Science.gov

Sample records for bottom ashi paving

  1. The Laconia, New Hampshire Bottom, Ashi Paving Project. Volume 1: Environmental testing report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Bottom ash is the principal waste stream fro m the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system and grate sffting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (WTE) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

  2. Assessing the health risk of reuse of bottom ash in road paving.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-ching; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2011-03-01

    Although the reuse of bottom ash has been favored gradually, reflected on regulations and researches, the associated risk is still an issue of great concern. This study quantified the health risks from multimedia transport and multi-pathway exposure to the concerned chemicals as a result of reusing bottom ash in road paving with consideration of various application scenarios. In particular, the using duration of the pavement was taken into consideration because movement of chemicals in the soils and groundwater would affect the subsequent exposure and risk. By using soil and groundwater transport modeling linked to food chain exposure assessment and incorporating the Monte Carlo method, the study identified Cr as the crucial toxicant and ingestion of drinking water and vegetables as the key exposure pathways. Furthermore, control of the using duration of road pavement is an essential factor of management and regulations to minimize the leaching of the hazardous constituents into the groundwater and subsequent contamination of food chain. PMID:21190715

  3. Assessing the health risk of reuse of bottom ash in road paving.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-ching; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2011-03-01

    Although the reuse of bottom ash has been favored gradually, reflected on regulations and researches, the associated risk is still an issue of great concern. This study quantified the health risks from multimedia transport and multi-pathway exposure to the concerned chemicals as a result of reusing bottom ash in road paving with consideration of various application scenarios. In particular, the using duration of the pavement was taken into consideration because movement of chemicals in the soils and groundwater would affect the subsequent exposure and risk. By using soil and groundwater transport modeling linked to food chain exposure assessment and incorporating the Monte Carlo method, the study identified Cr as the crucial toxicant and ingestion of drinking water and vegetables as the key exposure pathways. Furthermore, control of the using duration of road pavement is an essential factor of management and regulations to minimize the leaching of the hazardous constituents into the groundwater and subsequent contamination of food chain.

  4. A Case of Unilateral Ashy Dermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Sung; Hong, Soon-Kwan; Seo, Jong-Keun; Lee, Deborah; Sung, Ho-Suk

    2009-01-01

    Ashy dermatosis, also known as erythema dyschromicum perstans, is a peculiar, slowly progressive, idiopathic dermal melanosis. In most cases, slate gray- to lead-colored patches are symmetrically distributed over the body. Ashy dermatosis with a unilateral distribution is rare. We report a case of unilateral ashy dermatosis in a 27-year-old Korean man. PMID:20523842

  5. The Laconia, New Hampshire bottom ash paving project: Volume 3, Physical Performance Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Bottom ash is the principal waste stream from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). It is comprised of grate ash (97%), the slag material discharged at the end of the grate system, and grate sifting (3%), the material that melts or falls through the grate structure. This project was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of using municipal solid waste grate ash as an aggregate substitute in the construction of a pavement binder course for a portion of Rt. 3 in Laconia, New Hampshire. The research was conducted over a two year period during 1993 and 1994. This study is the culmination of an earlier two year characterization study between 1990 and 1992 that documented the physical and environmental characteristics of the bottom ash as it was produced at the Concord, N.H. waste-to-energy (@) facility and used in an asphaltic binder course. Together, these two studies provide a complete evaluation of the potential for using grate ash or bottom ash in asphalt binder course or as recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) in base courses in pavements.

  6. [Ashy dermatitis. Comments on 2 clinical forms].

    PubMed

    Carvajal Huerta, L; Uraga Pazmiño, E; Loayza Vivanzo, E; Sabando Sánchez, R; García Atiaga, I; Jeny, E

    1986-01-01

    The typical clinical characteristic of the ashy dermatitis is the fact that in case of light colored skin, the grey colour remains invariable. There is a new clinical form which is called the Brown Cinder Dermatitis which is characterized by a disciplined localization in the center of the face, trunk or upper extremities together with an inexorable change of the grey colour at the beginning to a brown colour at the end on the other it, has be enhanced the existence of the nummular form which is characterized by the existence of many greyish independent spots of circular or oval form mainly at the level of the trunk.

  7. Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans: Identical to Ashy Dermatosis or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Takafumi; Harada, Kazutoshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Mitsuhashi, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP) and ashy dermatosis (AD) are pigmentary disorders of unknown etiology. EDP is usually considered to be identical to AD; however, a new clinical classification for EDP was proposed in the recent literature. Herein, we report a typical case of EDP observed in an African-American man. Interestingly, the late skin lesions in this case fit the criteria of AD as well. While there appear to be a few clinical cases that can be diagnosed as both EDP and AD based on the clinical course, the preponderance of the evidence in the published reports of EDP and AD and the clinical findings reported here strongly suggest that they are two distinct entities in terms of the extent of the inflammation, albeit on the same spectrum of pigment disorders. PMID:26351421

  8. Acute Toxicity of Sodium Fluorescein to Ashy Pebblesnails Fluminicola fuscus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockton, Kelly A.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Blew, David L.; Farmer, C. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Water resource agencies and groundwater scientists use fluorescein dyes to trace ground water flows that supply surface waters that may contain threatened or endangered mollusk species. Since little is known of the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to mollusks, we tested the toxicity of sodium fluorescein to the ashy pebblesnail Fluminicola fuscus. The pebblesnail was selected as a surrogate test species for the threatened Bliss Rapid snail Taylorcocha serpenticola that is endemic to the Snake River and its tributaries in the Hagerman Valley, Idaho. In laboratory tests, we expose replicated groups of snails to a series of concentrations of fluorescein in a static 24 h exposure at 15 degrees C. Following the exposure, we removed snails, rinsed them, and allowed a 48 h recovery in clean water before recording mortality. We estimated 377 mg/L as the median lethal dose. Mortality to snails occurred at concentrations well above those expected in test wells during the monitoring efforts.

  9. 78 FR 62523 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Ashy Storm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments Under the Endangered Species Act (61 FR 4722, February 7, 1996... Finding on a Petition To List Ashy Storm-Petrel as an Endangered or Threatened Species AGENCY: Fish and... homochroa) as an endangered or threatened species and to designate critical habitat under the...

  10. Genetical and biological control of cotton ashy stem caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in outdoor pot experiment.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel Ahmed

    2010-04-01

    Two outdoor pot experiments were carried out to evaluate the reaction of 11 commercial Egyptian cotton cultivars Macrophomina phaseolina, the incitant of ashy stem in cotton and to evaluate the antagonistic ability of 27 isolates of Trichoderma sp. against pathogen cotton cultivars Giza 85, Giza 87, Giza 89 and Giza 90 were resistant to M. phaseolina because both survival and plant height of these cultivars was not affected when the soil was infested with the pathogen. None of the cultivars were found to be immune to highly pathogenic of M. phaseolina isolate. Of the 27 isolate's of Trichoderma that were evaluated, the best antagonistic performance was given by isolates nos. 2, 10, and 16 were promising for commercialization because they significantly increased survival and improved plant height and dry weight of the surviving cotton seedlings.

  11. Effects of Zusanli and Ashi Acupoint Electroacupuncture on Repair of Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Junction in a Rabbit Gastrocnemius Contusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhan-ge; Wang, Rong-guo; Xiao, Cheng; Zhao, Jun-yun; Shen, Qian; Liu, Shou-yao; Xu, Qian-wei; Zhang, Qing-xi; Wang, Yun-ting

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST36 (EA-ST36) and at Ashi acupoints (EA-Ashi) on skeletal muscle repair. Methods. Seventy-five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: normal, contusion, EA-Ashi, EA-ST36, and EA at Ashi acupoints and ST36 (EA-AS). EA (0.4 mA, 2 Hz, 15 min) was applied after an acute gastrocnemius contusion. The morphology of myofibers and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and expressions of growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Neuregulin 1 (NGR1), and muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) were assessed 7, 14, and 28 days after contusion. Results. Compared with that in contusion group, there was an increase in the following respective parameters in treatment groups: the number and diameter of myofibers, the mean staining area, and continuities of NMJs. A comparison of EA-Ashi and EA-ST36 groups indicated that average myofiber diameter, mean staining area of NMJs, and expressions of AChE and NRG1 were higher in EA-Ashi group, whereas expression of GDF-8 decreased on day 7. However, increases in myofiber numbers, expressions of MuSK and AChE, as well as decreases in GDF-8 expression, and the discontinuities were observed in EA-ST36 group on the 28th day. Conclusion. Both EA-ST36 and EA-Ashi promoted myofiber regeneration and restoration of NMJs. EA-Ashi was more effective at earlier stages, whereas EA-ST36 played a more important role at later stages. PMID:27190536

  12. ["Crazy paving" of the lungs].

    PubMed

    Euler, André; Bremerich, Jens; Niemann, Tilo

    2014-03-26

    The term «crazy paving» describes an unspecific pattern in thoracic computed-tomography mimicking a paving stone configuration. This pattern can be caused by a number of differential diagnosis, for example alveolar hemorrhage, alveolar proteinosis, lipoid pneumonia or adenocarcinoma in situ. The knowledge of the correlation between imaging findings, histopathological pattern and clinical presentation prepares the clinician to understand the pathophysiology and to initiate the right therapeutic processes. In the following review, we describe the most common diseases and their radiologic correlation in daily practice.

  13. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  14. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  15. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  16. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  17. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The...

  18. Case study of worker exposure to coal tar containing paving materials on a routine paving project in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Reinke, G.; Glidden, S.

    2007-01-15

    The potential for unknown exposure of present day highway paving workers to coal tar products is of concern to the asphalt paving industry. A case study describing this type of situation is the subject of this report. The project specifications called for the contractor to pulverize and re-compact the three 230 mm of existing pavement and then pave the pulverized layer with a new HMA layer. Discovery of the presence of mix containing coal tar in the bottom 75 mm of the existing pavement led to a redesign of the project. A decision was made to mill only the upper most 75 to 87 mm of pavement to isolate the coal tar mix from the workers. Initial analysis of bitumen extracted from cores of the top 88 mm of pavement did not show the presence of coal tar chemicals. However, samplers mounted on the equipment for 6 hrs during the redesigned milling process shoed the presence of coal tar type chemicals extracted form the bitumen coated dust particles capture don the samplers using infrared and GC/MS analysis.

  19. EVALUATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PAVING ASPHALTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides data from pilot-scale measurements of the emissions of specific air pollutants from paving asphalt both with and without recycled crumb rubber additives. The methods used in this work measured emissions from a static layer of asphalt maintained for several hou...

  20. At-sea distribution of radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured on the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Small, rare and wide-ranging pelagic birds are difficult to locate and observe at sea; little is therefore known regarding individual movements and habitat affinities among many of the world's storm-petrels (Family Hydrobatidae). We re-located 57 of 70 radio-marked Ashy Storm-Petrels Oceanodroma homochroa captured at three colonies in the California Channel Islands: Scorpion Rocks (2004, 2005), Santa Barbara Island (2004) and Prince Island (2005). Between 23 July and 22 September 2004, and 5 July and 4 August 2005, we flew 29 telemetry surveys, covered more than 65 000 km2 (2004) and 43 000 km2 (2005) of open ocean from San Nicolas Island north to the Farallon Islands and obtained 215 locations from 57 storm-petrels at sea. In both years, radio-marked storm-petrels were aggregated over the continental slope from Point Conception to Point Buchon, within the western Santa Barbara Channel, and over the Santa Cruz Basin between Santa Cruz, San Nicolas and Santa Barbara islands. Individuals captured in the Channel Islands ranged more than 600 km and were located as far north as Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. This is the first study to use radiotelemetry to determine the at-sea distribution and movements for any storm-petrel species.

  1. Status and trends of the ashy storm-petrel on Southeast Farallon Island, California, based upon capture-recapture analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sydeman, W.J.; Nur, N.; Mclaren, E.B.; McChesney, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a capture-recapture study on the population size and trends of the Ashy Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa) on Southeast Farallon Island (SEFI), California, based upon data collected in 1971, 1972, and 1992. From March through August, birds were lured to fixed-site sampling locations using taped vocalization playback. Using program JOLLY, we estimated population size and evaluated statistical models using goodness-of-fit and Likelihood Ratio tests. On the southwestern slope of Lighthouse Hill, amidst prime breeding habitat, numbers of breeding birds decreased from 1,271 ?? 140 (?? ?? SE) in 1972 to 710 ?? 117 in 1992, a decline of 44% (approximate 95% CI = 22-66% decline; ?? = -2.8% per annum); for a variety of reasons, we consider this to be the most reliable indicator of population change. In 1971, on a portion of SEFI relatively disjunct from the sampling area in 1972, 2,131 ?? 322 breeding birds were estimated. To produce an overall early 1970s estimate with which to compare to 1992, we summed population estimates from 1971 and 1972. An overall value of 6,461 birds, of which 3,402 (53%) were breeders, was obtained for the early period. In 1992, the overall population in roughly the same area was estimated at 4,284 ?? 409 birds, of which 1,990 ?? 408 (46%) were presumed breeders. These results, encompassing peripheral as well as more centrally located storm-petrel habitat, indicate an overall population decline of 34% and a comparable decline in breeding birds of 42% over the past two decades. However, oceanographic conditions varied between 1971-1972 and 1992, and reduced food availability in 1992 may have influenced colony attendance and breeding effort. Nonetheless, the apparent population decline over the past 20 years suggests that the species warrants management and/or additional protective status.

  2. Bottom production

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  3. Paving materials for heat island mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

  4. Current practices for modification of paving asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Bahia, H.U.; Perdomo, D.

    1996-12-31

    The Superpave binder specification, AASHTO MP1, has introduced new concepts for selecting paving asphalt binders. The specification, in addition to using rheological and failure measurements that are more related to performance, is based on the idea that the criteria to maintain a satisfactory contribution of asphalt binders to the resistance of pavement failures remains the same but have to be satisfied at critical application temperatures. The test procedures require that the material be characterized within certain ranges of strains or stresses to ensure that material and geometric non-linearities are not confounded in the measurements. These new specification concepts have resulted in re-evaluation of asphalt modification by the majority of modified asphalt suppliers. The philosophy of asphalt modification is expected to change, following these new concepts, from a general improvement of quality to more focus on using modifiers based on the most critical need as defined by two factors: (1) The application temperature domain and (2) the type of distress to be remedied. The new specification requirements should result in a more effective use of modifiers as the amount and type of modifier will be directly related to the application environment and the engineering requirements.

  5. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania Implementation Plan, the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts...

  8. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  9. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  10. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  11. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  12. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77 Section 151.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving:...

  13. ASPHALT FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS, 3RD EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    THIS PAMPHLET DISCUSSES THE ALTERNATIVE METHODS, APPLICATIONS, AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR OFF-STREET PAVING AND PLAY AREAS. OFF-STREET PAVING INCLUDES--(1) ASPHALT-PAVED PARKING AREAS, (2) ROOF DECK PARKING AREAS, (3) ASPHALT-PAVED DRIVEWAYS, (4) ASPHALT-PAVED SERVICE STATION LOTS, AND (5) SIDEWALKS. THE DISCUSSION OF PLAY AREAS…

  14. 44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "B" FACE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. 28. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF ROCK PAVING OPERATIONS ON LEFT BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. DOWNSTREAM VIEW OF ROCK PAVING OPERATIONS ON LEFT BANK OF OUTLET CHANNEL.... Volume XVI, No. 18, September 29, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. Directional Tactile Pavings in a Universal Design Perspective.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the presentation is the directional tactile pavings or tactile guidelines that are used by blind and visually impaired people for orientation, in this presentation primarily in the street environment. The focus is the difference between so-called natural and artificial tactile pavings, how they can and should be used, and how the tactile guidelines can be understood as devices of Universal Design. It is discussed whether guidelines based on foreign research can be transferred to the Danish context without additional Danish research. The tests that are known to have been made in Denmark have generally been conducted with a very low number of participants. A secondary focus is the architectural qualities of the tactile pavings, which is a subject for discussion among landscape architects in the Danish context. PMID:27534354

  17. Directional Tactile Pavings in a Universal Design Perspective.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the presentation is the directional tactile pavings or tactile guidelines that are used by blind and visually impaired people for orientation, in this presentation primarily in the street environment. The focus is the difference between so-called natural and artificial tactile pavings, how they can and should be used, and how the tactile guidelines can be understood as devices of Universal Design. It is discussed whether guidelines based on foreign research can be transferred to the Danish context without additional Danish research. The tests that are known to have been made in Denmark have generally been conducted with a very low number of participants. A secondary focus is the architectural qualities of the tactile pavings, which is a subject for discussion among landscape architects in the Danish context.

  18. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  19. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  20. PAVES: A Presentation Strategy for Beginning Presenters in Inclusive Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combes, Bertina H.; Walker, Michelle; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2008-01-01

    Public speaking will continue to be an unsettling experience for some students, including those with disabilities. Experts have suggested several reasons for fearing public speaking; adequate preparation and practice can alleviate most of them. Using the PAVES (Posture, Attitude, Voice, Eye Contact, Smile) strategy described in this article can…

  1. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  2. 46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH ALL METAL SIDING INSTALLED AND WITH EMITTER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM NEARING OCMPLETION ON "B" FACE (RIGHT). VIEW ALSO SHOWS TRAVELING "CLEANING" SYSTEM ON "B" FACE - NOW REMOVED. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  3. Microwave methods for paving. Final report, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, M.E.

    1984-12-07

    The purpose of this report is to attempt to identify important highway pavement maintenance and rehabilitation needs and to propose microwave methods and equipment that could be profitably used for this work. As a starting point it is already perceived and accepted that the major emphasis in the US paving indu

  4. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. 45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - BUILDING ELEVATION VIEW WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT). NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  6. 42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE AT 46T DAY OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION. "BUILDING TOPPED OFF, 7 JULY, 1974. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  7. 43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - WITH BUILDING METAL SIDING BEING APPLIED ON "C" FACE (RIGHT) AND "B" FACE BEING PREPARED FOR INSTALLATION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from approach along Spencer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from approach along Spencer Paul Road, looking northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking east - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the PAVE PAWS radar from main base, looking west - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  11. Pave Pillar in-house research final report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Jesse L.; Powers, Philip

    The authors report on the concepts and technologies required to develop, integrate, and test the Pave Pillar architecture in an avionics system. Hardware and software issues relating to multiprocessing, multitasking, and real-time reconfiguration are discussed. The issues involved in developing and integrating the VHSIC avionic modular processors (VAMPs), high-speed data bus networks, and Ada software are examined. An avionic hot bench simulation was integrated to provide a closed-loop real-time test set-up called the integrated testbed (ITB) facility. The configuration and test setup for the common avionics modules were selected to provide a realistic environment and to be as close to the defined Pave Pillar architecture as possible.

  12. 3. "LAUNCH SILOS; AREA PAVING AND GRADING PLAN." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. "LAUNCH SILOS; AREA PAVING AND GRADING PLAN." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-59-73; Drawing No. 5841C-11; D.O. SERIES AW-1525/17; Stamped: RECORD DRAWING AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract No. 6601, Date 18 Sep 59. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. An Investigation of CTOL Dual-Mode PAVE Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, James F., III; Interatep, Nanyaporn; Skelton, Eugene; Mason, William H.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the dual-mode concept for a personal air vehicle, to determine how constraints differ between the dual-mode concept and a Conventional Takeoff and Landing (CTOL) general aviation aircraft, to recommend a dual-mode vehicle concept, and to recommend areas where further research can contribute to the successful development of a viable PAVE vehicle design.

  14. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  15. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  16. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-01

    The spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of exper- iments for some time, it is interesting compute this spectrum from QCD and compare results between lattice calculations and continuum theoretical models. Several lattice calculations ex- ist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. Here, we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. We present preliminary results for the ground state spectrum.

  17. Bottom and top physics

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.J.; Fridman, A.; Gilman, F.J.; Herten, G.; Hinchliffe, I.; Jawahery, A.; Sanda, A.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schubert, K.R.

    1987-09-01

    The production of bottom quarks at the SSC and the formalism and phenomenology of observing CP violation in B meson decays is discussed. The production of a heavy t quark which decays into a real W boson, and what we might learn from its decays is examined.

  18. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  19. Factory performance evaluations of engineering controls for asphalt paving equipment.

    PubMed

    Mead, K R; Mickelsen, R L; Brumagin, T E

    1999-08-01

    This article describes a unique analytical tool to assist the development and implementation of engineering controls for the asphalt paving industry. Through an agreement with the U.S. Department of Transportation, the National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA) requested that the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) assist U.S. manufacturers of asphalt paving equipment with the development and evaluation of engineering controls. The intended function of the controls was to capture and remove asphalt emissions generated during the paving process. NIOSH engineers developed a protocol to evaluate prototype engineering controls using qualitative smoke and quantitative tracer gas methods. Video recordings documented each prototype's ability to capture theatrical smoke under "managed" indoor conditions. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), released as a tracer gas, enabled quantification of the capture efficiency and exhaust flow rate for each prototype. During indoor evaluations, individual prototypes' capture efficiencies averaged from 7 percent to 100 percent. Outdoor evaluations resulted in average capture efficiencies ranging from 81 percent down to 1 percent as wind gusts disrupted the ability of the controls to capture the SF6. The tracer gas testing protocol successfully revealed deficiencies in prototype designs which otherwise may have gone undetected. It also showed that the combination of a good enclosure and higher exhaust ventilation rate provided the highest capture efficiency. Some manufacturers used the stationary evaluation results to compare performances among multiple hood designs. All the manufacturers identified areas where their prototype designs were susceptible to cross-draft interferences. These stationary performance evaluations proved to be a valuable method to identify strengths and weaknesses in individual designs and subsequently optimize those designs prior to expensive analytical field studies. PMID:10462852

  20. Unconstrained paving and plastering method for generating finite element meshes

    DOEpatents

    Staten, Matthew L.; Owen, Steven J.; Blacker, Teddy D.; Kerr, Robert

    2010-03-02

    Computer software for and a method of generating a conformal all quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh comprising selecting an object with unmeshed boundaries and performing the following while unmeshed voids are larger than twice a desired element size and unrecognizable as either a midpoint subdividable or pave-and-sweepable polyhedra: selecting a front to advance; based on sizes of fronts and angles with adjacent fronts, determining which adjacent fronts should be advanced with the selected front; advancing the fronts; detecting proximities with other nearby fronts; resolving any found proximities; forming quadrilaterals or unconstrained columns of hexahedra where two layers cross; and establishing hexahedral elements where three layers cross.

  1. Soil recycling paves the way for treating brownfields

    SciTech Connect

    Gladdys, R.

    1996-02-01

    A soil recycling and stabilization process allows once-contaminated soil to be incorporated into paving materials. Contaminated soils is more widespread than often realized, with one of the more common sources being petroleum products such as fuel oil and gasoline. Until recently, the conventional solution was to have the material excavated, separated from remining soil and trucked to a hazardous waste landfill. This article describes an alternative approach under the following topics: move the solution, not the problem; on site recycling; heavy metals stabilization; economics.

  2. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways. PMID:17687992

  3. Identifying influencing factors on paved roads silt loading.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hualiang; Kwigizile, Valerian; James, David E; Merle, Russell

    2007-07-01

    The factors that influence the increase or decrease of silt loadings on paved roadways have not been fully quantitatively investigated. They were identified in this study based on the quarterly silt loading sampling data collected from 20 sites by the Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management in Southern Nevada for the period from 2000 to 2003. The silt loading and associated data collected over these years at one sampling site may inherently possess site-specific characteristics that can be better incorporated by using panel data models. The factors that are identified as significant are the presence of curbs and gutters, shoulder type, pavement conditions, and the presence of construction activities in the vicinity of roadways. The presence of curbs and gutters, stabilized shoulders, and good pavement conditions would result in decreased silt loadings. Conversely, the presence of construction activities within the immediate vicinity of sampled areas would result in increases of silt loadings on the roadway surfaces. Based on the analysis of the results, it was recommended that constructing curbs, gutters and stabilized shoulders, preventing or reducing construction track-out from construction activity, and improving pavement conditions be the preferred control measures to reduce silt loading on paved roadways.

  4. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  5. Charmed Bottom Baryon Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary Brown, William Detmold, Stefan Meinel, Konstantinos Orginos

    2012-09-01

    The arena of doubly and triply heavy baryons remains experimentally unexplored to a large extent. This has led to a great deal of theoretical effort being put forth in the calculation of mass spectra in this sector. Although the detection of such heavy particle states may lie beyond the reach of experiments for some time, it is interesting to compare results between lattice QCD computations and continuum theoretical models. Several recent lattice QCD calculations exist for both doubly and triply charmed as well as doubly and triply bottom baryons. In this work we present preliminary results from the first lattice calculation of the mass spectrum of doubly and triply heavy baryons including both charm and bottom quarks. The wide range of quark masses in these systems require that the various flavors of quarks be treated with different lattice actions. We use domain wall fermions for 2+1 flavors (up down and strange) of sea and valence quarks, a relativistic heavy quark action for the charm quarks, and non-relativistic QCD for the heavier bottom quarks. The calculation of the ground state spectrum is presented and compared to recent models.

  6. 48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda bottle liter at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  7. Parallel paving: An algorithm for generating distributed, adaptive, all-quadrilateral meshes on parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Lober, R.R.; Tautges, T.J.; Vaughan, C.T.

    1997-03-01

    Paving is an automated mesh generation algorithm which produces all-quadrilateral elements. It can additionally generate these elements in varying sizes such that the resulting mesh adapts to a function distribution, such as an error function. While powerful, conventional paving is a very serial algorithm in its operation. Parallel paving is the extension of serial paving into parallel environments to perform the same meshing functions as conventional paving only on distributed, discretized models. This extension allows large, adaptive, parallel finite element simulations to take advantage of paving`s meshing capabilities for h-remap remeshing. A significantly modified version of the CUBIT mesh generation code has been developed to host the parallel paving algorithm and demonstrate its capabilities on both two dimensional and three dimensional surface geometries and compare the resulting parallel produced meshes to conventionally paved meshes for mesh quality and algorithm performance. Sandia`s {open_quotes}tiling{close_quotes} dynamic load balancing code has also been extended to work with the paving algorithm to retain parallel efficiency as subdomains undergo iterative mesh refinement.

  8. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca

    2012-03-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results.

  9. Two-Dimensional Atomic Crystals: Paving New Ways for Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jincheng; Li, Tengfei; Djerdj, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals are attractive for use in next-generation nanoelectronics, due to their unique performances, which may lead to the resolution of the technological and fundamental challenges in semiconductor industry. Based on the introduction of 2D atomic crystal-based transistors and ambipolar behavior, the review presents a brief summary of 2D atomic crystal integration circuits, including memory, logic gate, amplifier, inverter, oscillator, mixer, switch and modulator. The devices show promising performances for the application in future nanoelectronics. In particular, the 2D atomic crystals, such as graphene, demonstrate good compatibility with the existing semiconductor process. The quaternary digital modulations have been achieved with flexible and transparent all-graphene circuits. Moreover, the heterojunction based on 2D atomic crystals may enable new devices beyond conventional field-effect transistors. The results make us be optimistic that practical 2D atomic crystal technologies with complex functionality will be achieved in the near future. Therefore, 2D atomic crystals are paving new ways for nanoelectronics.

  10. Treacherous Pavements: Paving Slab Patterns Modify Intended Walking Directions.

    PubMed

    Leonards, Ute; Fennell, John G; Oliva, Gaby; Drake, Alex; Redmill, David W

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding in locomotion research is that, for humans, navigating natural environments relies heavily on visual input; in contrast, walking on even ground in man-made obstacle and hazard-free environments is so highly automated that visual information derived from floor patterns should not affect locomotion and in particular have no impact on the direction of travel. The vision literature on motion perception would suggest otherwise; specifically that oblique floor patterns may induce substantial veering away from the intended direction of travel due to the so-called aperture problem. Here, we tested these contrasting predictions by letting participants walk over commonly encountered floor patterns (paving slabs) and investigating participants' ability to walk "straight ahead" for different pattern orientations. We show that, depending on pattern orientation, participants veered considerably over the measured travel distance (up to 8% across trials), in line with predictions derived from the literature on motion perception. We argue that these findings are important to the study of locomotion, and, if also observed in real world environments, might have implications for architectural design.

  11. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca

    2012-03-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results. PMID:22305201

  12. Cooler paving materials for heat-island mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.

    1998-07-01

    Many cities suffer summer daytime temperatures greater than their suburban or rural surroundings. One of the causes of this heat island phenomenon is the absorption of sunlight by dark pavements. In warm climates, the urban heating damages the environment by adding to air-conditioning demand and creating smog. If urban roads, driveways and walkways were paved with light colored, and consequently cooler, materials these penalties would be diminished. However, lighter materials may cost more than the usual asphalt materials, In this report, the dollar value of potential air conditioning and smog savings from lighter pavements is estimated, and compared to the extra cost of such roads. The extra cost is minimized if the lighter-colored coating is applied as a thin layer when normal maintenance is performed. The authors find that, in Los Angeles, increasing the albedo from 0.1 to 0.35, could produce an air-conditioning saving of $0.012/m{sub 2}-yr. and smog savings of about $0.06/m{sub 2}-yr. The present value of these savings, for the 5 year lifetime of the resurfacing, is about 5 times the annual saving, or about $0.36/m{sub 2}. (The particular climate and smog problem clearly influence this result.) Thus one could purchase a cooler material whose extra cost is this amount, with no net expense. If roads are cooler they may also last longer and thus save money.

  13. Automatic control system for uniformly paving iron ore pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bowen; Qian, Xiaolong

    2014-05-01

    In iron and steelmaking industry, iron ore pellet qualities are crucial to end-product properties, manufacturing costs and waste emissions. Uniform pellet pavements on the grate machine are a fundamental prerequisite to ensure even heat-transfer and pellet induration successively influences performance of the following metallurgical processes. This article presents an automatic control system for uniformly paving green pellets on the grate, via a mechanism mainly constituted of a mechanical linkage, a swinging belt, a conveyance belt and a grate. Mechanism analysis illustrates that uniform pellet pavements demand the frontend of the swinging belt oscillate at a constant angular velocity. Subsequently, kinetic models are formulated to relate oscillatory movements of the swinging belt's frontend to rotations of a crank link driven by a motor. On basis of kinetic analysis of the pellet feeding mechanism, a cubic B-spline model is built for numerically computing discrete frequencies to be modulated during a motor rotation. Subsequently, the pellet feeding control system is presented in terms of compositional hardware and software components, and their functional relationships. Finally, pellet feeding experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the control system is effective, reliable and superior to conventional methods.

  14. Seismic experiment paves way for long-term seafloor observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakes, Debra S.; Romanowicz, Barbara; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Tarits, Pascal; Karczewski, Jean-Francois; Etchemendy, Steve; Dawe, Craig; Neuhauser, Doug; McGill, Paul; Koenig, Jean Claude; Savary, Jean; Begnaud, Mike; Pasyanos, Mike

    The Monterey Bay Ocean Bottom International Seismic Experiment (MOISE) has successfully deployed a suite of geophysical and oceanographic instrument packages on the ocean floor using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Ventana, a tethered Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV).The goal of this international cooperative experiment is to advance the global Seafloor Observatory effort by developing a prototype suite of instruments and installing them on the western side of the San Andreas fault system offshore of central California. The centerpiece of the instrument suite was a digital broadband seismometer package partially buried within the sediment-covered floor of Monterey Bay, 40 km offshore and 10 km west of the San Gregorio fault at a depth of 1015 m (Figure 1).

