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Sample records for bottle gourd juice

  1. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  2. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Alvaro; Smith, Bruce D; Gifford, John A; Green, Richard E; Newsom, Lee A; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-02-25

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315-18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication.

  3. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Álvaro; Smith, Bruce D.; Gifford, John A.; Green, Richard E.; Newsom, Lee A.; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315–18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication. PMID:24516122

  4. Bottle gourd genotypes vary in clomazone tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A greenhouse trial was used to evaluate 159 accessions of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) obtained from the U.S. National Plant Germplasm for tolerance to clomazone herbicide. Most accessions tested were moderately or severely injured by clomazone at 3.0 mg/kg incorporated into gr...

  5. The bottle gourd genome provides insights into Cucurbitaceae evolution and facilitates mapping of a Papaya ringspot virus resistance locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is an important vegetable crop as well as a rootstock for other cucurbit crops. In this study, we report a high-quality 313.4-Mb genome sequence of a bottle gourd inbred line, USVL1VR-Ls, with a scaffold N50 of 8.7 Mb and the longest of 19.0 Mb. About 98.3% of the ...

  6. Drought tolerance of selected bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.] landraces assessed by leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Mashilo, Jacob; Odindo, Alfred O; Shimelis, Hussein A; Musenge, Pearl; Tesfay, Samson Z; Magwaza, Lembe S

    2017-11-01

    Successful cultivation of bottle gourd in arid and semi-arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa and globally requires the identification of drought tolerant parents for developing superior genotypes with increased drought resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the level of drought tolerance among genetically diverse South African bottle gourd landraces based on leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic efficiency and identify promising genotypes for breeding. The responses of 12 bottle gourd landraces grown in glasshouse under non-stressed (NS) and drought-stressed (DS) conditions were studied. A significant genotype x water regime interaction was observed for gs, T, A, A/C i , IWUE, WUE ins , F m ', F v '/F m ', Ф PSII , qP, qN, ETR, ETR/A and AES indicating variability in response among the studied bottle gourd landraces under NS and DS conditions. Principal component analysis identified three principal components (PC's) under drought stress condition contributing to 82.9% of total variation among leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured. PC1 explained 36% of total variation contributed by gs, T, F 0 ', F m ', F v '/F m ' and qN, while PC2 explained 28% of the variation and highly correlated with A, A/C i , IWUE, WUE ins ETR/A and AES. PC3 explained 14% of total variation contributed by Ф PSII , qP and ETR. Principal biplot analysis allowed the identification of drought tolerant genotypes such as BG-27, BG-48, BG-58, BG-79, BG-70 and BG-78 which were grouped based on high gs, A, F m 'F v '/F m ', qN, ETR/A and AES under DS condition. The study suggests that the identified physiological traits could be useful indicators in the selection of bottle gourd genotypes for increased drought tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality characteristics of low-fat chicken nuggets: effect of common salt replacement and added bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.).

    PubMed

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Brahma Deo; Banerjee, Rituparna

    2012-07-01

    There is growing demand for the meat products having healthier characteristics. In an endeavour to develop low-salt, low-fat and high-fibre chicken nuggets an investigation was carried out to observe the effects of partial replacement (40%) of sodium chloride in pre-standardised low-fat chicken nuggets (Control, 20 g kg⁻¹ NaCl) with a salt substitute blend as well as incorporation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.) in the resulting low-salt, low-fat products at three different levels, i.e. 50, 75 and 100 g kg⁻¹ (Treatments, 12 g kg⁻¹ NaCl) on the various quality attributes. Sodium chloride replacement decreased (P < 0.01) emulsion and product pH, cooking yield, moisture, ash, yellowness, hue value and textural properties. pH values, moisture and dietary fibre increased (P < 0.01) while cooking yield, % protein, textural properties and total cholesterol were decreased with the incorporation of bottle gourd in low-salt, low-fat nuggets. Sensory attributes of the product were not affected with salt replacement; however, inclusion of bottle gourd at higher levels decreased (P < 0.05) flavour and texture scores. The results suggest that low-salt, low-fat and high-fibre chicken nuggets can be developed with the use of a salt substitute blend and bottle gourd without affecting their acceptability. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. Substitution of water or fresh juice for bottled juice and type 2 diabetes incidence: The SUN cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fresan, U; Gea, A; Bes-Rastrollo, M; Basterra-Gortari, F J; Carlos, S; Martinez-Gonzalez, M A

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between juice consumption and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been widely evidenced. Our aims were to prospectively evaluate the associations with T2D incidence of: 1) isovolumetric substitution of a water serving/day for one of fruit juice (different types), and of fresh fruit juice for its bottled version; 2) consumption of total, fresh or bottled juice; 3) energy intake from juices. We followed 17,518 adults without T2D at baseline. Beverage consumption was assessed at baseline through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The outcome was T2D incidence, according to American Diabetes Association's criteria. During a median follow-up of 10.2 years, 142 incident cases of T2D were identified. In substitution models, the substitution of water for bottled juice was associated with a lower T2D incidence, and also if the replacement was done by fresh juice, or especially fresh orange juice [HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.57-0.99), 0.65 (95% CI 0.43-0.98) and 0.56 (95% CI 0.34-0.92); respectively]. Each additional serving/day of bottled juice was directly associated with T2D incidence [HR 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75)]. No significant association was observed for energy coming for bottled juice [HR 1.74 (95% CI 0.94-3.20)]. Our results suggest that isovolumetric substitution of water or fresh juice for bottled juice was inversely associated with T2D incidence in a long-term prospective study. Thus, these substitutions could be useful to tackle the diabetes epidemic. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Response of U.S. Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Plant Introductions (PI) to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora capsici can cause severe damage to cucurbit crops grown in open fields in the southeast regions of US. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the US in grafting watermelon plants onto various cucurbit rootstocks including bottle gourds for managing soil borne diseases. ...

  11. Adsorption of leather dye onto activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd: equilibrium, kinetic and mechanism studies.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Edson Luiz; Weber, Caroline Trevisan; Paz, Diego Silva; Mazutti, Marcio Antonio; Meili, Lucas; Bassaco, Mariana Moro; Collazzo, Gabriela Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd has been used as adsorbent for removal of leather dye (Direct Black 38) from aqueous solution. The activated carbon obtained showed a mesoporous texture, with surface area of 556.16 m(2) g(-1), and a surface free of organic functional groups. The initial dye concentration, contact time and pH significantly influenced the adsorption capacity. In the acid region (pH 2.5) the adsorption of dye was more favorable. The adsorption equilibrium was attained after 60 min. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with maximum adsorption capacity of 94.9 mg g(-1). Adsorption kinetic data were fitted using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption kinetic was best described by the second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption process was controlled by both external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. Activated carbon prepared from bottle gourd was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of Direct Black 38 from aqueous solution.

  12. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with Ki value of 3.35 mM. PMID:21804936

  13. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R S S; Yadav, K S; Yadav, H S

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K(m) values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2 mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with K(i) value of 3.35 mM.

  14. Fluoride content in bottled drinking waters, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices in Davangere city, India.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, H M; Kumar, Nanditha; Anand, S R; Prashant, G M; Chandu, G N

    2010-01-01

    The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

  15. Effect of Fill Temperature on Clostridium botulinum Type A Toxin Activity during the Hot Filling of Juice Bottles.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Guy E; Fleischman, Gregory J; Balster, Fran; Reineke, Karl; Reddy, N Rukma; Larkin, John W

    2015-08-01

    The potential threat of terrorist attacks against the United States food supply using neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum (BoNT) has resulted in the need for studying the effect of various food process operations on the bioavailability of this toxin. The objective of this study was to evaluate C. botulinum type A neurotoxin bioavailability after a simulated hot fill juice bottling operation. C. botulinum type A acid mud toxin (∼10(6) mouse lethal dose [MLD50]/ml) was deposited into juice bottles at an experimentally determined fastest cooling spot. Bottles (12 or 20 oz [355 and 592 ml]) were filled with either apple juice or an orange drink, at 80 or 85°C, in either upright or inverted orientations. Toxicity of the juice was evaluated as a function of holding time (1 to 2 min) by the mouse bioassay. The fastest cooling point in the upright orientation was determined to be at a bottle's bottom rim. In the inverted orientation, the fastest cooling point was in the bottle cap region. With respect to these two points, the upright bottle cooled faster than the inverted bottle, which was reflected in a higher inactivation of BoNT in the latter. For the orange drink (pH 2.9) toxicity was reduced by 0.5 × 10(6) MLD50/ml to a nondetectable level after 1 min in all bottle sizes, orientations, and temperatures as measured by the mouse bioassay. This indicates that there was at least a 0.5 × 10(6) MLD50/ml reduction in activity. Inactivation in apple juice (pH 4.0), to the same degree as in the orange drink, was found only for the inverted orientation at 85°C. Complete inactivation in apple juice for all conditions was found at a lower added toxin level of 0.25 × 10(5) MLD50/ml. In general, bottle inversion and filling at 85°C provided complete inactivation of BoNT to the 0.5 × 10(6) MLD50/ml level. All experiments resulted in the inactivation of 2.5 × 10(4) MLD50/ml of BoNT regardless of juice type, fill temperature, or bottle orientation and size.

  16. Fluoride content in bottled waters, juices and carbonated soft drinks in Mexico City, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Farfan, M D; Hernandez-Guerrero, J C; Loyola-Rodriguez, J P; Ledesma-Montes, C

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse 283 samples of soft drinks available in the metropolitan market of Mexico City, Mexico: 105 juices, 101 nectars, 57 carbonated drinks and 20 bottled waters. Samples of the beverages were analysed using an Orion 720A potentiometer and an Orion 9609BN F ion-specific electrode. Fluoride concentration in the above-mentioned products ranged from 0.07 to 1.42 p.p.m. It was found that fluoride concentrations varied according to the brand, flavour and presentation of the product. The highest mean concentration of fluoride was found in the juices and cola drinks (0.67 +/- 0.38 and 0.49 +/- 0.41 p.p.m., respectively). The mean fluoride concentration for carbonated drinks was 0.43 +/- 0.36 p.p.m. Bottled waters had a fluoride concentration of 0.21 +/- 0.08 p.p.m. The findings suggest that fluoride ingested through bottled drinks represents an important part of the total fluoride ingested by the population. In view of the wide variation of fluoride concentration in the tested products, it is necessary to implement regulatory guidelines for controlling its concentration in order to prevent dental fluorosis.

  17. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  18. Does a time constraint modify results from rating-based conjoint analysis? Case study with orange/pomegranate juice bottles.

    PubMed

    Reis, Felipe; Machín, Leandro; Rosenthal, Amauri; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón

    2016-12-01

    People do not usually process all the available information on packages for making their food choices and rely on heuristics for making their decisions, particularly when having limited time. However, in most consumer studies encourage participants to invest a lot of time for making their choices. Therefore, imposing a time-constraint in consumer studies may increase their ecological validity. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of a time-constraint on consumer evaluation of pomegranate/orange juice bottles using rating-based conjoint task. A consumer study with 100 participants was carried out, in which they had to evaluate 16 pomegranate/orange fruit juice bottles, differing in bottle design, front-of-pack nutritional information, nutrition claim and processing claim, and to rate their intention to purchase. Half of the participants evaluated the bottle images without time constraint and the other half had a time-constraint of 3s for evaluating each image. Eye-movements were recorded during the evaluation. Results showed that time-constraint when evaluating intention to purchase did not largely modify the way in which consumers visually processed bottle images. Regardless of the experimental condition (with or without time constraint), they tended to evaluate the same product characteristics and to give them the same relative importance. However, a trend towards a more superficial evaluation of the bottles that skipped complex information was observed. Regarding the influence of product characteristics on consumer intention to purchase, bottle design was the variable with the largest relative importance in both conditions, overriding the influence of nutritional or processing characteristics, which stresses the importance of graphic design in shaping consumer perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteomic Study Related to Vascular Connections in Watermelon Scions Grafted onto Bottle-Gourd Rootstock under Different Light Intensities

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) ‘Sambok Honey’ and ‘Speed’ as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) ‘RS Dongjanggun’ as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m−2 s−1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in ‘Sambok Honey’ and ‘Speed’, respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m−2 s−1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings. PMID:25789769

  20. Proteomic study participating the enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of bottle gourd rootstock-grafted watermelon seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Wang, Liping; Tian, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin; He, Lizhong; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    An insertion grafting technique to do research on salt tolerance was applied using watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf. cv. Xiuli) as a scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl. cv. Chaofeng Kangshengwang) as a rootstock. Rootstock-grafting significantly relieved the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis induced by salt stress in watermelon plants. Proteomic analysis revealed 40 different expressed proteins in response to rootstock-grafting and/or salt stress. These proteins were involved in Calvin cycle, amino acids biosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, ROS defense, hormonal biosynthesis and signal transduction. Most of these proteins were up-regulated by rootstock-grafting and/or susceptible to salt stress. The enhancement of the metabolic activities of Calvin cycle, biosynthesis of amino acids, carotenoids and peroxisomes, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in rootstock-grafted seedlings under condition without salt. The accumulation of key enzymes included in these biological processes described above seems to play an important role in the enhancement of salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Furthermore, leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase and phospholipase may be involved in transmitting the internal and external stimuli induced by grafting and/or salt stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Ko, Chung Ho; Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivnnan, Abinaya; Park, Yoo Gyeong; Jeong, Byoung Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld.) 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1). Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  2. Local indigenous fruit-derived juices as alternate source of acidity regulators.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Cassandra; Fernandes, Rosaline; Kudale, Subhash; Naik, Azza Silotry

    2018-03-01

    Acidity regulators are additives that alter and control food acidity. The objective of this study was to explore local indigenous fruits as sources of natural acidity regulators. Juices extracted from Garcinia indica (kokum), Embilica officinalis (amla) and Tamarindus indica (tamarind) were used as acidulants for media such as coconut milk and bottle gourd juice. The buffering capacity β, acid composition, antioxidant activity and shelf-life study of the acidified media were estimated. Potentiometric titration showed G. indica to possess the highest buffering capacity in both ranges. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed T. indica contained a high level of tartaric acid (4.84 ± 0.01 mg g -1 ), while G. indica had citric acid (22.37 ± 0.84 mg g -1 ) and E. officinalis had citric acid (2.75 ± 0.02 mg g -1 ) along with ascorbic acid (2.68 ± 0.01 mg g -1 ). 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity was high for E. officinalis (91.24 ± 0.66%) and T. indica (90.93 ± 0.817%) and relatively lower for G. indica (34.61 ± 3.66%). The shelf-life study showed total plate count to be within the prescribed limits up to a week, in accordance with safety regulations. This investigation confirmed the suitability of indigenous fruit juices as alternatives to existing acidity regulators. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Revisiting "Vegetables" to combat modern epidemic of imbalanced glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament.

  4. Revisiting “Vegetables” to combat modern epidemic of imbalanced glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables have been part of human food since prehistoric times and are considered nutritionally necessary and good for health. Vegetables are rich natural resource of biological antioxidants and possess capabilities of maintaining glucose homeostasis. When taken before starch-rich diet, juice also of vegetables such as ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd, chayote and juice of leaves of vegetables such as radish, Indian Dill, ajwain, tropical green amaranth, and bladder dock are reported to arrest significantly the rise in postprandial blood glucose level. Juice of vegetables such as ash gourd, squash gourd, and tropical green amaranth leaves are observed to tone-down sweet-beverages such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose-induced postprandial glycemic excursion. On the other hand, juice of egg-plant and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and palak are reported to augment starch-induced postprandial glycemic excursion; and juice of leaves of Ceylon spinach, Joyweed, and radish supplement to the glucose-induced postprandial glycemia. Vegetables possess multifaceted antihyperglycemic activities such as inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β in liver and skeletal muscles, and insulin mimetic and secretagogue activities. Furthermore, they are also reported to influence polyol pathway in favor of reducing development of oxidative stress, and consequently the development of diabetic complications. In the wake of emergence of modern maladaptive diet-induced hyperglycemic epidemic therefore, vegetables may offer cost-effective dietary regimen to control diet-induced glycemic over load and future development of diabetes mellitus. However, for vegetables have been reported to do both, mitigate as well as supplement to the diet-induced postprandial glycemic load, care is required in selection of vegetables when considered as medicament. PMID:24991093

  5. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  6. First report of phytophthora fruit rot on bitter gourd (Mormodica charantia) and sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) caused by phytophthora capsici

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Luffa sponge (smooth gourd) and bitter gourds (bitter melon) are specialty cucurbit vegetables cultivated in the United States (US) on a small scale for select markets. Luffa gourds are also grown for the sponge obtained from dried fruit for personal hygiene and skin care. These two cucurbits prod...

  7. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle

    PubMed Central

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P < 0.05) in some blends while titratable acidity decrease with increasing storage time. Vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), total phenols (TPC), and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP) in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 28 and 4°C as storage progressed. Vitamin C in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  8. Vegetables’ juice influences polyol pathway by multiple mechanisms in favour of reducing development of oxidative stress and resultant diabetic complications

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ashok K.; Kumar, D. Anand; Sweeya, Pisupati S.; Chauhan, H. Anusha; Lavanya, V.; Sireesha, K.; Pavithra, K.; Zehra, Amtul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hyperglycemia induced generation of free radicals and consequent development of oxidative stress by polyol pathway is one of the crucial mechanisms stirring up development of diabetic complications. We evaluated influence of ten vegetables’ juice on polyol pathway along with their antioxidant and antioxidative stress potentials. Materials and Methods: Aldose reductase activity was determined utilising goat lens and human erythrocytes. In goat lens, utilization of nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and aldose reductase inhibition was assayed. In human erythrocytes, sorbitol formation was measured as an index of aldose reductase activity under normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions. Ability of juices in inhibiting oxidative damage to deoxyribose sugar and calf thymus DNA and inhibitory activity against hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis of erythrocytes was also analysed. Phytochemical contents like total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total protein were measured to find their influence on biological activities. Results: Vegetables’ juice displayed varying degrees of inhibitory potentials in mitigating NADPH dependent catalytic activity of aldose reductase in goat lens, accumulation of sorbitol in human erythrocytes under different glucose concentrations; Fenton-reaction induced oxidative damage to deoxyribose sugar, and calf thymus DNA. Substantial variations in vegetables phytochemicals content were also noticed in this study. Conclusions: Vegetables’ juice possesses potent activities in influencing polyol pathway by various mechanisms in favour of reducing development of oxidative stress independent of their inherent antioxidative properties. Juice of ivy gourd followed by green cucumber and ridge gourd were among the most potent for they displayed strong activities on various parameters analysed in this study. These vegetables’ juice may become part of mechanism-based complementary antioxidant therapy to prevent

  9. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting affects nitrogen metabolism in NaCl-stressed watermelon leaves and enhances short-term salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Lu, Xiaomin; Yan, Bei; Li, Bin; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth, nitrogen absorption, and assimilation in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) were investigated in self-grafted and grafted seedlings using the salt-tolerant bottle gourd rootstock Chaofeng Kangshengwang (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) exposed to 100mM NaCl for 3d. The biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate were significantly increased by rootstock while these values were remarkably decreased by salt stress. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted plants showed higher salt tolerance with higher biomass and NO3(-) uptake rate under salt stress. Salinity induced strong accumulation of nitrate, ammonium and protein contents and a significant decrease of nitrogen content and the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in leaves of self-grafted seedlings. In contrast, salt stress caused a remarkable decrease in nitrate content and the activities of GS and GOGAT, and a significant increase of ammonium, protein, and nitrogen contents and NR activity, in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Compared with that of self-grafted seedlings, the ammonium content in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings was much lower under salt stress. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was notably enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings, whereas it was significantly inhibited in leaves of self-grafted seedlings, under salinity stress. Three GDH isozymes were isolated by native gel electrophoresis and their expressions were greatly enhanced in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings than those of self-grafted seedlings under both normal and salt-stress conditions. These results indicated that the salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings might (be enhanced) owing to the higher nitrogen absorption and the higher activities of enzymes for nitrogen assimilation induced by the rootstock. Furthermore, the detoxification of ammonium by GDH when the GS/GOGAT pathway

  10. Bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia): A dietary approach to hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Krawinkel, Michael B; Keding, Gudrun B

    2006-07-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a vegetable with pantropical distribution. It contains substances with antidiabetic properties such as charantin, vicine, and polypeptide-p, as well as other unspecific bioactive components such as antioxidants. Metabolic and hypoglycemic effects of bitter gourd extracts have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal, and human studies. The mechanism of action, whether it is via regulation of insulin release or altered glucose metabolism and its insulin-like effect, is still under debate. Adverse effects are also known. Nevertheless, bitter gourd has the potential to become a component of the diet or a dietary supplement for diabetic and prediabetic patients. Well-designed interdisciplinary research by nutritionists, medical doctors, and agronomists is needed before a dietary recommendation can be given and a product brought to the market.

  11. Frequent Consumption of Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and Natural and Bottled Fruit Juices Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Pêgo, Cíntia; Babio, Nancy; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miguel; Santos-Lozano, José Manuel; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Pintó, Xavier; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    The relation between the consumption of sweetened beverages and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is controversial. This analysis evaluated the associations between intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), artificially sweetened beverages, and natural and bottled fruit juices and the incidence of MetS in elderly individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and without MetS at baseline. We prospectively examined 1868 participants free of MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) study. MetS was defined by using the updated harmonized criteria of the International Diabetes Federation, the American Heart Association, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated at baseline and then yearly by using a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for MetS and its components were estimated from mean intakes during follow-up. We compared the 2 highest consumption categories (1-5 and >5 servings/wk) with the lowest category (<1 serving/wk). A total of 930 incident cases of MetS were documented during a median follow-up of 3.24 y. When we compared consumption of >5 servings/wk with consumption of <1 serving/wk, multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for MetS incidence were 1.43 (1.00, 2.15), 1.74 (1.26, 2.41), 1.30 (1.00, 1.69), and 1.14 (1.04, 1.65) for SSBs, artificially sweetened beverages, natural fruit juices, and bottled fruit juices, respectively. The occasional consumption of SSBs and artificially sweetened beverages (1-5 servings/wk) was not associated with the incidence of MetS in middle-aged and elderly individuals at high risk of CVD. The consumption of >5 servings/wk of all of the types of beverages analyzed was associated with an increased risk of MetS and some of its components. However, for SSBs and bottled fruit juices these associations must be interpreted with caution because of the low frequency of consumption in this population. This trial was

  12. Cucurbit powdery mildew-resistant bitter gourd breeding lines reveal four races of Podosphaera xanthii in Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a commercially and nutritionally important market vegetable in Asia cultivated mainly by smallholder farmers. Cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii (Px) is a nearly ubiquitous and serious fungal disease of bitter gourd. Five bitter gourd...

  13. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao

    2013-12-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  14. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    MedlinePlus

    ... early childhood caries (some- times called “baby bottle tooth decay”) is frequent and prolonged exposure of a baby’s ... including milk and juice drinks), because that encourages tooth decay. Offer these liquids only at mealtimes—understanding that ...

  15. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  16. Exposure, health information and flavour-masking strategies for improving the sensory quality of probiotic juice.

    PubMed

    Luckow, T; Sheehan, V; Fitzgerald, G; Delahunty, C

    2006-11-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements, which have been shown to exert numerous health benefits. Research has identified that probiotics cause perceptible off-flavours that often contribute to consumer dissatisfaction. This research consisted of three objectives. Firstly, to confirm whether probiotics have a significant effect on the sensory quality and the consumer acceptance of juices. Secondly, to evaluate whether the addition of tropical juices masks probiotic off-flavours, thereby increasing consumer liking. Thirdly, to determine whether non-sensory factors (i.e., repeated exposure, and health information) have an impact on consumer liking. Three orange juice products were manufactured for analysis; Control juice, juice containing probiotics, and juice containing probiotics and tropical fruit juices (10% v/v). Descriptive sensory analysis using a trained panel (n=8) determined that probiotic juices possessed unique 'medicinal' characteristics. Using labelled affective magnitude scales, consumers (n=116) evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order in the laboratory. Once assigned into one of three balanced exposure groups, each consumer took home seven, 100mL bottles of one of the juices, and consumed one bottle each day for 7 days. After each in-home consumption, consumers evaluated their 'overall liking' to familiarize themselves with the juice. Furthermore, half of the consumers were provided with information about the presence and the health benefits of probiotics, while the other half of consumers received no information. After 7 days of in-home usage, consumers returned to the laboratory for post-exposure sensory testing, where they re-evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order. Results showed that tropical juices were effective in masking the off-flavours associated with probiotic ingredients, and that consumer liking for the probiotic juice containing tropical juice flavours was

  17. Draft genome sequence of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions.

    PubMed

    Urasaki, Naoya; Takagi, Hiroki; Natsume, Satoshi; Uemura, Aiko; Taniai, Naoki; Miyagi, Norimichi; Fukushima, Mai; Suzuki, Shouta; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Tamaki, Moritoshi; Sakamoto, Moriaki; Terauchi, Ryohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an important vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions globally. In this study, the draft genome sequence of a monoecious bitter gourd inbred line, OHB3-1, was analyzed. Through Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly, scaffolds of 285.5 Mb in length were generated, corresponding to ∼84% of the estimated genome size of bitter gourd (339 Mb). In this draft genome sequence, 45,859 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and transposable elements accounted for 15.3% of the whole genome. According to synteny mapping and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, bitter gourd was more related to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) than to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) or melon (C. melo). Using RAD-seq analysis, 1507 marker loci were genotyped in an F2 progeny of two bitter gourd lines, resulting in an improved linkage map, comprising 11 linkage groups. By anchoring RAD tag markers, 255 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and predicted genes determined that putative trypsin-inhibitor and ribosome-inactivating genes were distinctive in the bitter gourd genome. These genes could characterize the bitter gourd as a medicinal plant. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  18. First report of fruit rot of ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ridge gourd is a specialty cucurbit vegetable cultivated in the United States on a small scale for select markets. Ridge gourds are generally grown on a trellis which prevents the fruit from curving and lets it grow straight for the market. However some growers cultivate these on raised beds to low...

  19. An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, David L.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clarke, Andrew C.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Tuross, Noreen

    2005-01-01

    New genetic and archaeological approaches have substantially improved our understanding of the transition to agriculture, a major turning point in human history that began 10,000–5,000 years ago with the independent domestication of plants and animals in eight world regions. In the Americas, however, understanding the initial domestication of New World species has long been complicated by the early presence of an African enigma, the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Indigenous to Africa, it reached East Asia by 9,000–8,000 before present (B.P.) and had a broad New World distribution by 8,000 B.P. Here we integrate genetic and archaeological approaches to address a set of long-standing core questions regarding the introduction of the bottle gourd into the Americas. Did it reach the New World directly from Africa or through Asia? Was it transported by humans or ocean currents? Was it wild or domesticated upon arrival? Fruit rind thickness values and accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens indicate that the bottle gourd was present in the Americas as a domesticated plant by 10,000 B.P., placing it among the earliest domesticates in the New World. Ancient DNA sequence analysis of archaeological bottle gourd specimens and comparison with modern Asian and African landraces identify Asia as the source of its introduction. We suggest that the bottle gourd and the dog, two “utility” species, were domesticated long before any food crops or livestock species, and that both were brought to the Americas by Paleoindian populations as they colonized the New World. PMID:16352716

  20. An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Smith, Bruce D; Clarke, Andrew C; Sandweiss, Daniel H; Tuross, Noreen

    2005-12-20

    New genetic and archaeological approaches have substantially improved our understanding of the transition to agriculture, a major turning point in human history that began 10,000-5,000 years ago with the independent domestication of plants and animals in eight world regions. In the Americas, however, understanding the initial domestication of New World species has long been complicated by the early presence of an African enigma, the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Indigenous to Africa, it reached East Asia by 9,000-8,000 before present (B.P.) and had a broad New World distribution by 8,000 B.P. Here we integrate genetic and archaeological approaches to address a set of long-standing core questions regarding the introduction of the bottle gourd into the Americas. Did it reach the New World directly from Africa or through Asia? Was it transported by humans or ocean currents? Was it wild or domesticated upon arrival? Fruit rind thickness values and accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens indicate that the bottle gourd was present in the Americas as a domesticated plant by 10,000 B.P., placing it among the earliest domesticates in the New World. Ancient DNA sequence analysis of archaeological bottle gourd specimens and comparison with modern Asian and African landraces identify Asia as the source of its introduction. We suggest that the bottle gourd and the dog, two "utility" species, were domesticated long before any food crops or livestock species, and that both were brought to the Americas by Paleoindian populations as they colonized the New World.

  1. Consumer acceptance of orange juice mixed with water mint leave extract.

    PubMed

    Ali, Marwa Rashad

    2017-10-31

    Orange-Mint leaves juice was formulated using different addition percentages of mint leaves extract. The juice was aseptically processed, packed in glass bottles under sterilized environment and sterilized at 70°C for 15 minutes then storage at 5°C for 3 months. The physicochemical, nutritional value, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the juice was evaluated. There is no difference in pH, total soluble solids, ash, and total acidity in all samples moreover, the sample A2, "orange juice with 15% of mint leaves extract" recorded the best values of sensory evaluation, on the other hand, it was recorded lower values of vitamin C and total phenolic compound than sample (C) or (C1) because of increasing in addition% of mint leaves extract to orange juice. The sensory properties of juice samples were not remarkable any changes during storage. The result indicated that the juice was acceptable up to 3 months of storage 5°C. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Trash + Creativity = Problem Solved: Award Winners Give Plastic Bottles Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Judge Harry T. Roman, an electrical engineer and inventor, has selected the best of the crop in the 2006/2007 Tech Directions Inventors Award Competition. The challenge this year called on students to slow the filling of landfills by devising uses for discarded plastic water, juice, soda, and sports-drink bottles. Judge Roman noted "many common…

  3. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  4. A triterpenoid from wild bitter gourd inhibits breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chu, Po-Chen; Lin, Wei-Yu; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Weng, Jing-Ru

    2016-03-01

    The antitumor activity of 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (TCD), a triterpenoid isolated from wild bitter gourd, in breast cancer cells was investigated. TCD suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with IC50 values at 72 h of 19 and 23 μM, respectively, via a PPARγ-independent manner. TCD induced cell apoptosis accompanied with pleiotrophic biological modulations including down-regulation of Akt-NF-κB signaling, up-regulation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and p53, increased reactive oxygen species generation, inhibition of histone deacetylases protein expression, and cytoprotective autophagy. Together, these findings provided the translational value of TCD and wild bitter gourd as an antitumor agent for patients with breast cancer.

  5. Gourd and squash artifacts yield starch grains of feasting foods from preceramic Peru

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Neil A.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Benfer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In a study of residues from gourd and squash artifacts, we recovered starch grains from manioc (Manihot esculenta), potato (Solanum sp.), chili pepper (Capsicum spp.), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), and algarrobo (Prosopis sp.) from feasting contexts at the Buena Vista site, a central Peruvian preceramic site dating to ≈2200 calendar years B.C. This study has implications for the study of plant food use wherever gourds or squashes are preserved, documents the earliest evidence for the consumption of algarrobo and arrowroot in Peru, and provides insights into foods consumed at feasts. PMID:19633184

  6. Proteomic analysis of heat treated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. Hong Kong Green) using 2D-DIGE.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zhi Xiang; Chua, Kek Heng; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in the proteome of bitter gourd prior to and after subjecting to boiling and microwaving. A comparative analysis of the proteome profiles of raw and thermally treated bitter gourds was performed using 2D-DIGE. The protein content and number of protein spots in raw sample was higher when compared to the cooked samples. Qualitative analysis revealed that 103 (boiled sample) and 110 (microwaved sample) protein spots were up regulated whereas 120 (boiled sample) and 107 (microwaved sample) protein spots were down regulated. Ten protein spots with the highest significant fold change in the cooked samples were involved in carbohydrate/energy metabolisms and stress responses. Small heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, quinone oxidoreductase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglycerate kinase play a role in heat-stress-mediated protection of bitter gourd. This study suggests that appropriate heat treatment (cooking methods) can lead to induction of selected proteins in bitter gourd. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in AVRDC collections of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is an important market vegetable in Asia, where it is also used in folk medicine to manage type 2 diabetes. Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a serious fungal disease of bitter gourd and yield losses of up to 50% have been reported. After observi...

  8. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  9. Changes induced by radiations in unfermented grape juice. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jona, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Vigliocco, Rosanna

    Tightly bottled samples of grape juice pressed out of cv 'Merlot' were irradiated at an industrial plant with 0, 500, 1000 and 2500 krad. The samples were stored at room temperature and analyzed after eight months. Irradiation, even at the higher doses was unable to eradicate completely the yeast population and some fermentation took place. Surprisingly after such long lag of time, fermentation was not equal in all the treatments, but the amount of alcohol appeared to be inversely propotional to the dose. Sugars followed, though less markedly, a complementary trend: they were more abundant in the samples irradiated with higher doses. Furthermore a peculiar taste of honey developed into the juice with irradiation and was more marked at higher doses.

  10. Population Structure of Phytophthora nicotianae Reveals Host-Specific Lineages on Brinjal, Ridge Gourd, and Tomato in South India.

