suitability of individual clay in adsorbing and removing colorants from polluted waters. For this study we have chosen four different raw clays from three regions in Serbia: Svrljig (B), Bogovina (Bo) and Slatina-Ub (C and V) and as colorant - methylene blue dye (MB (MERCK, for analytical purposes)). Experiments where carried out to determine the sample structure (XRD and IR), grain size (granulometry), cationic exchange capacity (CEC via spectrophotometry using MB) and adsorption capabilities (spectrophotometry and fluorimetry using MB). XRD and IR data are showing that the samples are smectite clays where samples B i Bo are mainly montmorillonite while C and V are montmorillonite-illite clays. Granulometric distribution results indicate that samples B i Bo have smaller grain size, less that 1μ (over 60%) whereas the samples C and V are more coarse grained (40% over 20μ). This grain distribution is affecting their specific surface area in the manner that those coarse grained samples have smaller specific surface area. Cationic exchange capacity determined with methylene blue indicate that montmorillonite samples have larger CEC (B = 37 meq/100g, Bo = 50 meq/100g) and montmorillonite-illite samples smaller CEC (V = 5 meq/100g, V = 3 meq/100g). Fluorimetry measurement results gave us a clear distinction between those with higher and smaller adsorption capability. Montmorillonite samples (B and Bo) with higher CEC values and smaller grain size are adsorbing large amounts of methylene blue witch is visible by absence of fluorimetric

  20. Bioaccumulation of metals in sediments, fish and plant from Tisza river (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štrbac, Snežana; Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Vasić, Nebojša; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2014-05-01

    In the aquatic environments metals originate from various natural and anthropogenic sources. The purpose of the study was to assess the bioaccumulation level of metals in sediments fish and common reed at four different localities of the Tisza River stretch in Serbia. For purpose of this study concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn were determined in sediment, common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. 1841) and four ecologically different fish species (piscivorous northern pike (Esox lucius L.), benthivorous sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.) silver bream (Brama brama L.), omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)). Analysis of metals was carried out for liver, gills, brain, testicles and ovaries in fish and in the rhizome, stem and leaves of the common reed and sediment fraction <0,0063mm. The concentrations of metals have been assessed using the Inductively Coupled Plasma - optical emission spectrometry. Obtained results revealed that Al and Fe had the highest concentrations in sediment, fish and common reed samples. The research proved a strong positive correlation between the concentrations of all metals in the sediment, fish and common reed. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in omnivorous common carp Cyprinus carpio, and organs that the most intensively accumulated the greatest number of them were liver and gills. Accumulated metals in the common reed were not distributed evenly, but there are target organs for bioaccumulation. Concentrations in below-ground organs were usually higher than above-ground organs, and the general decreasing trend of element content was rhizome>leaves>stems. Obtained results indicate that the location does not have impact to the level of bioaccumulation. On the basis of this research the under-ground organ (rhizome) of common reed, liver and gills and omnivorous fish species could be recommended as environmental indicators for the presence of metals during

  1. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Z S; Yarmoshenko, I V; Kelleher, K; Paridaens, J; Mc Laughlin, J P; Celiković, I; Ujić, P; Onischenko, A D; Jovanović, S; Demajo, A; Birovljev, A; Bochicchio, F

    2007-11-15

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped (210)Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted (210)Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test>0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m(-3), whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods.

  2. Canine Dirofilaria Infections in Two Uninvestigated Areas of Serbia: Epidemiological and Genetic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Tasić, Aleksandar; Tasić-Otašević, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Miladinović-Tasić, Nataša; Ignjatović, Aleksandra; Đorđević, Jovana; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In 2009 canine filarial infections were investigated in two northern areas of Serbia (Pančevo and Veliko Gradište), applying morphometry, biochemical staining, and immunological kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigens, and two home-made ELISAs to detect antibodies to D. repens and D. immitis somatic/metabolic polyproteins. Moreover, molecular tools were applied to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates. The microfilariae detected in 21/122 dogs (17.2%) were identified as D. repens (n=21) and D. immitis (n=2). D. immitis antigens were found in another 13 animals with occult infection. All of the 15 heartworm-positive dogs also had antibodies to this parasite, which were detected in another 13 subjects, indicating an overall D. immitis seroprevalence rate of 22.9%. Serology for D. repens revealed evidence of antibodies in 42.6% of the dogs, but was negative for 4 microfilaremic dogs. As for the two different areas, the prevalence of microfilariae and/or D. immitis antigens, mainly due to D. repens microfilaremic animals, was not significantly higher in Veliko Gradište (33.3%) than in Pančevo (22%). However, serology showed a different epidemiological picture. Heartworm infection occurred more often in both areas, and antibodies to dirofilarial nematodes were detected in 72.9% of dogs living in Pančevo, a rate higher than in those living in Veliko Gradište (57.1%). No risk factors for infection were found, confirming the uselessness of prophylactic drugs against D. repens, and suggesting the presence in these areas of sunrise- or sunset-biting mosquitoes as important vectors. The results indicate the need for both appropriate entomological studies and further research on the intra-species variability shown by D. repens. PMID:23127188

  3. Comparative analysis of essential oils of six Anthemis taxa from Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Milica; Lakusić, Dmitar; Kovacević, Nada; Tzakou, Olga; Couladis, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The essential-oil composition of six Anthemis taxa from several populations in Serbia and Montenegro, Anthemis triumfetti (L.) DC., A. tinctoria L., A. austriaca Jacq., A. ruthenica Bieb., A. cotula L., and A. cretica ssp. carpatica (Willd.) Grierson were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents have been identified as follows: camphor (13.8-15.4%), alpha-pinene (5.2-9.3%), beta-pinene (4.9-7.8%), and (E)-caryophyllene (7.3-9.8%) in three populations, and cis-chrysanthenol (27.0%) and 1,8-cineole (8.4%) in one population of A. triumfetti; 1,8-cineole (9.0-25.8%) in the oils of five populations, and borneol (16.0%) and spatulenol (16.0%) in the oil of one population of A. tinctoria; cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (17.5-22.0%), beta-pinene (8.6-13.2%), and 1,8-cineole (7.2-10.4%) in the oils of A. austriaca; germacrene D (8.3-11.3%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.3-7.3%) in A. ruthenica oils; beta-cedrene (10.3-19.0%), (E)-beta-farnesene (7.8-13.5%), and germacrene D (5.2-9.1%) in the oils of A. cotula; cis-thujone (39.0%), trans-thujone (13.5%), and yomogi alcohol (7.1%) in the oil of A. cretica ssp. carpatica. The essential oil of A. austriaca was studied for the first time. A cluster analysis based on the relative percentages of all components of the essential oils was used to determine the distances between taxa and populations.

  4. Variability of the needle essential oils of Pinus peuce from different populations in Montenegro and Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2008-07-01

    The essential-oil composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. is reported at the population level. Macedonian pine is endemic high-mountain Balkan pine relict of an anthropogenically reduced area, with large morphological diversity and insufficiently clear taxonomic position. In the pine-needle terpene profile of two populations from Montenegro and one from Serbia, 78 compounds were detected, 56 of which are identified (Table 3). The dominant constituents were alpha-pinene (36.5%) and germacrene D (11.4%). The following 20 additional components were found to be present in medium-to-high amounts (0.5-10%): camphene (8.5%), bornyl acetate (6.8%), beta-pinene (6.8%), beta-caryophyllene (5.2%), beta-phellandrene (4.7%), terpinen-4-ol acetate (1.6%), (E)-hex-2-enal (1.5%), alpha-muurolene (1.2%), beta-gurjunene (1.1%), beta-myrcene (1.0%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (0.9%), alpha-phellandrene (0.8%), delta-cadinene (0.8%), alpha-humulene (0.8%), sabinene (0.7%), aromadendrene (0.6%), alpha-thujene (0.6%), gamma-muurolene (0.6%), gamma-cadinene (0.6%), alpha-terpinolene (0.5%), and one unknown component (0.5%). The similarity of the populations and the within-population variability were visualized by principle-component analysis (PCA) and genetic analysis of selected terpenes in 90 tree samples. Our study suggests a closer connection between populations II and III compared to population I. Based on the profile of the main terpene components, the studied populations are more similar to populations from Kosovo and Greece than to the population from Mt. Mokra (Montenegro) and the population in France.

  5. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption. PMID:25265817

  6. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption.

  7. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Janković, Saša; Curčić, Marijana; Radičević, Tatjana; Stefanović, Srđan; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijević, Biljana

    2011-10-01

    This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

  8. Five primary sources of organic aerosols in the urban atmosphere of Belgrade (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Vecchiato, Marco; Scalabrin, Elisa; Radaelli, Marta; Đorđević, Dragana; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-11-15

    Biomass burning and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) represent important primary sources of organic compounds in the atmosphere. These particles and compounds are able to affect climate and human health. In the present work, using HPLC-orbitrapMS, we determined the atmospheric concentrations of molecular markers such as anhydrosugars and phenolic compounds that are specific for biomass burning, as well as the concentrations of sugars, alcohol sugars and d- and l-amino acids (D-AAs and L-AAs) for studying PBAPs in Belgrade (Serbia) aerosols collected in September-December 2008. In these samples, high levels of all these biomarkers were observed in October. Relative percentages of vanillic (V), syringic compounds (S) and p-coumaric acid (PA), as well as levoglucosan/mannosan (L/M) ratios, helped us discriminate between open fire events and wood combustion for domestic heating during the winter. L-AAs and D-AAs (1% of the total) were observed in Belgrade aerosols mainly in September-October. During open fire events, mean D-AA/L-AA (D/L) ratio values of aspartic acid, threonine, phenylalanine, alanine were significantly higher than mean D/L values of samples unaffected by open fire. High levels of AAs were observed for open biomass burning events. Thanks to four different statistical approaches, we demonstrated that Belgrade aerosols are affected by five sources: a natural source, a source related to fungi spores and degraded material and three other sources linked to biomass burning: biomass combustion in open fields, the combustion of grass and agricultural waste and the combustion of biomass in stoves and industrial plants. The approach employed in this work, involving the determination of specific organic tracers and statistical analysis, proved useful to discriminate among different types of biomass burning events. PMID:27450960

  9. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  10. High Prevalence and Resistance Patterns of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in the Pomoravlje Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lepsanovic, Zorica; Jeremic, Ljiljana Petrovic; Lazic, Srdjan; Cirkovic, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    With a view to estimating the prevalence and resistance patterns of CA-MRSA in one region of Serbia, we performed an analysis of MRSA isolates from healthy people and hospitalised patients. The detection of CA-MRSA was carried out by SCCmec typing. In MRSA isolates from hospitalised patients SCCmec types IV and V were found in 76% of the strains. Similar percentage (80%) of CA-MRSA genotypes was present in healthy people. SCCmec type V harbouring MRSA was the most successful clone. Higher prevalence of type V in hospitalised patients to that in healthy people (70% vs 54%) may indicate nosocomial transmissions in at least some hospital units. All MRSA strains from hospitalised patients were resistant to one or more non-β-lactam antibiotics while 52% were multi-resistant. In isolates from healthy people, 16% were sensitive to all non-β-lactam antibiotics and 40% were multi-resistant. Similar percentage of multi-resistant CA- and HA-genotypes occurred in a particular environment (53% vs 50% in hospitalised patients, and 37.5% vs 37.5% in healthy people) indicating selective pressure of antibiotics as a leading force conferring antibiotic resistance. High prevalence of CA-MRSA and high resistance rate both in hospitals and the community suggest that this pathogen has been present in the Pomoravlje Region, central Serbia for years.

  11. Analysis of solid waste from ships and modeling of its generation on the river Danube in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ulniković, Vladanka Presburger; Vukić, Marija; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2013-06-01

    This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and, particularly, in ports on the river Danube's flow through Serbia. The ports of Apatin, Bezdan, Backa Palanka, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Smederevo, Veliko Gradiste, Prahovo and Kladovo were analyzed. The input data (number of watercrafts, passengers and crew members) were obtained from harbor authorities for the period 2005-2009. The quantities of solid waste generated on both cruise and cargo ships are considered in this article. As there is no strategy for waste treatment in the ports in Serbia, these data are extremely valuable for further design of equipment for waste treatment and collection. Trends in data were analyzed and regression models were used to predict the waste quantities in each port in next 3 years. The obtained trends could be utilized as the basis for the calculation of the equipment capacities for waste selection, collection, storage and treatment. The results presented in this study establish the need for an organized management system for this type of waste, as well as suggest where the terminals for collection, storage and treatment of solid waste from ships should be located.

  12. High Prevalence and Resistance Patterns of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in the Pomoravlje Region, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lepsanovic, Zorica; Jeremic, Ljiljana Petrovic; Lazic, Srdjan; Cirkovic, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    With a view to estimating the prevalence and resistance patterns of CA-MRSA in one region of Serbia, we performed an analysis of MRSA isolates from healthy people and hospitalised patients. The detection of CA-MRSA was carried out by SCCmec typing. In MRSA isolates from hospitalised patients SCCmec types IV and V were found in 76% of the strains. Similar percentage (80%) of CA-MRSA genotypes was present in healthy people. SCCmec type V harbouring MRSA was the most successful clone. Higher prevalence of type V in hospitalised patients to that in healthy people (70% vs 54%) may indicate nosocomial transmissions in at least some hospital units. All MRSA strains from hospitalised patients were resistant to one or more non-β-lactam antibiotics while 52% were multi-resistant. In isolates from healthy people, 16% were sensitive to all non-β-lactam antibiotics and 40% were multi-resistant. Similar percentage of multi-resistant CA- and HA-genotypes occurred in a particular environment (53% vs 50% in hospitalised patients, and 37.5% vs 37.5% in healthy people) indicating selective pressure of antibiotics as a leading force conferring antibiotic resistance. High prevalence of CA-MRSA and high resistance rate both in hospitals and the community suggest that this pathogen has been present in the Pomoravlje Region, central Serbia for years. PMID:27020871

  13. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia.

  14. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants in Serbia: From precautionary measures to the final treatment (case study).

    PubMed

    Stevanovic-Carapina, Hristina; Milic, Jelena; Curcic, Marijana; Randjelovic, Jasminka; Krinulovic, Katarina; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Brnjas, Zvonko

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable solid waste management needs more dedicated attention in respect of environmental and human health protection. Solid waste containing persistent organic pollutants is of special concern, since persistent organic pollutants are persistent, toxic and of high risk to human health and the environment. The objective of this investigation was to identify critical points in the Serbian system of solid waste and persistent organic pollutants management, to assure the life cycle management of persistent organic pollutants and products containing these chemicals, including prevention and final destruction. Data were collected from the Serbian competent authorities, and led us to identify preventive actions for solid waste management that should reduce or minimise release of persistent organic pollutants into the environment, and to propose actions necessary for persistent organic pollutants solid waste. The adverse impact of persistent organic pollutants is multidimensional. Owing to the lack of treatment or disposal plants for hazardous waste in Serbia, the only option at the moment to manage persistent organic pollutants waste is to keep it in temporary storage and when conditions are created (primarily financial), such waste should be exported for destruction in hazardous waste incinerators. Meanwhile, it needs to be assured that any persistent organic pollutants management activity does not negatively impact recycling flows or disturb progress towards a more circular economy in Serbia. PMID:27281225

  15. Analysis of solid waste from ships and modeling of its generation on the river Danube in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Ulniković, Vladanka Presburger; Vukić, Marija; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2013-06-01

    This study focuses on the issues related to the waste management in river ports in general and, particularly, in ports on the river Danube's flow through Serbia. The ports of Apatin, Bezdan, Backa Palanka, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Smederevo, Veliko Gradiste, Prahovo and Kladovo were analyzed. The input data (number of watercrafts, passengers and crew members) were obtained from harbor authorities for the period 2005-2009. The quantities of solid waste generated on both cruise and cargo ships are considered in this article. As there is no strategy for waste treatment in the ports in Serbia, these data are extremely valuable for further design of equipment for waste treatment and collection. Trends in data were analyzed and regression models were used to predict the waste quantities in each port in next 3 years. The obtained trends could be utilized as the basis for the calculation of the equipment capacities for waste selection, collection, storage and treatment. The results presented in this study establish the need for an organized management system for this type of waste, as well as suggest where the terminals for collection, storage and treatment of solid waste from ships should be located. PMID:23460543

  16. Trouble at Texas Southern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    On the night of December 4, 2004, a Texas Southern University (TSU) student named Ashley Sloan was gunned down near campus, struck in the temple by a bullet after leaving a party with her friends. The murder prompted an outpouring of accusations concerning poor campus security. For many Houstonians, the shooting raised old fears of the…

  17. Southern (In)hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  18. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  19. EFL Oral Communication Teaching Practices: A Close Look at University Teachers and A2 Students' Perspectives in Thailand and a Critical Eye from Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, David Allen; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong; Radic-Bojanic, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to reexamine current EFL oral communication teaching practices from the perspectives of teachers and A2 students at two universities, namely Prince of Songkla University (PSU), Thailand and University of Novi Sad (UNS), Serbia. The main objectives were: (1) to analyze current practices from the perspectives of teachers and…

  20. 31 CFR 586.514 - Divestiture of U.S. person's equity investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Divestiture of U.S. person's equity investment in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. 586.514 Section 586.514 Money and Finance: Treasury..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 586.514 Divestiture of U.S. person's equity investment...

  1. A new Metaculus species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on Diplotaxis tenuifolia (Brassicaceae) from Serbia: a combined description using morphology and DNA barcode data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of eriophyoid mite, Metaculus diplotaxi n.sp. inhabiting Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC., has been described from Serbia. To investigate interspecific variability between Metaculus spp., on three different host plants of Brassicaceae we analyzed phenotypic variability of morphological t...

  2. Mathematics Curriculum Changes in Republic of Serbia for Grades 5-8 After the Break-Up of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlajic, Jovana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in the mathematics curriculum for grades 5-8 in the Republic of Serbia after the break-up of SFRY. In particular, the research sought to identify the changes in the mathematics curriculum in terms of curriculum content and learning objectives, textbooks, and high school entrance examination…

  3. Settlement Institutions in Southern Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Loren W.

    The survey catalogs 45 Southern Appalachia settlement institutions representing 257 counties in parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. "A Settlement Institution of the Southern Appalachians is a private, non-profit, rural organization in the Southern Appalachians…

  4. Evolution of collapse valleys in karst - examples from the Carpatho-Balkanides of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Aleksandar S.; Ćalić, Jelena; Spalević, Aleksandra; Pantić, Marko

    2016-04-01

    Development of valleys in karst is an issue which has not been sufficiently studied in karst surface morphology. THESE valleys are long linear forms whose orthogonal projections resemble normal valleys, but most of their characteristics are strongly influenced by karst process. In largest number of relevant references, this subject is either only briefly mentioned or completely lacking. This paper presents the examples of a particular type of valley in karst formed by cave ceiling collapse close to the topographical surface. Karst of the Carpatho-Balkanides in eastern Serbia is characterized by uneven spatial distribution in several large massifs, but also in a large number of relatively small outcrops (patches and belts), which enable the development of contact karst and fluviokarst. Many morphological elements are of fluvial origin, subsequently modified by karst process. Collapse valleys occur mostly at the downstream contacts (where a seasonal watercourse leaves limestones) or in karst/limestone belts. In the first phase, which is visible on the example of the Radovanska Reka, the river course sinks to the swallets in the riverbed and forms a blind valley. After sinking, the water flows through the tunnel cave, while largest part of the valley remains above the cave. The bottom of the dry valley is dissected by deep dolines, reaching almost to the cave roof. In this part of the study, the area was scanned by a multistation Leica Nova MS 50 (resolution 20 cm @ 10 m). In the second phase, the doline bottoms reach the cave ceilings which develop holes at certain points, as it is case at the Zamna River valley. These hollows tend to enlarge with time, and the surface of the cave ceiling is reduced. The third, final phase is characterised by collapse of larger segments of cave ceilings. Only the natural bridges remain, as the remnants of former caves (e.g. in the Vratna River valley, Ravna Reka valley). These parts of valleys in karst are usually narrow, steep

  5. How to protect loess-palaeosol sequences? - Proposal of Loess Geopark in Vojvodina Province (North Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiljević, Dj. A.; Marković, S. B.; Hose, T. A.; Lukić, T.; Basarin, B.; Vujičić, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    Loess-palaeosol sequences preserve the most important continental record of climatic and environmental changes during the Quaternary. As loess deposits in the Vojvodina region (North Serbia) could be regarded as one of the most important European terrestrial records of climatic and environmental changes during the last million years that makes them valuable scientific resource. Unfortunately, these sites, due to their economic (e.g. agriculture and brickyards) and functional (e.g. remote sections as waste disposals) values, are constantly endangered by numerous causes and could be degraded or exploited permanently. This study will give proposal of establishing loess geopark as protected area that would include the most significant loess sections in the investigated area. The study is based on analytical, theoretical and practical suggestions and rules according to the general Guidelines and Criteria for National Geoparks seeking UNESCO's assistance to join the Global Geoparks Network. Loess and loess like sediments cover more than 60 % of the area and are preserved in six separate loess plateaus: Bačka, Srem, Tamiš, Banat, south-east Banat, and Titel Loess Plateau, which make it a surface large enough to serve local economic and cultural development. As the dissemination of loess in Vojvodina has a dispersed character, the potential Geopark should also have a certain number of separate locations. A fragmented approach should require less effort during the geoconservation practice, with separate processes, but identical aim. Therefore, one the initial steps of protection and recognition of (loess) geosites should be first achieved by national or provincial legislation and/or by management policies before inscription on the World Heritage List of recognition as a Global Geopark because these organisations by themselves do not provide any protection. As unique protected area of this kind in Europe and wider, role model for this loess geopark could be China, the

  6. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  7. Southern Mars: It's Spring!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    August 2, 1999, marks the spring equinox for the martian southern hemisphere. It is also the start of autumn for regions north of the equator. Winter in the south has finally come to a close, and the seasonal frosts of the wintertime south polar cap are retreating. Small, local dust storms frequently occur along the margins of the polar cap, as the colder air blowing off the cap moves northward into warmer regions.

    The wide angle camera view of Mars shown here was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera in late July 1999, about 1 week before the start of southern spring. The frosty, retreating south polar cap (white) is seen in the lower quarter of the image, and wisps of dust storm clouds (grayish-orange in this view) occur just above the cap at the lower left. The southern most of the large environmental changes volcanoes, Arsia Mons, is seen at the upper left. Arsia Mons is about 350 kilometers(220 miles) across.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. Combined Natural Gas and Solar Technologies for Heating and Cooling in the City of NIS in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanović, Velimir P.; Bojić, Milorad Lj.

    2010-06-01

    The use of conventional systems for heat and electricity production in Niš and Serbia means a constant waste of energy, and money. This problem is present in both industrial and public sector. Using conventional systems, means not only low-energy efficient systems, and technologies, but also using very "dirty" technologies, which cause heavy environment pollution. The lack of electricity in our country, and region is also present. The gas pipeline in Niš was finished not long ago, and second gas pipeline is about to be made in the next couple of years. This opens a door for implementing new technologies and the use of new methods for production of heat and electricity, while preserving our environment. This paper reports discussion of this technology with management of public institutions, which use both heat and electricity.

  9. Stratigraphic and lithologic characteristics of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in the Danube and Sava riparian area near Belgrade (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, D.; Gaudenyi, T.; Bogićević, K.; Tošović, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Quaternary sediments in the Danube and Sava riparian area near Belgrade have a considerable thickness. Several categories of deposits (fluvial-lacustrine, fluvial and aeolian) of Pliocene and Quaternary age have been identified. Their thickness, granulometric composition and paleontological features change depending on the distance from the recent Danube and Sava riverbeds. The Pleistocene fluvial deposits are underlain by sediments of the Late Miocene (Sarmatian and Pannonian) or the Plio-Pleistocene age, and are overlain by fluvial-palustrine deposits of the Pleistocene age and recent alluvial deposits. Pleistocene fluvial deposits that form a major part of the Quaternary sediments, have a great significance, since they are proved to be excellent collectors of ground water. Although these deposits are at lower altitudes in the area of Srem, they could be correlated with the high Danube and Morava terraces in Serbia and Drava in Croatia on the basis of their lithologic and paleontological features.