  15. Bottom-up synthesis of chemically precise graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we describe our chemical approach, developed over the course of a decade, towards the bottom-up synthesis of structurally well-defined graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). GNR synthesis can be achieved through two different methods, one being a solution-phase process based on conventional organic chemistry and the other invoking surface-assisted fabrication, employing modern physics methodologies. In both methods, rationally designed monomers are polymerized to form non-planar polyphenylene precursors, which are "graphitized" and "planarized" by solution-mediated or surface-assisted cyclodehydrogenation. Through these methods, a variety of GNRs have been synthesized with different widths, lengths, edge structures, and degrees of heteroatom doping, featuring varying (opto)electronic properties. The ability to chemically tailor GNRs with tuned properties in a well-defined manner will contribute to the elucidation of the fundamental physics of GNRs, as well as pave the way for the development of GNR-based nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. PMID:25414146

  16. Regional analysis of the effect of paved roads on sodium and chloride in lakes.

    PubMed

    Kelting, Daniel L; Laxson, Corey L; Yerger, Elizabeth C

    2012-05-15

    Salinization of surface water from sodium chloride (road salt) applied to paved roads is a widely recognized environmental concern in the northern hemisphere, yet practical information to improve winter road management to reduce the environmental impacts of this deicer is lacking. The purpose of our study was to provide such information by developing baseline concentrations for sodium and chloride for lakes in watersheds without paved roads, and then determining the relationship between these ions and density, type, and proximity of paved roads to shoreline. We used average summer (June-September) sodium and chloride data for 138 lakes combined in a watershed based analysis of paved road networks in the Adirondack Park of New York, U.S.A. The watersheds used in our study represented a broad range in paved road density and type, 56 of which had no paved roads. Median lake sodium and chloride concentrations in these 56 watersheds averaged 0.55 and 0.24 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, the median sodium and chloride concentrations for the 82 lakes in watersheds with paved roads were 3.60 and 7.22 mg/L, respectively. Paved road density (lane-km/km(2)) was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations, but only state roads were significantly correlated with sodium and chloride while local roads were not. State road density alone explained 84 percent of the variation in both ions. We also successfully modeled the relationship between road proximity to shoreline and sodium and chloride concentrations in lakes, which allowed us to identify sections of road that contributed more to explaining the variation in sodium and chloride in lakes. This model and our approach could be used as part of larger efforts to identify environmentally sensitive areas where alternative winter road management treatments should be applied.

  17. Comparison of human exposure pathways in an urban brownfield: reduced risk from paving roads.

    PubMed

    James, Kyle; Farrell, Richard E; Siciliano, Steven D

    2012-10-01

    Risk assessments often do not quantify the risk associated with soil inhalation. This pathway generally makes a negligible contribution to the cumulative risk, because soil ingestion is typically the dominant exposure pathway. Conditions in northern or rural centers in Canada characterized by large areas of exposed soil, including unpaved roads, favor the resuspension of soil particles, making soil inhalation a relevant risk pathway. The authors determined and compared human exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil ingestion and inhalation and analyzed the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks before and after roads were paved in a northern community. To determine the inhalation exposure, three size fractions of airborne particulate matter were collected (total suspended particulates [TSP], particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm [PM10], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm [PM2.5]) before and after roads were paved. Road paving reduced the concentration of many airborne contaminants by 25 to 75%, thus reducing risk. For example, before paving, the carcinogenic risk associated with inhalation of Cr was 3.4 excess cancers per 100,000 people exposed, whereas after paving, this risk was reduced to 1.6 in 100,000. Paving roads reduced the concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP; p < 0.1) and PM10 (p < 0.05) but not PM25. Consequently, the ingestion of inhaled soil particles was substantially reduced. The authors conclude that resuspended soil is likely an important source of risk for many northern communities and that paving roads is an effective method of reducing risk from the inhalation of soil particles.

  18. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  19. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed. PMID:27545510

  20. "Bottom-up" transparent electrodes.

    PubMed

    Morag, Ahiud; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-11-15

    Transparent electrodes (TEs) have attracted significant scientific, technological, and commercial interest in recent years due to the broad and growing use of such devices in electro-optics, consumer products (touch-screens for example), solar cells, and others. Currently, almost all commercial TEs are fabricated through "top-down" approaches (primarily lithography-based techniques), with indium tin oxide (ITO) as the most common material employed. Several problems are encountered, however, in this field, including the cost and complexity of TE production using top-down technologies, the limited structural flexibility, high-cost of indium, and brittle nature and low transparency in the far-IR spectral region of ITO. Alternative routes based upon bottom-up processes, have recently emerged as viable alternatives for production of TEs. Bottom up technologies are based upon self-assembly of building blocks - atoms, molecules, or nanoparticles - generating thin patterned films that exhibit both electrical conductivity and optical transparency. In this Feature Article we discuss the recent progress in this active and exciting field, including bottom-up TE systems produced from carbon materials (carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene-oxide), silver, gold, and other metals. The current hurdles encountered for broader use of bottom-up strategies along with their significant potential are analyzed.

  1. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    PubMed

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT ONTO PAVED ROADS FROM CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report characterizes fugitive dust generated by vehicular traffic on paved streets and highways resulting from mud/dirt carryout from unpaved areas as a primary source of PM-10 (particles = or < 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter), and evaluates three technologies for eff...

  3. PAVEd for Success: An Evaluation of a Comprehensive Preliteracy Program for Four-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Claire E.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Bradley, Barbara A.; Webb, Mi-Young

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of "PAVEd for Success," comprehensive preliteracy program guidelines to support the development of foundational preliteracy skills in 4 year olds. Prekindergarten teachers received professional development on variables of the program that included a summer institute, after-school…

  4. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  5. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  6. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  7. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  8. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  9. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  10. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  11. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. 151.80 Section 151.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway...

  12. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  13. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. 151.79 Section 151.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway...

  14. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  15. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  16. 46 CFR 171.105 - Double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Double bottoms. 171.105 Section 171.105 Shipping COAST... VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.105 Double bottoms. (a) This section... over 165 feet (50 meters) and under 200 feet (61 meters) in LBP must have a double bottom that...

  17. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, G. A.

    1980-02-01

    A safety and hazards analysis is presented of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal 85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon 2 as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  18. In situ coronary stent paving by Pluronic F127-alginate gel blends: Formulation and erosion tests.

    PubMed

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Lamberti, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    In this work the development of an experimental protocol to perform the in situ gel-paving of coronary stent is presented. Biocompatible aqueous blends of Pluronic F127 and sodium alginates are used as potential drug dosage system for pharmacological in situ treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. Pluronic F127/alginate aqueous blend has the unique characteristic to be liquid at room condition and to form gel at physiological temperature. The proposed protocol is based on the blend injection on stent wall previously implanted in a flexible silicon pipe mimicking the coronary artery. Injected blend is warmed up until human body temperature achieving a soft gel, then it is reticulated by copper bivalent ions to obtain an hard gel. To test the gel paving resistance to erosion phenomena when it is exposed to fluid flux (i.e. blood flux) a dedicated device, (the Simulated Artery Device, SAD), was built to simulate the human circulatory apparatus. The SAD is an hydraulic circuit in which a buffer solution (at pH 7.4) was fluxed by a peristaltic pump through the pipe hosting the covered stent. Erosion tests were performed monitoring, by gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods, the residual mass anchored to stent mesh after given times. The obtained results showed that the in situ gel-paving developed protocol was efficacious and reliable. The gel-paving was completely eroded in a time of the same order of magnitude of the physiological period required to restore the coronary lesion (subsequent to the atheroma removal) and of a pharmacological therapy to inhibit the in-stent-restenosis pathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1013-1022, 2016.

  19. Strategies for non-chemical weed control on public paved areas in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Preben K; Kristoffersen, Palle; Kristensen, Kristian

    2004-06-01

    To be proactive in minimizing pesticide use, the public authorities in Denmark agreed in 1998 to phase out the use of pesticides on publicly owned areas by the end of 2002. A part of the agreement was an increasing focus on research into and development of new methods and implements for non-chemical weed control on paved areas. Due to a large increase in the costs of non-chemical weed control, the park authorities have to put the different types and locations of paved areas in order of priority to optimize the weed control effort. The present authors divided the paved areas into five weed control levels, dependent on placement, quality and use. For the 3 years 1999-2001, experiments with different non-chemical weed control methods were conducted on pavements at six locations in Denmark. The aim was to test the reaction of the weeds to different treatments and strategies. The efficacies of the methods were evaluated by analysis of digital images to estimate the fraction of the paved area covered with green vegetation (weed coverage). The weed coverage was used as the dependent variable in the subsequent statistical analysis. The independent variables in the model were incoming radiation, wear, area of joints in the pavement, the dying process of the weeds and the number of runs/applied energy of the mechanical or thermal weed control methods, respectively. The estimated parameters from the statistical model were used to build a simulation model, which was used to optimise five weed control strategies to fulfil the suggested weed control levels. In the suggested strategy for maximum weed control, 12 thermal weeding applications at 2-week intervals are suggested. The 'clean-up' strategy is based on one weed-brushing in late spring or early autumn.

  20. Lifetime measurements for bottom hadrons

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, G.

    1984-09-01

    The review of lifetime measurements of bottom hadrons begins with a first measurement by JADE, followed by similar measurements by MAC and MKII groups. New MAC data are reviewed based on a total of 75,000 multihadron events taken at a c.m. energy of 29 GeV. According to Monte Carlo calculations, 18% of the lepton candidates stem from charm decay and roughly 30% were misidentified hadrons. DELCO studied electrons obtained from 42,000 multihadron events at 29 GeV. The electrons were identified by means of Cerenkov counters. JADE analayzed 22,000 multihadron events at 35 GeV. Data were analyzed using two methods - one using a sample of b-enriched events, and the other using weighted distributions. The TASSO results were obtained with two different configurations of the detector - one of which used a drift chamber and the other a vertex detector. (LEW)

  1. Hybrid materials: a bottom-up approach for nanotechnology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigo, Laura; Zanchetta, Erika; Della Giustina, Gioia; Brusatin, Giovanna

    2014-09-01

    Engineered organic-inorganic hybrid materials, HyMat, offer new opportunities for the easy, fast and cheap development of miniaturized functional devices. The integration of inorganic oxide networks, organic functional groups and optically active molecules or nanoparticles allows to obtain combinations of properties and structures otherwise impossible with traditional materials. In particular, a simple and highly versatile synthesis platform enabling preparation of HyMat is presented, which is built up by a bottom-up sol-gel approach at low processing temperatures. A few types of key building blocks pave the way for accessing HyMat and make up their formulation, providing a means to synthesize innovative materials enabling to get: - optically active micro and nanostructures; - miniaturized sensors for analytes in gaseous or liquid media; - direct patternability with a range of lithographic techniques; - variable inorganic and organic compositions, and controlled porosity. Examples of micro and nanostructures based on these spin-on materials with ceramic (i.e. SiO2, GeO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, TiO2,) and hybrid compositions will be presented for different applications including plasmonic or fluorescent sensors, dry-etching masks with outstanding resistance, optically active micro and nanostructured platforms and high resolution patterns.

  2. Study of the use of recycled paving material. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Highway agencies have been evaluating crumb rubber modifier (CRM) technology applications at different levels of development since the 1970's. Ten CRM technologies were identified. The performance of asphalt pavements using CRM technology has been mixed. The amount of documented research on recycling CRM paving materials is limited. An analysis, using the results of seven studies, was conducted to compare the relative threats/risks to human health and the environment of conventional asphalt paving to CRM asphalt paving. The health/environmental comparison was influenced by numerous variables. The data contained no obvious trends to indicate a significant increase or decrease in emissions was attributed to the use of CRM. The highway construction industry has a long history of using recycled products for highway construction. The report summarizes some of the industries' experiences and, where sufficient information exists, it provides documentation regarding the economic savings, technical performance, threats to human health and the environment, and environmental benefits of using recycled materials in highway devices and appurtenances and highway projects.

  3. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  4. 77 FR 50207 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Project: I-5: Glendale-Hugo Paving/Sexton Climbing Lane...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Paving/Sexton Climbing Lane: Douglas and Josephine Counties, OR AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration... relate to a proposed highway project, I-5: Glendale-Hugo Paving/Sexton Climbing Lane, in Douglas...

  5. Perceptual learning: top to bottom.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Jones, Pete R; Moore, David R

    2014-06-01

    Perceptual learning has traditionally been portrayed as a bottom-up phenomenon that improves encoding or decoding of the trained stimulus. Cognitive skills such as attention and memory are thought to drive, guide and modulate learning but are, with notable exceptions, not generally considered to undergo changes themselves as a result of training with simple perceptual tasks. Moreover, shifts in threshold are interpreted as shifts in perceptual sensitivity, with no consideration for non-sensory factors (such as response bias) that may contribute to these changes. Accumulating evidence from our own research and others shows that perceptual learning is a conglomeration of effects, with training-induced changes ranging from the lowest (noise reduction in the phase locking of auditory signals) to the highest (working memory capacity) level of processing, and includes contributions from non-sensory factors that affect decision making even on a "simple" auditory task such as frequency discrimination. We discuss our emerging view of learning as a process that increases the signal-to-noise ratio associated with perceptual tasks by tackling noise sources and inefficiencies that cause performance bottlenecks, and present some implications for training populations other than young, smart, attentive and highly-motivated college students.

  6. Stem cell-paved biobridge facilitates neural repair in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri, Naoki; Duncan, Kelsey; Antoine, Alesia; Pabon, Mibel; Acosta, Sandra A.; de la Pena, Ike; Hernadez-Ontiveros, Diana G.; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kaneko, Yuji; Yankee, Ernest; McGrogan, Michael; Case, Casey; Borlongan, Cesar V.

    2014-01-01

    Modified mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) display a unique mechanism of action during the repair phase of traumatic brain injury by exhibiting the ability to build a biobridge between the neurogenic niche and the site of injury. Immunohistochemistry and laser capture assay have visualized this biobridge in the area between the neurogenic subventricular zone and the injured cortex. This biobridge expresses high levels of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are initially co-localized with a stream of transplanted MSCs, but later this region contains only few to non-detectable grafts and becomes overgrown by newly recruited host cells. We have reported that long-distance migration of host cells from the neurogenic niche to the injured brain site can be attained via these transplanted stem cell-paved biobridges, which serve as a key regenerative process for the initiation of endogenous repair mechanisms. Thus, far the two major schools of discipline in stem cell repair mechanisms support the idea of “cell replacement” and the bystander effects of “trophic factor secretion.” Our novel observation of stem cell-paved biobridges as pathways for directed migration of host cells from neurogenic niche toward the injured brain site adds another mode of action underlying stem cell therapy. More in-depth investigations on graft-host interaction will likely aid translational research focused on advancing this stem cell-paved biobridge from its current place, as an equally potent repair mechanism as cell replacement and trophic factor secretion, into a new treatment strategy for traumatic brain injury and other neurological disorders. PMID:25009475

  7. Modified-sulfur cements for use in concretes, flexible pavings, coatings, and grouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1981-05-01

    A family of modified-sulfur cements was developed for the preparation of construction materials with improved properties. Various types of sulfur cements were prepared by reacting sulfur with mixtures of dicyclopentadiene and oligomers of cyclopentadiene. Durable cements were prepared with structural characteristics ranging from rigid to flexible. These cements were used to prepare corrosion-resistant materials for use in a wide variety of industrial applications where resistance to acidic and salt conditions is needed. These materials were prepared as rigid concretes, flexible pavings, spray coatings, and grouts. Production of modified-sulfur cements in a commercial-size plant was demonstrated.

  8. Detection of Cracks in Paved Road Surface Using Laser Scan Image Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Zhu, L.; Kurosu, H.

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, we developed a methodology for detecting cracks in the surface of paved road using 3D digital surface model of road created by measuring with three-dimensional laser scanner which works on the basis of the light-section method automatically. For the detection of cracks from the imagery data of the model, the background subtraction method (Rolling Ball Background Subtraction Algorithm) was applied to the data for filtering out the background noise originating from the undulation and gradual slope and also for filtering the ruts that were caused by wearing, aging and excessive use of road and other reasons. We confirmed the influence from the difference in height (depth) caused by forgoing reasons included in a data can be reduced significantly at this stage. Various parameters of ball radius were applied for checking how the result of data obtained with this process vary according to the change of parameter and it becomes clear that there are not important differences by the change of parameters if they are in a certain range radius. And then, image segmentation was performed by multi-resolution segmentation based on the object-based image analysis technique. The parameters for the image segmentation, scale, pixel value (height/depth) and the compactness of objects were used. For the classification of cracks in the database, the height, length and other geometric property are used and we confirmed the method is useful for the detection of cracks in a paved road surface.

  9. Polymeric endoaortic paving: Mechanical, thermoforming, and degradation properties of polycaprolactone/polyurethane blends for cardiovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Ashton, J H; Mertz, J A M; Harper, J L; Slepian, M J; Mills, J L; McGrath, D V; Vande Geest, J P

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric endoaortic paving (PEAP) is a process by which a polymer is endovascularly delivered and thermoformed to coat or "pave" the lumen of the aorta. This method may offer an improvement to conventional endoaortic therapy in allowing conformal graft application with reduced risk of endoleak and customization to complex patient geometries. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyurethane (PU) blends of various blend ratios were assessed as a potential material for PEAP by characterizing their mechanical, thermoforming and degradation properties. Biaxial tension testing revealed that the blends' stiffness is similar to that of aortic tissue, is higher for blends with more PCL content, and may be affected by thermoforming and degradation. Tubes of blends were able to maintain a higher diameter increase after thermoforming at higher PCL content and higher heating temperatures; 50/50 blend tubes heated to 55 °C were able to maintain 90% of the diameter increase applied. Delamination forces of the blends ranged from 41 to 235 N m⁻². In a Pseudomonas lipase solution, the 50/50 blend had a 94% lower degradation rate than pure PCL, and the 10/90 blend exhibited no degradation. These results indicate that PEAP, consisting of a PCL/PU blend, may be useful in developing the next generation of endoaortic therapy.

  10. 50 kHz bottom backscattering measurements from two types of artificially roughened sandy bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Su-Uk; Cho, Sungho; Choi, Jee Woong

    2016-07-01

    Laboratory measurements of 50 kHz bottom backscattering strengths as a function of grazing angle were performed on the sandy bottom of a water tank; two types of bottom roughnesses, a relatively smooth interface and a rough interface, were created on the bottom surface. The roughness profiles of the two interface types were measured directly using an ultrasound arrival time difference of 5 MHz and then were Fourier transformed to obtain the roughness power spectra. The measured backscattering strengths increased from -29 to 0 dB with increasing grazing angle from 35 to 86°, which were compared to theoretical backscattering model predictions. The comparison results implied that bottom roughness is a key factor in accurately predicting bottom scattering for a sandy bottom.

  11. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  12. Bottom stress measurements on the inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Scully, Malcolm; Trowbridge, John

    2015-01-01

    Bottom stress shapes the mean circulation patterns, controls sediment transport, and influences benthic habitat in the coastal ocean. Accurate and precise measurements of bottom stress have proved elusive, in part because of the difficulty in separating the turbulent eddies that transport momentum from inviscid wave-induced motions. Direct covariance measurements from a pair of acoustic Doppler velocimeters has proved capable of providing robust estimates, so we designed a mobile platform coined the NIMBBLE for these measurements, and deployed two of them and two more conventional quadpods at seven sites on the inner shelf over a period of seven months. The resulting covariance estimates of stress and bottom roughness were lower than log-fit estimates, especially during calmer periods. Analyses of these data suggest the NIMBBLEs may provide an accurate and practical method for measuring bottom stress.

  13. Review article: the false-bottom ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

    2013-11-01

    Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

  14. Characterization of crumb rubber from end-of-life tyres for paving applications.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, M C; Fiore, S; Ruffino, B; Santagata, E; Dalmazzo, D; Lanotte, M

    2015-11-01

    Crumb rubber (CR) derived from grinding of end-of-life tyres (ELTs) may be successfully used as a bitumen modifier or as a supplementary component in the production of bituminous mixtures employed for the construction and maintenance of road pavements. However, CRs deriving from different sources and production processes yield effects on performance of corresponding paving mixtures under traffic loading and on gaseous emissions produced during laying on site which may change considerably depending upon their physical and chemical properties. In order to quantitatively assess the possible variability of CR characteristics, 16 samples were taken from 9 Italian and 2 foreign ELT processing plants. Investigation activities included field surveys, during which plants were examined in detail, and laboratory tests, which focused on physical and chemical characterization of CR. Based on the analysis of available technical information and experimental data, it was possible to find relationships between the peculiar characteristics of treatment cycles and corresponding CR properties. PMID:26050935

  15. Acoustic wayfinding: A method to measure the acoustic contrast of different paving materials for blind people.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Simone; Lauria, Antonio; Cellai, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic wayfinding involves using a variety of auditory cues to create a mental map of the surrounding environment. For blind people, these auditory cues become the primary substitute for visual information in order to understand the features of the spatial context and orient themselves. This can include creating sound waves, such as tapping a cane. This paper reports the results of a research about the "acoustic contrast" parameter between paving materials functioning as a cue and the surrounding or adjacent surface functioning as a background. A number of different materials was selected in order to create a test path and a procedure was defined for the verification of the ability of blind people to distinguish different acoustic contrasts. A method is proposed for measuring acoustic contrast generated by the impact of a cane tip on the ground to provide blind people with environmental information on spatial orientation and wayfinding in urban places. PMID:27633240

  16. Repair and restoration of paved surfaces. Phase 2: Backfilling of craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, V. C.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of Phase II of REREPS (repair and restoration of paved surfaces) is to evaluate previously developed techniques and materials and to conduct necessary studies to determine the most beneficial backfill material. The study is to include new materials and innovative methodology to the greatest practicable extent. Compaction requirements are to be analyzed by comparison with existing requirements as modified by REREPS results to date. Specific compaction requirements include a quantification of compaction requirements versus depth below the load as well as subgrade compaction versus pavement strength and stiffness. Another specific requirement is to study the applicability of the sand grid support concept. In addition, other new methods and materials will be reviewed, developed, and/or introduced, as appropriate. This study constitutes partial completion of these objectives. An investigation research effort has been made to review the status of REREPS development to data.

  17. Characterization of crumb rubber from end-of-life tyres for paving applications.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, M C; Fiore, S; Ruffino, B; Santagata, E; Dalmazzo, D; Lanotte, M

    2015-11-01

    Crumb rubber (CR) derived from grinding of end-of-life tyres (ELTs) may be successfully used as a bitumen modifier or as a supplementary component in the production of bituminous mixtures employed for the construction and maintenance of road pavements. However, CRs deriving from different sources and production processes yield effects on performance of corresponding paving mixtures under traffic loading and on gaseous emissions produced during laying on site which may change considerably depending upon their physical and chemical properties. In order to quantitatively assess the possible variability of CR characteristics, 16 samples were taken from 9 Italian and 2 foreign ELT processing plants. Investigation activities included field surveys, during which plants were examined in detail, and laboratory tests, which focused on physical and chemical characterization of CR. Based on the analysis of available technical information and experimental data, it was possible to find relationships between the peculiar characteristics of treatment cycles and corresponding CR properties.

  18. Sea bottom topography imaging with SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderkooij, M. W. A.; Wensink, G. J.; Vogelzang, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that under favorable meteorological and hydrodynamical conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas can be mapped with airborne or spaceborne imaging radar. This phenomenon was observed for the first time in 1969 by de Loor and co-workers in Q-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) imagery of sandwaves in the North Sea. It is now generally accepted that the imaging mechanism consists of three steps: (1) interaction between (tidal) current and bottom topography causes spatial modulations in the surface current velocity; (2) modulations in the surface current velocity give rise to variations in the spectrum of wind-generated waves, as described by the action balance equation; and (3) variations in the wave spectrum show up as intensity modulations in radar imagery. In order to predict radar backscatter modulations caused by sandwaves, an imaging model, covering the three steps, was developed by the Dutch Sea Bottom Topography Group. This model and some model results will be shown. On 16 Aug. 1989 an experiment was performed with the polarimetric P-, L-, and C-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of NASA/JPL. One scene was recorded in SAR mode. On 12 Jul. 1991 another three scenes were recorded, of which one was in the ATI-mode (Along-Track Interferometer). These experiments took place in the test area of the Sea Bottom Topography Group, 30 km off the Dutch coast, where the bottom topography is dominated by sand waves. In-situ data were gathered by a ship in the test area and on 'Measuring Platform Noordwijk', 20 km from the center of the test area. The radar images made during the experiment were compared with digitized maps of the bottom. Furthermore, the profiles of radar backscatter modulation were compared with the results of the model. During the workshop some preliminary results of the ATI measurements will be shown.

  19. Effects of paving asphalt fume exposure on genotoxic and mutagenic activities in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Yin, X J; Frazer, D; Barger, M W; Siegel, P D; Millecchia, L; Zhong, B Z; Tomblyn, S; Stone, S; Ma, J K H; Castranova, V; Ma, J Y C

    2004-02-14

    Asphalt fumes are complex mixtures of aerosols and vapors containing various organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Previously, we have demonstrated that inhalation exposure of rats to asphalt fumes resulted in dose-dependent induction of CYP1A1 with concomitant down-regulation of CYP2B1 and increased phase II enzyme quinone reductase activity in the rat lung. In the present study, the potential genotoxic effects of asphalt fume exposure due to altered lung microsomal enzymes were studied. Rats were exposed to air or asphalt fume generated under road paving conditions at various concentrations and sacrificed the next day. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and examined for DNA damage using the comet assay. To evaluate the systemic genotoxic effect of asphalt fume, micronuclei formation in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) was monitored. Lung S9 from various exposure groups was isolated from tissue homogenates and characterized for metabolic activity in activating 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) mutagenicity using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 and YG1029. This study showed that the paving asphalt fumes significantly induced DNA damage in AM, as revealed by DNA migration in the comet assay, in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the micronuclei formation in bone marrow PCEs was not detected even at a very high exposure level (1733 mg h/m3). The conversion of 2-AA to mutagens in the Ames test required lung S9-mediated metabolic activation in a dose-dependent manner. In comparison to the controls, lung S9 from rats exposed to asphalt fume at a total exposure level of 479+/-33 mg h/m3 did not significantly enhance 2-AA mutagenicity with either S. typhimurium YG1024 or YG1029. At a higher total asphalt fume exposure level (1150+/-63 mg h/m3), S9 significantly increased the mutagenicity of 2-AA as compared to the control. However, S9 from asphalt fume-exposed rats

  20. State of the practice: Design and construction of asphalt paving materials with crumb-rubber modifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heitzman, M.A.

    1992-05-01

    The document is a comprehensive overview of the terminology, processes, products, and applications of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) technology. The technology includes any use of scrap tire rubber in asphalt paving materials. In general, CRM technology can be divided into two categories--the wet process and the dry process. When CRM is incorporated into an asphalt paving material, it will modify the properties of the binder (asphalt rubber) and/or act as a rubber aggregate (rubber modified hot mix asphalt). The five concepts for using CRM discussed in the report are McDonald, PlusRide, generic dry, chunk rubber asphalt concrete, and continuous blending asphalt rubber. There are two principal unresolved engineering issues related to the use of CRM in asphalt paving materials. On the national level, the ability to recycle asphalt paving mixes containing CRM has not been demonstrated. At the State and local levels, these modified asphalt mixes must be field evaluated to establish expected levels of performance. The appendices provide guidelines for material specifications, mix design, and construction specifications. An experimental work plan for monitoring performance and a stack emission testing program are also included.

  1. 24 CFR 3285.804 - Bottom board repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottom board repair. 3285.804....804 Bottom board repair. (a) The bottom board covering must be inspected for any loosening or areas... to be replaced prior to closure and repair of the bottom board. (b) Any splits or tears in the...

  2. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  3. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  4. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  5. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  6. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  7. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  8. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  9. 46 CFR 171.108 - Manholes in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manholes in double bottoms. 171.108 Section 171.108... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.108 Manholes in double bottoms. (a) The number of manholes in the inner bottom of a double bottom required by § 171.105 must...

  10. A review of air quality issues and compliance for the asphalt paving industry in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Courtright, B.F.; Caughlin, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    The Maryland Air and Radiation Management Administration (ARMA) conducted a Sector Initiative in order to achieve a compliance audit of the asphalt paving industry sector in Maryland. This sector is commonly referred to as the hot-mix asphalt (HMA) industry. There are 59 HMA production plants in Maryland. Each asphalt production facility was reviewed to determine their compliance status with federal NSPS requirements (stack particulate and visible emission requirements), as well as with Maryland's more comprehensive and generally more restrictive requirements including visible emission, particulate matter, air toxics, dust, nuisance, odor, and other criteria pollutant requirements. The study included reviewing past data (stack test reports, inspections, VE observations, complaint histories) and conducting new inspections and observations at all 59 of the plants. The study also included conducting new particulate stack tests (Summer of 1998) at nine HMA plants. The historic data demonstrated general compliance with stack-tested particulate emission rates. The new stack tests all demonstrated compliance with applicable particulate limits. Visible emissions observations revealed a lesser degree of compliance. Asphalt plants, if not carefully controlled, can be a major source of nuisance complaints. Complaint histories were also reviewed. This paper presents detailed results of ARMA's compliance review of the asphalt industry in Maryland. This includes test results, compliance determinations, and compliance rates. Other issues including impacts on surrounding communities, changing Department of Transportation requirements, and air toxics requirements are also reviewed.

  11. Evaluation of a biomass-derived oil for use as additive in paving asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, J. Jr.; Clelland, I.; Sawatzky, H.

    1995-12-31

    A biomass derived oil referred to as sludge derived oil (SDO) has been evaluated to determine its potential use as an asphalt cement additive. The oil is derived from a relatively low temperature (450{degrees}C) atmospheric pressure thermoconversion process called Enersludge. The Enersludge process converts dried sewage sludge to a liquid hydrocarbon fraction. Relatively high concentrations of polar groups were identified in extensive characterization tests which indicated SDO could be utilized as an additive for asphalt. The oil`s unique properties make it a antistripping additive. Also, its strong affinity for heavy asphaltic material makes it an ideal rejuvenating agent for recycled asphalt. The SDO performed as well as the commercial antistripping asphalt additives tested in static immersion stripping tests. Laboratory-scale tests have shown that the strength of asphalt concrete produced using SDO is similar to that produced using commercial additives. In September 1994 SDO was used to pave a test strip in Quebec, Canada. This paper describes the work done at ERL/CANMET to develop SDO for antistripping applications.

  12. Paving the road to negligence: the compensation for research-related injuries in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    The planned reform of the regulation of clinical trials in Spain has reopened the debate over how to regulate research-related injuries. Act 29/2006 and Royal Decree 223/2004 regulate the insurance of research-related injuries, and they include a general clause requiring mandatory insurance and imposing a no-fault compensation system; they also contain an exception clause enabling clinical trials to be carried out without insurance under some conditions, and an exclusion clause excluding compensation when there is no causal connection between injuries and a clinical trial. National legislation is under review, affecting the requirement of mandatory insurance and paving the road to a liability system based on negligence, which will affect the level of protection of the persons enrolled in clinical trials because it would not ensure compensation. Regulatory texts on individuals' participation as research subjects should include not only mandatory insurance, but also a no-fault compensation system for cases when voluntary research subjects are injured, irrespective of negligence.

  13. A process based run-off model for paved urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehls, T.; Rim, Y. N.; Wessolek, G.

    2012-04-01

    Paving is the most severe impact on soil hydrology in urban areas. Grey box run-off generation models are used in civil engineering e.g. dimensioning of drainage infrastructures. Mostly, maximum run-off is calculated using storm water data and static run-off coefficients. In future, cities need to adapt to heat waves and changing rainfall regimes. This implies a change in the management of urban waters from drainage to use. Static run-off models are not suitable to predict the future runoff availability, because they do not describe the underlying processes of run-off generation. For predictions in a Climate Change context, process based models are needed. In this study we introduce such a process based model. It has been calibrated for two pavement types based on lysimeter measurements. The model describes the run-off coefficient as a function of: rain event intensity, surface storage capacity and the infiltration capacity of the pavement. Thus, the model is able to describes the behavior of impermeable and permeable pavements but also of roof tiles and bare soils. Once calibrated for a pavement, the model can be used to predict dynamic run-off generation for a wide range of rain intensities from the smallest drizzle to the heavy rainfall events and can therefore be employed in tests of future management strategies for urban water.

  14. Energy landscape paving with local search for global optimization of the BLN off-lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfa; Huang, Weibo; Liu, Wenjie; Song, Beibei; Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Mao

    2014-02-01

    The optimization problem for finding the global minimum energy structure is one of the main problems of protein structure prediction and is known to be an NP-hard problem in computational molecular biology. The low-energy conformational search problem in the hydrophobic-hydrophilic-neutral (BLN) off-lattice model is studied. We convert the problem into an unconstrained optimization problem by introducing the penalty function. By putting forward a new updating mechanism of the histogram function in the energy landscape paving (ELP) method and incorporating heuristic conformation update strategies into the ELP method, we obtain an improved ELP (IELP) method. Subsequently, by combining the IELP method with the local search (LS) based on the gradient descent method, we propose a hybrid algorithm, denoted by IELP-LS, for the conformational search of the off-lattice BLN model. Simulation results indicate that IELP-LS can find lower-energy states than other methods in the literature, showing that the proposed method is an effective tool for global optimization in the BLN off-lattice protein model.