    PubMed

    Chowdappa, P; Kumar, B J Nirmal; Kumar, S P Mohan; Madhura, S; Bhargavi, B Reddi; Lakshmi, M Jyothi

    2016-12-01

    Severe outbreaks of Phytophthora fruit rot on brinjal, ridge gourd, and tomato have been observed since 2011 in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, and Tamil Nadu states of India. Therefore, 76 Phytophthora nicotianae isolates, recovered from brinjal (17), ridge gourd (40), and tomato (19) from different localities in these states during the June to December cropping season of 2012 and 2013, were characterized based on phenotypic and genotypic analyses and aggressiveness on brinjal, tomato, and ridge gourd. All brinjal and ridge gourd isolates were A2, while tomato isolates were both A1 (13) and A2 (6). All isolates were metalaxyl sensitive. In addition, isolates were genotyped for three mitochondrial (ribosomal protein L5-small subunit ribosomal RNA [rpl5-rns], small subunit ribosomal RNA-cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 [rns-cox2], and cox2+spacer) and three nuclear loci (hypothetical protein [hyp], scp-like extracellular protein [scp], and beta-tubulin [β-tub]). All regions were polymorphic but nuclear regions were more variable than mitochondrial regions. The network analysis of genotypes using the combined dataset of three nuclear regions revealed a host-specific association. However, the network generated using mitochondrial regions limited such host-specific groupings only to brinjal isolates. P. nicotianae isolates were highly aggressive and produced significantly (P ≤ 0.01) larger lesions on their respective host of origin than on other hosts. The results indicate significant genetic variation in the population of P. nicotianae, leading to identification of host-specific lineages responsible for severe outbreaks on brinjal, ridge gourd, and tomato.

  11. Chemopreventive effect of Lagenaria siceraria in two stages DMBA plus croton oil induced skin papillomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Kale, Raosaheb K; Tiku, Ashu B

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a dietary or therapeutic strategy to prevent, suppress, or delay carcinogenesis either at initiation or progression level with nontoxic agents. Use of natural dietary compounds has been a major chemopreventive approach to modulate tumorigenic pathways. In the present study, we have evaluated Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), a common vegetable of Indian household for its chemomodulatory potential. The fruit has been used in traditional medicine for a very long time for health benefits and to cure pain, ulcers, fever, cough, asthma, and other bronchial disorders. However, despite its reported beneficial effect the chemo modulatory potential of this plant has not been reported. Therefore chemopreventive effect of bottle gourd juice (BGJ) was studied against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) plus croton oil induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. The effect was studied both at antiinitiation and antiinitiation/promotion level followed by histopathological study. A dose of 2.5% and 5% given in drinking water showed significant decrease in papilloma number, papilloma incidence, papilloma multiplicity, papilloma latency, papilloma volume, and papilloma size in different size range. Histopathological study showed chemopreventive effect by minimizing loss of stratification, a decrease in number of epithelial layers, reducing dermal infiltration and protection for various cytoplasmic changes. Higher dose of BGJ was found to be more effective than lower dose and the chemopreventive effect was maximum for antiinitiation/promotion treatment. Altogether, this study reports the chemopreventive effect of Lagenaria siceraria on skin papillomagenesis for the first time and suggests that its consumption may help in suppression of skin cancer.

  12. A preliminary report on the genetic variation in pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) as assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, S; Biswas, A; Bandyopadhyay, T K; Ghosh, P D

    2014-06-01

    Pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) is an economically important cucurbit and is extensively propagated through vegetative means, viz vine and root cuttings. As the accessions are poorly characterized it is important at the beginning of a breeding programme to discriminate among available genotypes to establish the level of genetic diversity. The genetic diversity of 10 pointed gourd races, referred to as accessions was evaluated. DNA profiling was generated using 10 sequence independent RAPD markers. A total of 58 scorable loci were observed out of which 18 (31.03%) loci were considered polymorphic. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, Shannon's index, percent polymorphism, Nei's gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC)] for RAPD along with UPGMA clustering based on Jaccard's coefficient were estimated. The UPGMA dendogram constructed based on RAPD analysis in 10 pointed gourd accessions were found to be grouped in a single cluster and may represent members of one heterotic group. RAPD analysis showed promise as an effective tool in estimating genetic polymorphism in different accessions of pointed gourd.

  13. Kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in un-pasteurized Iranian lemon juice during regular storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Niakousari, M

    2008-05-15

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life stability of un-pasteurized lemon juice filled in clear or dark green glass bottles. Presence of light, time and temperature affect the ascorbic acid retention in citrus juices. Bottles were stored at room temperature (27 +/- 3 degrees C) and in the refrigerator (3 +/- 1 degrees C). Total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and pH value were measured every three weeks and analysis was carried out on ascorbic acid content by means of titration method in the presence of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The study was carried out for 12 weeks after which slight changes in color, taste and apparent texture in some samples were observed and ascorbic acid content reduced by 50%. Soluble solids content, pH value and total acidity were 5.5 degrees Brix, 2.73 and 5 g/100 mL, respectively which appeared not to be significantly influenced by storage time or conditions. Ascorbic acid content initially at 38.50 mg/100 mL was sharply reduced to about 22 mg/100 mL within the first three weeks of storage. The final ascorbic acid content of all samples was about 15 mg/100 mL. The deteriorative reaction of ascorbic acid in the juice at all conditions followed a first-order kinetic model with activation energy of 137 cal mol(-1).

  14. Performance of dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with extracts from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani as sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2013-03-01

    Natural dyes extracted from fruits of ivy gourd and flowers of red frangipani were used as sensitizers to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) studies indicated the presence of β-carotene in the fruits of ivy gourd and anthocyanins in the flowers of red frangipani. The extract of the flowers of red frangipani exhibits higher photosensitized performance compared to the fruits of ivy gourd and this is due to the better charge transfer between the dyes of flowers of red frangipani and the TiO2 photoanode surface.

  15. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  16. PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles.

    PubMed

    Tukur, Aminu; Sharp, Liz; Stern, Ben; Tizaoui, Chedly; Benkreira, Hadj

    2012-04-01

    While antimony has been reported to migrate from PET bottles into contents, reports on bottled water and soft drinks usage and PET bottle reuse patterns are currently unavailable in the literature. Bottle use conditions and patterns are important determinants of antimony migration. In this work a survey assessing the pattern of bottle use and reuse in Britain and Nigeria was undertaken. The survey findings influenced the design of laboratory experiments that assessed the migration of antimony from PET bottles into water and soft drinks. Typical storage durations for bottled contents between purchase and opening for use were 7 days or less. However storage of up to one year was reported. Bottle reuse was high and similar for the two countries with reuse durations being higher in Nigeria. The antimony concentration in 32 PET bottle materials from Britain and Nigeria were similar and ranged between 177 and 310 mg kg(-1). For 47 freshly purchased British bottled contents antimony concentration ranged between 0.03 and 6.61 μg L(-1) with only one sample exceeding the EU acceptable limit. Concentrations of Cd, Ge, Zn, Al, Be, Ti, Co and Pb were also measured. At realistic temperatures of 40 and 60 °C antimony concentration in deionised water in bottles remained below the EU acceptable limit even after 48 h exposure. The limit was exceeded for most exposures at 80 °C. Concentration of antimony in some bottled contents exceeded the EU limit after 11 months of storage at room temperature. Bottle aging and increase in bottle volume were associated with decreased migration of antimony from bottles.

  17. Banning the Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2010-01-01

    Bottled water is ubiquitous, taken for granted, and seemingly benign. Americans are consuming bottled water in massive amounts and spending a lot of money: In 2007, Americans spent $11.7 billion on 8.8 billions gallons of bottled water (Gashler 2008). That same year, two million plastic water bottles were used in the United States every five…

  18. Suppressive effects of wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser.) fruit extracts on inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen; Yun, Wen-Tzu; Liu, Kai-Li

    2009-03-18

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is used to treat various diseases including inflammation. A wild species of bitter gourd, Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata ser. (WBG), is considered to be more potent in disease prevention than is bitter gourd; however, little is known about the biological and physiological characteristics of WBG. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of WBG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Among the hot water, 95% ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of WBG, the ethanol extract showed the greatest reduction of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-interleukin-1beta expression. LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression was not affected byWBGextracts. Compared with WBG, extracts from bitter gourd showed a lesser inhibition of LPS-induced events. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further showed that both the hot water and the ethanol extracts of WBG inhibited NF-kappaB activation. Although information is lacking on the bioactive components of WBG, the phenolic compound contents of each extract significantly paralleled its anti-inflammatory ability (r = 0.74, 0.88 and 0.65 for NO, PGE2 and iNOS expression, respectively, P < 0.05). These results suggest that WBG is beneficial for reducing LPS-induced inflammatory responses by modulating NF-kappaB activation.

  19. Biotechnology and pharmacological evaluation of Indian vegetable crop Lagenaria siceraria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Devi Rajeswari, V; Kalpana, V N; Elango, G

    2016-02-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae, which comprises about 118 genera and 825 species. It is an important vegetable crop of India, and its production is influenced by a number of factors viz., environmental, nutritional, cultural operation and use of plant growth regulators. Since, bottle gourd belongs to a medicinal family, it plays a major role in the treatment of several diseases related to the skin and heart. There are several organic chemical compounds including vitamin B complex, pectin, dietary soluble fibres, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene, amino acids and minerals which have been isolated from this species. Therefore, the bottle gourd is considered to have a great impact on therapeutic health benefits. Due to drastic industrialization and urbanization, most of the human beings are facing several ill effects which may lead to death at extreme cases. Hence, the major research area was said to be nanotechnology. Taking into consideration, we have combined nanotechnology field with waste source in the name of green synthesis and planned to cure several diseases, as most of the researchers focused their work on this and succeeded too. The present study is a complete review of L. siceraria that covers the ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological profile. This study is mainly focused on the antibacterial, hepatoprotective, diuretic and anthelminthic activities.

  20. Physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends; effects of packaging material, storage temperature and time

    PubMed Central

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of packaging materials, seasonality, storage temperature and time on physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends. Roselle extract (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) was mixed with mango juice and stored in glass and plastic bottles at 4°C and 28°C. Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, color, vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins, total phenols, and antioxidant activity (FRAP) were evaluated in freshly prepared juice, and after, 2, 4, and 6 months of storage. The results showed that total soluble solids, reducing sugars, and pH increased with storage times under different storage time, irrespective of packaging materials. The acidity, color, total monomeric anthocyanin, vitamin C, total phenols, and antioxidant activity decreased during storage irrespective of storage temperature and packaging material. Loss of anthocyanins, total phenols, and vitamin C content were higher in blends stored at 28°C than 4°C. PMID:25838888

  1. Generation of volatile compounds in litchi wine during winemaking and short-term bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuwen; Zhu, Baoqing; Tu, Cui; Duan, Changqing; Pan, Qiuhong

    2011-05-11

    Evolution of volatile components during litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) winemaking was monitored, and aroma profiles of litchi wines bottle aged for 5 months at ambient temperature (25-28 °C) and low temperature (8-10 °C) were compared via headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The majority of terpenoids deriving from litchi juice decreased, even disappeared along with alcoholic fermentation, while terpenol oxides, ethers, and acetates came into being and increased. Ethyl octanote, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, cis-rose oxide, and trans-rose oxide had the highest odor activity values (OAVs) in young litchi wines. Six aromatic series were obtained by grouping OAVs of odor-active compounds with similar odor descriptions to establish the aroma profile for young litchi wines, and floral and fruity attributes were two major aroma series. Compared to ambient temperature when bottle aging, lower temperature benefited key aroma retention and expectantly extended the shelf life of young litchi wines.

  2. Quantitative assessment of citric acid in lemon juice, lime juice, and commercially-available fruit juice products.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L; Nakada, Stephen Y; Holmes, Ross P; Assimos, Dean G

    2008-03-01

    Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruit juices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruit juices. The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain < or =6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice.

  3. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  4. Chemical markers of shiikuwasha juice adulterated with calamondin juice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Yahada, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kumi; Ogawa, Kazunori; Koga, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hideaki

    2012-11-07

    Detection of shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) juice adulterated with calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.) juice was investigated by the analyses of (1) phloretin dihydrochalcone glucoside, 3',5'-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (PD) detected by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), included nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin, detected by HPLC, and (3) γ-terpinene peak percentage obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with cryofocusing. PD was detected in calamondin juice (25.5 mg/100 mL) but not in shiikuwasha juice. Shiikuwasha juice contained higher levels of nobiletin (48.8 mg/100 mL) than calamondin juice (2.4 mg/100 mL). Shiikuwasha juice was characterized by containing a higher percentage of γ-terpinene (12.3%) than calamondin juice (0.7%). A discrimination function obtained by a linear discriminant analysis with PMFs and a peak ratio of [nobiletin/tangeretin] and γ-terpinene detected the adulteration with accuracies of 91.7%. These three chemical markers were useful to detect shiikuwasha juice that is suspected of being adulterated with calamondin juice.

  5. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2015-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers’ pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type on mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infant intake. Formula-feeding dyads (N=25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Both bottles were glass with latex, low-flow nipples; the opaque bottle was fitted with a silicone sleeve containing a 60-g metal plate in its base. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p=.04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers’ pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants’ cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01

  6. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  7. Purification and characterization of charantin, a napin-like ribosome-inactivating peptide from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Parkash, A; Ng, T B; Tso, W W

    2002-05-01

    A peptide designated charantin, with a molecular mass of 9.7 kDa, was isolated from bitter gourd seeds. The procedure comprised affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on Mono S and gel filtration on Superdex 75. The N-terminal sequence of charantin exhibited marked similarity to that of the 7.8-kDa napin-like peptide previously isolated from bitter gourd seeds. Charantin inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC50 of 400 nm, a potency lower than that of the previously reported small ribosome-inactivating protein gamma-momorcharin (IC50 = 55 nm) which also exhibited an abundance of arginine and glutamate/glutamine residues. Charantin reacted positively in the N-glycosidase assay, yielding a band similar to that formed by the small ribosome-inactivating proteins gamma-momorcharin and luffin S.

  8. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pomegranate juice adulteration by addition of grape or peach juices.

    PubMed

    Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Hernández, Francisca; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2014-03-15

    Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, owing to the limited production and high price of fresh pomegranates, adulteration of pomegranate juice seems to be happening. Hence it is imperative to establish criteria for detecting adulteration. Addition of grape juice significantly increased the contents of Ca, Mg and Fe and especially tartaric acid and proline and simultaneously decreased the content of K. Addition of peach juice up to 10% (v/v) only resulted in a significant increase in sucrose content. Regarding the volatile composition, adulteration of pomegranate juice with grape juice resulted in significant increases in acetic acid, isoamyl butyrate and especially 1-hexanol and linalool, while adulteration with peach juice resulted in significant increases in butyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, benzyl acetate and especially isoamyl butyrate. The control protocols used in this study can serve as a basis for identification of pomegranate juice adulteration. It is important to highlight that it is necessary to simultaneously analyze and have results from several parameters to conclude that a particular pomegranate juice has been adulterated by mixing with another fruit juice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A RAD-Based Genetic Map for Anchoring Scaffold Sequences and Identifying QTLs in Bitter Gourd (Momordica charantia)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Junjie; Luo, Shaobo; Niu, Yu; Huang, Rukui; Wen, Qingfang; Su, Jianwen; Miao, Nansheng; He, Weiming; Dong, Zhensheng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Hu, Kailin

    2018-01-01

    Genetic mapping is a basic tool necessary for anchoring assembled scaffold sequences and for identifying QTLs controlling important traits. Though bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is both consumed and used as a medicinal, research on its genomics and genetic mapping is severely limited. Here, we report the construction of a restriction site associated DNA (RAD)-based genetic map for bitter gourd using an F2 mapping population comprising 423 individuals derived from two cultivated inbred lines, the gynoecious line ‘K44’ and the monoecious line ‘Dali-11.’ This map comprised 1,009 SNP markers and spanned a total genetic distance of 2,203.95 cM across the 11 linkage groups. It anchored a total of 113 assembled scaffolds that covered about 251.32 Mb (85.48%) of the 294.01 Mb assembled genome. In addition, three horticulturally important traits including sex expression, fruit epidermal structure, and immature fruit color were evaluated using a combination of qualitative and quantitative data. As a result, we identified three QTL/gene loci responsible for these traits in three environments. The QTL/gene gy/fffn/ffn, controlling sex expression involved in gynoecy, first female flower node, and female flower number was detected in the reported region. Particularly, two QTLs/genes, Fwa/Wr and w, were found to be responsible for fruit epidermal structure and white immature fruit color, respectively. This RAD-based genetic map promotes the assembly of the bitter gourd genome and the identified genetic loci will accelerate the cloning of relevant genes in the future. PMID:29706980

  11. Beverages: bottled water. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-05-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its bottled water regulations to require that bottled water manufacturers test source water for total coliform, as is required for finished bottled water products, and to require, if any coliform organisms are detected in source water, that bottled water manufacturers determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal contamination. FDA also is amending its bottled water regulations to require, if any coliform organisms are detected in finished bottled water products, that bottled water manufacturers determine whether any of the coliform organisms are E. coli. FDA also is amending the adulteration provision of the bottled water standard to reflect the possibility of adulteration caused by the presence of filth. Bottled water containing E. coli will be considered adulterated, and source water containing E. coli will not be considered to be of a safe, sanitary quality and will be prohibited from use in the production of bottled water. FDA is also amending its bottled water regulations to require that, before a bottler can use source water from a source that has tested positive for E. coli, the bottler must take appropriate measures to rectify or eliminate the cause of E. coli contamination of that source, and that the bottler must keep records of such actions. Existing regulatory provisions require bottled water manufacturers to keep records of new testing required by this rule. This final rule will ensure that FDA's standards for the minimum quality of bottled water, as affected by fecal contamination, will be no less protective of the public health than those set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for public drinking water.

  12. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  13. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  14. Bottle-feeding histories of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Pickler, R H; Mauck, A G; Geldmaker, B

    1997-01-01

    To describe the bottle-feeding histories of preterm infants and determine physical indices related to and predictive of bottle-feeding initiation and progression. Ex post facto. Academic medical center. A convenience sample of 40 preterm infants without concomitant cardiac, gastrointestinal, or cognitive impairment. Postconceptional age at first bottle-feeding, full bottle-feeding, and discharge. The morbidity rating, using the Neonatal Medical Index (NMI), was most strongly correlated with postconceptional age at first bottle-feeding (r = .34, p < .05), full bottle-feeding (r = .65, p < .01), and discharge (r = .55, p < .05). The morbidity rating also accounted for 12%, 42%, and 30% of the variance in postconceptional age at first bottle-feeding, full bottle-feeding, and discharge, respectively. The NMI may be a useful tool for predicting the initiation and progression of bottle-feeding in preterm infants.

  15. Stopping the Bottle

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... Drinks for Kids Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  16. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-01-12

    In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK. Copyright © 2017 Ali.

  17. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  18. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Zhou, Shu-Yi; Fabriaga, Erlinda; Zhang, Pian-Hong; Zhou, Quan

    2018-04-01

    This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice- 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help

  19. Tolerance to powdery mildew conferred in susceptible watermelon scion by grafting on resistant rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii, can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open field production. We have developed several watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible cultivar Mickey Lee ...

  20. Bottled Water Mania: Americas Misguided Infatuation with Bottled Water over Tap Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    AU/ACSC/BROWN, S/AY10 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Bottled Water Mania: America’s Misguided...Infatuation with Bottled Water over Tap Water by Seiho P. Brown, LCDR, U.S. Navy A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In...iii Abstract The purpose of this paper is to analyze the tendency for American people to drink bottled water over tap water even though it costs

  1. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  2. A three-year clinical evaluation of two-bottle versus one-bottle dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Aw, Tar C; Lepe, Xavier; Johnson, Glen H; Mancl, Lloyd A

    2005-03-01

    The authors conducted an in vivo investigation to compare the clinical performance of two commercial one-bottle adhesives and a two-bottle adhesive for restoration of noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). The patient pool consisted of 57 patients and 171 teeth (three teeth per patient), with one NCCL per tooth. Each patient received three resin-based composite restorations, each with a different adhesive: one tooth with a two-bottle, water-based adhesive as the control; another tooth with a one-bottle, ethanol-based adhesive; and a third tooth with a one-bottle, solvent-free adhesive. The authors assessed restorations in terms of retention, marginal integrity, margin discoloration and air sensitivity at baseline, six months, one year, two years and three years after initial placement. The retention rates at 36 months were 88 percent for the first adhesive, 81 percent for the second adhesive and 90 percent for the third adhesive. No statistically significant differences in retention rates could be shown, with 86 percent of restorations retained overall. Measures of marginal integrity, marginal discoloration and sensitivity also had no statistically significant differences between the three adhesives (P > .05). All three adhesives performed with acceptable outcomes after a 36-month period, with small differences between the one- and two-bottle systems and between the various solvents. Retention rate was moderately high and air sensitivity was markedly reduced; however, superficial marginal discoloration and marginal degradation was notable. Certain lesion, tooth and patient characteristics may predispose restorations to retention failure. The type of solvent may not be a major factor in retention of Class V restorations in NCCLs. Both single-bottle adhesives and conventional two-bottle adhesives performed acceptably.

  3. Post-consumer contamination in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) milk bottles and the design of a bottle-to-bottle recycling process.

    PubMed

    Welle, F

    2005-10-01

    Six hundred conventional recycled HDPE flake samples, which were recollected and sorted in the UK, were screened for post-consumer contamination levels. Each analysed sample consisted of 40-50 individual flakes so that the amount of analysed individual containers was in the range 24,000-30,000 post-consumer milk bottles. Predominant contaminants in hot-washed flake samples were unsaturated oligomers, which can be also be found in virgin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pellet samples used for milk bottle production. In addition, the flavour compound limonene, the degradation product of antioxidant additives di-tert-butylphenol and low amounts of saturated oligomers were found in higher concentrations in the post-consumer samples in comparison with virgin HDPE. However, the overall concentrations in post-consumer recycled samples were similar to or lower than concentration ranges in comparison with virgin HDPE. Contamination with other HDPE untypical compounds was rare and was in most cases related to non-milk bottles, which are <2.1% of the input material of the recycling process. The maximum concentration found in one sample of 1 g was estimated as 130 mg kg(-1), which corresponds to a contamination of 5200-6500 mg kg(-1) in the individual bottle. The recycling process investigated was based on an efficient sorting process, a hot-washing of the ground bottles, and a further deep-cleaning of the flakes with high temperatures and vacuum. Based on the fact that the contamination levels of post-consumer flake samples are similar to virgin HDPE and on the high cleaning efficiency of the super-clean recycling process especially for highly volatile compounds, the recycling process investigated is suitable for recycled post-consumer HDPE bottles for direct food-contact applications. However, hand-picking after automatically sorting is recommended to decrease the amount of non-milk bottles. The conclusions for suitability are valid, provided that the migration testing of

  4. Powdery mildew resistant cucurbit rootstocks confer tolerance to grafted susceptible watermelon scions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) caused by Podosphaera xanthii can impact seedling growth and cause serious losses in greenhouse and open fields. We have developed watermelon and bottle gourd germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to PM. A PM susceptible watermelon cultivar Mickey Lee (ML) was g...

  5. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of lycopene metabolism mediated by rootstock during the ripening of grafted watermelons.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Liu, Peng; Cao, Lei; Huang, Yuan; Zhao, Liqiang; Lv, Huifang; Bie, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Rootstocks have comprehensive effects on lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits. However, little is known about lycopene metabolic regulation in grafted watermelon. To address this problem, parallel changes in lycopene contents and the expression of its metabolic genes were analyzed during the fruit ripening of nongrafted watermelon and watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd, pumpkin, and wild watermelon. Results showed that rootstocks mediated the transcriptional regulations of lycopene accumulation in different ways. Bottle gourd and wild watermelon promoted lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits by upregulating the biosynthetic genes phytoene synthase (PSY) and ζ-carotene desaturase (ZDS), and downregulating the catabolic genes β-carotene hydroxylase (CHYB), zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD). However, pumpkin did not affect lycopene accumulation by upregulating both biosynthetic and catabolic genes. The rootstock-dependent characteristic of lycopene accumulation in grafted watermelon fruits provided an alternative model for investigating lycopene metabolic regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 27 CFR 19.382 - Bottling tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.382... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.382 Bottling tanks. All spirits shall be bottled from tanks listed and certified as accurately calibrated in the notice of registration...

  8. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.26 Estate bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label only if the wine is labeled with a viticultural area appellation of origin and the bottling winery: (1...

  9. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.26 Estate bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label only if the wine is labeled with a viticultural area appellation of origin and the bottling winery: (1...

  10. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  11. Automatic classification of bottles in crates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aas, Kjersti; Eikvil, Line; Bremnes, Dag; Norbryhn, Andreas

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical method for classification of bottles in crates for use in automatic return bottle machines. For the automatons to reimburse the correct deposit, a reliable recognition is important. The images are acquired by a laser range scanner coregistering the distance to the object and the strength of the reflected signal. The objective is to identify the crate and the bottles from a library with a number of legal types. The bottles with significantly different size are separated using quite simple methods, while a more sophisticated recognizer is required to distinguish the more similar bottle types. Good results have been obtained when testing the method developed on bottle types which are difficult to distinguish using simple methods.

  12. Seville orange juice-felodipine interaction: comparison with dilute grapefruit juice and involvement of furocoumarins.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S; Bailey, D G; Paine, M F; Watkins, P B

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether Seville orange juice produces a grapefruit juice-like interaction with felodipine and whether bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, or other furocoumarins are involved. In a randomized three-way crossover design, 10 volunteers received a felodipine 10-mg extended-release tablet with 240 mL of Seville orange juice, dilute grapefruit juice (that contained equivalent total molar concentrations of bergamottin plus 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin), or common orange juice (negative control). The pharmacokinetics of felodipine and its dehydrofelodipine metabolite were determined. Juice concentrations of furocoumarins were measured. CYP3A4 inhibitory activity of newly identified furocoumarins was assessed. The felodipine area under the plasma concentration-time curve was increased by 76% and 93% after Seville orange juice and grapefruit juice ingestion, respectively, compared with common orange juice. The effects of Seville orange juice and grapefruit juice were similar in that the felodipine maximum concentration was augmented while the terminal elimination half-life was unchanged and the dehydrofelodipine area under the plasma concentration time-curve was increased, but the dehydrofelodipine-felodipine area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratio was reduced. Bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin concentrations were 5 and 36 micromol/L, respectively, in Seville orange juice and were 16 and 23 micromol/L, respectively, in dilute grapefruit juice. A newly identified furocoumarin, bergapten, was detected only in Seville orange juice (31 micromol/L), and it was found to be a mechanism-based inhibitor of recombinant CYP3A4. Relative to the control, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (10 micromol/L) inhibited CYP3A4 activity in cultured intestinal epithelial cells by 93%, whereas bergapten (10 micromol/L) inhibited the activity by only 34%. Seville orange juice and grapefruit juice interact with felodipine by a common mechanism, which

  13. An upright eyedrop bottle: accuracy, usage of excess drops, and contamination compared to a conventional bottle.

    PubMed

    Davies, Isaiah J; Brown, Ninita H; Wen, Joanne C; Stinnett, Sandra S; Kubelick, Kelsey; Patel, Roma P; Benokraitis, Kristin L; Greene, Latoya; Cheek, Curry; Muir, Kelly W

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using an upright eyedrop bottle (UEB), a device designed to assist patients with eyedrop placement without reclining their head. Experienced eyedrop users were enrolled who answered "yes" to the question, "Do you ever have trouble getting your eyedrops in?" After being shown a multimedia presentation and answering a questionnaire regarding eyedrop usage, participants were observed instilling eyedrops. Participants were instructed to instill a single eyedrop in each eye with both a standard bottle and the UEB. They repeated this process three times. With each trial, the amount of time taken to instill drops was recorded, as well as whether a drop landed in the eye (accuracy), if excess drops were used, and if the bottle tip was contaminated. Forty participants were enrolled, with an average age of 72.4±8.9 years; the majority were females (24 females). Thirty-four participants had been using eyedrops for at least 1 year. The time required to instill eyedrops was significantly less with the UEB in the second and third trials. There was no difference in accuracy between the conventional bottle and the UEB in the left or right eye in any trials. Significantly more participants used excess number of drops while using the conventional bottle in both the left and right eyes in all three trials. The bottle tip was never contaminated with the UEB. Depending on the trial and the eye, the conventional bottle was contaminated by between 42% and 53% of participants. The UEB has the potential to assist patients with eyedrop placement. Although there was no difference in accuracy between the UEB and the conventional bottle, the UEB was associated with less use of excess drops and less contamination of the bottle tip, compared to the conventional bottle.

  14. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    PubMed

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  15. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice.

    PubMed

    Inyang, U E; Abah, U J

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequently, the soluble solids, titratable acidity, reducing and total sugars of the blends increased with increase in the proportions of orange juice while the content of ascorbic acid was decreasing. In spite of the decrease in ascorbic acid content of the blends, results showed that blended juice would no doubt be a very good source of ascorbic acid. Result of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that a 60% cashew apple and 40% orange juice gave a good quality juice in terms of flavor, after taste and overall acceptability.

  16. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  17. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350-600 ce.

    PubMed

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S

    2014-08-01

    Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350-600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round-pyriform and probably used as vessels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  18. CHARGE BOTTLE FOR A MASS SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, P.H.

    1959-07-01

    Improved mass separator charge bottles are described for containing a dense charge of a chemical compound of copper, nickel, lead or other useful substance which is to be vaporized, and to the method of utilizing such improvcd charge bottles so that the chemical compound is vaporized from the under surface of the charge and thus permits the non-volatile portion thereof to fall to the bottom of the charge bottle where it does not form an obstacle to further evaporation. The charge bottle comprises a vertically disposed cylindrical portion, an inner re-entrant cylindrical portion extending axially and downwardly into the same from the upper end thereof, and evaporative source material in the form of a chemical compound compacted within the upper annular pontion of the charge bottle formed by the re-entrant cylindrical portion, whereby vapor from the chemical compound will pass outwardly from the charge bottle through an apertured closure.

  19. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  20. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  1. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (3) Physical quality. Bottled water shall, when a composite of analytical units of equal volume from.... 1 (4) Chemical quality. (i)(A) Bottled water shall, when a composite of analytical units of equal... bottled water, when a composite of analytical units of equal volume from a sample is examined by the...

  2. 27 CFR 19.352 - Bottling tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.352..., Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.352 Bottling tanks. Generally, a proprietor must bottle all spirits from tanks that are listed in the notice of registration and have been certified as accurate. However...

  3. 27 CFR 19.352 - Bottling tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.352..., Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.352 Bottling tanks. Generally, a proprietor must bottle all spirits from tanks that are listed in the notice of registration and have been certified as accurate. However...

  4. 27 CFR 19.352 - Bottling tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.352..., Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.352 Bottling tanks. Generally, a proprietor must bottle all spirits from tanks that are listed in the notice of registration and have been certified as accurate. However...

  5. 27 CFR 19.352 - Bottling tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.352..., Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.352 Bottling tanks. Generally, a proprietor must bottle all spirits from tanks that are listed in the notice of registration and have been certified as accurate. However...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a device...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a device...

  10. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron G H; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-06-19

    There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  11. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

  12. The relevance of supply chain characteristics in GHG emissions: The carbon footprint of Maltese juices.

    PubMed

    Roibás, L; Rodríguez-García, S; Valdramidis, V P; Hospido, A

    2018-05-01

    Foods and drinks are major contributors (17%) to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by private consumption in Europe. The carbon footprint (CF) of a certain product expresses the total GHG emissions over its whole life cycle, and its calculation for foodstuff is a necessary first step to reduce their contribution to global warming. The calculation of the CF of Maltese food products is especially relevant for two reasons: the economic characteristics of the island, whose food sector is highly dependent on imports, implying longer transport distances; and the Maltese electricity production mix, based almost exclusively on oil combustion. The CF of ten multi-fruit juices marketed in Malta has been determined, covering all the processes from the agricultural stage to the distribution of the final products. As a functional unit (FU), a 250 ml bottle of packaged product arriving at the retailer has been considered. The Maltese orange juice, the only final product in which only local ingredients are used, presents the lowest CF (0.50 kgCO 2 /FU), while the remaining ones range from 0.67 kgCO 2 /FU to 0.80 kgCO 2 /FU. The major contributor to all the CFs is juice processing at the Maltese plant (0.42 kgCO 2 /FU), mainly due to the use of electricity (78%). The influence of both the electricity mix and the Maltese supply chain in the CF of the final products has been demonstrated. Alternatives to reduce the impacts of the final products have been proposed and evaluated that could lower the average CF of the juices by 32%. The calculation of the CF of Maltese juices represents an innovative case study due to the characteristics of the island, and it is expected to act as a first step to lower their environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oscillations in a half-empty bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourges, Andréane; Chardac, Amélie; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    When a half-empty bottle of water is pushed to roll on a flat surface, the oscillations of the fluid inside the bottle induce an overall jerky motion. These velocity fluctuations of the bottle are studied through simple laboratory experiments accessible to undergraduate students and can help them to grasp fundamental concepts in mechanics and hydrodynamics. We first demonstrate through an astute experiment that the rotation of the fluid and the bottle is decoupled. The equations of motion are then derived using a mechanical approach, while the hydrodynamics of the fluid motion is explained. Finally, the theory is tested against two benchmark experiments.