  10. Measurement and evaluation of the environmental noise levels in the urban areas of the city of Nis (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Prascevic, Momir R; Mihajlov, Darko I; Cvetkovic, Dragan S

    2014-02-01

    The environmental noise level represents one of the key factors of life quality in urban areas of modern cities. A continuous monitoring of the noise levels and the analysis of results have become a necessity when we discuss a possible recovery of those areas with high levels of noise pollution, and particularly, those zones which were designed for specific activities, e.g., areas around hospitals and schools. The city of Nis, Serbia, owing to the permanent long-term noise monitoring, possesses a database containing figures related to the noise levels at relevant locations in the city, which can serve as a basis for an analysis of the change of conditions, their tendencies in the future, and recognizing factors which influence the danger of noise pollution. The paper involves an analysis of the environmental noise level collected during the previous years.

  11. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks with First Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Ivanović, Ivana; Harrus, Shimon; Baneth, Gad

    2016-10-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in Eurasia. Borrelia miyamotoi is the only known relapsing fever Borrelia group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes species. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 71 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and screened for the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. group and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. by real-time PCR for the Borrelia flagellin B (flaB) gene followed by DNA sequencing of PCR products. Species identification was verified by PCR of the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene for Lyme Disease Borrelia spp. and by PCR of the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpQ) gene for relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Lyme Borrelia spp. were found in 15/71 (21.13%) of the ticks evaluated and included B. luisitaniae (11.3%), B. afzelii (7%), B. valaisiana (1.4%), and B. garinii (1.4%). Borrelia miyamotoi, from the relapsing fever Borrelia complex, was found, for the first time in Serbia, in one (1.4%) nymph collected from the environment. Co-infections between Borrelia species in ticks were not detected. These results suggest that the dominance of species within B. burgdorferi s.l. complex in I. ricinus ticks may vary over time and in different geographic regions. Further systematic studies of Borrelia species in vectors and reservoir hosts are needed to understand eco-epidemiology of these zoonotic infections and how to prevent human infection in the best way.

  12. Occurrence of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ixodes ricinus Ticks with First Identification of Borrelia miyamotoi in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Savić, Sara; Vračar, Vuk; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Jurišić, Aleksandar; Rojas, Alicia; Petrović, Aleksandra; Ivanović, Ivana; Harrus, Shimon; Baneth, Gad

    2016-10-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in Eurasia. Borrelia miyamotoi is the only known relapsing fever Borrelia group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes species. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from dogs and the vegetation from different parts of Vojvodina, Serbia. A total of 71 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected and screened for the presence of Lyme Borrelia spp. group and relapsing fever Borrelia spp. by real-time PCR for the Borrelia flagellin B (flaB) gene followed by DNA sequencing of PCR products. Species identification was verified by PCR of the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene for Lyme Disease Borrelia spp. and by PCR of the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (glpQ) gene for relapsing fever Borrelia spp. Lyme Borrelia spp. were found in 15/71 (21.13%) of the ticks evaluated and included B. luisitaniae (11.3%), B. afzelii (7%), B. valaisiana (1.4%), and B. garinii (1.4%). Borrelia miyamotoi, from the relapsing fever Borrelia complex, was found, for the first time in Serbia, in one (1.4%) nymph collected from the environment. Co-infections between Borrelia species in ticks were not detected. These results suggest that the dominance of species within B. burgdorferi s.l. complex in I. ricinus ticks may vary over time and in different geographic regions. Further systematic studies of Borrelia species in vectors and reservoir hosts are needed to understand eco-epidemiology of these zoonotic infections and how to prevent human infection in the best way. PMID:27574731

  13. Stolbur phytoplasma transmission to maize by Reptalus panzeri and the disease cycle of maize redness in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jović, J; Cvrković, T; Mitrović, M; Krnjajić, S; Petrović, A; Redinbaugh, M G; Pratt, R C; Hogenhout, S A; Tosevski, I

    2009-09-01

    Maize redness (MR), induced by stolbur phytoplasma ('Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', subgroup 16SrXII-A), is characterized by midrib, leaf, and stalk reddening and abnormal ear development. MR has been reported from Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria for 50 years, and recent epiphytotics reduced yields by 40 to 90% in South Banat District, Serbia. Potential vectors including leafhoppers and planthoppers in the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, were surveyed in MR-affected and low-MR-incidence fields, and 33 different species were identified. Only Reptalus panzeri populations displayed characteristics of a major MR vector. More R. panzeri individuals were present in MR-affected versus low-MR fields, higher populations were observed in maize plots than in field border areas, and peak population levels preceded the appearance of MR in late July. Stolbur phytoplasma was detected in 17% of R. panzeri adults using nested polymerase chain reaction but not in any other insects tested. Higher populations of R. panzeri nymphs were found on maize, Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots. Stolbur phytoplasma was detected in roots of these three plant species, as well as in R. panzeri L(3) and L(5) nymphs. When stolbur phytoplasma-infected R. panzeri L(3) nymphs were introduced into insect-free mesh cages containing healthy maize and wheat plants, 89 and 7%, respectively, became infected. These results suggest that the MR disease cycle in South Banat involves mid-July transmission of stolbur phytoplasma to maize by infected adult R. panzeri. The adult R. panzeri lay eggs on infected maize roots, and nymphs living on these roots acquire the phytoplasma from infected maize. The nymphs overwinter on the roots of wheat planted into maize fields in the autumn, allowing emergence of phytoplasma-infected vectors the following July.

  14. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  16. Trichinosis in southern Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Blondheim, D S; Klein, R; Ben-Dror, G; Schick, G

    1984-02-01

    An outbreak of trichinosis in two villages in southern Lebanon affected over 100 patients, aged 3 to 70 years, who celebrated Christmas and New Year's of 1981 by feasting on rare pork. Six were hospitalized in Israel. The diagnosis was made on clinical and histological grounds. The clinical picture included the classical features, but was unusual in that rarely reported pedal or pretibial edema, pruritus and vertigo, were prominent. There was one case with suspected myocarditis. Two women in the first trimester of pregnancy had miscarriages. All patients recovered. With the unstable political situation in Lebanon in recent years, veterinary and sanitary supervision has deteriorated, and most pigpens are infected with trichinosis.

  17. Copper-Gold Exploration and Discovery in the Timok Magmatic Complex, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banjesević, Miodrag; Ingram, Simon; Large, Duncan

    2014-05-01

    The Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC) comprises the Serbian sector of the Carpathian-Balkan Arc of Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline magmatism that extends for about 1500 km from Romania (Banat), through eastern Serbia (TMC) and into central Bulgaria (Srednogorie). The TMC is lens-shaped, about 85 km long and up to 25 km wide. The complex consists primarily of Turonian to Campanian andesites and trachyandesites (lavas, shallow intrusives and epiclastics), basaltic andesites, volcaniclastics and sediments. There are at least two phases of volcanism, and the volcanic processes were subaerial to submarine eruptive, hypabyssal intrusion, and very rarely explosive. Coupled porphyry and high sulphidation epithermal systems are associated with the first phase of andesite volcanism in the Bor district. The tectonic setting has been described as a back-arc basin, or pull-apart basin, developed on continental crust during subduction related to the convergence of the African plate toward Eurasia, and closure of the Neotethys ocean. The metallogenic endowment of the TMC is a significant contributor to that of the entire Tethyan Metallogenic Province. The world-class Bor and Majdenpek porphyry systems contribute to an estimated historical production of approximately 6 million tonnes of copper and 9.65 million ounces gold. The combined resources and reserves in the TMC are reported by the state-owned RTB Bor mining company to be a cumulative 2.5 billion tonnes, with total copper and gold metal content of 10.5 million tonnes and 11.7 million ounces respectively. Reservoir concluded an agreement in 2010 with Freeport McMoran Exploration Corp. (Freeport) to explore three exploration permits in the TMC for porphyry copper mineralisation. Conceptual studies together with CSAMT geophysics suggested the extension of structures under the Miocene sedimentary cover about 5-7 km south from the Bor porphyry district. The Čukaru Peki discovery was identified from high-grade drill intercepts

  18. The impact of malnutrition on mortality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Miomir; Stojanovic, Dusica; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2008-05-01

    Numerous studies suggest a strong association between nutrition and clinical outcome in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. While determination of malnutrition is often based on objective measurements, such as biochemical parameters and anthropometric data, there is no single measurement that can reliably predict the risk for malnutrition or poor outcome. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the prevalence and severity of malnutrition among HD patients in a large university-affiliated HD center in Serbia, and to examine the relationship between various nutritional and nonnutritional factors, and the clinical outcome in the period of 20 months follow-up. The prospective observational cohort study included patients (n = 197) with more than 3 months on HD treatment before entering the study. Global nutritional status was evaluated by the dialysis malnutrition score (DMS). Body mass index (BMI), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm circumference (MAC), and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), as well as several laboratory parameters and clinical examination, were recorded. Dose of HD and protein equivalence of nitrogen appearance normalized to ideal body weight (nPNA) were evaluated by the urea kinetic model. Mortality data were collected prospectively during the 20 months of follow-up. A moderate/severe degree of malnutrition was presented in 39.2% of female and 22.8% of male patients, while signs of mild malnutrition existed in 45.5% and 66.9% of patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that in the entire group of patients with DMS score >10, the mortality rate was higher (log rank 5.61; P < 0.05) than in those with DMS score

  19. Indigenous Astronomy in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medupe, Thebe Rodney

    The cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples has been a subject of many studies spanning atleast over a century. Some of the studies were biased against the notion that Southern African could have any interest in studying the natural environment to benefit their societies. In this chapter, I summarize the current knowledge about cultural Astronomy of Southern African peoples and highlight points of further research.

  20. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  1. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  2. Deep-Sky Companions: Southern Gems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Meara, Stephen James

    2013-05-01

    Preface; 1. How to use this book; 2. The southern gems; Appendix A. Southern gems: basic data; Appendix B. Forty-two additional southern gems in Dunlop's catalogue; Appendix C. A brief history of early telescopic exploration of the far-southern skies; Appendix D. Photo credits; The southern gems checklist; Index; Wide-field star charts.

  3. Impact of climate change on soil thermal and moisture regimes in Serbia: An analysis with data from regional climate simulations under SRES-A1B.

    PubMed

    Mihailović, D T; Drešković, N; Arsenić, I; Ćirić, V; Djurdjević, V; Mimić, G; Pap, I; Balaž, I

    2016-11-15

    We considered temporal and spatial variations to the thermal and moisture regimes of the most common RSGs (Reference Soil Groups) in Serbia under the A1B scenario for the 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 periods, with respect to the 1961-1990 period. We utilized dynamically downscaled global climate simulations from the ECHAM5 model using the coupled regional climate model EBU-POM (Eta Belgrade University-Princeton Ocean Model). We analysed the soil temperature and moisture time series using simple statistics and a Kolmogorov complexity (KC) analysis. The corresponding metrics were calculated for 150 sites. In the future, warmer and drier regimes can be expected for all RSGs in Serbia. The calculated soil temperature and moisture variations include increases in the mean annual soil temperature (up to 3.8°C) and decreases in the mean annual soil moisture (up to 11.3%). Based on the KC values, the soils in Serbia are classified with respect to climate change impacts as (1) less sensitive (Vertisols, Umbrisols and Dystric Cambisols) or (2) more sensitive (Chernozems, Eutric Cambisols and Planosols). PMID:27473773

  4. Impact of climate change on soil thermal and moisture regimes in Serbia: An analysis with data from regional climate simulations under SRES-A1B.

    PubMed

    Mihailović, D T; Drešković, N; Arsenić, I; Ćirić, V; Djurdjević, V; Mimić, G; Pap, I; Balaž, I

    2016-11-15

    We considered temporal and spatial variations to the thermal and moisture regimes of the most common RSGs (Reference Soil Groups) in Serbia under the A1B scenario for the 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 periods, with respect to the 1961-1990 period. We utilized dynamically downscaled global climate simulations from the ECHAM5 model using the coupled regional climate model EBU-POM (Eta Belgrade University-Princeton Ocean Model). We analysed the soil temperature and moisture time series using simple statistics and a Kolmogorov complexity (KC) analysis. The corresponding metrics were calculated for 150 sites. In the future, warmer and drier regimes can be expected for all RSGs in Serbia. The calculated soil temperature and moisture variations include increases in the mean annual soil temperature (up to 3.8°C) and decreases in the mean annual soil moisture (up to 11.3%). Based on the KC values, the soils in Serbia are classified with respect to climate change impacts as (1) less sensitive (Vertisols, Umbrisols and Dystric Cambisols) or (2) more sensitive (Chernozems, Eutric Cambisols and Planosols).

  5. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  6. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  7. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  8. The Geochemistry of a Newly Discovered Permo-Triassic Section in Serbia: A Tale of Catastrophic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. C.; Stebbins, A.; Sudar, M.; Jovanovic, D.; Brookfield, M. E.; Algeo, T. J.; Hannigan, R.; Berman, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present geochemical data from a newly discovered (2011) Permo-Triassic (PT) section exposed along a road cut in the Jadar Block tectonostratigraphic unit in Serbia approximately 100 km SW of Belgrade. This Serbian PT section is lithologically different than other Serbian PT sections which are typically composed of dolomite micro-breccia. Importantly, this new PT section appears to be continuous across the PT Boundary and is lithologically similar to the Bellerophone-Tesero Oolite PT sections in the eastern Alps. During the Permian-Triassic period this Serbia PT section was situated in the paleo-Tethys along the passive margin of Laurasia. The upper Permian at this location is characterized by interbedding calcisiltite and dark gray shale similar to the Bellerophone formation. The PT boundary (PTB) is composed of a 30cm lensitic oolitic limestone similar to the Tesero horizon, and the lower Triassic is calcareous shale interbedded with calcisiltite similar to the Werfen formation. In the lower Triassic, the first stromatolite occurs approximately 5m above the PTB. Oolite suggests that this region experienced a regression event coincident with the PT extinction. Geochemically the oolitic limestone is characterized by a positive Eu anomaly which may be associated with volcanism. Interestingly, the oolitic limestone has a similar geochemical signature to erosional layers at Rizvanuša PT section in Croatia and Spiti Valley in the Himalayas that are also suggestive of a regression event. In this study, we present stable isotope (C,N, S), mineralogy, major and trace element geochemistry of this new Serbian PT section. Geochemical proxies and mineralogy of the section suggest changes in provenance and environmental conditions occurring in the upper Permian prior to the deposition of the oolitic limestone. This data suggest catastrophic environmental conditions persisted prior to the eruption of the Siberian Traps, and that volcanism was not the only contributor to the

  9. An Open Source approach to automated hydrological analysis of ungauged drainage basins in Serbia using R and SAGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatanovic, Nikola; Milovanovic, Irina; Cotric, Jelena

    2014-05-01

    Drainage basins are for the most part ungauged or poorly gauged not only in Serbia but in most parts of the world, usually due to insufficient funds, but also the decommission of river gauges in upland catchments to focus on downstream areas which are more populated. Very often, design discharges are needed for these streams or rivers where no streamflow data is available, for various applications. Examples include river training works for flood protection measures or erosion control, design of culverts, water supply facilities, small hydropower plants etc. The estimation of discharges in ungauged basins is most often performed using rainfall-runoff models, whose parameters heavily rely on geomorphometric attributes of the basin (e.g. catchment area, elevation, slopes of channels and hillslopes etc.). The calculation of these, as well as other paramaters, is most often done in GIS (Geographic Information System) software environments. This study deals with the application of freely available and open source software and datasets for automating rainfall-runoff analysis of ungauged basins using methodologies currently in use hydrological practice. The R programming language was used for scripting and automating the hydrological calculations, coupled with SAGA GIS (System for Automated Geoscientivic Analysis) for geocomputing functions and terrain analysis. Datasets used in the analyses include the freely available SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) terrain data, CORINE (Coordination of Information on the Environment) Land Cover data, as well as soil maps and rainfall data. The choice of free and open source software and datasets makes the project ideal for academic and research purposes and cross-platform projects. The geomorphometric module was tested on more than 100 catchments throughout Serbia and compared to manually calculated values (using topographic maps). The discharge estimation module was tested on 21 catchments where data were available and compared

  10. Rabies in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, R; Barnard, B J; Meredith, C D; Bishop, G C; Brückner, G K; Foggin, C M; Hübschle, O J

    1993-12-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of rabies in Africa, believed to have followed the importation of an infected dog from England in 1892, occurred in the eastern Cape Province of South Africa, and was brought under control in 1894. An unconfirmed epidemic of rabies in dogs occurred in western Zambia in 1901. By the following year the disease had apparently spread along a major trade route, to cause an outbreak in Zimbabwe which engulfed most of the country before being eradicated in 1913. The existence of endemic rabies of viverrids (mongooses and genets) was confirmed in South Africa in 1928, and since then the viverrid disease has continued to occur widely on the interior plateau of the country with spill-over of infection to cattle and a variety of other animals. From about 1947 onwards, an invasive form of dog rabies spread from southern Zambia and/or Angola into Namibia, across northern and eastern Botswana into Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal by 1950, entered Mozambique in 1952, and spread from there to Swaziland in 1954. Dog rabies extended from southern Mozambique into Natal in 1961 to cause a major epidemic which was brought under control in 1968. The disease re-entered northern Natal from Mozambique in 1976 and since then dog rabies has proved difficult to control in the peri-urban settlements of Natal-KwaZulu. The disease spread from Natal to Lesotho in 1982, and into the Transkei region of the eastern Cape Province in 1987, to reach the Ciskei by 1990. The spread of the disease in dogs was followed by the emergence of rabies of jackals and cattle in central Namibia, northern Botswana, Zimbabwe and the northern Transvaal. A unique outbreak of rabies in kudu antelope occurred in central Namibia from 1977 to 1985, apparently involving oral spread of infection between individuals. A few cases of rabies in the bat-eared fox were recognized each year in Namibia from 1967 onwards, and from the 1970s the occurrence of the disease in the fox has emerged as a

  11. The Southern Hemisphere VLBI experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Meier, D.L.; Louie, A.P.; Morabito, D.D.; Skjerve, L.; Slade, M.A.; Niell, A.E.; Wehrle, A.E.; Jauncey, D.L.; Tzioumis, A.K.; Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA; California Univ., Los Angeles; CSIRO, Div. of Radiophysics, Epping; Sydney Univ.; Manchester Victoria Univ., Jodrell Bank )

    1989-07-01

    Six radio telescopes were operated as the first Southern Hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz. This array provided VLBI modeling and hybrid imaging of celestial radio sources in the Southern Hemisphere, high-accuracy VLBI geodesy between Southern Hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination -45 deg. The goals and implementation of the array are discussed, the methods of modeling and hybrid image production are explained, and the VLBI structure of the sources that were observed is summarized. 36 refs.

  12. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  13. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  14. Callisto's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These views of Callisto's southern hemisphere were taken by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer just after closest approach in orbit G8 on May 6, 1997. These false color images show surface compositional differences, red = more ice, blue = less ice.

    The upper left view contains Buri, a crater with a diameter of about 60 km. In the infrared spectrum, Buri and the rays that extend from the crater have high abundance of water ice compared to the surrounding region. The center view, a large (200 km or 120 mile diameter) unnamed impact crater with a distinct ring or circle around it reveals a complex mix of ice and non-ice materials. This is possibly due to impact excavation of the ice-rich subsurface which suggests that the darker material is just a thin surface covering caused by impact debris or a lag deposit from which the ice has evaporated away. The infrared data shows spectral signatures for both sulfur and carbon as two potential materials which could play a part in the complicated make-up of Callisto's surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  15. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  16. Variability of the needle essential oils of Juniperus deltoides R.P.ADAMS from different populations in Serbia and Croatia.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Peđa; Bojović, Srđan; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2013-01-01

    The essential-oil compositions of one Croatian and three Serbian populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.ADAMS have been determined by GC/MS analysis. In total, 147 compounds were identified, representing 97.3-98.3% of the oil composition. The oils were dominated by monoterpenes, which are characteristic components for the species of the section Juniperus. Two monoterpenes, α-pinene and limonene, were the dominant constituents, with a summed-up average content of 49.45%. Statistical methods were used to determine the diversity of the terpene classes and the common terpenes between the newly described J. deltoides populations from Serbia and Croatia. Only reports on several specimens from this species have been reported so far, and there are no studies that treat population diversity. Cluster analysis of the oil contents of 21 terpenes showed high correlation with the geographical distribution of the populations, separating the Croatian from the Serbian populations. The comparison of the essential-oil compositions obtained in the present study with literature data, showed the separation of J. deltoides and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus from the western Mediterranean region.

  17. Investigation of the correlation dependence between SO2 emission concentration and meteorological parameters: case study-Bor (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Ilić, Ivana Z; Ilic, Ivana Z; Zivkovic, Dragana T; Vušović, Nenad M; Vusovic, Nenad M; Bogdanovic, Dejan M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of the air-pollution management possibility in Bor (Serbia) using statistical analyses of the correlation dependence of SO(2) pollution concentration and meteorological parameters. This kind of approach allows data to determine the shape of time trends; models serial correlation and dependence on covariance; and provides statistical analyses of data. Air quality control in the area of Bor is measured at four monitoring stations: City park; Institute of Mining and Metallurgy; Jugopetrol oil logistic centre and Brezonik suburb. There is also a meteorological station near the aforementioned institute that measures temperature; air humidity; atmosphere pressure; wind speed and direction. The results received from all monitoring stations are processed by the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy in Bor. The data from the reported documents were used for statistical analyses, for determining the correlation between SO(2) emission concentration and meteorological parameters. The source of SO(2) emissions is the local copper smelter, built within the town of Bor from 1961-1963. However, the disposition of the pollutant concentration is influenced by meteorological parameters (air humidity, atmosphere pressure, speed and wind direction). The successful application of these statistical analyses in this paper points to a possibility of its usage in air pollution studies. PMID:20419586

  18. Perfluorinated compounds in sediment samples from the wastewater canal of Pančevo (Serbia) industrial area.

    PubMed

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Takemine, Shusuke; Nakano, Takeshi; Slavković Beškoski, Latinka; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Ilić, Mila; Miletić, Srdjan; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2013-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples from the wastewater canal draining the industrial complex of Pančevo, Serbia (oil refinery, petrochemical plant, and fertilizer factory). The canal is directly connected to Europe's second largest river, the Danube, which drains its water into the Black Sea. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) up to 5.7ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and total Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) up to 6.3ngg(-1) dw were detected. Compared to other reports, high levels of PFOS were found, even though PFCs are not used in the industrial production associated with this canal. The PFOS concentration in water was recalculated using the adsorption coefficient, KOC from literature. Using the average output of wastewater from the canal, a mass load of 1.38kg PFOS per year discharged in the Danube River has been calculated, which undoubtedly points to the contribution to global persistent organic pollution of surface waters originating from this industrial place. PMID:23415492

  19. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  20. Evaluation of key driver categories influencing sustainable waste management development with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP): Serbia example.

    PubMed

    Tot, Bojana; Srđević, Bojan; Vujić, Bogdana; Russo, Mário Augusto Tavares; Vujić, Goran

    2016-08-01

    The problems of waste management have become increasingly complex in recent decades. The increasing amount of generated waste, adopted legislation in the field of waste management, administrative issues, economic impacts and social awareness are important drivers in achieving a sustainable waste management system. However, in practice, there are many other drivers that are often mutually in conflict. The purpose of this research is to define the precise driver and their corresponding sub-drivers, which are relevant for developing a waste management system and, on the basis of their importance, to determine which has the predominant influence on the slow development of a waste management system at the national and regional level, within the Republic of Serbia and similar countries of southeast Europe. This research presents two levels of decision making: the first is a pair-wise comparison of the drivers in relation to the goal and the second is a pair-wise comparison of the sub-drivers in relation to the driver and in relation to the goal. Results of performed analyses on the waste management drivers were integrated via the decision-making process supported by an analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The final results of this research shows that the Institutional-Administrative driver is the most important for developing a sustainable waste management system. PMID:27288689

  1. Eating Habits and Body-weights of Students of the University of Belgrade, Serbia: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tepavcevic, Darija B. Kisic; Popovic, Aleksandra; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to quantify the prevalence of overweight and obesity among a sample of students in Belgrade University, Serbia and to describe their main eating habits. A total of 1,624 questionnaire responses were analyzed (response rate 97.3%). The students were recruited during mandatory annual check-ups in April-June 2009. All subjects completed the questionnaire; height (in cm) and weight (in km) were measured by two physicians. Results were assessed statistically. Almost every fourth male student was overweight. Strikingly, 15% of female students were underweight. Highly-significant difference was found between average body mass index (BMI) of male and female students (F=317.8, p=0.001). Students’ BMI did not correlate with average family income or with the frequency of taking breakfast (p=-0.064, p=0.152 for males and ρ=0.034, p=0.282 for females respectively). There is a growing demand for global health strategies which would encourage healthy body-image and figure; thus, these initiatives should mobilize the society on a national and international level. PMID:24288946

  2. Metal concentrations in water, sediment and three fish species from the Danube River, Serbia: a cause for environmental concern.