  15. Heuristic-based energy landscape paving for the circular packing problem with performance constraints of equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfa; Jiang, Yucong; Li, Gang; Xue, Yu; Liu, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    The optimal layout problem of circle group in a circular container with performance constraints of equilibrium belongs to a class of NP-hard problem. The key obstacle of solving this problem is the lack of an effective global optimization method. We convert the circular packing problem with performance constraints of equilibrium into the unconstrained optimization problem by using quasi-physical strategy and penalty function method. By putting forward a new updating mechanism of the histogram function in energy landscape paving (ELP) method and incorporating heuristic conformation update strategies into the ELP method, we obtain an improved ELP (IELP) method. Subsequently, by combining the IELP method and the local search (LS) procedure, we put forward a hybrid algorithm, denoted by IELP-LS, for the circular packing problem with performance constraints of equilibrium. We test three sets of benchmarks consisting of 21 representative instances from the current literature. The proposed algorithm breaks the records of all 10 instances in the first set, and achieves the same or even better results than other methods in literature for 10 out of 11 instances in the second and third sets. The computational results show that the proposed algorithm is an effective method for solving the circular packing problem with performance constraints of equilibrium.

  16. Shielded loaded bowtie antenna incorporating the presence of paving structure for improved GPR pipe detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, Daniel; Jansen, Ronald; Schoebel, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    In civil engineering Ground Penetrating Radar becomes more and more a considerable tool for nondestructive testing and exploration of the underground. For example, the detection of existence of utilization pipe networks prior to construction works or detection of damaged spot beneath a paved street is a highly advantageous application. However, different surface conditions as well as ground bounce reflection and antenna cross-talk may seriously affect the detection capability of the entire radar system. Therefore, proper antenna design is an essential part in order to obtain radar data of high quality. In this paper we redesign a given loaded bowtie antenna in order to reduce strong and unwanted signal contributions such as ground bounce reflection and antenna cross-talk. During the optimization process we also review all parameters of our existing antenna in order to maximize energy transfer into ground. The entire process incorporating appropriate simulations along with running measurements on our GPR test site where we buried different types of pipes and cables for testing and developing radar hardware and software algorithms under quasi-real conditions is described in this paper.

  17. Do iconic gestures pave the way for children’s early verbs?

    PubMed Central

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Gentner, Dedre; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Children produce a deictic gesture for a particular object (point at dog) approximately three months before they produce the verbal label for that object (“dog”) (Iverson & Goldin-Meadow, 2005). Gesture thus paves the way for children’s early nouns. We ask here whether the same pattern—gesture preceding and predicting speech—holds for iconic gestures—that is, do gestures that depict actions precede and predict early verbs? We observed spontaneous speech and gestures produced by 40 children (22 girls, 18 boys) from age 14 to 34 months. Children produced their first iconic gestures 6 months later than they produced their first verbs. Thus, unlike the onset of deictic gestures, the onset of iconic gestures conveying action meanings followed, rather than preceded, children’s first verbs. However, iconic gestures increased in frequency at the same time as verbs did and, at that time, began to convey meanings not yet expressed in speech. Our findings suggest that children can use gesture to expand their repertoire of action meanings, but only after they have begun to acquire the verb system underlying their language. PMID:25309008

  18. Boosting the bottom line of physician networks.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Greg

    2013-06-01

    To improve the bottom line of owned physician practices, hospitals should: Identify disparities between physician pay and performance, and understand the factors that are creating these disparities. Review fees to make sure they are aligned with insurer and Medicare fee schedules. Analyze the work load and job resposibilities of office staff and modify staffng levels and job descriptions, if needed. PMID:23795381

  19. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Costes, D.

    2012-07-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  20. There's Plenty Of Difficulty Near The Bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durcan, Mark; Lu, Shifeng

    2007-09-01

    This paper is adapted from a keynote presentation given by Mark Durcan, President and COO of Micron Technology. The keynote presentation used a visionary speech given by Dr. Richard Feynman in 1959 ("There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom") as the launching pad to discuss some of the difficulties associated with manipulating matter at the very small scale.

  1. CEOs: Gulf crisis hits hospitals' bottom line.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J

    1990-12-01

    Hospital CEOs say the Persian Gulf crisis could hit them hard where it counts. In fact, hospitals are already seeing some adverse impact from events in the Middle East. From fundraising to plant management to strategic planning, the confrontations in the Gulf are having an impact on the hospital's bottom line.

  2. Spectroscopy and decays of charm and bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.N.

    1997-10-01

    After a brief review of the quark model, we discuss our present knowledge of the spectroscopy of charm and bottom mesons and baryons. We go on to review the lifetimes, semileptonic, and purely leptonic decays of these particles. We conclude with a brief discussion B and D mixing and rare decays.

  3. A trawl-resistant ocean bottom seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, A. H.; Gassier, D.; Webb, S. C.; Koczynski, T.; Oletu, V.; Gaherty, J. B.; Tolstoy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) deployments are difficult on continental shelves and other shallow regions because of the hazard from bottom trawling. Seafloor instruments can be damaged, destroyed, or prematurely released by a trawl net that is weighted with rollers and dragged across the seafloor. Bottom trawling is extensive in many areas and past instrument losses have led the U. S. OBS Instrument Pool (OBSIP) to avoid long-duration deployments in water depths shallower than 1000 m. This restriction is particularly limiting for passive-source seismic studies at active continental margins. We report on the development and testing of a new trawl-resistant OBS. The seismometer and datalogger are protected within a heavy (450 kg) eight-sided steel shield that has a low, smooth profile (2 m basal diameter and a central peak height of 50 cm) and is designed to resist and deflect bottom-trawling equipment. The sides of the shield are closed in order to protect the seismometer from seafloor currents that can cause tilt-related low-frequency seismic noise. Shield-generated noise (from mechanical resonance or from interaction with seafloor currents) is reduced by decoupling the sensor from the shield and by maximizing the distance between the seismometer and the shield’s bottom rim. The heavy weight and low profile of the instrument preclude the use of dropweights for deployment and recovery. The OBS is instead lowered to the seafloor and recovered by attaching a lifting line using a remotely-operated vehicle. Twenty trawl-resistant OBSs, equipped with Trillium Compact seismometers and absolute pressure gauges, are being constructed and will be deployed as a component of the NSF Cascadia Initiative in the summer of 2011.

  4. Paving the road for hydraulic fracturing in Paleozoic tight gas reservoirs in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzarouni, Asim

    This study contributes to the ongoing efforts of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) to improve gas production and supply in view of increasing demand and diminishing conventional gas reservoirs in the region. The conditions of most gas reservoirs with potentially economical volumes of gas in Abu Dhabi are tight abrasive deep sand reservoirs at high temperature and pressures. Thus it inevitably tests the limit of both conventional thinking and technology. Accurate prediction of well performance is a major challenge that arises during planning phase. The primary aim is to determine technical feasibility for the implementation of the hydraulic fracture technology in a new area. The ultimate goal is to make economical production curves possible and pave the road to tap new resource of clean hydrocarbon energy source. The formation targeted in this study is characterized by quartzitic sandstone layers and variably colored shale and siltstones with thin layers of anhydrites. It dates back from late Permian to Carboniferous age. It forms rocks at the lower reservoir permeability ranging from 0.2 to less than 1 millidarcy (mD). When fractured, the expected well flow in Abu Dhabi offshore deep gas wells will be close to similar tight gas reservoir in the region. In other words, gas production can be described as transient initially with high rates and rapidly declining towards a pseudo-steady sustainable flow. The study results estimated fracturing gradient range from 0.85 psi/ft to 0.91 psi/ft. In other words, the technology can be implemented successfully to the expected rating without highly weighted brine. Hence, it would be a remarkable step to conduct the first hydraulic fracturing successfully in Abu Dhabi which can pave the road to tapping on a clean energy resource. The models predicted a remarkable conductivity enhancement and an increase of production between 3 to 4 times after fracturing. Moreover, a sustainable rate above 25 MMSCFD between 6 to 10 years is

  5. Excited bottom and bottom-strange mesons in the quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Pan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; Li, De-Min

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the possible q q ¯ quark-model assignments of the BJ(5840 ) and BJ(5960 ) recently reported by the LHCb Collaboration, we evaluate mass spectra, strong decays, and radiative decays of bottom and bottom-strange mesons in a nonrelativistic quark model. Comparing these predictions with the relevant experimental results, we suggest that the BJ(5840 ) and BJ(5960 ) can be identified as the B (2 1S0) and B (1 3D3) , respectively, and the B (5970 ) reported by the CDF Collaboration can be interpreted as the B (2 3S1) or B (1 3D3) . Further precise measurements of the width, spin and decay modes of the B (5970 ) are needed to distinguish these two assignments. These predictions of bottom and bottom-strange mesons can provide useful information to further experimental investigations.

  6. Measurement of bottom-reflected sound in bottom-limited propagation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Jooyoung; Park, Joungsoo

    2016-07-01

    To study the bottom reflection of underwater acoustic sound in a bottom-limited propagation environment, an experiment was conducted using four transmitting sounds in the form of a continuous wave from 1 to 6 kHz. The site of the experiment was a continental shelf region off the east coast of Korea where the bottom was composed of sandy mud. The mean water depth was 1100 m in the experiment area. Oceanographic data and acoustic data were collected simultaneously during the experiment. It was found that the sound pressure level decreased by 90 dB to 3.4 km and there is little frequency dependence because a strong direct path contributes more than a bottom-reflected path in sound pressure level. At a range between 6 and 7 km, there is a strong bottom-reflected ray path and frequency dependence exists because the bottom reflection loss varies with frequency at a given grazing angle. Sound pressure levels increase as the range increases between 6 and 7 km by 5.4, 1.9, 1.7, and 1.5 dB at frequencies of 1000, 2490, 3990, and 5490 Hz, respectively.

  7. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    SciTech Connect

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  8. Bottom-up design of biomimetic assemblies.

    PubMed

    Tu, Raymond S; Tirrell, Matthew

    2004-09-22

    Nature has evolved the ability to assemble a variety of molecules into functional architectures that can specifically bind cellular ligands. Mimicking this strategy requires the design of a set of multifaceted molecules, where elements that direct assembly were conjugated to biologically specific components. The development of functional molecular building-blocks that assemble to form compartments for therapeutics addresses the desire to have controllable morphologies that interact with biological interfaces at nanometer length scales. The practical application of such 'bottom-up' assemblies requires the ability to predict the type of aggregated structure and to synthesize molecules in a highly controlled fashion. This bottom-up approach results in a molecular platform that mimics biological systems with potential for encapsulating and delivering drug molecules.

  9. Hydraulic potential in Lake Michigan bottom sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Hunt, C.S.; Hughes, G.M.; Brower, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The magnitude and direction of groundwater flux in the bottom sediments of Lake Michigan were deduced from measurements made during three shipboard cruises between 1973 and 1975. These factors affect the geochemical environment of the sediments and therefore the distribution of trace elements reported to be present. The near-shore, sandy-bottom and fine-grained, soft, deep-lake sediments were investigated; areas of hard till or bedrock were not included in the study. Thirty-three piezometers were placed in near-shore sands in waters 5-15 m deep. The piezometers were placed an average of 3 m into the bottom sediment. Water levels from the piezometers averaged 0.6 cm above the lake level, equivalent to an upward hydraulic gradient of about 0.002 cm/cm. Water samples taken from the piezometers have a distinctly different chemical composition from that of the lake water. The total dissolved mineral content and hardness of the groundwater are about twice those of the lake water. Twenty-two hydraulic gradient measurements were made in the fine-grained soft deep-lake sediments in waters 48-140 m deep by using a differential-pressure transducer dropped into the sediments. These measurements show an upward gradient averaging 0.2 cm/cm. No chemical data were obtained for the groundwater in the deep-lake sediments. The results of this study indicate that the groundwater flux is upward through the bottom sediments into Lake Michigan and that there is a chemical change in the water near the water-sediment contact. ?? 1979.

  10. Automated area segmentation for ocean bottom surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, John C.; Smith, Cheryl M.

    2015-05-01

    In practice, environmental information about an ocean bottom area to be searched using SONAR is often known a priori to some coarse level of resolution. The SONAR search sensor then typically has a different performance characterization function for each environmental classification. Large ocean bottom surveys using search SONAR can pose some difficulties when the environmental conditions vary significantly over the search area because search planning tools cannot adequately segment the area into sub-regions of homogeneous search sensor performance. Such segmentation is critically important to unmanned search vehicles; homogenous bottom segmentation will result in more accurate predictions of search performance and area coverage rate. The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division (NSWC PCD) has developed an automated area segmentation algorithm that subdivides the mission area under the constraint that the variation of the search sensor's performance within each sub-mission area cannot exceed a specified threshold, thereby creating sub-regions of homogeneous sensor performance. The algorithm also calculates a new, composite sensor performance function for each sub-mission area. The technique accounts for practical constraints such as enforcing a minimum sub-mission area size and requiring sub-mission areas to be rectangular. Segmentation occurs both across the rows and down the columns of the mission area. Ideally, mission planning should consider both segmentation directions and choose the one with the more favorable result. The Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm was tested using two a priori bottom segmentations: rectangular and triangular; and two search sensor configurations: a set of three bi-modal curves and a set of three uni-modal curves. For each of these four scenarios, the Automated Area Segmentation Algorithm automatically partitioned the mission area across rows and down columns to create regions with homogeneous sensor performance. The

  11. Charge reviews can beef up bottom lines.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, M C

    1991-03-01

    Traditionally, healthcare organizations have been reluctant to pursue charge reviews until pressed to do so by third-party challenges to their charges. But a hospital pursuing either a concurrent or retrospective review may realize significant revenue enhancement--and not only from correcting undercharges on charge-based accounts. Charge reviews can lead to smoothed patient documentation, better cost accounting, more appropriate Medicare payment, and, ultimately, an improved bottom line.

  12. The bottom fauna of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teter, Howard D.

    1960-01-01

    The examination of 63 bottom samples, collected in Lake Huron in 1952 and 1956, revealed that Pontoporeia affinis was the dominant organism in both deep and shallow water. The next most abundant organisms in deep water were oligochaetes, fingernail clams, and midge larvae. Midge larvae were more numerous than either oligochaetes or fingernail clams in shallow water. The nmnber of organisms per square meter was similar to that determined from a similar study on Lake Michigan.

  13. Investigating bottom-up auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2014-01-01

    Bottom-up attention is a sensory-driven selection mechanism that directs perception toward a subset of the stimulus that is considered salient, or attention-grabbing. Most studies of bottom-up auditory attention have adapted frameworks similar to visual attention models whereby local or global “contrast” is a central concept in defining salient elements in a scene. In the current study, we take a more fundamental approach to modeling auditory attention; providing the first examination of the space of auditory saliency spanning pitch, intensity and timbre; and shedding light on complex interactions among these features. Informed by psychoacoustic results, we develop a computational model of auditory saliency implementing a novel attentional framework, guided by processes hypothesized to take place in the auditory pathway. In particular, the model tests the hypothesis that perception tracks the evolution of sound events in a multidimensional feature space, and flags any deviation from background statistics as salient. Predictions from the model corroborate the relationship between bottom-up auditory attention and statistical inference, and argues for a potential role of predictive coding as mechanism for saliency detection in acoustic scenes. PMID:24904367

  14. C-105 heel pit removed and C-105 dome cut paves way for new retrieval technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Thomas C.; Sutey, Michael J.

    2013-06-10

    For just the second time, crews have cut a hole in the top of an active radioactive waste storage tank at Hanford. Workers began cutting a 55-inch hole in the top of Tank C-105 last Tuesday night on graveyard shift, completing the cut early Wednesday. The hole will allow for installation of the Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) Vacuum into the tank. The cut was made through 17 inches of concrete and rebar using the newly developed rotary-core cutting system, which uses a laser-guided steel canister with teeth on the bottom to drill a round hole into the tank dome. The project was completed safely and successfully in a high-rad area without contamination or significant dose to workers.

  15. Single event modelling in small catchments - the significance of operational C-band rainfall radar and paved terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, J.; Wagner, A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Leibundgut, C.

    2003-04-01

    Owing to extensive networks of paved roads and drainage lines, the 1.7 km2 Loechernbach catchment, southwest Germany, responds almost instantaneously to high intensity rainfall events in summer. Existing tracerhydrological investigation proved the dominance of direct runoff components. To incorporate the necessary temporal and spatial resolution, raw data from an operational C-band rainfall radar are used as input for a spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model to analyse runoff generation during a series of three summer thunderstorms. While for the first event the radar is calibrated using data from a remote ground station only supplemented by one uncertain daily total inside the catchment, nine days later a newly installed ground station within the study catchment facilitates a more dependable radar calibration. Results suggest that for high resolution modelling of localised convective summer thunderstorms, operational C-band rainfall radars should be calibrated independently for every individual storm cell using station data (total volumes or intensity readings) from the immediate vicinity or from within the study catchment. To preserve the spatial detail of the rainfall radar it is necessary to maintain its original polar coordinate system. Independently calibrated for the two latter events of the series, the model correctly reproduces the two separate runoff peaks apparent in the runoff records of both events. These two peaks can be assigned to different source areas and the first of them yields runoff coefficients of only 30% for paved areas. Hence, the present model application suggests that in rural areas a large percentage of runoff from paved terrain may infiltrate into open areas nearby and that a gross simplification of paved surfaces as 100% runoff sources may be misleading in hydrological analyses.

  16. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTION AT THIRD PANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD CONNECTION AT THIRD PANAL POINT IN FROM ABUTMENT. NOTE THAT THE BOTTOM CHORD IS CONTINUOUS ACROSS THE CONNECTION - Poffenberger Road Bridge, Spanning Catoctin Creek, Middletown, Frederick County, MD

  17. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  18. 14. UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING BOTTOM CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING BOTTOM CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS AND BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Holbrook Bridge, Spanning Little Colorado River at AZ 77, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  19. Gas hydrates in ocean bottom sediments

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.K.

    1982-12-01

    Gas hydrates belong to a special category of chemical substances known as inclusion compounds. An inclusion compound is a physical combination of molecules in which one component becomes trapped inside the other. In gas hydrates, gas molecules are physically trapped inside an expanded lattice of water molecules. The pressures and temperatures beneath Artic water depths greater than 1,100 ft (335 m) and subtropical water depths greater than 2,000 ft (610 m) are suitable for the formation of methane hydrate. Theoretical depths to the base of a gas hydrate layer in ocean bottom sediments are determined by assuming: (1) a constant hydrostatic pressure gradient, (2) two typical hydrothermal gradients, (3) variable geothermal gradients, and (4) pure methane hydrated with connate seawater. In addition to pressure and geothermal gradient, other variables affecting the stability of gas hydrate are examined. These variables are hydrothermal gradient, sediment thermal conductivity, heat flow, hydrate velocity, gas composition, and connate water salinity. If these variables are constant in a lateral direction and the above assmptions are valid, a local geothermal gradient can be determined if the depth to the base of a gas hydrate is known. The base of the gas hydrate layer is seen on seismic profiles as an anomalous reflection nearly parallel to the ocean bottom, cross-cutting geologic bedding plane reflections, and generally increasing in sub-ocean bottom time with increasing water depth. The acoustic impedance is a result of the relatively fast velocity hydrate layer overlying slower velocity sediments. In addition, free gas may be trapped beneath the hydrate, thereby enhancing the reflection.

  20. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  1. 4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State Route 100 center, back gates to Winterthur and Wilmington Country Club upper center, duck pond and reservoir bottom right and center, and State Route 92 center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  2. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea...

  3. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea...

  4. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... Stability on bottom. Each bottom bearing unit must be designed so that, while supported on the sea...

  5. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight...

  6. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight...

  7. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  8. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  9. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  10. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  11. 46 CFR 171.106 - Wells in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wells in double bottoms. 171.106 Section 171.106... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.106 Wells in double bottoms. (a) This section applies to each vessel that has a well installed in a double bottom required...

  12. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Double bottom requirements. 173.058 Section 173.058... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel... service must comply with the double bottom requirements in §§ 171.105 through 171.109, inclusive, of...

  13. Rankine bottoming cycle safety analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, G.A.

    1980-02-01

    Vector Engineering Inc. conducted a safety and hazards analysis of three Rankine Bottoming Cycle Systems in public utility applications: a Thermo Electron system using Fluorinal-85 (a mixture of 85 mole % trifluoroethanol and 15 mole % water) as the working fluid; a Sundstrand system using toluene as the working fluid; and a Mechanical Technology system using steam and Freon-II as the working fluids. The properties of the working fluids considered are flammability, toxicity, and degradation, and the risks to both plant workers and the community at large are analyzed.

  14. Bottom quark mass from {Upsilon} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The bottom quark pole mass M{sub b} is determined using a sum rule which relates the masses and the electronic decay widths of the {Upsilon} mesons to large {ital n} moments of the vacuum polarization function calculated from nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics. The complete set of next-to-next-to-leading order [i.e., O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2},{alpha}{sub s}v,v{sup 2}) where v is the bottom quark c.m. velocity] corrections is calculated and leads to a considerable reduction of theoretical uncertainties compared to a pure next-to-leading order analysis. However, the theoretical uncertainties remain much larger than the experimental ones. For a two parameter fit for M{sub b}, and the strong M{bar S} coupling {alpha}{sub s}, and using the scanning method to estimate theoretical uncertainties, the next-to-next-to-leading order analysis yields 4.74 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.87 GeV and 0.096{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.124 if experimental uncertainties are included at the 95{percent} confidence level and if two-loop running for {alpha}{sub s} is employed. M{sub b} and {alpha}{sub s} have a sizable positive correlation. For the running M{bar S} bottom quark mass this leads to 4.09 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.32 GeV. If {alpha}{sub s} is taken as an input, the result for the bottom quark pole mass reads 4.78 GeV {le}M{sub b}{le}4.98 GeVthinsp[4.08 GeV {le}m{sub b}(M{sub {Upsilon}(1S)}/2){le}4.28 GeV] for 0.114{le}{alpha}{sub s}(M{sub z}){le}0.122. The discrepancies between the results of three previous analyses on the same subject by Voloshin, Jamin, and Pich and K{umlt u}hn {ital et al.} are clarified. A comprehensive review on the calculation of the heavy-quark{endash}antiquark pair production cross section through a vector current at next-to-next-to leading order in the nonrelativistic expansion is presented. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. A new kind of bottom quark factory

    SciTech Connect

    Mtingwa, S.K. . High Energy Physics Div.); Strikman, M. AN SSSR, Leningrad . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1991-01-01

    We describe a novel method of producing large numbers of B mesons containing bottom quarks. It is known that one should analyze at least 10{sup 9} B meson decays to elucidate the physics of CP violation and rare B decay modes. Using the ultra high energy electron beams from the future generation of electron linear colliders, we Compton backscatter low energy laser beams off these electron beams. From this process, we produce hot photons having energy hundreds of GeV. Upon scattering these hot photons onto stationary targets, we show that it is possible to photoproduce and measure the necessary 10{sup 9} B mesons per year. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Peach bottom recirculation piping replacement ALARA program

    SciTech Connect

    Englesson, G.A.; Hilsmeier, A.E.; Mann, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    In late 1983, Philadelphia Electric Company (PECo) began detailed planning to replace the recirculation, residual heat removal, and part of the reactor water cleanup piping of the Peach Bottom Unit 2 reactor. Included in this work was an estimate of the collective exposure expected during piping replacement. That initial estimate, 1945 man-rem, is compared with the actual collective dose incurred during the piping replacement program. Also included are the exposures incurred during two additional tasks (safe end replacement and recirculation pump disassembly and decontamination) not considered in the initial estimate.

  17. A note on the effect of bottom currents on an ocean bottom seismometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trehu, Anne M.

    1985-01-01

    Two three-component ocean bottom seismometers and a current meter were deployed a few hundred meters apart on the southern Blake Plateau off the United States eastern coast to study the effect of near-bottom currents on the background noise level of seismometers. Although analysis of the data is limited somewhat by instrumental problems, the increase in current speed, which ranged from 2 to 25 cm/sec, is correlated with a broadband increase in the noise level at frequencies below 10 Hz. Intermittent periods of narrow-band 8-Hz noise, which were also observed, are not correlative with bottom currents and were tentatively attributed to passing ships. Details of the mechanism of generation of the background noise cannot be determined from the present data set.

  18. An ocean bottom, microprocessor based seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Robert D.; Dorman, Leroy M.; Huang, Chin-Yen; Berliner, David L.

    1981-04-01

    We describe the design and construction of an ocean bottom seismometer configured as a computer, based on an Intersil IM6100 microprocessor plus appropriate peripheral devices. The sensors consist of triaxial 1 Hz seismometers and a hydrophone, each sensor channel being filtered prior to digitizing so that typical noise spectra are whitened. Digital data are recorded serially on magnetic tape. The instrument is placed on the ocean bottom by allowing it to fall freely from just below the surface. An acoustic system allows precise determination of instrument position, acoustic recall, and transmission of operational information to the surface. Release from an expendable anchor is accomplished by redundant pyrotechnic bolts which can be fired by acoustic command or by precision timers. The operational flexibility provided by the micro-computer, which executes the DEC PDP8/E DEC, PDP8/E and OS/8 are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Mass., USA instruction set, enables optimum use of the 6-hr recording capacity (at 128 samples/second/channel) in the context of the particular experiment being performed.

  19. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physicalmore » pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.« less

  20. Charmed bottom baryon spectroscopy from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Zachary S.; Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Orginos, Kostas

    2014-11-19

    In this study, we calculate the masses of baryons containing one, two, or three heavy quarks using lattice QCD. We consider all possible combinations of charm and bottom quarks, and compute a total of 36 different states with JP = 1/2+ and JP = 3/2+. We use domain-wall fermions for the up, down, and strange quarks, a relativistic heavy-quark action for the charm quarks, and nonrelativistic QCD for the bottom quarks. Our analysis includes results from two different lattice spacings and seven different pion masses. We perform extrapolations of the baryon masses to the continuum limit and to the physical pion mass using SU(4|2) heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory including 1/mQ and finite-volume effects. For the 14 singly heavy baryons that have already been observed, our results agree with the experimental values within the uncertainties. We compare our predictions for the hitherto unobserved states with other lattice calculations and quark-model studies.

  1. Eyes open to stem cells: safety trial may pave the way for cell therapy to treat retinal disease in patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A clinical trial using human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy for an inherited retinal degenerative disease is about to commence. The Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) trial will treat patients with Stargardt's macular dystrophy using transplanted retinal pigment epithelium derived from hESCs. Currently, no effective treatment is available for Stargardt's disease so a stem cell-based therapy that can slow progression of this blinding condition could represent a significant breakthrough. While there are some hurdles to clear, the ACT trial is a fine example of translational research that could eventually pave the way for a range of stem cell therapies for the retina and other tissues. PMID:22152341

  2. A magnetic signature of bottom current erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Menocal, Peter B.; Laine, Edward P.; Ciesielski, Paul F.

    1988-08-01

    To characterize the magnetic signal associated with bottom current erosion, we have conducted downcore measurements of magnetic texture and fabric in three cores containing known erosional hiatuses. Using biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic analysis, erosional hiatuses were identified for three cores from two current-dominated environments: the northern Bermuda Rise and the south Indian Basin. The cores were contiguously subsampled and the magnetic susceptibility ( K), the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and the anhysteretic susceptibility ( KARM) were measured. The AMS parameters h and q were used to describe the relative magnitude and the shape, respectively, of the representative susceptibility ellipsoid. The concentration-independent and dimensionless ratio KARM/ K was used to indicate relative changes in magnetic grain size. Hiatuses in the three cores were marked by unusually high values of h and q indicating a greater development of internal fabric with a more linear fabric representation; depressed values of KARM/ K indicated a coarser mean magnetic grain size. The magnitude of this signal, however, did not have a simple relationship with hiatus duration. t-test results statistically confirmed the existence of an erosional signature. To enhance the applicability of this technique, a quantitative discriminant model was constructed and calibrated using the magnetic characteristics of erosion. Since this model was constructed from samples of known 'erosional' and 'non-erosional' character, the discriminant functions could then be used as reference equations to identify erosion in other cores. Biostratigraphic and oxygen isotopic data from a 14 m core from the northern Bermuda Rise, extending back to isotopic stage 8 (˜ 250 ka BP), indicate two short intervals of low accumulation rate which, for this region, are most probably attributable to bottom current erosion. Magnetic data for this core were entered into the reference discriminant model

  3. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  4. Use of incinerator bottom ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, J.; Coutaz, L.; Ambroise, J.; Chababbet, M.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to show if municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could be an alternative aggregate for the production of building concrete presenting a characteristic 28-day compressive strength of 25 MPa. The aggregates passing the 20-mm sieve and retained on the 4-mm sieve were considered for investigation. They showed lower density, higher water absorption, and lower strength than natural gravel. They could be considered as average quality aggregates for use in concrete. When directly introduced in concrete, they led to swelling and cracking of specimens, due to the reaction between cement and metallic aluminium. Therefore, a treatment by sodium hydroxide was proposed to avoid such degradation, which made possible the partial replacement (up to 50%) of gravel in concrete without affecting the durability.

  5. Bottom pressure correlations in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, C. W.; Smithson, M. J.

    Bottom pressure in the Fine Resolution Antarctic Model (FRAM) shows regions where fluctuations are dominated by small-scale internal variability of the currents, and are not directly related to the wind. There are often very sharp boundaries between these regions and regions of large scale coherence. Bearing this in mind, the measured coherence of BPR measurements near Tristan da Cunha island in the South Atlantic is taken as evidence that mesoscale variability associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) reaches further north in the model than in reality. There are many possible reasons for this, but the significant result is that the BPR measurements can provide useful information about the dynamical regime of the deep ocean, which can not be discovered by surface measurements.

  6. The benefits of bottom-up design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    An inconsistency is examined in generic top-down design methods and standards employed in the implementation of reliable software. Many design approaches adopt top-down ordering when defining the structure, interfaces, and processing of a system. However, strict adherence to a top-down sequencing does not permit accurate description of a system's error handling functions. The design of the system response to errors is becoming critical as the reliability requirements of systems increase. How top-down methods such as object oriented design and structured design do not adequately address the issues of error handling is described, and it is suggested using a bottom-up substep within these methods to eliminate the problem.

  7. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  8. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.

  9. Conductivity Probe after Trench-Bottom Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Needles of the thermal and conductivity probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander were positioned into the bottom of a trench called 'Upper Cupboard' during Sol 86 (Aug. 21, 2008), or 86th Martian day after landing. This image of the conductivity probe after it was raised back out of the trench was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera. The conductivity probe is at the wrist of the robotic arm's scoop.

    The probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Metabolic Network Discovery by Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches and Paths for Reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    Çakır, Tunahan; Khatibipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus in the network-centric analysis of cellular metabolism by systems biology approaches is to identify the active metabolic network for the condition of interest. Two major approaches are available for the discovery of the condition-specific metabolic networks. One approach starts from genome-scale metabolic networks, which cover all possible reactions known to occur in the related organism in a condition-independent manner, and applies methods such as the optimization-based Flux-Balance Analysis to elucidate the active network. The other approach starts from the condition-specific metabolome data, and processes the data with statistical or optimization-based methods to extract information content of the data such that the active network is inferred. These approaches, termed bottom-up and top-down, respectively, are currently employed independently. However, considering that both approaches have the same goal, they can both benefit from each other paving the way for the novel integrative analysis methods of metabolome data- and flux-analysis approaches in the post-genomic era. This study reviews the strengths of constraint-based analysis and network inference methods reported in the metabolic systems biology field; then elaborates on the potential paths to reconcile the two approaches to shed better light on how the metabolism functions. PMID:25520953

  11. Production of pyroxene ceramics from the fine fraction of incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Bourtsalas, A; Vandeperre, L J; Grimes, S M; Themelis, N; Cheeseman, C R

    2015-11-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (IBA) is normally processed to extract metals and the coarse mineral fraction is used as secondary aggregate. This leaves significant quantities of fine material, typically less than 4mm, that is problematic as reuse options are limited. This work demonstrates that fine IBA can be mixed with glass and transformed by milling, calcining, pressing and sintering into high density ceramics. The addition of glass aids liquid phase sintering, milling increases sintering reactivity and calcining reduces volatile loss during firing. Calcining also changes the crystalline phases present from quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and hematite (Fe2O3) to diopside (CaMgSi2O6), clinoenstatite (MgSiO3) and andradite (Ca3Fe2Si3O12). Calcined powders fired at 1080°C have high green density, low shrinkage (<7%) and produce dense (2.78 g/cm(3)) ceramics that have negligible water absorption. The transformation of the problematic fraction of IBA into a raw material suitable for the manufacture of ceramic tiles for use in urban paving and other applications is demonstrated.