  14. Estimating bergamot juice adulteration of lemon juice by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of flavanone glycosides.

    PubMed

    Cautela, Domenico; Laratta, Bruna; Santelli, Francesca; Trifirò, Antonio; Servillo, Luigi; Castaldo, Domenico

    2008-07-09

    The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis.

  15. Mouse taste preference tests: why only two bottles?

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2003-05-01

    Two-bottle tests have been used extensively to measure the preference for taste and nutrient solutions but there has been little work with tests involving more than two bottles. Here, we compare the results obtained in two-bottle tests with those obtained in three- and six-bottle tests. In Experiment 1, we measured the preferences for 2 mM saccharin, 50 mM citric acid, 0.3 mM quinine hydrochloride and 75 mM NaCl displayed by 129X1/SvJ (129) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Mice drank more taste solution when they received two bottles providing taste solution and one providing water than when they received either a standard two-bottle test or two bottles providing water and one providing taste solution. The three-bottle tests also revealed the left spout side preferences of the 129 strain and were generally better at distinguishing between the 129 and B6 strains (i.e. were more sensitive) than were the two-bottle tests. In Experiment 2, we measured intakes and preferences in tests with six bottles, with one, two, three, four or five containing 75 mM NaCl and the rest containing water. NaCl preferences were monotonically related to the number of NaCl spouts available. A follow-up experiment found similar results whether the index of ingestion was volume intakes or licks. This argues that spillage cannot account for the effect of spout number on taste solution intake. Together, the results suggest that (i) the number of bottles of taste solution and water has a profound influence on taste solution intake and preference, and (ii) three-bottle tests may be more sensitive than two-bottle tests in many circumstances.

  16. Mouse Taste Preference Tests: Why Only Two Bottles?

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Two-bottle tests have been used extensively to measure the preference for taste and nutrient solutions but there has been little work with tests involving more than two bottles. Here, we compare the results obtained in two-bottle tests with those obtained in three- and six-bottle tests. In Experiment 1, we measured the preferences for 2 mM saccharin, 50 mM citric acid, 0.3 mM quinine hydrochloride and 75 mM NaCl displayed by 129X1/SvJ (129) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Mice drank more taste solution when they received two bottles providing taste solution and one providing water than when they received either a standard two-bottle test or two bottles providing water and one providing taste solution. The three-bottle tests also revealed the left spout side preferences of the 129 strain and were generally better at distinguishing between the 129 and B6 strains (i.e. were more sensitive) than were the two-bottle tests. In Experiment 2, we measured intakes and preferences in tests with six bottles, with one, two, three, four or five containing 75 mM NaCl and the rest containing water. NaCl preferences were monotonically related to the number of NaCl spouts available. A follow-up experiment found similar results whether the index of ingestion was volume intakes or licks. This argues that spillage cannot account for the effect of spout number on taste solution intake. Together, the results suggest that (i) the number of bottles of taste solution and water has a profound influence on taste solution intake and preference, and (ii) three-bottle tests may be more sensitive than two-bottle tests in many circumstances. PMID:12771018

  17. 27 CFR 25.142 - Bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.142 Bottles. (a) Label requirements. Each bottle of... brewer's name, trade name or brand name includes the name of a city which is not the place where the beer...

  18. Hierarchical chirality transfer in the growth of Towel Gourd tendrils

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Shan; Wang, Gang; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Kitamura, Takayuki; Kang, Yi-Lan; Yu, Shou-Wen; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Chirality plays a significant role in the physical properties and biological functions of many biological materials, e.g., climbing tendrils and twisted leaves, which exhibit chiral growth. However, the mechanisms underlying the chiral growth of biological materials remain unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the Towel Gourd tendrils achieve their chiral growth. Our experiments reveal that the tendrils have a hierarchy of chirality, which transfers from the lower levels to the higher. The change in the helical angle of cellulose fibrils at the subcellular level induces an intrinsic torsion of tendrils, leading to the formation of the helical morphology of tendril filaments. A chirality transfer model is presented to elucidate the chiral growth of tendrils. This present study may help understand various chiral phenomena observed in biological materials. It also suggests that chirality transfer can be utilized in the development of hierarchically chiral materials having unique properties. PMID:24173107

  19. Phthalates residues in plastic bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Alsabbaheen, Ammar

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of phthalates in 10 different brands of bottled water available in Saudi markets and stored under different conditions. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) were measured by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometer detector. Most of these phthalates were detected in the selected bottled water sample that might be either leached from the plastic packaging materials or contamination during bottling processes. Bottled waters stored at 4°C contained higher levels of DMP, DEP, BBP and DEHP than those stored at room temperature and outdoors. On the other hand, the levels of DMP, DEP and BBP were significantly lower in bottled waters stored at room temperature than those outdoor. It seems that temperature and sunlight play a role in the degradation of phthalates within time. The levels of BBP were the highest at 4°C storage (4.592 ± 3.081 µg/l; range: 1.194-21.128 µg/l) and approximately 76% of the bottled waters had BBP above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.994 µg/l. Apart from DEHP (< 6 µg/l), there are not current legislations for other phthalates. Regardless of storage conditions, all our samples did not exceed the maximum established limit of DEHP. Although, the levels of phthalates in tested bottled waters were low, one should not dismiss that these chemicals may cause endocrine disruption through several mechanisms, especially to potentially vulnerable populations such as infants and pregnant women. Saudi Arabia ranks 12 in bottled water consumption (88 L per capita in 2004) among the 71 reported countries. With this high consumption, a quality assurance scheme for residue monitoring in water is quite important. Although, one cannot avoid phthalates contamination in bottled waters due to manufacturing process but at least special care should be taken

  20. Determinants of bottle use amongst economically disadvantaged mothers.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Samina; Jamalvi, S Waseem; Naz, Farah

    2006-01-01

    There is documented evidence of increased risk of infant mortality in formula fed infants versus breast fed babies. The hazards of bottle use for infant feeding, especially in underprivileged communities, are also well known. As the issue of bottle use is directly related to childhood survival and mortality, there is legislation against propagation of bottle-feeding in Pakistan. To obtain information about determinants of bottle use for infant feeding in a low-income periurban community. Community based cross-sectional study. 150 mothers with infants up to one year of age were included in the study period from October 03 to March 04. Out of these 102 mothers were found using bottle for infant with or without breast-feeding. The tendency to use the bottle increased in relation to child's increasing age. Only 17% of the infants under the age of 3 months were offered bottle, it was 69% between 4 to 6 months and it increased to 76% in infants from 7 months to 1 year. The attributes associated with increased bottle use were mother's older age, illiteracy and increased parity. Bottle use is a public health issue in poor and illiterate mothers of developing countries. While, in Pakistan, laws are enacted against its propagation, we need community-based strategies to bring about a socio-cultural shift in the growing prevalence of bottle use found in the study.

  1. Studies on jicama juice processing.

    PubMed

    Juarez, M S; Paredes-Lopez, O

    1994-09-01

    Juice was extracted from jicama (Pachyrrizus erosus Urban) and clarified using a 10,000 daltons molecular weight cut-off membrane to improve its stability. Ultrafiltered juice was tested for general composition and Hunter color. Ultrafiltration (UF) retentate and UF permeate showed some changes, compared to fresh juice, in total and soluble solids, total sugars, and nitrogen, whereas ash and pH remained constant. Hunter color of juice samples exhibited some variation by UF. Results suggest that UF has potential to produce jicama juice with desirable and stable aroma and flavor.

  2. Melatonin in Apples and Juice: Inhibition of Browning and Microorganism Growth in Apple Juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Ting; Ji, Yazhen; Shi, Kun; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Xiaodong; Kong, Jin

    2018-02-27

    Synthetic melatonin ( N -acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, MT) is popular in the US and Asian markets as a health supplement. Here, we identified a naturally occurring melatonin source in apple juice. Melatonin was present in all 18 apple cultivars tested. The highest melatonin level of the edible part of apple was detected in the apple peel. The melatonin content in 'Fuji' apple juice is comparable to the level of its flesh. Melatonin was consumed during the process of juicing due to its interaction with the oxidants. Melatonin addition significantly reduced the juice color change to brown (browning). The mechanism is that melatonin scavenges the free radicals, which was indicated by the ASBT analysis; therefore, inhibiting the conversion of o -diphenolic compounds into quinones. Most importantly, melatonin exhibited powerful anti-microorganism activity in juice. The exact mechanisms of this action are currently unknown. These effects of melatonin can preserve the quality and prolong the shelf life of apple juice. The results provide valuable information regarding commerciall apple juice processing and storage.

  3. An Update Review on the Anthelmintic Activity of Bitter Gourd, Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Poolperm, Sutthaya; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales ), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug.

  4. Running Mechanics and Metabolic Responses with Water Bottles and Bottle Belt Holders.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Heather K; Zdziarski, Laura A; Fallgatter, Kyle; Negron, Giorgio; Chen, Cong; Leavitt, Trevor; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Kevin R

    2018-01-18

    This study determined whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use and cardiopulmonary responses occurred during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared to running only. Trained runners (N=42; 27.2±6.4 yr) ran on an instrumented treadmill for four conditions in a randomized order: 1) control run (CON); 2) hand-held full water bottle (FULL, 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g); 3) hand-held half-full water bottle (HALF, 8.4 fluid oz.; 227 g); and 4) waist-worn bottle belt holder (BELT; hydration belt; 676 g). Gas exchange was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Kinetic and kinematic responses were determined via standard 3D videographic techniques. Interactions of limb side (right, left) by study condition (CON, FULL, HALF, BELT) were tested for rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure, and kinematic and kinetic parameters. No significant limb side × condition interactions existed for rates of oxygen use or energy expenditure. A significant interaction occurred with sagittal elbow flexion (p<0.001). Transverse pelvis rotation excursions differed on average 3.8° across conditions. The minimum sagittal hip flexion moment was higher in the right leg in the HALF and BELT conditions compared to CON (p<0.001). Carriage of water by hand or on the waist does not significantly change kinematics of running motion, rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure or cardiopulmonary measures over short durations. Runners are likely making adjustments to joint moments and powers that preserve balance and protect the lower extremity joints while maintaining the rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure.

  5. Fluoride content of still bottled water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Saranathan, S; Morgan, M V; Dashper, S G

    2006-09-01

    Recently there has been a considerable increase in the consumption of bottled water in Australia. Overseas studies have found the fluoride levels in many bottled waters are well below levels considered optimal for preventing dental caries. This raises the concern that if bottled water is regularly consumed an effective means of preventing dental caries is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in 10 popular brands of still bottled water currently sold in Australia. The fluoride content of water samples were determined using an ion analyser and compared to a fluoride standard. The fluoride concentration of all bottled waters was less than 0.08 ppm. Only three of the 10 brands indicated the fluoride content on their labels. Melbourne reticulated water was found to be fluoridated at 1.02 ppm. All bottled waters tested contained negligible fluoride which justifies the concern that regular consumption of bottled water may reduce the benefits gained from water fluoridation. It is recommended that all bottled water companies should consider stating their fluoride content on their labels. This will inform consumers and dental care providers of the levels of fluoride in bottled water and allow an informed decision regarding consumption of fluoridated versus non-fluoridated drinking water.

  6. A descriptive study of bottle-feeding opportunities in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Pickler, Rita H; Reyna, Barbara A

    2003-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe patterns of bottle feeding opportunities in preterm infants and to analyze the relationships between feeding opportunities and outcomes. The smaple was composed of 25 preterm infants who were bottle fed. Retrospective, correlational. Data were collected from medical records and analyzed descriptively. Correlation coefficients among variables were computed. Postconceptional age (PCA) at the time of full bottle feedings and transition time from the first to full bottle feedings. The number of bottle feedings received per day during the transition from first to full bottle feedings was inversely related to length of transition to full bottle feedings. There was no relationship between the number of bottle-feeding opportunities and PCA at full bottle feedings. The achievement of full bottle feedings may be facilitated by increased bottle-feeding opportunities. More research about the relationships among feeding readiness, outcomes, and opportunities is needed.

  7. Characterization of molecular structural changes in pectin during juice cloud destabilization in frozen concentrated orange juice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pectin comprises one of the major components of cloud material in citrus juices. Juice cloud is a complex mixture of polysaccharides, proteins and lower molecular weight compounds that are responsible for the turbid appearance of citrus juices. The stability of juice cloud depends on a number of fac...

  8. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  9. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained from...

  10. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  11. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  12. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  13. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  14. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bottles § 31.201 Refilling of liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits... or increase any portion of the original contents contained in that bottle at the time of closing...

  15. An Update Review on the Anthelmintic Activity of Bitter Gourd, Momordica charantia

    PubMed Central

    Poolperm, Sutthaya; Jiraungkoorskul, Wannee

    2017-01-01

    Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitales), as known as bitter melon or gourd, is a daily consumption as food and traditional medicinal plant in Southeast Asia and Indo-China. It has been shown to possess anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antioxidant, and antiulcer properties. Its common phytochemical components include alkaloids, charantin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, tannins, and terpenoids. This plant is rich in various saponins including momordicin, momordin, momordicoside, karavilagenin, karaviloside, and kuguacin, all of which have been reported to contribute to its remedial properties including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antiparasitic infections. Based on established literature on the anthelmintic activity of M. charantia and possible mode of action, this review article has attempted to compile M. charantia could be further explored for the development of potential anthelmintic drug. PMID:28503051

  16. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and....114 Lemon juice. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Lemon juice is the unfermented juice, obtained by mechanical process, from sound, mature lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.), from which seeds (except...

  17. Development of novel simple sequence repeat markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through enriched genomic libraries and their utilization in analysis of genetic diversity and cross-species transferability.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Swati; Singh, Archana; Archak, Sunil; Behera, Tushar K; John, Joseph K; Meshram, Sudhir U; Gaikwad, Ambika B

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are the preferred markers for genetic analyses of crop plants. The availability of a limited number of such markers in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) necessitates the development and characterization of more SSR markers. These were developed from genomic libraries enriched for three dinucleotide, five trinucleotide, and two tetranucleotide core repeat motifs. Employing the strategy of polymerase chain reaction-based screening, the number of clones to be sequenced was reduced by 81 % and 93.7 % of the sequenced clones contained in microsatellite repeats. Unique primer-pairs were designed for 160 microsatellite loci, and amplicons of expected length were obtained for 151 loci (94.4 %). Evaluation of diversity in 54 bitter gourd accessions at 51 loci indicated that 20 % of the loci were polymorphic with the polymorphic information content values ranging from 0.13 to 0.77. Fifteen Indian varieties were clearly distinguished indicative of the usefulness of the developed markers. Markers at 40 loci (78.4 %) were transferable to six species, viz. Momordica cymbalaria, Momordica subangulata subsp. renigera, Momordica balsamina, Momordica dioca, Momordica cochinchinesis, and Momordica sahyadrica. The microsatellite markers reported will be useful in various genetic and molecular genetic studies in bitter gourd, a cucurbit of immense nutritive, medicinal, and economic importance.

  18. Cranberry juice: effects on health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cranberries have long been used as a part of traditional and folk medicine. Most cranberry juice is consumed as a product containing 27% v/v with sweeteners derived from other fruit juices or other sweeteners. Cranberry juice contains a rich profile of phenolic compounds, especially proanthocyanidin...

  19. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  20. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice.

    PubMed

    Braga, Sheila Regina Maia; De Faria, Dalva Lúcia Araújo; De Oliveira, Elisabeth; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated and compared in vitro the morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Human enamel specimens were submitted to erosive challenge using gastric juice (from endoscopy exam) (n = 10), and orange juice (commercially-available) (n = 10), as follows: 5 min in 3 mL of demineralization solution, rinse with distilled water, and store in artificial saliva for 3 h. This cycle was repeated four times a day for 14 days. Calcium (Ca) loss after acid exposure was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. The presence of carbonate (CO) and phosphate (PO) in the specimens was evaluated before and after the erosive challenge by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Data were tested using t-tests (P < 0.05). Morphology of enamel was observed in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean loss of Ca was: 12.74 ± 3.33 mg/L Ca (gastric juice) and 7.07 ± 1.44 mg/L Ca (orange juice). The analysis by atomic emission spectroscopy showed statistically significant difference between erosive potential of juices (P = 0.0003). FT-Raman spectroscopy found no statistically significant difference in the ratio CO/PO after the erosive challenge. The CO/PO ratios values before and after the challenge were: 0.16/0.17 (gastric juice) (P = 0.37) and 0.18/0.14 (orange juice) (P = 0.16). Qualitative analysis by SEM showed intense alterations of enamel surface. The gastric juice caused more changes in morphology and mineral composition of dental enamel than orange juice. The atomic emission spectroscopy showed to be more suitable to analyze small mineral loss after erosive challenge than FT-Raman. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  2. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not break if dropped. If you choose plastic, it is best to buy new bottles. Reused or hand-me-down bottles may contain bisphenol-A (BPA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned the use of BPA in baby bottles due to safety ...

  3. Accumulation and distribution characteristics of biomass and nitrogen in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under different fertilization strategies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baige; Li, Mingzhu; Li, Qiang; Cao, Jian; Zhang, Changyuan; Zhang, Fusuo; Song, Zhao; Chen, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    The elemental uptake and allocation patterns of crops create insight for nutrient management. Two-year field experiments were conducted to determine the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake patterns of bitter gourd and to evaluate different N management strategies. Two N practices during the nursery stage, namely the conventional fertilizer method (Scon) and the controlled-release fertilizer management method (Scrf), combined with three N management strategies after transplanting, namely zero N fertilizer application (Nno), the conventional strategy (Ncon) and the systematic N management strategy (Nopt), were assessed. Averaged over two years, the Scrf-Nopt treatment performed best, producing 33.1 t ha -1 fruit yield with 310 kg N ha -1 , indicating that the yield was 22.6% greater by using 18.8% less fertilizer N than in the Scon-Ncon treatment. The Scrf-Nopt treatment facilitated plant growth by accumulating 20.0% more total dry weight and prioritized its allocation to productive organs (57.2%), while the Scon-Ncon strategy was biased toward leaves (56.3%) over fruits (43.8%). Nitrogen uptake and distribution closely followed the pattern of biomass. The Scrf-Nopt fertilization strategy coordinated the important role that N plays in total accumulation and well proportion of biomass and N in bitter gourd developmental processes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Survival of human norovirus surrogates in milk, orange, and pomegranate juice, and juice blends at refrigeration (4 °C).

    PubMed

    Horm, Katie Marie; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2011-08-01

    Fresh fruits, juices, and beverages have been implicated in human noroviral and hepatitis A virus outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine the survival of human norovirus surrogates (murine norovirus, MNV-1; feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; and bacteriophage MS2) in juices (orange and pomegranate juices), juice blends (pomegranate and orange juice) and milk over 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 days at refrigeration (4 °C). Juices, juice blends, and milk were inoculated with each virus over 21 days, serially diluted in cell culture media, and plaque assayed. MNV-1 showed no reduction in titer after 21 days in orange juice and milk, but moderate reduction (1.4 log) in pomegranate juice from a titer of 5 log(10) PFU/ml. However, MNV-1 was completely reduced after 7 days in the orange and pomegranate juice blend. FCV-F9 from a titer of 6 log(10) PFU/ml was completely reduced after 14 days in orange as well as pomegranate juice and by ∼ 3 logs after 21 days in milk at 4 °C. Interestingly, FCV-F9 was completely reduced after 1 day in the orange and pomegranate juice blend at 4 °C. MS2 was reduced by ∼ 1.28 log after 21 days in orange juice from a titer of 6 log(10) PFU/ml, and <1 log after 21 days in milk or pomegranate juice, with juice blends showing minimal reduction (<1 log) after 21 days at 4 °C. These results show the survival pattern of noroviruses that aid in the transmission of foodborne viral outbreaks. The data obtained can be used in quantitative viral risk assessment studies and to develop improved measures to prevent virus survival towards controlling outbreaks. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Citrus juice extraction systems: effect on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of clementine juice.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Carvalho, Catarina P; Sierra, Jelver; Lara, Oscar; Cardona, David; Londoño-Londoño, Julian

    2012-01-25

    Clementines are especially appreciated for their delicious flavor, and recent years have seen a great increase in the consumption of clementine juice. In previous decades, antioxidant compounds have received particular attention because of widely demonstrated beneficial health effects. In this work, the organoleptic, volatile flavor, and antioxidant quality of clementine juice were studied with regard to the influence on them by different juice extraction systems: plug inside fruit and rotating cylinders. The results showed that juice extracted by the former method presented higher yields and hesperidin content, which was related to higher antioxidant activity, demonstrated by ORAC and LDL assays. The organoleptic quality was not affected by the processing technique, whereas there were significant differences in the chemical flavor profile. There are important differences in chemical and functional quality between juice extraction techniques, which must be taken into account when employing processing systems to produce high-quality products.

  6. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared and...

  7. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

  8. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale... bottle, any portion of the contents of which has been altered or increased in violation of the provisions...

  9. Small-sized microplastics and pigmented particles in bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Oßmann, Barbara E; Sarau, George; Holtmannspötter, Heinrich; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Christiansen, Silke H; Dicke, Wilhelm

    2018-09-15

    Up to now, only a few studies about microparticle contamination of bottled mineral water have been published. The smallest analysed particle size was 5 μm. However, due to toxicological reasons, especially microparticles smaller than 1.5 μm are critically discussed. Therefore, in the present study, 32 samples of bottled mineral water were investigated for contamination by microplastics, pigment and additive particles. Due to the application of aluminium coated polycarbonate membrane filters and micro-Raman spectroscopy, a lowest analysed particle size of 1 μm was achieved. Microplastics were found in water from all bottle types: in single use and reusable bottles made of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as well as in glass bottles. The amount of microplastics in mineral water varied from 2649 ± 2857 per litre in single use PET bottles up to 6292 ± 10521 per litre in glass bottles. While in plastic bottles, the predominant polymer type was PET; in glass bottles various polymers such as polyethylene or styrene-butadiene-copolymer were found. Hence, besides the packaging itself, other contamination sources have to be considered. Pigment particles were detected in high amounts in reusable, paper labelled bottles (195047 ± 330810 pigment particles per litre in glass and 23594 ± 25518 pigment particles per litre in reusable paper labelled PET bottles). Pigment types found in water samples were the same as used for label printing, indicating the bottle cleaning process as possible contamination route. Furthermore, on average 708 ± 1024 particles per litre of the additive Tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphite were found in reusable PET bottles. This additive might be leached out from the bottle material itself. Over 90% of the detected microplastics and pigment particles were smaller than 5 μm and thus not covered by previous studies. In summary, this is the first study reporting about microplastics, pigment and additive particles

  10. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person...

  11. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., when a composite of analytical units of equal volume from a sample is examined by the method described...)(A) Bottled water shall, when a composite of analytical units of equal volume from a sample is..., and Cosmetic Act, the Food and Drug Administration has determined that bottled water, when a composite...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  17. Trace elements in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

    2012-05-01

    Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation.

  18. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  19. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as... the deoiling operation may be added back. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients named in... milliliters of juice is not less than 9 to 1. (b) The optional sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph...

  20. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as... the deoiling operation may be added back. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients named in... milliliters of juice is not less than 9 to 1. (b) The optional sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph...

  1. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as... the deoiling operation may be added back. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients named in... milliliters of juice is not less than 9 to 1. (b) The optional sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph...

  2. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as... the deoiling operation may be added back. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients named in... milliliters of juice is not less than 9 to 1. (b) The optional sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph...

  3. 21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as... the deoiling operation may be added back. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients named in... milliliters of juice is not less than 9 to 1. (b) The optional sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph...

  4. Bottle-feeding legislation in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J

    1980-02-01

    Research in Papua New Guinea and elsewhere in the developing world has indicted the dangers of bottle feeding infants. Following a failure to obtain the voluntary agreement of shopkeepers to restrict sales of infant-feeding bottles and teats, legislation was passed which placed these items on prescription. In order to obtain a prescription certain conditions have to be satisfied. A follow-up survey which was carried out in Port Moresby two years after the introduction of legislation indicated a significant decline in the extent of bottle feeding.

  5. 21 CFR 146.137 - Frozen orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Beverages § 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in § 146.135...

  6. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    454,000 tons of fruit and fruit products, fresh apples accounted for 47 percent; other fresh, dry, and canned fruits , 40 percent; fruit juices and...mary occupations, and their diet consisted of maize, peas, gourds, and native fruits . The Matacos-Mataguayos, Chorotes, Guaycurues, and Chiriguanos...especially in northern Patagonia, however, flow eastward across the plateau in low, wide valleys. Near these rivers vegetable farms and fruit orchards

  7. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro

    2005-08-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  8. Effects of Juice Processing on Oxalate Contents in Carambola Juice Products.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Nha K; Nguyen, Ha V H

    2017-09-01

    Effects of processing methods including pressing, enzyme-assisted extraction, lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus, and alcohol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae on total and soluble oxalate contents of carambola juices were studied. In comparison with pressing, the use of enzyme increased juice yields (15.89-17.29%), but resulted in higher total oxalate (1.60-1.73 times) and soluble oxalate contents (1.16-1.49 times). In addition, extension of enzyme incubation periods led to an increase in soluble oxalate contents in the products (p < 0.05). On the other hand, alcohol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae from 1 to 5 weeks reduced 37-58% of total oxalate and 39-59% of soluble oxalate contents. Prolonged fermentation also demonstrated better reduction of oxalate contents. Meanwhile, lactic acid fermentation using Lactobacillus acidophilus had no effects on total and soluble oxalate contents in carambola juices. These results suggested that carambola juice products should only be consumed moderately, and that alcohol fermentation could be a potential method to reduce oxalate contents in foods in order to prevent the risks of forming kidney stones.

  9. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  10. 21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lemon juice. 146.114 Section 146.114 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146...

  11. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... essential composition and quality factors of the juice. It may be sweetened with the dry nutritive... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert sugar...

  12. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... essential composition and quality factors of the juice. It may be sweetened with the dry nutritive... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert sugar...

  13. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... essential composition and quality factors of the juice. It may be sweetened with the dry nutritive... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert sugar...

  14. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... essential composition and quality factors of the juice. It may be sweetened with the dry nutritive... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert sugar...

  15. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... essential composition and quality factors of the juice. It may be sweetened with the dry nutritive... concentrate. (iii) One or any combination of two or more of the dry or liquid forms of sugar, invert sugar...

  16. Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Ying, Guang-Guo; Su, Hao-Chang; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Li

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the levels of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in bottled water and tap water in Guangzhou and release of these chemicals from baby bottles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization. Results show that 4-NP was present in all the bottled water while 17 out of 21 contained BPA and 18 out of 21 contained TCS. Their concentrations in bottled water ranged from 108 to 298 ng/L, 17.6 to 324 ng/L and 0.6 to 9.7 ng/L, respectively. Five of the tap water samples from six drinking water plants were found to contain 4-NP and BPA both in June and December, while TCS was detected in the same five plants only in June. The highest concentrations in tap water for 4-NP, BPA and TCS were 1987, 317 and 14.5ng/L, respectively. Daily intakes of 4-NP, BPA and TCS of adults by drinking 2L of tap water were estimated to be 1410, 148 and 10 ng/day, respectively. BPA was found to be released within 24h from four brands of baby bottles at room temperature (24 degrees C), 40 degrees C and 100 degrees C. Increased temperature led to higher release of BPA from the baby bottles. Estimated daily intakes of 4-NP, BPA and TCS for infants were 705, 1340 and 5 ng/day, respectively, by drinking 1L of tap water from a baby bottle at 40 degrees C. This study showed that the exposure to the three compounds from drinking water is unlikely to pose a health risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... of shell, seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe... pineapple juice (exclusive of added sugars) without added water shall not be less than 10.5° Brix as...

  18. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... of shell, seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe... pineapple juice (exclusive of added sugars) without added water shall not be less than 10.5° Brix as...

  19. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... of shell, seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe... pineapple juice (exclusive of added sugars) without added water shall not be less than 10.5° Brix as...

  20. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... of shell, seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe... pineapple juice (exclusive of added sugars) without added water shall not be less than 10.5° Brix as...

  1. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146... of shell, seeds, or other coarse or hard substances or excess pulp. It may be sweetened with any safe... pineapple juice (exclusive of added sugars) without added water shall not be less than 10.5° Brix as...

  2. Bottled Water Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... the following measures: Use a point-of-use filter Consider using point-of-use (per- 2 Bottled ... tap sonal use, end-of-tap, under sink) filters that remove particles one micrometer or less in ...

  3. Computer Simulations of Bottle Brushes: From Melts to Soft Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Zhen; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Sheiko, Sergei S.; ...

    2015-07-13

    We use a combination of Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical calculations, and study dens bottle-brush systems in a melt and network State. Analysis of our simulation results shows that bottle-brush macromolecules in melt behave as ideal chains with effective Kuhn length b K. Simulations show that the bottle-brush-induced bending rigidity is due to an entropy decrease caused by redistribution of the side chains upon backbone bending. The Kuhn length of the bottle:brushes increases with increasing the side-chain degree of polymerization n sc as b K proportional to n sc 0.46. Moreover, this model of bottle brush macromolecules is extended tomore » describe mechanical properties of bottle brush networks in linear and nonlinear deformation regimes. In the linear deformation regime, the network shear modulus scales with the degree of polymerization of the side chains as G 0 proportional to (n sc + 1) -1 as long as the ratio of the Kuhn length, b K, to the size of the fully extended bottle-brush backbone between cross-links, R-max, is smaller than unity, b K/R max << 1. Bottle-brush networks With b K/R max proportional to 1 demonstrate behavior similar to that of networks Of semiflexible chains with G 0 proportional to n sc -0.5. Finally, in the nonlinear network deformation regime, the deformation-dependent shear modulus is a universal function of the first strain invariant I 1 and bottle-brush backbone deformation ratio beta describing stretching ability of the bottle-brush backbone between cross-links.« less

  4. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T; Morrissey, Robert C; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison-to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification-to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  5. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T.; Morrissey, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison–to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification–to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  6. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs), and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs). Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group) was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding) during the learning stage and adopt their own pattern. PMID:20149217

  7. EXAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATER FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to examine bottled water for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria as a potential source of infection in AIDS patients. Twenty brands of bottled water commonly used in the Los Angeles area were tested for the presence of nontuberculous mycoba...

  8. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  9. Beer bottle whistling: a stochastic Hopf bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boujo, Edouard; Bourquard, Claire; Xiong, Yuan; Noiray, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Blowing in a bottle to produce sound is a popular and yet intriguing entertainment. We reproduce experimentally the common observation that the bottle ``whistles'', i.e. produces a distinct tone, for large enough blowing velocity and over a finite interval of blowing angle. For a given set of parameters, the whistling frequency stays constant over time while the acoustic pressure amplitude fluctuates. Transverse oscillations of the shear layer in the bottle's neck are clearly identified with time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). To account for these observations, we develop an analytical model of linear acoustic oscillator (the air in the bottle) subject to nonlinear stochastic forcing (the turbulent jet impacting the bottle's neck). We derive a stochastic differential equation and, from the associated Fokker-Planck equation and the measured acoustic pressure signals, we identify the model's parameters with an adjoint optimization technique. Results are further validated experimentally, and allow us to explain (i) the occurrence of whistling in terms of linear instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the limit cycle as a competition between linear growth rate, noise intensity, and nonlinear saturation. E. B. and N. N. acknowledge support by Repower and the ETH Zurich Foundation.

  10. Chemical and antioxidant properties of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) juice and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) juice blends and their changes during storage.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Fasogbon, Mofoluwaso B

    2017-04-01

    Juice blends made from the mixture of snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits were analyzed for pH, antioxidant properties, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene and total phenolic contents after different blend ratios were made. The addition of snake tomato juice increased the vitamin C, total carotene, lycopene and antioxidant properties of the juice blends. The radical scavenging properties of juice blends containing a higher ratio of snake tomato were higher and samples stored at room temperature (29°C) showed an increase in antioxidant properties compared to samples stored at 4°C. In conclusion, snake tomato juice up to 50% may be added to Pineapple juice to make a healthy juice blend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring the significance of pearlescence in real-time bottle forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G.; Yan, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work examines the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles during the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process. PET has a relatively large process window with regards to process parameters, however if the boundaries are pushed, the resultant bottle can become insufficient for consumer requirements. One aspect of this process is the onset of pearlescence in the bottle material, where the bottle becomes opaque due to elevated stress whitening. Experimental trials were carried out using a modified free-stretch-blow machine where the deforming bottle was examined in free air. The strain values of the deformation were measured using digital image correlation (DIC) and the optical properties were measured relative to the initial amorphous PET preform. The results reveal that process parameters can significantly affect pearlescence. The detrimental level of pearlescence may be predicted therefore reducing the probability of poorly formed bottles.

  12. Acoustic Emission Test for Aircraft Halon 1301 Fire Extinguisher Bottles

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-04-01

    An acoustic emission test for aircraft Halon 1301 bottles has been developed, a prototype acoustic emission test system constructed, and over 200 used bottles tested at the repair facilities of the two manufacturers of these bottles. The system monit...