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Jelena; Janjić, Jelena; Baltić, Milan; Milanov, Raša; Bošković, Marija; Marković, Radmila V; Glamočlija, Nataša

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of metal contamination in water, sediments and three different fish species. All samples were taken from the Danube River in Belgrade Region, a location upstream from Grocka. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples were not detected, while concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu and As were in the range of 0.004-0.41 mg L(-1). Iron was the most deposited metal in sediment samples (17,530.00 mg kg(-1)). For the purpose of heavy metal determination in fish tissue, silver carp, common carp and wels catfish were collected. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and As were determined in muscle, digestive tract and liver by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometry (IPC-OES). The highest concentration of Pb was in the digestive tract of all three fish species, while Cd was mostly deposited in the liver. The highest concentration of Hg was in the muscle tissue of wels catfish, and these values are above the maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union and the maximum allowed concentrations (MACs) for Serbia. Concentration of As was mostly deposited in the liver, but under the MAC. PMID:27211095

  3. The natural product content of the selected Cabernet Franc wine samples originating from Serbia: a case study of phenolics.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Stanimirovic, Bojana; Vujovic, Dragan; Popovic Djordjevic, Jelena; Velickovic, Milovan; Tesevic, Vele

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the content of selected phenolic natural products in the wine samples made of three new Serbian Cabernet Franc clones (Nos. 02, 010 and 012, respectively) and mother vine (used as the relevant standard) during the period 2008-2012. Compared with all other wine samples, the Cabernet Franc wine of the clone No. 010 was found to have the highest total content of polyphenolics (1.85 ± 0.02 g/L) and anthocyanins (178.55 ± 3.75 mg/L). In addition, its Folin-Ciocalteu index (36.86 ± 0.12) stood out among the examined samples. Finally, the same wine was enriched with ellagic and gallic acids (3.44 ± 0.29 and 27.46 ± 0.21 mg/L, respectively), catechin (135.16 ± 6.47 mg/L) and epicatechin (51.33 ± 2.33 mg/L), the natural products known to exert significant lipid-lowering effects. Taken all together, the clone No. 010 developed in Serbia may offer new Cabernet Franc wine with geographical indication.

  4. Diversity of nematodes in the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from the Peripannonic region of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Čabrilo, B; Jovanović, V M; Bjelić-Čabrilo, O; Budinski, I; Blagojević, J; Vujošević, M

    2016-01-01

    Up to six nematode species were identified from 86 specimens of the yellow-necked field mouse Apodemus flavicollis from three mountainous localities known as Avala, Cer and Liškovac in Serbia. The highest prevalence of infection of 97% was recorded from Mt. Avala. Only one nematode species, Syphacia frederici, occurred in all three localities. There was complete overlap in nematode species from Mts. Avala and Liškovac, whereas the taxonomic distinctness of Mt. Cer was seen in the presence of the insect-transmitted species Rictularia proni. Locality was a statistically significant factor in all the best-fitted generalized linear models of variation in abundances. The highest level of both species richness and parasite alpha diversity (Shannon's H= 1.47) was found in the easternmost Mt. Liškovac, whereas the diversity indices were lowest for the westernmost Mt. Cer (Shannon's H= 0.48). In view of this geographical difference, the beta diversity indices were calculated along a west to east longitudinal gradient. PMID:25272984

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in overweight and obese children and adolescents living in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, R; Mitrovic, K; Milenkovic, T; Todorovic, S; Zdravkovic, D

    2012-11-01

    An increase in the prevalence of pediatric type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported by numerous studies in the United States during the past two decades. Available data from Europe are scarce, but also suggest the rising prevalence of this disease in overweight children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of previously undiagnosed T2DM, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in a clinic cohort of otherwise healthy overweight and obese Caucasian children and adolescents living in Serbia. The study group consisted of 301 subjects (176 girls, 125 boys) aged 5.2-18.9 years, with body mass index >90th percentile. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all subjects. Previously undiagnosed T2DM was discovered in 0.3% (n=1) and impaired glucose regulation in 15.9% (n=48) of the subjects. Isolated IFG was detected in 4.3% (n=13), isolated IGT in 8.3% (n=25) and combined IFG and IGT in 3.3% (n=10) of the subjects. Disturbances of glucose metabolism were present in a substantial number of the subjects, which emphasizes the need for prevention and treatment of childhood obesity.

  6. Single and combined effects of air pollutants on circulatory and respiratory system-related mortality in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stojić, Svetlana Stanišić; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja; Šoštarić, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and soot and mortality attributed to circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade area (Serbia). The analyzed data set comprised results of regular pollutant monitoring and corresponding administrative records on frequency of daily mortality in the period 2009-2014. Nonlinear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects of temperature were examined by means of distributed lag nonlinear models. The air pollutant loadings and circulatory system-related death rates in Belgrade area are among the highest in Europe. Data demonstrated that excess risk of death with short-term exposure to elevated concentrations of PM10, SO2, and soot was not significant, whereas marked effect size estimates for exposure over 90 d preceding mortality were found. The influence of chronic exposure was shown to be greater for respiratory than circulatory system-related mortality. When stratified by age and gender, higher risk was noted for male individuals below the age of 65 years. PMID:26699658

  7. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  8. Fish Product-Borne Histamine Intoxication Outbreak and Survey of Imported Fish and Fish Products in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Jelena; Babić, Jelena; Jaksic, Sandra; Kartalovic, Brankica; Ljubojevic, Dragana; Cirkovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Histamine levels in fish and fish products are regarded as a primary criterion for food safety, considering the effects of histamine on human health. The aim of this research was to describe a case of massive histamine intoxication in Serbian children and to provide relevant information regarding the presence of histamine in imported marine fish and fish products available in the Serbian market. In January 2014, an incident of foodborne illness occurred in 28 children (aged 2 to 5 years) who consumed canned sardines in a kindergarten in Vojvodina province, northern Serbia. The diagnosis was established based on anamnestic data, epidemiological data, and clinical symptoms and confirmed by positive histamine finding in the incriminated sardines. Substantially high histamine levels (>300 mg/kg) were detected in seven of the nine examined units of these canned sardines. In addition, during an official veterinary border control from January 2013 to January 2015, 273 lots in total, including 2,457 fish and fishery product units, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Even though only nine (3.29%) of all examined lots were declared as unsafe for human consumption, the presented case of histamine intoxication strongly suggests the importance of border inspection and comprehensive control of each imported lot. PMID:26735034

  9. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  10. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  11. Can we do better? Economic analysis of human resource investment to improve home care service for the elderly in Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M

    2016-01-01

    Background Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. Purpose This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. Methods This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. Results The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. Conclusion This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner. PMID:26869778

  12. Modeling the BOD of Danube River in Serbia using spatial, temporal, and input variables optimized artificial neural network models.

    PubMed

    Šiljić Tomić, Aleksandra N; Antanasijević, Davor Z; Ristić, Mirjana Đ; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra A; Pocajt, Viktor V

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the application of artificial neural network models for the prediction of biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels in the Danube River. Eighteen regularly monitored water quality parameters at 17 stations on the river stretch passing through Serbia were used as input variables. The optimization of the model was performed in three consecutive steps: firstly, the spatial influence of a monitoring station was examined; secondly, the monitoring period necessary to reach satisfactory performance was determined; and lastly, correlation analysis was applied to evaluate the relationship among water quality parameters. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) was used to evaluate model performance in the first two steps, whereas in the last step, multiple statistical indicators of performance were utilized. As a result, two optimized models were developed, a general regression neural network model (labeled GRNN-1) that covers the monitoring stations from the Danube inflow to the city of Novi Sad and a GRNN model (labeled GRNN-2) that covers the stations from the city of Novi Sad to the border with Romania. Both models demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and actually observed BOD values.

  13. Testing for viral material in water of public bathing areas of the Danube during summer, Vojvodina, Serbia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jovanović Galović, Aleksandra; Bijelović, Sanja; Milošević, Vesna; Hrnjaković Cvjetkovic, Ivana; Popović, Milka; Kovačević, Gordana; Radovanov, Jelena; Dragić, Nataša; Petrović, Vladimir

    2016-04-14

    From August to September 2014 a water quality study was conducted on five popular public Danube beaches in Vojvodina, Serbia. To assess the safety of Danube water for bathing, physical, chemical, bacteriological tests were performed. While many parameters for monitoring the quality of water are regulated by law, there are neither national nor international legislations addressing the presence of viruses in recreational waters. In this study, we performed analyses that surpassed national requirements, and investigated if adenovirus, enterovirus or rotavirus genetic material was present in samples of recreational water collected for quality monitoring. Of 90 water samples obtained during the study, enterovirus material was not found in any sample, but adenovirus and rotavirus genetic materials were respectively detected in 60 and 31 samples. Statistical analyses showed a significant correlation between adenovirus DNA and total coliforms in the water. Even when water samples were adequate for recreational use, adenoviruses were detected in 75% (57/76) of such samples. Our results indicate that implementation of viral indicators in recreational water might be helpful to better assess public health safety. This might be particularly relevant in areas where urban wastewater treatment is insufficient and surface waters affected by wastewater are used for recreation. PMID:27105473

  14. Moss bag biomonitoring of airborne toxic element decrease on a small scale: A street study in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Škrivanj, Sandra; Milićević, Tijana; Dimitrijević, Dragoljub; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2016-01-15

    A database of potentially hazardous substances, necessary for estimating the exposure of humans to air pollutants, may be deficient because of a limited number of regulatory monitoring stations. This study was inspired by undeniably harmful effects of human long-term exposure to intense traffic emissions in urban area. Moss bag biomonitors were used to characterize spatial variation of airborne toxic elements near crossroads and two- and one-lane streets. The Sphagnum girgensohnii and Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were exposed for 10 weeks to 48 sampling sites across Belgrade (Serbia) during the summer of 2014. In addition, oven-drying pretreatment of the moss bags was tested. During the experimental period, traffic flows were estimated at each site by counting the number of vehicles during the rush hours. The concentrations of 39 elements were determined in the moss samples. There was no significant difference between the results obtained for nontreated and oven-dried moss bags. For the majority of elements, the moss bags identified a common pattern of decrease in the concentration from crossroads to two- and one-lane streets. The exposed moss bags were enriched with Sb, Cu and Cr. The correlation coefficients (r=0.65-0.70) between the moss concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe and Sb and the site-counted traffic flows also confirmed a dependence of the airborne element content on traffic emissions. A strong correlation with traffic flows makes Sb, Cu and Cr reliable traffic tracers. PMID:26520264

  15. Evaluation of key driver categories influencing sustainable waste management development with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP): Serbia example.

    PubMed

    Tot, Bojana; Srđević, Bojan; Vujić, Bogdana; Russo, Mário Augusto Tavares; Vujić, Goran

    2016-08-01

    The problems of waste management have become increasingly complex in recent decades. The increasing amount of generated waste, adopted legislation in the field of waste management, administrative issues, economic impacts and social awareness are important drivers in achieving a sustainable waste management system. However, in practice, there are many other drivers that are often mutually in conflict. The purpose of this research is to define the precise driver and their corresponding sub-drivers, which are relevant for developing a waste management system and, on the basis of their importance, to determine which has the predominant influence on the slow development of a waste management system at the national and regional level, within the Republic of Serbia and similar countries of southeast Europe. This research presents two levels of decision making: the first is a pair-wise comparison of the drivers in relation to the goal and the second is a pair-wise comparison of the sub-drivers in relation to the driver and in relation to the goal. Results of performed analyses on the waste management drivers were integrated via the decision-making process supported by an analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The final results of this research shows that the Institutional-Administrative driver is the most important for developing a sustainable waste management system.

  16. Precipitation composition and wet deposition temporal pattern in Central Serbia for the period from 1998 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Golobocanin, D; Zujić, A; Milenković, A; Miljević, N

    2008-07-01

    Bulk samples collected on a daily basis at three principal meteorological stations in central Serbia were analyzed on chloride (Cl(-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), sulfate (SO(4)(2-)), sodium (Na(+)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) in addition to precipitation amount, pH and conductivity measurements over the period 1998-2004. The data were subjected to variety of analyses (linear regression, principal component analysis, time series analysis) to characterize precipitation chemistry in the study area. The most abundant ion was SO(2-)(4) with annual volume weighted mean concentration of 242 microeq L(-1). Neutralization of precipitation acidity occurs both as a result of the dissolution of alkaline compounds containing Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) as well as the absorption of ammonia. The ratio of SO(4)(2-)/NO(3)(-) was above 5, which indicated that the combustion process of low-grade domestic lignite for electricity generation from coal-fired thermal power plants was the main source of pollution in the investigated area. A considerable mean annual bulk wet deposition of SO(4)-S determined by precipitation amount and concentrations of sulfate in the precipitation was calculated to be 12-35 kg ha(-1).

  17. Fish Product-Borne Histamine Intoxication Outbreak and Survey of Imported Fish and Fish Products in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Jelena; Babić, Jelena; Jaksic, Sandra; Kartalovic, Brankica; Ljubojevic, Dragana; Cirkovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Histamine levels in fish and fish products are regarded as a primary criterion for food safety, considering the effects of histamine on human health. The aim of this research was to describe a case of massive histamine intoxication in Serbian children and to provide relevant information regarding the presence of histamine in imported marine fish and fish products available in the Serbian market. In January 2014, an incident of foodborne illness occurred in 28 children (aged 2 to 5 years) who consumed canned sardines in a kindergarten in Vojvodina province, northern Serbia. The diagnosis was established based on anamnestic data, epidemiological data, and clinical symptoms and confirmed by positive histamine finding in the incriminated sardines. Substantially high histamine levels (>300 mg/kg) were detected in seven of the nine examined units of these canned sardines. In addition, during an official veterinary border control from January 2013 to January 2015, 273 lots in total, including 2,457 fish and fishery product units, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Even though only nine (3.29%) of all examined lots were declared as unsafe for human consumption, the presented case of histamine intoxication strongly suggests the importance of border inspection and comprehensive control of each imported lot.

  18. Metal concentrations in water, sediment and three fish species from the Danube River, Serbia: a cause for environmental concern.

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Jelena; Janjić, Jelena; Baltić, Milan; Milanov, Raša; Bošković, Marija; Marković, Radmila V; Glamočlija, Nataša

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of metal contamination in water, sediments and three different fish species. All samples were taken from the Danube River in Belgrade Region, a location upstream from Grocka. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and Pb in water samples were not detected, while concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu and As were in the range of 0.004-0.41 mg L(-1). Iron was the most deposited metal in sediment samples (17,530.00 mg kg(-1)). For the purpose of heavy metal determination in fish tissue, silver carp, common carp and wels catfish were collected. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and As were determined in muscle, digestive tract and liver by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometry (IPC-OES). The highest concentration of Pb was in the digestive tract of all three fish species, while Cd was mostly deposited in the liver. The highest concentration of Hg was in the muscle tissue of wels catfish, and these values are above the maximum residual levels prescribed by the European Union and the maximum allowed concentrations (MACs) for Serbia. Concentration of As was mostly deposited in the liver, but under the MAC.

  19. Single and combined effects of air pollutants on circulatory and respiratory system-related mortality in Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stojić, Svetlana Stanišić; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja; Šoštarić, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and soot and mortality attributed to circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade area (Serbia). The analyzed data set comprised results of regular pollutant monitoring and corresponding administrative records on frequency of daily mortality in the period 2009-2014. Nonlinear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects of temperature were examined by means of distributed lag nonlinear models. The air pollutant loadings and circulatory system-related death rates in Belgrade area are among the highest in Europe. Data demonstrated that excess risk of death with short-term exposure to elevated concentrations of PM10, SO2, and soot was not significant, whereas marked effect size estimates for exposure over 90 d preceding mortality were found. The influence of chronic exposure was shown to be greater for respiratory than circulatory system-related mortality. When stratified by age and gender, higher risk was noted for male individuals below the age of 65 years.

  20. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  1. Canine Blastomycosis in Southern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Harasen, Greg L.G.; Randall, James W.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of canine blastomycosis in southern Saskatchewan is examined and three clinical cases are described. Nineteen cases of the disease have been diagnosed in southern Saskatchewan since April of 1981. Eight cases were diagnosed during a six month period from August 1985 to February 1986 in dogs residing in a small central area of Regina. The geographical and chronological clustering of cases suggests a local source of exposure to Blastomyces dermatitidis, not previously considered to be endemic to Saskatchewan. PMID:17422705

  2. The Southern Ocean silica cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tréguer, Paul J.

    2014-11-01

    The Southern Ocean is a major opal sink and plays a key role in the silica cycle of the world ocean. So far however, a complete cycle of silicon in the Southern Ocean has not been published. On one hand, Southern Ocean surface waters receive considerable amounts of silicic acid (dissolved silica, DSi) from the rest of the world ocean through the upwelling of the Circumpolar Deep Water, fed by contributions of deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans. On the other hand, the Southern Ocean exports a considerable flux of the silicic acid that is not used by diatoms in surface waters through the northward pathways of the Sub-Antarctic Mode Water, of the Antarctic Intermediate Water, and of the Antarctic Bottom Water. Thus the Southern Ocean is a source of DSi for the rest of the world ocean. Here we show that the Southern Ocean is a net importer of DSi: because there is no significant external input of DSi, the flux of DSi imported through the Circumpolar Deep Water pathway compensates the sink flux of biogenic silica in sediments.

  3. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  4. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  5. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  6. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  7. 27 CFR 9.179 - Southern Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Southern Oregon. 9.179... Southern Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Southern Oregon”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Southern...

  8. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  9. Bonner Durchmusterung (Southern Durchmusterung)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Southern Durchmusterung (SD, Schoenfeld 1886, Becker 1949, Schmidt 1967) is a visual survey of stars in the declination zones -02 to -23 deg, completed as an extension to Argelander's (1859-62) monumental Bonner Durchmusterung (BD). Schoenfeld's survey was carried out using the same methods as had been used for the BD. The procedure consisted of allowing the telescope to drift along the mean declination of each zone and recording the positions and magnitudes of stars crossing the transit line of each field. The goal of the survey was to extend the BD to declination -23 deg (a plan originally adopted by Argelander) with approximately the same magnitude limits, although the primary instrument was of larger aperture (159 mm) than the 78-mm telescope used for the BD. Thus, whereas the BD magnitude estimates extend to 9.4 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 9.5, the SD magnitude estimates extend to 9.9 mag with all fainter stars assigned a magnitude of 10. The SD contains a number of stars fainter than 10.0 mag and even some as faint as 11 mag. Lists of all corrections made to the original data as a result of published corrigenda, stars deleted according to overstriking in the printed catalogs or their inclusion in lists of 'missing' stars, and stars inserted in later editions are given. No other corrections or changes have been incorporated into the original data, e.g., from more modern positions and magnitudes or from comparison with other catalogs.

  10. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  11. Association of the consumption of common food groups and beverages with mortality from cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus in Serbia, 1991–2010: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena; Stojanovic, Goran; Zivanovic-Macuzic, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This paper reports association between mortality rates from cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus and the consumption of common food groups and beverages in Serbia. Design In this ecological study, data on both mortality and the average annual consumption of common food groups and beverages per household's member were obtained from official data-collection sources. The multivariate linear regression analysis was used to determine the strength of the associations between consumption of common food groups and beverages and mortality rates. Results Markedly increasing trends of cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus mortality rates were observed in Serbia in the period 1991–2010. Mortality rates from cancer were negatively associated with consumption of vegetable oil (p=0.005) and grains (p=0.001), and same was found for ischaemic heart disease (p=0.002 and 0.021, respectively), while consumption of other dairy products showed a significant positive association (p<0.001 and p=0.032, respectively). In men and women, mortality rates from diabetes mellitus showed a significant positive association with consumption of poultry (p=0.014 and 0.004, respectively). Consumption of beef and grains showed a significant negative association with cancer mortality rates in both genders (p=0.002 and p<0.001 in men, and p<0.001 and p=0.014 in women, respectively), while consumption of cheese was negatively associated only in men (p<0.001). Mortality from diabetes mellitus showed a significant positive association with consumption of animal fat and other dairy products only in women (p=0.003 and 0.046, respectively). Conclusions Association between unfavourable mortality trends from cancer, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes mellitus, and common food groups and beverages consumption was observed and should be assessed in future analytical epidemiological studies. Promotion of healthy diet is sorely needed in Serbia. PMID:26733565

  12. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia. PMID:27568660

  13. Recurrent pyelonephritis due to NDM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient returning from Serbia, France, 2012.

    PubMed

    Flateau, C; Janvier, F; Delacour, H; Males, S; Ficko, C; Andriamanantena, D; Jeannot, K; Merens, A; Rapp, C

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first isolation in France of a New-Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In March 2012, a patient with history of prior hospitalisation in Serbia was diagnosed in France with acute pyelonephritis due to NDM-1 producing P. aeruginosa. Clinical and microbiological cure was obtained under appropriate antibiotic treatment. Two months later, she presented with a recurrence due to the same bacteria, with a favourable evolution. During both hospitalisations, contact isolation precautions were implemented and no cross-transmission was observed.

  14. The significant increase in incidence of Graves' disease in eastern Serbia during the civil war in the former Yugoslavia (1992 to 1995).

    PubMed

    Paunkovic, N; Paunkovic, J; Pavlovic, O; Paunovic, Z

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of Graves' disease for the last 25 years in eastern Serbia (Yugoslavia), Timok Region is reported. Registration of all Graves' disease patients was conducted in the Endocrinology-Thyroid Unit of Nuclear Medicine Service, Medical Center Zajecar. Timok Region has a population of 315,000 people in seven counties. From 1971 to 1980 an average of 16 new patients per year were registered; from 1981 to 1990 an average of 33 patients per year were registered; in 1995 the number reached 100, and in 1996 there were 148 newly registered patients. Some of the possible factors influencing this significant annual increase of autoimmune hyperthyroidism are discussed.

  15. Assessing the morphological characteristics and formation time of the Deliblato Sands, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, György; Markovic, Slobodan; Tóth, Orsolya; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Balla, Alexia; Kiss, Tímea; Urdea, Petru; Meszaros, Minucer

    2016-04-01

    The Deliblato Sands is among the largest uniform fixed sand dune areas of Europe, with a highly distinct morphology from its loess covered surroundings. Moreover, its dune forms, concerning their horizontal extension and relative height, are outstanding in the Pannonian Basin and reflect intensive Aeolian processes in the past. As such, the Deliblato Sands is considered to be a sensitive landscape, and therefore it can provide important information for understanding the morphological development of the Southern Banat Region. So far there has been a limited data concerning the morphological parameters of dune forms in the area and previous research, in the lack of numerical age data, hypothesised various timing in terms of major aeolian phases. Consequently, the aim of the present research is to determine the morphological units of Deliblato Sands by analysing the spatial distribution of different dune forms and their horizontal morphological parameters, and to provide the first ages for the identified dune associations. Morphological mapping was made by using topographical and military maps and satellite images. The dominant direction of dune ridges was also compared to the present day prevailing wind direction. Ages were determined by OSL from four drill cores made on dunes representing major dune types. To assess the suitability of Deliblato sediments for luminescence dating several tests have been performed. Based on the first results, in general a longitudinal and a transversal parabolic dune association have been identified in the area, the later being morphologically superimposed on the previous one. Longitudinal forms fit well to the present day prevailing SE wind, Kosava, however transversal forms assume a slightly different direction during their formation. The ages received for longitudinal dunes are older than previous authors suggested and place the development of these forms to the Boreal and Preboreal. Meanwhile the transversal dune association is

  16. Predictors of Patients’ Satisfaction with Health Care Services in Three Balkan Countries (Macedonia, Bulgaria and Serbia): a Cross Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevik, Vladimir; Kasapinov, Blasko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ satisfaction with provided healthcare services is one of the factors to measure the overall quality of the delivered health care. Main objective of our study was to determine the common predictors associated with patients ‘satisfaction in three Balkan countries. Methods: We conducted web based survey among population in Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria using paid campaign over the social network Facebook. A questionnaire consisted of 31 questions was developed following studies on patients’ satisfaction conducted elsewhere. Descriptive analysis was performed to assess the predictors associated with patients’ satisfaction. In addition we performed content analysis to all open-ended responses. Results and discussion: In total 4118 respondents participated in the survey. Main predictors associated with low users satisfaction with the health care services in three surveyed countries are waiting time to appointments, huge administrative procedures, and attitudes of the medical personnel towards the patients. The analysis showed that there are many similarities in user experiences in three countries, but also there are some differences. Conclusions: The health care systems in these three counties are organized around centralized and monopolistic position of one health insurance fund that serves as main purchaser of health care services. Top three indicators of patients’ satisfaction across three countries are trust and overall satisfaction with the attention of the doctors, as well as satisfaction with the outcome of the treatment. Long waiting time and huge administrative procedures are determined as common predictor for lower patients’ satisfaction across these Balkan countries. Patients’ privacy protection is issue for concern in all three countries. PMID:25870493

  17. Change of soil carbon fluxes in European beech forest under different climate and management scenarios: an example from Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanović, Dejan; Orlović, Saša; Matović, Bratislav; Suckow, Felicitas; Lasch-Born, Petra; Galić, Zoran; Reyer, Christopher; Gutsch, Martin; Pekeč, Saša

    2013-04-01

    Soil texture and structure, rainfall, temperature conditions and forest management determine the rate of soil carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems. European beech is one of most important and most abundant tree species in Europe. Forest management strategy influences aboveground biomass as well as belowground biomass and soil organic and inorganic carbon. This study explores how different management strategies (i.e. thinning from above intensities with 10%, 20% and 30% removal of trees every ten years) under three different time periods 1971-2000, 2011-2040 and 2051-2080 of the IPCC SRES A2 climate change scenario, influence total soil carbon stock in a beech stand in eastern Serbia. For the simulations, the process-based tree growth model 4C was used. At the beginning of the simulations, the total soil carbon stock was about 85 tC/ha. The most intensive management strategy appears to provide highest carbon fluxes into the soil and the highest total carbon stock values (between 160 and 180 tC/ha) at the end of the simulation periods. All management strategies under the climate of the period 2051-2080 showed the lowest values (about 160 tC/ha). We analyse the interrelationships between management caused changes in litter fluxes and climate (mainly temperature) caused losses of carbon from soil by respiration. In some cases different thinning intensities showed similar fluxes for the same time periods, whereas both climate scenario periods showed quite similar influence for the same management scenarios. The influence of different management strategies on the final total soil carbon stock will be shown.