  12. Production of pyroxene ceramics from the fine fraction of incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Bourtsalas, A; Vandeperre, L J; Grimes, S M; Themelis, N; Cheeseman, C R

    2015-11-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (IBA) is normally processed to extract metals and the coarse mineral fraction is used as secondary aggregate. This leaves significant quantities of fine material, typically less than 4mm, that is problematic as reuse options are limited. This work demonstrates that fine IBA can be mixed with glass and transformed by milling, calcining, pressing and sintering into high density ceramics. The addition of glass aids liquid phase sintering, milling increases sintering reactivity and calcining reduces volatile loss during firing. Calcining also changes the crystalline phases present from quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) and hematite (Fe2O3) to diopside (CaMgSi2O6), clinoenstatite (MgSiO3) and andradite (Ca3Fe2Si3O12). Calcined powders fired at 1080°C have high green density, low shrinkage (<7%) and produce dense (2.78 g/cm(3)) ceramics that have negligible water absorption. The transformation of the problematic fraction of IBA into a raw material suitable for the manufacture of ceramic tiles for use in urban paving and other applications is demonstrated. PMID:25743204

  13. Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate.

    PubMed

    Sivula, Leena; Oikari, Aimo; Rintala, Jukka

    2012-06-01

    Toxicity of waste gasification bottom ash leachate from landfill lysimeters (112 m(3)) was studied over three years. The leachate of grate incineration bottom ash from a parallel setup was used as reference material. Three aquatic organisms (bioluminescent bacteria, green algae and water flea) were used to study acute toxicity. In addition, an ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay was performed with mouse hepatoma cells to indicate the presence of organic contaminants. Concentrations of 14 elements and 15 PAH compounds were determined to characterise leachate. Gasification ash leachate had a high pH (9.2-12.4) and assays with and without pH adjustment to neutral were used. Gasification ash leachate was acutely toxic (EC(50) 0.09-62 vol-%) in all assays except in the algae assay with pH adjustment. The gasification ash toxicity lasted the entire study period and was at maximum after two years of disposal both in water flea (EC(50) 0.09 vol-%) and in algae assays (EC(50) 7.5 vol-%). The grate ash leachate showed decreasing toxicity during the first two years of disposal in water flea and algae assays, which then tapered off. Both in the grate ash and in the gasification ash leachates EROD-activity increased during the first two years of disposal and then tapered off, the highest inductions were observed with the gasification ash leachate. The higher toxicity of the gasification ash leachate was probably related to direct and indirect effects of high pH and to lower levels of TOC and DOC compared to the grate ash leachate. The grate ash leachate toxicity was similar to that previously reported in literature, therefore, confirming that used setup was both comparable and reliable.

  14. Energy-landscape paving for prediction of face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Liu, Zhaoxia; Huang, Weibo; Sun, Yuanyuan; Liu, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Protein structure prediction (PSP) is a classical NP-hard problem in computational biology. The energy-landscape paving (ELP) method is a class of heuristic global optimization algorithm, and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems with complex energy landscapes in the continuous space. By putting forward a new update mechanism of the histogram function in ELP and incorporating the generation of initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood search strategy based on pull moves into ELP, an improved energy-landscape paving (ELP+) method is put forward. Twelve general benchmark instances are first tested on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice models. The lowest energies by ELP+ are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. Then, five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D FCC HP lattice model are tested. The proposed algorithm finds lower energies than those by the five other methods in literature. Not unexpectedly, this is particularly pronounced for the longer sequences considered. Computational results show that ELP+ is an effective method for PSP on the fcc HP lattice model.

  15. Energy-landscape paving for prediction of face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Liu, Zhaoxia; Huang, Weibo; Sun, Yuanyuan; Liu, Wenjie

    2013-11-01

    Protein structure prediction (PSP) is a classical NP-hard problem in computational biology. The energy-landscape paving (ELP) method is a class of heuristic global optimization algorithm, and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems with complex energy landscapes in the continuous space. By putting forward a new update mechanism of the histogram function in ELP and incorporating the generation of initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood search strategy based on pull moves into ELP, an improved energy-landscape paving (ELP+) method is put forward. Twelve general benchmark instances are first tested on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice models. The lowest energies by ELP+ are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. Then, five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D FCC HP lattice model are tested. The proposed algorithm finds lower energies than those by the five other methods in literature. Not unexpectedly, this is particularly pronounced for the longer sequences considered. Computational results show that ELP+ is an effective method for PSP on the fcc HP lattice model. PMID:24329293

  16. A historical review of additives and modifiers used in paving asphalt refining processes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Diane J; Adams, Robert C; Marano, Kristin M

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. asphalt paving industry has evolved over time to meet various performance specifications for liquid petroleum asphalt binder (known as bitumen outside the United States). Additives to liquid petroleum asphalt produced in the refinery may affect exposures to workers in the hot mix paving industry. This investigation documented the changes in the composition and distribution of the liquid petroleum asphalt products produced from petroleum refining in the United States since World War II. This assessment was accomplished by reviewing documents and interviewing individual experts in the industry to identify current and historical practices. Individuals from 18 facilities were surveyed; the number of facilities reporting use of any material within a particular class ranged from none to more than half the respondents. Materials such as products of the process stream, polymers, elastomers, and anti-strip compounds have been added to liquid petroleum asphalt in the United States over the past 50 years, but modification has not been generally consistent by geography or time. Modifications made to liquid petroleum asphalt were made generally to improve performance and were dictated by state specifications.

  17. Velocity and bottom-stress measurements in the bottom boundary layer, outer Norton Sound, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Wiberg, P.

    1982-01-01

    We have used long-term measurements of near-bottom velocities at four heights above the sea floor in Norton Sound, Alaska, to compute hourly values of shear velocity u., roughness and bottom-drag coefficient. Maximum sediment resuspension and transport, predicted for periods when the computed value of u. exceeds a critical level, occur during peak tidal currents associated with spring tides. The fortnightly variation in u. is correlated with a distinct nepheloid layer that intensifies and thickens during spring tides and diminishes and thins during neap tides. The passage of a storm near the end of the experiment caused significantly higher u. values than those found during fair weather.-from Authros

  18. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Brucken, E.; Devoto, F.; Mehtala, P.; Orava, R.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Casal, B.; Cuevas, J.; Gomez, G.; Palencia, E.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Amerio, S.; Dorigo, T.; Gresele, A.; Lazzizzera, I.

    2011-05-06

    We report measurements of direct CP--violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +})=+0.39{+-}0.15(stat){+-}0.08(syst), and bottom baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}p{pi}{sup -})=+0.03{+-}0.17(stat){+-}0.05(syst) and A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}{yields}pK{sup -})=+0.37{+-}0.17(stat){+-}0.03(syst). In addition, we measure CP violation in B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP}(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}{pi}{sup -})=-0.086{+-}0.023(stat){+-}0.009(syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  19. Bottom-up assembly of metallic germanium

    PubMed Central

    Scappucci, Giordano; Klesse, Wolfgang M.; Yeoh, LaReine A.; Carter, Damien J.; Warschkow, Oliver; Marks, Nigel A.; Jaeger, David L.; Capellini, Giovanni; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Hamilton, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Extending chip performance beyond current limits of miniaturisation requires new materials and functionalities that integrate well with the silicon platform. Germanium fits these requirements and has been proposed as a high-mobility channel material, a light emitting medium in silicon-integrated lasers, and a plasmonic conductor for bio-sensing. Common to these diverse applications is the need for homogeneous, high electron densities in three-dimensions (3D). Here we use a bottom-up approach to demonstrate the 3D assembly of atomically sharp doping profiles in germanium by a repeated stacking of two-dimensional (2D) high-density phosphorus layers. This produces high-density (1019 to 1020 cm−3) low-resistivity (10−4Ω · cm) metallic germanium of precisely defined thickness, beyond the capabilities of diffusion-based doping technologies. We demonstrate that free electrons from distinct 2D dopant layers coalesce into a homogeneous 3D conductor using anisotropic quantum interference measurements, atom probe tomography, and density functional theory. PMID:26256239

  20. Bottom sediments of Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Leonard E.

    1964-01-01

    Saginaw Bay is a southwest extension of Lake Huron on the east shore of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan. It is a shallow-water derivative of the Pleistocene Lake Saginaw. Sixty-one bottom samples were collected on a semigrid pattern and analyzed physically. Findings were treated statistically. Sediments range in size from large pebbles to clay. Medium- to fine-grained clear quartz sand is common to all parts of the bay. Currents and wave action are primarily responsible for both median diameter and sorting distribution patterns. Only a very general correlation can be established between depth and median diameter. Heavy minerals occur in abundance locally and show an affinity to shallow-water areas subject to prevailing currents. Shape also locally determines heavy mineral concentrations. Only general conclusions can be established from roundness and sphericity and acid-soluble content. Increased organic content is correlative with quiet water environments. The shallow-water, heterogeneous nature of Saginaw Bay is not conducive to the recognition of sedimentary criteria suitable for correlations in other than a local environment.

  1. Ultracold molecules from the bottom-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jessie T.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Liu, Lee R.; Yu, Yichao; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules exhibit strong, long-range, and tunable dipole-dipole interactions that may be utilized for a wide range of studies in quantum simulation and quantum information processing. To realize the full potential of these studies, it is desirable to have a low entropy sample of ultracold polar molecules with full control over both internal and external states, as well as inter-particle interactions. We work toward this goal with a new, bottom-up approach using the highly polar NaCs molecule. The key steps of our scheme are trapping single Na and Cs atoms in optical dipole traps, cooling the atoms to their motional ground state using Raman sideband cooling, and finally coherently transferring them to ground state NaCs molecules via a two-photon process. This approach should enable creation of low entropy samples with full control over all degrees of freedom, as well as realizing the possibility of single-site read-out and manipulation of molecules.

  2. Development of a rapid test method for asphalt concrete content determination in hot-mix paving mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, J. J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A rapid test method was developed for the determination of asphalt cement content in hot-mix bituminous paving mixtures. It is based on the extraction of asphalt cement from mixtures with trichloroethylene and subsequent measurement of the transmittance of light through the extracted solution. A good correlation was found between the results obtained using the rapid test and those obtained using the standard test (ASTM D-2172, Method E1) for samples tested in the field at asphalt mix plants. The test uses a portable spectrophotometer and a metal can for extraction. The asphalt content can be determined in less than ten minutes. The possibility of using the rapid test on materials containing emulsified asphalt, slag aggregate, unusually high amounts of fine material and recycled material was also studied.

  3. Meta-analysis of lung cancer in asphalt roofing and paving workers with external adjustment for confounding by coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Fayerweather, W.E.

    2007-07-01

    The study's objectives were to update Partanen's and Boffetta's 1994 meta-analysis of lung cancer among roofing and paving asphalt workers and explore the role of coal tar in explaining the statistical heterogeneity among these studies. Information retrieval strategies and eligibility criteria were defined for identifying the epidemiologic studies to be included in the analysis. The relative risk ratio (RR) for lung cancer was selected as the effect measure of interest. Coal tar bias factors were developed and used to externally adjust each eligible study's published RR for confounding by coal tar. The meta-Relative Risk (meta-RR) and its variance were estimated by general variance-based methods. Heterogeneity of the RRs was assessed by heterogeneity chi-square and I{sup 2} tests. The results from this update were similar to those in Partanen's and Boffetta's original meta-analysis. Although the meta-RRs for the roofers and the pavers were no longer statistically significantly different from one another, significant heterogeneity remained within each of the coal tar-adjusted sectors. Meta-analysis of non-experimental epidemiologic studies is subject to significant uncertainties as is externally correcting studies for confounding. Given these uncertainties, the specific quantitative estimates in this (or any similar) analysis must be viewed with caution. Nevertheless, this analysis provides support for the hypothesis proposed by several major reviewers that confounding by coal tar-related PAH exposures may explain most or all of the lung cancer risks found in the epidemiologic literature on asphalt roofing and paving workers.

  4. Airborne concentrations of trivalent and hexavalent chromium from contaminated soils at unpaved and partially paved commercial/industrial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Falerios, M.; Schild, K. ); Sheehan, P.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    This method described was used to quantify airborne Cr(VI) levels at both indoor and outdoor locations at 21 sites in Hudson County, New Jersey which have soils containing chromite ore processing residue. Of the 21 sites evaluated, nine were unpaved or partially paved industrial/commercial sites or roadways with a moderate to high level of heavy truck traffic. Most of the remainder were commercial facilities with partially paved or unpaved parking lots and only light vehicle traffic. In addition, 15 residential sites in the area which do not have contaminated soil were sampled to characterized background levels of Cr(VI). The overall arithmetic mean values for indoor and outdoor Cr(VI) in total suspended particulates at the 12 industrial sites were 3.0 ng/m{sup 3} and 9.9ng/m{sup 3}, respectively. The indoor Cr(VI) concentrations measured at the 15 residential sites ranged from 0.38 to 3.3 ng/m{sup 3}. Airborne Cr(VI) levels outdoors at sites with chromite ore residue appear to be primarily influenced by the level of local vehicle traffic. Measured outdoor concentrations at sites with light vehicle traffic were generally low, within the range of levels measured indoors at the residential sites, and not strongly influenced by Cr(VI) concentrations in surface soils. At sites with a high rate of vehicle traffic, outdoor Cr(VI) concentrations exceeded background levels only on days when surface soils were dry. The average concentrations measured at these sites were more than 5,000-times lower than the current occupational exposure limit for Cr(VI) (TLV = 0.05 mg/m{sup 3}).

  5. Ocean Bottom Pressure Measurements Off Sanriku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Tamura, Y.; Higashi, T.; Nishino, M.; Hino, R.; Kanazawa, T.

    2003-12-01

    Variable motions of the ocean are changing the Earth's gravity field. For example, mass exchange in the Pacific Ocean is considered to be the most probable source of the recent rapid and large change in the J2 term, which may be related to the ENSO event in 1997 (Cox and Chao, 2002). The actual ocean mass exchange related to that event was also observed from ocean bottom pressure records (OBPRs) offshore of Peru (Fujimoto et al., 2003). On the other hand, satellite altimetry measurements, such as TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), enable us to estimate the oceanic effect on gravity observations using globally-gridded data for sea surface height (SSH) variability. However, the altimeter data are affected by steric changes in the ocean, which should not contribute to the observed gravity changes (for example, Sato et al., 2001). In order to examine the relation among the mass exchange in the oceans, SSH variation, and gravity changes, we began a three-year observation project in 2001 to measure the ocean bottom pressure changes at the three crossover points of the T/P satellite off Sanriku, Japan: 143.1E, 39.2N (Point-A); 146.0E, 39.2N (Point-B); and 144.6E, 41.5N (Point-N). The data are sampled at an interval of one minute. Here, we will report the analysis results for the OBPR data for the two years since the beginning of the observations. Although the records at Point-N show a peculiar time variation, we obtained clear tidal signals at Point-A and Point-B. We compared the tidal analysis results with a global ocean tide model, NAO99b (Matsumoto et al., 2000), and we confirmed that, at both Point-A and Point-B, the predicted tides agree to the actual observations within the difference of 1 % in amplitude for the four major tidal waves: M2, S2, K1 and O1. This suggests that it may be possible to correct the tidal effect on the satellite gravity data with an accuracy of about 1 % by using recent global tide models. We also compared residuals of the OBPR data, which were obtained

  6. 6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and center, Winterthur Train Station center left, Winterthur Farms dairy barns upper center , duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 92 center right, and Brandywine Creek State Park bottom right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  7. 2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and State Route 100 center, Brandywine Creek State Park center right, duck pond and reservoir center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  8. 5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State Route 100 center, duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 100 center right, State Route 92 below center right, Brandywine Creek State Park center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  9. Hangar no. 2 west doors. Note access door at bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 west doors. Note access door at bottom center of left door. Note structure at bottom outside of doors for door opening mechanisms. Looking 124 ESE. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  10. Postcolonial Appalachia: Bhabha, Bakhtin, and Diane Gilliam Fisher's "Kettle Bottom"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Sheryl

    2006-01-01

    Diane Gilliam Fisher's 2004 award-winning book of poems, "Kettle Bottom," offers students a revealing vantage point for seeing Appalachian regional culture in a postcolonial context. An artful and accessible poetic sequence that was selected as the 2005 summer reading for entering students at Smith College, "Kettle Bottom"…

  11. 8. Comparison of construction of bottom and top chords and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Comparison of construction of bottom and top chords and pin connections, bottom chord second panel point, top chords showing third panel point. - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  12. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  13. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  14. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  15. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  16. 49 CFR 179.200-17 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-tight closure at its lower end. (3) On cars with center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside... attachment. In no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the bottom flange of the center sill. On cars without continuous center sills, a ball valve may be welded to the outside bottom of...

  17. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... welded to the outside bottom of the tank or mounted on a pad or nozzle with a tongue and groove or male... attachment on a pad attached to the outside bottom of the tank. The mounting pad must have a maximum... illustrations of some of the possible arrangements.) (i) A bolted flange closure arrangement including a...

  18. Where's the "Up" in Bottom-Up Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2004-01-01

    Bottom-up reform as a policy strategy for decades has faltered in implementation. This article starts from the premise that these disappointing results stem from researchers' and practitioners' almost exclusive focus on implementation in schools or on what some call "the bottom" of hierarchical education systems but not shifts in policy…

  19. 45. (Credit JTL) View looking up from bottom of #3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. (Credit JTL) View looking up from bottom of #3 low service pump pit showing frame of Worthington pump on right, water delivery pipe on left and top of 1943 6 mgd electric pump at bottom. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  20. Bottom-up Attention Orienting in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether…

  1. Surgeon Contribution to Hospital Bottom Line

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Andrew S.; Corrigan, Diane; Mullen, James L.; Kaiser, Larry R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that surgeon productivity is directly related to hospital operating margin, but significant variation in margin contribution exists between specialties. Summary Background Data: As the independent practitioner becomes an endangered species, it is critical to better understand the surgeon's importance to a hospital's bottom line. An appreciation of surgeon contribution to hospital profitability may prove useful in negotiations relating to full-time employment or other models. Methods: Surgeon total relative value units (RVUs), a measure of productivity, were collected from operating room (OR) logs. Annual hospital margin per specialty was provided by hospital finance. Hospital margin data were normalized by dividing by a constant such that the highest relative hospital margin (RHM) in fiscal year 2004 expressed as margin units (mu) was 1 million mu. For each specialty, data analyzed included RHM/OR HR, RHM/case, and RHM/RVU. Results: Thoracic (34.55 mu/RVU) and transplant (25.13 mu/RVU) were the biggest contributors to hospital margin. Plastics (−0.57 mu/RVU), maxillofacial (1.41 mu/RVU), and gynecology (1.66 mu/RVU) contributed least to hospital margin. Relative hospital margin per OR HR for transplant slightly exceeded thoracic (275.74 mu vs 233.94 mu) at the top and plastics and maxillofacial contributed the least (−3.83 mu/OR HR vs 9.36 mu/OR HR). Conclusions: Surgeons contribute significantly to hospital margin with certain specialties being more profitable than others. Payer mix, the penetration of managed care, and negotiated contracts as well as a number of other factors all have an impact on an individual hospital's margin. Surgeons should be fully cognizant of their significant influence in the marketplace. PMID:16192813

  2. Bottom-feeding for blockbuster businesses.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, David; Tomlinson, Doug; Scott, Larry

    2003-03-01

    Marketing experts tell companies to analyze their customer portfolios and weed out buyer segments that don't generate attractive returns. Loyalty experts stress the need to aim retention programs at "good" customers--profitable ones- and encourage the "bad" ones to buy from competitors. And customer-relationship-management software provides ever more sophisticated ways to identify and eliminate poorly performing customers. On the surface, the movement to banish unprofitable customers seems reasonable. But writing off a customer relationship simply because it is currently unprofitable is at best rash and at worst counterproductive. Executives shouldn't be asking themselves, How can we shun unprofitable customers? They need to ask, How can we make money off the customers that everyone else is shunning? When you look at apparently unattractive segments through this lens, you often see opportunities to serve those segments in ways that fundamentally change customer economics. Consider Paychex, a payroll-processing company that built a nearly billion-dollar business by serving small companies. Established players had ignored these customers on the assumption that small companies couldn't afford the service. When founder Tom Golisano couldn't convince his bosses at Electronic Accounting Systems that they were missing a major opportunity, he started a company that now serves 390,000 U.S. customers, each employing around 14 people. In this article, the authors look closely at bottom-feeders--companies that assessed the needs of supposedly unattractive customers and redesigned their business models to turn a profit by fulfilling those needs. And they offer lessons other executives can use to do the same. PMID:12632804

  3. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  4. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  5. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  6. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  7. 49 CFR 179.200-13 - Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom washout...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device....200-13 Manway ring or flange, pressure relief device flange, bottom outlet nozzle flange, bottom... in the manway ring must be at least 16 inches in diameter except that acid resistant lined...

  8. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  9. Top Down Chemistry Versus Bottom up Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi; Witt, Adolf N.

    2016-06-01

    The idea of interstellar top down chemistry (TDC), in which molecules are produced from decomposition of larger molecules and dust in contrast to ordinary bottom up chemistry (BUC) in which molecules are produced synthetically from smaller molecules and atoms in the ISM, has been proposed in the chemistry of PAH and carbon chain molecules both for diffusea,c and dense cloudsb,d. A simple and natural idea, it must have occurred to many people and has been in the air for sometime. The validity of this hypothesis is apparent for diffuse clouds in view of the observed low abundance of small molecules and its rapid decrease with molecular size on the one hand and the high column densities of large carbon molecules demonstrated by the many intense diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) on the other. Recent identification of C60^+ as the carrier of 5 near infrared DIBs with a high column density of 2×1013 cm-2 by Maier and others confirms the TDC. This means that the large molecules and dust produced in the high density high temperature environment of circumstellar envelopes are sufficiently stable to survive decompositions due to stellar UV radiaiton, cosmic rays, C-shocks etc. for a long time (≥ 10^7 year) of their migration to diffuse clouds and seems to disagree with the consensus in the field of interstellar grains. The stability of molecules and aggregates in the diffuse interstellar medium will be discussed. Duley, W. W. 2006, Faraday Discuss. 133, 415 Zhen,J., Castellanos, P., Paardekooper, D. M., Linnartz, H., Tielens, A. G. G. M. 2014, ApJL, 797, L30 Huang, J., Oka, T. 2015, Mol. Phys. 113, 2159 Guzmán, V. V., Pety, J., Goicoechea, J. R., Gerin, M., Roueff, E., Gratier, P., Öberg, K. I. 2015, ApJL, 800, L33 L. Ziurys has sent us many papers beginning Ziurys, L. M. 2006, PNAS 103, 12274 indicating she had long been a proponent of the idea. Campbell, E. K., Holz, M., Maier, J. P., Gerlich, D., Walker, G. A. H., Bohlender, D, 2016, ApJ, in press Draine, B. T. 2003

  10. Measurements of Direct CP Violating Asymmetries in Charmless Decays of Strange Bottom Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-03-01

    We report measurements of direct CP-violating asymmetries in charmless decays of neutral bottom hadrons to pairs of charged hadrons with the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using a data sample corresponding to 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, we obtain the first measurements of direct CP violation in bottom strange mesons, A{sub CP}(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = +0.39 {+-} 0.15 (stat) {+-} 0.08 (syst), and botton baryons, A{sub CP}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} p{pi}{sup -}) = + 0.03 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.05 (syst) and A{sub CP} ({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} pK{sup -}) = +0.37 {+-} 0.17 (stat) {+-} 0.03 (syst). In addition, they measure CP violation in B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays with 3.5{sigma} significance, A{sub CP} (B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = -0.086 {+-} 0.023 (stat) {+-} 0.009 (syst), in agreement with the current world average. Measurements of branching fractions of B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays are also updated.

  11. Seabed sub-bottom sediment classification using parametric sub-bottom profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Mohamed; Rabah, Mostafa

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been published concerning classification techniques of seabed surfaces using single beam, multibeam, and side scan sonars, while few paid attentions to classify sub-bottom layers using a non-linear Sub-Bottom Profiler (SBP). Non-linear SBP is known for its high resolution images due to the very short pulse length and aperture angle for high and low frequencies. This research is devoted to develop an energy based model that automatically characterizes the layered sediment types as a contribution step toward "what lies where in 3D?". Since the grain size is a function of the reflection coefficient, the main task is to compute the reflection coefficients where high impedance contrast is observed. The developed model extends the energy based surface model (Van Walree et al., 2006) to account for returns reflection of sub-layers where the reflection coefficients are computed sequentially after estimating the geo-acoustic parameters of the previous layer. The validation of the results depended on the model stability. However, physical core samples are still in favor to confirm the results. The model showed consistent stable results that agreed with the core samples knowledge of the studied area. The research concluded that the extended model approximates the reflection coefficient values and will be very promising if volume scatters and multiple reflections are included.

  12. Recent progress of interpretation of bottom pressure during tsunamigenic earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Nosov, Mikhail; Kolesov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Offshore observations make it possible to detect tsunamis in advance prior to their arrival at the shoreline. For this purpose, pressure sensors deployed in the deep sea have been used for a long time. After the 2011 Tohoku tsunami, the offshore tsunami observations have been used for tsunami warning upgrade in Japan. In the meantime, the information of actual observed wave height would be issued since 2013. In the near- or the far-fields, however, bottom pressure records usually exhibit a complicated interface of signals related not only to tsunamis but also to hydroacoustic and seismic waves. This is why we need to interpret the bottom pressure recorded by the pressure sensors. Network of offshore observatories recently deployed in the Nankai Trough, SW Japan (i.e., DONET) provides high sampling records of bottom pressure and seismic records. Additionally, the seismic sensors (both broad-band seismometer and accelerometer) are deployed at the same location of the pressure sensor. In the present study, we review the recent offshore observations of bottom pressure from the tsunamigenic earthquakes. An outer-rise earthquake (Mw7.1) on 25 October 2013 taken place near the Japan Trench, NE Japan, for example, generated a few tens of centimeters tsunami at the nearest shoreline, and it also could be recorded by the DONET pressure sensors as a few millimeters of tsunami. Full seismic waveforms have been recorded by two types of seismic sensors as well. We present some features of the obtained pressure signals during the earthquake, in which it is worthwhile noting that the bottom pressure corresponds to the bottom acceleration in the inter-mediate frequency band. In the high frequency band, on the other hand, the bottom pressure follows the bottom velocity. This characteristic would be used for retrieving tsunami signals from the bottom pressure. Thus, quantitative interpretation and data processing of offshore tsunami observations can contribute to the effective

  13. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants. PMID:19423581

  14. DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. BOTTOM LEVEL OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTHWEST Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOTTOM LEVEL OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AT THE BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF UTILITY PIPES AT THE BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING WEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOMED BOTTOM, ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER L, LOOKING UP FROM BOTTOM LEVEL OF INTERNAL PLATFORMS, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  19. 7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST DAM STRUCTURE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. QUARRIES AT BOTTOM; OUTLET STRUCTURE UNDER CONSTRUCTION CUTTING INTO HILL AT TOP OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  20. 17. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF READYMIX CONCRETE FOR BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF READY-MIX CONCRETE FOR BOTTOM OF ARIZONA CANAL. CAMELBACK MOUNTAIN IN THE BACKGROUND Photographer: unknown. December 1943 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. BRIDGE ABUTMENTS WITH ARCH SEGMENTS ON RIVER BOTTOM. ARCHES COLLAPSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRIDGE ABUTMENTS WITH ARCH SEGMENTS ON RIVER BOTTOM. ARCHES COLLAPSED AROUND EIGHT YEARS BEFORE THIS DATE. - Whittlesey Road Bridge, Spanning Black River at Whittlesey Road, Lyons Falls, Lewis County, NY

  2. 20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF BOTTOM DOOR, THIRD BAY Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF BOTTOM DOOR, THIRD BAY Showing splayed head jambs dadoes, interior casing design. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  3. 100. View of painter letters at bottom of stairwell entry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. View of painter letters at bottom of stairwell entry to pit "C" reading "Pit "C": D.E. Swanson", looking northeast - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  4. 11. PAINTERS REMOVING MASKING TAPE, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. PAINTERS REMOVING MASKING TAPE, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM BOTTOM FLOOR OF DRYDOCK NO. 5. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed...

  6. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed...

  7. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed...

  8. 46 CFR 173.058 - Double bottom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.058 Double bottom requirements. Each new sailing school vessel which has a mean length greater than 165 feet (50.3 meters) and is certificated for exposed...

  9. LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LIME KILN BUILDING, KILN BOTTOM SHOWING ROTATOR GEAR. (GEAR IS POINTED DOWN FOR PROPER ORIENTATION). - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  10. MAPPING BATHYMETRY AND BOTTOM TYPE IN A SHALLOW ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bathymetry and bottom type are important in characterizing estuaries and their ecology but hard to map, especially in shallow estuaries. Acoustic backscattering was used to remotely sense these properties in the shallow Slocums River Estuary of Massachusetts. Acoustic pulses were...

  11. 38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom of tank No date - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  12. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  13. 18. AHWAHNEE MEADOW. SOUTHSIDE DRIVE AT BOTTOM OF MEADOW AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. AHWAHNEE MEADOW. SOUTHSIDE DRIVE AT BOTTOM OF MEADOW AND AHWAHNEE ROAD AT TOP OF MEADOW. NOTE OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT AT EAST EDGE OF MEADOW. - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  14. How bottom-dumps come out on top

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, C.H.

    1983-08-01

    Whether on-highway or off, bottom-dump semi-trailers may offer significant operating and maintenance advantages over end-dump straight trucks or semi-trailer configurations. In fact, many semi-trailer and body manufacturers expect that bottom-dumps will gain a significant share of the total market as transportation costs become more critical. The most obvious difference between bottom-and end-dump configurations is that much of the bottom-dump load is carried in the hoppers below fifth wheel level. This results in a low center of gravity which contributes to a very stable ride. The relatively low position of the load also permits low body walls. One 33-yard, 30-ton capacity model, for example, has a wall height of 9 ft 2 in. which makes loading possible with virtually any front loader.

  15. 12. Bottom and side planking at stern, showing chine guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Bottom and side planking at stern, showing chine guard (to the right in photo) and copper ice sheathing on starboard side. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  16. 11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PIER, BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING, LOWER CHORD, STRINGERS, END POST AND BEARING SEAT; FACING SOUTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  17. 5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail of tower bottom step and stairway structure, facing southeast - Cold Mountain Fire Lookout Station, Lookout Tower, Krassel District, Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness, Dixie, Idaho County, ID

  18. 9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy of bottom half of an 1855 organizational diagram of the New York and Erie Railroad. Original in the collections of the Library of Congress. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  19. 13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Interior, Hangar 1301, showing bottom of a truss, steel hinge point and expansion joint, and concrete buttress, looking north northwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  20. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or...

  1. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or...

  2. 49 CFR 178.255-5 - Bottom discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or...

  3. 36. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic American Buildings Survey L. C. Durette, Photographer BOTTOM OF SOUTH WEST CORNER POST 2nd. FLOOR SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF OVERHANG - Doe Garrison, Lamprey River & Great Bay, Newmarket, Rockingham County, NH

  4. Looking southeast at bottom house with open hearth building attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at bottom house with open hearth building attached to the right. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  5. Marine plastic litter as an artificial hard bottom fouling ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, J.

    1990-09-01

    20 fouling organisms were observed on plastic litter dredged from the Elbe estuary during July 1990; 60% of the species were typical sessile hard bottom organisms. Most individuals found on this artificial hard bottom were barnacles ( Balanus crenatus, Elminius modestus), the mussel Mytilus edulis and the polychaete Lanice conchilega. All individuals were juveniles which had settled only recently on the plastics. The earliest settlers were not much older than 4 8 weeks.