  13. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    PubMed

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L ofmore » Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.« less

  15. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content.

  16. 27 CFR 19.599 - Bottling and packaging records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits bottled or packaged (if different from the proof recorded under paragraph (f) of this section); (k) Total quantity bottled, packaged, or otherwise disposed of in bulk; (l) Losses or gains of the distilled...

  17. 27 CFR 19.599 - Bottling and packaging records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits bottled or packaged (if different from the proof recorded under paragraph (f) of this section); (k) Total quantity bottled, packaged, or otherwise disposed of in bulk; (l) Losses or gains of the distilled...

  18. 27 CFR 19.599 - Bottling and packaging records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits bottled or packaged (if different from the proof recorded under paragraph (f) of this section); (k) Total quantity bottled, packaged, or otherwise disposed of in bulk; (l) Losses or gains of the distilled...

  19. 27 CFR 26.314 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles. 26.314 Section 26.314 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., including a photograph of the distinctive liquor bottle, to Customs officials at each affected port of entry...

  20. 27 CFR 26.314 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles. 26.314 Section 26.314 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., including a photograph of the distinctive liquor bottle, to Customs officials at each affected port of entry...

  1. 27 CFR 19.599 - Bottling and packaging records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... proof recorded under paragraph (f) of this section); (k) Total quantity bottled, packaged, or otherwise disposed of in bulk; (l) Losses or gains of the distilled spirits product; and (m) If labeled as bottled in...

  2. Comparative study of pulsed electric field and thermal processing of apple juice with particular consideration of juice quality and enzyme deactivation.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Susanne; Schmid, Sandra; Jäger, Henry; Ludwig, Michael; Dietrich, Helmut; Toepfl, Stefan; Knorr, Dietrich; Neidhart, Sybille; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2008-06-25

    As an alternative to thermal pasteurization, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were applied to apple juices on laboratory and pilot plant scale, investigating the effects on juice quality. PEF application still falls under the EU Novel Food Regulation. Consequently, extensive investigation of quality parameters is a prerequisite to prove substantial equivalence of juices resulting from the novel process and conventional production, respectively. Juice composition was not affected by PEF treatment. However, browning of the juices provided evidence of residual enzyme activities. On laboratory scale, complete deactivation of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was achieved when PEF treatment and preheating of the juices to 60 degrees C were combined. Under these conditions, a synergistic effect of heat and PEF was observed. On pilot plant scale, maximum PPO deactivation of 48% was achieved when the juices were preheated to 40 degrees C and PEF-treated at 30 kV/cm (100 kJ/kg). Thus, minimally processed juices resulted from PEF processing, when applied without additional conventional thermal preservation. Since this product type was characterized by residual native enzyme activities and nondetectable levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, also when preheating up to 40 degrees C was included, it ranged between fresh and pasteurized juices regarding consumers' expectation of freshness and shelf life. Consistent with comparable iron contents among all juice samples, no electrode corrosion was observed under the PEF conditions applied.

  3. From Comb-like Polymers to Bottle-Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Heyi; Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey; Sheiko, Sergei

    We use a combination of the coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis to study conformations of bottle-brushes and comb-like polymers in a melt. Our analysis show that bottle-brushes and comb-like polymers can be in four different conformation regimes depending on the number of monomers between grafted side chains and side chain degree of polymerization. In loosely-grafted comb regime (LC) the degree of polymerization between side chains is longer than side chain degree of polymerization, such that the side chains belonging to the same macromolecule do not overlap. Crossover to a new densely-grafted comb regime (DC) takes place when side chains begin to overlap reducing interpenetration of side chains belonging to different macromolecules. In these two regimes both side-chains and backbone behave as unperturbed linear chains with the effective Kuhn length of the backbone being close to that of linear chain. Further decrease spacer degree of polymerization results in crossover to loosely-grafted bottle-brush regime (LB). In this regime, the bottle-brush backbone is stretched while the side-chains still maintain ideal chain conformation. Finally, for even shorter spacer between grafted side chains, which corresponds to densely-grafted bottle-brush regime (DB), the backbone adopts a fully extended chain conformation, and side-chains begin to stretch to maintain a constant monomer density. NSF DMR-1409710, DMR-1407645, DMR-1624569, DMR-1436201.

  4. Juicing the Juice: A Laboratory-Based Case Study for an Instrumental Analytical Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Peter M.; Dinan, Frank J.; St. Phillips, Michael; Larson, Renee; Pines, Harvey A.; Larkin, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    A young, inexperienced Food and Drug Administration (FDA) chemist is asked to distinguish between authentic fresh orange juice and suspected reconstituted orange juice falsely labeled as fresh. In an advanced instrumental analytical chemistry application of this case, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the…

  5. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    PubMed

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of bottled liquid explosives by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hide; Miyamura, Ryu; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    Bottled liquids are limited to be brought in the airplane, because liquid explosives have been used in some terrorist attaches recently. A bottled liquid scanner is expected to be developed. Liquid scanner using near infrared technologies is being developed by us. Many spectrum of liquids have been collected and analyzed by chemometorics in order to separate safe beverage to explosive and dangerous liquids. This bottled liquid scanner had feasibility tests in some international airport in Japan and obtained good review from security people in the airport.

  7. 27 CFR 19.402 - Inventories of bottled and packaged spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Inventories § 19.402 Inventories of bottled and packaged spirits. (a) Physical inventories. (1) Physical inventories of bottled and packaged spirits in the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of bottled and...

  8. Life cycle assessment of bottled water: A case study of Green2O products.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Naomi; Frago, Jessica; Mu, Dongyan

    2018-06-01

    This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system. An ENSO bottle contains a special additive which is designed to help the plastic bottle degrade after disposed of in a landfill. The results showed that of all fourteen impact categories examined, the recycled PET and ENSO bottles were generally better than the PLA and regular PET bottles; however, the ENSO had the highest impacts in the categories of global warming and respiratory organics, and the recycled PET had the highest impact in the eutrophication category. The life cycle stages that were found to have the highest environmental impacts were the bottle manufacturing stage and the bottled water distribution to storage stage. Analysis of the mixed bottle material based on recycled PET resin and regular PET resin was discussed as well, in which key impact categories were identified. The PLA bottle contained extremely low impacts in the carcinogens, respiratory organics and global warming categories, yet it still contained the highest impacts in seven of the fourteen categories. Overall, the results demonstrate that the usage of more sustainable bottles, such as biodegradable ENSO bottles and recycled PET bottles, appears to be a viable option for decreasing impacts of the bottled water industry on the environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Calcite precipitates in Slovenian bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Stanič, Tamara Ferjan; Miler, Miloš; Brenčič, Mihael; Gosar, Mateja

    2017-06-01

    Storage of bottled waters in varying ambient conditions affects its characteristics. Different storage conditions cause changes in the initial chemical composition of bottled water which lead to the occurrence of precipitates with various morphologies. In order to assess the relationship between water composition, storage conditions and precipitate morphology, a study of four brands of Slovenian bottled water stored in PET bottles was carried out. Chemical analyses of the main ions and measurements of the physical properties of water samples were performed before and after storage of water samples at different ambient conditions. SEM/EDS analysis of precipitates was performed after elapsed storage time. The results show that the presence of Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , SiO 2 , Al, Mn and other impurities such as K + , Na + , Ba and Sr in the water controlled precipitate morphology by inhibiting crystal growth and leading to elongated rhombohedral calcite crystal forms which exhibit furrowed surfaces and calcite rosettes. Different storage conditions, however, affected the number of crystallization nuclei and size of calcite crystals. Hollow calcite spheres composed of cleavage rhombohedrons formed in the water with variable storage conditions by a combination of evaporation and precipitation of water droplets during high temperatures or by the bubble templating method.

  10. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared... section. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (c) of this section may be... orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and...

  11. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared... section. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (c) of this section may be... orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and...

  12. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared... section. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (c) of this section may be... orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and...

  13. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared... section. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (c) of this section may be... orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and...

  14. 21 CFR 146.140 - Pasteurized orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Beverages § 146.140 Pasteurized orange juice. (a) Pasteurized orange juice is the food prepared... section. One or more of the optional sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (c) of this section may be... orange juice soluble solids, exclusive of the solids of any added optional sweetening ingredients, and...

  15. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro

    2005-08-05

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger accessmore » of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.« less

  16. Risk perceptions of arsenic in tap water and consumption of bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakus, Paul M.; Shaw, W. Douglass; Nguyen, To N.; Walker, Mark

    2009-05-01

    The demand for bottled water has increased rapidly over the past decade, but bottled water is extremely costly compared to tap water. The convenience of bottled water surely matters to consumers, but are others factors at work? This manuscript examines whether purchases of bottled water are associated with the perceived risk of tap water. All of the past studies on bottled water consumption have used simple scale measures of perceived risk that do not correspond to risk measures used by risk analysts. We elicit a probability-based measure of risk and find that as perceived risks rise, expenditures for bottled water rise.

  17. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    PubMed Central

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health. PMID:25210816

  18. How dirty are your reusable water bottles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S.

    2017-12-01

    Reusable water bottles are an environment-friendly option but may grow harmful bacteria if not washed regularly. To test whether washing habits affect bacterial growth, I swabbed 10 different plastic reusable bottles and counted colony growth after laboratory incubation. My results did not show a clear relationship between days since last wash and colony growth.

  19. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value <0.05. Consumption of apple juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (P<0.001). No differences in reported GI symptoms were seen between treatments. Both juices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in

  20. Hepatotoxicity of NONI juice: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Fickert, Peter; Lackner, Carolin; Schmerlaib, Jutta; Krisper, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2005-01-01

    AIM: NONI juice (Morinda citrifolia) is an increasingly popular wellness drink claimed to be beneficial for many illnesses. No overt toxicity has been reported to date. We present two cases of novel hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. Causality of liver injury by NONI juice was asses-sed. Routine laboratory tests and transjugular or percutaneous liver biopsy were performed. The first patient underwent successful liver transplantation while the second patient recovered spontaneously after cessation of NONI juice. A 29-year-old man with previous toxic hepatitis associated with small doses of paracetamol developed sub-acute hepatic failure following consumption of 1.5 L NONI juice over 3 wk necessitating urgent liver transplantation. A 62-year-old woman without evidence of previous liver disease developed an episode of self-limited acute hepatitis following consumption of 2 L NONI juice for over 3 mo. The most likely hepatotoxic components of Morinda citrifolia were anthraquinones. Physicians should be aware of potential hepatotoxicity of NONI juice. PMID:16094725

  1. Wine bottle colour and oxidative spoilage: whole bottle light exposure experiments under controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew C; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2013-06-15

    Exposure of a Chardonnay wine to light from a mercury vapour lamp under controlled temperature conditions showed that colour enhancement was dependent on bottle colour. The increase in colouration was Antique Greenbottle type. Xanthylium pigments were identified as one component contributing to the observed enhancement of colour. The presence of oxygen was shown to be a critical factor to initiate the formation of these xanthylium pigments during light exposure. Without temperature control, wine colour development was highest in Antique Green and lowest in Flint. This alternate order reflects the ability of the darker bottles to retain heat longer than lighter coloured ones as confirmed by surface temperature decay rates. Specific pigments contributing to the wine colour enhancement in uncontrolled temperature/light exposure experiments could not be identified, although tentative evidence was obtained for the presence of flavan-3-ol based compounds. The different bottle glass surfaces did not influence the rate of loss of dissolved oxygen or oxidation of ascorbic acid. The potential to develop the results obtained in this study to identify markers for light and/or temperature exposure of white wines is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Michael J.; Cancalon, Paul; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Greenblatt, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in the clinical setting remains relatively limited. Areas covered This article reviews the in vitro effects of grapefruit juice and its constituents on the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, organic anion-transporting polypeptides, P-glycoprotein, esterases and sulfotransferases. The translational applicability of the in vitro findings to the clinical setting is discussed for each drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter. Reported area under the plasma concentration-time curve ratios for available grapefruit juice-drug interaction studies are also provided. Relevant investigations were identified by searching the Pubmed electronic database from 1989 to 2010. Expert opinion Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of some orally-administered drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A and normally undergo extensive presystemic extraction. In addition, grapefruit juice can decrease the oral absorption of a few drugs that rely on organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the gastrointestinal tract for their uptake. The number of drugs shown to interact with grapefruit juice in vitro is far greater than the number of clinically relevant grapefruit juice-drug interactions. For the majority of patients, complete avoidance of grapefruit juice is unwarranted. PMID:21254874

  3. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  4. Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell L

    2008-08-01

    Fresh orange juice is a highly desirable but unstable product. This review examines analytical findings, odor activity, and variations due to cultivar, sampling methods, manner of juicing, plus possible enzymatic and microbial artifacts. Initial attempts to characterize orange juice odor were based on volatile quantitation and overemphasized the importance of high concentration volatiles. Although over 300 volatiles have been reported from GC-MS analytical studies, this review presents 36 consensus aroma active components from GC-olfactometry studies consisting of 14 aldehydes, 7 esters, 5 terpenes, 6 alcohols, and 4 ketones. Most are trace (microg/L) components. (+)-Limonene is an essential component in orange juice odor although its exact function is still uncertain. Total amounts of volatiles in mechanically squeezed juices are three to 10 times greater than hand-squeezed juices because of elevated peel oil levels. Elevated peel oil changes the relative proportion of several key odorants. Odor active components from solvent extraction studies differ from those collected using headspace techniques as they include volatiles with low vapor pressure such as vanillin. Some reported odorants such as 2,3-butanedione are microbial contamination artifacts. Orange juice odor models confirm that fresh orange aroma is complex as the most successful models contain 23 odorants.

  5. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  6. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  7. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  8. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  9. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed to...

  10. Scanning electron microscopic study of a Ciloxan bottle blocked by ciprofloxacin crystals.

    PubMed

    John, T

    2001-12-01

    To report blockage of a commercially available ciprofloxacin bottle by white crystalline deposits. This study evaluated the ultrastructural features of the ciprofloxacin crystals. A patient underwent intensive topical treatment of an infectious corneal ulcer with commercially available ciprofloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution. During treatment, the patient was unable to obtain medication from the ciprofloxacin bottle and required a new prescription. Examination of the bottle revealed that about 50% of the medication remained, but compression of the bottle with any amount of force failed to deliver any medication. On closer examination, a white material partially filled the nozzle track of the bottle and was on the outer bottle near the nozzle and the inner surface of the bottle cap. These white crystalline deposits were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Plate-like, needle, cable and spaghetti-like crystals were found. The needle crystals formed multiple petaloid patterns. This is the first report of blockage of a commercially available ciprofloxacin 0.3% bottle by ciprofloxacin crystals and the inability to deliver medication from the bottle. Ultrastructural study of the white crystalline deposits revealed four types of ciprofloxacin crystals.

  11. Polycarbonate Bottle Use and Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L.; Luu, Henry T.; Bassett, Laura S.; Driscoll, Daniel A.; Yuan, Caterina; Chang, Jennifer Y.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Michels, Karin B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical commonly used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic. Low-level concentrations of BPA in animals and possibly in humans may cause endocrine disruption. Whether ingestion of food or beverages from polycarbonate containers increases BPA concentrations in humans has not been studied. Objectives We examined the association between use of polycarbonate beverage containers and urinary BPA concentrations in humans. Methods We conducted a nonrandomized intervention of 77 Harvard College students to compare urinary BPA concentrations collected after a washout phase of 1 week to those taken after an intervention week during which most cold beverages were consumed from polycarbonate drinking bottles. Paired t-tests were used to assess the difference in urinary BPA concentrations before and after polycarbonate bottle use. Results The geometric mean urinary BPA concentration at the end of the washout phase was 1.2 μg/g creatinine, increasing to 2.0 μg/g creatinine after 1 week of polycarbonate bottle use. Urinary BPA concentrations increased by 69% after use of polycarbonate bottles (p < 0.0001). The association was stronger among participants who reported ≥ 90% compliance (77% increase; p < 0.0001) than among those reporting < 90% compliance (55% increase; p = 0.03), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.54). Conclusions One week of polycarbonate bottle use increased urinary BPA concentrations by two-thirds. Regular consumption of cold beverages from polycarbonate bottles is associated with a substantial increase in urinary BPA concentrations irrespective of exposure to BPA from other sources. PMID:19750099

  12. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Beverages § 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water extract of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prune juice. 146.187 Section 146.187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  13. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so... equipment, that might cause corrosion or interfere with the safe operation of the holder. (b) Each pipe-type...

  14. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so... equipment, that might cause corrosion or interfere with the safe operation of the holder. (b) Each pipe-type...

  15. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  16. An axisymmetric PFEM formulation for bottle forming simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhakov, Pavel B.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model for bottle forming simulation is proposed. It is based upon the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) and is developed for the simulation of bottles characterized by rotational symmetry. The PFEM strategy is adapted to suit the problem of interest. Axisymmetric version of the formulation is developed and a modified contact algorithm is applied. This results in a method characterized by excellent computational efficiency and volume conservation characteristics. The model is validated. An example modelling the final blow process is solved. Bottle wall thickness is estimated and the mass conservation of the method is analysed.

  17. On sampling biases arising from insufficient bottle flushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codispoti, L. A.; Paver, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Collection of representative water samples using carousel bottles is important for accurately determining biological and chemical gradients. The development of more technologically advanced instrumentation and sampling apparatus causes sampling packages to increase and "soak times" to decrease, increasing the probability that insufficient bottle flushing will produce biased results. Qualitative evidence from various expeditions suggest that insufficient flushing may be a problem. Here we report on multiple field experiments that were conducted to better quantify the errors that can arise from insufficient bottle flushing. Our experiments suggest that soak times of more than 2 minutes are sometimes required to collect a representative sample.

  18. A Modified Grapefruit Juice Eliminates Two Compound Classes as Major Mediators of the Grapefruit Juice-Fexofenadine Interaction: an In Vitro-In Vivo ‘Connect’

    PubMed Central

    Won, Christina S.; Lan, Tian; VanderMolen, Karen M.; Dawson, Paul A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Widmer, Wilbur W.; Scarlett, Yolanda V.; Paine, Mary F.

    2014-01-01

    The grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction involves inhibition of intestinal organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated uptake. Only naringin has been shown clinically to inhibit intestinal OATP; other constituents have not been evaluated. The effects of a modified grapefruit juice devoid of furanocoumarins (~99%) and polymethoxyflavones (~90%) on fexofenadine disposition were compared to effects of the original juice. Extracts of both juices inhibited estrone 3-sulfate and fexofenadine uptake by similar extents in OATP-transfected cells (~50% and ~25%, respectively). Healthy volunteers (n=18) were administered fexofenadine (120 mg) with water, grapefruit juice, or modified grapefruit juice (240 ml) by randomized, three-way crossover design. Compared to water, both juices decreased fexofenadine geometric mean AUC and Cmax by ~25% (p≤0.008 and p≤0.011, respectively), with no effect on terminal half-life (p=0.11). Similar effects by both juices on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics indicate furanocoumarins and polymethoxyflavones are not major mediators of the grapefruit juice-fexofenadine interaction. PMID:23878024

  19. Physicochemical properties of some bottled water brands in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hesham Z; Mohammed, Heba A G; Hafez, Afaf M

    2014-08-01

    Many people use bottled water instead of tap water for many reasons such as taste, ease of carrying, and thinking that it is safer than tap water. Irrespective of the reason, bottled water consumption has been steadily growing in the world for the past 30 years. In Egypt, this is still increasing to reach 3.8 l/person/day, despite its high price compared with tap water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical quality of some bottled water brands and to compare the quality with that reported on manufacture's labeling, Egyptian, and International standards. Fourteen bottled water brands were selected from the local markets of Alexandria city. Three bottles from each brand were randomly sampled, making a total sample size of 42 bottles. Sampling occurred between July 2012 and September 2012. Each bottle was analyzed for its physicochemical parameter and the average was calculated for each brand. The results obtained were compared with the Egyptian standard for bottled water, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and with bottled water labels. In all bottles in the study, pH values ranged between 7.21 and 8.23, conductivity ranged between 195 and 675 μs/cm, and total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were within the range specified by the FDA. Calcium concentrations ranged between 2.7373 and 29.2183 mg/l, magnesium concentrations ranged between 5.7886 and 17.6633 mg/l, sodium between 14.5 and 205.8 mg/l, and potassium between 6.5 and 29.8 mg/l. For heavy metals such as iron, zinc, copper, and manganese, all of them were in conformity with the Egyptian standards and FDA, but nickel concentration in 11 brands was higher than the Egyptian standards. Twelve brands were higher than the Egyptian standards in cadmium concentration, but on comparison with FDA there were only five brands exceeding limits. Lead concentrations were out of range for all brands. On comparison with the labeled values, the quality of bottled water was not

  20. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male) healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31), one-way air valve: Philips Avent) versus Bottle B (n = 32), internal venting system: Dr Browns). 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24) to bottle A (n = 11) or B (n = 13) if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i) milk intake (ii) infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary); (iii) risk of infection; (iv) continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2) SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39), mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77). Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p < 0.05) than those using bottle B. There was no significant difference in any other outcome measure. Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in

  1. National Poison Prevention Week – EPA Urges Public to Keep All Pesticides in Original Containers to Prevent Accidental Poisoning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Poison Control Centers have reported cases of accidental poisonings from ingestion of chemicals stored in soda and juice bottles and cans, coffee cups, baby bottles and various other beverage containers. Keep pesticides in their original containers.

  2. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters.

  3. Mesoridazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... ounces (60 milliliters) of water, orange juice, or grape juice before taking it. If any of the juice gets on the dropper, rinse the dropper with tap water before replacing it in the bottle. Do not allow the liquid concentrate to touch your skin or clothing; it can irritate your skin. If ...

  4. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    PubMed

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  5. Effect of continuous ohmic heating to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-Y; Sagong, H-G; Ryu, S; Kang, D-H

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice. Orange juice and tomato juice were treated with electric field strengths in the range of 25-40 V cm(-1) for different treatment times. The temperature of the samples increased with increasing treatment time and electric field strength. The rate of temperature change for tomato juice was higher than for orange juice at all voltage gradients applied. Higher electric field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was reduced by more than 5 log after 60-, 90- and 180-s treatments in orange juice with 40, 35 and 30 V cm(-1) electric field strength, respectively. In tomato juice, treatment with 25 V cm(-1) for 30 s was sufficient to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. Similar results were observed in Salm. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The concentration of vitamin C in continuous ohmic heated juice was significantly higher than in conventionally heated juice (P < 0·05). Continuous ohmic heating can be effective in killing foodborne pathogens on orange juice and tomato juice with lower degradation of quality than conventional heating. These results suggest that continuous ohmic heating might be effectively used to pasteurize fruit and vegetable juices in a short operating time and that the effect of inactivation depends on applied electric field strengths, treatment time and electric conductivity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Failure of juice or juice extract from the noni plant (Morinda citrifolia) to protect rats against oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Berg, John T; Furusawa, Eiichi

    2007-02-01

    Noni juice possesses antioxidant activity and prevents superoxide-mediated tissue injury in laboratory animals. A polysaccharide-rich precipitate of noni juice (noni-ppt) also stimulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) in mice. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) stimulates TNF and IL-1 in rats and protects against superoxide-mediated oxygen toxicity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that noni juice, or noni-ppt, would protect rats against pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Rats were divided into four groups; one received noni-ppt to test for cytokine-induced protection; another received noni juice to test for antioxidant activity; a third received saline as hyperoxia control; a fourth received no treatment in air. Rats were then exposed to either hyperoxia (> 97% oxygen at sea level for 52 or 60 hours) or air and lung injury assessed. Rats receiving saline, noni-ppt or noni juice exhibited typical signs of oxygen toxicity with hemorrhagic lungs, large pleural effusions and increases in protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. They also developed heavy lungs with increases in wet/dry weight ratios, hematocrit values and ratios of effusion protein to plasma protein concentration. These results show that Noni juice and Noni-ppt do not prevent oxygen toxicity in rats when administered according to the protocols used in this study.

  7. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  8. Blood orange juice inhibits fat accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Titta, L; Trinei, M; Stendardo, M; Berniakovich, I; Petroni, K; Tonelli, C; Riso, P; Porrini, M; Minucci, S; Pelicci, P G; Rapisarda, P; Reforgiato Recupero, G; Giorgio, M

    2010-03-01

    To analyze the effect of the juice obtained from two varieties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), Moro (a blood orange) and Navelina (a blond orange), on fat accumulation in mice fed a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD). Obesity was induced in male C57/Bl6 mice by feeding a HFD. Moro and Navelina juices were provided instead of water. The effect of an anthocyanin-enriched extract from Moro oranges or purified cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) was also analyzed. Body weight and food intake were measured regularly over a 12-week period. The adipose pads were weighted and analyzed histologically; total RNA was also isolated for microarray analysis. Dietary supplementation of Moro juice, but not Navelina juice significantly reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation regardless of the increased energy intake because of sugar content. Furthermore, mice drinking Moro juice were resistant to HFD-induced obesity with no alterations in food intake. Only the anthocyanin extract, but not the purified C3G, slightly affected fat accumulation. High-throughput gene expression analysis of fat tissues confirmed that Moro juice could entirely rescue the high fat-induced transcriptional reprogramming. Moro juice anti-obesity effect on fat accumulation cannot be explained only by its anthocyanin content. Our findings suggest that multiple components present in the Moro orange juice might act synergistically to inhibit fat accumulation.

  9. Bioactive compounds and quality parameters of natural cloudy lemon juices.

    PubMed

    Uçan, Filiz; Ağçam, Erdal; Akyildiz, Asiye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, bioactive compounds (phenolic and carotenoid) and some quality parameters (color, browning index and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) of natural cloudy lemon juice, pasteurized (90 °C/15 s) and storage stability of concentrated lemon juice (-25 °C/180 days) were carried out. Fifteen phenolic compounds were determined in the lemon juice and the most abounded phenolic compounds were hesperidin, eriocitrin, chlorogenic acid and neoeriocitrin. In generally, phenolic compound concentrations of lemon juice samples increased after the pasteurization treatment. Four carotenoid compounds (β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) were detected in natural cloudy lemon juice. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were the most abounded carotenoid compounds in the lemon juice. Color values of the lemon juices were not affected by processing and storage periods. HMF and browning index of the lemon juices increased with concentration and storage. According to the results, storing at -25 °C was considered as sufficient for acceptable quality limits of natural cloudy lemon juice.

  10. The switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia: a serious health risk.

    PubMed

    Komarulzaman, Ahmad; de Jong, Eelke; Smits, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia. Findings indicate that this switch is driven by lifestyle motives, as well as by cost and availability considerations. It is mostly the young affluent households who switch from piped and 'other' sources to refillable bottled water. In rural areas, the tendency to make this switch is negatively affected by availability problems and the higher price of refillable bottled water. Availability and cost also influence the switch from branded bottled to refillable bottled water, but here it is the poorer households who have a higher propensity to switch. Further exploration of the lifestyle motive and affordability issues, as well as better monitoring of the refilling depots, are needed to improve the quality of drinking water in Indonesia and other emerging countries.

  11. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  12. Evolutionary medicine: bottle feeding, birth spacing, and autism.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Gordon G; Hobbs, Dawn R

    2011-09-01

    To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement of fertility. We suggest that recent data showing the risk of autism goes up dramatically as the time between pregnancies goes down [1] may be a byproduct of bottle feeding. The decision to bottle feed your last child may unwittingly put your next child at risk of being autistic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flutist produces four resonances with a single bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Boysen, Erika

    2017-03-01

    In a dramatic physics demonstration, a professional flutist produces four resonances with a 12 ounce Boylan soda bottle solely through her breath control. The 22 cm bottle acts like a Helmholtz resonator for the lowest pitch. The three higher pitches fall near the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics for a 22 cm closed pipe. A video of this remarkable feat is provided (Ruiz 2016 YouTube: Four Resonances with a 12-ounce Soda Bottle (https://youtu.be/ibtVrp2NF_k)). The video also reveals that a flutist can bend resonance pitches by as much as 10% through control of air speed.

  14. Bottle Characteristics of Topical International Glaucoma Medications versus Local Brands in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jumaian, Nasser; Malik, Rizwan; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Humaidan, Abdullah; Al-Madany, Rana; Al-Qahtani, Reham; Altowairqi, Ahmed; Al-Theeb, Abdulwahab; Zaman, Babar; Al-Djasim, Leyla; Craven, E. Randy; Edward, Deepak P.

    2016-01-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Physical bottle characteristics differ of brand name topical glaucoma medications and local generic equivalents. This study compares the bottle characteristics of international topical glaucoma brands versus local brands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Data were collected on bottle drum volume, drop volume, bottle squeezability, bottle tip diameter, labels and instructions, cap color coding, and clarity of the drug label. Density-based calculations of drops in bottle volume were assessed using an analytic balance. Bottle tip diameter was measured using 0.05 mm Vernier calipers. A Likert scale-based questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective opinions of patients on bottle squeezability, clarity of usage and storage instructions, and the consistency of the cap color coding. RESULTS: The volumes of international brands were statistically significantly higher than the local brands (P < 0.001). A number of drops per bottle and tip diameter were comparable between the international local brands. Cap color coding was inconsistent for international and local brands. Patients were dissatisfied with the label font size. Patients reported that the international and local brands were similar in terms of the ease of opening the bottle, instilling a drop, and the clarity of the instructions; but the local brands were subjectively easier to squeeze than international brands. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to compare bottle characteristics of local Saudi Arabia brands with international brands. The bottle characteristics and patient feedback were similar between the local and international topical glaucoma medications. However, there were differences between the local and international brands in drug volume, bottle squeezability. Hence, patient compliance and drop dosage may differ based on the origin of manufacture. PMID:27994392

  15. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  16. Fruit Juice in Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Current Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Melvin B; Abrams, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    Historically, fruit juice was recommended by pediatricians as a source of vitamin C and as an extra source of water for healthy infants and young children as their diets expanded to include solid foods with higher renal solute load. It was also sometimes recommended for children with constipation. Fruit juice is marketed as a healthy, natural source of vitamins and, in some instances, calcium. Because juice tastes good, children readily accept it. Although juice consumption has some benefits, it also has potential detrimental effects. High sugar content in juice contributes to increased calorie consumption and the risk of dental caries. In addition, the lack of protein and fiber in juice can predispose to inappropriate weight gain (too much or too little). Pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about juice to inform parents and patients on its appropriate uses. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Orange juice-induced hyperkalemia in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Berk, David R; Conti, Paul M; Sommer, Barbara R

    2004-01-01

    Some fruit juices have very high potassium content. However, only several cases of juice-induced hyperkalemia have been reported that involved non-psychiatric, diabetic outpatients with renal compromise. We present a highly unusual case of a 66-year-old non-diabetic, schizophrenic woman with psychogenic polydipsia and normal renal function who developed hyperkalemia secondary to excessive orange juice consumption while an inpatient. In addition to demonstrating this previously undescribed medical comorbidity of schizophrenia, this case highlights the need for careful attention when communicating with both nursing and patients when managing psychogenic polydipsia.

  18. Identification of tobacco-derived compounds in human pancreatic juice.

    PubMed

    Prokopczyk, Bogdan; Hoffmann, Dietrich; Bologna, Matthew; Cunningham, A John; Trushin, Neil; Akerkar, Shobha; Boyiri, Telih; Amin, Shantu; Desai, Dhimant; Colosimo, Stephen; Pittman, Brian; Leder, Gerhard; Ramadani, Marco; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Beger, Hans G; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2002-05-01

    Cancer of the pancreas is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in the USA with an estimated 28 900 deaths in 2001. Several factors have been implicated in the etiology of this disease. However, at present, only cigarette smoking has been positively associated with pancreatic cancer. It is our working hypothesis that tobacco-derived compounds can be delivered to the pancreas where, upon metabolic activation, they can initiate carcinogenesis. Our current investigation was conducted to determine whether cotinine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) are present in human pancreatic juice. Smoking status was assessed by the determination of levels of urinary cotinine and was further supported by quantifying nicotine in hair. The TSNA were extracted from the pancreatic juice of 18 smokers and 9 nonsmokers by supercritical carbon dioxide that contained 10% methanol. The extracts were analyzed for TSNA, namely, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection using a selected ion monitoring technique (GC-SIM-MS). Twenty-three extracts of human pancreatic juice were also analyzed for the presence of the NNK metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) by GC-SIM-MS and by gas chromatography interfaced wit a thermal energy analyzer (GC-TEA; TEA, a nitrosamine-specific detector). Cotinine was detected in all analyzed samples of pancreatic juice from smokers (129 +/- 150 ng/mL juice; mean +/- standard deviation) and was present in only two of the nine samples of pancreatic juice from nonsmokers. Its levels in these two samples were 7 and 9 ng/mL juice. NNK was detected in 15 of 18 samples (83%) from smokers at levels from 1.37 to 604 ng/mL pancreatic juice. In nine samples of pancreatic juice from nonsmokers, NNK ranged from not detected (in three samples) to 96.8 ng/mL juice. In pancreatic juice from smokers the mean level of NNK (88.7 +/- 161 ng/mL juice

  19. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice...