  18. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus) in the Belgrade area (Serbia): the effect of sex, age and habitat*

    PubMed Central

    Kataranovski, M.; Mirkov, I.; Belij, S.; Popov, A.; Petrović, Z.; Gačić, Z.; Kataranovski, D.

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control). Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris) and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna). The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%). Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host. PMID:21678796

  19. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and

  20. Relation between edaphic factors and vegetation development on copper mine wastes: a case study from Bor (Serbia, SE Europe).

    PubMed

    Ranđelović, Dragana; Cvetković, Vladica; Mihailović, Nevena; Jovanović, Slobodan

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between edaphic characteristics and vegetation growing on mine wastes in the Bor region (East Serbia, SE Europe) was studied using multivariate statistical analysis. The influence of edaphic factors on the composition of plant life-forms was also investigated, since it could reflect strategies for the avoidance of or tolerance to disturbances of ecosystems. The goal was to provide potential models for the restoration and management of this and similar mine waste areas. The results of this study imply that soil textures, nitrogen contents, reclamation technology and the presence of hydrothermally altered andesite as the type of bedrock significantly influenced plant colonization and vegetation composition of the Bor mine wastes. These edaphic factors explained 30.3 % of the total variation in the vegetation data set. It was also revealed that the pattern of plant life-forms found on the considered site groups corresponded to the soil texture. Based on their relative abundance on the investigated sites and relationships with soil properties it is concluded that therophytes and geophytes are unsuccessful primary colonizers of the Bor mine wastes. Hemicryptophytes of psammophytic character were the most successful primary colonizers and therefore potential candidates for anthropogenically-assisted natural recovery. This study suggested that an assessment of edaphic factors should be widely used in the characterization of mine wastes prior to reclamation. Estimation of their role in the development of existing mine vegetation should predate reclamation procedures. Thus, approaches based on adequate plant life-forms should have a more prominent role in future mine reclamation schemes.

  1. GIS and the analytic hierarchy process for regional landfill site selection in transitional countries: a case study from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land. PMID:22134738

  2. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  3. Severe combined immunodeficiency in Serbia and Montenegro between years 1986 and 2010: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Pasic, Srdjan; Vujic, Dragana; Veljković, Dobrila; Slavkovic, Bojana; Mostarica-Stojkovic, Marija; Minic, Predrag; Minic, Aleksandra; Ristic, Goran; Giliani, Silvia; Villa, Anna; Sobacchi, Cristina; Lilić, Desa; Abinun, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), including the 'variant' Omenn syndrome (OS), represent a heterogeneous group of monogenic disorders characterized by defect in differentiation of T- and/or B lymphocytes and susceptibility to infections since birth. In the period of 25 years, between January 1986 and December 2010, a total of 21 patients (15 SCID, 6 OS) were diagnosed in Mother & Child Health Institute of Serbia, a tertiary-care teaching University hospital and a national referral center for patients affected with primary immunodeficiency (PID). The diagnoses were based on anamnestic data, clinical findings, and immunological and genetic analysis. The median age at the onset of the first infection was the 2nd month of life. Seven (33 %) patients had positive family history for SCID. Out of five male infants with T-B+NK- SCID phenotype, mutation analysis revealed interleukin-2 (common) gamma-chain receptor (IL2RG) mutations in 3 with positive X-linked family history, and Janus-kinase (JAK)-3 gene defects in the other two. Six patients had T-B-NK+ SCID phenotype and further 6 features of OS, 11 of which had recombinase-activating gene (RAG1or RAG2) and 1 Artemis gene mutations. One child with T+B+NK+ SCID phenotype as well had proven RAG mutation. One child each with T-B+NK+ SCID phenotype, CD8 lymphopenia and unknown phenotype remained without known underlying genetic defect. Of the eight patients who underwent hematopoetic stem cell transplant (HSCT) 5 survived, the other 13 died between 2 days and 12 months after diagnosis was made. Early diagnosis of SCID, before onset of severe infections, offers possibility for HSCT and cure. Education of primary-care pediatricians, in particular including awareness of the risk of using live vaccines and non-irradiated blood products, should improve prognosis of SCID in our setting.

  4. Relation between edaphic factors and vegetation development on copper mine wastes: a case study from Bor (Serbia, SE Europe).

    PubMed

    Ranđelović, Dragana; Cvetković, Vladica; Mihailović, Nevena; Jovanović, Slobodan

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between edaphic characteristics and vegetation growing on mine wastes in the Bor region (East Serbia, SE Europe) was studied using multivariate statistical analysis. The influence of edaphic factors on the composition of plant life-forms was also investigated, since it could reflect strategies for the avoidance of or tolerance to disturbances of ecosystems. The goal was to provide potential models for the restoration and management of this and similar mine waste areas. The results of this study imply that soil textures, nitrogen contents, reclamation technology and the presence of hydrothermally altered andesite as the type of bedrock significantly influenced plant colonization and vegetation composition of the Bor mine wastes. These edaphic factors explained 30.3 % of the total variation in the vegetation data set. It was also revealed that the pattern of plant life-forms found on the considered site groups corresponded to the soil texture. Based on their relative abundance on the investigated sites and relationships with soil properties it is concluded that therophytes and geophytes are unsuccessful primary colonizers of the Bor mine wastes. Hemicryptophytes of psammophytic character were the most successful primary colonizers and therefore potential candidates for anthropogenically-assisted natural recovery. This study suggested that an assessment of edaphic factors should be widely used in the characterization of mine wastes prior to reclamation. Estimation of their role in the development of existing mine vegetation should predate reclamation procedures. Thus, approaches based on adequate plant life-forms should have a more prominent role in future mine reclamation schemes. PMID:24488039

  5. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Marković, Mirjana; Cupać, Svjetlana; Durović, Rada; Milinović, Jelena; Kljajić, Petar

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in

  6. Bioaccumulation of HMW PAHs in the roots of wild blackberry from the Bor region (Serbia): Phytoremediation and biomonitoring aspects.

    PubMed

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Jovanović, Vesna P Stankov; Mitić, Violeta D; Cvetković, Jelena S; Petrović, Goran M; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the samples of roots and soils from the rooting zone of wild blackberry were collected from the urban-industrial and rural locations near "The Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor" (Serbia); they were analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method to determine the content of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs). The obtained results were further processed using bio-concentration factor, Pearson's correlation study and hierarchical cluster analysis with the aim of investigating if they may be in favor of wild blackberry as a suitable plant for biomonitoring or phytoremediation purposes. In spite of the fact that numerous complex factors can affect the assimilation and accumulation of PAHs in plants, the obtained data expressed clearly many interesting specifics related to HMW PAH accumulation in roots of wild blackberry that naturally grows in an area, which is heavily polluted by heavy metals. The accumulation of individual PAH compounds in plant roots was at different level. The most abundant compound in all plant samples was benzo[a]pyrene and based on the results obtained for this environmental indicator of carcinogenic PAHs, it was possible to make several central conclusions: wild blackberry showed an excellent potential for its extraction from the soil and further accumulation in root tissues which indicate that this plant species may be applied in phytoremediation procedures based on mechanisms such as phytoextraction/phytoaccumulation in roots; phytostabilization and rhizodegradation are also possible as remediation mechanisms; utilization of plant roots in soil monitoring is possible but in this case, only the combination with soil data can provide correct information. PMID:27110970

  7. Overview of the winter wave of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v in Vojvodina, Serbia

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, Vladimir; Šeguljev, Zorica; Ćosić, Gorana; Ristić, Mioljub; Nedeljković, Jasminka; Dragnić, Nataša; Ukropina, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To analyze the epidemiological data for pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, during the season of 2009/2010 and to assess whether including severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization data to the surveillance system gives a more complete picture of the impact of influenza during the pandemic. Methods From September 2009 to September 2010, the Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina conducted sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illnesses and acute respiratory infections in all hospitalized patients with SARI and virological surveillance of population of Vojvodina according to the European Centers for Disease Control technical document. Results The pandemic influenza outbreak in the province started in October 2009 (week 44) in students who had returned from a school-organized trip to Prague, Bratislava, and Vienna. The highest incidence rate was 1090 per 100 000 inhabitants, found in the week 50. The most affected age group were children 5-14 years old. A total of 1591 patients with severe illness were admitted to regional hospitals, with a case fatality rate of 2%, representing a hospitalization rate of 78.3 per 100 000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 1.6 per 100 000. Most frequently hospitalized were 15-19 years old patients, male patients, and patients with pneumonia (P < 0.001). The highest case fatality rate was found among patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (P < 0.001). Nasal/throat swabs were obtained for polymerase chain reaction test from 315 hospitalized patients and 20 non-hospitalized patients, and 145 (46%) and 15 (75%) specimens, respectively, tested positive on A(H1N1)v. Conclusion Sentinel influenza-like illness and SARI surveillance, both followed with virological surveillance, seem to be the optimal method to monitor the full scope of the influenza pandemic (from mild to severe influenza) in Vojvodina. PMID:21495196

  8. Relation Between Edaphic Factors and Vegetation Development on Copper Mine Wastes: A Case Study From Bor (Serbia, SE Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranđelović, Dragana; Cvetković, Vladica; Mihailović, Nevena; Jovanović, Slobodan

    2014-04-01

    The relationship between edaphic characteristics and vegetation growing on mine wastes in the Bor region (East Serbia, SE Europe) was studied using multivariate statistical analysis. The influence of edaphic factors on the composition of plant life-forms was also investigated, since it could reflect strategies for the avoidance of or tolerance to disturbances of ecosystems. The goal was to provide potential models for the restoration and management of this and similar mine waste areas. The results of this study imply that soil textures, nitrogen contents, reclamation technology and the presence of hydrothermally altered andesite as the type of bedrock significantly influenced plant colonization and vegetation composition of the Bor mine wastes. These edaphic factors explained 30.3 % of the total variation in the vegetation data set. It was also revealed that the pattern of plant life-forms found on the considered site groups corresponded to the soil texture. Based on their relative abundance on the investigated sites and relationships with soil properties it is concluded that therophytes and geophytes are unsuccessful primary colonizers of the Bor mine wastes. Hemicryptophytes of psammophytic character were the most successful primary colonizers and therefore potential candidates for anthropogenically-assisted natural recovery. This study suggested that an assessment of edaphic factors should be widely used in the characterization of mine wastes prior to reclamation. Estimation of their role in the development of existing mine vegetation should predate reclamation procedures. Thus, approaches based on adequate plant life-forms should have a more prominent role in future mine reclamation schemes.

  9. Tropical sprue in southern India.

    PubMed

    Mathan, V I

    1988-01-01

    Tropical sprue, a primary malabsorption syndrome affecting residents and visitors to several tropical regions, occurs in southern India in endemic and epidemic forms. The stomach, the small intestine and colon are affected and malabsorption results in nutrient deficiency. Enterocyte damage, the primary lesion in southern Indian tropical sprue, is the result of a persistent lesion of the stem cell compartment. This lesion occurs on a background of tropical enteropathy and the available evidence suggests that an immunity conferring agent may be responsible for initiating the damage.

  10. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciTech Connect

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern

  11. Southern states` routing agency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states` routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  12. Southern States` Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States` Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states` routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  13. Southern states' routing agency report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The Southern states' routing agency report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing programs relative to the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source ad scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  14. Southern States' Routing Agency Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Southern States' Routing Agency Report is a compendium of 16-southern states' routing program for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed.

  15. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  16. Using (137)Cs measurements to estimate soil erosion rates in the Pčinja and South Morava River Basins, southeastern Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jelena; Dragović, Snežana; Dragović, Ranko; Đorđević, Milan; Đokić, Mrđan; Zlatković, Bojan; Walling, Desmond

    2016-07-01

    The need for reliable assessments of soil erosion rates in Serbia has directed attention to the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to derive estimates of soil redistribution rates. Since, to date, this approach has not been applied in southeastern Serbia, a reconnaissance study was undertaken to confirm its viability. The need to take account of the occurrence of substantial Chernobyl fallout was seen as a potential problem. Samples for (137)Cs measurement were collected from a zone of uncultivated soils in the watersheds of Pčinja and South Morava Rivers, an area with known high soil erosion rates. Two theoretical conversion models, the profile distribution (PD) model and diffusion and migration (D&M) model were used to derive estimates of soil erosion and deposition rates from the (137)Cs measurements. The estimates of soil redistribution rates derived by using the PD and D&M models were found to differ substantially and this difference was ascribed to the assumptions of the simpler PD model that cause it to overestimate rates of soil loss. The results provided by the D&M model were judged to more reliable.

  17. Comparison of average global exposure of population induced by a macro 3G network in different geographical areas in France and Serbia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Varsier, Nadège; Niksic, Stevan; Kocan, Enis; Pejanovic-Djurisic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Milinkovic, Jelena; Gati, Azeddine; Person, Christian; Wiart, Joe

    2016-09-01

    This article is the first thorough study of average population exposure to third generation network (3G)-induced electromagnetic fields (EMFs), from both uplink and downlink radio emissions in different countries, geographical areas, and for different wireless device usages. Indeed, previous publications in the framework of exposure to EMFs generally focused on individual exposure coming from either personal devices or base stations. Results, derived from device usage statistics collected in France and Serbia, show a strong heterogeneity of exposure, both in time, that is, the traffic distribution over 24 h was found highly variable, and space, that is, the exposure to 3G networks in France was found to be roughly two times higher than in Serbia. Such heterogeneity is further explained based on real data and network architecture. Among those results, authors show that, contrary to popular belief, exposure to 3G EMFs is dominated by uplink radio emissions, resulting from voice and data traffic, and average population EMF exposure differs from one geographical area to another, as well as from one country to another, due to the different cellular network architectures and variability of mobile usage. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:382-390, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27385053

  18. Using (137)Cs measurements to estimate soil erosion rates in the Pčinja and South Morava River Basins, southeastern Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jelena; Dragović, Snežana; Dragović, Ranko; Đorđević, Milan; Đokić, Mrđan; Zlatković, Bojan; Walling, Desmond

    2016-07-01

    The need for reliable assessments of soil erosion rates in Serbia has directed attention to the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to derive estimates of soil redistribution rates. Since, to date, this approach has not been applied in southeastern Serbia, a reconnaissance study was undertaken to confirm its viability. The need to take account of the occurrence of substantial Chernobyl fallout was seen as a potential problem. Samples for (137)Cs measurement were collected from a zone of uncultivated soils in the watersheds of Pčinja and South Morava Rivers, an area with known high soil erosion rates. Two theoretical conversion models, the profile distribution (PD) model and diffusion and migration (D&M) model were used to derive estimates of soil erosion and deposition rates from the (137)Cs measurements. The estimates of soil redistribution rates derived by using the PD and D&M models were found to differ substantially and this difference was ascribed to the assumptions of the simpler PD model that cause it to overestimate rates of soil loss. The results provided by the D&M model were judged to more reliable. PMID:27077326

  19. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

  20. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, I.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2006-06-01

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO2 and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO2 balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO2 and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  1. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    PubMed

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  2. The Southern California Dense GPS Geodetic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center is coordinating a effort by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the U.S. Geological Survey, and various academic institutions to establish a dense 250 station, continuously recording GPS geodetic array in southern California for measuring crustal deformation associated with slip on the numerous faults that underlie the major metropolitan areas of southern california.

  3. Behavior of zinc, nickel, copper and cadmium during the electrokinetic remediation of sediment from the Great Backa Canal (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Rajic, Ljiljana M; Dalmacija, Bozo D; Trickovic, Jelena S; Dalmacija, Milena B; Krcmar, Dejan M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a bench-scale study dealing with the removal of heavy metals by electrokinetic (EK) remediation from sediment of the Great Backa Canal (Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia), with an emphasis on the dependence of removal efficacies on the physicochemical states of the heavy metals and sediment chemistry. Sediment samples were spiked with the following heavy metals (mg kg(-1)): Zn 4400, Ni 900, Cu 1140 and Cd 57. In addition to determining the pseudo-total metal content in the contaminated sediment before and after EK treatment, BCR sequential extraction was also performed to examine the distribution of the contaminants in the sediment. Conventional EK remediation (EXP I) was ineffective in removing the heavy metals investigated, so two enhanced processes were developed. In both these processes, the mass of treated sediment was reduced to avoid the presence of inactive electric field areas in the sediment and increase current density. The first enhanced experiment (EXP II) used acetic acid (HAc) solution (pH 2.9) as an anolyte. Combined with the smaller sediment mass, this resulted in an increase in overall removal efficacies (9% for Zn, 15% for Ni, 10% for Cu and 15% for Cd). The second enhanced experiment (EXP III), as well as using HAc solution as an anolyte, made use of a cation exchange membrane in the cathodic chamber to minimize pH changes in the region adjacent to the cathode, which negatively influenced the removal of some heavy metals. However, no improvement in removal efficacy was achieved in EXP III. Since the redox potential of the sediment drops during the EK process, metals removal is limited by the formation of their sulfides. In conclusion, the removal of heavy metals by EK remediation is governed by a complex interplay of the complexation, precipitation and reduction processes, and the difficulties encountered in their optimization can explain the unsatisfactory effectiveness achieved by the described remediation procedure. Improved

  4. Mutation detection by Southern blotting.

    PubMed

    Mellars, Gillian; Gomez, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Following the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953, it became clear that scientists needed to be able to distinguish different DNA sequences. In 1975, Edward Southern published details of a new method for detecting DNA fragments based upon their specific sequence [corrected]. An indication of the importance of his work is that the technique was eponymously named after him and that subsequent methods based loosely on similar principles were named using a play on his surname (western and northern blot). The simplicity and effectiveness of the technique led to its universal acceptance as a standard method for identification of DNA sequences. In the modern laboratory where turn-around times assume ever greater importance, the process can seem relatively time-consuming. In some cases, this has led to its replacement by more rapid techniques such as long-range PCR. Nevertheless, more than 30 years after its invention, the Southern blot remains a cornerstone of molecular biology. PMID:20938846

  5. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  6. Astrometry of southern radio sources.

    PubMed

    White, G L; Jauncey, D L; Harvey, B R; Savage, A; Gulkis, S; Preston, R A; Peterson, B A; Reynolds, J E; Nicolson, G D; Malin, D F

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of a number of astrometry and astrophysics programs based on radio sources from the Parkes 2.7 GHz catalogues. The programs cover the optical identification and spectroscopy of flat-spectrum Parkes sources and the determination of their milliarc-second radio structures and positions. Work is also in progress to tie together the radio and Hipparcos positional reference frames. A parallel program of radio and optical astrometry of southern radio stars is also under way.

  7. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  8. Pulmonary hydatidosis from Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Claudia Irene; Arias, Liliana Eugenia; Puzzio, Carla Pia; Gatta, Claudia Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus. Even though different measures are taken including the use of a vaccine in livestock to stop transmission, the continuous diagnoses of cases, mainly of liver and pulmonary hydatidosis, show the failure of the control programs for hydatidosis in our country. A clinical case of pulmonary hydatidosis in a patient from a rural endemic area in Southern Argentina is described. PMID:26629454

  9. Dusty Skies over Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Southern California's 'Santa Anas' are dry, north-easterly winds having speeds in excess of 25 knots (46 kilometers/hour). Santa Ana conditions are commonly associated with gusts of more than twice this level. These offshore winds usually occur in late fall and winter when a high pressure system forms in the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevadas and the Rocky Mountains. The air warms as it flows downslope from the high plateau, and its speed increases dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern California's uneven terrain, the strength of the winds varies greatly from place to place, and the Santa Anas can be sufficiently strong to pick up surface dust.

    This view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer shows the pattern of airborne dust stirred up by Santa Ana winds on February 9, 2002. The image is from MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera, and airborne particulates are especially visible due to the camera's oblique viewing angle. Southeast of the Los Angeles Basin, a swirl of dust, probably blown through the Banning Pass, curves toward the ocean near Dana Point. The largest dust cloud occurs near Ensenada, in Baja California, Mexico. Also visible in this image is a blue-gray smoke plume from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern California.

    This image was acquired during Terra orbit 11423, and represents an area of about 410 kilometers x 511 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. Seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavayssiere, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.; Bull, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global seismic networks document frequent and unusually deep earthquakes in East African rift sectors lacking central volcanoes. The deep seismicity means that we can use earthquakes to probe the geometry and kinematics of fault systems throughout the crust, and to understand the distribution of strain between large offset border fault systems and intrabasinal faults. The southern Tanganyika rift zone has the highest seismicity rate within East Africa during the period 1973-present, yet earlier temporary seismometer networks have been too sparse in space and time to relocate earthquakes with location and depth errors of < 5-10 km. We address this issue by recording seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika since June 2014 using a network at 12 broadband seismic stations. The distribution of earthquakes shows that deformation primarily occurs on large offset border faults beneath the lake. Subsidiary earthquake activity occurs along the subparrallel Rukwa graben, and beneath the NE-SW striking Mweru rift. The distribution of earthquakes suggests the southern end of lake Tanganyika is characterized by a network of intersecting NNW and NE striking faults. The depths of earthquakes are distributed throughout the crust, consistent with the relatively strong lithosphere.

  11. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  12. ICOM2012: 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (Belgrade, Serbia, 2-6 September 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dramićanin, Miroslav D.; Antić, Željka; Viana, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The 3rd International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices (ICOM2012) was held in Belgrade (Serbia) from 2 to 6 September 2012 (figure 1). The conference was organized by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia) and the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (France), and supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia and Optical Society of America. ICOM2012 was a follow-up to the two previous, successful ICOM conferences held in Herceg Novi in 2006 and 2009. The conference aimed at providing a forum for scientists in optical materials to debate on: • Luminescent materials and nanomaterials • Hybrid optical materials (organic/inorganic) • Characterization techniques of optical materials • Luminescence mechanisms and energy transfers • Theory and modeling of optical processes • Ultrafast-laser processing of materials • Optical sensors • Medical imaging • Advanced optical materials in photovoltaics and biophotonics • Photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy and phenomena The conference stressed the value of a fundamental scientific understanding of optical materials. A particular accent was put on wide band-gap materials in crystalline, glass and nanocrystalline forms. The applications mainly involved lasers, scintillators and phosphors. Rare earth and transition metal ions introduced as dopants in various hosts were considered, and their impact on the optical properties were detailed in several presentations. This volume contains selected contributions of speakers and participants of the ICOM2012 conference. The conference provided a unique opportunity for about 200 scientists from 32 countries to discuss recent progress in the field of optical materials. During the three and half days, 21 invited talks and 52 contributed lectures were given, with a special event in memory of our dear colleague Professor Dr Tsoltan

  13. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  14. Southern rim of Pacific Ocean basin: southern Andes to southern Alps

    SciTech Connect

    Dalziel, I.W.D.; Garrett, S.W.; Grunow, A.M.; Pankhurst, R.J.; Storey, B.C.; Vennum, W.R.