  6. The reification objection to bottom-up cognitive ontology revision.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Joseph B; Machery, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Anderson (2014) proposes a bottom-up approach to cognitive ontology revision: Neuroscientists should revise their taxonomies of cognitive constructs on the basis of brain activation patterns across many tasks. We argue that such bottom-up proposal is bound to commit a mistake of reification: It treats the abstract mathematical entities uncovered by dimension reduction techniques as if they were real psychological entities. PMID:27562010

  7. Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.

    2013-03-25

    We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.

  8. Polymeric Endoaortic Paving (PEAP): Mechanical, Thermoforming, and Degradation Properties of Polycaprolactone/Polyurethane Blends for Cardiovascular Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, John H.; Mertz, James A. M.; Harper, John L.; Slepian, Marvin J.; Mills, Joseph L.; McGrath, Dominic V.; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric endoaortic paving (PEAP) is a process by which a polymer is endovascularly delivered and thermoformed to coat or “pave” the lumen of the aorta. This method may offer an improvement to conventional endoaortic therapy in allowing conformal graft application with reduced risk of endoleak and customization to complex patient geometries. Polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyurethane (PU) blends of various blend ratios were assessed as a potential material for PEAP by characterizing their mechanical, thermoforming, and degradation properties. Biaxial tension testing revealed that the blends' stiffness is similar to that of aortic tissue, is higher for blends with more PCL content, and may be affected by thermoforming and degradation. Tubes of blends were able to maintain a higher diameter increase after thermoforming at higher PCL content and higher heating temperatures; 50/50 blend tubes heated to 55°C were able to maintain 90% of the diameter increase applied. Delamination forces of the blends ranged from 41 to 235 N/m2. In a Pseudomonas lipase solution, the 50/50 blend had a 94% lower degradation rate than pure PCL, and the 10/90 blend exhibited no degradation. These results indicate that PEAP, consisting of a PCL/PU blend, may be useful in developing the next generation of endoaortic therapy. PMID:20832506

  9. Formation of Humic Substances in Weathered MSWI Bottom Ash

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haixia; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs) content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37°C and 50°C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na4P2O7. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37°C and at 18th week under 50°C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50°C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37°C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported. PMID:23844394

  10. Formation of humic substances in weathered MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haixia; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the humic substances (HSs) content from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash and its variation with time and the effect of temperature on HSs formation. The process suggested by IHSS was applied to extract HSs from two different bottom ash samples, and the extracted efficiency with NaOH and Na4P2O7 was compared. MSWI bottom ash samples were incubated at 37°C and 50°C for 1 year. HSs and nonhumic substances were extracted from the bottom ash sample with different incubated period by 0.1 M NaOH/Na₄P₂O₇. Results show that the rate of humic acid formation increased originally with incubation time, reached a maximum at 12th week under 37°C and at 18th week under 50°C, and then decreased with time. More humic acid in MSWI bottom ash was formed under 50°C incubated condition compared with that incubated under 37°C. Also, the elemental compositions of HSs extracted from bottom ash are reported. PMID:23844394

  11. Consider FRP linings instead of replacing storage tank bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    LeBleu, J.B. ); Hummel, B. )

    1995-03-01

    If a storage tank bottom is corroding quickly, it must either be replaced, or a thick-filmed, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) lining must be applied to the existing tank bottom. Replacing a tank bottom can be a costly and time-consuming process. Proper selection and application of an FRP lining system with a 60 to 65-mil thickness can save time, money and prevent internal corrosion of the steel tank bottom for 10 to 20 years. Average corrosion rate of carbon steel storage tanks in crude oil service at ambient temperatures is more than 1 mil per year. Corrosion occurs even more quickly when a layer of water containing corrosive compounds such as salt and sediment settles to the bottom of a crude oil tank. Installing a thick fiber glass-reinforced lining system involves applying a primer, putty, catalyzed resin with a glass mat and a sealcoat. After the tank has been pumped dry and the surface properly prepared, the entire process takes substantially less than the downtime and costs associated with replacing the entire tank bottom. The paper describes the application of a FRP lining system, testing and metal repairs, and the use of catalyzed resin and glass mats.

  12. Measurement technique for bottom scattering in shallow water

    PubMed

    Holland; Hollett; Troiano

    2000-09-01

    Sonar performance predictions of reverberation in shallow water rely upon good estimates of the bottom-scattering strength. However, little is understood about bottom scattering in shallow water in the frequency range 400-4000 Hz, particularly its dependency upon frequency and its relationship to the physical properties of the seafloor. In order to address these issues, a new measurement technique has been developed to probe the frequency and angular dependency of bottom-scattering strength. The experimental technique is described which employs either coherent or incoherent sources (lightbulbs). In addition, measurement and modeling results for two diverse shallow water sites are presented. At one site, the scattering appears to arise at or near the water-sediment interface. At the other site, scattering from a 23-m sub-bottom horizon is clearly apparent in the data at and below 1800 Hz. The fact that our measurement technique can directly reveal the presence of sub-bottom scattering is a significant advance in the development of methods to explore the physical mechanisms that control bottom scattering.

  13. Paved Path for Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues a southward trek from 'Erebus Crater' toward 'Victoria Crater,' the terrain consists of large sand ripples and patches of flat-lying rock outcrops, as shown in this image. Whenever possible, rover planners keep Opportunity on the 'pavement' for best mobility.

    This false-color image mosaic was assembled using images acquired by the panoramic camera on Opportunity's 784th sol (April 8, 2006) at about 11:45 a.m. local solar time. The camera used its 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 432-nanometer filters. This view shows a portion of the outcrop named 'Bosque,' including rover wheel tracks, fractured and finely-layered outcrop rocks and smaller, dark cobbles littered across the surface.

  14. Are We Paving Paradise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of kindergarten from its focus on children, to its focus on outcomes, to its current focus on literacy and math. The early childhood parts of kindergarten are losing ground to growing allocation of kindergarten time to academic content. A more ecological approach to kindergarten involves reincorporating play into…

  15. Characteristics of road sediment fractionated particles captured from paved surfaces, surface run-off and detention basins.

    PubMed

    Kayhanian, M; McKenzie, E R; Leatherbarrow, J E; Young, T M

    2012-11-15

    This study presents the results of evaluating changes in properties of road sediment fractionated particles at the source (dry pavement), during transport (highway runoff) and after deposition (dry detention basin). A total of 38 solid particle samples were collected from paved surface, highway runoff, and from three locations within detention basins. Each sample was size-fractionated ranging from 38 μm to 1000 μm. Key results were that: (i) less than 2% of total particle mass in four vacuumed solid samples was associated with the <38 μm fraction compared to 47 to 82% in centrifuged highway runoff samples and 25% for detention basin sediments, (ii) based on number concentrations more than 90% of particles from all sources were smaller than 38 μm, (iii) the densities of fractionated particles were generally within the range from 1.5 to 2.2g/cm(3); (iv) all collected particles were predicted to resist aggregation in solution with a typical measure of surface potential, the zeta potential, typically ranging from -15 to -30 mV, (v) metal concentrations increased with decreasing particle size for vacuumed samples from the highway shoulder and parking lot, however, size dependent trends in metal concentrations were less apparent in centrifuged highway runoff samples and detention basin sediment samples; (vi) the distributions of metal mass across sieved size fractions generally followed patterns of particle mass distribution in which less than 10% of the total Cu, Pb, and Zn mass was associated with particles <38 μm; (vii) metal mass distributions tended toward increasing metal fractions in finer particle fractions along a gradient from the inlet to the outlet of the detention basins; and (viii) individual particle morphology (1 < d(p) < 10 μm) showed that particles were not smooth or spherical, clearly deviating from the assumptions typically used in estimating particle settling velocities using Stokes' Law.

  16. Inhalation exposure of rats to asphalt fumes generated at paving temperatures alters pulmonary xenobiotic metabolism pathways without lung injury.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jane Y C; Rengasamy, Apavoo; Frazer, Dave; Barger, Mark W; Hubbs, Ann F; Battelli, Lori; Tomblyn, Seith; Stone, Samuel; Castranova, Vince

    2003-01-01

    Asphalt fumes are complex mixtures of various organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs require bioactivation by the cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase system to exert toxic/carcinogenic effects. The present study was carried out to characterize the acute pulmonary inflammatory responses and the alterations of pulmonary xenobiotic pathways in rats exposed to asphalt fumes by inhalation. Rats were exposed at various doses and time periods to air or to asphalt fumes generated at paving temperatures. To assess the acute damage and inflammatory responses, differential cell counts, acellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were determined. Alveolar macrophage (AM) function was assessed by monitoring generation of chemiluminescence and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1. Alteration of pulmonary xenobiotic pathways was determined by monitoring the protein levels and activities of P-450 isozymes (CYP1A1 and CYP2B1), glutathioneS-transferase (GST), and NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (QR). The results show that acute asphalt fume exposure did not cause neutrophil infiltration, alter LDH activity or protein content, or affect AM function, suggesting that short-term asphalt fume exposure did not induce acute lung damage or inflammation. However, acute asphalt fume exposure significantly increased the activity and protein level of CYP1A1 whereas it markedly reduced the activity and protein level of CYP2B1 in the lung. The induction of CYP1A1 was localized in nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells, alveolar septa, and endothelial cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cytosolic QR activity was significantly elevated after asphalt fume exposure, whereas GST activity was not affected by the exposure. This induction of CYP1A1 and QR with the concomitant down-regulation of CYP2B1 after asphalt fume exposure could alter PAH metabolism and may lead to potential

  17. Bottom current and sediment transport on San Pedro Shelf, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, David E.; Cacchione, David A.; Karl, Herman A.

    1985-01-01

    GEOPROBE (Geological Processes Bottom Environmental) tripods were used to measure bottom currents, pressure, and light transmission and scattering and to obtain time-series photographs of the sea floor at depths of 23 m and 67 m on San Pedro shelf between 18 April and 6 June 1978. Winds were light (< 5 m/s) with a mean direction from the southwest throughout the measurement period. Hourly averaged currents 1 m above the bottom never exceeded 21 cm/s; average speeds were about 5 cm/s at the 23-m site and 6.8 cm/s at 67 m, and the strongest currents were produced by the tides. The mean flow of bottom water was less than 3 cm/s at both GEOPROBES and was rather persistently southward (offshelf). Wave-generated bottom currents and bottom-pressure variations were sampled at hourly intervals; average wave period and wave height were 12.8 s and 0.44 m, respectively, at the 23-m site. Wave orbital velocities ranged from about 5 to 30 cm/s at 23 m and from 2 to 8 cm/s at 67 m. Bottom photographs at 67 m show that the relatively sluggish tide-generated and mean currents were below threshold velocity for the silty, very fine sand throughout the observational period. Threshold depth for wave rippling of very fine sand averaged about 28 m with a range from about 12 m to 50 m. Wave-generated currents were the only currents that exceeded threshold levels. The wave currents maintained relatively high concentrations of sediment in suspension near the bottom over the inner shelf (< 25 m), and this material (principally silt and clay) was transported offshore by the weak mean flow. Approximately 50% of this material was deposited as the bottom orbital velocities decreased to subthreshold values ( nearly equal 10-15 cm/s). The observed movement of fine sediment across the inner shelf can account for a portion of the mud content of the modern silty sands on the central shelf and on the outer shelf. However, it is clear that the sand fractions, which constitute greater than 70% of the

  18. On a Bottom-Up Approach to Scientific Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Two popular models of scientific discovery, abduction and the inference to the best explanation (IBE), presuppose that the reason for accepting a hypothetical explanation A comes from the epistemic and/or explanatory force manifested in the fact that observed fact C is an inferred consequence of A. However, not all discoveries take this top-down procedure from A to C, in which the result of discovery A implies the observed fact C. I contend that discovery can be modeled as a bottom-up procedure based on inductive and analogical rules that lead us to infer from C to A. I take the theory of Dignaga, an Indian medieval logician, as a model of this bottom-up approach. My argument has three panels: 1) this bottom-up approach applies to both commonsense and scientific discovery without the assumption that C has to be an inferred consequence of A; 2) this bottom-up approach helps us get around problems that crop up in applying abduction and/or IBE, which means that scientific discovery need not to be modeled exclusively by top-down approaches; and 3) the existence of the bottom-up approach requires a pluralist attitude towards modeling of scientific discovery.

  19. Long-term observations of bottom current and bottom sediment movement on the mid-Atlantic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Noble, Marlene A.; Folger, David W.

    1979-01-01

    Long-term in situ observations made at three locations on the mid-Atlantic continental shelf during 1975–1976 clearly show intermittent movement of bottom sediment caused by currents, waves, and other forcing mechanisms. In winter, storm-associated bottom currents greater than 30 cm s−1 resuspended and transported sediments. Net water particle excursions during storms were about 20–30 km longshelf and 5–10 km cross-shelf. Wave-induced bottom currents also resuspended sediments during periods of low mean flow. Sediment motion was observed in summer, although bottom conditions were generally tranquil. Significant changes in suspended matter concentration were observed that were only partially related to bottom currents. These changes may have been caused by biological activity or advection. Bottom currents on the mid-Atlantic region of the continental shelf were characterized by a coherent, primarily cross-shelf tidal flow of 5–10 cm s−1 and a low-frequency longshelf component of 5–20 cm s−1. The longshelf current was coherent over length scales of 100 km at tidal frequencies and for motions with periods greater than 50 hours. For these longer periods the longshelf flow was coherent with wind stress, which implies that winds were a major driving force of the longshelf current. The cross-shelf current was not coherent at stations separated by 100 km except at tidal frequencies. Packets of high-frequency internal waves were observed during stratified conditions in summer with bottom currents as large as 20 cm s−1.

  20. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. PMID:26340550

  1. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix.

  2. Daytime distribution of Pontoporeia affinis off bottom in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1968-01-01

    The vertical migration of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis in Lake Michigan has been well documented by Wells, Marzolf, and McNaught and Hasler. Wells and Marzolf observed Pontoporeia off bottom only at night. McNaught and Hasler, however, found Pontoporeia above the bottom shortly after noon in a 24-hr study on 12 June 1965, and some individuals were taken just below the thermocline in all daylight hours in a similar study on 19-20 August. This paper presents evidence that Pontoporeia regularly were present above bottom during the day from April-August 1964. The data for this report were collected during a study of seasonal and depth distribution of larval bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) in Lake Michigan. Sampling was conducted from the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries RV Cisco off Saugatuck, Michigan, at intervals of about 10 days from 9 April to 14 August 1964. A few samples were taken on 22 August and 15 October.

  3. Fluid flow over arbitrary bottom topography in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Srikumar

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional free surface potential flow over an arbitrary bottom in a channel is considered to analyze the behavior of the free surface profile using linear theory. It is assumed that the fluid is inviscid, incompressible and flow is irrotational. Perturbation analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform technique is employed to determine the first order corrections of some important physical quantities such as free surface profile, velocity potential, etc. From the practical point of view, one arbitrary bottom topography is considered to determine the free surface profile since the free surface profile depends on the bottom topography. It is found that the free surface profile is oscillatory in nature, representing a wave propagating downstream and no wave upstream.

  4. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  5. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulin, E.; Demier, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-01-01

    Steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat which projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks were studied. Steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance were analyzed. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state of the art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. The costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with aftercooling with the same total output were compared, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increase initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability are considered and the cost and performance of advanced systes are evaluated.

  6. Ocean bottom sediments as an active carbon pool.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Bottom deposits of oceans, seas and lakes are long term carbon sinks - particulate organic carbon falls to the bottom where it is covered by sediments and preserved by anoxic conditions. However, the upper horizons of these deep sediments ('active layer') interact with bottom waters through diffusion, bubbling of gasses and bioturbation and can thus also act as temporary carbon sources given favorable environment conditions. Oxygen diffusion is the main factor that limits organic decomposition in bottom deposits. Depth of diffusion depends on porosity of sediments and rates of oxygen consumption in the upper horizons. Amplified organic rain leads to higher oxygen demand and, consequently, to a thinner oxic horizon in the bottom sediments. Declined ocean productivity, in contrast, allows oxygen to diffuse deeper into the bottom sediments and remobilizes previously preserved carbon. Therefore a substantial decline in ocean productivity during glacial periods could cause ocean sediments to shift abruptly from a carbon sink to a considerable carbon source. To estimate the effects of the phenomena described above, we present a model of the dynamics and vertical distribution of organic carbon in ocean sediments that considers the input of organic rain, sediments porosity, oxygen availability, rates of sedimentation to the ocean floor and bioturbation. The model enables quantification of bulk carbon storage, carbon distribution within the 'active layer', and the flux of carbon from the upper sediment horizons to deeper deposits as sediments accumulate on the ocean floor. Applying our model, we find that during glacial periods, decreased ocean productivity led to the mobilization of old carbon previously stored within anoxic horizons. Under this scenario, carbon transfer from sediments to ocean waters would have exceeded 10 kg/m2. Our study therefore, suggests that the ocean floor is not merely a passive buffer in the global carbon cycle, but instead an active pool which

  7. The recycling of MSW incinerator bottom ash by sintering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Tsai, Chen-Chiu; Lin, Kae-Long; Chiang, Kung-Yuh

    2003-08-01

    In recognition of the trend toward an increased use of bottom ash as construction material, the authors have investigated the feasibility of recovering bottom ash for use as aggregates, by sintering size-fractioned MSW incinerator bottom ash (particle size less than 1.41 mm and between 4.76-1.41 mm) at 400-1,000 degrees C for 60-240 min, and then determining the sintered material characteristics, such as the compressive strength, heavy metal leachability and principal material properties. The results indicate that the pH of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leachate produced from both fine and the coarse ash, ranged from 10.0-11.5, and from 7.5-11.3 respectively, and showed a tendency to decrease with an increasing sintering temperature. In addition, for both types of ash the compressive strength of the sintered monoliths, ranging from 50-55 MPa, decreased slightly when the sintering temperature was increased from 400 to 600 degrees C. Deformation problems may arise from the melting of glassy substances in the ash when bottom ash is sintered at temperatures higher than 700 degrees C. Thus, when sintered between 800 to 1,000 degrees C, the sintered bottom ash pellets might disintegrate due to the formation of aluminium and/or calcium salts. The decomposition of calcium carbonate at 650 degrees C which releases significant amounts of carbon dioxide, may also cause the destruction of a monolith. Based on considerations of loss on ignition, volume changes, water adsorption, soundness, bulk density and the compressive strength of the sintered ash, developed by the sintering of bottom ash between 400 to 600 degrees C after removing its coarse impurities, the general results from the experiments suggest that the aggregates do meet the Chinese National Standards (CNS) for permeable blocks. PMID:14531518

  8. Evaluation of ASTM test method D 4867, effect of moisture on asphalt concrete paving mixtures. Final report, May 1995--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, K.D.

    1998-09-01

    The moisture sensitivities of 21 dense-graded asphalt pavements were predicted in 1987 using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Test Method D 4867, Effect of Moisture on Asphalt Concrete Paving Mixtures. Tests were performed on cores taken from the pavements. The air-void levels of the cores varied from pavement to pavement. In 1995 and 1996, cores were again taken from the pavements to ascertain whether the test method correctly predicted performance. Pavement distress surveys were also performed.

  9. Bottom-up silicon nanowire-based thermoelectric microgenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, D.; Huber, R.; Hierold, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, bottom-up intrinsic crystalline Si nanowire arrays in combination with top-down microfabrication techniques and a vertical device architecture have been proposed to develop an all-silicon nanostructured thermoelectric generator. To fabricate this device, a suitable vertical integration of Si NWs on patterned microstructures, which define the thermoelectric legs of the generator, has been achieved by bonding top and bottom silicon structures through nanowires. The process has been proven to be a feasible approach that employs a regrowth process of the nanowires for bonding purposes.

  10. Running of the bottom quark mass within the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, L.

    2008-11-23

    We compute the exact two-loop matching coefficient for the bottom-quark mass m{sub b}, within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), taking into account O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) contributions from the Supersymmetric Quantum Chromodynamics (SQCD). We find that the three-loop order corrections to the running bottom-quark mass exceed the uncertainty due to the current experimental accuracy. They can reach up to 30% from the tree-level m{sub b}, for models with large values of tan {beta} and relatively light SUSY mass scale.

  11. Determination of bottom pressure in river flow over an obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlychkov, V. A.

    2014-05-01

    Free-surface flow in natural watercourses was investigated using two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations written for a longitudinal vertical plane. Within the framework of similarity theory, expanding the unknown variables in power series of given structure reduces the problem to a sequence of ordinary differential equations for which an analytical solution is obtained. The solution reproduces the spatial pattern of the flow over the bottom surface of arbitrary geometry. The results of calculation of the pressure field near an underwater pipeline are presented which can be used in the stability analysis of pipeline-bottom soil systems in the case of scouring.

  12. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  13. Evaluating vehicle re-entrained road dust and its potential to deposit to Lake Tahoe: a bottom-up inventory approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongzi; Kuhns, Hampden D; Gillies, John A; Gertler, Alan W

    2014-01-01

    Identifying hotspot areas impacted by emissions of dust from roadways is an essential step for mitigation. This paper develops a detailed road dust PM₁₀ emission inventory using a bottom-up approach and evaluates the potential for the dust to deposit to Lake Tahoe where it can affect water clarity. Previous studies of estimates of quantities of atmospheric deposition of fine sediment particles ("FSP", <16 μm in diameter) to the lake were questioned due to low confidence in the results and insufficient data. A bottom-up approach that integrates measured road dust emission factors, five years of meteorological data, a traffic demand model and GIS analysis was used to estimate the near field deposition of airborne particulate matter <16 μm, and assess the relationship between trip location and the potential magnitude of this source of atmospheric deposition to the lake. Approximately ~20 Mg year(-1) of PM₁₀ and ~36 Mg year(-1) Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) from roadway emissions of dust are estimated to reach the lake. We estimate that the atmospheric dry deposition of particles to the lake attributable to vehicle travel on paved roads is approximately 0.6% of the Total Maximum Daily Loadings (TMDL) of FSP that the lake can receive and still meet water quality standards.

  14. Use of vitrified MSWI bottom ashes for concrete production.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Monica; Salvo, Milena; Ventrella, Andrea; Buzzi, Luigi; Veglia, Massimo

    2009-03-01

    Bottom ashes from a north Italian municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) were vitrified at 1450 degrees C without adding any vitrifying agent, then ground and sieved to different granulometry (ranging from 50 microm to 20mm), and used as filler, sand, or aggregate for concrete. Samples were characterized via slump tests (UNI 9418), alkali-silica reactivity (UNI 8520/22 and ASTM C 298), and compression strength tests (UNI 6132, 6132/72, 6686/72), and compared to reference samples obtained without vitrified bottom ashes (VBA). Our results show that vitrified bottom ashes are unsuitable as a sand substitute; however, concrete containing up to 20 wt.% of VBA filler used as a substitute for cement and up to 75 vol.% of VBA as a substitute for natural aggregate retains the same mechanical properties as reference samples. Alkali-silica or other detrimental reactions were not observed in VBA-containing concrete samples after a period of two years. The results of this work demonstrate that vitrified bottom ashes from MSWI can be used instead of natural aggregates in mortar and concrete production. PMID:18845429

  15. Good news from the bottom: US asphalt market 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-22

    For US refiners faced with numerous tough challenges in 1993, the US asphalt market recovery may have provided some welcome news for those watching the bottom line. Higher prices and increased sales made the asphalt market a summertime profit center for many US refiners and marketers -- for the first time in years.

  16. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... integral auxiliary test valve, a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug shall be installed in the outlet nozzle above... and female flange attachment, but in no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the... attachment on a pad attached to the outside bottom of the tank. The mounting pad must have a...

  17. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... integral auxiliary test valve, a minimum 1-inch NPT pipe plug shall be installed in the outlet nozzle above... and female flange attachment, but in no case shall the breakage groove or equivalent extend below the... attachment on a pad attached to the outside bottom of the tank. The mounting pad must have a...

  18. Hyperspectral imaging based procedures applied to bottom ash characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2007-09-01

    Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWIs) is mainly land filled or used as material for the foundation of road in European countries. Bottom ash is usually first crushed to below 40 mm and separated magnetically to recover the steel scrap. The remaining material contains predominantly sand, sinters and pieces of stone, glass and ceramics, which could be used as building material if strict technical and environmental requirements are respected. The main problem is the presence of residual organic matter in the ash and the large surface area presented by the fine fraction that creates leaching values, for elements such as copper, that are above the accepted levels for standard building materials. Main aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility offered by hyperspectral imaging to identify organic matter inside the residues in order to develop control/selection strategies to be implemented inside the bottom ash recycling plant. Reflectance spectra of selected bottom ash samples have been acquired in the VIS-NIR field (400- 1000 nm). Results showed as the organic content of the different samples influences the spectral signatures, in particular an inverse correlation between reflectance level and organic matter content was found.

  19. 14. DETAIL OF CONNECTIONS AT THE BOTTOM OF A POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF CONNECTIONS AT THE BOTTOM OF A POST IN THE WEST TRUSS, SHOWING THE ASSEMBLY OF LOWER CHORD AND DIAGONAL EYE BOLTS AND THE SUSPENSION OF A FLOOR BEAM FROM THE POST BY A U-BOLT; VIEW FROM SOUTH BANK. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  20. 19. Detail of base of revolving lens assembly, showing bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of base of revolving lens assembly, showing bottom of lamp at center and brass tens framework at edges of circular platform. Mercury float bearing lies in circular well just beneath lens platform. (Blurred due to lens motion.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  1. Reading Nature from a "Bottom-Up" Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magntorn, Ola; Hellden, Gustav

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ecology teaching and learning in a Swedish primary school class (age 10-11 yrs). A teaching sequence was designed to help students read nature in a river ecosystem. The teaching sequence had a "bottom up" approach, taking as its starting point a common key organism--the freshwater shrimp. From this species and its…

  2. DETAIL OF TYPICAL ALUMINUM FLASHING AT THE BOTTOM OF AN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF TYPICAL ALUMINUM FLASHING AT THE BOTTOM OF AN EXTERIOR WALL AT UNIT B. VIEW FACING NORTH - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, U-Shaped Two-Bedroom Duplex Type 1, Acacia Road, Birch Circle, and Cedar Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must be equipped with an excess flow valve of approved design, except when a quick-closing internal... or in place of the venting, loading and unloading valves, measuring and sampling devices as prescribed in § 179.103-3, tanks may be equipped with approved bottom outlet valves. If applied,...

  4. 49 CFR 179.103-5 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be equipped with an excess flow valve of approved design, except when a quick-closing internal.... (a) In addition to or in place of the venting, loading and unloading valves, measuring and sampling devices as prescribed in § 179.103-3, tanks may be equipped with approved bottom outlet valves. If...

  5. 45. MAIN WAREHOUSE BOTTOM LEVEL Looking south from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. MAIN WAREHOUSE - BOTTOM LEVEL Looking south from the older section of the building (with wooden posts) towards the newer portion, with its cement posts. One of the two elevators to the main floor is visible on the right. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. Evaluation of factors affecting resolution of shallow water bottom features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, C. C.; Norris, D. R.; Browne, I. D.

    1972-01-01

    To ensure good aerial photography, the effects that factors such as submergence depth, sun angle, film and filter type, exposure, aircraft altitude, and polarization have on the photographic resolution of an underwater object must be determined. Various subjects were photographed, such as the deck of a small submersible, colored and gray scale panels, and natural bottom features. No underwater resolution target was used.

  7. 10. VIEW EAST, RECESS AREA WITH BOTTOM HORIZONTAL BEAM FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW EAST, RECESS AREA WITH BOTTOM HORIZONTAL BEAM FOR EAST GATE - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  8. Steam bottoming cycle for an adiabatic diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, E.; Demler, R.; Krepchin, I.; Walker, D.

    1984-03-01

    A study of steam bottoming cycles using adiabatic diesel engine exhaust heat projected substantial performance and economic benefits for long haul trucks. A parametric analysis of steam cycle and system component variables, system cost, size and performance was conducted. An 811 K/6.90 MPa state-of-the-art reciprocating expander steam system with a monotube boiler and radiator core condenser was selected for preliminary design. When applied to a NASA specified turbo-charged adiabatic diesel the bottoming system increased the diesel output by almost 18%. In a comparison of the costs of the diesel with bottoming system (TC/B) and a NASA specified turbocompound adiabatic diesel with after-cooling with the same total output, the annual fuel savings less the added maintenance cost was determined to cover the increased initial cost of the TC/B system in a payback period of 2.3 years. Also during this program steam bottoming system freeze protection strategies were developed, technological advances required for improved system reliability were considered and the cost and performance of advanced systems were evaluated.

  9. 36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER No. 1 AND TWO GAS COOLING TOWER SERVICE WATER PUMPS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  10. CLOSEUP VIEW OF BOTTOM OF MAIN BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP VIEW OF BOTTOM OF MAIN BRIDGE CANTILEVER THROUGH TRUSS SPAN SHOWING CANTILEVERED HIGHWAY FLOOR BRACKET LOOKING NORTHWEST AT PIER “II”. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  11. 3. CONNECTING TUNNEL AT BOTTOM CENTER TO CENTER, CONTROL BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONNECTING TUNNEL AT BOTTOM CENTER TO CENTER, CONTROL BUILDING B AT CENTER, WATER TANK TO UPPER LEFT, VIEW TOWARDS WEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Control Building B, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic ice sheet grounding lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2002-01-01

    As continental ice from Antartica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed.

  13. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  14. 16. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice and diagonal connections for the 2nd and 3rd spans. View is of south side of 3rd span just west of its connection with the 4th span. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  15. 27. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Typical end post, top chord, bottom chord, vertical lattice and diagonal connections for the 1st and 4th spans. View is of south side of 4th span just east of its connection with the 3rd span. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  16. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Maas, Leo

    2015-11-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and generalized wavenumber (Floquet exponent), and for the waveforms of free wave modes. The dispersion relation is the analogue of the classical Lamb's equation for a two-layer fluid over a flat bottom. For internal modes the interfacial wave shows rapid modulation at the scale of its own wavelength that is comparable to bottom wavelength, whereas for surface modes it becomes a long wave carrier for modulating short waves of bottom wavelength. The approximation using a rigid-lid is given. Sample calculations are shown, including the frequencies that are Bragg resonant. Supports to JY by US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0845957) and a visitor's grant of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) during the period of this work, are gratefully acknowledged.

  17. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units §...

  18. 46 CFR 174.050 - Stability on bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability on bottom. 174.050 Section 174.050 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC VESSEL TYPES Special Rules Pertaining to Mobile Offshore Drilling Units §...

  19. 7. DETAIL OF ROOM BELOW GRIZZLY SHOWING BOTTOM OF COARSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF ROOM BELOW GRIZZLY SHOWING BOTTOM OF COARSE ORE BIN AND CHUTE TO BEGINNING OF CONVEYOR BELT, SOUTH VIEW. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  20. Detection of Higgs bosons decaying to bottom quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.; Price, L.E.

    1986-11-01

    Several developments affecting the possibility of Higgs detection are discussed. These include the level of certainty about the t quark mass, Monte Carlo programs to generate both signal and background events, and separation and/or enhancement of heavy quark jets from jets due to light quarks or gluons, and the possibility that the neutral Higgs decay into bottom quarks might be the decay mode of choice for detecting the intermediate mass Higgs. Possible means of detection of an intermediate mass Higgs at the SSC, particularly if a prominent decay mode is to bottom quarks, are examined, using the PYTHIA Monte Carlo program to generate both signal and background events. For the signal, events were generated in which Higgs bosons are created in proton-proton collisions, with the Higgs decaying into bottom quarks. The presence of W or Z bosons, created in the same proton-proton collision, is used to enhance the likelihood of Higgs production and to reduce the potentially enormous background. It is found that the Higgs decay to bottom quarks, if important, would be more favorable for detection of the Higgs than decay to top quarks was found to be because of the smaller background. 3 refs., 4 figs. (LEW)

  1. 44. (Credit JTL) View looking northeast at bottom of #3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. (Credit JTL) View looking northeast at bottom of #3 low service pump pit showing Worthington water pumps. Pumps have 21" diameter plungers and are driven by rods connected to steam cylinders above. Spiral stairway and elevator are on left. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  2. Search for scalar top and bottom quarks at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Calfayan, Philippe

    2008-11-23

    This document reviews recent results on the search for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks in pp-bar collisions at {radical}(s) = 1.96 TeV. The analyses presented are based on data samples with integrated luminosities from 1.0 to 1.9 fb{sup -1} recorded at the Tevatron with the D0 and CDF detectors.