  20. Citrus bergamia juice: phytochemical and technological studies.

    PubMed

    Picerno, Patrizia; Sansone, Francesca; Mencherini, Teresa; Prota, Lucia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; Rastrelli, Luca; Lauro, Maria Rosaria

    2011-07-01

    Fresh juice from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) has been studied to evaluate the polyphenolic composition by HPLC-DAD analysis and total polyphenols content by UV method. The main constituent, Naringin, has been selected as analytical and biological marker of the juice. Juice has been loaded onto maltodextrin matrix by spray-drying. The produced maltodextrin/juice powder (BMP) showed neither significant change in total polyphenols content nor decrease in antioxidant properties with respect to fresh juice. Moreover, BMP displayed high in vitro dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in water and in simulated biological fluids. BMP appears as promising functional raw material for food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. With this aim, a formulation study to develop tablets (BMT) for oral administration has been also performed. The produced solid oral dosage form preserved high polyphenols content, showed complete disaggregation in few minutes and satisfying dissolution rate of the bioactive constituents in simulated biological fluids.

  1. Evaluation of microbial contamination of canine plasma eyedropper bottles following clinical use in canine patients.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Rachel A; Genschel, Ulrike; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Sebbag, Lionel; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-05-24

    To investigate microbial contamination of canine plasma eye drops when used clinically and to compare the effect of two different eyedropper bottles on contamination rate. Forty-six bottles containing plasma were randomly dispensed for use on 42 dogs with ulcerative keratitis. Of these, 23 were standard eyedropper bottles and 23 were Novelia ® bottles designed to prevent contamination. After use for up to 2 weeks, samples for bacterial culture were obtained from a drop of plasma, the bottle tip, the plasma inside the bottle, and the corneal surface. Fungal culture was performed from a drop of plasma. The overall microbial contamination rate was 17.4% (8/46 bottles); however, only one bottle had growth from the plasma inside the bottle. There was a lower contamination rate of Novelia ® bottles (3/23 = 13.0%) compared to standard bottles (5/23 = 21.7%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = .57). There were also no significant differences in contamination rate of bottles used greater than 7 days compared to less than or equal to 7 days, or in bottles used greater than 4 times daily compared to 4 times daily or less. Three corneal samples (6.5%) had bacterial growth, but none matched contamination from the bottles. Novelia ® bottles may decrease contamination of plasma eye drops used clinically. However, while microbial contamination of plasma bottles was documented, no clinically relevant complications were observed. This study supports safe use of plasma eye drops for up to 2 weeks when refrigerated and dispensed from either Novelia ® or standard eyedropper bottles. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. A furanocoumarin-free grapefruit juice establishes furanocoumarins as the mediators of the grapefruit juice-felodipine interaction.

    PubMed

    Paine, Mary F; Widmer, Wilbur W; Hart, Heather L; Pusek, Susan N; Beavers, Kimberly L; Criss, Anne B; Brown, Sherri S; Thomas, Brian F; Watkins, Paul B

    2006-05-01

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) enhances the systemic exposure of numerous CYP3A4 drug substrates, including felodipine, by inhibiting intestinal (but not hepatic) first-pass metabolism. Furanocoumarins have been identified as major CYP3A4 inhibitors contained in the juice, but their contribution to the GFJ effect in vivo remains unclear. To ascertain whether furanocoumarins mediate the GFJ-felodipine interaction, a furanocoumarin-free GFJ was created and tested against orange juice and the original GFJ with respect to the oral pharmacokinetics of felodipine. With the use of food-grade solvents and absorption resins, furanocoumarins were removed (approximately 99%) from whole GFJ, whereas other major ingredients (flavonoids) were retained. In an open, 3-way, randomized crossover design, 18 healthy volunteers ingested felodipine (10 mg) with 1 of the 3 juices (240 mL). Blood was collected over 24 h. At least 1 wk elapsed between juice treatments. The median and range of the area under the curve and the maximum concentration of felodipine were significantly (P < 0.001) greater with consumption of GFJ [110 (range: 58-270) nmol . h/L and 21 (7.6-50) nmol/L, respectively] than with that of orange juice [54 (29-150) nmol . h/L and 7.6 (3.4-13.9) nmol/L, respectively] or furanocoumarin-free GFJ [48 (23-120) nmol . h/L and 8.3 (3.0-16.6) nmol/L, respectively]. GFJ, orange juice, and furanocoumarin-free GFJ did not differ significantly (P > 0.09) in median time to reach maximum plasma concentration [2.5 (1.5-6), 2.8 (1.5-4), and 2.5 (2-6) h, respectively] or terminal half-life [6.6 (4.2-13.6), 7.8 (4.4-13.2), and 6.8 (2.6-14.4) h, respectively]. Furanocoumarins are the active ingredients in GFJ responsible for enhancing the systemic exposure of felodipine and probably other CYP3A4 substrates that undergo extensive intestinal first-pass metabolism.

  3. Effect of grapefruit juice on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, D S; Asplin, J R

    2001-07-01

    An increased risk of nephrolithiasis has been associated with the ingestion of grapefruit juice in epidemiological studies. To our knowledge the basis of this effect of grapefruit juice has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of grapefruit juice consumption on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity. Ten healthy men and women between ages of 25 and 40 years participated. Each subject drank 240 ml. of tap water at least 3 times daily for 7 days during the control period. This period was followed by a second 7 days experimental period during which they drank 240 ml. of grapefruit juice 3 times daily. In each 7-day period urine was collected for 24 hours during the last 3 days. Urine chemical analysis was performed, supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated and urinary lithogenicity was measured. Urine volume and creatinine excretion were the same during the control and experimental periods. Grapefruit juice ingestion was associated with an increase in mean oxalate excretion plus or minus standard deviation of 41.1 +/- 9.2 to 51.9 +/- 12.0 mg. per 24 hours (p = 0.001) and in mean citrate excretion of 504.8 +/- 226.5 to 591.4 +/- 220.0 mg. per 24 hours (p = 0.01). There was no net change in the supersaturation or upper limit of metastability of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate or uric acid. Crystal aggregation and growth inhibition by urinary macromolecules was not affected by grapefruit juice ingestion. Offsetting changes in urine chemistry caused by the ingestion of grapefruit juice led to no net change in calculated supersaturation. No changes in lithogenicity were demonstrated. The results do not demonstrate an effect of grapefruit juice for increasing lithogenicity. The basis of the observations of epidemiological studies remain unexplained.

  4. Tension amplification in tethered layers of bottle-brush polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Leuty, Gary M.; Tsige, Mesfin; Grest, Gary S.

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bead–spring model have been used to study the effects of molecular crowding on the accumulation of tension in the backbone of bottle-brush polymers tethered to a flat substrate. The number of bottle-brushes per unit surface area, Σ, as well as the lengths of the bottle-brush backbones N bb (50 ≤ N bb ≤ 200) and side chains N sc (50 ≤ N sc ≤ 200) were varied to determine how the dimensions and degree of crowding of bottle-brushes give rise to bond tension amplification along the backbone, especially near the substrate.more » From these simulations, we have identified three separate regimes of tension. For low Σ, the tension is due solely to intramolecular interactions and is dominated by the side chain repulsion that governs the lateral brush dimensions. With increasing Σ, the interactions between bottle-brush polymers induce compression of the side chains, transmitting increasing tension to the backbone. For large Σ, intermolecular side chain repulsion increases, forcing side chain extension and reorientation in the direction normal to the surface and transmitting considerable tension to the backbone.« less

  5. Conical Refraction Bottle Beams for Entrapment of Absorbing Droplets.

    PubMed

    Esseling, Michael; Alpmann, Christina; Schnelle, Jens; Meissner, Robert; Denz, Cornelia

    2018-03-22

    Conical refraction (CR) optical bottle beams for photophoretic trapping of airborne absorbing droplets are introduced and experimentally demonstrated. CR describes the circular split-up of unpolarised light propagating along an optical axis in a biaxial crystal. The diverging and converging cones lend themselves to the construction of optical bottle beams with flexible entry points. The interaction of single inkjet droplets with an open or partly open bottle beam is shown implementing high-speed video microscopy in a dual-view configuration. Perpendicular image planes are visualized on a single camera chip to characterize the integral three-dimensional movement dynamics of droplets. We demonstrate how a partly opened optical bottle transversely confines liquid objects. Furthermore we observe and analyse transverse oscillations of absorbing droplets as they hit the inner walls and simultaneously measure both transverse and axial velocity components.

  6. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  7. ''Neither fish nor fowl'' EEC draft on bottle recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-20

    It is reported that an EEC directive on drinks bottle recycling is expected to be announced shortly. The directive is expected to call for member countries to make arrangements for the compulsory return of beer and soft drinks bottles.

  8. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  9. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  10. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  11. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  12. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sweetening ingredients referred to in paragraph (a) of this section are sugar, sugar sirup, invert sugar... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the...), orange oil, orange pulp, and one or more of the sweetening ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this...

  13. Storage Test on Apple Juice After Ultrasound Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fasolato, Luca; Balzan, Stefania; De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Cardazzo, Barbara; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Apple juice, for its sensory and nutritional qualities, is consumed by people of all ages. Apples are an excellent source of several phenolic compounds and the presence of polyphenols is recognized for their health promoting antioxidant properties. Thermal pasteurization of fruit juices is the conventional method used for their preservation. Therefore, this constitutes the most extensively available methods for the inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juices but it causes side effects on their flavour and nutritional quality. Consumers tend to prefer recently extracted juices with fresh taste and minimal flavor or vitamin losses. To meet consumers’ demand, among the novel technologies that involve non-thermal processes, power ultrasound have been investigated as an alternative to conventional heat treatments. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of ultrasound in an attempt to maintain the organoleptic characteristics typical of a natural apple juice. In particular, it was evaluated the action on the microflora residing and shelf life of the product through microbiological and sensory analyses. Juice treated with ultrasound highlighted a reduction of aerobic mesophilic counts and psychrophilic bacteria respectively about 3 and 5 log CFU/mL and an enhanced yeast growth. The general opinion expressed by the panelist was in favour of the sonicated juice. This preliminary study showed that non-thermal methods such as power ultrasound technology may give new opportunities to develop fresh-like apple juice. PMID:27800306

  14. The Effects of Glucose Therapy Agents-Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Cola-on Enteral Tube Flow and Patency.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Daphna J; Montreuil, Jasmine; Santoro, Andrea L; Zettas, Antonia; Lowe, Julia

    2016-06-01

    To develop evidence-based hypoglycemia treatment protocols in patients receiving total enteral nutrition, this study determined the effect on enteral tube flow of glucose therapy agents: apple juice, orange juice, and cola, and it also examined the effects of tube type and feed type with these glucose therapy agents. For this study, 12 gastrostomy tubes (6 polyethylene and 6 silicone) were set at 50 mL/h. Each feeding set was filled with Isosource HN with fibre or Novasource Renal. Each tube was irrigated with 1 glucose therapy agent, providing approximately 20 g of carbohydrate every 4 h. Flow-rate measurements were collected at 2 h intervals. The results showed that the glucose therapy agent choice affected flow rates: apple juice and cola had higher average flow rates than orange juice (P = 0.01). A significant difference was found between tube type and enteral formula: polyethylene tubes had higher average flow rates than silicone tubes (P < 0.0001), and Isosource HN with fibre had higher flow rates than Novasource Renal (P = 0.01). We concluded that apple juice and cola have less tube clogging potential than orange juice, and thus may be considered as primary treatment options for hypoglycemia in enterally fed patients. Polyethylene tubes and Isosource HN with fibre were less likely to clog than silicone tubes and Novasource Renal.

  15. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies.

  16. Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Two Interspecific Reproductive Isolation Traits in Sponge Gourd

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haibin; He, Xiaoli; Gong, Hao; Luo, Shaobo; Li, Mingzhu; Chen, Junqiu; Zhang, Changyuan; Yu, Ting; Huang, Wangping; Luo, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    The hybrids between Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. and L.cylindrica (L.) Roem. have strong heterosis effects. However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by the flowering time and hybrid pollen sterility. In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [L. acutangula (L.) Roxb.] and 93075 [L. cylindrica (L.) Roem.]. The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. Meanwhile, we conducted colinearity analysis between the sequences of EST-SSR markers and the genomic sequences of cucumber, melon and watermelon. On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. Two putative QTLs associated with flowering time (FT) were both detected on LG 1. The accumulated contribution of these two QTLs explained 38.07% of the total phenotypic variance (PV), and each QTL explained 15.36 and 22.71% of the PV respectively. Four QTLs for pollen fertility (PF) were identified on LG 1 (qPF1.1 and qPF1.2), LG 3 (qPF3) and LG 7 (qPF7), respectively. The percentage of PF explained by these QTLs varied from 2.91 to 16.79%, and all together the four QTLs accounted for 39.98% of the total PV. Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. These QTLs for interspecific reproductive isolation will also contribute to the cloning of genes relating to interspecific reproductive isolation and the utilization of interspecific heterosis in sponge gourd in further studies. PMID:27458467

  17. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  18. New vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.

  19. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p <0.01), central pulse pressure (F (2, 134) = 4.16, p <0.05), central augmentation pressure (F (2, 134) = 5.98, p <0.01) and central augmentation index (F (2, 134) = 3.29, p <0.05) as well as lower pulse pressure amplification (F (2, 134) = 4.36, p <0.05). There were no differences in brachial BP. Central systolic BP was 3-4 mmHg higher for those who consumed fruit juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association Between Bottle Size and Formula Intake in 2-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Wood, Charles T; Skinner, Asheley C; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan; Ravanbakht, Sophie N; Perrin, Eliana M

    2016-04-01

    To determine range of bottle sizes used and examine the relationship between bottle size and total daily consumption of infant formula. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected as part of Greenlight, a cluster randomized trial to prevent childhood obesity at 4 pediatric resident clinics. The Greenlight study included healthy, term infants. For our analysis, parents of exclusively formula-fed infants reported volume per feed, number of feeds per day, and bottle size, which was dichotomized into small (<6 oz) or large (≥6 oz). We identified determinants of bottle size, and then examined relationships between bottle size and volume fed with log-transformed ordinary least squares regression, adjusting for infant age, sex, birth weight, current weight, race/ethnicity, and enrollment in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Of 865 participants in the Greenlight study, 44% (n = 378; 21.8% white, 40.6% black, 35.3% Hispanic, 2.4% other) of infants were exclusively formula fed at 2 months. Median volume per day was 30 oz (interquartile range 12), and 46.0% of infants were fed with large bottles. Adjusted for covariates, parents using larger bottles reported feeding 4 oz more formula per day (34.2 oz, 95% confidence interval 33.5-34.9 vs 29.7 oz, 95% confidence interval 29.2-30.3, P = .03). Among exclusively formula-fed infants, use of a larger bottle is associated with parental report of more formula intake compared to infants fed with smaller bottles. If infants fed with larger bottles receive more formula, these infants may be overfed and consequently at risk for obesity. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Water and Bottled Waters

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, Arik; Garzon, Philippe; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Because of growing concern that constituents of drinking water may have adverse health effects, consumption of tap water in North America has decreased and consumption of bottled water has increased. Our objectives were to 1) determine whether North American tap water contains clinically important levels of calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and sodium (Na+) and 2) determine whether differences in mineral content of tap water and commercially available bottled waters are clinically important. DESIGN We obtained mineral analysis reports from municipal water authorities of 21 major North American cities. Mineral content of tap water was compared with published data regarding commercially available bottled waters and with dietary reference intakes (DRIs). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mineral levels varied among tap water sources in North America and among bottled waters. European bottled waters generally contained higher mineral levels than North American tap water sources and North American bottled waters. For half of the tap water sources we examined, adults may fulfill between 8% and 16% of their Ca2+ DRI and between 6% and 31% of their Mg2+ DRI by drinking 2 liters per day. One liter of most moderate mineralization European bottled waters contained between 20% and 58% of the Ca2+ DRI and between 16% and 41% of the Mg2+ DRI in adults. High mineralization bottled waters often contained up to half of the maximum recommended daily intake of Na+. CONCLUSION Drinking water sources available to North Americans may contain high levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ and may provide clinically important portions of the recommended dietary intake of these minerals. Physicians should encourage patients to check the mineral content of their drinking water, whether tap or bottled, and choose water most appropriate for their needs. PMID:11318912

  2. 6'7'-Dihydroxybergamottin contributes to the grapefruit juice effect.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Shefali M; Paine, Mary F; Stewart, Paul W; Watkins, Paul B

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the contribution of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) to the inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice toward intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. An aqueous extract was prepared from grapefruit juice by centrifugation, filtration, and repeated washing of the particulate with water. The concentrations of various furanocoumarins in this grapefruit juice "serum" and in whole grapefruit juice were measured by HPLC and their identities confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five healthy volunteers were given a single tablet of felodipine (10 mg) with whole grapefruit juice, orange juice-containing serum, or plain orange juice (control). The pharmacokinetic outcomes of felodipine were evaluated by noncompartmental methods. The effects of serum and purified DHB (at the same concentrations as those measured in the orange juice-containing serum used in the clinical study) were compared, in vitro, with regard to (1) the reversible and mechanism-based inhibition of the catalytic activity of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-expressed CYP3A4 and (2) the time-dependent loss of immunoreactive CYP3A4 protein in modified Caco-2 cells. The concentration of DHB in serum was comparable to that measured in whole grapefruit juice (38 micromol/L versus 43 micromol/L), and the concentrations of other known furanocoumarins were well below the lowest published concentration required to inhibit catalytic activity by 50%. Relative to plain orange juice, orange juice-containing serum significantly increased the median felodipine area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 1.9-fold (P =.04) and increased the maximum concentration by 1.7-fold (P =.01). In vitro, serum and purified DHB had similar inhibitory effects toward CYP3A4 activity with respect to both reversible inhibition (95% confidence interval, 85% +/- 5.7% and 75% +/- 4.5%, respectively) and mechanism-based inhibition after a 15-minute preincubation (95% confidence interval, 79

  3. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  4. Purification and characterisation of an antifungal protein, MCha-Pr, from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Wei, Yunming; Li, Jing; Yang, Xingyong

    2015-03-01

    An antifungal protein, designated MCha-Pr, was isolated from the intercellular fluid of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) leaves during a screen for potent antimicrobial proteins from plants. The isolation procedure involved a combination of extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-6, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex, an additional gel filtration on HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 30, and finally, HPLC on a SOURCE 5RPC column. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that the protein had a molecular mass of 25733.46Da. Automated Edman degradation was used to determine the N-terminal sequence of MCha-Pr, and the amino acid sequence was identified as V-E-Y-T-I-T-G-N-A-G-N-T-P-G-G. The MCha-Pr protein has some similarity to the pathogenesis-related proteins from Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Ricinus communis (castor bean), and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Analysis of the circular dichroism spectra indicated that MCha-Pr predominantly contains α-helix and β-sheet structures. MCha-Pr had inhibitory effects towards a variety of fungal species and the 50% inhibition of fungal growth (IC50) for Alternaria brassicae, Cercospora personata, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor sp., and Rhizoctonia solani are 33 μM, 42 μM, 37 μM, 40 μM, and 48 μM, respectively. In addition, this antifungal protein can inhibit the germination of A. brassicae spores at 12.5 μM. These results suggest that MCha-Pr in bitter gourd leaves plays a protective role against phytopathogens and has a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  6. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella , in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  7. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dilution ratio greater than 3 plus 1 is “Canned concentrated orange juice, ___ plus 1” or “Canned orange juice concentrate, ___ plus 1”, the blank being filled in with the whole number showing the dilution ratio; for example, “Canned orange juice concentrate, 4 plus 1”. However, where the label bears...

  8. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dilution ratio greater than 3 plus 1 is “Canned concentrated orange juice, ___ plus 1” or “Canned orange juice concentrate, ___ plus 1”, the blank being filled in with the whole number showing the dilution ratio; for example, “Canned orange juice concentrate, 4 plus 1”. However, where the label bears...

  9. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dilution ratio greater than 3 plus 1 is “Canned concentrated orange juice, ___ plus 1” or “Canned orange juice concentrate, ___ plus 1”, the blank being filled in with the whole number showing the dilution ratio; for example, “Canned orange juice concentrate, 4 plus 1”. However, where the label bears...

  10. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dilution ratio greater than 3 plus 1 is “Canned concentrated orange juice, ___ plus 1” or “Canned orange juice concentrate, ___ plus 1”, the blank being filled in with the whole number showing the dilution ratio; for example, “Canned orange juice concentrate, 4 plus 1”. However, where the label bears...

  11. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dilution ratio greater than 3 plus 1 is “Canned concentrated orange juice, ___ plus 1” or “Canned orange juice concentrate, ___ plus 1”, the blank being filled in with the whole number showing the dilution ratio; for example, “Canned orange juice concentrate, 4 plus 1”. However, where the label bears...

  12. Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Titta, Lucilla; Puzzo, Lidia; Barbagallo, Ignazio; La Delia, Francesco; Zelber-Sagi, Shira; Malaguarnera, Michele; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Giorgio, Marco; Galvano, Fabio

    2012-08-07

    To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity. Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed. Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-α and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity. Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

  13. Breast vs bottle: endocrine responses are different with formula feeding.

    PubMed

    Lucas, A; Sarson, D L; Blackburn, A M; Adrian, T E; Aynsley-Green, A; Bloom, S R

    1980-06-14

    Differences in pancreatic and gut-hormone release between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants have not been documented although these hormones may play a key role in postnatal adaptation. In a study of 77 six-day-old healthy term infants, bottle-fed neonates ('Cow and Gate Premium') had significant changes in plasma-concentrations of insulin, motilin, enteroglucagon, neurotensin, and pancreatic polypeptide after feeding, whereas in breast-fed infants these changes were reduced or absent. Basal levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide, motilin, neurotensin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were also higher in the bottle-fed infants than in those who were breast-fed. These findings may partly explain differences in the deposition of subcutaneous fat and in stool frequency between breast-fed and bottle-fed neonates.

  14. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    PubMed

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P < 0.00001) and an odds ratio of 3.47 (95% confidence interval 1.92, 6.63). A combination of blood culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  16. [Safety verification for reuse of PET and glass bottles].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Eiichi; Imai, Toshio; Niimi, Hiroji

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the safety associated with reusing PET and glass bottles, a challenge test was conducted with five surrogate contaminants: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, toluene, benzophenone and phenyl cyclohexane. Bottles were filled with a cocktail solution of these contaminants and stored at 50 °C for 7 days, then washed with water and alkaline solutions. Material and migration tests were conducted at each step. The material test results showed that 430-1,440 µg/g of the contaminants were retained after water washing, and that even after washing with a 3.5% NaOH solution, 225-925 µg/g of the contaminants were retained. The migration tests revealed that 0.095-7.35 µg/mL of the contaminants were eluted. Similar tests were conducted with a soft drink ingredient, limonene. The results revealed that 48 µg/g of limonene was retained even after washing with NaOH solution, and that 0.16 µg/mL of limonene was eluted. Conversely, no contaminants were eluted from glass bottles after washing with the NaOH solution. Thus, from the viewpoint of safety and the preservation of content quality, PET bottles are not considered suitable for reuse when compared with glass bottles.

  17. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  18. Sensory and Flavor Characteristics of Tomato Juice from Garden Gem and Roma Tomatoes with Comparison to Commercial Tomato Juice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yaozhou; Sims, Charles A; Klee, Harry J; Sarnoski, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor of a premium Florida tomato variety that has significant potential for producing a high quality processed juice product. A high-quality Florida plum tomato variety (Garden Gem), and a typical grocery-store plum tomato variety (Roma) were thermally processed into tomato juices without any additives. The 2 pilot products and a popular commercially available tomato juice (low sodium with sugar and flavor added) were compared using sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Flavor compounds in these products were identified using dynamic headspace purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS) by MS library match and retention index and were semi-quantitated using internal standards. Color, uniformity, overall liking, tomato flavor, sweetness and texture were rated using a hedonic scale. Analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis were used to analyze both sensory and flavor data. Among the 3 products, Garden Gem juice was rated significantly (P < 0.05) higher for overall liking, tomato flavor, and sweetness by the 119 consumer panelists in both seasons. Garden Gem juice was found to contain higher levels of 3 sweet/fruity related aroma compounds: 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, linalool, and β-ionone. The commercial tomato juice contained a high level of the Maillard reaction-related notes furfural, dimethyl sulfide, and the least amount of green-related notes (hexanal, E-2-hexenal and Z-2-heptenal). The flavor profile of the Roma tomato juice was similar to Garden Gem juice except it contained substantially lower amounts of hexanal and 2-isobutylthiazole. The compound β-ionone (fruity note) was not detected in either the commercial or Roma juice. This proof of concept study demonstrates that high flavor quality tomatoes can be used to create better tasting processed tomato products. The study also demonstrates how sensory preference can confer a potential market advantage

  19. Flutist Produces Four Resonances with a Single Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Boysen, Erika

    2017-01-01

    In a dramatic physics demonstration, a professional flutist produces four resonances with a 12 ounce Boylan soda bottle solely through her breath control. The 22cm bottle acts like a Helmholtz resonator for the lowest pitch. The three higher pitches fall near the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics for a 22cm closed pipe. A video of this remarkable feat…

  20. [Freeze drying process optimization of ginger juice-adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing and stability of freeze-dried ginger juice powder].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Guo, Feng-Qian; Zang, Chen; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Bao-Xian

    2018-02-01

    Ginger juice, a commonly used adjuvant for Chinese materia medica, is applied in processing of multiple Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Because of the raw materials and preparation process of ginger juice, it is difficult to be preserved for a long time, and the dosage of ginger juice in the processing can not be determined base on its content of main compositions. Ginger juice from different sources is hard to achieve consistent effect during the processing of traditional Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Based on the previous studies, the freeze drying of ginger juice under different shelf temperatures and vacuum degrees were studied, and the optimized freeze drying condition of ginger juice was determined. The content determination method for 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shagaol in ginger juice and redissolved ginger juice was established. The content changes of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-gingerol, 6-shagaol, volatile oil and total phenol were studied through the drying process and 30 days preservation period. The results showed that the freeze drying time of ginger juice was shortened after process optimization; the compositions basically remained unchanged after freeze drying, and there was no significant changes in the total phenol content and gingerol content, but the volatile oil content was significantly decreased( P <0.05). Within 30 days, the contents of gingerol, total phenol, and volatile oil were on the decline as a whole. This study has preliminarily proved the feasibility of freeze-drying process of ginger juice as an adjuvant for Chinese medicine processing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Composition of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  2. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  3. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... be applied by any method which does not add water thereto. Such juice is strained free from peel, seeds, and other coarse or hard substances, but contains finely divided insoluble solids from the flesh... have been concentrated and later reconstituted with water and/or tomato juice to a tomato soluble...

  4. Ocular injuries from pressurised bottled drinks in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lili; Lou, Dinghua

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic review on ocular injuries induced by glass bottles containing carbonated drinks in China, which emphasised the injury circumstance and visual function loss. We performed a literature-based retrospective analysis using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic characteristics of pressurised bottled drinks-related eye injuries were obtained and vision loss was calculated. A total of 26 relevant articles were found suitable for investigation of causative agent and patient demographics, of which 19 articles could be used for calculating vision loss and injury circumstance. Victims were often pertinent workers (46.0%). Most of the trauma was serious and even devastating. Final visual acuity was >10/20 in 29.2%, with severe final vision loss (<10/200) in 30.8%. Visual acuity can improve significantly with treatment (P<0.05). One in three ocular injuries from glass bottles containing carbonated drinks show severe vision loss. Relevant workers are most frequently injured, followed by inappropriate handlers or openers. Besides manufacturing standards being strictly implemented, many ocular traumas related to bottled carbonated drinks should be prevented through health education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Opalescent and cloudy fruit juices: formation and particle stability.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Tom

    2002-07-01

    Cloudy fruit juices, particularly from tropical fruit, are becoming a fast-growing part of the fruit juice sector. The classification of cloud as coarse and fine clouds by centrifugation and composition of cloud from apple, pineapple, orange, guava, and lemon juice are described. Fine particulate is shown to be the true stable cloud and to contain considerable protein, carbohydrate, and lipid components. Often, tannin is present as well. The fine cloud probably arises from cell membranes and appears not to be simply cell debris. Factors relating to the stability of fruit juice cloud, including particle sizes, size distribution, and density, are described and discussed. Factors promoting stable cloud in juice are presented.

  6. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  7. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... emptied or elsewhere, including disposition for purposes that will result in the bottles being rendered... collectors' items or for other purposes not involving the packaging of any product for sale; (b) Any person may possess, offer for sale, or sell unusual or distinctive bottles for purposes not involving the...

  8. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... emptied or elsewhere, including disposition for purposes that will result in the bottles being rendered... collectors' items or for other purposes not involving the packaging of any product for sale; (b) Any person may possess, offer for sale, or sell unusual or distinctive bottles for purposes not involving the...

  9. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... emptied or elsewhere, including disposition for purposes that will result in the bottles being rendered... collectors' items or for other purposes not involving the packaging of any product for sale; (b) Any person may possess, offer for sale, or sell unusual or distinctive bottles for purposes not involving the...

  10. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... emptied or elsewhere, including disposition for purposes that will result in the bottles being rendered... collectors' items or for other purposes not involving the packaging of any product for sale; (b) Any person may possess, offer for sale, or sell unusual or distinctive bottles for purposes not involving the...

  11. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... emptied or elsewhere, including disposition for purposes that will result in the bottles being rendered... collectors' items or for other purposes not involving the packaging of any product for sale; (b) Any person may possess, offer for sale, or sell unusual or distinctive bottles for purposes not involving the...

  12. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

  13. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

  14. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

  15. 21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or any combination of two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime... may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

  16. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  17. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  18. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  19. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit... the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only and shall...

  20. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only, and...

  1. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Vegetable juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...

  2. FT-IR study of the polysaccharides isolated from the skin juice, gel juice, and flower of Aloe vera tissues affected by fertilizer treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different amounts of fertilizers on the polysaccharides of Aloe vera plant. There were four different treatments, viz. T1 = 150% N, T2 = 150% P, T3 = 150% K, and T4 = 150% NPK (50% N + 50% P + 50% K) soil. Crude water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the gel juice, skin juice, and flowers of A. vera planted in these soils. Results Result indicates that skin juice contained 2.4 times the level of polysaccharides in gel juice from one plant, suggesting the potential industrial application of A. vera skin rather than discarding it. After anion-exchange chromatography, neutral polysaccharides accounted for 58.1% and 78.5% of the total recovered neutral and acidic polysaccharide preparations from the gel juice and skin juice, respectively, whereas the crude flower polysaccharides were largely composed of weakly acidic polysaccharides (84.2%). Sugar analysis of the polysaccharides after gel permeation chromatography revealed that glucose and galactose were the most abundant monosaccharide in the neutral polysaccharides from the gel juice and skin juice, respectively. The acidic polysaccharides from the two juices consisted of glucuronic acid, galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose with variable proportions. Conclusions Except glucuronic acid (15.4%) in flower acidic polysaccharide, the flower neutral and acidic polysaccharides contained galactose, glucose, and mannose as the main sugar components. Glucuronic acid was the major uronic acid in all acidic polysaccharides from different tissues. PMID:23095284

  3. Filling or Draining a Water Bottle with Two Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli's equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  4. Contamination by Meat Juice When Shopping for Packages of Raw Poultry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar; Cates, Sheryl; Stone, Richard; Donelan, Amy

    2018-05-01

    Raw poultry products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter, and these bacteria can be transmitted through meat juice on the packages. An observational study was conducted to assess consumer exposure to meat juice during shopping and to quantify the transmission of meat juice from poultry packages to hands and other surfaces. Ninety-six participants completed the shopping study; 402 swabs were collected and analyzed for the presence of meat juice by an immunoassay. Overall, meat juice was detected on 61% of poultry package surfaces, 34% of shoppers' hands, 41% of grocery bags, 60% of kitchen surfaces, and 51% of food item surfaces. When meat juice was detected on the purchased poultry packages, the chance of the meat juice being on the shopper's hands, grocery bags, food items, and kitchen surfaces was significantly higher ( P < 0.005) compared with packages on which meat juice was not present. Shoppers who had poultry wrapped separately during checkout had a significantly lower ( P < 0.05) chance of meat juice on the food items. However, using plastic bags and wrapping poultry separately did not significantly reduce the likelihood of meat juice on kitchen surfaces at home due to consumers' practices of repackaging before storage. Results suggested that the transfer of meat juice through direct contact with the poultry packages is a major concern during shopping and should be prevented.

  5. Modeling of in-use stability for tablets and powders in bottles.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Chen, Lili; Waterman, Philip; MacDonald, Bruce C; Monahan, Andrew P; Scrivens, Garry

    2016-10-01

    A model is presented for determining the time when an active pharmaceutical ingredient in tablets/powders will remain within its specification limits during an in-use period; that is, when a heat-induction sealed bottle is opened for fixed time periods and where tablets are removed at fixed time points. This model combines the Accelerated Stability Assessment Program to determine the impact on degradation rates of relative humidity (RH) with calculations of the RH as a function of time for the dosage forms under in-use conditions. These calculations, in a conservative approach, assume that the air inside bottles with broached heat-induction seals completely exchanges with the external environment during periods when the bottle remains open. The solid dosages are assumed to sorb water at estimable rates during these openings. When bottles are capped, the moisture vapor transmission rate can be estimated to determine the changing RH inside the bottles between opening events. The impact of silica gel desiccants can also be included in the modeling.