    1986-07-01

    Between the southern Andes of Tierra del Fuego and the southern Alps of New Zealand lies the least accessible and geologically least explored part of the Pacific Ocean basin. A joint United Kingdom-United States project was initiated in 1983 to elucidate the geologic history and structure of the Pacific margin of Antarctica from the Antarctic Peninsula to Pine Island Bay at approximately lone. 105/sup 0/W. The first season (1983-1984) of this West Antarctic Tectonics Project was spent in the Ellsworth-Whitmore crustal block, and the second (1984-1985) in the Thurston Island crustal block. The project involves structural and general field geology, petrology, geochemistry, paleomagnetism, and airborne geophysics (magnetics and radar ice echo sounding). A final geologic season will be spent in the Pensacola Mountains of the Transantarctic Range in 1987-1988.

  15. New Radiometric Ages for the BH-1 Hominin from Balanica (Serbia): Implications for Understanding the Role of the Balkans in Middle Pleistocene Human Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rink, William J.; Mercier, Norbert; Mihailović, Dušan; Morley, Mike W.; Thompson, Jeroen W.; Roksandic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Newly obtained ages, based on electron spin resonance combined with uranium series isotopic analysis, and infrared/post-infrared luminescence dating, provide a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka for the hominin mandible BH-1 from Mala Balanica cave, Serbia. This confirms it as the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Inferences drawn from the morphology of the mandible BH-1 place it outside currently observed variation of European Homo heidelbergensis. The lack of derived Neandertal traits in BH-1 and its contemporary specimens in Southeast Europe, such as Kocabaş, Vasogliano and Ceprano, coupled with Middle Pleistocene synapomorphies, suggests different evolutionary forces acting in the east of the continent where isolation did not play such an important role during glaciations. PMID:23405085

  16. Genetic variability, differentiation, and founder effect in golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Serbia as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Zachos, Frank E; Cirovic, Dusko; Kirschning, Julia; Otto, Marthe; Hartl, Günther B; Petersen, Britt; Honnen, Ann-Christin

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed 121 golden jackals (Canis aureus) from six sample sites in Serbia with regard to genetic variability and differentiation as revealed by mitochondrial control region sequences and eight nuclear microsatellite loci. There was no variation at all in the mtDNA sequences, and nuclear variability was very low (average observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.29 and 0.34, respectively). This is in line with the considerable recent range expansion of this species in the Balkans and indicates a strong founder effect in the recently established Serbian population. We did not find evidence of differentiation between the northeastern jackals and those from the plain of Srem or those in between. F-statistics and Bayesian Structure analyses, however, were indicative of a low degree of overall differentiation in the Serbian population. A vagrant Austrian jackal that was also analyzed was genetically indistinguishable from its Serbian conspecifics. PMID:19169806

  17. New radiometric ages for the BH-1 hominin from Balanica (Serbia): implications for understanding the role of the Balkans in Middle Pleistocene human evolution.

    PubMed

    Rink, William J; Mercier, Norbert; Mihailović, Dušan; Morley, Mike W; Thompson, Jeroen W; Roksandic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Newly obtained ages, based on electron spin resonance combined with uranium series isotopic analysis, and infrared/post-infrared luminescence dating, provide a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka for the hominin mandible BH-1 from Mala Balanica cave, Serbia. This confirms it as the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Inferences drawn from the morphology of the mandible BH-1 place it outside currently observed variation of European Homo heidelbergensis. The lack of derived Neandertal traits in BH-1 and its contemporary specimens in Southeast Europe, such as Kocabaş, Vasogliano and Ceprano, coupled with Middle Pleistocene synapomorphies, suggests different evolutionary forces acting in the east of the continent where isolation did not play such an important role during glaciations.

  18. Chemokine receptor V Δ32 deletion in multiple sclerosis patients in Csongrád County in Hungary and the North-Bácska region in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Török, Nóra; Molnár, Kinga; Füvesi, Judit; Karácsony, Mária; Zsiros, Viktória; Fejes-Szabó, Annamária; Fiatal, Szilvia; Ádány, Róza; Somogyvári, Ferenc; Stojiljković, Olivera; Vécsei, László; Bencsik, Krisztina

    2015-01-01

    The roles of chemokine receptor V (CCR5) and its polymorphism, rs333 in multiple sclerosis (MS) are controversial. We investigated the receptor and its deletion in a large MS (428) and a numerous control (831) population in Csongrád County (Hungary) and North-Bácska (Serbia). Taqman probes firstly were used for the allele discrimination. There was no significant difference in genotype (OR=1.092, 95% CI=0.807-1.478, p=0.568 for wt/wt (wt=wild type allele) vs wt/Δ32, Δ32/Δ32 (Δ32=Δ32 base pair deletion allele)) or allele frequency (OR=0.914, 95% CI=0.692-1.207, p=0.525). Neither the deletion nor the wt allele affected the Expanded Disability Status Scale score or the age at onset. Our results indicate no association between the CCR5 Δ32 allele and MS.

  19. Genetic variability, differentiation, and founder effect in golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Serbia as revealed by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Zachos, Frank E; Cirovic, Dusko; Kirschning, Julia; Otto, Marthe; Hartl, Günther B; Petersen, Britt; Honnen, Ann-Christin

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed 121 golden jackals (Canis aureus) from six sample sites in Serbia with regard to genetic variability and differentiation as revealed by mitochondrial control region sequences and eight nuclear microsatellite loci. There was no variation at all in the mtDNA sequences, and nuclear variability was very low (average observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.29 and 0.34, respectively). This is in line with the considerable recent range expansion of this species in the Balkans and indicates a strong founder effect in the recently established Serbian population. We did not find evidence of differentiation between the northeastern jackals and those from the plain of Srem or those in between. F-statistics and Bayesian Structure analyses, however, were indicative of a low degree of overall differentiation in the Serbian population. A vagrant Austrian jackal that was also analyzed was genetically indistinguishable from its Serbian conspecifics.

  20. Analysis of recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from Serbia confirms genetic homogeneity and supports a regional origin for the PPV-Rec subgroup.

    PubMed

    Glasa, M; Paunovic, S; Jevremovic, D; Myrta, A; Pittnerová, S; Candresse, T

    2005-10-01

    The recent observation of the frequent occurrence of natural recombinant Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates has led to the identification of a distinct PPV subgroup, named PPV-Rec. The diversity, origin and geographical spread of the recombinant PPV isolates belonging to this subgroup remain, however, relatively poorly known. In an effort to further our understanding of these isolates, eight PPV isolates from Serbia, the country from which the first such recombinant (PPV-o6) originated, were characterized. Depending on the genomic region targeted by different typing assays, seven of the eight isolates tested presented discrepancies in their typing behavior. Sequence analysis of the (Cter)NIb-(Nter)CP region confirmed the recombinant nature of these seven isolates which all presented an identical recombination breakpoint identical to previously characterized PPV-Rec isolates. Biological indexing and immunoblot analysis provided indications that asymptomatic infection of the GF305 peach indicator and migration of the coat protein as a double-band in immunoblots may represent conserved and discriminating properties of PPV-Rec isolates. The genetic diversity of PPV-Rec isolates from former Yugoslavia (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina) was estimated to be twice as large as that of the PPV-Rec isolates obtained from all other countries to date (Albania, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Germany, Hungary and Slovakia). These last results are consistent with the hypothesis that former Yugoslavia is the center of dispersion of PPV-Rec. Taken together, the results presented here provide further evidence for the wide distribution and temporal genetic stability of these natural PPV recombinant isolates and provide for the first time a possible scenario for their dispersion throughout central and eastern Europe.

  1. Frequencies of EGFR single nucleotide polymorphisms in non-small cell lung cancer patients and healthy individuals in the Republic of Serbia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Obradović, Jasmina; Djordjević, Natasa; Tošic, Natasa; Mrdjanović, Jasminka; Stanković, Biljana; Stanić, Jelena; Zarić, Bojan; Perin, Branislav; Pavlović, Sonja; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequencies of EGFR -216G>T, -191C>A, and 181946C>T in Serbian non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, as well as to compare it with healthy individuals, in order to assess their potential importance for lung cancer in Serbia. The study involved 56 NSCLC patients and 53 unrelated healthy volunteers, and genotyping was performed on DNA samples obtained from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tumor tissue and blood, respectively. This was the first time to show genotype frequencies of those single nucleotide polymorphisms for this study group from the territory of the Republic of Serbia. There was very strong evidence of association between age and death due to lung cancer (Pearson chi-square = 43.439, df = 2, p < 0,001), as well as between ever smoking and death due to lung cancer (Pearson chi-square = 31.727, df = 1, p < 0.001). When dominant genetic model (GG vs. GT+TT) was used for -216G>T, we have found significant association (p = 0.012) between -216GG genotype and NSCLC patients within smokers' subgroup. So, carriers of -216GG genotype had higher risk (OR = 4.33, 95 % CI = 1.324-14.179) than noncarriers (GT and TT) for developing non-small cell lung cancer in our patients. PMID:26846215

  2. Anthropometric indices of obesity and potential health risk in adult rural population from Backa and Banat--the Republic of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, Tatjana; Rakić, Rada; Sakac, Dejan

    2014-03-01

    Obesity, along with other unhealthy living habits, nowadays represents one of the greatest risk factors for various diseases. Vojvodina is a part of Serbia where a high percentage of the overweight has been recorded since the period of former Yugoslavia. The aim of this study therefore was to determine the percentage of adults with potential health risk using the indices of obesity. The anthropological study was conducted from 2001 to 2006. The tested group consisted of 4504 individuals, 1965 men and 2539 women. The mean age of the sample was 40.61 +/- 11.29. The data were collected in 46 villages in Backa and Banat, in the central and north-east parts of Vojvodina, situated in the north of Serbia. The investigation included the height, weight, waist and hip circumference. Nutritional condition was determined using the body mass index (BMI kg/m2), while the waist circumference and WHR were used for assessing the central obesity. According to the average BMI (26.86 kg/m2 males, 25.80 kg/m2 females), the population of Backa and Banat is characterised with pre-obesity. In total, 58.47% individuals of both sexes are with excessive body weight, 38.52% of them being classified as overweight and 19.48% as obese. Central obesity is more frequent in males aged up to 40, while in females it is more present above the age of 50. A higher waist circumference (males > 94 cm; females > 80 cm) is observed in 58% of males and 55% of females, with the risk value (males > 102 cm; females > 88 cm) recorded in 32% of men and women. The indices of obesity indicate a potential health risk for more than a half of the subjects in this study. The data therefore point to the necessity of introducing educational programs for promoting good nutrition and healthy living habits that would ultimately reduce the number of individuals with health risk.

  3. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  4. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Our study concerns deformed gabbroic rocks from the Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria). The BCO consists of four ophiolitic massifs dismembered during Alpine tectonic and displaying together a complete classical oceanic lithosphere. Our new Sm-Nd dating on fresh lower gabbroic rocks give an accretion age for the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, in agreement with a previous age of 405 ± 3 Ma (Zakariadze et al. 2012). After removing the Alpine tectonic, the BCO appears as an elongated E-W body tilted to the south. At the base of the ophiolitic complex occurs a thin deformed zone (< 800m) of metagabbroic rocks underlined by Cambro-Ordovician metasediments. Petrostructural observations on metagabbroic rocks coupled with mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that their protoliths were mainly upper gabbros statically metamorphosed in the Greenschist/Amphibolite facies (event 1 = ocean-floor metamorphism at the ridge axis). These rocks have been affected by a second circulation of fluids (event 2), contemporaneous to a deformation and inducing local K-enrichment (formation of Cr-muscovite). Temperature estimates for this event indicate a range of 450°C - 280°C, with the lower values observed for the more intensively metasomatized rocks. 40Ar - 39Ar dating on two Cr-muscovites from slightly and highly deformed metagabbros gives plateau ages of 372.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 360.6 ± 1.2 Ma respectively. We interpret the first age as a mimimum age for the beginning of the event 2, observed into preserved rocks, and the second one as linked to (neo-/)recrystallisation due to localisation of the metasomatism/deformation. The interval of 30 Ma between oceanic crust accretion and initiation of metasomatism/deformation involves that the upper oceanic crust had cooled down to temperatures close to 100°C before the beginning of event 2. Consequently, a temperature increase is required to observe the greenschist facies assemblage. We have tested by tectono

  5. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  6. Tectonic deformation in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  7. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  8. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals and Microelements in Silver Bream (Brama brama L.), Northern Pike (Esox lucius L.), Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) From Tisza River, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Štrbac, Snežana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Jovančićević, Branimir; Simonović, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in liver, gills, gonads, and brain of four ecologically different fish species in Serbia: piscivorous northern pike, benthivorous sterlet and silver bream, and omnivorous common carp. Fish were caught at four sites along the stretch of the River Tisza in the Pannonian part of Serbia during October 2010. Results revealed that heavy metals and microelements with the highest values in fish samples were Fe, Al, and Zn. The highest concentration of heavy metals and microelements was recorded in omnivorous common carp, and organs that most intensively accumulated the greatest number of metals were liver and gills, whereas the locality did not exert a marked impact on level of bioaccumulation.

  9. Southern Women's Literature: A Process of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meese, Elizabeth A.

    Teachers and students worked together at the University of Alabama to evolve a literature course that dealt with the Southern regional character and culture as manifested in the writings of women. The course began with an orientation to the region, with emphasis on the images and stereotypes of Southern women. Literary material included in the…

  10. Aseismic uplift in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, R.O.; Church, J.P.; Elliott, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary examination of the historic geodetic record has disclosed crustal uplift of 0.15 to 0.25 meter that apparently began around 1960 and has since grown to include at least 12,000 square kilometers of southern California. This uplift extends at least ISO kilometers west-northwestward along the San Andreas Fault from Cajon to Maricopa, southward from the San Andreas into the northern Transverse Ranges, and eastward from Lebec into and including much of the western Mojave block. It seems to have grown spasmodically eastward from a center near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults and has occurred largely within an area that has remained virtually aseismic since at least 1932. Although much of this area has been characterized by crustal mobility since at least the turn of the century, the described uplift seems to be an Uhusually large and probably unique event superimposed on the existing pattern of continuing deformation.

  11. SOUTHERN MASSANUTTEN ROADLESS AREA, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1984-01-01

    The Southern Massanutten Roadless Area is in the George Washington National Forest in the Shenandoah Valley of Page and Rockingham Counties, Virginia. According to mineral surveys of the area, inferred resources of low-grade iron occur at two mines in folded Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The iron resources consist of 120,000 long tons of clayey and sandy limonite. Other mineral resources occur in the area including extensive areas of high-silica sandstone, shale suitable for making brick, and limestone suitable for crushed stone and agricultural lime. The potential for the occurrence of oil or natural gas resources cannot be evaluated from the available data. The nonmetallic mineral resources are of limited importance because of relative inaccessibility as compared to large accessible resources outside the roadless area.

  12. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  13. Cystic echinococcosis in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de la Rue, Mario L

    2008-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is very common in the southern part of Rio Grande do Sul State where sheep and cattle raising is the most important economical activity. Prevalence in intermediate hosts is well known due to reports in slaughterhouses while human reports are of discussed value. This is due to underreporting of cases and few epidemiological studies make it difficult to assess the situation of echinococcosis in the population. Whereas cattle infection rate is more or less stable around 12% of the slaughter animals, in sheep there has been an increasing number in the last five years. Some efforts have been done to control the zoonosis but no effective results were obtained so far. Probably educational efforts to change human practices (feeding dogs with raw viscera), periodic treatment of dogs with praziquantel and joined actions with slaughterhouses could bring more attention to improve some control measures.

  14. Coccidioidomycosis in southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Nancy J.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Creekmore, Lynn; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed postmortem in six southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dying or dead along the Pacific Coast of California at San Luis Obispo County.  These otters were found during winter or summer 1992, 1993, and 1994.  Coccidioides immitis was identified by its morphology in tissue impression smears and by histopathology, and was confirmed by culture.  Positive serologic results were obtained from four of five sea otters tested.  The lungs, pleura, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, liver, and spleen were involved in each case.  There was meningeal involvement in half of the affected animals.  Coccidioidomycosis has been reported in a wild sea otter only once previously, in 1976, and that otter was also found on the coast of San Luis Obispo County.

  15. Combustion metamorphism in southern california.

    PubMed

    Bentor, Y K; Kastner, M

    1976-08-01

    In several places in Southern California bituminous sediments of the Monterey Formation-siliceous shales, phosphatic rocks, dolomites, and arkoses-were affected during the Pleistocene and as late as the l9th century by spontaneous subsurface combustion of organic matter, during which temperatures up to 1600 degrees C were reached. This oxidative heating (combustion metamorphism) affected rock complexes over areas of tens of square kilometers that tend to occur in clusters. As a result of these processes, the rocks recrystallized and partially melted to form pseudomagmas which intruded the country rocks. The chemical compositions of these melts differ from those of igneous magmas. Acid and intermediate siliceous melts as well as phosphatic melts have formed. These two types are generally immiscible. The following high-temperature minerals were determined: alpha- and beta-cristobalite, quartz, calcic plagioclase, diopsidic pyroxene, wollastonite, cordierite, graphite, fluorapatite, and fluorite; at lower temperature pyrite, gypsum, aragonite, calcite, jarosite, and hexahydrite crystallized.

  16. 6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH AND ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  17. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS CROSSING RAILROAD LINE, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  18. 4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, WEST APPROACH, ABUTMENT AND FIRST SET OF PIERS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  19. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, CENTER PIER BETWEEN U.S. AND RAILROAD, LOOKING NORTH. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  20. 7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, LOWER CHORD, LATERAL BRACING AND FLOOR SYSTEM, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  1. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD BRIDGE, EAST PIER JOINING APPROACH SPAN AND HIGHWAY SPAN, LOOKING WEST/NORTHWEST. - Southern Pacific Railroad Bridge, Spanning Rio Grande at Southern Pacific Railroad, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  2. Genetic variation of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), among populations from Serbia and neighbouring countries, as inferred from COI sequence variability.

    PubMed

    Prijović, M; Skaljac, M; Drobnjaković, T; Zanić, K; Perić, P; Marčić, D; Puizina, J

    2014-06-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an invasive and highly polyphagous phloem-feeding pest of vegetables and ornamentals. Trialeurodes vaporariorum causes serious damage due to direct feeding and transmits several important plant viruses. Excessive use of insecticides has resulted in significantly reduced levels of susceptibility of various T. vaporariorum populations. To determine the genetic variability within and among populations of T. vaporariorum from Serbia and to explore their genetic relatedness with other T. vaporariorum populations, we analysed the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences of 16 populations from Serbia and six neighbouring countries: Montenegro (three populations), Macedonia (one population) and Croatia (two populations), for a total of 198 analysed specimens. A low overall level of sequence divergence and only five variable nucleotides and six haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplotype, H1, was identified in all Serbian populations and in all specimens from distant localities in Croatia and Macedonia. The COI sequence data that was retrieved from GenBank and the data from our study indicated that H1 is the most globally widespread T. vaporariorum haplotype. A lack of spatial genetic structure among the studied T. vaporariorum populations, as well as two demographic tests that we performed (Tajima's D value and Fu's Fs statistics), indicate a recent colonisation event and population growth. Phylogenetic analyses of the COI haplotypes in this study and other T. vaporariorum haplotypes that were retrieved from GenBank were performed using Bayesian inference and median-joining (MJ) network analysis. Two major haplogroups with only a single unique nucleotide difference were found: haplogroup 1 (containing the five Serbian haplotypes and those previously identified in India, China, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Morocco, Reunion and the USA) and haplogroup 3

  3. A brittle tectonic history of the Internal Dinarides: an inference based on the paleostress study in the Valjevo area (western Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenović, Ana; Trivić, Branislav; Cvetković, Vladica; Pavlović, Radmila

    2014-05-01

    The Internal Dinarides is part of a complex suture zone situated in the central Balkan Peninsula, which present-day tectonic pattern is a result of Late Cretaceous subduction followed by Cenozoic post-collisional and neotectonic phases. Since the Late Miocene, the most important factor controlling regional tectonic processes in this area has been the counterclockwise rotation and northward motion of the Adria plate in respect to the Dinaric orogen. In Serbia, this tectonic process is manifested through constant moderate seismic activity, where stronger earthquakes are recorded mostly along well-known fault systems active in the neotectonic period. However, brittle fault kinematics in this part of the Internal Dinarides is poorly documented. In this research we performed a calculation of the tectonic stress tensors in order to determine brittle tectonic regimes acting in western Serbia (Valjevo mountains range), as well as their relative chronology. Fault-slip data have been collected in geological units of different age and lithology: Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous limestones and Jurassic peridotites and serpentinites. Slip was determined using linear indicators like "carrot shaped" markings, gouging grain grooves and calcite and magnesite fibres. Relative brittle history was determined using criteria of cross-cutting relationships, fracture mineralization and structural features of the brittle overprint of rocks. We distinguished four brittle deformation phases. Phase D1 is characterized by N-S compression, which is indicated by thrust faulting of NE- and NW-trending faults. Phases D2 and D3, are both extensional. However, since we had clear indicators that phase D3 overprints all the previous deformation phases, we suppose that the two extensional phases occurred separately, rather than acting as a single radial extension phase. Deformation phase D2 is characterized by N-S to NE-SW extension, while D3 phase is represented by NW-SE (orogen parallel) extension

  4. Variability in heavy precipitation over southern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Southern Florida is home to the unique Everglades ecosystem that feeds into the Florida Bay. Heavy precipitation events, either over the Everglades or the Bay can introduce pollutants and excessive fresh water into the bay, while prolonged drought reduces water levels in the wetlands and can contribute to hypersalinity events in the bay. Systematic changes in precipitation frequency and intensity can result in long-term negative impacts to these southern Florida ecosystems. This paper examines the historical in situ record of precipitation over southern Florida, with special emphasis on evaluating the behavior of heavy precipitation events and periods of deficit.