  3. DETAIL OF BOILER, SHOWING (TOP TO BOTTOM) ENDS OF STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF BOILER, SHOWING (TOP TO BOTTOM) ENDS OF STEAM CHAMBERS, DOORS GIVING ACCESS TO TUBING, AND SIX BURNERS, CAMERA FACING WEST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Central Steam Plant and Oil Storage, Vicinity of Union Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 74. CENTER GIRDER SECTION FOR THE BOTTOM CHORD OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. CENTER GIRDER SECTION FOR THE BOTTOM CHORD OF THE IOWA SWING SPAN LOADED ON A DOLLY READY TO BE ROLLED OUT TO THE BRIDGE TO BE PLACER ON THE DRUM. PROBABLY TAKEN SEPTEMBER 7, 1895. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  5. Bottom-Up Biology: Harnessing Engineering to Understand Nature.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Daniel A

    2016-09-26

    Engineering as a field has fundamentally different goals than biology, but the perspective that engineers take-that systems can be designed and built-is helping to advance biological sciences by motivating and equipping efforts to construct biological systems from the bottom up. PMID:27676431

  6. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Cathey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants to provide the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light-water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants. The Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station has two boiling water reactor (BWR) units, each with a capacity of 1150 MW(e). The reactors are each housed in a Mark I containment. Peach Bottom Unit 2 analyzed here, was studied before as part of WASH-1400. A number of plant features tend to be important in determining the nature and frequency of the core melt scenarios for Peach Bottom. These features include the recent above-average diesel generator performance history, the single emergency service water system for both units, the numerous emergency core cooling systems, recent procedure modifications and the low volume containment.

  7. 13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast iron bases for oil butts (oil butts removed when lighthouse lamp was converted to electric power.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  8. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tank Cars (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). (2) Bottom washout shall be of cast, forged or...-shaped breakage groove shall be cut (not cast) in the upper part of the outlet nozzle at a point... accidental breakage will occur at or below the “V” groove or its equivalent. On cars without...

  9. 49 CFR 179.100-14 - Bottom outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 171.7 of this subchapter). (2) Bottom washout shall be of cast, forged or fabricated metal and shall... groove shall be cut (not cast) in the upper part of the outlet nozzle at a point immediately below the... occur at or below the “V” groove or its equivalent. On cars without continuous center sills,...

  10. Bottom-Up Analysis of Single-Case Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines and promotes the qualities of a "bottom-up" approach to single-case research (SCR) data analysis. Although "top-down" models, for example, multi-level or hierarchical linear models, are gaining momentum and have much to offer, interventionists should be cautious about analyses that are not easily understood, are not governed by…

  11. General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the "bottom" side of the Orbiter Discovery as it is being hoisted in a vertical position in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Changes in the bottom fauna of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Schloesser, D.W.; Munawar, M.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, I.F.

    1999-01-01

    The bottom fauna of western Lake Erie has changed dramatically over the past 50 years in response to environmental degradation and biological invasions. In 1953, low dissolved oxygen reduced the biodiversity of that fauna, especially burrowing mayflies and freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Canada and the United States signed the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972. By 1982, over 7 billion dollars were spent to improve wastewater treatment plants in the Great Lakes Basin. To assess how the bottom fauna responded to pollution abatement measures, we studied the distribution, abundance, and diversity of bottom fauna in western Lake Erie in 1982 and compared our findings to those of Carr and Hiltunen (1965). Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded Lake Erie in 1986 and greatly altered these waters. For perspective, we also compared our results to bottom fauna present at the same stations in 1930 (by reference to data in Carr and Hiltunen, 1965) and reviewed the responses of burrowing mayflies and freshwater mussels to the zebra mussel invasion.

  13. Cool Bottom Processing on the AGB and Presolar Grain Compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nollett, Kenneth M.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    We describe results from a model of cool bottom processing (CBP) in AGB (asymptotic giant branch) stars. We predict O, Al, C and N isotopic compositions of circumstellar grains. Measured compositions of mainstream SiC grains and many oxide grains are consistent with CBP. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. SAR imaging and hydrodynamic analysis of ocean bottom topographic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Li, Li; Guo, Xiaogang; Ge, Yong; Zhu, Dayong; Li, Chunyan

    2006-09-01

    The satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images display wave-like patterns of the ocean bottom topographic features at the south outlet of Taiwan Strait (TS). Field measurements indicate that the most TS water body is vertically stratified. However, SAR imaging models available were developed for homogeneous waters. Hence explaining SAR imaging mechanisms of bottom features in a stratified ocean is beyond the scope of those models. In order to explore these mechanisms and to determine the quantitative relations between the SAR imagery and the bottom features, a two-dimensional, three-layer ocean model with sinusoidal bottom topographic features is developed. Analytical solutions and inferences of the momentum equations of the ocean model lead to the following conditions. (1) In the lower layer, the topography-induced waves (topographic waves hereafter) exist in the form of stationary waves, which satisfy a lower boundary resonance condition σ = kC0, here σ is an angular frequency of the stationary waves, k is a wavenumber of bottom topographic corrugation, and C0 is a background current speed. (2) As internal waves, the topographic waves may propagate vertically to the upper layer with an unchanged wavenumber k, if a frequency relation N3 < σ < N2 is satisfied, here N2 and N3 are the Brunt-Wäisälä frequencies of middle layer and upper layer, respectively. (3) The topographic waves are extremely amplified if an upper layer resonance condition is satisfied. The SAR image of topographic waves is derived on the basis of current-modulated small wave spectra. The results indicate that the topographic waves on SAR images have the same wavelength of bottom topographic corrugation, and the imagery brightness peaks are either inphase or antiphase with respect to the topographic corrugation, depending on a sign of a coupling factor. These theoretical predictions are verified by field observations. The results of this study provide a physical basis for quantitative

  15. Bottom-up fabrication of nanohole arrays loaded with gold nanoparticles: extraordinary plasmonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Markus; Quint, Stefan B; Klenk, Simon; Pacholski, Claudia

    2014-12-18

    A chemical route to periodic hole arrays in gold films whose holes are loaded with single gold nanoparticles is presented, paving the road to mass production of highly sensitive plasmonic sensors on large areas.

  16. Bottom-up fabrication of nanohole arrays loaded with gold nanoparticles: extraordinary plasmonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Markus; Quint, Stefan B; Klenk, Simon; Pacholski, Claudia

    2014-12-18

    A chemical route to periodic hole arrays in gold films whose holes are loaded with single gold nanoparticles is presented, paving the road to mass production of highly sensitive plasmonic sensors on large areas. PMID:25350760

  17. Bottom temperature and salinity distribution and its variability around Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Schnurr, Sarah M.; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-05-01

    The barrier formed by the Greenland-Scotland-Ridge (GSR) shapes the oceanic conditions in the region around Iceland. Deep water cannot be exchanged across the ridge, and only limited water mass exchange in intermediate layers is possible through deep channels, where the flow is directed southwestward (the Nordic Overflows). As a result, the near-bottom water masses in the deep basins of the northern North Atlantic and the Nordic Seas hold major temperature differences. Here, we use near-bottom measurements of about 88,000 CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) and bottle profiles, collected in the period 1900-2008, to investigate the distribution of near-bottom properties. Data are gridded into regular boxes of about 11 km size and interpolated following isobaths. We derive average spatial temperature and salinity distributions in the region around Iceland, showing the influence of the GSR on the near-bottom hydrography. The spatial distribution of standard deviation is used to identify local variability, which is enhanced near water mass fronts. Finally, property changes within the period 1975-2008 are presented using time series analysis techniques for a collection of grid boxes with sufficient data resolution. Seasonal variability, as well as long term trends are discussed for different bottom depth classes, representing varying water masses. The seasonal cycle is most pronounced in temperature and decreases with depth (mean amplitudes of 2.2 °C in the near surface layers vs. 0.2 °C at depths > 500 m), while linear trends are evident in both temperature and salinity (maxima in shallow waters of +0.33 °C/decade for temperature and +0.03/decade for salinity).

  18. Towards nano-organic chemistry: perspectives for a bottom-up approach to the synthesis of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercuri, Francesco; Baldoni, Matteo; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Low-dimensional carbon nanostructures, such as nanotubes and graphenes, represent one of the most promising classes of materials, in view of their potential use in nanotechnology. However, their exploitation in applications is often hindered by difficulties in their synthesis and purification. Despite the huge efforts by the research community, the production of nanostructured carbon materials with controlled properties is still beyond reach. Nonetheless, this step is nowadays mandatory for significant progresses in the realization of advanced applications and devices based on low-dimensional carbon nanostructures. Although promising alternative routes for the fabrication of nanostructured carbon materials have recently been proposed, a comprehensive understanding of the key factors governing the bottom-up assembly of simple precursors to form complex systems with tailored properties is still at its early stages. In this paper, following a survey of recent experimental efforts in the bottom-up synthesis of carbon nanostructures, we attempt to clarify generalized criteria for the design of suitable precursors that can be used as building blocks in the production of complex systems based on sp2 carbon atoms and discuss potential synthetic strategies. In particular, the approaches presented in this feature article are based on the application of concepts borrowed from traditional organic chemistry, such as valence-bond theory and Clar sextet theory, and on their extension to the case of complex carbon nanomaterials. We also present and discuss a validation of these approaches through first-principle calculations on prototypical systems. Detailed studies on the processes involved in the bottom-up fabrication of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures are expected to pave the way for the design and optimization of precursors and efficient synthetic routes, thus allowing the development of novel materials with controlled morphology and properties that can be used in

  19. Towards nano-organic chemistry: perspectives for a bottom-up approach to the synthesis of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Francesco; Baldoni, Matteo; Sgamellotti, Antonio

    2012-01-21

    Low-dimensional carbon nanostructures, such as nanotubes and graphenes, represent one of the most promising classes of materials, in view of their potential use in nanotechnology. However, their exploitation in applications is often hindered by difficulties in their synthesis and purification. Despite the huge efforts by the research community, the production of nanostructured carbon materials with controlled properties is still beyond reach. Nonetheless, this step is nowadays mandatory for significant progresses in the realization of advanced applications and devices based on low-dimensional carbon nanostructures. Although promising alternative routes for the fabrication of nanostructured carbon materials have recently been proposed, a comprehensive understanding of the key factors governing the bottom-up assembly of simple precursors to form complex systems with tailored properties is still at its early stages. In this paper, following a survey of recent experimental efforts in the bottom-up synthesis of carbon nanostructures, we attempt to clarify generalized criteria for the design of suitable precursors that can be used as building blocks in the production of complex systems based on sp(2) carbon atoms and discuss potential synthetic strategies. In particular, the approaches presented in this feature article are based on the application of concepts borrowed from traditional organic chemistry, such as valence-bond theory and Clar sextet theory, and on their extension to the case of complex carbon nanomaterials. We also present and discuss a validation of these approaches through first-principle calculations on prototypical systems. Detailed studies on the processes involved in the bottom-up fabrication of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures are expected to pave the way for the design and optimization of precursors and efficient synthetic routes, thus allowing the development of novel materials with controlled morphology and properties that can be used in

  20. Discovering the Higgs bosons of minimal supersymmetry with bottom quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chung; Sachithanandam, Shankar; Sayre, Joshua; Wang, Yili

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the prospects for the discovery of a neutral Higgs boson produced with one bottom quark followed by Higgs decay into a pair of bottom quarks at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. The dominant physics background is calculated with realistic acceptance cuts and efficiencies including the production of bbbbar, bbar bbbar, jbbbar (j = g , q ,qbar; q = u , d , s , c), ttbar → bbbar jjℓν, and ttbar → bbbar jjjj. Promising results are found for the CP-odd pseudoscalar (A0) and the heavier CP-even scalar (H0) Higgs bosons with masses up to 800 GeV for the LHC with an integrated luminosity (L) of 30fb-1 and up to 1 TeV for L = 300fb-1.

  1. Bottom water warming in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Masao; Freeland, Howard; Perkin, Ron; Watanabe, Tomowo; Uchida, Hiroshi; Nishina, Ayako

    2004-02-26

    Observations of changes in the properties of ocean waters have been restricted to surface or intermediate-depth waters, because the detection of change in bottom water is extremely difficult owing to the small magnitude of the expected signals. Nevertheless, temporal changes in the properties of such deep waters across an ocean basin are of particular interest, as they can be used to constrain the transport of water at the bottom of the ocean and to detect changes in the global thermohaline circulation. Here we present a comparison of a trans-Pacific survey completed in 1985 (refs 4, 5) and its repetition in 1999 (ref. 6). We find that the deepest waters of the North Pacific Ocean have warmed significantly across the entire width of the ocean basin. Our observations imply that changes in water properties are now detectable in water masses that have long been insulated from heat exchange with the atmosphere.

  2. The sorption of Zectran on bottom sediments and peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.W.; Faust, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A modified analytical method employed to determine the insecticide Zectran in natural waters frequently has resulted in erroneous data. The errors have been attributed to interferences from particulate matter in these waters. In order to evaluate analytical interferences due to sorption of Zectran on particulates, a series of experiments was performed using bottom sediments and a peat moss in contact with aqueous solutions of zectran at a pH values of 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Isotherm studies confirmed that Zectran sorption occurs in a direct relation to the amount of chemically oxidizable carbon present in the bottom sediments or peat moss. However, the extent of sorption was limited, which suggested that particulates may not be the primary interference in the modified analytical method.

  3. Bottom water warming in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Masao; Freeland, Howard; Perkin, Ron; Watanabe, Tomowo; Uchida, Hiroshi; Nishina, Ayako

    2004-02-26

    Observations of changes in the properties of ocean waters have been restricted to surface or intermediate-depth waters, because the detection of change in bottom water is extremely difficult owing to the small magnitude of the expected signals. Nevertheless, temporal changes in the properties of such deep waters across an ocean basin are of particular interest, as they can be used to constrain the transport of water at the bottom of the ocean and to detect changes in the global thermohaline circulation. Here we present a comparison of a trans-Pacific survey completed in 1985 (refs 4, 5) and its repetition in 1999 (ref. 6). We find that the deepest waters of the North Pacific Ocean have warmed significantly across the entire width of the ocean basin. Our observations imply that changes in water properties are now detectable in water masses that have long been insulated from heat exchange with the atmosphere. PMID:14985757

  4. Calculations of bottom quark production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Kuebel, D.

    1991-06-29

    This thesis studies Monte Carlo simulations of QCD heavy flavor production processes (p{bar p} {yields} Q({anti Q})X) at hadron colliders. ISAJET bottom quark cross-sections are compared to the O({alpha} {sub s}{sup 3}) perturbative calculation of Nason, Dawson, and Ellis. These Monte Carlo cross-sections are computed from data samples which use different parton distribution functions and physics parameters. Distributions are presented in the heavy quark`s transverse momentum and rapidity. Correlations in rapidity and azimuthal angle are computed for the heavy flavor pair. Theory issues which arise are the behavior of the cross-section at low and high values of transverse momentum and the treatment of double counting problems in the flavor excitation samples. An important result is that ISAJET overestimates bottom quark production cross-sections and K factors. These findings are relevant for estimates of rates and backgrounds of heavy floor events.

  5. Calculations of bottom quark production at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Kuebel, D.

    1991-06-29

    This thesis studies Monte Carlo simulations of QCD heavy flavor production processes (p{bar p} {yields} Q({anti Q})X) at hadron colliders. ISAJET bottom quark cross-sections are compared to the O({alpha} {sub s}{sup 3}) perturbative calculation of Nason, Dawson, and Ellis. These Monte Carlo cross-sections are computed from data samples which use different parton distribution functions and physics parameters. Distributions are presented in the heavy quark's transverse momentum and rapidity. Correlations in rapidity and azimuthal angle are computed for the heavy flavor pair. Theory issues which arise are the behavior of the cross-section at low and high values of transverse momentum and the treatment of double counting problems in the flavor excitation samples. An important result is that ISAJET overestimates bottom quark production cross-sections and K factors. These findings are relevant for estimates of rates and backgrounds of heavy floor events.

  6. Thin films of bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhirev, Mikhail; Lipatov, Alexey; Vo, Timothy; Mehdi Pour, Mohammad; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bottom-up solution synthetic approaches for graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) receive a great deal of attention, because they yield large quantities of atomically precise GNRs with intriguing electronic and optical properties. However, poor solubility of these GNRs in conventional solvents remains a great challenge and limits their processability for applications in printable electronics, photovoltaics and composite materials. We studied the solubility of solution-synthesized GNRs in chlorosulfonic acid and developed a protocol for thin film fabrication that could be applied for different types of bottom-up synthesized GNRs. The developed procedure also provides control over the thickness of films that can be made as thin as one GNR thick. Reactivity of the GNRs with chlorosulfonic acid and electrical properties of fabricated films will also be discussed.

  7. Radiative transfer theory applied to ocean bottom modeling.

    PubMed

    Quijano, Jorge E; Zurk, Lisa M

    2009-10-01

    Research on the propagation of acoustic waves in the ocean bottom sediment is of interest for active sonar applications such as target detection and remote sensing. The interaction of acoustic energy with the sea floor sublayers is usually modeled with techniques based on the full solution of the wave equation, which sometimes leads to mathematically intractable problems. An alternative way to model wave propagation in layered media containing random scatterers is the radiative transfer (RT) formulation, which is a well established technique in the electromagnetics community and is based on the principle of conservation of energy. In this paper, the RT equation is used to model the backscattering of acoustic energy from a layered elastic bottom sediment containing distributions of independent scatterers due to a constant single frequency excitation in the water column. It is shown that the RT formulation provides insight into the physical phenomena of scattering and conversion of energy between waves of different polarizations.

  8. Containment venting analysis for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-12-01

    The extent to which containment venting is an effective means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of overpressurization during severe accidents was evaluated for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (boiling water reactors with Mark I containments). Detailed analyses were conducted on operator performance, equipment performance, and the physical phenomenology for three severe accident sequences currently identified as being important contributors to risk. The results indicate that containment venting can be effective in reducing risk for several classes of severe accidents but, based on procedures in draft form and equipment in place at the time of the analyses, has limited potential for further reducing the risk for severe accidents currently identified as being important contributors to the risk for Peach Bottom.

  9. The bottom oxygen border of bioluminescence distribution in ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavoruev, Valerii

    2006-02-01

    From materials of forwarding researches follows, that the depth of deposition of the bottom border of bioluminescence plankton has not correlation with any of measurable hydrological parameters. As the reaction of bioluminescence is oxygen depended, it was logical to assume, that the situation of the bottom maximum of luminescence plankton is determined by concentration of oxygen. The data of vertical distribution of bioluminescence intensity of plankton and concentration of oxygen received in the Black Sea and near to east coast of America were investigated. Is established, that the deep maximum of bioluminescence of plankton is found out between isooxygen 0.35 and 0.20 ml/l. At concentration of oxygen in water is lower 0.10-0.20 ml/l the bioluminescence of plankton it is not found out.

  10. Donor solvent coal liquefaction with bottoms recycle at elevated pressure

    DOEpatents

    Bauman, Richard F.; Taunton, John W.; Anderson, George H.; Trachte, Ken L.; Hsia, Steve J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein increased naphtha yields are achieved by effecting the liquefaction at a pressure within the range from about 1750 to about 2800 psig in the presence of recycled bottoms and a hydrogen-donor solvent containing at least 0.8 wt % donatable hydrogen. The liquefaction is accomplished at a temperature within the range from about 700.degree. to about 950.degree. F. The coal:bottoms ratio in the feed to liquefaction will be within the range from about 1:1 to about 5:1 and the solvent or diluent to total solids ratio will be at least 1.5:1 and preferably within the range from about 1.6:1 to about 3:1. The yield of naphtha boiling range materials increases as the pressure increases but generally reaches a maximum at a pressure within the range from about 2000 to about 2500 psig.

  11. Summary of core damage frequency from internal initiators: Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Cathey, N.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) based on internal initiators are being conducted on a number of reference plants in order to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with updated information about light water reactor risk. The results of these analyses will be used by the NRC to prepare NUREG-1150 which will examine the NRC's current perception of risk. Peach Bottom has been chosen as one of the reference plants.

  12. 39. VIEW OF HOPPERS LOCATED AT THE BOTTOM OF COTTRELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF HOPPERS LOCATED AT THE BOTTOM OF COTTRELL PRECIPITATOR CHAMBERS. PARTICLES REMOVED FROM THE FLUE GAS STREAM WERE DISCHARGED INTO THE VACUUM ASH COLLECTION PIPES LOCATED BELOW THE HOPPERS. THE COTTRELL PRECIPITATORS WERE LOCATED ON THE OUTSIDE WALL OF THE EAST BOILER ROOM. REFER TO PHOTOCOPY CT-142A-15. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. New developments in energy recovery with organic Rankine bottoming cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1983-08-01

    Recent new developments in lighter duty, smaller and cheaper turbine-generator sets, lighter duty heat exchangers, synthetic material-based condensers, and increased industrial electrical utility rates have made possible applications of organic Rankine cycles where previously they would not have been attractive. In this paper the authors describe several interesting design feasibility studies on the attractiveness of using organic Rankine bottoming cycles to recover waste heat and generate electricity. Most of these recovery systems show an attractive 3 year payout.

  14. STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. SOME PRODUCT FROM THE #43 HOT ROLL IS PROCESSED ON THE TORIN LINE TO REMOVE OXIDIZED SURFACE MATERIAL. IN PRACTICE 15-20/1000 IS CUT FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES OF THE STRIP AND RECYCLED TO THE CASTING SHOP. TORIN LINE ADDED AS PART OF 1981 EXPANSION PROGRAM. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. Closeup view showing portion of continuous bottom chord of truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view showing portion of continuous bottom chord of truss with other web members and posts of the truss connected thereto at a joint by the use of a large steel pin. Note: The timber ties supporting the track (not shown but above) span transversely from truss to truss which are on 16' -0 centers. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  16. 20. Underside of swingspan showing bottom truss chords, floor beams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Underside of swing-span showing bottom truss chords, floor beams and stringers. The draw rests on the end-lift pedestals (end ram supports) at each side of the masonry rest pier. The end-lift drive shaft is supported from the center of the draw. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  17. Search for scalar top and bottom quarks at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Calfayan, Philippe; /Munich U.

    2009-01-01

    This document reviews recent results on the search for scalar top and scalar bottom quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The analyses presented are based on data samples with integrated luminosities from 1.0 to 1.9 fb{sup -1} recorded at the Tevatron with the D0 and CDF detectors.

  18. Physics of B0(s) Mesons and Bottom Baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Paulini, Manfred; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2009-06-01

    We discuss the physics of B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons focusing on CP violation in B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}{phi} decays at the Tevatron. We summarize measurements of the properties of bottom baryons at the Tevatron including the {Sigma}{sub b} states and the {Xi}{sub b}{sup -} baryon. We also discuss the discovery of the {Omega}{sub b}{sup -} baryon.

  19. Covering bottom sediments as a lake restoration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, G.D.

    1980-10-01

    Application of flyash to lake bottoms as a lake restoration technique is discussed. Flyash application could control microorganisms and sediment nutrients associated with eutrophication; however, use of flyash would present more environmental costs than benefits. PVC-coated screens and spun-bonded polypropylene screens are acceptable, but costly, alternatives to flyash application. Use of sand, clay, or other sheeting to retard eutrophication should be investigated. 28 references, 3 tables.

  20. Aerial view of Williamsport, Maryland (clockwise from bottom): Chesapeake & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of Williamsport, Maryland (clockwise from bottom): Chesapeake & Ohio (C&O) Canal Conococheague Aqueduct (HAER MD-123), Cushwa Basin, US 11 Bridge, Western Maryland (WM) Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Lift Bridge (HAER MD-23), Potomac Edison Power Plant, looking southeast. A short spur connected the power plant to the Western Maryland mainline west of Hagerstown. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  1. ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO TOP: MTR, MTR SERVICE BUILDING, ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO ETR), ETR BUILDING (HIGH-BAY), COMPRESSOR BUILDING (ATTACHED AT LEFT OF ETR), HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (JUST BEYOND COMPRESSOR BUILDING), COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. OTHER BUILDINGS ARE CONTRACTORS' CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4105. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Time variable bottom water outflow in the Northwestern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzow, Torsten; Rohardt, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) has shown widespread warming in recent decades, with implications for sea level rise and global heat uptake. Anomalously warm AABW has recently been reported to have reached the Brazil basin in the South Atlantic, while the warming further south partly seems to have come to a halt. The Weddell Sea represents the primary source of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation in the Southern Ocean. More than 60% of the AABW are supplied by Weddell Sea Deep Water, of which Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) is the main source. WSBW descends down the continental slope along the western margin of the Weddell Sea as a northward flowing plume, thereby entraining warmer ambient waters. The plume has been observed using moored current meters and temperature sensors between 1989 and 1998 and between 2005 and 2012 near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, complemented by repeated cross-slope CTD sections along the mooring array. In this study we extend the WSBW volume transport and temperature time series of Fahrbach et al. (2001) originally covering the 1989-1998 interval by the more recent period. We will report on both seasonal to inter-annual variability and possible longer-term trends in both volume transport and temperature of WSBW. The results will be discussed in the context of changes in the source areas of WSBW, such as the breakup of parts of the Larsen Ice Shelf on the eastern Arctic Peninsula, possibly fueling the formation dense water on the shelf.

  3. Integrated Rankine bottoming cycle for diesel truck engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.; Cole, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of incorporating a Rankine bottoming cycle into a diesel truck engine. An organic Rankine bottoming cycle (ORBC) previously demonstrated by the US Department of Energy in a heavy-duty, long-haul truck reduced the truck's fuel consumption by about 12%. However, that system was considered too complex and costly to be commercialized. The integrated Rankine bottoming cycle (IRBC) described here is expected to be simpler and less costly than the ORBC. In the IRBC, one cylinder of a six-cylinder diesel truck engine will be used for power recovery, instead of the turbine and reduction gears of the ORBC; engine coolant will serve as the working fluid; and the engine radiator will also serve as the condenser. Toluene and steam were considered as working fluids in this assessment, and we concluded that steam (at 1000 psi, partially vaporized to about 33% saturation in the cylinder head, and superheated in an evaporator) would be the more practical of the two. Both heat exchangers are smaller than those of the ORBC system, but may pose a challenge in an under-the-hood installation. Overall, the concept appears feasible. 13 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. The bottom quartile for health indices in America vs Europe.

    PubMed

    Shandera, Wayne Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The inequities in health outcomes in different parts of the developed world merit further analysis. An index comprising mortality and morbidity factors was composed for American states and European nations. Multiple factors and bottom quartile status were analyzed by regression methodology. The 51 American states (and District of Columbia) showed a "Health Index" value based on life expectancy at birth and morbidity determined by rates of cardiac disease and cancer that ranged from 63 (Mississippi and West Virginia) to 94 (Utah). The 48 of 51 European states with assessable data showed a Health Index based on life expectancy at birth and quality adjusted life years that ranged from 53 (Russia) to 98 (San Marino). American states with the lowest quartile values were clustered in the American South and Appalachian areas. European states ranking in the bottom quartile were typically from Eastern Europe and showed a history of a Communism and recognized governmental corruption. Because American poor health rankings are the result of controllable factors (smoking, adult onset diabetes, obesity), Americans can improve their bottom quartile status more readily than Europeans whose ranking status is a function of history (Communism, civil conflicts) and poverty (Southeastern and Eastern nations). PMID:25037885

  5. Workability and strength of lignite bottom ash geopolymer mortar.

    PubMed

    Sathonsaowaphak, Apha; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Pimraksa, Kedsarin

    2009-08-30

    In this paper, the waste lignite bottom ash from power station was used as a source material for making geopolymer. Sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as liquid for the mixture and heat curing was used to activate the geopolymerization. The fineness of bottom ash, the liquid alkaline/ash ratio, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratio and the NaOH concentration were studied. The effects of the additions of water, NaOH and napthalene-based superplasticizer on the workability and strength of the geopolymer mortar were also studied. Relatively high strength geopolymer mortars of 24.0-58.0 MPa were obtained with the use of ground bottom ash with 3% retained on sieve no. 325 and mean particle size of 15.7 microm, using liquid alkaline/ash ratios of 0.429-0.709, the sodium silicate/NaOH ratios of 0.67-1.5 and 7.5-12.5M NaOH. The incorporation of water improved the workability of geopolymer mortar more effectively than the use of napthalene-based superplasticizer with similar slight reduction in strengths. The addition of NaOH solution slightly improves the workability of the mix while maintaining the strength of the geopolymer mortars.

  6. Bottom profiling by correlating beam-steered noise sequences.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Chris H; Siderius, Martin

    2008-03-01

    It has already been established that by cross-correlating ambient noise time series received on the upward and downward steered beams of a drifting vertical array one can obtain a subbottom layer profile. Strictly, the time differential of the cross correlation is the impulse response of the seabed. Here it is shown theoretically and by simulation that completely uncorrelated surface noise results in a layer profile with predictable amplitudes proportional to those of an equivalent echo sounder at the same depth as the array. The phenomenon is simulated by representing the sound sources as multiple random time sequences emitted from random locations in a horizontal plane above a vertical array and then accounting for the travel times of the direct and bottom reflected paths. A well-defined correlation spike is seen at the depth corresponding to the bottom reflection despite the fact that the sound sources contain no structure whatsoever. The effects of using simultaneously steered upward and downward conical beams with a tilted or faceted seabed and multiple layers are also investigated by simulation. Experimental profiles are obtained using two different vertical arrays in smooth and rough bottom sites in the Mediterranean. Correlation peak amplitudes follow the theory and simulations closely. PMID:18345817

  7. Single production of an exotic bottom partner at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Ezequiel; Da Rold, Leandro; Sanchez Vietto, Juan Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    We study single production and detection at the LHC run II of exotic partners of the bottom quark. For masses larger than 1 TeV single production can dominate over pair production that is suppressed due to phase space. The presence of exotic partners of the bottom is motivated in models aiming to solve the anomaly measured at LEP and SLC. Minimal models of this type with partial compositeness predict, as the lightest bottom partner, a new fermion V of electric charge -4 /3, also called mirror. The relevant coupling for our study is a WVb vertex, which yields a signal that corresponds to a hard W, a hard b-jet and a forward light jet. We design a search strategy for the leptonic decay of the W, which avoids the large QCD multijet background and its large uncertainties. We find that the main backgrounds are W+ jets and , and the key variables to enhance the signal over them are a hard b-jet and the rapidity of the light jet. We determine the discovery reach for the LHC run II, in particular we predict that, for couplings of order ~ g/10, this signal could be detected at a 95% confidence level with a mass up to 2 .4TeV using the first 100 fb-1.

  8. The bottom quartile for health indices in America vs Europe.

    PubMed

    Shandera, Wayne Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The inequities in health outcomes in different parts of the developed world merit further analysis. An index comprising mortality and morbidity factors was composed for American states and European nations. Multiple factors and bottom quartile status were analyzed by regression methodology. The 51 American states (and District of Columbia) showed a "Health Index" value based on life expectancy at birth and morbidity determined by rates of cardiac disease and cancer that ranged from 63 (Mississippi and West Virginia) to 94 (Utah). The 48 of 51 European states with assessable data showed a Health Index based on life expectancy at birth and quality adjusted life years that ranged from 53 (Russia) to 98 (San Marino). American states with the lowest quartile values were clustered in the American South and Appalachian areas. European states ranking in the bottom quartile were typically from Eastern Europe and showed a history of a Communism and recognized governmental corruption. Because American poor health rankings are the result of controllable factors (smoking, adult onset diabetes, obesity), Americans can improve their bottom quartile status more readily than Europeans whose ranking status is a function of history (Communism, civil conflicts) and poverty (Southeastern and Eastern nations).