  6. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR...

  7. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... be applied by any method which does not add water thereto. Such juice is strained free from peel... most nearly matches the appearance of the tomato juice. (ii) Not more than two defects for peel and..., defined as follows, per 500 milliliters (16.9 fluid ounces): (a) Pieces of peel 3.2 millimeters (0.125...

  8. Toxicological and analytical investigations of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, Johannes; Effenberger, Katharina; Iznaguen, Hassan; Basar, Simla

    2007-01-24

    Morinda citrifolia (noni) is known to contain genotoxic anthraquinones in the roots. Because of the widespread use of noni juice, the possible genotoxic risk was examined through a battery of short-term tests. Noni juice was also chemically analyzed for the possible presence of anthraquinones. Noni juice extract in the Salmonella microsome assay showed a slight mutagenic effect in strain TA1537, due to the presence of flavonoids. No mutagenicity was observed in the mammalian mutagenicity test with V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Rats treated with a noni juice concentrate did not show DNA repair synthesis (UDS) in primary rat hepatocytes, nor could DNA adducts or DNA strand breaks be observed. HPLC analysis of noni juice for anthraquinones was negative, with a sensitivity of <1 ppm. In summary, chemical analysis and genotoxicity tests reveal that noni juice does not have a genotoxic potential and that genotoxic anthraquinones do not exist in noni juice.

  9. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Culea, M.

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit inmore » compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.« less

  10. Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culea, M.

    2007-04-01

    A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25μm film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

  11. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  12. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  13. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  14. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  15. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  16. Pasta Fortified with Potato Juice: Structure, Quality, and Consumer Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Przemysław; Lewandowicz, Grażyna; Makowska, Agnieszka; Knoll, Ismena; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Białas, Wojciech; Kubiak, Piotr

    2015-06-01

    The potential of potato juice in relieving gastrointestinal disorders has already been proven. Work continues on implementation of this active component into products that are widely consumed. In this article, results of an attempt to fortify pasta with potato juice are presented and discussed. Fortification is performed using fresh and dried juice. The influence of the addition on culinary properties of the final product, such as cooking weight and cooking loss, as well as microstructure, color, texture, and consumer acceptance were evaluated. It was found that potato juice can be used for fortification of pasta both in its fresh and dried forms, however the effects on different responses depend on the potato juice form used. The addition of potato juice influenced the color of the product reducing its lightness and shifting color balances from green to red, yellow color saturation was decreased as well. Changes in color were more significant in the case of fresh juice addition. The firmness and microstructure of pasta was also influenced. The surface microstructure of pasta containing fresh potato juice was different from that of the other 2 products being a likely explanation of the lower cooking loss observed in its case. In contrast, the consistency of dough was strengthened by addition of dried potato juice. Principal components analysis indicated that the color change had the most pronounced effect on consumer acceptance. Other physicochemical changes were slightly less significant. Nevertheless, sensory evaluation proved that functional pasta produced with fresh potato juice finds consumer acceptance comparable with that of classic pasta. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  18. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  19. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  20. Enzymatic added extraction and clarification of fruit juices-A review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Harsh P; Patel, Hiral; Sugandha

    2017-04-13

    Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction is most commonly used now a days. The enzymatic process is claimed to offer a number of advantages over mechanical-thermal comminution of several fruit pulps. Enzymes are an integral component of modern fruit juice manufacturing and are highly suitable for optimizing processes. Their main purposes are: increase extraction of juice from raw material, increase processing efficiency (pressing, solid settling or removal), and generate a final product that is clear and visually attractive. Juice extraction can be done by using various mechanical processes, which may be achieved through diffusion extraction, decanter centrifuge, screw type juice extractor, fruit pulper and by different types of presses. Enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction significantly improves juice recovery compared to any other extraction process. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls increases the extraction yield, reducing sugars, soluble dry matter content and galacturonic acid content and titrable acidity of the products. Enzymatic degradation of the biomaterial depends upon the type of enzyme, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentration, agitation, pH and use of different enzyme combinations. We can conclude from the technical literature that use of the enzymes i.e. cellulases, pectinases, amylases and combination of these enzymes can give better juice yield with superior quality of the fruit juice. Pectinase enzyme can give maximum juice yield i.e. 92.4% at 360 minutes incubation time, 37°C incubation temperature and 5 mg/100 g of enzyme concentration. Whereas the combination of two enzymes i.e. pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) at 120 minutes of incubation time, 50°C of incubation temperature and 0.05 mg/100 gm of enzymatic concentration can give the maximum yield of 96.8% for plum fruits. This paper discusses the use of enzymes in fruit juice production focusing on the juice recovery

  1. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  2. Simple Model of a Rolling Water-Filled Bottle on an Inclined Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shihao; Hu, Naiwen; Yao, Tianchen; Chu, Charles; Babb, Simona; Cohen, Jenna; Sangiovanni, Giana; Watt, Summer; Weisman, Danielle; Klep, James; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a water-filled bottle rolling down an incline and ask the following question: is a rolling bottle better described by a model ignoring all internal motion where the bottle is approximated by a material point sliding down an incline, or is it better described by a rigid solid cylinder rolling down the incline without skidding? The…

  3. Noni juice is not hepatotoxic

    PubMed Central

    West, Brett J; Jensen, C Jarakae; Westendorf, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Noni juice (Morinda citrifolia) has been approved for use as a safe food within the European Union, following a review of safety. Since approval, three cases of acute hepatitis in Austrian noni juice consumers have been published, where a causal link is suggested between the liver dysfunction and ingestion of anthraquinones from the plant. Measurements of liver function in a human clinical safety study of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, as well as subacute and subchronic animal toxicity tests revealed no evidence of adverse liver effects at doses many times higher than those reported in the case studies. Additionally, M. citrifolia anthraquinones occur in the fruit in quantities too small to be of any toxicological significance. Further, these do not have chemical structures capable of being reduced to reactive anthrone radicals, which were implicated in previous cases of herbal hepototoxicity. The available data reveals no evidence of liver toxicity. PMID:16773722

  4. Infant bottle propping among a low-income urban population in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Segura-Millán, S; Dewey, K G

    1995-06-01

    The prevalence of bottle propping (permitting an infant to drink from a bottle unattended) and the determinants of this practice at 1 week and 4 months of life were studied in a selected sample of urban women in Hermosillo, Mexico. The sample (n = 165) consisted of mothers planning to breast-feed who gave birth to healthy infants at one of two public hospitals. Data were obtained by interviewing women shortly before they were discharged from the hospital and at about 1 week and 4 months postpartum. Among those mothers giving liquid breast milk substitutes to their infants, the percentage practicing bottle propping increased from 27% at 1 week (n = 20/74) to 67% at 4 months (n = 87/130). Women who practiced bottle propping at 1 week were significantly more likely to continue this practice at 4 months. Bottle propping was significantly more common, both at 1 week and 4 months, among women who had completely weaned their infants than among those who were still combining breast and formula feeding. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that 1-week risk factors for bottle propping were low socioeconomic status, being a multiparous single mother, and being a young mother (< or = 18 years old) with a female infant, while 4-month risk factors were complete weaning, delivery in a "nursery" (versus a "rooming-in") hospital, and lack of support by the mother's partner for breast-feeding. While the possible health risks associated with early bottle propping have not been well defined, the extent of the practice observed in this study suggests that such risks deserve further investigation.

  5. Concentration of ions in selected bottled water samples sold in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kam, Ryan Chuan Yang; Lim, Ai Phing; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2013-03-01

    Many consumers around the world, including Malaysians, have turned to bottled water as their main source of drinking water. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottled water samples sold in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 20 bottled water brands consisting of `natural mineral (NM)' and `packaged drinking (PD)' types were randomly collected and analyzed for their physical-chemical characteristics: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), selected major ions: calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na), and minor trace constituents: copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) to ascertain their suitability for human consumption. The results obtained were compared with guideline values recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Ministry of Health (MMOH), respectively. It was found that all bottled water samples were in accordance with the guidelines set by WHO and MMOH except for one sample (D3) which was below the pH limit of 6.5. Both NM and PD bottled water were dominated by Na + K > Ca > Mg. Low values for EC and TDS in the bottled water samples showed that water was deficient in essential elements, likely an indication that these were removed by water treatment. Minerals like major ions were present in very low concentrations which could pose a risk to individuals who consume this water on a regular basis. Generally, the overall quality of the supplied bottled water was in accordance to standards and guidelines set by WHO and MMOH and safe for consumption.

  6. Six-day randomized safety trial of intravaginal lime juice.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Ballagh, Susan A; Creinin, Mitchell D; Weiner, Debra H; Doncel, Gustavo F; Fichorova, Raina N; Schwartz, Jill L; Chandra, Neelima; Callahan, Marianne M

    2008-11-01

    Nigerian women reportedly apply lime juice intravaginally to protect themselves against HIV. In vitro data suggest that lime juice is virucidal, but only at cytotoxic concentrations. This is the first controlled, randomized safety trial of lime juice applied to the human vagina. Forty-seven women were randomized to apply water or lime juice (25%, 50%, or undiluted) intravaginally twice daily for two 6-day intervals, separated by a 3-week washout period. Product application also was randomized: during 1 interval, product was applied using a saturated tampon and in the other by douche. Vaginal pH, symptoms, signs of irritation observed via naked eye examination and colposcopy, microflora, and markers of inflammation in cervicovaginal lavages were evaluated after 1 hour and on days 3 and 7. The largest reduction in pH was about one-half a pH unit, seen 1 hour after douching with 100% lime juice. We observed a dose-dependent pattern of symptoms and clinical and laboratory findings that were consistent with a compromised vaginal barrier function. The brief reduction in pH after vaginal lime juice application is unlikely to be virucidal in the presence of semen. Lime juice is unlikely to protect against HIV and may actually be harmful.

  7. A comparison of bottles and snap traps for short-term small mammal sampling

    Treesearch

    James F. Taulman; Ronald E. Thill; T. Bently Wigley; M. Anthony Melchiors

    1992-01-01

    Bottles were tested as traps for small mammals. Used in conjunction with three types of snap traps over 30,240 trap nights, bottles captured eight (2%) of the total 421 mammals taken. Bottles were inefficient in capturing small mammals compared to snap traps.

  8. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  9. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  10. Cashew juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isabel Moreira; Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2014-09-01

    The enzyme dextransucrase in a medium containing sucrose and an acceptor as substrate synthesizes prebiotics oligosaccharides. The cashew apple juice works as a source of acceptors because it is rich in glucose and fructose (enzyme acceptors). The use of cashew apple juice becomes interesting because it aims at harnessing the peduncle of the cashew that is wasted during the nut processing, which is the product of greater economic expression. The production of dextransucrase enzyme was done by fermentative process by inoculating the bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512F into a culture medium containing sucrose as the only carbon source. Thus, the aim of this work was the production of prebiotic oligosaccharides by enzymatic process with addition of the dextransucrase enzyme to the clarified cashew apple juice. Dextran yield was favored by the combination of low concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars. The formation of oligosaccharides was favored by increasing the concentration of reducing sugars and by the combination of high concentrations of sucrose and reducing sugars, the highest concentration of oligosaccharides obtained was 104.73 g/L and the qualitative analysis showed that at concentrations of 25 g/L and 75 g/L of sucrose and reducing sugar, respectively, it is possible to obtain oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization up to 12. The juice containing prebiotic oligosaccharide is a potential new functional beverage.

  11. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water.

    PubMed

    Mythri, H; Chandu, G N; Prashant, G M; Subba Reddy, V V

    2010-01-01

    Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter. Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  12. Studies on the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mona F; El Ashry, Fatma El Zahraa Z; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the antidiabetic activities of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Male Wister rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Group I, Normal control; Group II, STZ diabetic; Group III and IV, Momordica charantia fruit juice was orally administered to diabetic rats (10 mL/kg/day either as prophylaxis for 14 days before induction of diabetes then 21 days treatment, or as treatment given for 21 days after induction of diabetes). The effects of MC juice were studied both in vivo and in vitro by studying the glucose uptake of isolated rat diaphragm muscles in the presence and absence of insulin. Histopathological examination of pancreas was also performed. This study showed that MC caused a significant reduction of serum glucose (135.99 ± 6.27 and 149.79 ± 1.90 vs. 253.40* ± 8.18) for prophylaxis and treatment respectively, fructosamine (0.99 ± 0.01 and 1.01 ± 0.04 vs. 3.04 ± 0.07), total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index (1.13 ± 0.08 and 1.19 ± 0.05 vs. 1.48 ± 1.47) and pancreatic malondialdehyde content (p < 0.05). While it induced a significant increase of serum insulin (3.41 ± 0.08 and 3.28 ± 0.08 vs. 2.39 ± 0.27), HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content (p < 0.05) and improved histopathological changes of the pancreas. It also increased glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal (12.17 ± 0.60 vs. 9.07 ± 0.66) and diabetic rats (8.37 ± 0.28 vs. 4.29 ± 0.51) in the absence and presence of insulin (p < 0.05). Momordica charantia presents excellent antidiabetic and antioxidant activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment whether it is

  13. Bioactive compounds of juices from two Brazilian grape cultivars.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Juliana Kelly; Cazarin, Cinthia Baú Betim; Correa, Luiz Claudio; Batista, Ângela Giovana; Furlan, Cibele Priscila Busch; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Maróstica Junior, Mário Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Grape juice consumption may prevent several chronic diseases owing to the presence of phenolic compounds, which have an important role in the reduction of oxidative stress. This study investigated the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of grape juices from two cultivars: BRS-Cora and Isabella. Total polyphenol content (TPC), anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), and phenolic profile (high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detection--HPLC-DAD-FLD) were determined. BRS-Cora grape juice showed higher concentrations of total polyphenols and anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant potential, than those of Isabella grape juice. A significant positive correlation was found in TPC or anthocyanin contents when correlated with the remaining antioxidant assays. In addition, HPLC-DAD-FLD showed a higher total phenolic content in BRS-Cora grape juice compared to Isabella. The present results show BRS-Cora as a promising cultivar for grape juice production with an improved functional potential. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Juice components and antioxidant capacity of four Tunisian Citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Wannes, Wissem Aidi; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Jegham, Sabrine; Ben Njima, Yosra; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Zemni, Hassene; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-01-15

    Juices from four Citrus species of Tunisia were investigated mainly for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice had the highest content of total flavonoids (85.33 mg CE L(-1)). The latter also occurred in high quantity (82.01 mg CE L(-1)) in Citrus lemon (lemon) juice which was also marked by its richness in total aroma (70.16 µg mL(-1)) and in total fatty acids (48.10 µg mL(-1)). Mandarin and lemon juices had the highest antioxidant activity, as determined b the β-carotene bleaching assay (26.67% and 22.67%, respectively). Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) juice was characterised by the highest content of total polyphenols (784.67 mg GAE L(-1)) and by the greatest inhibition of DPPH (96.10%). Citrus sinensis (blood orange) juice was only marked by the high quantity of ascorbic acid (36.90 mg mL(-1)). GC/MS analysis of juice aroma showed the predominance of limonene (48.85-69.59%) in mandarin and in bitter and blood oranges, but of camphene (89.05%) in lemon. GC analysis of juice fatty acids revealed their richness in oleic acid (23.13-39.52%). HPLC analysis of juice phenolics indicated the predominance of phenolic acids (73.13-86.40%). The Citrus species used in this study were considered valuable varieties from the point of view of antioxidant capacity and nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Investigating the Stability of a Bottle Filled with Different Amounts of Fluid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahwa, Gantavya; Pingali, Rushil G.; Khubchandani, Aashish K.; Roy, Ekansh; Mudaliyar, Roshni R.; Mudaliyar, Rajesh P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the stability of a bottle filled with different volumes of water, and to determine the angle at which it topples over for each volume of water. Data for the angle at which the bottle toppled were gathered experimentally using a cylindrical 1 litre bottle, and two theoretical models were then developed,…

  16. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  18. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce of...

  19. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce of...

  20. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce of...

  1. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce of...

  2. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices... Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values have been determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce of...

  3. Recycling policies and programmes for PET drink bottles in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schwanse, Elvira

    2011-09-01

    Transition and emerging economies confront a steadily increasing generation of municipal solid waste in the form of disposable packaging. The following article reports the situation of soft drink bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in Mexico. Since 2002 schemes following the European Green Dot principle have been partly implemented to place responsibility on the producer, mainly soft drink bottlers. Private stakeholders are responsible for national recovery activities. Meanwhile Government presence to promote recovery is absent. Of post-consumer PET 75% is exported, and the newly created bottle-to-bottle (BTB) PET industry is confronted with bottlenecks in their post-consumer PET supply.

  4. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: total estrogenic burden and migration from plastic bottles.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. So far, this has been demonstrated by exposure modeling or analytical identification of single substances in foodstuff (e.g., phthalates) and human body fluids (e.g., urine and blood). Since the research in this field is focused on few chemicals (and thus missing mixture effects), the overall contamination of edibles with xenohormones is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the integrated estrogenic burden of bottled mineral water as model foodstuff and to characterize the potential sources of the estrogenic contamination. In the present study, we analyzed commercially available mineral water in an in vitro system with the human estrogen receptor alpha and detected estrogenic contamination in 60% of all samples with a maximum activity equivalent to 75.2 ng/l of the natural sex hormone 17beta-estradiol. Furthermore, breeding of the molluskan model Potamopyrgus antipodarum in water bottles made of glass and plastic [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] resulted in an increased reproductive output of snails cultured in PET bottles. This provides first evidence that substances leaching from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens in vivo. Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.

  5. Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juba, Olivia Sakhile; Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai

    2018-06-01

    Bottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, the bottled water industry continues to thrive as local authorities fail to adequately purify municipal water. The study assessed the perceptions on drinking bottled water in restaurants within Harare's CBD. Demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users were established and the role and influence of stakeholders in bottling and distribution of water documented. A field survey through the administration of questionnaires to fifty restaurant users was carried out to assess the perceptions of people on the use of bottled water in terms of its safety and potential health benefits. Key informant interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview with ten local water bottling companies as well as representatives from the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) and Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Standard descriptive statistics were generated, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Consumers used bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceived that tap water was not safe. Perceptions of purity of water, bottled water convenience, and tap water unavailability seemed to determine consumption patterns among users. Females in the 18-48 age groups were more likely to think that bottled water was cleaner, safer, tasted better and was more convenient than tap water. Consumers regularly purchased bottled water for drinking and used bottled water as their primary drinking water

  6. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  7. Antibacterial activity of vegetables and juices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee-Lean; Cesario, Thomas; Wang, Yang; Shanbrom, Edward; Thrupp, Lauri

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the antibacterial activities of various fruit and vegetable extracts on common potential pathogens including antibiotic-resistant strains. Standardized bacterial inocula were added to serial dilutions of sterile vegetable and fruit extracts in broth, with final bacterial concentrations of 10(4-5) cells/mL. After overnight incubation at 35 degrees C, antibacterial activity was measured by minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal dilutions (for raw juices) or concentrations (for tea). Among the vegetable and fruit extracts tested, all green vegetables showed no antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All purple and red vegetable and fruit juices had antibacterial activities in dilutions ranging from 1:2 to 1:16. Garlic juice had significant activity, with bactericidal action in dilutions ranging up to 1:128 of the original juice. Tea also had significant activity, with bactericidal action in concentrations ranging up to 1.6 mg/mL, against a spectrum of pathogens including resistant strains such as methicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tea and garlic have the potential for exploration of broader applications as antibacterial agents.

  8. Evaluation of the ergogenic potential of noni juice.

    PubMed

    Ma, De-lu; West, Brett J; Su, Chen X; Gao, Jian-hua; Liu, Tin-zhong; Liu, Yu-Wen

    2007-11-01

    Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice is an increasingly popular health food with many reported benefits, such as antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Traditionally, noni fruit was used by Polynesians to combat fatigue. Also, clinical studies have revealed that noni juice consumption improves quality of life scores related to physical functioning and energy levels. To further evaluate the ergogenic (antifatigue and endurance promoting) potential of noni juice, aged mice were pretreated orally with increasing doses (10, 20 and 40 mL/kg body weight) of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) and then compared with young and aged controls in the forced swim test and rotarod test. The average times of all TNJ dose groups were significantly longer than the aged controls in both the swim test (36% to 45%) and the rotarod test (59% to 128%), and were similar to those of the young controls. This demonstrates not only an improvement in endurance but also in balance and flexibility. These results confirm the reported use of noni juice to combat fatigue, improve endurance and increase overall physical performance. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Regular consumption of fresh orange juice increases human skin carotenoid content.

    PubMed

    Massenti, Roberto; Perrone, Anna; Livrea, Maria Antonietta; Lo Bianco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Dermal carotenoids are a good indicator of antioxidant status in the body. This study aimed to determine whether regular consumption of orange juice could increase dermal carotenoids. Two types of orange juice, obtained from regularly (CI) and partially (PRD) irrigated trees, were tested to reveal any possible association between juice and dermal carotenoids. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, and total carotenoids were quantified in the juice; skin carotenoid score (SCS) was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Carotenoid content was 7.3% higher in PRD than in CI juice, inducing no difference in SCS. In a first trial with daily juice intakes for 25 days, SCS increased linearly (10%) in the individual with higher initial SCS, and exponentially (15%) in the individual with lower initial SCS. In a second trial, SCS showed a 6.5% increase after 18 days of drinking juice every other day, but returned to initial values three days after last intake. Skin carotenoids can be increased by regular consumption of fresh orange juice, while their persistence may depend on the accumulation level, environmental conditions or living habits.

  10. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “beverage,” “cocktail,” or “drink” appropriate to advise the consumer that the product is less than 100 percent juice (e.g., “diluted grape juice beverage” or “grape juice drink”). (b) If the product is a... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...

  12. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “beverage,” “cocktail,” or “drink” appropriate to advise the consumer that the product is less than 100 percent juice (e.g., “diluted grape juice beverage” or “grape juice drink”). (b) If the product is a... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...

  13. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “beverage,” “cocktail,” or “drink” appropriate to advise the consumer that the product is less than 100 percent juice (e.g., “diluted grape juice beverage” or “grape juice drink”). (b) If the product is a... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...

  14. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “beverage,” “cocktail,” or “drink” appropriate to advise the consumer that the product is less than 100 percent juice (e.g., “diluted grape juice beverage” or “grape juice drink”). (b) If the product is a... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...

  15. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Treesearch

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  16. Design and performance of a vacuum-bottle solid-state calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Cech, R.

    1997-11-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies calorimetry personnel have developed a small, thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter, which is now undergoing performance testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The thermos-bottle solid-state calorimeter is an evaluation prototype for characterizing the heat output of small heat standards and other homogeneous heat sources. The current maximum sample size is 3.5 in. long with a diameter of 0.8 in. The overall size of the thermos bottle and thermoelectric cooling device is 9.25 in. high by 3.75 in. diameter and less than 3 lb. Coupling this unit with compact electronics and a laptop computer makes this calorimetermore » easily hand carried by a single individual. This compactness was achieved by servo controlling the reference temperature below room temperature and replacing the water bath used in conventional calorimeter design with the thermos-bottle insulator. Other design features will also be discussed. The performance of the calorimeter will be presented.« less

  17. Monitoring of pesticide residues in market basket samples of vegetable from Lucknow City, India: QuEChERS method.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ashutosh K; Trivedi, Purushottam; Srivastava, M K; Lohani, M; Srivastava, Laxman Prasad

    2011-05-01

    The study was conducted on 20 vegetables including leafy, root, modified stem, and fruity vegetables like bitter gourd, jack fruit, french-bean, onion, colocassia, pointed gourd, capsicum, spinach, potato, fenugreek seeds, carrot, radish, cucumber, beetroot, brinjal, cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, okra, and bottle gourd. Forty-eight pesticides including 13 organochlorines (OCs), 17 organophosphates (OPs), 10 synthetic pyrethriods (SPs), and eight herbicides (H) pesticides were analyzed. A total number of 60 samples, each in triplicates, were analyzed using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method. The quantification was done by GC-ECD/NPD. The recovery varies from 70.22% to 96.32% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 15%. However the limit of detection ranged from 0.001-0.009 mg kg(-1)for OCs, SPs, OPs, and H, respectively. Twenty-three pesticides were detected from total 48 analyzed pesticides in the samples with the range of 0.005-12.35 mg kg(-1). The detected pesticides were: Σ-HCH, Dicofol, Σ-Endosulfan, Fenpropathrin, Permethrin-II, β-cyfluthrin-II, Fenvalerate-I, Dichlorvos, Dimethoate, Diazinon, Malathion, Chlorofenvinfos, Anilophos, and Dimethachlor. In some vegetables like radish, cucumber, cauliflower, cabbage, and okra, the detected pesticides (Σ-HCH, Permethrin-II, Dichlorvos, and Chlorofenvinfos) were above maximum residues limit (MRL) (PFA 1954). However, in other vegetables the level of pesticide residues was either below detection limit or MRL.

  18. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  19. Effects of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol.

    PubMed

    Lilja, J J; Raaska, K; Neuvonen, P J

    2005-07-01

    Fruit juices can significantly change the pharmacokinetics of several drugs. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of the beta-blocking agent atenolol. In a randomized cross-over study with two phases and a washout of 2 weeks, ten healthy volunteers took either 200 ml orange juice or water thrice daily for 3 days and twice on the fourth day. On the morning of day 3, each subject ingested 50 mg atenolol with an additional amount of either 200 ml orange juice or water. The plasma concentrations of atenolol and the cumulative excretion of atenolol into urine were measured up to 33 h after its dosing. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were recorded in a sitting position before the intake of atenolol and 2, 4, 6, and 10 h after. Orange juice decreased the mean peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of atenolol by 49% (range 16-59%, P<0.01), and the mean area under the plasma atenolol concentration-time curve (AUC(0-33 h)) by 40% (range 25-55%, P<0.01). The time of the peak concentration (t(max)) and the elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of atenolol remained unchanged by orange juice. The amount of atenolol excreted into urine was decreased by 38% (range 17-60%, P<0.01), but the renal clearance remained unaltered. The average heart rate was slightly higher during the orange juice+atenolol phase than during the water+atenolol phase. Orange juice moderately interferes with the gastrointestinal absorption of atenolol. This food-drug interaction can be of clinical significance.

  20. 27 CFR 19.384 - Preparation of bottling or packaging record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... packaging record. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.384 Preparation of bottling or packaging record. The proprietor shall prepare a record for each batch of spirits...

  1. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  2. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed.

  3. Plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles by pulsed corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    A pulsed power supply was used to generate a corona discharge on a polyethylene terephthalate bottle, to conduct plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure. Before generating such a discharge, minute quantities of water were attached to the inner surface of the bottle and to the surface of a high voltage (HV) electrode inserted into the bottle. Next, high-voltage pulses of electricity were discharged between electrodes for 6.0s, while rotating the bottle. The resulting spore log reduction values of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the inner surface of the bottle were 5.5 and 6 or higher, respectively, and those on the HV electrode surface were each 6 or higher for both strains. The presence of the by-products gaseous ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric ions resulting from the electrical discharge was confirmed.

  4. How much sugar is hidden in drinks marketed to children? A survey of fruit juices, juice drinks and smoothies

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, Jane; Hashem, Kawther M; Jenner, Katharine H; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the amount of sugars in fruit juices, juice drinks and smoothies (FJJDS) marketed to children. Design We surveyed the sugars content (per 100 ml and standardised 200 ml portion) of all FJJDS sold by seven major UK supermarkets (supermarket own and branded products). Only products specifically marketed towards children were included. We excluded sports drinks, iced teas, sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks and cordials as being not specifically marketed towards children. Results We identified 203 fruit juices (n=21), juice drinks (n=158) and smoothies (n=24) marketed to children. Sugars content ranged from 0 to 16 g/100 ml. The mean sugars content was 7.0 g/100 ml, but among the 100% fruit juice category, it was 10.7 g/100 ml. Smoothies (13.0 g/100 ml) contained the highest amounts of sugars and juice drinks (5.6 g/100 ml) contained the lowest amount. 117 of the 203 FJJDS surveyed would receive a Food Standards Agency ‘red’ colour-coded label for sugars per standardised 200 ml serving. Only 63 FJJDS would receive a ‘green’ colour-coded label. 85 products contained at least 19 g of sugars—a child's entire maximum daily amount of sugars. 57 products contained sugar (sucrose), 65 contained non-caloric sweeteners and five contained both. Seven products contained glucose-fructose syrup. Conclusions The sugars content in FJJDS marketed to children in the UK is unacceptably high. Manufacturers must stop adding unnecessary sugars and calories to their FJJDS. PMID:27009146

  5. How much sugar is hidden in drinks marketed to children? A survey of fruit juices, juice drinks and smoothies.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Jane; Hashem, Kawther M; Jenner, Katharine H; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Capewell, Simon

    2016-03-23

    To investigate the amount of sugars in fruit juices, juice drinks and smoothies (FJJDS) marketed to children. We surveyed the sugars content (per 100 ml and standardised 200 ml portion) of all FJJDS sold by seven major UK supermarkets (supermarket own and branded products). Only products specifically marketed towards children were included. We excluded sports drinks, iced teas, sugar-sweetened carbonated drinks and cordials as being not specifically marketed towards children. We identified 203 fruit juices (n=21), juice drinks (n=158) and smoothies (n=24) marketed to children. Sugars content ranged from 0 to 16 g/100 ml. The mean sugars content was 7.0 g/100 ml, but among the 100% fruit juice category, it was 10.7 g/100 ml. Smoothies (13.0 g/100 ml) contained the highest amounts of sugars and juice drinks (5.6 g/100 ml) contained the lowest amount. 117 of the 203 FJJDS surveyed would receive a Food Standards Agency 'red' colour-coded label for sugars per standardised 200 ml serving. Only 63 FJJDS would receive a 'green' colour-coded label. 85 products contained at least 19 g of sugars-a child's entire maximum daily amount of sugars. 57 products contained sugar (sucrose), 65 contained non-caloric sweeteners and five contained both. Seven products contained glucose-fructose syrup. The sugars content in FJJDS marketed to children in the UK is unacceptably high. Manufacturers must stop adding unnecessary sugars and calories to their FJJDS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-04-28

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer.

  7. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  8. Dataset on the abundance of ants and Cosmopolites sordidus damage in plantain fields with intercropped plants.

    PubMed

    Dassou, Anicet Gbèblonoudo; Carval, Dominique; Dépigny, Sylvain; Fansi, Gabriel; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Ant abundance and Cosmopolites sordidus damage in plantain fields as affected by intercropping" (A.G. Dassou, D. Carval, S. Dépigny, G.H Fansi, P. Tixier, 2015) [1]. This article describes how associated crops maize (Zea mays), cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) intercropped in the plantain fields in Cameroun modify ant community structure and damages of banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  9. Green Juice in Human Metabolism: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Marina; Ferreira, Eduarda Jardim; Moreira, Isabel Taís da Silva; Avila, Richard Chuquel Silveira de; Oliveira, Alcyr Alves de; Busnello, Fernanda Michielin; Braganhol, Elizandra; Barschak, Alethéa Gatto

    2018-04-27

    Fruits and vegetables contain many compounds presenting potential antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a green juice recipe in adult metabolism in order to identify new preventive dietary sources. This was a single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Recruitment and data were, respectively, made and collected at the Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre. Individuals who met all the inclusion criteria during the period of recruitment were included. Green juice (experimental group) or placebo (control group) were consumed from Monday to Friday between 8 and 9 am, in the amount of 300 mL for 60 days (except Saturdays and Sundays). To verify the effect of green juice on metabolism, the following were evaluated: (a) glycemia, plasma lipid profile, renal and liver functions, redox profile, and antioxidant enzymes; (b) anthropometry; and (c) well-being and anxiety. This study included 14 participants in the test group (juice group) and 13 controls (placebo group), with mean ages of 31.07 and 30.15 years, respectively. We did not observe a significant difference between the treatments. Dietary properties of vegetable and fruit juices are an area of significant interest. Together with an analysis of previous works, we suggest that green juice did not cause an improvement in metabolic function and there is a need for further research on this issue, mainly through different interventions and other samples.

  10. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40-80 g/day for males and more than 20-40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity.

  11. Determination of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of HDPE bottles for pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yisheng; Li, Yanxia

    2008-06-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of experimental conditions for measuring the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles using a steady-state sorption method. Bottles were filled with desiccant, closed with caps and heat induction sealed, and then stored in stability chambers at controlled temperature and relative humidity. Weight gain of the bottles was determined every 1 or 2 weeks until a linear weight gain profile was obtained. WVTR of the bottles was determined from the slope of the linear portion of the weight gain versus time profile. The effects of desiccants and temperature/humidity were studied. Results show that, with a sufficient amount of anhydrous calcium chloride in bottles, a negligibly low and sufficiently constant headspace humidity is maintained, and a steady-state permeation rate is achieved. For all 8 sizes of bottles used in this study, steady-state was achieved in 1 or 2 weeks after the experiment was started. This method provided reproducible WVTR data for HDPE bottles. Apparent moisture permeability of all 8 sizes of bottles was (2.3+/-0.3)x10(-7), (2.6+/-0.2)x10(-7), and (3.4+/-0.2)x10(-7)cm(2)/s at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, respectively. Moisture permeability determined from the current study was similar to data reported in the literature, indicating that the steady-state weight gain method can be used to obtain reliable WVTR of containers for pharmaceutical products.