  5. Southern company energy storage study :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  6. Geographic distribution of Gryllotalpa stepposa in south-eastern Europe, with first records for Romania, Hungary and Serbia (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented. PMID:27551213

  7. Bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) pollinators in Pannonian habitats of Serbia, with a description of a new Eumerus Meigen species (Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Markov, Zlata; Nedeljković, Zorica; Ricarte, Antonio; Vujić, Ante; Jovičić, Snežana; Józan, Zsolt; Mudri-Stojnić, Sonja; Radenković, Snežana; Ćetković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) pollinators from ten localities in Vojvodina, Serbia was surveyed. Among different types of Pannonian habitat (grasslands, heathland and scrub, woodland and forest habitats) all localities were categorised as forest and steppe. They were in protected areas, mostly undisturbed by human activity. Censuses of pollinators took place from 30 March to 10 October, 2014. We recorded 218 pollinator species; 135 bee species (42 Halictidae; 32 Apidae; 29 Andrenidae; 24 Megachilidae; 7 Colletidae; 1 Melittidae) and 83 species of hoverflies. We describe a new species of hoverfly, Eumerus pannonicus sp. nov., and compare it to other similar species. Based on our study, the Special Nature Reserve of Pašnjaci Velike Droplje is critical for the conservation of this new Eumerus-being only found at this locality-and other species such as Chrysotoxum lineare (Zetterstedt), which is rare in Europe and protected under Serbian legislation. The highest numbers of bee species were recorded in the Deliblato and Subotica sand areas (40 and 32, respectively), while Fruška Gora Mountain and the Vršac Mountains harboured the highest number of hoverfly species. PMID:27615823

  8. Quantitation of Aristolochic Acids in Corn, Wheat Grain, and Soil Samples Collected in Serbia: Identifying a Novel Exposure Pathway in the Etiology of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan; Pavlović, Nikola M; Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Liu, Jingjing; Deng, Kailin; Wang, Yinan; Milosavljević, Biljana; Kostić, Emina N

    2016-07-27

    While to date investigations provided convincing evidence on the role of aristolochic acids (AAs) in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and upper urothelial cancer (UUC), the exposure pathways by which AAs enter human bodies to cause BEN and UUC remain obscure. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that environmental pollution by AAs and root uptake of AAs in the polluted soil may be one of the pathways by which AAs enter the human food chain. The hypothesis driving this study was that the decay of Aristolochia clematitis L., a AA-containing herbaceous plant that is found growing widespread in the endemic regions, could release free AAs to the soil, which could be taken up by food crops growing nearby, thereby transferring this potent human nephrotoxin and carcinogen into their edible parts. Using the highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time AAs in corn, wheat grain, and soil samples collected from the endemic village Kutles in Serbia. Our results provide the first direct evidence that food crops and soil in the Balkans are contaminated with AAs. It is possible that the presence of AAs in edible parts of crops originating from the AA-contaminated soil could be one of the major pathways by which humans become exposed to AAs. PMID:27362729

  9. The accumulation and distribution of metals in water, sediment, aquatic macrophytes and fishes of the Gruža Reservoir, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Milošković, Aleksandra; Branković, Snežana; Simić, Vladica; Kovačević, Simona; Ćirković, Miroslav; Manojlović, Dragan

    2013-05-01

    The concentrations of iron, lead, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury and arsenic were measured in water, sediment, five macrophytes (Typha angustifolia, Iris pseudacorus, Polygonum amphybium, Myriophyllum spicatum and Lemna gibba) and five fish species (Sander lucioperca, Abramis brama, Carassius gibelio, Silurus glanis and Arystichtys nobilis) in the Gruža Reservoir, used for water supply and recreational fishing. The concentrations of all examined elements were higher in sediment than in water. The values of the ratio between element concentrations in the sediment and those in the water were the highest for Fe and As. Among the five plant species, the highest concentrations of Pb and Mn were observed in T. angustifolia, while the highest concentrations of Fe, Cu and Hg were in L. gibba. I. pseudacorus and P. amphybium had the highest concentrations of Cd and As, respectively. Among the fish species, C. gibelio showed the highest tendency of element accumulation (Fe, Cd, Cu), followed by S. lucioperca (Pb, Hg), A. brama (Mn) and A. nobilis (As). The average concentrations of elements in fish muscle, except for As in A. nobilis (2.635 ± 0.241 mg kg(-1) ww), were below the limits that are considered safe for human consumption in accordance with the European Commission Regulation and Official Gazette of Serbia. PMID:23412697

  10. Radionuclides in the soil around the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia: radiological hazard, relationship with soil characteristics and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ćujić, Mirjana; Dragović, Snežana; Đorđević, Milan; Dragović, Ranko; Gajić, Boško; Miljanić, Šćepan

    2015-07-01

    Primordial radionuclides, (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples collected at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in the vicinity of the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia, and their spatial distribution was analysed using ordinary kriging. Mean values of activity concentrations for these depths were 50.7 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 48.7 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 560 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Based on the measured activity concentrations, the radiological hazard due to naturally occurring radionuclides in soil was assessed. The value of the mean total absorbed dose rate was 76.3 nGy h(-1), which is higher than the world average. The annual effective dose due to these radionuclides ranged from 51.4 to 114.2 μSv. Applying cluster analysis, correlations between radionuclides and soil properties were determined. The distribution pattern of natural radionuclides in the environment surrounding the coal-fired power plant and their enrichment in soil at some sampling sites were in accordance with dispersion models of fly ash emissions. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that operation of the coal-fired power plant has no significant negative impact on the surrounding environment with regard to the content of natural radionuclides.

  11. Wild fire impact on copper, zinc, lead and cadmium distribution in soil and relation with abundance in selected plants of Lamiaceae family from Vidlic Mountain (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Stankov Jovanovic, V P; Ilic, M D; Markovic, M S; Mitic, V D; Nikolic Mandic, S D; Stojanovic, G S

    2011-09-01

    Fire has been considered as an improving factor in soil quality, but only if it is controlled. Severe wild fire occurred in the summer 2007 on the Vidlic Mountain (Serbia) overspreading a huge area of meadows and forests. Main soil characteristics and content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in different fractions obtained after sequential extraction of soil from post-fire areas and from fire non disturbed areas were studied. In four plant species of Lamiaceae family (Ajuga genevensis L., Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L., Teucrium chamaedrys L., Acinos alpinus (L.) Moench.), that grow in typical habitats of the mountain, distribution of heavy metals in aerial parts and roots was investigated too. For all samples from post-fire area cation exchange capacity and soil organic matter content are increased while rH is decreased. Fire caused slightly increased bioavailability of the observed metals but more significant rise happened in metal amounts bound to oxides and organics. The plants showed variable behavior. T. chamaedrys collected on the post-fire area contained elevated concentrations of all analyzed metals. A. alpinus showed higher phytoaccumulation for Zn and Cd, while the other two plant species for Pb and Cd in the post-fire areas.

  12. Key Aspects of the Implementation of Optional Subject "Hands on—discovering of the World" in Teaching Practice of the West-Bačka District in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bošnjak, Marija; Obadovic, Dušanka Ž.

    2010-01-01

    All over the world a number of initiatives have been started which offer new models for improving the quality of science teaching. One of the leading initiatives is Hands on which in 2003, included the introduction of the optional subject "Hands on—discovering of the world" into the first four grades of primary schools in Serbia. Five years after it had been introduced in our educational system, the analysis was carried out in order to determine the extent and the way this subject was taught in primary schools of the West-Backa District. The specially designed questionnaire was conducted on the sample of 137 teachers from 16 schools. The analysis shows that this subject is not present enough in teaching practice. This is the case because parents and pupils are poorly informed and mostly uninterested but also because of the widespread mistake that the subject requires special equipment and laboratories. When we analyzed the experience of teachers, we discovered that they were not familiar enough either with its basic principles or with recommended way of realization mainly because of the fact that most teachers did not attend science seminars nor they used appropriate professional literature. In order to increase the presence of this optional subject in teaching practice and to educate teachers for its more quality presentation, it is necessary for teachers to attend seminars about science teaching and to actively cooperate with science teachers at their schools as well as at related colleges.

  13. Determination of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in river sediments and corresponding surface and ground water in the Danube River and tributaries in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Radović, Tanja; Grujić, Svetlana; Petković, Anđelka; Dimkić, Milan; Laušević, Mila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of analytical methods for the simultaneous determination of 25 selected pharmaceuticals, metabolites, and pesticides, belonging to the various chemical classes, in river sediments and their corresponding surface and ground water with the purpose of monitoring the contamination levels. The methods were based on the solid-phase extraction as the sample preparation method for water samples, and the ultrasonic solvent extraction for the sediment samples, followed by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. High recoveries were achieved for extraction from both water and sediment samples for the majority of analytes. Low limits of detection were achieved for all investigated compounds in the water sample (1-5 ng L(-1)) as well as in the sediment (1-3 ng g(-1)). Applicability of the developed methods was demonstrated by determination of pharmaceutical and pesticide residues in 30 surface water, 44 groundwater, and 5 sediment samples from the Danube River Basin in Serbia. Sixty percent of target compounds were detected in environmental samples. The most frequently detected analytes in river sediments were the pesticides dimethoate and atrazine, while carbamazepine and metamizole metabolites 4-AAA and 4-FAA were the most frequently found in water samples.

  14. Geographic distribution of Gryllotalpa stepposa in south-eastern Europe, with first records for Romania, Hungary and Serbia (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented. PMID:27551213

  15. Radionuclides in the soil around the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia: radiological hazard, relationship with soil characteristics and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ćujić, Mirjana; Dragović, Snežana; Đorđević, Milan; Dragović, Ranko; Gajić, Boško; Miljanić, Šćepan

    2015-07-01

    Primordial radionuclides, (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples collected at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in the vicinity of the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia, and their spatial distribution was analysed using ordinary kriging. Mean values of activity concentrations for these depths were 50.7 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 48.7 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 560 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Based on the measured activity concentrations, the radiological hazard due to naturally occurring radionuclides in soil was assessed. The value of the mean total absorbed dose rate was 76.3 nGy h(-1), which is higher than the world average. The annual effective dose due to these radionuclides ranged from 51.4 to 114.2 μSv. Applying cluster analysis, correlations between radionuclides and soil properties were determined. The distribution pattern of natural radionuclides in the environment surrounding the coal-fired power plant and their enrichment in soil at some sampling sites were in accordance with dispersion models of fly ash emissions. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that operation of the coal-fired power plant has no significant negative impact on the surrounding environment with regard to the content of natural radionuclides. PMID:25716901

  16. Agent-based assessment of stormwater re-use potential of low-impact development control facilities at the site of Vlasina Lake, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Blagojević, Borislava; Milićević, Dragan; Potić, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    Vlasina Lake in south-east Serbia is classified as an Area of Distinct Land Use and, as such, is subject to high environmental protection standards applied in the Master Plan. Two open channels for stormwater and sediment transportation to two large detention basins with pumping stations for water evacuation into the lake were envisaged in the Master Plan. In the preliminary design, the stormwater system was quite different: wherever possible, on-site natural features were used for allocation of ponds, and drainage channels were led through existing road culverts. The applied design concept has been low impact development (LID), which led to potential blue-green corridors, recognized by project stakeholders. The paper studies the possibility of using ponds as a key element of both the LID concept and the blue-green corridors approach. For that purpose, an initial Vlasina Lake site agent-based simulation model has been created. A realistic physical model is included, and simulation results for two hypothetical climatic and socio-economic scenarios are presented. From the experience in creating the agent-based model, and based on the simulation results, recommendations are given for further work. It is shown that ponds have potential for the investigated water re-use purposes.

  17. Satellite Movie Sees Southern California Storms

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation NOAA's GOES-West satellite imagery from Jan. 5 through Jan 7 shows the progression of storm systems in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that hit southern California and generated flooding a...

  18. Archean sedimentation and tectonics in southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidd, W. S. F.

    1984-01-01

    Sequences in the Barberton Mountain Land greenstone belt (southern Africa) were examined to determine the nature of the sedimentary rocks, their tectonic implications, and their bearing on the present large-scale structural condition of the belt. Also assessed was whether there was evidence for a significant component of shallow-water-deposited sedimentary rocks in the parent materials of the Limpopo belt. The nature of a largehigh strain zone on the southern margin of the central Limpopo belt was examined.

  19. The Southern Kansas Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Historically aseismic Harper and Sumner counties in Southern Kansas experienced a dramatic increase in seismicity beginning in early 2014, coincident with the development of new oil production in the Mississippi Lime Play. In order to better understand the potential relationships between seismicity and oil development, the USGS installed a real-time telemetered seismic network in cooperation with the Kansas Geological Survey, the Kansas Corporation Commission, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Harper County, and the Oklahoma Geological Survey. The network began operation in March 2014 with an initial deployment of 5 NetQuakes accelerometers and by July 2014 had expanded to include 10 broadband sites. The network currently has 14 stations, all with accelerometers and 12 with broadband seismometers. The network has interstation spacing of 15 - 25 km and typical azimuthal gap of 80 for well-located events. Data are continuously streamed to IRIS at 200 samples per second from most sites. Earthquake locations are augmented with additional stations from the USGS National Network, Oklahoma Geological Survey Seismic Network, Kansas Seismic Monitoring Network and the Enid Oklahoma Network. Since the spring of 2014 over 7500 earthquakes have been identified with data from this network, 1400 of which have been manually timed and cataloged. Focal depths for earthquakes typically range between 2 and 7 km. The catalog is available at earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/ under network code 'Ismpkansas'. The network recorded the largest known earthquake in Harper County, Mw 4.3, on October 2, 2014 and in Sumner County, Mw 4.9, on November 12, 2014. Recorded ground motions at the epicenter of the October earthquake were 0.70 g (PGA) and 12 cm/s (PGV). These high ground motion values agree with near-source recordings made by other USGS temporary deployments in the U. S. midcontinent, indicating a significant shaking hazard from such shallow, moderate

  20. The Southern Ocean: Source and sink?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugnell, J. M.; Cherel, Y.; Cooke, I. R.; Gleadall, I. G.; Hochberg, F. G.; Ibáñez, C. M.; Jorgensen, E.; Laptikhovsky, V. V.; Linse, K.; Norman, M.; Vecchione, M.; Voight, J. R.; Allcock, A. L.

    2011-03-01

    Many members of the benthic fauna of the Antarctic continental shelf share close phylogenetic relationships to the deep-sea fauna adjacent to Antarctica and in other ocean basins. It has been suggested that connections between the Southern Ocean and the deep sea have been facilitated by the presence of a deep Antarctic continental shelf coupled with submerging Antarctic bottom water and emerging circumpolar deep water. These conditions may have allowed 'polar submergence', whereby shallow Southern Ocean fauna have colonised the deep sea and 'polar emergence', whereby deep-sea fauna colonised the shallow Southern Ocean. A recent molecular study showed that a lineage of deep-sea and Southern Ocean octopuses with a uniserial sucker arrangement on their arms appear to have arisen via polar submergence. A distantly related clade of octopuses with a biserial sucker arrangement on their arms (historically placed in the genus Benthoctopus) is also present in the deep-sea basins of the world and the Southern Ocean. To date their evolutionary history has not been examined. The present study investigated the origins of this group using 3133 base pairs (bp) of nucleotide data from five mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, cytochrome b) and the nuclear gene rhodopsin from at least 18 species (and 7 outgroup taxa). Bayesian relaxed clock analyses showed that Benthoctopus species with a high-latitude distribution in the Southern Hemisphere represent a paraphyletic group comprised of three independent clades. The results suggest that the Benthoctopus clade originated in relatively shallow Northern Hemisphere waters. Benthoctopus species distributed in the Southern Ocean are representative of polar emergence and occur at shallower depths than non-polar Benthoctopus species.

  1. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  2. Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

  3. Emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Parikhit

    2004-12-01

    Airborne measurements are presented of emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa during the dry season. Measurements were obtained aboard the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft during the SAFARI 2000 field project in August and September 2000. Savanna fires in southern Africa emit a wide range of gaseous and particulate species including carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, halogen, and oxygenated compounds. Emission factors, emission ratios, and regional emissions of fifty trace gas and particulate species were derived, including eight species not previously reported in the literature (dimethyl sulfide, methyl nitrate, five species of hydrocarbons, and particles with diameters from 0.1--3 mum diameter). The physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the plume from a large savanna fire in South Africa are characterized, including plume dimensions, secondary formation of ozone and organic acids, oxidation of hydrocarbons, coagulation of particles, and gas-to-particle conversion in aged smoke. Numerous fires, thermodynamically stable layers aloft, and large-scale anticylonic flow result in high concentrations of air pollution distributed throughout the lower troposphere over southern Africa during the dry season. Average regional concentrations of CO (261 +/- 81 ppbv), SO2 (2.5 +/- 1.6 ppbv), O3 (64 +/- 13 ppbv), black particulate carbon (2.3 +/- 1.9 mug m-3), organic particulate carbon (6.2 +/- 5.2 mug m-3), total particle mass (26.0 +/- 4.7 mug m-3) are comparable to those found in polluted urban environments. The GEOS-CHEM model of tropospheric chemistry is used to characterize the transport of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa to the neighboring Atlantic and Indian Oceans during the dry season (May--October) of 2000. A large quantity of biomass burning emissions from southern Africa is transported westward over the latitudes 0--20°S to the southern Atlantic Ocean (˜40 Tg CO from May--October), contributing to a pollution anomaly

  4. Multi-analytical study of techniques and palettes of wall paintings of the monastery of Žiča, Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Stojanović-Marić, Milica; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Žikić, Radiša; Uskoković-Marković, Snežana

    2016-03-01

    The present multi-analytical study concentrates on establishing the painting techniques and the identity of the wall painting materials used by the artists from the 13th and 14th centuries to decorate the Žiča monastery, Serbia. For this purpose, we demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, non-destructive method with high spatial resolution which gives molecular and crystal structural information of a wide variety of both inorganic and organic materials. It is shown that elementary composition revealed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is necessary in some cases to confirm the identity of pigments and binders identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a fresco technique, in combination with mainly natural earth pigments such as red ochre, yellow ochre and green earth, was used. Expensive natural pigment lapis lazuli was exclusively used for obtaining blue colour while pure vermilion was used by the artists from the first period of decorations at the beginning of the 13th century. A mixture of pigments was used for attaining different colour shades. For the gilding of saint's haloes, thin golden foil was deposited over the tin sheet. In order to get a desirable optical and aesthetical impression, the metallic leaves were deposited over the yellow ochre preparatory layer. Deposits of gypsum on wall paintings as well as traces of weddellite are degradation products formed as a result of exposing wall paintings to environmental conditions.

  5. An ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Pavle; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola

    2004-05-01

    This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species (Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cd) content in vegetative plant parts. Water regime parameters indicate an overall stability in plant-water relations. During the period of summer drought, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low, ranging from 0.429 to 0.620 for all the species that were analyzed. An analysis of the tissue trace elements content showed a lower trace metal concentration in the plants than in the ash, indicating that heavy metals undergo major concentration during the combustion process and some are not readily taken up by plants. The Zn and Pb concentrations in all of the examined species were normal whereas Cu and Mn concentrations were in the deficiency range. Boron concentrations in plant tissues were high, with some species even showing levels of more than 100 microg/g (Populus sp., Ambrosia sp., Amorpha sp., and Cirsium sp.). The presence of Cd was not detected. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this research that biological recultivation should take into account the existing ecological, vegetation, and floristic potential of an immediate environment that is abundant in life forms and ecological types of plant species that can overgrow the ash deposit relatively quickly. Selected species should be adapted to toxic B concentrations with moderate demands in terms of mineral elements (Cu and Mn). PMID:15503386

  6. An ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Pavle; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola

    2004-05-01

    This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species (Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cd) content in vegetative plant parts. Water regime parameters indicate an overall stability in plant-water relations. During the period of summer drought, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low, ranging from 0.429 to 0.620 for all the species that were analyzed. An analysis of the tissue trace elements content showed a lower trace metal concentration in the plants than in the ash, indicating that heavy metals undergo major concentration during the combustion process and some are not readily taken up by plants. The Zn and Pb concentrations in all of the examined species were normal whereas Cu and Mn concentrations were in the deficiency range. Boron concentrations in plant tissues were high, with some species even showing levels of more than 100 microg/g (Populus sp., Ambrosia sp., Amorpha sp., and Cirsium sp.). The presence of Cd was not detected. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this research that biological recultivation should take into account the existing ecological, vegetation, and floristic potential of an immediate environment that is abundant in life forms and ecological types of plant species that can overgrow the ash deposit relatively quickly. Selected species should be adapted to toxic B concentrations with moderate demands in terms of mineral elements (Cu and Mn).

  7. Multi-analytical study of techniques and palettes of wall paintings of the monastery of Žiča, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Stojanović-Marić, Milica; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Žikić, Radiša; Uskoković-Marković, Snežana

    2016-03-01

    The present multi-analytical study concentrates on establishing the painting techniques and the identity of the wall painting materials used by the artists from the 13th and 14th centuries to decorate the Žiča monastery, Serbia. For this purpose, we demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, non-destructive method with high spatial resolution which gives molecular and crystal structural information of a wide variety of both inorganic and organic materials. It is shown that elementary composition revealed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is necessary in some cases to confirm the identity of pigments and binders identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a fresco technique, in combination with mainly natural earth pigments such as red ochre, yellow ochre and green earth, was used. Expensive natural pigment lapis lazuli was exclusively used for obtaining blue colour while pure vermilion was used by the artists from the first period of decorations at the beginning of the 13th century. A mixture of pigments was used for attaining different colour shades. For the gilding of saint's haloes, thin golden foil was deposited over the tin sheet. In order to get a desirable optical and aesthetical impression, the metallic leaves were deposited over the yellow ochre preparatory layer. Deposits of gypsum on wall paintings as well as traces of weddellite are degradation products formed as a result of exposing wall paintings to environmental conditions.

  8. The last million years recorded at the Stari Slankamen (Northern Serbia) loess-palaeosol sequence: revised chronostratigraphy and long-term environmental trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, Slobodan B.; Hambach, Ulrich; Stevens, Thomas; Kukla, George J.; Heller, Friedrich; McCoy, William D.; Oches, Eric A.; Buggle, Björn; Zöller, Ludwig

    2011-05-01

    The Stari Slankamen loess-palaeosol section is located on the northeastern part of the Srem Loess Plateau (Vojvodina region, North Serbia). The c. 40-m thick cliff comprises loess intercalated with 9 major palaeo pedocomplexes and can be considered to be one of the most important Quaternary sections in the Carpathian (Panonnian) basin. Here we present new magnetostratigraphic and aminostratigraphic evidence that demonstrates the importance of the site in terms of its age and the long-term palaeoclimatic record it preserves. Directional palaeomagnetic data, obtained through alternating field demagnetization demonstrates the presence of reversed polarity below a profile depth of 36 m indicating a Matuyama chron age of this interval. This interpretation is confirmed by new high resolution palaeomagnetic investigations (434 oriented samples) from the lower part of the profile. The new magnetic susceptibility record and aminostratigraphy indicate a missing pedocomplex (V-S2), with an erosional unconformity represented by a distinct gravel layer. The combined new magnetostratigraphic and aminostratigraphic based age model requires a significant revision of hitherto published chronostratigraphic subdivisions at the site. The relative completeness and long time frame covered by the section is unusual in European loess sequences. Hence, the sequence could form the basis of a continental scale stratigraphic scheme that would alleviate much current chronostratigraphic uncertainty and enable more broad-scale climatic reconstructions. The section also provides a rare opportunity to investigate detailed and long-term climatic change over the Middle Pleistocene in a region influenced by air masses originating from high and middle latitudes, as well as the North Atlantic and Mediterranean. The changing relative importance of these air masses through time provides insight into local and regional atmospheric systems and their evolution through the last c.1 Ma. The section can thus

  9. Multi-analytical study of techniques and palettes of wall paintings of the monastery of Žiča, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Stojanović-Marić, Milica; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Žikić, Radiša; Uskoković-Marković, Snežana

    2016-03-01

    The present multi-analytical study concentrates on establishing the painting techniques and the identity of the wall painting materials used by the artists from the 13th and 14th centuries to decorate the Žiča monastery, Serbia. For this purpose, we demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is an efficient, non-destructive method with high spatial resolution which gives molecular and crystal structural information of a wide variety of both inorganic and organic materials. It is shown that elementary composition revealed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is necessary in some cases to confirm the identity of pigments and binders identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a fresco technique, in combination with mainly natural earth pigments such as red ochre, yellow ochre and green earth, was used. Expensive natural pigment lapis lazuli was exclusively used for obtaining blue colour while pure vermilion was used by the artists from the first period of decorations at the beginning of the 13th century. A mixture of pigments was used for attaining different colour shades. For the gilding of saint's haloes, thin golden foil was deposited over the tin sheet. In order to get a desirable optical and aesthetical impression, the metallic leaves were deposited over the yellow ochre preparatory layer. Deposits of gypsum on wall paintings as well as traces of weddellite are degradation products formed as a result of exposing wall paintings to environmental conditions. PMID:26654964

  10. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  11. Moho depth and age in southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratford, W.; Thybo, H.

    2010-05-01

    Moho ages beneath the Fennoscandian shield are highly variable due to the method of crustal accretion and to the long history of extensional and compressional tectonics. In southern Norway, the Moho and crust are inferred to be the youngest of the shield, however, it is likely that a large discrepancy between crustal age and Moho age exists beneath the high southern scandes where the Caledonian orogeny was in effect. Moho structure in southern Norway was targeted recently with a seismic refraction study (Magnus-Rex - Mantle investigations of Norwegian uplift Structure, refraction experiment). Three ~400 km long active source seismic profiles across the high southern Scandes Mountains, the youngest section of the Fennoscandian shield were recorded. Moho depths beneath the high mountains are 36-40 km, thinning towards the Atlantic Margin and the Oslo graben. A new Moho depth map is constructed for southern Norway by compiling new depth measurements with previous refraction Moho measurements. Gaining better constraint on Moho depths in this area is timely, as debate over the source of support for the mountains has provided the impetus for a new focus project, TopoScandesdeep, to find the depth and mechanisms of compensation. P and S-wave arrivals were recorded in the Magnus-Rex project, from which Poisson ratios for the crust in southern Norway are calculated. Unusually strong S-wave arrivals allow rare insight into crustal Poisson's ratio structure that is not normally available from active source data and are usually determined by earthquake tomography studies where only bulk crustal values are available. An average Poisson's ratio of 0.25 is calculated for the crust in southern Norway, suggesting it is predominantly of felsic-intermediate composition and lacks any significant mafic lower crust. This differs significantly from the adjacent crust in the Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian shield where Moho depths reach ~50 km and an up to 20 km thick mafic lower

  12. A new fault lineament in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.; Johnson, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery clearly shows a 50-mile wide tectonic zone across Southern California oriented about 15 deg to the structures of the Transverse Ranges or with an azimuth of 70 deg. The zone is delineated on the imagery by terrian alignments and vegetational differences. A previously undisclosed tectonic lineament extends across the Mojave Desert and appears as a line of crustal upwarping. Pressure which would have caused this plus the occurrence of many thrust faults with the 70 deg azimuth indicate this to be a zone of crustal compression. Recent earthquake epicenters appear to be related to this compression zone rather than the traditional fault network of Southern California.