  9. Bottom-up and top-down attention are independent.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Yair; van der Leij, Andries R; Sligte, Ilja G; Lamme, Victor A F; Scholte, H Steven

    2013-01-01

    What is the relationship between top-down and bottom-up attention? Are both types of attention tightly interconnected, or are they independent? We investigated this by testing a large representative sample of the Dutch population on two attentional tasks: a visual search task gauging the efficiency of top-down attention and a singleton capture task gauging bottom-up attention. On both tasks we found typical performance--i.e., participants displayed a significant search slope on the search task and significant slowing caused by the unique, but irrelevant, object on the capture task. Moreover, the high levels of significance we observed indicate that the current set-up provided very high signal to noise ratios, and thus enough power to accurately unveil existing effects. Importantly, in this robust investigation we did not observe any correlation in performance between tasks. The use of Bayesian statistics strongly confirmed that performance on both tasks was uncorrelated. We argue that the current results suggest that there are two attentional systems that operate independently. We hypothesize that this may have implications beyond our understanding of attention. For instance, it may be that attention and consciousness are intertwined differently for top-down attention than for bottom-up attention. PMID:23863334

  10. Channel-Like Bottom Features and High Bottom Melt Rates of Petermann Gletscher's Floating Tongue in Northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, K.; Huff, R. D.; Cullen, N.; Rignot, E.; Stewart, C.; Jenkins, A.

    2003-12-01

    Petermann Gletscher is the largest and most influential outlet glacier in central northern Greenland. Located at 81 N, 60 W, it drains an area of 71,580 km2, with a discharge of 12 cubic km of ice per year into the Arctic Ocean. We finished a second field season in spring 2003 collecting in situ data on local climate, ice velocity, strain rates, ice thickness profiles and bottom melt rates of the floating ice tongue. Last years findings have been confirmed that large channels of several hundred meters in depth at the underside of the floating ice tongue are running roughly parallel to the flow direction. We mapped these channels using ground penetrating radar at 25 MHz frequency and multi-phase radar in profiling mode over half of the glacier's width. In addition, NASA airborne laser altimeter data was collected along and cross-glacier for accurate assessment of surface topography. We will present a 3-D model of the floating ice tongue and provide hypothesis of the origin and mechanism that caused these large ice channels at the bottom of the floating ice tongue. Multi-phase radar point measurements revealed interesting results of bottom melt rates, which exceed all previous estimates. It is worth mentioned that the largest bottom melt rates were not found at the grounding line, which is common on ice shelves in the Antarctica. In addition, GPS tidal motion has been measured over one lunar cycle at the flex zone and on the free floating ice tongue and the result will be compared to historic measurements made at the beginning of last century. The surface climate has been recorded by two automatic weather stations over a 12 month period, and the local climate of this remote region will be presented.

  11. Environmental influence on the bottom and near-bottom megafauna communities of the Dogger Bank: a long-term survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnewald, Moritz; Türkay, Michael

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with climate-driven changes of the species composition of the bottom and near-bottom megafauna of the Dogger Bank (central North Sea), which was sampled each summer with a 2-m beam trawl on a yearly basis since 1991. The station grid consists of 37 stations, covering an area of approximately 17.000 km². A selection of commoner species is analysed and correlated with temperature data gained during the research period. Temperatures are derived from our own measurements, combined with CTD data from the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. The results show a decrease in biodiversity and a clear regime shift around the beginning of the 21st century, combined with rising mean bottom temperatures. In addition, details are given about the Dogger Bank hydrography and the climate sensitivity and abundance of the main species caught with the beam trawl. Our long-term study reveals the changes in the community structure of the megafauna of the Dogger Bank over a period of almost two decades. It suggests a link between changes in species composition/abundance and changes in the environment, especially the marine climate.

  12. A study on the characteristics of silt loading on paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Han, Sehyun; Jung, Yong-Won

    2012-07-01

    This study is considered the first attempt to apply a mobile monitoring system to estimating silt loading on paved roads in a megacity such as the Seoul metropolitan area. Using a mobile monitoring system developed in 2005, we estimated silt loadings on representative paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area, including the city of Incheon, over a period of 3 yr. The temporal and spatial characteristics of silt loading were investigated for the carefully selected roads that may reflect the characteristics of the cities of Seoul and Incheon. In this study, changes in the average silt loading values were investigated in terms of land use, the temporal resolution of data acquisition (i.e., seasonal, daily, three-hour scale), the road width or number of lanes, and rainfall, which may affect the characteristics of the average silt loading significantly. It was found that the advantages of using the mobile monitoring system are its ability to obtain a large quantity of silt loading data in a short period of time and over a wide area and its ability to create a silt loading map showing the relative magnitude of silt loading in relation to a specific location, which makes it possible to easily locate hot spots.

  13. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  14. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  15. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  16. 46 CFR 111.83-5 - Bottom entrance and protected enclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Shore Connection Boxes § 111.83-5 Bottom entrance and protected enclosures. Each shore connection box must have a bottom entrance for the shore connection cable. The...

  17. The impact on floats or hulls during landing as affected by bottom width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, E

    1936-01-01

    For floats and hulls having V bottoms the impact force does not necessarily increase with increasing width. Therefore, the weight of the float landing gear, side walls, and other parts, and of the fuselage construction need not be increased with increasing bottom width, but the weight of the bottom construction itself, on the other hand, does not increase with increase in bottom width and is largely determined by the type of construction.

  18. Bottom hadrons from lattice QCD with domain wall and NRQCD fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan Meinel, William Detmold, C.-J. David Lin, Matthew Wingate

    2009-07-01

    Dynamical 2+1 flavor lattice QCD is used to calculate the masses of bottom hadrons, including B mesons, singly and doubly bottom baryons, and for the first time also the triply-bottom baryon Omega{sub bbb}. The domain wall action is used for the up-, down-, and strange quarks (both valence and sea), while the bottom quark is implemented with non-relativistic QCD. A calculation of the bottomonium spectrum is also presented.

  19. Ocean Bottom Seismometers technology: current state and future outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinskiy, Dmitry; Ganzha, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The beginning of 2000s was marked by a significant progress in the development and use of self-pop-up sea-bottom seismic recorders (Ocean Bottom Seismometers). In Russia it was a novel solution developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering. This recorder and its clones have been widely used not only for the Earth crust studies, but also for investigations of sub-basalt structures and gas hydrate exploration. And what has happened over the last 10 years? Let us look closely at the second generation of ocean bottom stations developed by Geonodal Solutions (GNS) as an illustration of the next step forward in the sea-bottom acquisition technology. First of all, hardware components have changed dramatically. The electronic components became much smaller, accordingly, the power consumption and electronic self-noise were dropped down significantly. This enabled development of compact station 330 mm in diameter instead of previous 450mm. The weight fell by half, while the autonomy increased up to 90 days due to both decreased energy consumption and increased capacity of the batteries. The dynamic range of recorded seismic data has expended as a result of decreased set noise and the application of 24-bit A/D converters. The instruments dimensions have been reduced, power consumption decreased, clock accuracy was significantly improved. At the same time, development of advanced time reference algorithms enabled to retain instrument accuracy around 1 ms during all the autonomous recording period. The high-speed wireless data transfer technology offered a chance to develop "maintenance-free" station throughout its operation time. The station can be re-used at the different sea bottom locations without unsealing of the deep-water container for data download, battery re-charge, clock synchronization. This noticeably reduces the labor efforts of the personnel working with the stations. This is critically important in field

  20. The behavior of acoustic waves in the lakes bottom sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Pavel; Nourgaliev, Danis; Yasonov, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Seismic studies are used for various tasks, such as the study of the bottom sediments properties, finding sunken objects, reconstruction the reservoir history, etc. Multiple acoustic waves are an enormous obstacle in obtaining full seismic record. Multiples from the bottom of a body of water (the surface of the base of water and the rock or sediment beneath it) and the air-water surface are common in lake seismic data. Multiple reflections on the seismic cross-sections are usually located on the double distance from the air/water surface. However, sometime multiple reflections from liquid deposits cannot be generated or they reflected from the deeper horizons. It is observed the phenomenon of changes in reflectance of the water/weakly consolidated sediments acoustic boundary under the influence of the acoustic wave. This phenomenon lies in the fact that after the first acoustic impact and reflection of acoustic wave for some time the reflectance of this boundary remains close to 0. This event on a cross-section can explain by the short-term changes in the properties of bottom sediments under the influence of shock? acoustic wave, with a further reduction of these properties to the next wave generation (generation period of 2 seconds). Perhaps in these deposits occurs thixotropic process. The paper presents the seismic acoustic cross-sections of Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan), Turgoyak (Russia). The work was carried out according to the Russia Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research, and partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic research (grants № 14-05-00785, 16-35-00452).

  1. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  2. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  4. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. 40 CFR 408.200 - Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. 408.200 Section 408.200 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alaskan Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory § 408.200 Applicability; description of the Alaskan bottom fish processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture...

  8. Balancing Priorities and Measuring Success: A Triple Bottom Line Framework for International School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, James

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon a multiple bottom line concept, which was originally developed for the business world, this article proposes a triple bottom line framework for analyzing and assessing the performance of international schools. The author contends that international schools can be broken down into three bottom lines: one "financial," one "academic" and…

  9. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-ENG) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  10. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-522) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  11. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-ENG) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  12. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-ENG) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  13. 46 CFR 153.250 - Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. 153.250... Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.250 Double-bottom and deep tanks as cargo tanks. Except in those cases in which Commandant (CG-522) specifically approves another arrangement, such as a double-bottom or deep tank as...

  14. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  15. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  16. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  17. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  18. 46 CFR 153.219 - Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated... MATERIALS Design and Equipment General Vessel Requirements § 153.219 Access to double bottom tanks serving... openings to double bottom tanks serving as dedicated ballast tanks must not be located within a...

  19. Field test of fiber optic ocean bottom seismograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Wang, Zhaogang; Huang, Wenzhu; Li, Li; Liu, Wenyi; Luo, Yingbo; Li, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we report the field test of fiber optic ocean bottom seismograph (OOBS) which can be used in the active source seismic research. There are three fiber laser accelerometers (FLAs) and one fiber laser hydrophone (FLH), which is wavelength division multiplexed, in the OOBS. The interrogation system is put on shore and is connected with the OOBS with optical fiber cable. The field test of using an air gun is carried out under water with a depth of 30 m. The results show that the OOBS has similar performance as conventional electric OBS.

  20. QCD Corrections to Higgs Pair Production in Bottom Quark Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Sally; Kao, Chung; Wang, Yili; Williams, Peter; /Oklahoma U.

    2006-10-01

    We present a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation for the total cross section of inclusive Higgs pair production via bottom-quark fusion (b{bar b} {yields} hh) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the Standard Model. The NLO QCD corrections lead to less dependence on the renormalization scale ({mu}{sub R}) and the factorization scale ({mu}{sub F}) than the leading-order (LO) cross section, and they significantly increase the LO cross section. The rate for inclusive Higgs pair production is small in the Standard Model, but can be large in models with enhanced couplings of the b quark to the Higgs bosons.

  1. Gas turbine bottoming cycles: Triple-pressure steam versus Kalina

    SciTech Connect

    Marston, C.H.; Hyre, M.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a triple-pressure steam cycle has been compared with a single-stage Kalina cycle and an optimized three-stage Kalina cycle as the bottoming sections of a gas turbine combined cycle power plant. A Monte Carlo direct search was used to find the optimum separator temperature and ammonia mass fraction for the three-stage Kalina cycle for a specific plant configuration. Both Kalina cycles were more efficient than the triple pressure steam cycle. Optimization of the three-stage Kalina cycle resulted in almost a two percentage point improvement.

  2. Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of storage tank bottom plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafaat, Taufik A.; Ismail, Mokhtar Che

    2015-07-01

    Aboveground atmospheric storage tanks (AST) receive crude oil from offshore for storage and further processing. Integrity issue of AST storing crude oil is not only affected by external corrosion but also internal corrosion from crude oil that supports the growth of the microorganisms originating from the reservoir. The objective of this research is to study the effect of sulfate reduction bacteria (SRB) on the corrosion of AST. The results indicates that SRB has significant effect on the corrosion rate of storage tank bottom plate.

  3. Ocean bottom seismic and tsunami network along the Japan Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehira, K.; Kanazawa, T.; Noguchi, S.; Aoi, S.; Kunugi, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Okada, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Shiomi, K.; Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.

    2012-12-01

    Huge tsunami, which was generated by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake of M9 subduction zone earthquake, attacked the coastal areas in the north-eastern Japan and gave severe casualties (about 20,000 people) and property damages in the areas. The present tsunami warning system, based on land seismic observation data, did not work effectively in the case of the M9 earthquake. For example, real tsunami height was higher than that of forecast by this system. It is strongly acknowledged that marine observation data is necessary to make tsunami height estimation more accurately. Therefore, new ocean bottom observation project has started in 2011 that advances the countermeasures against earthquake and tsunami disaster related to subduction zone earthquake and outer rise earthquake around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench. A large scale ocean bottom cabled observation network is scheduled to be deployed around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench by 2015. The network is consisted of 154 ocean bottom observation stations. Ocean bottom fiber optic cables, about 5100 km in total length, connect the stations to land. Observation stations with tsunami meters and seismometers will be placed on the seafloor off Hokkaido, off Tohoku and off Kanto, in a spacing of about 30 km almost in the direction of East-West (perpendicular to the trench axis) and in a spacing of about 50 - 60 km almost in the direction of North-South (parallel to the trench axis). Two or more sets of tsunami meters and seismometers will be installed in one station for redundancy. Two sets of three component servo accelerometers, a set of three component quartz type accelerometers (frequency outputs), a set of three component velocity seismometers will be installed, and two sets of quartz type depth sensors (frequency outputs) will be installed as tsunami meters. Tsunami data and seismometer data will be digitized at sampling frequency of 10 Hz and 100 Hz, respectively, and will be added clock

  4. Characterization of hydrotreated Mayan and Wilmington vacuum tower bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Green, J.B. ); Bhan, O.K. )

    1989-04-01

    Mayan and Wilmington vacuum tower bottoms were hydrotreated at various severity levels in a batch autoclave with and without catalyst. Each of the feeds and the hydrotreated products was separated into acid-base (ABN) fraction using a unique non-aqueous ion exchange technique. The feeds, hydrotreated whole products, and the ABN fractions were characterized by determining their elemental and metal content. Selected samples were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma technique to determine molecular size distribution of various species.

  5. TAPS storage tank bottoms fitted with improved cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, T.; Bayle, R.; Kennelley, K.

    1995-10-23

    Discovery of external corrosion on tank floors at several aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) along the Trans Alaska Pipeline system (TAPS) led engineers to evaluate methods of repairing corrosion damage and to examine how to improve tank bottoms` cathodic protection. The corrosion underscored Alaska`s difficult operating conditions. Warm crude oil and turbine fuel, at temperatures of up to 120 F, are stored at various stages of pumping and transport in 31 above-ground steel storage tanks located at 11 pump stations along the pipeline. The paper describes the discovery of external corrosion and the three types of repairs undertaken at the tanks.

  6. Cellulose decomposition in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal

    SciTech Connect

    Namsaraev, B.B.; Dulov, L.E.; Zemskaya, T.I.

    1995-07-01

    Data on the occurrence and activity of cellulose-decomposing bacteria in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal are presented. The number of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria ranged from 10 to 100,000 cells/ml. From 1.64 to 60.09 mg of cellulose was decomposed daily in 1 kg of wet silt. The highest rates of this process were revealed in littoral sediments. From 0.01 to 2.65 mg C of CO{sub 2} and 0.71-23.18 mg C of water-soluble compounds per 1 kg of silt were produced daily during cellulose decomposition. 10 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Bottom-line empowerment: lessons from the firing line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. P.

    1993-03-01

    Empowering employees on the firing-line to actively participate in solving business problems can have a significant positive impact on bottom-line performance. Lessons from a number of companies and thousands of people from the firing-line have demonstrated this. Unfortunately, there is no simple, step-by-step method that can be guaranteed to succeed. Getting business results by successfully empowering the firing-line is as much art as science. Yet, as with any art, there are principles that, if rigorously followed, can go a long way to ensuring success. These principles are outlined in this paper as 18 critical success factors to empowerment.

  8. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS INTERSTATE 2059 (BOTTOM RIGHT) TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS INTERSTATE 20-59 (BOTTOM RIGHT) TO THE ORIGINAL PLANNED INDUSTRIAL COMMUNITY WHOSE MAJOR ACCESS (CENTER) LEADS FROM THE TENNESSEE COAL & IRON CO. - US STEEL - US STEEL FAIRFIELD WORKS (NOT PICTURED) ACROSS GARY AVENUE AND THE COMMERCIAL DISTRICT TO THE CIVIC CENTER PLAZA WHICH IS SURROUNDED BY RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS TO THE FORMER TCI-US STEEL EMPLOYEES (NOW LLOYD NOLAND) HOSPITAL (TOP CENTER). TO LEFT OF HOSPITAL IS PARKWAY, ONE OF THE MODEL INDUSTRIAL TOWN'S PRINCIPAL LANDSCAPED THOROUGHFARES. - City of Fairfield, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  9. On bottom density currents on the continental shelves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuchin, V. N.; Gusev, A. M.; Pyrkin, Y. G.; Khapayev, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The turbulent characteristics of bottom density currents on the continental shelves and their influence on the vertical profiles of current velocities are studied by considering plane parallel flows of a liquid with one density in a motionless liquid and with lighter density along an inclined plane. The motion of the liquid is a result of gravitational force directed along the parallel plane. Vertical distribution of turbulent stress is determined from a known average velocity profile and is used to obtain the vertical profile of the average current velocity.

  10. Interior point methods for sea-bottom image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rene A.; Zhong, Sifen

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an application of global optimization techniques to the problem of the enhancement of images. After reviewing the general strategy which is common to most modern enhancement method based on the solution of a variational problem, we explain the rationale behind the choice of our penalization formulation and we give the details of the practical implementation. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of our approach by presenting the results obtained in preprocessing side-scan sonar images of the sea-bottom for the purpose of mine detection.

  11. Condensate polishing cost reduction at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    In May 1995, PECO Nuclear began an investment of over 3 million dollars for improvements in the condensate polishers at Peach Bottom Unit 3. Based on current performance, the investment is expected to be returned by the first quarter of 1997. The centerpiece of the improvements is the backfit of pleat filters on most of the vessels. Manual isolation valves and new precoating equipment will assure sustained performance. This report summarizes the improved performance and the new equipment and methods used to achieve it.

  12. Personal Breathing Zone Exposures among Hot-Mix Asphalt Paving Workers; Preliminary Analysis for Trends and Analysis of Work Practices That Resulted in the Highest Exposure Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Linda V.; Snawder, John E.; Kriech, Anthony J.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Blackburn, Gary R.; Olsen, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    An exposure assessment of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers was conducted to determine which of four exposure scenarios impacted worker exposure and dose. Goals of this report are to present the personal-breathing zone (PBZ) data, discuss the impact of substituting the releasing/cleaning agent, and discuss work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentration for each analyte. One-hundred-seven PBZ samples were collected from HMA paving workers on days when diesel oil was used as a releasing/cleaning agent. An additional 36 PBZ samples were collected on days when B-100 (100% biodiesel, containing no petroleum-derived products) was used as a substitute releasing/cleaning agent. Twenty-four PBZ samples were collected from a reference group of concrete workers, who also worked in outdoor construction but had no exposure to asphalt emissions. Background and field blank samples were also collected daily. Total particulates and the benzene soluble fraction were determined gravimetrically. Total organic matter was determined using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and provided qualitative information about other exposure sources contributing to worker exposure besides asphalt emissions. Thirty-three individual polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were determined using GC with time-offlight mass spectrometry; results were presented as either the concentration of an individual PAC or a summation of the individual PACs containing either 2- to 3-rings or 4- to 6-rings. Samples were also screened for PACs containing 4- to 6-rings using fluorescence spectroscopy. Arithmetic means, medians, and box plots of the PBZ data were used to evaluate trends in the data. Box plots illustrating the diesel oil results were more variable than the B-100. Also, the highest diesel oil results were much higher in concentration than the highest B-100 results. An analysis of the highest exposure results and field notes revealed a probable association between

  13. Closeup view of the bottom area of Space Shuttle Main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the bottom area of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) 2052 engine assembly mounted in a SSME Engine Handler in the Horizontal Processing area of the SSME Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The most prominent features in this view are the Low-Pressure Oxidizer Discharge Duct toward the bottom of the assembly, the SSME Engine Controller and the Main Fuel Valve Hydraulic Actuator are in the approximate center of the assembly in this view, the Low-Pressure Fuel Turbopump (LPFTP), the LPFTP Discharge Duct are to the left on the assembly in this view and the High-Pressure Fuel Turbopump is located toward the top of the engine assembly in this view. The ring of tabs in the right side of the image, at the approximate location of the Nozzle and the Coolant Outlet Manifold interface is the Heat Shield Support Ring. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. Coherent seismic sea-bottom profiling based on broadband signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, V. A.; Malekhanov, A. I.; Merklin, L. R.; Romanova, V. I.; Talanov, V. I.; Khil'ko, A. I.

    2013-11-01

    Experimental results of the seismic profiling with bottom penetration up to 1000 m based on broadband signals and conducted in the Caspian Sea sites are presented. Use has been made of synchronized sequences of probing pulses with linear frequency modulation at a frequency deviation of 50 to100 Hz. The pulses were emitted by a towed sound source of an original design (acoustic power up to 300 W, frequency ranged from 100 to 1000 Hz) and received by a standard digital seismic streamer. The processing of the signals involved the matched filtering of the individual pulses and the trajectory accumulation of a long sequence of pulses lengthwise the horizontal-homogeneous reflecting layers of the bottom structure. The adaptive stacking procedure taking into account the linear inclinations of the individual layers allowed us to enlarge the stacking interval by up to 100 pulses and to increase the effective depth and the spatial resolution of the seismic profiling, which gave us a total increase of more than 30 dB in the S/N ratio. In our view, the seismic profiling using low-power (about 100 W) and broadband (up to several hundred Hz) coherent sound sources represents a promising technology for decreasing the hazardous impact on aquatic ecosystems. The approach developed is an alternative to the conventional technology of marine seismic prospecting based on powerful pulse sources of the shock type (air guns, sparkers) in the low frequency range (less than ˜200 Hz).

  15. Flow of bottom water in the Somali Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Gregory C.; Warren, Bruce A.; Olson, Donald B.

    1991-06-01

    Repeat CTD surveys by the R.R.S. Charles Darwin in the Somali Basin at the height of subsequent northeast and southwest monsoons show only small differences in the circulation of the bottom water. About 4 × 10 6 m 6 s -1 moves north along the continental rise of Africa below a zero-velocity surface at the potential isotherm 1.2°C in a deep western-boundary current near 3°S. Cross-equatorial sections suggest that this flow turns eastward near the equator. North of the equator a large mass of cold water is found in the interior, east of the Chain Ridge. The presence of this feature reinforces the evidence that the deep western-boundary current observed south of the equator turns east at the equator and feeds the interior circulation in the northern part of the basin from the equator, and not from the boundary. The deep circulation observed in the Somali Basin is roughly consistent with a flat-bottom uniform upwelling Stommel-Arons calculation with realistic basin geometry, source location and uniform upwelling. However, the model results indicate that the boundary current crosses the equator, whereas the observational analysis suggests that it turns eastward there.

  16. Modular Tissue Engineering: Engineering Biological Tissues from the Bottom Up

    PubMed Central

    Nichol, Jason W.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering creates biological tissues that aim to improve the function of diseased or damaged tissues. To enhance the function of engineered tissues there is a need to generate structures that mimic the intricate architecture and complexity of native organs and tissues. With the desire to create more complex tissues with features such as developed and functional microvasculature, cell binding motifs and tissue specific morphology, tissue engineering techniques are beginning to focus on building modular microtissues with repeated functional units. The emerging field known as modular tissue engineering focuses on fabricating tissue building blocks with specific microarchitectural features and using these modular units to engineer biological tissues from the bottom up. In this review we will examine the promise and shortcomings of “bottom-up” approaches to creating engineered biological tissues. Specifically, we will survey the current techniques for controlling cell aggregation, proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, as well as approaches to generating shape-controlled tissue modules. We will then highlight techniques utilized to create macroscale engineered biological tissues from modular microscale units. PMID:20179781

  17. Evidence for acoustic communication among bottom foraging humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Cusano, Dana A; Stimpert, Alison K; Weinrich, Mason T; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N

    2014-12-16

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), a mysticete with a cosmopolitan distribution, demonstrate marked behavioural plasticity. Recent studies show evidence of social learning in the transmission of specific population level traits ranging from complex singing to stereotyped prey capturing behaviour. Humpback whales have been observed to employ group foraging techniques, however details on how individuals coordinate behaviour in these groups is challenging to obtain. This study investigates the role of a novel broadband patterned pulsed sound produced by humpback whales engaged in bottom-feeding behaviours, referred to here as a 'paired burst' sound. Data collected from 56 archival acoustic tag deployments were investigated to determine the functional significance of these signals. Paired burst sound production was associated exclusively with bottom feeding under low-light conditions, predominantly with evidence of associated conspecifics nearby suggesting that the sound likely serves either as a communicative signal to conspecifics, a signal to affect prey behaviour, or possibly both. This study provides additional evidence for individual variation and phenotypic plasticity of foraging behaviours in humpback whales and provides important evidence for the use of acoustic signals among foraging individuals in this species.

  18. Bottom pressure scaling of vibro-fluidized granular matter

    PubMed Central

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Vibrated granular beds show various interesting phenomena such as convection, segregation, and so on. However, its fundamental physical properties (e.g., internal pressure structure) have not yet been understood well. Thus, in this study, the bottom wall pressure in a vertically vibrated granular column is experimentally measured and used to reveal the nature of granular fluidization. The scaling method allows us to elucidate the fluidization (softening) degree of a vibrated granular column. The peak value of the bottom pressure pm is scaled as Γ, where pJ, d, g, ω, H, and Γ are the Janssen pressure, grain diameter, gravitational acceleration, angular frequency, height of the column, and dimensionless vibrational acceleration, respectively. This scaling implies that the pressure of vibrated granular matter is quite different from the classical pressure forms: static and dynamic pressures. This scaling represents the importance of geometric factors for discussing the behavior of vibro-fluidized granular matter. The scaling is also useful to evaluate the dissipation degree in vibro-fluidized granular matter. PMID:26602973

  19. Evidence for acoustic communication among bottom foraging humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Cusano, Dana A; Stimpert, Alison K; Weinrich, Mason T; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N

    2014-01-01

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), a mysticete with a cosmopolitan distribution, demonstrate marked behavioural plasticity. Recent studies show evidence of social learning in the transmission of specific population level traits ranging from complex singing to stereotyped prey capturing behaviour. Humpback whales have been observed to employ group foraging techniques, however details on how individuals coordinate behaviour in these groups is challenging to obtain. This study investigates the role of a novel broadband patterned pulsed sound produced by humpback whales engaged in bottom-feeding behaviours, referred to here as a 'paired burst' sound. Data collected from 56 archival acoustic tag deployments were investigated to determine the functional significance of these signals. Paired burst sound production was associated exclusively with bottom feeding under low-light conditions, predominantly with evidence of associated conspecifics nearby suggesting that the sound likely serves either as a communicative signal to conspecifics, a signal to affect prey behaviour, or possibly both. This study provides additional evidence for individual variation and phenotypic plasticity of foraging behaviours in humpback whales and provides important evidence for the use of acoustic signals among foraging individuals in this species. PMID:25512188

  20. Increasing power plant efficiency with an ammonia bottoming cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    A Rankine cycle with ammonia as the working fluid was examined for operation between the condenser and cooling tower of a typical steam-cycle power plant. During periods of cold ambient temperature this ammonia bottoming cycle increases the net output of the plant as much as 10% by improving the net thermal efficiency. The levelized cost of this extra power was estimated to be as little as 50 mills/kWh in colder climates. This paper highlights a study conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using these ammonia bottoming cycles in air-cooled power plants. The thermodynamic and heat transfer properties of ammonia make it the best choice to serve the dual purpose of a heat transfer medium and a thermodynamic working fluid. Several operational modes are discussed, including the possibility of replacing the entire low-pressure steam turbine with an ammonia turbine. Costs, however, are estimated only for the case of a typical steam-cycle power plant with steam condensing at 120/sup 0/F or less.

  1. Increasing power plant efficiency with an ammonia bottoming cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, S.G.; Johnson, B.M.

    1983-08-01

    A Rankine cycle with ammonia as the working fluid was examined for operation between the condenser and cooling tower of a typical steam-cycle power plant. During periods of cold ambient temperature this ammonia bottoming cycle increases the net output of the plant as much as 10% by improving the net thermal efficiency. The levelized cost of this extra power was estimated to be as little as 50 mills/kWh in colder climates. This paper highlights a study conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using these ammonia bottoming cycles in air-cooled power plants. The thermodynamic and heat transfer properties of ammonia make it the best choice to serve the dual purpose of a heat transfer medium and a thermodynamic working fluid. Several operational modes are discussed, including the possibility of replacing the entire low-pressure steam turbine with an ammonia turbine. Costs, however, are estimated only for the case of a typical steam-cycle power plant with steam condensing at 120/sup 0/F or less.

  2. Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

    SciTech Connect

    DE Smith; GF Piepel; GW Veazey; JD Vienna; ML Elliott; RK Nakaoka; RP Thimpke

    1998-11-20

    Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  3. "Triple-bottom-line" assessment of urban stormwater projects.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A C; Fletcher, T D

    2006-01-01

    New guidelines have been developed and trialled in Australia to assist urban stormwater managers to assess options for projects that aim to improve urban waterway health. These guidelines help users to examine the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects (i.e., the so-called "triple-bottom-line"). Features of the assessment process described in the guidelines include use of multi criteria analysis, input from technical experts as well as non-technical stakeholders, and provision of three alternative levels of assessment to suit stormwater managers with differing needs and resources. This paper firstly provides a background to the new guidelines and triple-bottom-line assessment. The assessment methodology promoted in the new guidelines is then briefly summarised. This methodology is compared and contrasted with European guidelines from the "SWARD" project that have been primarily developed for assessing the relative sustainability of options involving urban water supply and sewerage assets. Finally, the paper discusses how assessment methodologies that evaluate the financial, ecological and social dimensions of projects can, under some circumstances, be used to evaluate the relative progress of options for urban water management on a journey towards the widely pursued, but vaguely defined goal of "sustainable development".

  4. Evidence for acoustic communication among bottom foraging humpback whales

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Susan E.; Cusano, Dana A.; Stimpert, Alison K.; Weinrich, Mason T.; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Wiley, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), a mysticete with a cosmopolitan distribution, demonstrate marked behavioural plasticity. Recent studies show evidence of social learning in the transmission of specific population level traits ranging from complex singing to stereotyped prey capturing behaviour. Humpback whales have been observed to employ group foraging techniques, however details on how individuals coordinate behaviour in these groups is challenging to obtain. This study investigates the role of a novel broadband patterned pulsed sound produced by humpback whales engaged in bottom-feeding behaviours, referred to here as a ‘paired burst' sound. Data collected from 56 archival acoustic tag deployments were investigated to determine the functional significance of these signals. Paired burst sound production was associated exclusively with bottom feeding under low-light conditions, predominantly with evidence of associated conspecifics nearby suggesting that the sound likely serves either as a communicative signal to conspecifics, a signal to affect prey behaviour, or possibly both. This study provides additional evidence for individual variation and phenotypic plasticity of foraging behaviours in humpback whales and provides important evidence for the use of acoustic signals among foraging individuals in this species. PMID:25512188

  5. A dataset from bottom trawl survey around Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shao, Kwang-Tsao; Lin, Jack; Wu, Chung-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Tun-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Bottom trawl fishery is one of the most important coastal fisheries in Taiwan both in production and economic values. However, its annual production started to decline due to overfishing since the 1980s. Its bycatch problem also damages the fishery resource seriously. Thus, the government banned the bottom fishery within 3 nautical miles along the shoreline in 1989. To evaluate the effectiveness of this policy, a four year survey was conducted from 2000-2003, in the waters around Taiwan and Penghu (Pescadore) Islands, one region each year respectively. All fish specimens collected from trawling were brought back to lab for identification, individual number count and body weight measurement. These raw data have been integrated and established in Taiwan Fish Database (http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw). They have also been published through TaiBIF (http://taibif.tw), FishBase and GBIF (website see below). This dataset contains 631 fish species and 3,529 records, making it the most complete demersal fish fauna and their temporal and spatial distributional data on the soft marine habitat in Taiwan.