  12. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (p<0.05). The results indicate that glutathione is a promising browning inhibitor used in grape juice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Modeling of lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices].

    PubMed

    Shurkhno, R A; Validov, Sh Z; Boronin, A M; Naumova, R P

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of leguminous plant juices was modeled to provide a comparative efficiency assessment of the previously selected strains of lactic acid bacteria as potential components of starter cultures. Juices of the legumes fodder galega, red clover, and alfalfa were subjected to lactic acid fermentation in 27 variants of experiment. Local strains (Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, and Lactobacillus sp. RS 4) and the collection strain Lactobacillus plantarum BS 933 appeared the most efficient (with reference to the rate and degree of acidogenesis, ratio of lactic and acetic acids, and dynamics of microflora) in fermenting fodder galega juice; Lactobacillus sp. RS 1, Lactobacillus sp. RS 2, Lactobacillus sp. RS 3, Lactobacillus sp. RS 4, and L. plantarum BS 933 were the most efficient for red clover juice. Correction of alfalfa juice fermentation using the tested lactic acid bacterial strains appeared inefficient, which is explainable by its increased protein content and a low level of the acids produced during fermentation.

  14. Decoding the Nonvolatile Sensometabolome of Orange Juice ( Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Anneke; Dunkel, Andreas; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Activity-guided fractionation in combination with the taste dilution analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, led to the identification of 10 polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), 6 limonoid glucosides, and 2 limonoid aglycones as the key bitterns of orange juice. Quantitative studies and calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, followed by taste re-engineering, demonstrated for the first time 25 sensometabolites to be sufficient to reconstruct the typical taste profile of orange juices and indicated that not a single compound can be considered a suitable marker for juice bitterness. Intriguingly, the taste percept of orange juice seems to be created by a rather complex interplay of limonin, limonoid glucosides, PMFs, organic acids, and sugars. For the first time, sub-threshold concentrations of PMFs were shown to enhance the perceived bitterness of limonoids. Moreover, the influence of sugars on the perceived bitterness of limonoids and PMFs in orange juice relevant concentration ranges was quantitatively elucidated.

  15. Stabilization of anthocyanins in blackberry juice by glutathione fortification.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Nathan B; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Brownmiller, Cindi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2017-10-18

    Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L -1 . Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.

  16. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 tropical juices from Malaysia and identification of phenolics from the bioactive fruit juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong

    2014-10-01

    The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 ± 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 ± 0.27 °Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 ± 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 ± 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 ± 12.65 μg GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 ± 7.44 μg AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 ± 2.59 μg VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 ± 3.93 μg TEAC/g sample), and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 ± 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 ± 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics.

  17. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste ( P <0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  18. Preparation of a Co-doped hierarchically porous carbon from Co/Zn-ZIF: An efficient adsorbent for the extraction of trizine herbicides from environment water and white gourd samples.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Caina; Li, Menghua; Ma, Ruiyang; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2016-05-15

    A Co-doped hierarchically porous carbon (Co/HPC) was synthesized through a facile carbonization process by using Co/ZIF-8 as the precursor. The textures of the Co/HPC were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibration sample magnetometry and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results showed that the Co/HPC is in good polyhedral shape with uniform size, sufficient magnetism, high surface area as well as hierarchical pores (micro-, meso- and macropores). To evaluate the extraction performance of the Co/HPC, it was applied as a magnetic adsorbent for the enrichment of triazine herbicides from environment water and white gourd samples prior to high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. The main parameters that affected the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a good linearity for the four triazine herbicides was achieved with the correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9970. The limits of detection, based on S/N=3, were 0.02 ng/mL for water and 0.1-0.2 ng/g for white gourd samples, respectively. The recoveries of all the analytes for the method fell in the range from 80.3% to 120.6%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of baby bottle versus breastfeeding graphics on products in national chain stores.

    PubMed

    Gellerson, Daphne; Hornsby, Paige P; Lowenhaupt, Stephanie A; Bressler, Colleen J; Burns, Whitney R; Friedman, Caroline F; Vaughn, Natalie H; Marshall, Stephanie P; Marshall, Trisha L; Park, Jennie; Kellams, Ann

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed the prevalence of bottle versus breastfeeding graphic images on products marketed for pregnant mothers and young children available for purchase in national chain stores. This was a product survey/content analysis. Eighteen national chain stores located in a 10-mile radius of Charlottesville, VA were visited. In total, 2,670 individual items in 11 categories of baby shower and baby gift merchandise (shower invitations, greeting cards, gift wrap, shower decorations, baby dolls, baby books, infant clothing, bibs, nursery decorations, baby blankets, and disposable diapers) were assessed. The main outcome measures were prevalences of baby bottle and breastfeeding graphic images. Baby bottle images were found on products in eight of the 11 categories of items surveyed. Thirty-five percent of baby dolls were marketed with a baby bottle. The prevalence of bottle images on items in all other categories, however, was low. Of the 2,670 items surveyed, none contained a breastfeeding image. The low prevalence of baby bottle images on commonly purchased baby gift and baby shower items is encouraging. However, the absence of breastfeeding images and the relatively high prevalence of baby dolls marketed with a baby bottle demonstrate that breastfeeding is not portrayed as the physiologic norm on these products. Product designers should explore ways to promote breastfeeding, consumers should make informed choices in product selection, and advocacy groups should promote guidelines for these products.

  20. Mothers' experiences of bottle-feeding: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, R; Ogilvie, D; Ong, K K

    2009-08-01

    Most babies receive at least some formula milk. Variations in formula-feeding practices can have both short- and long-term health consequences. The literature on parents' experiences of bottle-feeding was systematically reviewed to understand how formula-feeding decisions are made. Relevant English-language papers, identified by searching 12 electronic databases, reference lists and related articles and by contacting first authors of included papers, were systematically searched for and appraised. The included studies were analysed and synthesised using a combination of narrative and thematic approaches. Consensus on the final inclusion, interpretation and synthesis of studies was reached across the research team. Six qualitative studies and 17 quantitative studies (involving 13 263 participants) were included. Despite wide differences in study design, context, focus and quality, several consistent themes emerged. Mothers who bottle-fed their babies experienced negative emotions such as guilt, anger, worry, uncertainty and a sense of failure. Mothers reported receiving little information on bottle-feeding and did not feel empowered to make decisions. Mistakes in preparation of bottle-feeds were common. No studies examined how mothers made decisions about the frequency or quantity of bottle-feeds. Inadequate information and support for mothers who decide to bottle-feed may put the health of their babies at risk. While it is important to promote breastfeeding, it is also necessary to ensure that the needs of bottle-feeding mothers are met.

  1. Major furocoumarins in grapefruit juice I: levels and urinary metabolite(s).

    PubMed

    Messer, Anastasia; Nieborowski, Anna; Strasser, Christian; Lohr, Christiane; Schrenk, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Furocoumarins are phototoxic and photogenotoxic natural plant constituents occurring in cosmetics, food and drugs. Grapefruit juice is considered as a major dietary source of furocoumarins although few is known about the variability of furocoumarins in grapefruit juice. We analyzed the major furocoumarins in eight commercial grapefruit juices and in freshly prepared juices made from pink grapefruit obtained from German retailers. Bergaptol was the major furocoumarin in commercial juices, followed by bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxy-bergamottin (DHB), whereas an inverse picture (DHB>bergamottin>bergaptol) was obtained in freshly prepared juices. Results from different batches of a single brand of commercial juice, purchased over a period of 7 months, revealed a variability of about 50% for the individual furocoumarins and the sum. In a study with healthy volunteers, consumption of 900 ml commercial grapefruit juice (containing 12.5mg bergaptol, 6.9 mg bergamottin, and 0.6 mg DHB) resulted in an average urinary excretion of 0.36 mg free plus 13.23 mg conjugated bergaptol within 6h. Other furocoumarins were not found in urine. Thus, other grapefruit furocoumarins were obviously converted in the human body, at least in part, into bergaptol excreted in urine, since the excreted amount of bergaptol exceeded the consumed one. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing.

    PubMed

    Gil, M I; Tomás-Barberán, F A; Hess-Pierce, B; Holcroft, D M; Kader, A A

    2000-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of pomegranate juices was evaluated by four different methods (ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP) and compared to those of red wine and a green tea infusion. Commercial pomegranate juices showed an antioxidant activity (18-20 TEAC) three times higher than those of red wine and green tea (6-8 TEAC). The activity was higher in commercial juices extracted from whole pomegranates than in experimental juices obtained from the arils only (12-14 TEAC). HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses of the juices revealed that commercial juices contained the pomegranate tannin punicalagin (1500-1900 mg/L) while only traces of this compound were detected in the experimental juice obtained from arils in the laboratory. This shows that pomegranate industrial processing extracts some of the hydrolyzable tannins present in the fruit rind. This could account for the higher antioxidant activity of commercial juices compared to the experimental ones. In addition, anthocyanins, ellagic acid derivatives, and hydrolyzable tannins were detected and quantified in the pomegranate juices.

  3. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (P<0.05). Aronia juice may be a useful additive for improving the taste and antioxidant potential of yogurt. PMID:28078255

  4. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  5. Consumer acceptance and stability of spray dried betanin in model juices.

    PubMed

    Kaimainen, Mika; Laaksonen, Oskar; Järvenpää, Eila; Sandell, Mari; Huopalahti, Rainer

    2015-11-15

    Spray dried beetroot powder was used to colour model juices, and the consumer acceptance of the juices and stability of the colour during storage at 60 °C, 20 °C, 4 °C, and -20 °C were studied. The majority of the consumers preferred the model juices coloured with anthocyanins or beetroot extract over model juices coloured with spray dried beetroot powder. The consumers preferred more intensely coloured samples over lighter samples. Spray dried betanin samples were described as 'unnatural' and 'artificial' whereas the colour of beetroot extract was described more 'natural' and 'real juice'. No beetroot-derived off-odours or off-flavours were perceived in the model juices coloured with beetroot powder. Colour stability in model juices was greatly dependent on storage temperature with better stability at lower temperatures. Colour stability in the spray dried powder was very good at 20 °C. Betacyanins from beetroot could be a potential colourant for food products that are stored cold. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of commercial slovenian and cypriot fruit juices using stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Ogrinc, Nives; Bat, Karmen; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Golob, Terezija; Kokkinofta, Rebecca

    2009-08-12

    The compositions of commercially available fruit juices on the Slovenian and Cypriot markets have been compared and checked against the corresponding declarations on the packaging. Values of delta(13)C in the pulp, sugars, and ethanol (produced by fermentation and distillation) have been obtained by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and (D/H)(I) and (D/H)(II) ratios determined by Site-specific Natural Isotope Fractionation NMR and compared with literature data. These data show that some juices on the Slovenian and Cypriot markets were adulterated. Measurements of delta(18)O in the water and of (D/H)(II) in the ethanol indicated a significant difference in commercially available juices due to differences of the "tap" water in Slovenia and Cyprus, as most of the juices were diluted from concentrate. Using Principal Component Analysis, very clear differentiation can be made between juices from the two countries, arising from their distinct aquatic environments and climates. The identification of botanical origin of fruit juices was possible only in the case of Slovenian orange and apple fruit juices.

  7. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  8. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  9. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  10. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced...

  11. SmartStuff: A case study of a smart water bottle.

    PubMed

    Jovanov, Emil; Nallathimmareddygari, Vindhya R; Pryor, Jonathan E

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) and miniature wearable biosensors have generated new opportunities for personalized eHealth and mHealth services. Smart objects equipped with physiological sensors can provide robust monitoring of activities of daily living and context for wearable physiological sensors. We present a case study of an intelligent water bottle that can precisely measure the amount of liquid in the bottle, monitor activity using inertial sensors, and physiological parameters using a touch and photoplethysmographic sensor. We evaluate two system configurations: a smart water bottle integrated into a personal body sensor network and a cloud based device. This paper presents system organization and the results from preliminary field testing of the prototype device.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  13. The effect of grapefruit juice on drug disposition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since their initial discovery in 1989, grapefruit juice-drug interactions have received extensive interest from the scientific, medical, regulatory, and lay communities. Although knowledge regarding the effects of grapefruit juice on drug disposition continues to expand, the list of drugs studied in...

  14. "Bottled or Tap?" A Controversy for Science, Economics, and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Americans spend billions of dollars on bottled water. They purchase a bottle from the vending machine or buy a case at the grocery, no longer considering the water that's freely available from their taps. As consumers and as citizens, however, Americans should pause to study the personal and public consequences of this choice. In this…

  15. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  16. 78 FR 48148 - Lemon Juice From Mexico: Termination of Suspended Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-201-835] Lemon Juice From Mexico... ``ITC'') that termination of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Mexico... Antidumping Investigation on Lemon Juice from Mexico (the ``Agreement''). DATES: Effective Date: September 21...

  17. Protective Effects of Lemon Juice on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Xu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao

    2017-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption (more than 40–80 g/day for males and more than 20–40 g/day for females) could induce serious liver injury. In this study, effects of lemon juice on chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice were evaluated. The serum biochemical profiles and hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes were examined for evaluating the hepatoprotective effects of lemon juice in mice. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant capacities of lemon juice were determined. The results showed that lemon juice significantly inhibited alcohol-induced increase of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), hepatic TG, and lipid peroxidation levels in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological changes induced by alcohol were also remarkably improved by lemon juice treatment. These findings suggest that lemon juice has protective effects on alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. The protective effects might be related to the antioxidant capacity of lemon juice because lemon juice showed in vitro antioxidant capacity. PMID:28567423

  18. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  19. Targeted and non-targeted detection of lemon juice adulteration by LC-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2016-01-01

    Economically motivated adulteration (EMA) of lemon juice was detected by LC-MS and principal component analysis (PCA). Twenty-two batches of freshly squeezed lemon juice were adulterated by adding an aqueous solution containing 5% citric acid and 6% sucrose to pure lemon juice to obtain 30%, 60% and 100% lemon juice samples. Their total titratable acidities, °Brix and pH values were measured, and then all the lemon juice samples were subject to LC-MS analysis. Concentrations of hesperidin and eriocitrin, major phenolic components of lemon juice, were quantified. The PCA score plots for LC-MS datasets were used to preview the classification of pure and adulterated lemon juice samples. Results showed a large inherent variability in the chemical properties among 22 batches of 100% lemon juice samples. Measurement or quantitation of one or several chemical properties (targeted detection) was not effective in detecting lemon juice adulteration. However, by using the LC-MS datasets, including both chromatographic and mass spectrometric information, 100% lemon juice samples were successfully differentiated from adulterated samples containing 30% lemon juice in the PCA score plot. LC-MS coupled with chemometric analysis can be a complement to existing methods for detecting juice adulteration.

  20. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    PubMed

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

  1. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  2. Relieving Dry Mouth: Varying Levels of pH Found in Bottled Water.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bailey Jean; Spencer, Angela; Haywood, Van; Konchady, Gayathri

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum. Because bottled water is both convenient and easily available, the authors tested the pH of eight common brands of bottled water. (One brand included two different bottle types, for a total of nine bottled waters tested.) To standardize the pH electrode, pH buffers of 4.7 and 10 were used. The pH was measured using the Denver Instruments basic pH meter. Six recordings were used for each brand and then averaged to report the pH. Two of the bottled water samples tested were below the critical level of 5.2 pH to 5.5 pH, the level at which erosion of enamel occurs. Six of the samples tested were below the critical pH of 6.8, at which erosion of root dentin occurs. The authors conclude that both patients and clinicians incorrectly presume bottled water to be innocuous. Clinicians should be cognizant of the erosive potential of different brands of bottled water to both educate patients and to recommend water with neutral or alkaline pH for patients with symptoms of dry mouth to prevent further deterioration and demineralization of tooth structure.

  3. Biofilm inhibition of spoilage bacteria by Argentinean fruit juices with antihypertensive activity.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Claudia V; Aredes-Fernández, Pedro A; Farías, Marta E; Rodríguez-Vaquero, María J

    2013-01-01

    Argentinean juices have been studied for their antihypertensive activity, the inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation and the effect on the viability of wine yeast. The influence of phenolic compounds on these activities was evaluated. These studies are the first step for the development of a new type of wine that includes grape must supplement with fruit juices with antihypertensive effect. All juices posses a high antihypertensive activity, higher than 50%. Strawberry juices and eureka lemon showed the highest activity, whereas clarified juices posses the lowest activity. All studied juices produce a high inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation, and the strawberry, orange and mandarin varieties not affect the growth or viability of yeast. Our results permit to conclude that it could be possible the use of these juices in a new type of wine or as a source of new antihypertensive agents for pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Red-fleshed sweet orange juice improves the risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Jacqueline Q; Dourado, Grace K Z S; Cesar, Thais B

    2015-01-01

    Orange juice consumption can promote lower levels of oxidative stress and inflammation due to the antioxidant activity of citrus flavonoids and carotenoids. In addition, red-fleshed sweet orange juice (red orange juice) also contains lycopene. This study investigated the effects of red orange juice consumption on risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Volunteers consumed red orange juice daily for 8 weeks, with clinical and biochemical assessments performed at baseline and on the final day. There was no change in the abdominal obesity, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein decreased, while there was an increase of the antioxidant activity in serum after red orange juice consumption. Insulin resistance and systolic blood pressure were reduced in normal-weight volunteers, while diastolic blood pressure decreased in overweight volunteers after intervention. Red orange juice showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and lipid-lowering properties that may prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  5. Design, Development and Testing of Inconel Alloy IN718 Spherical Gas Bottle for Oxygen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenna Krishna, S.; Agilan, M.; Sudarshan Rao, G.; Singh, Satish Kumar; Narayana Murty, S. V. S.; Venkata Narayana, Ganji; Beena, A. P.; Rajesh, L.; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the details of design, manufacture and testing of 200 mm diameter spherical gas bottle of Inconel 718 (IN718) with nominal wall thickness of 2.3 mm. Gas bottle was designed for the specified internal pressure loading with a thickness of 2.9 mm at the circumferential weld which was brought down to 2.3 mm at the membrane locations. Hemispherical forgings produced through closed-die hammer forging were machined and electron beam welded to produce a spherical gas bottle. Duly welded gas bottle was subjected to standard aging treatment to achieve the required tensile strength. Aged gas bottle was inspected for dimensions and other stringent quality requirements using various nondestructive testing techniques. After inspection, gas bottle was subjected to pressure test for maximum expected operating pressure and proof pressure of 25 and 37.5 MPa, respectively. Strain gauges were bonded at different locations on the gas bottle to monitor the strains during the pressure test and correlated with the predicted values. The predicted strain matched well with the experimental strain confirming the design and structural integrity.

  6. Effect of genotype and environment on citrus juice carotenoid content.

    PubMed

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Dubois, Cecile; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2009-10-14

    A selection of orange and mandarin varieties belonging to the same Citrus accession and cultivated in Mediterranean (Corsica), subtropical (New Caledonia), and tropical areas (principally Tahiti) were studied to assess the effect of genotype and environmental conditions on citrus juice carotenoid content. Juices from three sweet orange cultivars, that is, Pera, Sanguinelli, and Valencia ( Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), and two mandarin species ( Citrus deliciosa Ten and Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan), were analyzed by HPLC using a C(30) column. Annual carotenoid content variations in Corsican fruits were evaluated. They were found to be very limited compared to variations due to varietal influences. The statistical analysis (PCA, dissimilarity tree) results based on the different carotenoid compounds showed that citrus juice from Corsica had a higher carotenoid content than citrus juices from tropical origins. The tropical citrus juices were clearly differentiated from citrus juices from Corsica, and close correlations were obtained between beta-cryptoxanthin and phytoene (r = 0.931) and beta-carotene and phytoene (r = 0.918). More broadly, Mediterranean conditions amplified interspecific differentiation, especially by increasing the beta-cryptoxanthin and cis-violaxanthin content in oranges and beta-carotene and phytoene-phytofluene content in mandarins. Thus, at a quantitative level, environmental conditions also had a major role in determining the levels of carotenoids of nutritional interest, such as the main provitamin A carotenoids in citrus juice (beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene).

  7. Fruit and Juice Epigenetic Signatures Are Associated with Independent Immunoregulatory Pathways.

    PubMed

    Nicodemus-Johnson, Jessie; Sinnott, Robert A

    2017-07-14

    Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that fruit consumption promotes many health benefits. Despite the general consensus that fruit and juice are nutritionally similar, epidemiological results for juice consumption are conflicting. Our objective was to use DNA methylation marks to characterize fruit and juice epigenetic signatures within PBMCs and identify shared and independent signatures associated with these groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation marks (Illumina Human Methylation 450k chip) for 2,148 individuals that participated in the Framingham Offspring exam 8 were analyzed for correlations between fruit or juice consumption using standard linear regression. CpG sites with low P -values ( P < 0.01) were characterized using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and epigenetic Functional element Overlap analysis of the Results of Genome Wide Association Study Experiments (eFORGE). Fruit and juice-specific low P -value epigenetic signatures were largely independent. Genes near the fruit-specific epigenetic signature were enriched among pathways associated with antigen presentation and chromosome or telomere maintenance, while the juice-specific epigenetic signature was enriched for proinflammatory pathways. IPA and eFORGE analyses implicate fruit and juice-specific epigenetic signatures in the modulation of macrophage (fruit) and B or T cell (juice) activities. These data suggest a role for epigenetic regulation in fruit and juice-specific health benefits and demonstrate independent associations with distinct immune functions and cell types, suggesting that these groups may not confer the same health benefits. Identification of such differences between foods is the first step toward personalized nutrition and ultimately the improvement of human health and longevity.

  8. Fruit and Juice Epigenetic Signatures Are Associated with Independent Immunoregulatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nicodemus-Johnson, Jessie; Sinnott, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that fruit consumption promotes many health benefits. Despite the general consensus that fruit and juice are nutritionally similar, epidemiological results for juice consumption are conflicting. Our objective was to use DNA methylation marks to characterize fruit and juice epigenetic signatures within PBMCs and identify shared and independent signatures associated with these groups. Genome-wide DNA methylation marks (Illumina Human Methylation 450k chip) for 2,148 individuals that participated in the Framingham Offspring exam 8 were analyzed for correlations between fruit or juice consumption using standard linear regression. CpG sites with low P-values (P < 0.01) were characterized using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and epigenetic Functional element Overlap analysis of the Results of Genome Wide Association Study Experiments (eFORGE). Fruit and juice-specific low P-value epigenetic signatures were largely independent. Genes near the fruit-specific epigenetic signature were enriched among pathways associated with antigen presentation and chromosome or telomere maintenance, while the juice-specific epigenetic signature was enriched for proinflammatory pathways. IPA and eFORGE analyses implicate fruit and juice-specific epigenetic signatures in the modulation of macrophage (fruit) and B or T cell (juice) activities. These data suggest a role for epigenetic regulation in fruit and juice-specific health benefits and demonstrate independent associations with distinct immune functions and cell types, suggesting that these groups may not confer the same health benefits. Identification of such differences between foods is the first step toward personalized nutrition and ultimately the improvement of human health and longevity. PMID:28708104

  9. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  10. Bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water in Dharan municipality, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Poudyal, Nimesh; Bhattacharya, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-06-07

    Water-related diseases are of great concern in developing countries like Nepal. Every year, there are countless morbidity and mortality due to the consumption of unsafe drinking water. Recently, there have been increased uses of bottled drinking water in an assumption that the bottled water is safer than the tap water and its use will help to protect from water-related diseases. So, the main objective of this study was to analyze the bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water and that of municipal tap water. A total of 100 samples (76 tap water and 24 bottled water) were analyzed for bacteriological quality and pH. The methods used were spread plate method for total plate count (TPC) and membrane filter method for total coliform count (TCC), fecal coliform count (FCC), and fecal streptococcal count (FSC). pH meter was used for measuring pH. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 87.5 % of the bottled water samples were found to be contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria. Of the tap water samples, 55.3 % were positive for total coliforms, compared with 25 % of the bottled water. No bottled water samples were positive for fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, in contrast to 21.1 % and 14.5 % of the tap water samples being contaminated with fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, respectively. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 54.2 % of the bottled water samples had pH in the acceptable range. All of the municipal tap water samples and most of the bottled drinking water samples distributed in Dharan municipality were found to be contaminated with one or more than one type of indicator organisms. On the basis of our findings, we may conclude that comparatively, the bottled drinking water may have been safer (than tap water) to drink.

  11. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... that taps an aquifer—layers of porous rock, sand, and earth that contain water—which is under ... it to be labeled as “purified water.” Ensuring Quality and Safety Federal quality standards for bottled water ...

  12. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section 146.151 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  13. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  14. 77 FR 22343 - Certain Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1089 (Review)] Certain Orange Juice From Brazil Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... Publication 4311 (April 2012), entitled Certain Orange Juice from Brazil: Investigation No. 731-TA-1089...

  15. Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B

    2014-11-01

    Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7,200s over a temperature range of 80-145 °C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Bottle-feeding practices during early infancy and eating behaviors at 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruowei; Scanlon, Kelley S; May, Ashleigh; Rose, Chelsea; Birch, Leann

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests an association of breastfeeding with a maternal feeding style (MFS) that is less controlling than formula feeding, which, in turn, may improve a child's self-regulation of eating. This study examines associations of bottle-feeding practices during infancy with MFS and children's eating behavior (CEB) at 6 years old. We linked data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II to the Year 6 Follow-Up, which include 8 MFS and CEB measures adapted from previous validated instruments. Bottle-feeding practices during the first 6 months estimated by using the Infant Feeding Practices Study II were bottle-feeding intensity (BFI), mother's encouragement of infant to finish milk in the bottle, and infant finishing all milk in the bottle. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for associations of bottle-feeding practices with MFS and CEB at 6 years old were calculated by using multivariable logistic regressions controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and other feeding practices (N = 1117). Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers during infancy increased odds of mothers encouraging their child to eat all the food on their plate (aOR: 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-3.41] and making sure their child eats enough (aOR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.14-2.31) and of children eating all the food on their plate at 6 years old (aOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.05-3.83). High BFI during early infancy also increased the odds of mothers being especially careful to ensure their 6-year-old eats enough. Bottle-feeding practices during infancy may have long-term effects on MFS and CEB. Frequent bottle emptying encouraged by mothers and/or high BFI during early infancy increased the likelihood of mothers pressuring their 6-year-old child to eat and children's low satiety responsiveness. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Background: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative. PMID:21629570

  18. Effect of ultrahigh-temperature continuous ohmic heating treatment on fresh orange juice.

    PubMed

    Leizerson, Shirly; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-05-04

    The scope of this study is the effect of ohmic heating thermal treatment on liquid fruit juice made of oranges. Effects of ohmic heating on the quality of orange juice were examined and compared to those of heat pasteurization at 90 degrees C for 50 s. Orange juice was treated at temperatures of 90, 120, and 150 degrees C for 1.13, 0.85, and 0.68 s in an ohmic heating system. Microbial counts showed complete inactivation of bacteria, yeast, and mold during ohmic and conventional treatments. The ohmic heating treatment reduced pectin esterase activity by 98%. The reduction in vitamin C was 15%. Ohmic-heated orange juice maintained higher amounts of the five representative flavor compounds than did heat-pasteurized juice. Sensory evaluation tests showed no difference between fresh and ohmic-heated orange juice. Thus, high-temperature ohmic-heating treatment can be effectively used to pasteurize fresh orange juice with minimal sensory deterioration.

  19. Leguminose green juice as an efficient nutrient for l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Donna; Schneider, Roland; Papendiek, Franka; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid is one of the most important building blocks for the production of bioplastic. Many investigations have been conducted to reduce the lactic acid production costs. In this work, the focus was put on the application of legume pressed juice or green juice as nutrient source. The pressed juice was utilized directly without prior pre-treatment and sterilization. Using two different alfalfa green juices and a clover green juice from two different harvest years as sole nutrients, non-sterile fermentations were performed at 52°C and pH 6.0 with a thermotolerant strain Bacillus coagulans AT107. The results showed that alfalfa green juices generally were more suitable for high lactic acid production than clover green juices, presumably due to the higher nitrogen content. A final titer of 98.8g/L after 30h with l(+)-lactic acid purity of >99% was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Unintended Consequences of Changes in Beverage Options and the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus.

    PubMed

    Berman, Elizabeth R; Johnson, Rachel K

    2015-07-01

    We investigated how the removal of bottled water along with a minimum healthy beverage requirement affected the purchasing behavior, healthiness of beverage choices, and consumption of calories and added sugars of university campus consumers. With shipment data as a proxy, we estimated bottled beverage consumption over 3 consecutive semesters: baseline (spring 2012), when a 30% healthy beverage ratio was enacted (fall 2012), and when bottled water was removed (spring 2013) at the University of Vermont. We assessed changes in number and type of beverages and per capita calories, total sugars, and added sugars shipped. Per capita shipments of bottles, calories, sugars, and added sugars increased significantly when bottled water was removed. Shipments of healthy beverages declined significantly, whereas shipments of less healthy beverages increased significantly. As bottled water sales dropped to zero, sales of sugar-free beverages and sugar-sweetened beverages increased. The bottled water ban did not reduce the number of bottles entering the waste stream from the university campus, the ultimate goal of the ban. With the removal of bottled water, consumers increased their consumption of less healthy bottled beverages.

  1. Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.

    PubMed

    Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

    2013-01-01

    Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing.

  2. Comparison of Pancreas Juice Proteins from Cancer Versus Pancreatitis Using Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ru; Pan, Sheng; Cooke, Kelly; Moyes, Kara White; Bronner, Mary P.; Goodlett, David R.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Brentnall, Teresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas. However, it often shares many molecular features with pancreatic cancer. Biomarkers present in pancreatic cancer frequently occur in the setting of pancreatitis. The efforts to develop diagnostic biomarkers for pancreatic cancer have thus been complicated by the false-positive involvement of pancreatitis. Methods In an attempt to develop protein biomarkers for pancreatic cancer, we previously use quantitative proteomics to identify and quantify the proteins from pancreatic cancer juice. Pancreatic juice is a rich source of proteins that are shed by the pancreatic ductal cells. In this study, we used a similar approach to identify and quantify proteins from pancreatitis juice. Results In total, 72 proteins were identified and quantified in the comparison of pancreatic juice from pancreatitis patients versus pooled normal control juice. Nineteen of the juice proteins were overexpressed, and 8 were underexpressed in pancreatitis juice by at least 2-fold compared with normal pancreatic juice. Of these 27 differentially expressed proteins in pancreatitis, 9 proteins were also differentially expressed in the pancreatic juice from pancreatic cancer patient. Conclusions Identification of these differentially expressed proteins from pancreatitis juice provides useful information for future study of specific pancreatitis-associated proteins and to eliminate potential false-positive biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. PMID:17198186

  3. Comparison of pancreas juice proteins from cancer versus pancreatitis using quantitative proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ru; Pan, Sheng; Cooke, Kelly; Moyes, Kara White; Bronner, Mary P; Goodlett, David R; Aebersold, Ruedi; Brentnall, Teresa A

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas. However, it often shares many molecular features with pancreatic cancer. Biomarkers present in pancreatic cancer frequently occur in the setting of pancreatitis. The efforts to develop diagnostic biomarkers for pancreatic cancer have thus been complicated by the false-positive involvement of pancreatitis. In an attempt to develop protein biomarkers for pancreatic cancer, we previously use quantitative proteomics to identify and quantify the proteins from pancreatic cancer juice. Pancreatic juice is a rich source of proteins that are shed by the pancreatic ductal cells. In this study, we used a similar approach to identify and quantify proteins from pancreatitis juice. In total, 72 proteins were identified and quantified in the comparison of pancreatic juice from pancreatitis patients versus pooled normal control juice. Nineteen of the juice proteins were overexpressed, and 8 were underexpressed in pancreatitis juice by at least 2-fold compared with normal pancreatic juice. Of these 27 differentially expressed proteins in pancreatitis, 9 proteins were also differentially expressed in the pancreatic juice from pancreatic cancer patient. Identification of these differentially expressed proteins from pancreatitis juice provides useful information for future study of specific pancreatitis-associated proteins and to eliminate potential false-positive biomarkers for pancreatic cancer.

  4. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  5. Predicting water filter and bottled water use in Appalachia: a community-scale case study.

    PubMed

    Levêque, Jonas G; Burns, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in order to assess residents' perceptions of water quality for drinking and recreational purposes in a mid-sized city in northcentral West Virginia. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted in order to investigate the factors that influence bottle use and filter use. Results show that 37% of respondents primarily use bottled water and that 58% use a household filter when drinking from the tap. Respondents with lower levels of environmental concern, education levels, and lower organoleptic perceptions were most likely to perceive health risks from tap water consumption, and were most likely to use bottled water. Income, age, and organoleptic perceptions were predictors of water filter use among respondents. Clean water for recreational purposes was not found to be significant with either of these models. Our results demonstrate that bottle use and filter use are explained differently. We argue that more education and better communication about local tap water quality would decrease the use of bottled water. We demonstrate that household filters could be used as an alternative to bottled water.