  13. A Multifaceted Approach to Improve the Availability and Accessibility of Opioids for the Treatment of Cancer Pain in Serbia: Results From the International Pain Policy Fellowship (2006-2012) and Recommendations for Action.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Snezana M; Maurer, Martha A; Ryan, Karen M; Popovic, Ivana; Husain, S Asra; Cleary, James F; Scholten, Willem

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Serbia, and at least 14,000-16,000 patients experience moderate-to-severe cancer pain every year. Cancer pain relief has been impeded by inadequate availability of opioid analgesics and barriers to their accessibility. In 2006, a Serbian oncologist was selected as an International Pain Policy Fellow. The fellow identified barriers to opioid availability in Serbia and implemented an action plan to address the unavailability of oral morphine, attitudinal and knowledge barriers about opioids, and barriers in the national opioid control policy, in collaboration with the government, local partners, and international experts, including those from the World Health Organization. Collaborative efforts resulted in availability of immediate-release oral morphine, registration of controlled-release hydromorphone, and reimbursement of oral methadone for cancer pain; numerous educational activities aimed at changing inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward opioids; recognition of opioids as essential medicines for palliative care in a new National Palliative Care Strategy; and recognition of the medical use of opioids as psychoactive-controlled substances for the relief of pain included in a new national law on psychoactive-controlled substances, and the development of recommendations for updating regulations on prescribing and dispensing opioids. An increase in opioid consumption at the institutional and national levels also was observed. This article outlines a multifaceted approach to improving access to strong opioids for cancer pain management and palliative care in a middle-income country and offers a potential road map to success. PMID:26988849

  14. Determination of 81 pharmaceutical drugs by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap in different types of water in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Mira; Škrbić, Biljana; Živančev, Jelena; Ferrando-Climent, Laura; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-01-15

    The aim of the work was to study the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in waste, surface, underground, and drinking water samples collected in Serbia. A multi-residue method for the analysis of 81 pharmaceutical drugs from different therapeutic classes in the various types of water was applied. Twenty-five composite water samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction and the presence of 81 pharmaceutical compounds in the extracts was analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap (UPLC-QqLIT-MS/MS). Forty seven compounds of 81 drugs were found in four different types of analyzed water. The highest concentrations of ibuprofen of 20.1 μg L(-1), 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine of 16.2 μg L(-1), 2-hydroxycarbamazepine of 15.9 μg L(-1) and acetaminophen of 15.7 μg L(-1) were found in municipal waste water sample. Results revealed the presence of salicylic acid in 41.67% of water samples, carbamazepine in 36.11%, propranolol and irbesartan in 30.56%. The obtained results were discussed in relation to the relevant data available in literature. This is the first attempt to assess the occurrence of these 81 pharmaceutical residues in water samples in Serbia.

  15. News Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-07-01

    Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

  16. Linguistic Landscapes in Southern Carinthia (Austria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the linguistic landscape (LL) in the southern Austrian province of Carinthia, which is home to an autochthonous Slovene minority. Following several decades of political and legal debate known as the "Ortstafelstreit" ("dispute of topographic signs"), recent legislation has strengthened the status of Slovene…

  17. EWork in Southern Europe. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altieri, G.; Birindelli, L.; Bracaglia, P.; Tartaglione, C.; Albarracin, D.; Vaquero, J.; Fissamber, V.

    Part of the EMERGENCE project to measure and map employment relocation in a global economy in the new communications environment, this report on eWork in southern Europe (SE) combines results of a European employer survey, case studies, and data from other sources. Chapter 1 analyzes national and sector dimensions. Chapter 2 studies eWork practice…

  18. Infrared observations of southern RV Tauri stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Ney, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Photometric measurements from 2.2 to 18 microns are reported for six southern RV Tauri stars. Four of the six have anomalous infrared excess radiation similar to that observed in other RV Tauri stars. The infrared spectra of IW Car, AR Pup, and SX Cen resemble that of oxygen-rich RV Tau. RU Cen is similar to AC Her.

  19. Black Populations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckert, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Few books have been written and little information is known about Black populations of the southern Appalachian mountains. This article describes the cultural and settlement patterns of these people and traces their historical development. Occupational changes and the effects of urbanization are presented. (VM)

  20. El Nino --- Southern Oscillation Impact Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, N.

    1988-02-01

    The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon affects the atmosphere and ocean over much of the globe. The resultant atmospheric and oceanic anomalies can produce a variety of biological and societal impacts. Three examples of impacts that may be predictable by monitoring simple indices of ENSO are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such direct'' prediction of impacts are considered.

  1. Streamlined Strategies to Better Visualize Southern Blotting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Derek M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe an animated slideshow of Southern blotting that I have made freely available to other instructors. My hope is to provide a clear visualization of the logistics behind the technique so that instructors have a solid basis--as well as time freed up--to discuss its applications with students.

  2. Epidemiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Southern Albania

    PubMed Central

    Koko, Vjollca; Ndrepepa, Ana; Skenderaj, Skender

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and the burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Southern Albania. Material and Methods: This is an epidemiologic observational study with cross-sectional analyses of all patients with RA who lived in Southern Albania during the 1995-2011 years. The RA prevalence, incidence and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) were assessed. Results: During the 1995-2011 years, 194 patients (154 females and 40 males) with RA living in Southern Albania were identified. The prevalence of RA in 2011 was 0.25% in general population and 0.34% in adult (>14 years) population. The incidence of RA in 2011 was 0.012% (12 new cases per 100000 inhabitants) and 0.016% (16 new cases per 100000 adults). The prevalence increased (from 0.036% in 1996 to 0.25% in 2011) and the incidence did not change over the study period. The mortality was 3.2% (n=7 deaths). The DALY due to RA was 823 years per 100000 inhabitants during 1995-2011 years. Conclusion: RA in Southern Albania has a prevalence of 0.25 % and an annual incidence of 0.012% in the general population in 2011. RA was responsible for a considerable burden on the health of population during the 1995-2011 years. PMID:26236163

  3. Educational Excellence Study, Texas Southern University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Southern Univ., Houston.

    A proposed plan for review of the mission and goals of Texas Southern University (TSU) is presented that deals with improvements and resources needed to strengthen the university, unnecessary program duplication with other universities, new programs, institutional goals and timetables, improved planning at TSU, and sound human relations practices.…

  4. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  5. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major…

  6. Emergency Food Providers in Southern Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Mary

    This paper examines emergency food provider networks in rural southern Illinois. An overview focuses on recent research reports on hunger in America, official federal emergency food assistance policy and criticisms of that policy, and the role of the private sector in emergency food distribution. The review details the disagreements on policy and…

  7. Groundwater use on southern Idaho dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy production has expanded in irrigated areas of the western and southwestern US, potentially competing for limited water supplies. Groundwater withdrawal was measured for two years on six dairy farms with 660 to 6400 milk cows in southern Idaho. Groundwater withdrawal was calculated on an equiva...

  8. Southern Ute and Ute Mountain Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Caren

    1992-01-01

    The Southern Ute and Ute Mountain tribes have developed a joint vocational rehabilitation program that incorporates cultural values and traditions and uses traditional healers and elders as job coaches. Eleven reasons explain why the new program is succeeding where the previous state program did not. (SV)

  9. Naturalization of Dalechampia scandens in southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dalechampia scandens, a native to the American and African tropics, was recently found naturalized in two Broward County parks in southern Florida. This is the first occurrence of the plant in the continental United States. One of the populations may be an escape from a butterfly attraction where th...

  10. Catalog of Uncommon Facilities in Southern Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This catalog of uncommon facilities in southern universities was developed in an effort to bring about more effective use of existing facilities, to reduce the need for duplicating certain facilities, and to increase learning and research opportunities. All of the facilities listed are available, under certain conditions, for use by students and…

  11. Development of Southern Cross University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Cross University (SCU) has established a pathways college to increase access to and widen participation in higher education for people in regional areas of Australia. While many Australian universities have preparatory colleges associated with them, SCU College has been designed to make it unique in the sector. SCU College will operate…

  12. Southern Rural Education Association Journal, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulick, Chuck, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal contains the following articles pertaining to education in rural areas: (1) "The State of the Association" (William Peter) reviews the mission and progress of the Southern Rural Education Association; (2) "Arts Enrichment Programs in Middle Tennessee Rural Schools" (Howard Brahmstedt and Patricia Brahmstedt) describes how these…

  13. Climate vulnerabilities in the southern plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The value of agricultural production in the Southern Plains exceeded $59 bil (2012 Agricultural Census) with livestock accounting for 58% of total agricultural sales. Crop and livestock commodities exceeding $1 bil include wheat, corn, horticultural crops, cotton, hay and forages, sorghum, soybean, ...

  14. Endosulfan wet deposition in Southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable and other crops are produced on about 25000 ha. in southern Florida in an area adjacent to Everglades and Biscayne Bay National Parks (NP). High pest pressures require high pesticide use rates. We recently reported that one mechanism for transport of the insecticide endosulfan from treated...

  15. Southern Colorado State College Teacher Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquibel, Antonio A.

    Occurring in six elementary schools in Pueblo, the Teacher Corps Program at Southern Colorado State College features the following components: a) a cross-cultural component for all participants; b) a community-based component designed to assist the community to participate in educational decision making; c) a 2-year undergraduate, field- and…

  16. Rain Rate Statistics in Southern New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulic, Frank J., Jr.; Horan, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    The methodology used in determining empirical rain-rate distributions for Southern New Mexico in the vicinity of White Sands APT site is discussed. The hardware and the software developed to extract rain rate from the rain accumulation data collected at White Sands APT site are described. The accuracy of Crane's Global Model for rain rate predictions is analyzed.

  17. Southern Agrarian Heritage Learning Package. Teachers Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Cooperative Educational Service Agency, Atlanta, GA.

    This teacher's manual is a guide to a learning package of materials dealing with the cultural and ethnic heritage of black and white rural Southern agrarians. Specific teaching strategies are detailed in a step-by-step fashion and revolve around three models of instruction, which involve teacher directed in class activities as well as self…

  18. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  19. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Taken in 1890's OAKLAND LONG WHARF FROM GOAT ISLAND Oakland Mole in Background - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  1. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S PATTERN REPAIR SHOP, SHOWING A SPANISH-MADE FORADIA BORING MACHINE IN THE FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Photographs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Photographs of 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Before Construction of Long Wharf - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. Leslie Magazine May 11, 1878 OAKLAND LONG WHARF - CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD TERMINUS - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific RR Coll. About 1869 Oakland Point Pier - Used by First Central Pacific Train to Enter Oakland -- November 8, 1869 - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Southern Pacific Railroad Coll. After 1919 Oakland Mole -- Aerial View Looking West by South - Southern Pacific Mole & Pier, Seventh Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159369.html Zika Could Spread in Southern Europe This Summer Conditions ... 2016 TUESDAY, June 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The Zika virus could spread in southern Europe this summer ...

  7. 1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southwest facade, view to northeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. 3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin, northeast elevation, view to southwest (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  9. 2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, northwest elevation, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  10. 7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior oblique view toward doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  11. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  12. 4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, southeast elevation, view to northwest (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. Dynamic aspects of the Southern-Hemisphere medium-scale waves during the southern summer season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Yen, Ming-Cheng; Nune, Durga P.

    1987-01-01

    The role of medium-scale waves on three dynamic aspects of the Southern-Hemisphere general circulation is examined using data generated by the FGGE analyses of the ECMWF. The momentum and sensible heat transports by the medium-scale waves are discussed. The effects of medium-scale waves on atmospheric circulation of the Southern Hemisphere during the summer, in particular the vacillation of atmospheric energetics, are investigated. The horizontal and vertical structures and the transport properties of this wave regime and their relation to downstream development in the Southern Hemisphere are analyzed. It is observed that medium-scale waves supply about a half of the total eddy transport of sensible heat and momentum; the wave regime contributes to the time average of various energy contents and energetic components of atmospheric motion during the southern summer; and the wave regime is amplified during the developing stages of downstream development.

  14. Development of the southern reaches of Laurentia

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.C. Jr. . Federal Center)

    1993-02-01

    Laurentia, the Late Proterozoic continental fragment that now forms the core of North America, has a long and complex history, much of which involves development along its southern margin. The southernmost parts of the Archean continental core are the Wyoming and Superior cratons, both of which contain gneisses that record crust-forming events in the interval 3.8--3.1 Ga as well as greenstone belts that reflect continental growth in the interval 2.8--2.6 Ga. Each of these cratonic elements was assembled and stabilized prior to deposition of passive margin sequences along their southern flanks during the interval [approximately]2.5--1.9 Ga. Between [approximately]1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga arc-related sedimentary and volcanic rocks were accreted to the southern margin of the Laurentian core during a complex series of tectonic episodes that included events locally referred to as the Penokean, Ivanpah, Yavapai, and Mazatzal orogenies, resulting in the addition of a belt of continental crust at least 1,000 km wide. Voluminous highly evolved granite and rhyolite were emplaced along this southern marginal belt between [approximately] 1.45 and 1.35 Ga under conditions of general tectonic stability, or perhaps dispersed regional extension. This same interval was also marked by onset of deposition of thick Middle Proterozoic sedimentary sequences along the western and southern margins of Laurentia. The eastern margin of Laurentia contains the complexly deformed and metamorphosed rocks of the 1.25 to 1.1 Ga Grenville orogen which, according to recent reconstructions, may record a collision with cratonic elements in western South America. The 2,000 km-long Midcontinent rift system in central Laurentia opened and filled with basalt and sediments at about the same time as the end of Grenville activity.

  15. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  16. Roses in the Southern Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    The two best known satellite galaxies of the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds, are located in the southern sky at a distance of about 170,000 light-years. They host many giant nebular complexes with very hot and luminous stars whose intense ultraviolet radiation causes the surrounding interstellar gas to glow. The intricate and colourful nebulae are produced by ionised gas [1] that shines as electrons and positively charged atomic nuclei recombine, emitting a cascade of photons at well defined wavelengths. Such nebulae are called "H II regions", signifying ionised hydrogen, i.e. hydrogen atoms that have lost one electron (protons). Their spectra are characterized by emission lines whose relative intensities carry useful information about the composition of the emitting gas, its temperature, as well as the mechanisms that cause the ionisation. Since the wavelengths of these spectral lines correspond to different colours, these alone are already very informative about the physical conditions of the gas. N44 [2] in the Large Magellanic Cloud is a spectacular example of such a giant H II region. Having observed it in 1999 (see ESO PR Photos 26a-d/99), a team of European astronomers [3] again used the Wide-Field-Imager (WFI) at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope of the La Silla Observatory, pointing this 67-million pixel digital camera to the same sky region in order to provide another striking - and scientifically extremely rich - image of this complex of nebulae. With a size of roughly 1,000 light-years, the peculiar shape of N44 clearly outlines a ring that includes a bright stellar association of about 40 very luminous and bluish stars. These stars are the origin of powerful "stellar winds" that blow away the surrounding gas, piling it up and creating gigantic interstellar bubbles. Such massive stars end their lives as exploding supernovae that expel their outer layers at high speeds, typically about 10,000 km/sec. It is quite likely that some supernovae have already

  17. Tenacious Southern Progressives: Confounding Mencken's Myth of Mediocrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine

    After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the scholars…

  18. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, B&P, AND BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC MOLDING MACHINES. OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT, SOUTHERN DUCTILE MAINTAINS AN AUTOMATED LAEMPE COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. 75 FR 2130 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 29, 2009, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite... section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's regulations, for an...

  20. Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani: Southern Ute Indian Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberly, Stacey Inez (Wachimamachi [Antelope Woman])

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Pinunuuchi Po'og'ani, the Southern Ute Indian Academy, providing Montessori education for Southern Ute tribal members ages 6 weeks through 10 years and reviving the use of the Southern Ute language and culture among young students and their families. Describes how the program supports families, students, and staff, and incorporates…

  1. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in §...

  2. 50 CFR 223.212 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.212... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.212 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... the Southern Distinct Population Segment of spotted seal listed in § 223.102....

  3. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Southern DPS of spotted seal. 223.211... Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The... species shall apply to the Southern Distinct Population Segment of the spotted seal listed in §...

  4. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  5. Report on the bilateral comparison between ZMDM (Serbia) and LNE-INM (France) (Euramet Project 766) EURAMET.PR-K6.1: Spectral regular transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obein, Gaël; Bastie, Jean; Škerovic, Vladan; Vukadin, Predrag

    2011-01-01

    The EURAMET-PR-K6.1 is a bilateral key comparison on spectral regular transmittance carried out in the framework of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement between the LNE-INM/CNAM (France) and the DMDM (Republic of Serbia). The LNE-INM/CNAM acted as the pilot laboratory and provided the link to the key comparison CCPR-K6. The aim of the comparison was restricted to checking the accuracy of the radiometric scale of spectrophotometers, using coloured glass filters with nominal transmittance of approximately 92%, 56%, 10%, 1% and 0.1%. The wavelengths of measurement were 380 nm, 400 nm, 500 nm, 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, 900 nm and 1000 nm. The report describes in detail the facilities of the two participants for spectrophotometric measurements and the uncertainty budgets are presented. The comparison of the results of measurements carried out by the pilot laboratory before and after the circulation of the filters points out that the instability of the filters was not negligible. Moreover, for the coloured glass filters (filters B to D), the drift was wavelength-dependent. As a consequence, the drift of the filters during the comparison has been included in the calculation of the total uncertainty. Measurement results and their associated uncertainties were analysed in this report according to the Guidelines for CCPR Comparison Report Preparation but with some adjustment for taking into account that transmittance measurement have unit 1. Across the spectral region (380 nm to 1000 nm) there were eight wavelengths at which a comparison was made. These were treated entirely independently and thus the report describes eight comparisons for each type of filter. The linkage of this bilateral key comparison to the CCPR-K6 key comparison takes a particularly simple form because the pilot laboratory was also the pilot laboratory for the CCPR-K6 comparison, and the artefacts used were the same as those of CCPR-K6. The degrees of equivalence of DMDM have hence been evaluated by linking

  6. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  7. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dana L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M; Gaul, Linda; Sharp, Tyler M

    2016-06-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico.

  8. Reemergence of Dengue in Southern Texas, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Dana L.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Abeyta, Roman; Hinojosa, Steven; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Adam, Jessica K.; Evert, Nicole; Caraballo, Elba; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L.; Smith, Brian; Banicki, Alison; Tomashek, Kay M.; Gaul, Linda

    2016-01-01

    During a dengue epidemic in northern Mexico, enhanced surveillance identified 53 laboratory-positive cases in southern Texas; 26 (49%) patients acquired the infection locally, and 29 (55%) were hospitalized. Of 83 patient specimens that were initially IgM negative according to ELISA performed at a commercial laboratory, 14 (17%) were dengue virus positive by real-time reverse transcription PCR performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dengue virus types 1 and 3 were identified, and molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated close identity with viruses that had recently circulated in Mexico and Central America. Of 51 household members of 22 dengue case-patients who participated in household investigations, 6 (12%) had been recently infected with a dengue virus and reported no recent travel, suggesting intrahousehold transmission. One household member reported having a recent illness consistent with dengue. This outbreak reinforces emergence of dengue in southern Texas, particularly when incidence is high in northern Mexico. PMID:27191223

  9. Hartung's Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, David; Frew, David J.

    1995-10-01

    Many of the most spectacular astronomical objects are found in the southern skies. With this up-to-date, superbly illustrated handbook, both the amateur with binoculars and the expert with a telescope can make discoveries about new and interesting objects. Professor E. J. Hartung first produced his comprehensive and highly respected guide in 1968. Now the book has been greatly expanded and thoroughly revised, enhancing its character as an indispensable information source. With over 150 illustrations, new material is included on constellations and celestial coordinate systems as well as more modern descriptions of stars, nebulae and galaxies. The authors have included a new "southern Messier" list of objects. The authors' passion for their subject make this a unique and inspirational book. Many of the beautiful photographs were taken by David Malin, the world's leading astronomical photographer. The result will fascinate active and armchair astronomers alike.

  10. Sharp View of Gullies in Southern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 November 2006 Crisp details in a suite of mid-latitude gullies on a crater wall are captured in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view obtained in southern winter on 12 October 2006. During southern winter, shadows are more pronounced and the atmosphere is typically quite clear. These gullies, which may have formed in relatively recent martian history by erosion caused by flowing, liquid water, are located in a crater on the east rim of Newton Crater near 40.4oS, 155.3oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; the crater rim is on the right side of the image, the crater floor is on the left. North is toward the top/upper left.

  11. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Singh, Preet

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  12. HIV-1 infection in Juba, southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M C; Khalid, I O; El Tigani, A

    1995-05-01

    Thirty years of civil war in the Sudan have resulted in the isolation of the southern provinces which border Central and East Africa. Consequently, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in this region. To estimate the prevalence of HIV-1 infection in southern Sudan and the risk factors associated with disease transmission, a seroepidemiologic survey was conducted in the township of Juba. Study subjects invited to participate in this study included medical outpatients, inpatients hospitalized for active tuberculosis, and female prostitutes. A total of 401 subjects participated in the study. HIV-1 infection was confirmed in 25 subjects. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 19% (8/42) among tuberculosis patients, 16% (8/50) among prostitutes, and 3% (9/309) among outpatients. A significantly higher prevalence of HIV-1 infection was found among female prostitutes when compared to female outpatients: 16% (8/50) vs. 2% (4/178), P < 0.001. Correspondingly, the prevalence of seropositives was significantly higher among male outpatients reporting a history of sexual relations with prostitutes during the prior 10 years compared to male outpatients denying relations with prostitutes: 14% (5/37) vs. 0% (0/94), P = 0.0011. A history of a sexually transmitted disease (STD) was also associated with HIV-1 infection among male outpatients. The findings of this study indicate that HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in southern Sudan and that prostitutes and their sexual partners represent a major reservoir of HIV infection in this population. This epidemiologic pattern resembles that seen in the African nations neighboring southern Sudan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. New southern galaxies with active nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, M.A.G.; Da costa, L.N.; Willmer, C.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Rite, C.

    1987-03-01

    A list of AGN candidates, identified from optical spectra taken as part of an ongoing redshift survey of southern galaxies, is presented. The identification, coordinates, morphological type, measured heliocentric radial velocity, and proposed emission type are given for the galaxies showing evidence of nonstellar nuclear activity. Using standard diagnostics, several new Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear-emission regions (LINERs) are identified among the emission-line galaxies observed. 14 references.

  14. Walter Baade and the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1993-12-01

    The inception of the European Southern Observatory is generally traced to Walter Baade's discussions with Jan Oort during his visit to Leiden in the spring of 1953. However, these discussions had certainly been underway between them previously, during Oort's visit to Pasadena in early 1952. Furthermore, Baade's great interest in southern-hemisphere astronomy and his strong desire to observe there can be traced far back in his career. In 1927, after his return to Germany from a year in the U.S. under a Rockefeller fellowship, Baade reported that his country had no chance to catch up with American astronomy in the northern hemisphere. He advocated moving the Hamburg 1-meter reflector to the southern hemisphere to get in ahead of the U.S. with an effective telescope there. Baade emphasized the research that could be done on high-luminosity and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Later, after he had joined the Mount Wilson staff, his early attempts to locate the center of our Galaxy and globular clusters near it (in 1937) and his observational study (with Edwin Hubble) of the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf galaxies (in 1939) re-emphasized to him the need for a southern observatory. During and soon after World War II he made many suggestions on a search for ``cluster-type variables'' in the Magellanic Clouds to Enrique Gaviola, director of the new 1.5-meter Bosque Alegre reflector in Argentina. Baade wanted to go there to observe with it himself, but his German citizenship prevented him from leaving the U.S.. Finally, in the last year of his life, he was able to observe NGC 6522 (the globular cluster in ``his'' window), with the Mount Stromlo 1.9-meter reflector.