  6. Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage

    PubMed Central

    Juarez-Enriquez, Edmundo; Salmerón, Ivan; Gutierrez-Mendez, Nestor; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake. PMID:28231106

  7. Physicochemical characterization of pure persimmon juice: nutritional quality and food acceptability.

    PubMed

    González, Eva; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2015-03-01

    Technological process for production of non-astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. "Rojo Brillante") juice was described. The degree of fruit ripening expressed as color index (CI) varied between 12.37 and 16.33. Persimmon juice was characterized by determining physicochemical quality parameters as yield, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids, and main sugars. A thermal treatment of 90 ºC for 10 s was effective in controlling naturally occurring microorganisms for at least 105 d of storage without significantly affecting production of soluble brown pigments (BPs) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity and acceptability of juice by panelists. Storage time affected all and each of the above parameters, reducing BPs, TPC and antioxidant capacity but increasing 5-HMF content. Refrigerated storage enhanced the acceptability of the juices. This information may be used by the juice industry as a starting point for production of pure persimmon juices. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Inhibition of Nonenzymatic Protein Glycation by Pomegranate and Other Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ∼90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  9. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  10. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange... sweetening ingredients specified in paragraph (b) of this section may be added to adjust the final... any added optional sweetening ingredients. The dilution ratio shall be not less than 3 plus 1. For the...

  11. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange... sweetening ingredients specified in paragraph (b) of this section may be added to adjust the final... any added optional sweetening ingredients. The dilution ratio shall be not less than 3 plus 1. For the...

  12. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange... sweetening ingredients specified in paragraph (b) of this section may be added to adjust the final... any added optional sweetening ingredients. The dilution ratio shall be not less than 3 plus 1. For the...

  13. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange... sweetening ingredients specified in paragraph (b) of this section may be added to adjust the final... any added optional sweetening ingredients. The dilution ratio shall be not less than 3 plus 1. For the...

  14. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange... sweetening ingredients specified in paragraph (b) of this section may be added to adjust the final... any added optional sweetening ingredients. The dilution ratio shall be not less than 3 plus 1. For the...

  15. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  16. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  17. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  18. Assessment of bisphenol A released from reusable plastic, aluminium and stainless steel water bottles.

    PubMed

    Cooper, James E; Kendig, Eric L; Belcher, Scott M

    2011-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous high volume industrial chemical that is an estrogen and an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical. Bisphenol A is used extensively in the production of consumer goods, polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and coatings used to line metallic food and beverage cans. There is great concern regarding the possible harmful effects from exposures that result from BPA leaching into foods and beverages from packaging or storage containers. The objective of this study was to independently assess whether BPA contamination of water was occurring from different types of reusable drinking bottles marketed as alternatives to BPA-containing polycarbonate plastics. Using a sensitive and quantitative BPA-specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we evaluated whether BPA migrated into water stored in polycarbonate or copolyester plastic bottles, and different lined or unlined metallic reusable water bottles. At room temperature the concentration of BPA migrating from polycarbonate bottles ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg L⁻¹. Under identical conditions BPA migration from aluminium bottles lined with epoxy-based resins was variable depending on manufacturer ranging from 0.08 to 1.9 mg L⁻¹. Boiling water significantly increased migration of BPA from the epoxy lined bottles. No detectable BPA contamination was observed in water stored in bottles made from Tritan™ copolyester plastic, uncoated stainless steel, or aluminium lined with EcoCare™. The results from this study demonstrate that when used according to manufacturers' recommendations reusable water bottles constructed from "BPA-free" alternative materials are suitable for consumption of beverages free of BPA contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Laboratory Workflow Analysis of Culture of Periprosthetic Tissues in Blood Culture Bottles.

    PubMed

    Peel, Trisha N; Sedarski, John A; Dylla, Brenda L; Shannon, Samantha K; Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah; Hughes, John G; Cheng, Allen C; Patel, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than conventional techniques, but the impact on laboratory workflow has yet to be addressed. Herein, we examined the impact of culture of periprosthetic tissues in blood culture bottles on laboratory workflow and cost. The workflow was process mapped, decision tree models were constructed using probabilities of positive and negative cultures drawn from our published study (T. N. Peel, B. L. Dylla, J. G. Hughes, D. T. Lynch, K. E. Greenwood-Quaintance, A. C. Cheng, J. N. Mandrekar, and R. Patel, mBio 7:e01776-15, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01776-15), and the processing times and resource costs from the laboratory staff time viewpoint were used to compare periprosthetic tissues culture processes using conventional techniques with culture in blood culture bottles. Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of positive cultures. Annualized labor savings were estimated based on salary costs from the U.S. Labor Bureau for Laboratory staff. The model demonstrated a 60.1% reduction in mean total staff time with the adoption of tissue inoculation into blood culture bottles compared to conventional techniques (mean ± standard deviation, 30.7 ± 27.6 versus 77.0 ± 35.3 h per month, respectively; P < 0.001). The estimated annualized labor cost savings of culture using blood culture bottles was $10,876.83 (±$337.16). Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of culture positivity (5 to 50%). Culture in blood culture bottles was cost-effective, based on the estimated labor cost savings of $2,132.71 for each percent increase in test accuracy. In conclusion, culture of periprosthetic tissue in blood culture bottles is not only more accurate than but is also cost-saving compared to conventional culture methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  1. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  2. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  3. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering more...

  4. The effect of plum juice on the prevention of struvite calculus formation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huaijun; Sun, Xizhao; Lu, Jianlin; Wang, Meihua; Fang, Yun; Ge, Weihong

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of plum juice on struvite calculus formation in vitro and to explore the effect of plum juice on urease-producing bacteria and urease activity. The compliance of available drugs is low for struvite calculus after surgical treatment and functional food may represent a good choice as an alternative therapy. Antibacterial activity was assessed using a microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility test. Urease activity was determined by measuring ammonia production. Struvite crystals were induced by Proteus mirabilis in artificial urine with natural and pH-adjusted plum juice. The optical density (OD)(600) and pH of artificial urine were examined, as well the shape and weights of crystals. Natural plum juice showed an antibacterial effect on urease-producing bacteria, whereas the pH-adjusted juice did not. A concentration-dependent inhibition on urease activity was found for both natural and pH-adjusted juice. Natural plum juice at a high concentration of 0.5% showed an obvious inhibition on the increase of OD(600) and pH of the artificial urine, and crystal formation was prevented by up to or more than 8 h, depending on the concentration of juice. Crystal weight in the natural plum juice groups was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The pH-adjusted plum juice did not show any effect on OD(600) and pH, although the presence of juice changed the crystal habit, indicating that the juice slowed the growth rate of crystals. Natural plum juice at high and moderate concentrations prevented the formation of P. mirabilis-induced crystals for up to 8 h in artificial urine. Although pH-adjusted and low-concentration natural juice did not prevent the occurrence of crystals, both types of juice slowed their growth rate.

  5. 21 CFR 172.133 - Dimethyl dicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additive is used or intended for use as a microbial control agent in the following beverages under normal circumstances of bottling, canning, or other forms of final packaging, where the viable microbial load has been... juice, fruit flavor, or both, with juice content not to exceed 50 percent, in an amount not to exceed...

  6. Effects of meat juice on biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaqi; Feng, Jinsong; Ma, Lina; de la Fuente Núñez, César; Gölz, Greta; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-07-17

    Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide, vastly harboured by raw meat as their common food reservoir. Both microbes are prevalent in meat processing environments in the form of biofilms that contribute to cross-contamination and foodborne infection. This study applied raw meat juice (chicken juice and pork juice) as a minimally processed food model to study its effects on bacterial biofilm formation. Meat juice was collected during the freeze-thaw process of raw meat and sterilized by filtration. In 96-well polystyrene plates and glass chambers, supplementation of over 25% meat juice (v/v) in laboratory media led to an increase in biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. During the initial attachment stage of biofilm development, more bacterial cells were present on surfaces treated with meat juice residues compared to control surfaces. Meat juice particulates on abiotic surfaces facilitated biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella under both static and flow conditions, with the latter being assessed using a microfluidic platform. Further, the deficiency in biofilm formation of selected Campylobacter and Salmonella mutant strains was restored in the presence of meat juice particulates. These results suggested that meat juice residues on the abiotic surfaces might act as a surface conditioner to support initial attachment and biofilm formation of Campylobacter and Salmonella. This study sheds light on a possible survival mechanism of Campylobacter and Salmonella in meat processing environments, and indicates that thorough cleaning of meat residues during meat production and handling is critical to reduce the bacterial load of Campylobacter and Salmonella. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents several variations on a demonstration in which alcohol vapors are combusted in large small-necked bottles, causing a blue flame to shoot from the bottle's mouth. Describes variations with different pure alcohols, temperature, alcohol/water solution concentration, oxygen concentration, type of container, and the addition of salt for color.…

  8. Pollen Deposition Is More Important than Species Richness for Seed Set in Luffa Gourd.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A

    2016-10-01

    In the context of global biodiversity decline, it is imperative to understand the different aspects of bee communities for sustaining the vital ecosystem service of pollination. Bee species can be assigned to functional groups (average difference among species in functionally related traits) on the basis of complementarity (trait variations exhibited by individual organisms) in their behavior but is not yet known which functional group trait is most important for seed set. In this study, first, the functional groups of bees were made based on their five selected traits (pollen deposition, visitation rate, stay time, visiting time of the day, body size) and then related to the seed set of obligate cross-pollinated Luffa gourd (Luffa aegyptiaca). We found that bee diversity and abundance differed significantly among the studied plots, but only the bee species richness was positively related to the seed set. Functional group diversity in terms of pollen deposition explained even more of the variance in seed set (r 2  = 0.74) than did the species richness (r 2  = 0.53) making it the most important trait of bee species for predicting the crop reproductive success.

  9. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior.

  10. Effect of grapefruit juice or cimetidine coadministration on albendazole bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Nagy, J; Schipper, H G; Koopmans, R P; Butter, J J; Van Boxtel, C J; Kager, P A

    2002-03-01

    The assumed metabolic breakdown of albendazole by mucosal CYP3A4 enzymes was studied by coadministering albendazole (10 mg/kg) with grapefruit juice. Concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), the active metabolite of albendazole, were compared with those after albendazole was administered with water, a fatty meal, or grapefruit juice plus cimetidine (10 mg/kg). In comparison to water, maximum ABZSX concentration (Cmax) was enhanced 6.5-fold by a fatty meal (from 0.24 +/- 0.09 mg/l to 1.55 +/- 0.30 mg/l; mean +/- SD; P < 0.001) and 3.2-fold by grapefruit juice (from 0.24 +/- 0.09 mg/l to 0.76 +/- 0.37 mg/L; P = 0.031). When grapefruit juice was combined with cimetidine, Cmax was significantly lower than with grapefruit juice alone (0.41 +/- 0.29 mg/l and 0.76 +/- 0.37 mg/l, respectively; P = 0.022). The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0-omega)) followed a comparable pattern. Half-life (T(1/2)) was 8.8 +/- 4.2 hr and 8.2 +/- 4.3 hr after administration with water or a fatty meal (P = 1.000). Grapefruit juice shortened T(1/2) by 46% (P = 0.026). We hypothesize that albendazole is metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes in the intestinal mucosa. This process can be inhibited by grapefruit juice. Cimetidine decreased albendazole bioavailability.

  11. 27 CFR 24.241 - Decolorizing juice or wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decolorizing juice or wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.241 Decolorizing juice or wine. (a) Conditions and limitations. If the proprietor wishes to use activated carbon or other...

  12. White HDPE bottles as source of serious contamination of water samples with Ba and Zn.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Grimstvedt, Andreas; Frengstad, Bjørn; Finne, Tor Erik

    2007-03-15

    During a recent study of surface water quality factory new white high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles were used for collecting the water samples. According to the established field protocol of the Geological Survey of Norway the bottles were twice carefully rinsed with water in the field prior to sampling. Several blank samples using milli-Q (ELGA) water (>18.2 MOmega) were also prepared. On checking the analytical results the blanks returned values of Ag, Ba, Sr, V, Zn and Zr. For Ba and Zn the values (c. 300 microg/l and 95 microg/l) were about 10 times above the concentrations that can be expected in natural waters. A laboratory test of the bottles demonstrated that the bottles contaminate the samples with significant amounts of Ba and Zn and some Sr. Simple acid washing of the bottles prior to use did not solve the contamination problem for Ba and Zn. The results suggest that there may exist "clean" and "dirty" HDPE bottles depending on manufacturer/production process. When collecting water samples it is mandatory to check bottles regularly as a possible source of contamination.

  13. The Unintended Consequences of Changes in Beverage Options and the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how the removal of bottled water along with a minimum healthy beverage requirement affected the purchasing behavior, healthiness of beverage choices, and consumption of calories and added sugars of university campus consumers. Methods. With shipment data as a proxy, we estimated bottled beverage consumption over 3 consecutive semesters: baseline (spring 2012), when a 30% healthy beverage ratio was enacted (fall 2012), and when bottled water was removed (spring 2013) at the University of Vermont. We assessed changes in number and type of beverages and per capita calories, total sugars, and added sugars shipped. Results. Per capita shipments of bottles, calories, sugars, and added sugars increased significantly when bottled water was removed. Shipments of healthy beverages declined significantly, whereas shipments of less healthy beverages increased significantly. As bottled water sales dropped to zero, sales of sugar-free beverages and sugar-sweetened beverages increased. Conclusions. The bottled water ban did not reduce the number of bottles entering the waste stream from the university campus, the ultimate goal of the ban. With the removal of bottled water, consumers increased their consumption of less healthy bottled beverages. PMID:25973813

  14. DNA catabolites in triathletes: effects of supplementation with an aronia-citrus juice (polyphenols-rich juice).

    PubMed

    García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Medina, Sonia; Cejuela-Anta, Roberto; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Abellán, Ángel; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyzed whether our aronia-citrus juice (ACJ, the composition is based on a mixture of 95% citrus juice with 5% of Aronia melanocarpa juice), rich in polyphenols, and physical exercise had an effect on seven catabolites of DNA identified in plasma and on a urine isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α). Sixteen elite triathletes on a controlled diet for triathlon training (45 days) were used in this clinical trial. Our results show a decrease in the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration due to chronic physical exercise. The ACJ intake and physical exercise maintained the guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate plasmatic concentrations and decreased the concentration of 8-hydroxyguanine as well as urinary values of 8-iso-PGF2α. Finally, we observed a significant increase in the 8-nitroguanosine levels in triathletes after ACJ intake, compared to the placebo stage. It is concluded that the combination of the intake of ACJ, rich in polyphenolic compounds, with adequate training was able to influence the plasmatic and urinary values of oxidative stress biomarkers. This suggests a positive effect on the oxidative damage and potential associations with DNA repair mechanisms.

  15. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.2 ± 10.25 μmol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.88 ± 5.61 μmol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26 mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24 mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200 μg/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200 μg/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth.

  16. Pomegranate juice does not affect the disposition of simvastatin in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Shim, Eon-Jeong; Kim, Hyunmi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook; Shon, Ji-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Previous in vitro and in vivo investigations reported controversial results for the inhibitory potential of pomegranate on Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. This study evaluated the effect of pomegranate juice on the disposition of simvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, and simvastatin acid, its active metabolite, compared with grapefruit juice in healthy subjects. A single oral pharmacokinetic study of 40 mg simvastatin was conducted as a three-way crossover (control, pomegranate, and grapefruit juices) in 12 healthy male subjects. The subjects took pomegranate or grapefruit juice three times per day for 3 days (900 mL/day) and on the third day, the pharmacokinetic study was executed. Blood samples were collected to 24 h post-dose and the pharmacokinetic parameters of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were compared among the study periods. In the period of grapefruit juice, the mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin [the geometric mean ratio (90 % CI) 15.6 (11.6-21.0) and 9.1 (6.0-13.7)] were increased significantly when compared with the control period, whereas they were not significantly different in the period of pomegranate juice [C max and AUCinf 1.20 (0.89-1.62) and 1.29 (0.85-1.94)]. The mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin acid were increased significantly after intake of grapefruit juice, but not pomegranate juice. These results suggest that pomegranate juice affects little on the disposition of simvastatin in humans. Pomegranate juice does not seem to have a clinically relevant inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 activity.

  17. Green tea extract as an anti-browning agent for cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Klimczak, Inga; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and their products is an important factor worsening their quality. The influence of five green tea extracts at the concentrations of 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in fresh cloudy apple juice was investigated. Moreover, PPO inhibition by tea extract and colour stability of juice during short-time refrigerated storage was studied. The changes of juice colour during storage was expressed as the total colour differences (ΔE*), browning index (BI), yellowness index (YI), and the absorbance at 420 nm (A 420 ). All extracts inhibited PPO activity in fresh apple juice in concentration-dependent manner. PPO activity in pure apple juice decreased by 7% after 48 h, whereas PPO activity in samples with 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 tea extract decreased by 53%, 74%, and 96%, respectively. Browning of apple juice during storage decreased with increased concentration of green tea extract. After 48 h, extract at 1 g L -1 , 2 g L -1 and 3 g L -1 inhibited browning of juice expressed as BI by 48%, 60%, and 86%, respectively, comparing to pure apple juice. Green tea extract may be an effective anti-browning agent for short-time stored cloudy apple juices. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Potential Health Benefits of Noni Juice: A Review of Human Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Isami, Fumiyuki; Uwaya, Akemi; Jensen, Claude Jarakae

    2018-04-11

    Noni juice is a globally popular health beverage originating in the tropics. Traditional Tahitian healers believe the noni plant to be useful for a wide range of maladies, and noni juice consumers throughout the world have similar perceptions. Nevertheless, human clinical trials are necessary for a precise understanding of what the health benefits of noni juice are. A review of published human intervention studies suggests that noni juice may provide protection against tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage, blood lipid and homocysteine elevation as well as systemic inflammation. Human intervention studies also indicate that noni juice may improve joint health, increase physical endurance, increase immune activity, inhibit glycation of proteins, aid weight management, help maintain bone health in women, help maintain normal blood pressure, and improve gum health. Further, these studies point to notable antioxidant activity in noni juice, more so than other fruit juices which served as trial placebos. It is this antioxidant effect and its interaction with the immune system and inflammation pathways that may account for many of the observed health benefits of noni juice. However, the existing evidence does have some limitations as far as its general application to noni juice products; all the peer-reviewed human interventions studies to date have involved only one source of French Polynesian noni juice. Geographical factors and variations in processing methods are known to produce commercial noni juice products with divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions. Therefore, other sources of noni products may have different toxicological and pharmacological profiles.

  19. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (<0.5 microg/mL) in all 105 apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  20. The Potential Health Benefits of Noni Juice: A Review of Human Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shixin; Isami, Fumiyuki; Uwaya, Akemi; Jensen, Claude Jarakae

    2018-01-01

    Noni juice is a globally popular health beverage originating in the tropics. Traditional Tahitian healers believe the noni plant to be useful for a wide range of maladies, and noni juice consumers throughout the world have similar perceptions. Nevertheless, human clinical trials are necessary for a precise understanding of what the health benefits of noni juice are. A review of published human intervention studies suggests that noni juice may provide protection against tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage, blood lipid and homocysteine elevation as well as systemic inflammation. Human intervention studies also indicate that noni juice may improve joint health, increase physical endurance, increase immune activity, inhibit glycation of proteins, aid weight management, help maintain bone health in women, help maintain normal blood pressure, and improve gum health. Further, these studies point to notable antioxidant activity in noni juice, more so than other fruit juices which served as trial placebos. It is this antioxidant effect and its interaction with the immune system and inflammation pathways that may account for many of the observed health benefits of noni juice. However, the existing evidence does have some limitations as far as its general application to noni juice products; all the peer-reviewed human interventions studies to date have involved only one source of French Polynesian noni juice. Geographical factors and variations in processing methods are known to produce commercial noni juice products with divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions. Therefore, other sources of noni products may have different toxicological and pharmacological profiles. PMID:29641454

  1. Effect of acidification on carrot (Daucus carota) juice cloud stability.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Alison K; Barrett, Diane M; Dungan, Stephanie R

    2014-11-26

    Effects of acidity on cloud stability in pasteurized carrot juice were examined over the pH range of 3.5-6.2. Cloud sedimentation, particle diameter, and ζ potential were measured at each pH condition to quantify juice cloud stability and clarification during 3 days of storage. Acidification below pH 4.9 resulted in a less negative ζ potential, an increased particle size, and an unstable cloud, leading to juice clarification. As the acidity increased, clarification occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent. Only a weak effect of ionic strength was observed when sodium salts were added to the juice, but the addition of calcium salts significantly reduced the cloud stability.

  2. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of each...

  3. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Zlinská, Janka; Trivic, Svetlana; Vojnovic, Matilda

    2010-09-03

    We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP) in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals). Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  4. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    PubMed

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-10-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

  5. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  6. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE BOTTLED DRINKING WATER IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Rirattanapong, Opas

    2016-09-01

    The use of bottled drinking water may be a source of fluoride and could be a risk factor for fluorosis among infants and young children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of commercially available bottled drinking water in Bangkok, Thailand. Forty-five water samples (15 samples of plain water and 30 samples of mineral water) were purchased from several supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. Three bottles of each water sample were purchased, and the fluoride content of each sample was measured twice using a combination fluoride-ion selective electrode. The average reading for each sample was then calculated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Differences between mineral and plain water samples were determined by Student’s t-test. The mean (±SD) fluoride content for all the water samples was 0.17 (±0.17) mg F/l (range: 0.01-0.89 mg F/l). Six brands (13%) tested stated the fluoride content on the label. The actual fluoride content in each of their brands varied little from the label. Eight samples (18%) had a fluoride content >0.3 mg F/l and two samples (4%) had a fluoride content >0.6 mg F/l. The mean mineral water fluoride concentration was significantly higher than the mean fluoride concentration of plain water (p=0.001). We found commercially sold bottled drinking water in Bangkok, Thailand contained varying concentrations of fluoride; some with high concentrations of fluoride. Health professions need to be aware this varying fluoride content of bottled drinking water and educate the parents of infants and small children about this when prescribing fluoride supplements. Consideration should be made to have fluoride content put on the label of bottled water especially among brands with a content >0.3 mg F/l.

  7. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    PubMed

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P < 0.05) on the fructooligosaccharide content (as a prebiotic), concentration of patulin and the addition of ascorbic acid. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell surface proteins of probiotic strains revealed that surface layer proteins have an important role in patulin removal from apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of human pancreatic juice and bile on the tensile strength of suture materials.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, M A Tolga; Ozkan, Erkan; Saglam, Abdullah

    2004-08-01

    Several suture materials are used for pancreatojejunal anastomosis. In this study, we tested the durability of these suture materials in human pancreatic juice and bile. Plain and chromic catgut, polyglactin 910, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone, polypropylene, and silk sutures were incubated in pancreatic juice and bile that was collected from patients. Fifteen samples of each type of suture material were placed in human juices for 1, 3, and 7 days. Tensile strengths were measured with a tensionmeter. Plain and chromic catgut disintegrated in pancreatic juice and pancreatic juice plus bile mixture. Polyglycolic acid and polyglactin 910 suture materials were vulnerable to pancreatic juice within 7 days. Polydioxanone retained most of its initial strength in pancreatic juice and bile. Polypropylene and silk retained 84% and 92% of their initial strength, respectively. We found that polidioxanone was the strongest suture material in pancreatic juice.

  9. Process quality planning of quality function deployment for carrot syrup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekawati, Yurida; Noya, Sunday; Widjaja, Filemon

    2017-06-01

    Carrot products are rarely available in the market. Based on previous research that had been done using QFD to generate product design of carrots products, the research to produce the process quality planning had been carried out. The carrot product studied was carrot syrup. The research resulted in a process planning matrix for carrot syrup. The matrix gives information about critical process plan and the priority of the critical process plan. The critical process plan on the production process of carrot syrup consists of carrots sorting, carrots peeling, carrots washing, blanching process, carrots cutting, the making of pureed carrots, filtering carrot juice, the addition of sugar in carrot juice, the addition of food additives in carrot juice, syrup boiling, syrup filtering, syrup filling into the bottle, the bottle closure and cooling. The information will help the design of the production process of carrot syrup.

  10. Effects and Mechanisms of Fruit and Vegetable Juices on Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Zhang, Pei; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action. PMID:28273863

  11. Stochastic Optimization in The Power Management of Bottled Water Production Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoro, Budi; Nababan, Esther; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    This paper review a model developed to minimize production costs on bottled water production planning through stochastic optimization. As we know, that planning a management means to achieve the goal that have been applied, since each management level in the organization need a planning activities. The built models is a two-stage stochastic models that aims to minimize the cost on production of bottled water by observing that during the production process, neither interfernce nor vice versa occurs. The models were develop to minimaze production cost, assuming the availability of packing raw materials used considered to meet for each kind of bottles. The minimum cost for each kind production of bottled water are expressed in the expectation of each production with a scenario probability. The probability of uncertainly is a representation of the number of productions and the timing of power supply interruption. This is to ensure that the number of interruption that occur does not exceed the limit of the contract agreement that has been made by the company with power suppliers.

  12. 7 CFR 51.1177 - U.S. Grade A Juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (17.0 liters) of juice per standard packed box of 13/5 bushels. (b) The average juice content for any lot of fruit shall have not less than 9 percent total soluble solids, and not less than one-half of 1...

  13. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-03

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis.

  14. Interaction of grapefruit juice and calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2006-07-01

    Drug-drug interactions are commonly recognized occurrences in the hypertensive population. Drug-nutrient interactions, however, are less well appreciated. The grapefruit juice-calcium channel blocker interaction is one that has been known since 1989. The basis for this interaction has been diligently explored and appears to relate to both flavanoid and nonflavanoid components of grapefruit juice interfering with enterocyte CYP3A4 activity. In the process, presystemic clearance of susceptible drugs decreases and bioavailability increases. A number of calcium channel blockers are prone to this interaction, with the most prominent interaction occurring with felodipine. The calcium channel blocker and grapefruit juice interaction should be incorporated into the knowledge base of rational therapeutics for the prescribing physician.

  15. Thermal resistance of Francisella tularensis in infant formula and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Day, J B; Trujillo, S; Hao, Y Y D; Whiting, R C

    2008-11-01

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause gastrointestinal or oropharyngeal tularemia from ingestion of contaminated food or water. Despite the potential for accidental or intentional contamination of foods with F. tularensis, little information exists on the thermal stability of this organism in food matrices. In the present study, the thermal resistance of the live vaccine strain of F. tularensis in four food products (liquid infant formula, apple juice, mango juice, and orange juice) was investigated. D-values ranged from 12 s (57.5 degrees C) to 580 s (50 degrees C) in infant formula with a z-value of 4.37 degrees C. D-values in apple juice ranged from 8 s (57.5 degrees C) to 59 s (50 degrees C) with a z-value of 9.17 degrees C. The live vaccine strain did not survive at temperatures above 55 degrees C in mango juice and orange juice (>6-log inactivation). D-values at 55 to 47.5 degrees C were 15 to 59 s in mango juice and 16 to 105 s in orange juice with z-values of 9.28 and 12.30 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that current pasteurization parameters used for destroying common foodborne bacterial pathogens are adequate for eliminating F. tularensis in the four foods tested. This study is the first to determine thermal inactivation of F. tularensis in specific foods and will permit comparisons with the thermal inactivation data of other more traditional foodborne pathogens.

  16. Explicit Solvent Simulations of Friction between Brush Layers of Charged and Neutral Bottle-Brush Macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Brown, W Michael; Dobrynin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    We study friction between charged and neutral brush layers of bottle-brush macromolecules using molecular dynamics simulations. In our simulations the solvent molecules were treated explicitly. The deformation of the bottle-brush macromolecules under the shear were studied as a function of the substrate separation and shear stress. For charged bottle-brush layers we study effect of the added salt on the brush lubricating properties to elucidate factors responsible for energy dissipation in charged and neutral brush systems. Our simulations have shown that for both charged and neutral brush systems the main deformation mode of the bottle-brush macromolecule is associated with the backbonemore » deformation. This deformation mode manifests itself in the backbone deformation ratio, , and shear viscosity, , to be universal functions of the Weissenberg number W. The value of the friction coefficient, , and viscosity, , are larger for the charged bottle-brush coatings in comparison with those for neutral brushes at the same separation distance, D, between substrates. The additional energy dissipation generated by brush sliding in charged bottle-brush systems is due to electrostatic coupling between bottle-brush and counterion motion. This coupling weakens as salt concentration, cs, increases resulting in values of the viscosity, , and friction coefficient, , approaching corresponding values obtained for neutral brush systems.« less

  17. Peel effects on phenolic composition, antioxidant activity, and making of pomegranate juice and wine.

    PubMed

    Wasila, Humaira; Li, Xuan; Liu, Linwei; Ahmad, Imran; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2013-08-01

    Pomegranate peel was used in juicing to find out its effects on the juice products' (storable juice and wine) sensory property, polyphenols composition, and antioxidant ability. Macroporous resin was used to purify the polyphenols, and 6 different in vitro assays were used to comprehensively determine the antioxidant activity of each. The results showed that juicing with peel made the juice bitter and astringent, but contributed better sensory quality to wine. Peel contributed higher total polyphenols and flavonoids, but lower anthocyanins to the juice products, and caused the phenolics content to fluctuate more dramatically during making wine than the storable juice. Polyphenols purified from the juice products containing peel showed higher total reducing ability and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical elimination abilities, but their clearance activity of hydroxyl radicals was not positive, and their superoxide anion radical elimination ability showed no significant difference when compared to polyphenols purified from juice products without peel. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Effect of extraction method on the concentrations of selected bioactive compounds in mandarin juice.

    PubMed

    Nogata, Yoichi; Ohta, Hideaki; Sumida, Takashi; Sekiya, Keizo

    2003-12-03

    A mandarin-type citrus fruit, ponkan (Citrus reticulata), was processed by in-line, chopper pulper, and hand-press extractions to investigate the effect of extraction method on the concentrations of bioactive compounds in processed juice. Concentrations of polymethoxylated flavones (tangeretin, nobiletin, and sinensetin) and beta-cryptoxanthin in juice, and inhibitory activities against arachidonate cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases of the juice extract were analyzed. The juice processed by hand-press extraction contained the largest amounts of nobiletin (3.56 mg/100 mL), tangeretin (4.10 mg/100 mL), and sinensetin (0.13 mg/100 mL). Concentrations of beta-cryptoxanthin were 0.66, 0.59, 0.55, and 0.50 mg/100 mL in chopper pulper, in-line (5/64 in.), in-line (8/64 in.) and hand-press juices, respectively. Both extracts of in-line juices showed greater inhibitory activity toward platelet 12-lipoxygenase than the others. The inhibitory effect of hand-press juice extract on platelet cyclooxygenase activity was remarkable among juice extracts. All juice extracts effectively inhibited polymorphonuclear 5-lipoxygenase activity at nearly the same rate.

  19. Grip force and force sharing in two different manipulation tasks with bottles.

    PubMed

    Cepriá-Bernal, Javier; Pérez-González, Antonio; Mora, Marta C; Sancho-Bru, Joaquín L

    2017-07-01

    Grip force and force sharing during two activities of daily living were analysed experimentally in 10 right-handed subjects. Four different bottles, filled to two different levels, were manipulated for two tasks: transporting and pouring. Each test subject's hand was instrumented with eight thin wearable force sensors. The grip force and force sharing were significantly different for each bottle model. Increasing the filling level resulted in an increase in grip force, but the ratio of grip force to load force was higher for lighter loads. The task influenced the force sharing but not the mean grip force. The contributions of the thumb and ring finger were higher in the pouring task, whereas the contributions of the palm and the index finger were higher in the transport task. Mean force sharing among fingers was 30% for index, 29% for middle, 22% for ring and 19% for little finger. Practitioner Summary: We analysed grip force and force sharing in two manipulation tasks with bottles: transporting and pouring. The objective was to understand the effects of the bottle features, filling level and task on the contribution of different areas of the hand to the grip force. Force sharing was different for each task and the bottles features affected to both grip force and force sharing.

  20. Fluoride concentration in community water and bottled drinking water: a dilemma today.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, S; Marya, C M; Jnaneswar, A; Kumar, H

    2013-01-01

    Because of the potential for contamination of municipal water supplies, people appear to be turning to alternative sources for their pure drinking water. The present study analyzed the fluoride concentration in community water and bottled drinking water sold in Faridabad city. A comparative evaluation of fluoride content in community water supply and bottled drinking water was done using ion-selective electrode method. The community water samples were collected from six different areas (i.e. north zone, south zone, east zone, west zone and central zone) in the city from public health water supply taps while bottled drinking water samples were randomly picked from grocery shops or supermarkets. The fluoride concentration in the community water supply in this study ranges from 0.11 to 0.26 mg/L with mean fluoride concentration of 0.17 mg/L. The mean concentration of fluoride in bottled drinking water was 0.06 mg/L. The differences observed between mean of two water samples was statistically significant. The results obtained from the present study clearly state that the fluoride concentration was insufficient in community water supply from all the areas and also was deficient in bottled drinking water sold in Faridabad city. So, Alternative sources of fluorides should be supplemented for optimal dental benefits from the use of fluoride.