  15. Mesozoic extension in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, F.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Geophysical data from the southern Appalachians are generally interpreted in terms of Paleozoic collisional tectonics; the later effects of Mesozoic extension are often overlooked or downplayed. This paper reinterprets seismic reflection data from Georgia with the view that Mesozoic extension is responsible for most of the seismic reflection patterns one sees today. The interpretation suggests that geophysical data from a particular area reflect the most recent tectonic event rather than earlier and perhaps more geologically obvious events.

  16. Primary production in Southern Ocean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; Worthen, Denise; Schnell, Anthony; Lizotte, Michael P.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Ocean forms a link between major ocean basins, is the site of deep and intermediate water ventilation, and is one of the few areas where macronutrients are underutilized by phytoplankton. Paradoxically, prior estimates of annual primary production are insufficient to support the Antarctic food web. Here we present results from a primary production algorithm based upon monthly climatological phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS). Phytoplankton production was forced using monthly temperature profiles and a radiative transfer model that computed changes in photosynthetically usable radiation at each CZCS pixel location. Average daily productivity (g C m-2 d-1) and total monthly production (Tg C month-1) were calculated for each of five geographic sectors (defined by longitude) and three ecological provinces (defined by sea ice coverage and bathymetry as the pelagic province, the marginal ice zone, and the shelf). Annual primary production in the Southern Ocean (south of 50°S) was calculated to be 4414 Tg C yr-1, 4-5 times higher than previous estimates made from in situ data. Primary production was greatest in the month of December (816 Tg C month-1) and in the pelagic province (contributing 88.6% of the annual primary production). Because of their small size the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and the shelf contributed only 9.5% and 1.8%, respectively, despite exhibiting higher daily production rates. The Ross Sea was the most productive region, accounting for 28% of annual production. The fourfold increase in the estimate of primary production for the Southern Ocean likely makes the notion of an "Antarctic paradox" (primary production insufficient to support the populations of Southern Ocean grazers, including krill, copepods, microzooplankton, etc.) obsolete.

  17. Dengue epidemic in southern Vietnam, 1998.

    PubMed

    Ha, D Q; Tien, N T; Huong, V T; Loan, H T; Thang, C M

    2000-01-01

    A widespread epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occurred in southern Vietnam in 1998, with 438.98 cases/100,000 population and 342 deaths. The number of DHF cases and deaths per 100,000 population increased 152.4% and 151.8%, respectively, over a 1997 epidemic. Dengue viruses were isolated from 143 patient blood samples; DEN-3 virus was identified as the predominant serotype, although a resurgence of DEN-4 was noted.

  18. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  19. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Southern Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Achterberg, R. K.; Teanby, N. A.; Coustenis, A.; Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Irwin, P. G.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2009 Titan passed through northern spring equinox, and the southern hemisphere passed into fall. Since then, the moon's atmosphere has been closely watched for evidence of the expected seasonal reversal of stratospheric circulation, with increased northern insolation leading to upwelling, and consequent downwelling at southern high latitudes. If the southern winter mirrors the northern winter, this circulation will be traced by increases in short-lived gas species advected downwards from the upper atmosphere to the stratosphere. The Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn carries on board the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), which has been actively monitoring the trace gas populations through measurement of the intensity of their infrared emission bands (7-1000 micron). In this presentation we will show fresh evidence from recent CIRS measurements in June 2012, that the shortest-lived and least abundant minor species (C3H4, C4H2, C6H6, HC3N) are indeed increasing dramatically southwards of 50S in the lower stratosphere. Intriguingly, the more stable gases (C2H2, HCN, CO2) have yet to show this trend, and continue to exhibit their 'summer' abundances, decreasing towards the south pole. Possible chemical and dynamical explanations of these results will be discussed , along with the potential of future CIRS measurements to monitor and elucidate these seasonal changes.

  20. Climate change and wildfire around southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    When the climate change in southern Africa is analyzed, the effects of rainfall by Inter Tropical Convergence Zone(ITCZ) and cyclone are important. In this study, the rainfall patterns are analyzed with synoptic analysis. The southern limit of ITCZ is around the arid zone around Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. This zone has some effects of both ITCZ and extratropical cyclones by season. As well as this, the eastern part of this area has heavy rainfall by the cyclone from the Indian Ocean once in several years. In the other hand, a lot of wildfire occurs in this area. The main cause of the wildfire is anthropogenic misbehavior of the fire by the slash-and-burn agriculture. Recently we can find the wildfire detected with the satellite imagery like Terra/Aqua MODIS. We can compare the weather environment and the wildfire occurrence with Geographical Information System. We have tried making the fire weather index suitable for the southern African semi-arid area.

  1. Early German plans for southern observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  2. Cadmium isotope variations in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zichen; Rehkämper, Mark; Horner, Tristan J.; Abouchami, Wafa; Middag, Rob; van de Flierd, Tina; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2013-11-01

    Cadmium concentrations and isotope compositions were determined for 47 seawater samples from the high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) zone of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. The samples include 13 surface waters from a transect of the Weddell Gyre and 3 depth profiles from the Weddell Sea and Drake Passage. The Southern Ocean mixed layer samples from this study and Abouchami et al. (2011) define a clear but broad ‘HNLC trend’ in a plot of εCd114/110 versus [Cd], which is primarily a consequence of isotopic fractionation associated with biological uptake (εCd114/110 is the deviation of the 114Cd/110Cd ratio of a sample from NIST SRM 3108 Cd in parts per 10,000). The trend is especially apparent in comparison to the large range of values shown by a global set of seawater Cd data for shallow depths. The Southern Ocean samples are also distinguished by their relatively high Cd concentrations (typically 0.2 to 0.6 nmol/kg) and moderately fractionated εCd114/110 (generally between +4 and +8) that reflect the limited biological productivity of this region. Detailed assessment reveals fine structure within the ‘HNLC trend’, which may record differences in the biological fractionation factor, different scenarios of closed and open system isotope fractionation, and/or distinct source water compositions. Southern Ocean seawater from depths ⩾1000 m has an average εCd114/110 of +2.5±0.2 (2se, n=16), and together with previous results this establishes a relatively constant εCd114/110 value of +3.0±0.3 (2se, n=27) for global deep waters. Significant isotopic variability was observed at intermediate depths in the Southern Ocean. Seawater from 200 m to 400 m in Weddell Sea has high Cd concentrations and εCd114/110 as low as +1, presumably due to remineralization of Cd from biomass that records incomplete nutrient utilization. Antarctic Intermediate Water, which was sampled at 150 to 750 m depth in the Drake Passage, features a distinct Cd isotope

  3. Permanent GPS Geodetic Array in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Cecil H.; Green, Ida M.

    1998-01-01

    The southern California Permanent GPS Geodetic Array (PGGA) was established in the spring of 1990 to evaluate continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements as a new too] for monitoring crustal deformation. Southern California is an ideal location because of the relatively high rate of tectonic deformation, the high probability of intense seismicity, the long history of conventional and space geodetic measurements, and the availability of a well developed infrastructure to support continuous operations. Within several months of the start of regular operations, the PGGA recorded far-field coseismic displacements induced by the June 28, 1992 (M(sub w)=7.3), Landers earthquake, the largest magnitude earthquake in California in the past 40 years and the first one to be recorded by a continuous GPS array. Only nineteen months later, on 17 January 1994, the PGGA recorded coseismic displacements for the strongest earthquake to strike the Los Angeles basin in two decades, the (M(sub e)=6.7) Northridge earthquake. At the time of the Landers earthquake, only seven continuous GPS sites were operating in southern California; by the beginning of 1994, three more sites had been added to the array. However, only a pair of sites were situated in the Los Angeles basin. The destruction caused by the Northridge earthquake spurred a fourfold increase in the number of continuous GPS sites in southern California within 2 years of this event. The PGGA is now the regional component of the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), a major ongoing densification of continuous GPS sites, with a concentration in the Los Angeles metropolitan region. Continuous GPS provides temporally dense measurements of surface displacements induced by crustal deformation processes including interseismic, coseismic, postseismic, and aseismic deformation and the potential for detecting anomalous events such as preseismic deformation and interseismic strain variations. Although strain meters

  4. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  5. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  6. Petrology of greenstones in southern Wyoming Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Yuasa, T.; Ogasawara, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Archean greenstones occur in South Pass area and southern Wind River Canyon area in central Wyoming State, U.S.A. These two areas are near about 100 km away from each other and belong to the same sub- province named Wyoming greenstone province (WGP, composed of meta-mafic rocks and meta- sedimentary rocks) (Mueller et al., 1998). The South Pass area is one of the greenstone belts in the southern Wyoming Province and is located in the northwestern part of the WGP. The greenstones (15 km long) occur along the later Archean granitic batholith (Louis Lake batholith, 2.63 Ga) and are composed of meta-pillow lavas, meta diabasic rocks, meta-gabbroic rocks, meta basaltic tuffs, and other meta sediments. The meta diabasic rocks occur as dykes. Banded iron formation lies along the contact between these greenstones and the batholith. Several previous studies suggested that these greenstones were metamorphosed under conditions of amphibolite, and locally greenschist (Harper et al., 1985; Wilks and Harper, 1997; Frost et al., 2000). However we found evidence indicating limited distribution of the amphibolite facies zone which is restricted along the batholith. Greenstones in this area were regionally metamorphosed under low-grade and the amphibolite facies greenstones were formed by the thermal effects by the batholith. Many characteristics of the protolith are well preserved. The following textures are preserved; pillow lava structure, relic igneous augite grains in meta basaltic rocks, relic igneous brown hornblende grains in meta diabasic rocks, gabbroic textures, and some sedimentary textures. The pillow lavas (5-10 cm x 15-30 cm) are composed of pale green core and thin dark gray rim (about 0.5 cm wide) and the core domain is rich in carbonate. The southern Wind River Canyon area is located in the northern part of the WGP. Archean greenstones in this area are composed of meta pillow lavas, meta gabbroic rocks, and meta pelites. From south toward north, mafic rocks

  7. The impact of the Southern Annular Mode on future changes in Southern Hemisphere rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Eun-Pa; Hendon, Harry H.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Delage, Francois; Nguyen, Hanh; Min, Seung-Ki; Wheeler, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    A robust positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is projected for the end of the 21st century under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, which results in rainfall decreases in the midlatitudes and increases in the high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). We find that this SAM trend also increases rainfall over the SH subtropics in austral summer but not in winter, leading to a pronounced wintertime poleward expansion of the subtropical dry zone. These dynamically driven rainfall changes by the SAM appear to oppose the thermodynamically driven projected rainfall changes in the SH subtropics and midlatitudes, whereas the two components reinforce each other in the high latitudes. However, we show that most climate models fall short in capturing the observed SAM component driven by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and associated rainfall in the austral warm seasons, which limits our confidence in quantifying the contribution of the SAM to projected rainfall changes.

  8. Geographically Related Variation in Epicuticular Wax Traits of Pinus nigra Populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans - Taxonomic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subspecies (namely subsp. nigra, subsp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques with respect to biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and 14 n-alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd-numbered n-alkanes C27 , C25 , C23 , and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the first group consisted of the southernmost populations of subsp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second consisted of the northernmost subsp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with subsp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results agree with CDA and CA analysis, and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations. PMID:27273147

  9. El Niño–Southern Oscillation diversity and Southern Africa teleconnections during Austral Summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.; Magadzire, Tamuka; Zinke, Jens; Husak, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of sea surface temperature (SST) expressions have been observed during the El Niño–Southern Oscillation events of 1950–2010, which have occurred simultaneously with different global atmospheric circulations. This study examines the atmospheric circulation and precipitation during December–March 1950–2010 over the African Continent south of 15∘S, a region hereafter known as Southern Africa, associated with eight tropical Pacific SST expressions characteristic of El Niño and La Niña events. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate the SST expressions of El Niño and La Niña. The seasonal precipitation forcing over Southern Africa associated with the eight SST expressions was investigated in terms of the horizontal winds, moisture budget and vertical motion. El Niño events, with warm SST across the east and central Pacific Ocean and warmer than average SST over the Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation reductions over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation reductions are forced primarily by large-scale mid-tropospheric subsidence associated with anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere. El Niño events with cooler than average SST over the Indian Ocean are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa associated with lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation and mid-tropospheric ascent. La Niña events, with cool SST anomalies over the central Pacific and warm SST over the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation increases are forced primarily by lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation, resulting in mid-tropospheric ascent and an increased flux of moisture into the region.

  10. El Niño-Southern Oscillation diversity and Southern Africa teleconnections during Austral Summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Magadzire, Tamuka; Zinke, Jens; Husak, Greg

    2015-09-01

    A wide range of sea surface temperature (SST) expressions have been observed during the El Niño-Southern Oscillation events of 1950-2010, which have occurred simultaneously with different global atmospheric circulations. This study examines the atmospheric circulation and precipitation during December-March 1950-2010 over the African Continent south of 15S, a region hereafter known as Southern Africa, associated with eight tropical Pacific SST expressions characteristic of El Niño and La Niña events. The self-organizing map method along with a statistical distinguishability test was used to isolate the SST expressions of El Niño and La Niña. The seasonal precipitation forcing over Southern Africa associated with the eight SST expressions was investigated in terms of the horizontal winds, moisture budget and vertical motion. El Niño events, with warm SST across the east and central Pacific Ocean and warmer than average SST over the Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation reductions over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation reductions are forced primarily by large-scale mid-tropospheric subsidence associated with anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere. El Niño events with cooler than average SST over the Indian Ocean are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa associated with lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation and mid-tropospheric ascent. La Niña events, with cool SST anomalies over the central Pacific and warm SST over the west Pacific and Indian Ocean, are associated with precipitation increases over Southern Africa. The regional precipitation increases are forced primarily by lower tropospheric cyclonic circulation, resulting in mid-tropospheric ascent and an increased flux of moisture into the region.

  11. River sinuosity changes as indicators of the possible neotectonic activity - a case study on the Danube River between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit

    2010-05-01

    The meandering, pre-regulation river planforms of the Danube River, between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia) was digitized from the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Timár et al., 2006). These maps were surveyed before or simultaneously with the river control works, so it is possible to follow the natural riverbeds, the natural changing of the meandering structure. The sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). The channel sinuosity of this river is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of the western part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Several points of sinuosity change were identified. To prove that these are of neotectonic origin, a neotectonic map and seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Significant sinuosity changes (low to high or high to low), spatially correlated to linear features identified in seismic survey sections or in tectonic maps (Horváth et al., 2006), indicate their neotectonic activity (Ouchi, 1985; Timár, 2003; Zámolyi et al., 2010). Upstream of the Hungarian-Serbian border, the Duna (Danube) has anabranching planform, the Baracskai-Duna is the main anabranch. There is a fault on the neotectonic map, crossing both rivers, and cause the decreasing of the sinuosity. The vertical activity of the structural line, which is more or less parallel to the international border, is verified by the sinuosity change. The direction of the change (from high to low sinuosity values) correlates with the normal fault character, shown on the map. Another significant sinuosity change occurs downstream of the Drava River confluence. The explanation of this change can be of two kinds. First, there is a known tectonic feature along the Drava River, with dextral faulting. The sinuosity increase could indicate a small active vertical component of this structural line

  12. Late Pliocene deglaciation of Southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, M. H.; Carlson, A. E.; Stoner, J. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Wolhowe, M. D.; Mathias, A.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting the response of the remaining Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations is an important goal of climate science. The late Pliocene (3.3-3.0 Ma; formerly the middle Pliocene) may offer a natural quasi-analogue to climate in the upcoming centuries: CO2 levels were ~400 PPM, global surface temperatures were 2-3 degrees higher, and sea level was likely at least 6 m higher than today. Yet little is currently known about the history of the pre-Quaternary Greenland ice sheet. IODP Expedition 303 site U1307 at 2575 m depth on the Eirik Ridge extends back to 3.4 Ma, capturing the late-Pliocene warm period adjacent to the southern Greenland ice sheet. Ice-rafted debris records, interpreted on a paleomagnetic reversal age model, suggest roughly 40 ka cyclicity of between ~5% and ~40% sand. Between ~3.3 and 3.2 Ma there is a significant change in lithology characterized by an abrupt reduction in magnetic susceptibility, during which time the sand fraction remains below 10%. Assuming a magnetite mineralogy, hysteresis ratios support a much finer magnetic assemblage of unique provenance in this interval; Mrs/Ms values of the silt fraction range from ~0.2-0.25, compared to ~0.1 in the sediments above and below. The origin this material will be discussed, although this observation is unambiguously consistent with the disappearance of silt transported from the southern Greenland ice sheet. The lack of Greenlandic source material observed in this interval is unique in the last 3.4 Ma at this location, and may indicate full deglaciation of southern Greenland in the late Pliocene.

  13. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  14. Flood of June 2008 in Southern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Walker, John F.; Rose, William J.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Kennedy, James L.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2008, heavy rain caused severe flooding across southern Wisconsin. The floods were aggravated by saturated soils that persisted from unusually wet antecedent conditions from a combination of floods in August 2007, more than 100 inches of snow in winter 2007-08, and moist conditions in spring 2008. The flooding caused immediate evacuations and road closures and prolonged, extensive damages and losses associated with agriculture, businesses, housing, public health and human needs, and infrastructure and transportation. Record gage heights and streamflows occurred at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages across southern Wisconsin from June 7 to June 21. Peak-gage-height data, peak-streamflow data, and flood probabilities are tabulated for 32 USGS streamgages in southern Wisconsin. Peak-gage-height and peak-streamflow data also are tabulated for three ungaged locations. Extensive flooding along the Baraboo River, Kickapoo River, Crawfish River, and Rock River caused particularly severe damages in nine communities and their surrounding areas: Reedsburg, Rock Springs, La Farge, Gays Mills, Milford, Jefferson, Fort Atkinson, Janesville, and Beloit. Flood-peak inundation maps and water-surface profiles were generated for the nine communities in a geographic information system by combining flood high-water marks with available 1-10-meter resolution digital-elevation-model data. The high-water marks used in the maps were a combination of those surveyed during the June flood by communities, counties, and Federal agencies and hundreds of additional marks surveyed in August by the USGS. The flood maps and profiles outline the extent and depth of flooding through the communities and are being used in ongoing (as of November 2008) flood response and recovery efforts by local, county, State, and Federal agencies.

  15. Late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, S.M.; Hobbs, C.H. III; Halka, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    More than 700 km of high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles and sidescan-sonar images provide new information about the late Quaternary history of southern Chesapeake Bay. Sidescan-sonar images show that, excluding the nearshore zone, most of the bay bottom has a monotonously smooth surface, except that sand waves, ripples, and other bedforms occur in local areas affected by tidal currents. Seismic-reflection data show that the Quaternary stratigraphy of the southern part of the Bay is related primarily to the last cycle of sea-level change. The Quaternary section overlies an erosion surface cut deeply into gently seaward-dipping marine beds of Neogene age. Fluvial paleochannels, related to the last major low sea-level stand, are characterized by as much as 55 m of incision and by thin, irregular, terrace and channel-bottom deposits. Marine and estuarine deposits related to the Holocene transgression partially or fully bury the fluvial valleys and overlie the interfluves. A prominent feature of the Bay-mouth area is a wedge of sediment that has prograded into the Bay from the inner shelf. The common assumption--that the Chesapeake Bay is the drowned valley of the Pleistocene Susquehanna River--is only partially valid for the southern part of the Bay. The Bay mouth area, in general, is relatively young. The axial channel of the Bay is a modern tidal channel that is actively eroding Tertiary deposits and migrating toward the south and west; it is unrelated to older fluvial channels. Also, the positions of the modern axial channel and the last two fluvial paleochannels indicate long-term southward migration of the Bay mouth.

  16. Southern Ocean Response to NADW Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Schmidt, G.; Russell, G.; deMenocal, P.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) changes in both past and future climates has raised the issue of how the Southern Ocean would respond. Recent experiments with the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model have shown that a "bipolar see-saw" between NADW production and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production in the Weddell Sea can occur in conjunction with freshening of the North Atlantic. However, this effect operates not through a slow ocean response but via a rapid atmospheric mechanism. As NADW reduces, colder temperatures in the North Atlantic, and Northern Hemisphere in general, are associated with higher surface pressure (increased atmospheric mass). Reduced mass in the Southern Hemisphere occurs in response, with lower pressure over the South Pole (an EOF #1 effect, the "high phase" of the Antarctic Oscillation).The lower pressure is associated with stronger west winds that generate an intensified Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which leads to longitudinal heat divergence in the South Atlantic (and heat convergence in the Southern Indian Ocean). Colder temperatures in the Weddell Sea region lead to sea ice growth, increased salinity and surface water density, and greater Weddell Sea Bottom Water production. Increased poleward transport of heat occurs in the South Atlantic in conjunction with increased bottom water production, but its convergence at high latitudes is not sufficient to offset the longitudinal heat divergence due to the intensified ACC. The colder temperatures at high latitudes in the South Atlantic increase the latitudinal temperature gradient, baroclinic instability, eddy energy and eddy poleward transport of momentum, helping to maintain the lower pressure over the pole in an interactive manner. The heat flux convergence in the Indian Ocean provides a warming tendency in that region, and overall global production of AABW remains unchanged. These results have implications for the interpretation of the ice core records of

  17. Ceilometer measurements in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Adrian; Alexander, Simon; French, John; Harvey, Mike; Ichoja, Andrew; Klekociuk, Andrew; Plank, Graeme; Katurji, Marwan

    2016-04-01

    Current climate models display a consistent deficit of reflected shortwave radiation over the Southern Ocean which is mainly due to the poor representation of clouds. Recent work has also shown that reanalysis also perform poorly relative to satellite observations in terms of cloud fraction. In particular, satellite observations have shown that low-level clouds (with tops below 3 km) are ubiquitous over the Southern Ocean. But, most satellite instruments, even the current generation of active satellite instruments, have difficulties in sampling low level clouds. As part of the New Zealand Deep South challenge project focussed on improving the representation of clouds in the Southern Ocean, we have begun to deploy autonomous instruments on 'ships of opportunity'. This study discusses measurements from a Väisälä CL51 laser ceilometer and ancillary instruments on the first two research voyages in the Southern Ocean and initial results. The route of the first voyage covers a return trip from Wellington (New Zealand) to Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica) onboard the R/V Tangaroa and occurred in January to mid-February 2015. The second deployment is onboard the Aurora Australis Australian Antarctic Division supply ship and began in October 2015 and is planned to finish at Macquarie Island in March 2016. The sampling provided by the ships route allows the ceilometer measurements of the height of the cloud base in a region where limited data apart from, potentially biased, satellite measurements of low-level cloud exist. Analysis of the boundary layer height derived from the ceilometer is also presented. The climatological structure derived from the ceilometer measurements is first detailed. We then compare these measurements with satellite and ground-based observations. We then examine variations in these measurements relative to their meteorological context. Details of plans for future voyages are also detailed. We will also present a preliminary analysis of a case study of

  18. South Pol: Revealing the polarized southern sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalha~es, A. M.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Carciofi, A.; Costa, R.; Dal Pino, E. M. G.; Diaz, M.; Ferrari, T.; Fernandez, C.; Gomes, A. L.; Marrara, L.; Pereyrac, A.; Ribeiro, N. L.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Rubinho, M. S.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Taylor, K.

    2012-05-01

    SOUTH POL will be a survey of the Southern sky in optical polarized light. It will use a newly designed polarimetric module at an 80cm Robotic Telescope. Telescope and polarimeter will be installed at CTIO, Chile, in late 2012. The initial goal is to cover the sky south of declination -15° in two years of observing time, aiming at a polarimetric accuracy <~ 0.1% down to V=15, with a camera covering a field of about 2.0 square degrees. SOUTH POL will impact areas such as Cosmology, Extragalactic Astronomy, Interstellar Medium of the Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds, Star Formation, Stellar Envelopes, Stellar explosions and Solar System, among others.

  19. Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.

    1999-05-18

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area.

  20. Southern California landslides-an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Southern California lies astride a major tectonic plate boundary defined by the San Andreas Fault and numerous related faults that are spread across a broad region. This dynamic tectonic environment has created a spectacular landscape of rugged mountains and steep-walled valleys that compose much of the region’s scenic beauty. Unfortunately, this extraordinary landscape also presents serious geologic hazards. Just as tectonic forces are steadily pushing the landscape upward, gravity is relentlessly tugging it downward. When gravity prevails, landslides can occur.