  6. Internal wave-turbulence pressure above sloping sea bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haren, Hans

    2011-12-01

    An accurate bottom pressure sensor has been moored at different sites varying from a shallow sea strait via open ocean guyots to a 1900 m deep Gulf of Mexico. All sites show more or less sloping bottom topography. Focusing on frequencies (σ) higher than tidal, the pressure records are remarkably similar, to within the 95% statistical significance bounds, in the internal gravity wave continuum (IWC) band up to buoyancy frequency N. The IWC has a relatively uniform spectral slope: log(P(σ)) = -αlog(σ), α = 2 ± 1/3. The spectral collapse is confirmed from independent internal hydrostatic pressure estimate, which suggests a saturated IWC. For σ > N, all pressure-spectra transit to a bulge that differs in magnitude. This bulge is commonly attributed to long surface waves. For the present data it is suggested to be due to stratified turbulence-internal wave coupling, which is typically large over sloping topography. The bulge drops off at a more or less common frequency of 2-3 × 10-2 Hz, which is probably related with typical turbulent overturning scales.

  7. Detecting psychological phenomena: taking bottom-up research seriously.

    PubMed

    Haig, Brian D

    2013-01-01

    For more than 50 years, psychology has been dominated by a top-down research strategy in which a simplistic account of the hypothetico-deductive method is paired with null hypothesis testing in order to test hypotheses and theories. As a consequence of this focus on testing, psychologists have failed to pay sufficient attention to a complementary, bottom-up research strategy in which data-to-theory research is properly pursued.This bottom-up strategy has 2 primary aspects: the detection of phenomena, mostly in the form of empirical generalizations, and the subsequent understanding of those phenomena through the abductive generation of explanatory theories. This article provides a methodologically informative account of phenomena detection with reference to psychology. It begins by presenting the important distinctions between data, phenomena, and theory. It then identifies a number of different methodological strategies that are used to identify empirical phenomena. Thereafter, it discusses aspects of the nature of science that are prompted by a consideration of the distinction between data, phenomena, and explanatory theory. Taken together, these considerations press for significant changes in the way we think about and practice psychological research. The adoption of these changes would help psychology correct a number of its major current research deficiencies.

  8. Precise Comparisons of Bottom-Pressure and Altimetric Ocean Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A new set of pelagic tide determinations is constructed from seafloor pressure measurements obtained at 151 sites in the deep ocean. To maximize precision of estimated tides, only stations with long time series are used; median time series length is 567 days. Geographical coverage is considerably improved by use of the international tsunami network, but coverage in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific is still weak. As a tool for assessing global ocean tide models, the data set is considerably more reliable than older data sets : the root-mean-square difference with a recent altimetric tide model is approximately 5 mm for the M2 constituent. Precision is sufficiently high to allow secondary effects in altimetric and bottom-pressure tide differences to be studied. The atmospheric tide in bottom pressure is clearly detected at the S1, S2, and T2 frequencies. The altimetric tide model is improved if satellite altimetry is corrected for crustal loading by the atmospheric tide. Models of the solid body tide can also be constrained. The free corenutation effect in the K1 Love number is easily detected, but the overall estimates are not as accurate as a recent determination with very long baseline interferometry.

  9. Proteomics by FTICR Mass Spectrometry: Top Down and Bottom Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-03-31

    This review offers a broad overview of recent FTICR applications and technological developments in the field of proteomics, directed to a variety of people with different expertise and interests. Both the ''bottom-up'' (peptide level) and ''top-down'' (intact protein level) approaches will be covered and various related aspects will be discussed and illustrated with examples that are among the best available references in the literature. ''Bottom-up topics include peptide fragmentation, the AMT approach and DREAMS technology, quantitative proteomics, post-translational modifications, and special FTICR software focused on peptide and protein identification. Topics in the ''top-down'' part include various aspects of high-mass measurements, protein tandem mass spectrometry, protein confirmations, protein-protein complexes, as well as some esoteric applications that may become more practical in the coming years. Finally, examples of integrating both approaches and medical proteomics applications using FTICR will be provided, closing with an outlook of what may be coming our way sooner than later.

  10. Heat flow through the sea bottom around the Yucatan Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Khutorskoy, M.D.; Kononov, V.I.; Polyak, B.G. ); Fernandez, R. ); Matveev, V.G.; Rot, A.A. )

    1990-02-10

    Heat flow studies were conducted in January-February 1987, off the Atlantic Coast of Mexico on board the R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. Two areas were surveyed, one transecting the Salt Dome Province and the Campeche Canyon, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the other, on the eastern flank of the Yucatan Peninsula. Conductive heat flow through the bottom sediments was determined as the product of vertical temperature gradient and in situ thermal conductivity, measured with a thermal probe using a multithermistor array and real-time processing capabilities. Forward two-dimensional modeling allows one to estimate heat flow variations at both sites from local disturbances and to obtain average heat flow values of 51 mW/m{sup 2} for the transect within the Gulf of Mexico and 38 and 69 mW/m{sup 2} for two basins within the Yucatan area. Sea bottom relief has a predominant effect over other environmental factors in the scatter of heat flow determination in the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. Effects of bottom trawling on fish foraging and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew Frederick; Gorelli, Giulia; Jenkins, Stuart Rees; Hiddink, Jan Geert; Hinz, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    The effects of bottom trawling on benthic invertebrates include reductions of biomass, diversity and body size. These changes may negatively affect prey availability for demersal fishes, potentially leading to reduced food intake, body condition and yield of fishes in chronically trawled areas. Here, the effect of trawling on the prey availability and diet of two commercially important flatfish species, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and dab (Limanda limanda), was investigated over a trawling intensity gradient in the Irish Sea. Previous work in this area has shown that trawling negatively affects the condition of plaice but not of dab. This study showed that reductions in local prey availability did not result in reduced feeding of fish. As trawling frequency increased, both fish and prey biomass declined, such that the ratio of fish to prey remained unchanged. Consequently, even at frequently trawled sites with low prey biomass, both plaice and dab maintained constant levels of stomach fullness and gut energy contents. However, dietary shifts in plaice towards energy-poor prey items were evident when prey species were analysed individually. This, together with a potential decrease in foraging efficiency due to low prey densities, was seen as the most plausible cause for the reduced body condition observed. Understanding the relationship between trawling, benthic impacts, fish foraging and resultant body condition is an important step in designing successful mitigation measures for future management strategies in bottom trawl fisheries. PMID:25621336

  12. Tank-bottoms reclamation unit upgraded to meet stricter rules

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, G.E. )

    1993-04-12

    Williams Pipe Line Co. (WPL), Tulsa, modified its tank-bottoms reclamation operation at Kansas City, Kan., to meet strict benzene-content levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In September 1990, the EPA published its toxicity characteristics rule that established a new toxicity limit of 0.5 ppm for benzene contamination in solid wastes. Waste with more than this limit was to be classified as hazardous WPL's subsequent tests of filter cake from its press showed that a substantial portion contained levels of benzene that exceeded the new regulatory limit. To maintain the filter press' status as a reclamation facility, WPL recognized that it would have to reclaim benzene from the filter cake. In 1991, WPL built a filter-cake dryer and vapor-recovery system downstream of the filter press to reclaim the benzene and other hydrocarbons remaining in the filter cake. The paper describes the Williams' system, the pollution regulations the system must comply with, solid waste characteristics, tank bottom materials, the reclamation center, filter-press operations, the upgraded system, end-product disposition, and system enhancements.

  13. Measurement of the average lifetime of hadrons containing bottom quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, D.E.

    1986-06-01

    This thesis reports a measurement of the average lifetime of hadrons containing bottom quarks. It is based on data taken with the DELCO detector at the PEP e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring at a center of mass energy of 29 GeV. The decays of hadrons containing bottom quarks are tagged in hadronic events by the presence of electrons with a large component of momentum transverse to the event axis. Such electrons are identified in the DELCO detector by an atmospheric pressure Cherenkov counter assisted by a lead/scintillator electromagnetic shower counter. The lifetime measured is 1.17 psec, consistent with previous measurements. This measurement, in conjunction with a limit on the non-charm branching ratio in b-decay obtained by other experiments, can be used to constrain the magnitude of the V/sub cb/ element of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix to the range 0.042 (+0.005 or -0.004 (stat.), +0.004 or -0.002 (sys.)), where the errors reflect the uncertainty on tau/sub b/ only and not the uncertainties in the calculations which relate the b-lifetime and the element of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix.

  14. Modular Tissue Engineering: Engineering Biological Tissues from the Bottom Up.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Jason W; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Tissue engineering creates biological tissues that aim to improve the function of diseased or damaged tissues. To enhance the function of engineered tissues there is a need to generate structures that mimic the intricate architecture and complexity of native organs and tissues. With the desire to create more complex tissues with features such as developed and functional microvasculature, cell binding motifs and tissue specific morphology, tissue engineering techniques are beginning to focus on building modular microtissues with repeated functional units. The emerging field known as modular tissue engineering focuses on fabricating tissue building blocks with specific microarchitectural features and using these modular units to engineer biological tissues from the bottom up. In this review we will examine the promise and shortcomings of "bottom-up" approaches to creating engineered biological tissues. Specifically, we will survey the current techniques for controlling cell aggregation, proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, as well as approaches to generating shape-controlled tissue modules. We will then highlight techniques utilized to create macroscale engineered biological tissues from modular microscale units.

  15. Bandgap Engineering of Bottom-up Synthesized graphene nanoribbon junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedramrazi, Zahra; Chen, Yen-Chia; Chen, Chen; Haberer, Danny; Cao, Ting; Oteyza, Dimas; Fischer, Felix; Louie, Steven; Crommie, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Bandgap engineering is a key concept in electronic device fabrication, through which various types of semiconductor heterostructures have been realized. However, as the size of electronic building blocks is approaching the physical limits of well-established top-down methods, the need for alternative strategies towards electronic devices becomes apparent. Considering the recent progress in bottom-up synthesis of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), components with single-atom thickness and sub-2 nm width may be realized based on GNRs. The electronic properties of GNRs are crucially depending on their width and edge geometry, and it has been predicted that intra-ribbon bandgap engineering may be achieved by varying width or doping at desired positions. Here, we demonstrate the successful realization of bottom-up narrow-wide GNR junctions, consisting of covalent bonding of armchair segments having either 7 or 13 carbon dimer lines across the width (i.e. the n =7 and n =13 segments are ``welded together'' at the atomic scale). We study the resultant 7-13 junctions with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS), and identify distinct electronic structures in different GNR segments. We have further performed first-principles calculations to support our experimental results.

  16. Manufacture of artificial aggregate using MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, R; Colangelo, F; Montagnaro, F; Santoro, L

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on material recovery by stabilization/solidification of bottom ash coming from a municipal solid waste incineration plant. Stabilization/solidification was carried out to produce artificial aggregate in a rotary plate granulator by adding hydraulic binders based on cement, lime and coal fly ash. Different mixes were tested in which the bottom ash content ranged between 60% and 90%. To avoid undesirable swelling in hardened products, the ash was previously milled and then granulated at room temperature. The granules were tested to assess their suitability to be used as artificial aggregate through the measurement of the following properties: density, water absorption capacity, compressive strength and heavy metals release upon leaching. It was demonstrated that the granules can be classified as lightweight aggregate with mechanical strength strongly dependent on the type of binder. Concrete mixes were prepared with the granulated artificial aggregate and tested for in-service performance, proving to be suitable for the manufacture of standard concrete blocks in all the cases investigated. PMID:20566278

  17. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  18. Development of the new very broadband compliance ocean bottom station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Celia; Dahm, Torsten; Bulow, Joachim; Winter, Sven

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the EMSEIS Project* the University of Hamburg has developed two broadband compliance ocean bottom stations (BCSs). The objective was to create a station capable of acquire pressure and velocity data on the seafloor in the frequency range where compliance and infragravity waves are studied (30 - 500s). A triaxial seismometer STS-2, a differential pressure gauge, an absolute pressure sensor, and a MLS Geolon recorder were installed on a Hamburg free-fall ocean bottom station. The whole system works in a broad frequency range (between 0.005 Hz and 25 Hz) with a sampling frequency of 50 Hz. The maximum deployment depth is 6000 meters. The BCSs were created to acquire compliance data during short time deployments (20-100 hours). However, laboratory tests and field experiences indicate that instruments can continuously work during about 30 days. To secure the correct leveling of the seismic sensor, a two stage active leveling process was designed. In the first stage the mechanical leveling is performed and during the second stage the internal leveling is done and the masses are re-centered. Two electronic circuits were designed and connected to the recorder and the seismometer to control the complete process. The tasks of the circuits are: 1) determinate the number of cycles during a measurement which depend on the number of leveling signals sent by the recorder, 2) to generate the impulse to initiate the mechanical leveling phase, 3) to send the signal to produce the internal leveling and 4) to sent the signal to lock and unlock the masses to protect the equipment. To perform the mechanical leveling process the STS2 was mounted in a glass sphere on two gimbaled rings made of aluminum. Additionally, a retractile cube connected to a small motor was built-in the seismometer bottom. With the help of the motor, the cube can be extended to fix the seismometer to the sphere or can be retracted to allow the free pendulum motion of the seismometer in the sphere

  19. Bottom/Side Lift Gantry Conceptual Design Rev. 01

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, P.S.

    2000-04-11

    The purpose of this task is to update the existing bottom/side lift gantry analysis so that the design is consistent with Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II) design constraints listed in the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999a, Section 2.2.1.1, p. 9a). This update is consistent with the requirements of the Technical Guidance Document for License Application Preparation (YMP 1999, Section 6.2.5.1). This update will also take into account the latest available equipment classification and Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M and O 2000c) requirements. The principal objective of this analysis is to verify that the newly developed bottom/side lift gantry concept continues to be a suitable design concept for the current Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design. This analysis includes an examination of the waste package (WP) transfer operation at the emplacement drift transfer dock. In addition, this analysis verifies that the gantry is compatible with the WP transporter, which has been redesigned to handle WPs sitting on pallets (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this work is to examine the existing analysis and to determine what, if any, modifications to the analysis may be required as a result of additional requirements imposed by the EDA II concept. Then, a revision will be made to the conceptual design accordingly. The analysis will also be revised to show the approximate sizes and locations of the electrical equipment and control cabinets, and to take into account the weight of that equipment in the total gantry weight. The analytical portions of the analysis are revised, as required, to address changes resulting from modifications to the conceptual design or from changes in classification and/or SDD requirements. Finally, the revised conceptual design is evaluated to verify that it continues to be a suitable method for handling the WPs within the emplacement drift. Except as noted

  20. Nanocrystal assembly for bottom-up plasmonic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Andrea Rae

    2007-12-01

    Plasmonic materials are emerging as key platforms for applications that rely on the manipulation of light at small length scales. Materials that possess sub-wavelength metallic features support either localized or propagating surface plasmons that can induce huge local electromagnetic fields at the metal surface, facilitating a host of extraordinary optical phenomena. For many of the breakthrough photonic, spectroscopic, and optoelectronic applications of plasmonics, the bottom-up fabrication of these materials from low-dimensional structures has yet to be explored. Because colloidal metal nanostructures can be readily synthesized with controlled shapes and sizes, and because these structures also generate plasmon-mediated evanescent fields near their surfaces when irradiated with light, Ag nanocrystals and nanowires are ideal building blocks for rationally designed plasmonic materials. This dissertation addresses three major challenges: (1) the synthesis of Ag polyhedral nanocrystals and nanowires, (2) the bottom-up organization of these nanostructures into one-, two-, and three-dimensional assemblies, and (3) the application of these assemblies as spectroscopic sensing platforms. Faceted Ag colloids were synthesized in high yield and with remarkable monodispersity using the polyol process, where Ag+ is reduced in the presence of a polymer capping agent that serves to regulate nucleation and crystallographic growth direction. The resulting nanocrystals and nanowires are bound exclusively by {100} and {111} crystal planes, where nanowires possess pentagonal cross-sections and nanocrystals possess octahedral symmetry. Because allowed plasmon modes are explicitly dictated by geometric considerations, each shape exhibits a unique scattering spectrum in the optical wavelengths. These shaped colloidal building blocks were assembled into ordered groupings and superlattices to achieve controlled electromagnetic coupling between individual nanostructures. Of particular

  1. Bottom Line, Bottom Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtenberg, Stephen Joel

    2008-01-01

    Unlike most businesses, universities are both capital-and labor-intensive; yet contrary to standard business practice, they wring the most use and value out of their plants and payrolls for fewer than seven months a year. University presidents may appear to be very much like chief executive officers, but their powers to change course--or even a…

  2. Influence of tuna penning activities on soft bottom macrobenthic assemblages.

    PubMed

    Mangion, Marija; Borg, Joseph A; Thompson, Richard; Schembri, Patrick J

    2014-02-15

    The influence of tuna penning on soft bottom habitat present in the vicinity of tuna pens and at distances 200 m and 1.5 km away, was assessed by comparing attributes of macroinvertebrate assemblages and sediment quality before (November 2000, March 2001) and after (November 2001, April 2002) initiation of the activity. Results from November 2001 indicated a significant increase in sediment organic carbon and organic nitrogen, and a non-significant increase in the abundance of Capitellidae in the vicinity of the cages. Similar results were obtained 200 m from the cages but not 1.5 km away, where the only change was a significant increase in organic nitrogen in sediment. Results from April 2002 indicated no significant change in sediment organic carbon and organic nitrogen, however, mean sediment grain size decreased significantly in the immediate vicinity of the cages. Changes in attributes of the benthic assemblages and sediment resulted from accumulation of uneaten feed-fish on the seabed.

  3. Bottom-sediment chemistry in Devil's Lake, northeast North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    High magnesium calcite 8 mole percent MgCO3 is the most abundant carbonate at the sediment surface. With increasing depth abundances of high magnesium carbonate decrease and abundances of low magnesium calcite aragonite and dolomite increase. Carbon isotope compositions of bulk carbonates range from δ13C = -0.7 to +0.5%. These values are close to equilibrium with dissolved inorganic carbon in lake water (δ13C = -2%) but far from equilibrium with dissolved inorganic carbon in pore water (δ13C = -16.3- -10/0%). Disequilibrium between pore water and carbonates suggests that the carbonates did not recrystallize substantially in the presence of pore water. Therefore the change of carbonate mineral proportions with depth in the sediments is due mainly to temporal changes in the proportions of endogenic, detrital, and biologic carbonates that were deposited on the lake bottom rather than postdepositional carbonate diagenesis.

  4. Bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanostructures on Ru(1010).

    PubMed

    Song, Junjie; Zhang, Han-jie; Cai, Yiliang; Zhang, Yuxi; Bao, Shining; He, Pimo

    2016-02-01

    Investigations on the bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanostructures with 10, 10'-dibromo-9, 9'-bianthryl (DBBA) as a precursor on Ru(1010) were carried out using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Upon annealing the sample at submonolayer DBBA coverage, N = 7 graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) aligned along the [1210] direction form. Higher DBBA coverage and higher annealing temperature lead to the merging of GNRs into ribbon-like graphene nanoflakes with multiple orientations. These nanoflakes show different Moiré patterns, and their structures were determined by DFT simulations. The results showed that GNRs possess growth preference on the Ru(1010) substrate with a rectangular unit cell, and GNRs with armchair and zigzag boundaries are obtainable. Further DFT calculations suggest that the interaction between graphene and the substrate controls the orientations of the graphene overlayer and the growth of graphene on Ru(1010).

  5. An ocean-bottom hydrophone recorder for seismic refraction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, M. C.; Owen, T. R. E.; Mason, M.

    1981-06-01

    A new and inexpensive pop-up ocean-bottom hydrophone recorder has been developed for use in seismic refraction experiments. It is capable of operating in water depths of up to 4000 m and in very rugged topography, and uses an acoustic command system built by the U.K. Institute of Oceanographic Sciences for recovery. The instrument is mounted in an inexpensive cylindrical pressure case based on commercially available extruded aluminium alloy tubing, and uses glass spheres and syntactic foam for buoyancy. Hydrophone and clock signals are frequency modulated and recorded on tape cassettes, with a recording duration of three hours allowing up to 18 programmed shot windows. The prototype has made seven free descents on the Mid-Atlantic ridge and in the Gulf of Oman, and successfully recorded shots under operational conditions for the first time in September 1979. The total component cost of the prototype was £2740 (1979 prices).

  6. Service-line management/bottom-line management.

    PubMed

    Longshore, G F

    1998-01-01

    To survive in the sturm und drang of health care administration, hospitals and health care systems will have to restructure themselves in ways that emphasize their specific clinical strengths, control their costs, and manage the delivery and outcomes of care. Structuring the organization along clinical lines of service (e.g., oncology, cardiology, rehabilitation) cedes total bottom-line authority for all aspects of that service to the service, or product, line manager. This article discusses the qualifications, compensation, and responsibilities of service-line managers in well-integrated health care systems and describes how they and managed care organizations view each other. It also suggests which organizations will, and will not, benefit from restructuring along service lines.

  7. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.S.; Catapano, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: removal of previously installed plugs; videoprobe inspection of failed areas; extraction of tube samples for further analysis; eddy current testing of selected tubes; evaluation of the condition of insurance plugged tubes for return to service; hydrostatic testing of selected tubes; final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should be solely relied upon in establishing: the extent of actual degraded conditions; the source(s) of failure mechanisms; and the details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  8. Top/bottom multisensor remote sensing of Arctic sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.; Wadhams, P.; Krabill, W. B.; Swift, R. N.; Crawford, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on the Aircraft/Submarine Sea Ice Project experiment carried out in May 1987 to investigate concurrently the top and the bottom features of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Data were collected nearly simultaneously by instruments aboard two aircraft and a submarine, which included passive and active (SAR) microwave sensors, upward looking and sidescan sonars, a lidar profilometer, and an IR sensor. The results described fall into two classes of correlations: (1) quantitative correlations between profiles, such as ice draft (sonar), ice elevation (laser), SAR backscatter along the track line, and passive microwave brightness temperatures; and (2) qualitative and semiquantitative correlations between corresponding areas of imagery (i.e., passive microwave, AR, and sidescan sonar).

  9. Evaluation of materials for the MHD steam bottoming plant

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1989-05-01

    Test data have been obtained on the corrosion of several commercial ASME-coded alloys and their weldments by exposing internally cooled ring specimens to simulated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) environments. The specimens, coated with a K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-rich deposit, were exposed for times up to 2000 h at metal temperatures of 762, 593, and 567/degree/C to simulated MHD conditions for the intermediate-temperature air heater (ITAH), ITAH transition region (transition from a low- to medium-chromium alloy to a high-chromium steel), and secondary superheater (SSH), respectively. This paper discusses, in detail, the observed corrosion scale morphologies of various exposed specimens. Data on scale thickness, depth of intergranular penetration, and metal recession are presented, and the results are used to assess the corrosion behavior of various materials for application in the MHD steam bottoming plant. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Corrosion behavior of materials for MHD steam bottoming plant

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1989-04-01

    Test data have been developed for the corrosion of several commercial ASME-coded alloys and their weldments by exposing internally cooled ring specimens to simulated MHD environments. The specimens, coated with a K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-rich deposit, were exposed for times up to 2000 h at metal temperatures of 762,593, and 567/degree/C to simulate intermediate-temperature air heater (ITAH), transition region and secondary superheater (SSH) conditions, respectively. This report discusses the observed corrosion scale morphologies of various exposed specimens. Data on scale thickness, depth of intergranular penetration, and metal recession are presented and the results are used to assess the corrosion behavior of various materials for application in the MHD steam bottoming plant. 9 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Reach the Bottom Line of the Sbottom Search

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Ezequiel; Bai, Yang

    2012-05-22

    We propose a new search strategy for directly-produced sbottoms at the LHC with a small mass splitting between the sbottom and its decayed stable neutralino. Our search strategy is based on boosting sbottoms through an energetic initial state radiation jet. In the final state, we require a large missing transverse energy and one or two b-jets besides the initial state radiation jet. We also define a few kinematic variables to further increase the discovery reach. For the case that the sbottom mainly decays into the bottom quark and the stable neutralino, we have found that even for a mass splitting as small as 10 GeV sbottoms with masses up to around 400 GeV can be excluded at the 95% confidence level with 20 inverse femtobarn data at the 8 TeV LHC.

  12. Effects of a brine discharge over soft bottom Polychaeta assemblage.

    PubMed

    Del-Pilar-Ruso, Yoana; De-la-Ossa-Carretero, Jose Antonio; Giménez-Casalduero, Francisca; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2008-11-01

    Desalination is a growing activity that has introduced a new impact, brine discharge, which may affect benthic communities. Although the role of polychaetes as indicators to assess organic pollution is well known, their tolerance to salinity changes has not been examined to such a great extent. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of brine discharge over soft bottom polychaete assemblage along the Alicante coast (Southeast Spain) over a two year period. Changes in the polychaete assemblage was analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques. We compared a transect in front of the discharge with two controls. At each transect we sampled at three depths (4, 10 and 15 m) during winter and summer. We have observed different sensitivity of polychaete families to brine discharges, Ampharetidae being the most sensitive, followed by Nephtyidae and Spionidae. Syllidae and Capitellidae showed some resistance initially, while Paraonidae proved to be a tolerant family.

  13. Rapid soft lithography by bottom-up enhanced capillarity.

    PubMed

    Pisignano, Dario; Di Benedetto, Francesca; Persano, Luana; Gigli, Giuseppe; Cingolani, Roberto

    2004-06-01

    The growing demand for new solutions to pursue the trend of micro- and nanoelectronics predicted by Moore's law is stimulating the development of new high-resolution, low-cost lithographies. Here we demonstrate that several bottom-up approaches can be used to increase the throughput of soft lithography by exploiting the enhanced hydrophilicity, the low viscosity, and the fragility of the employed materials. In particular, the customized functionalization of the involved surfaces to improve the wettability to polymer fluids and the dramatic decrease of the viscosity of polymer compounds as the temperature is increased, together with the good thermal stability of the functionalized surfaces, allow a faster filling of elastomeric channels, up to almost an order of magnitude with respect to conventional microfluidics.

  14. BitCube: A Bottom-Up Cubing Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Puglisi, Piera Laura; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    Enhancing on line analytical processing through efficient cube computation plays a key role in Data Warehouse management. Hashing, grouping and mining techniques are commonly used to improve cube pre-computation. BitCube, a fast cubing method which uses bitmaps as inverted indexes for grouping, is presented. It horizontally partitions data according to the values of one dimension and for each resulting fragment it performs grouping following bottom-up criteria. BitCube allows also partial materialization based on iceberg conditions to treat large datasets for which a full cube pre-computation is too expensive. Space requirement of bitmaps is optimized by applying an adaption of the WAH compression technique. Experimental analysis, on both synthetic and real datasets, shows that BitCube outperforms previous algorithms for full cube computation and results comparable on iceberg cubing.

  15. Westward flow of Weddell Sea Bottom Water through Drake Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebler, M.; Huhn, O.; Rhein, M.

    2009-04-01

    During the Polarstern cruise ANT XXIII-3 (2006) an enlarged chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) signal was found in the southern part of Drake Passage indicating the presence of recently ventilated water, presumably Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) originating from the western Weddell Sea. This WSBW leaves the Weddell Basin through gaps in the South Scotia Ridge and spreads westward along the continental slope. It reaches the 2006 section and is probably stopped by Shackleton Fracture Zone. By applying an Optimum Multiparameter Analysis (OMP) using temperature, salinity, oxygen, silicate, nitrate and δHe3 we determine the fractions of WSBW in the Drake Passage Section. The CFC age derived from the WSBW fractions indicates that there must be an additional CFC source, because the observed concentrations are higher than can be explained by the WSBW.

  16. Peach Bottom Transients Analysis with TRAC/BF1-VALKIN

    SciTech Connect

    Verdu, G.; Miro, R.; Sanchez, A.M.; Rosello, O.; Ginestar, D.; Vidal, V.

    2004-10-15

    The TRAC/BF1-VALKIN code is a new time domain analysis code for studying transients in a boiling water reactor. This code uses the best-estimate code TRAC/BF1 to give an account of the heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic processes and a three-dimensional neutronics module. This module has two options: the MODKIN option that makes use of a modal method based on the assumption that the neutronic flux can be approximately expanded in terms of the dominant lambda modes associated with a static configuration of the reactor core, and the NOKIN option that uses a one-step backward discretization of the neutron diffusion equation. To check the performance of the TRAC/BF1-VALKIN code, the Peach Bottom turbine trip transient has been simulated, because this transient is a dynamically complex event where neutron kinetics is coupled with thermal hydraulics in the reactor primary system, and reactor variables change very rapidly.

  17. Risk-based selection of SSCs at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, G.A.; Marie, A.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of identifying risk significant systems, structures, and components (SSCS) that are within the scope of the maintenance rule is to bring a higher level of attention to a subset of those SSCS. These risk-significant SSCs will have specific performance criteria established for them, and failure to meet this performance criteria will result in establishing goals to ensure the necessary improvement in performance. The Peach Bottom individual plant examination (IPE) results were used to provide insights for the verification of proposed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods set forth in the Industry Maintenance Guidelines for Implementation of the Maintenance Rule. The objective of reviewing the methods for selection of SSCs that are considered risk significant was to ensure the methods used are logical, reproducible, and can be consistently applied.

  18. Analysis of Peach Bottom station blackout with MELCOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dingman, S.E.; Cole, R.K.; Haskin, F.E.; Summers, R.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    A demonstration analysis of station blackout at Peach Bottom has been performed using MELCOR and the results have been compared with those from MARCON 2.1B and the Source Term Code Package (STCP). MELCOR predicts greater in-vessel hydrogen production, earlier melting and core collapse, but later debris discharge than MARCON 2.1B. The drywell fails at vessel breach in MELCOR, but failure is delayed about an hour in MARCON 2.1B. These differences are mainly due to the MELCOR models for candling during melting, in-core axial conduction, and continued oxidation and heat transfer from core debris following lower head dryout. Three sensitivity calculations have been performed with MELCOR to address uncertainties regarding modeling of the core-concrete interactions. The timing of events and the gas and radionuclide release rates are somewhat different in the base case and the three sensitivity cases, but the final conditions and total releases are similar.

  19. Nonlinear and linear bottom interaction effects in shallow water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shemdin, O.; Hsiao, S. V.; Hasselmann, K.; Herterich, K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines wave-energy dissipation rates in shallow water calculated from measured wave spectra at different distances from the shore. Different linear and nonlinear transfer and dissipation mechanisms are discussed. The various data sets are interpreted in terms of prevailing mechanisms at the respective sites. The incorporation of different processes in a predictive shallow-water model is outlined. The analysis suggests that bottom motion is primarily responsible for wave-energy dissipation in the Delta Region of the Gulf of Mexico, that friction is mainly responsible for wave-energy dissipation in Marineland, Panama City and Melkbosstrand, and that percolation is probably the dominant mechanism in the JONSWAP area of the North Sea.

  20. Bottom-up assembly of molecular wagons on a surface.

    PubMed

    Villagómez, Carlos J; Sasaki, Takashi; Tour, James M; Grill, Leonhard

    2010-12-01

    The bottom-up assembly of molecular building blocks, carrying specific functions, is a promising strategy for the construction of nanomachines. In this study we show how molecules with a mechanical function, i.e., being equipped with wheels, can be connected in a controlled way directly on a surface. By choosing suitable building blocks, assembled dimers and wagon trains can be formed, whereas the length of the chains can be limited by using a heterogeneous mixture of molecules. By using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, the chemical nature of the intermolecular connection is determined as a metal-ligand bond, which is stable enough to maintain the wagon train structure at room temperature. The intermolecular bonds can be controllably changed from trans to cis configurations thereby achieving bond angles of almost 90°.

  1. Cell-laden microfibers for bottom-up tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Onoe, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-02-01

    Bottom-up tissue engineering, which utilizes hundred-micrometer-scale cellular constructs as building blocks, is a promising approach to reconstructing 3D, macroscopic and spatially organized tissues in vitro. Among the various types of cellular building blocks for reconstruction, cell-laden microfibers (CLMs) are recognized as an appropriate shape because many important human tissues and organs are composed of fiber-shaped or network-like structures. This review covers the current techniques in forming CLMs and typical cell culture conditions on or within the microfibers. We summarize CLMs for in vitro 3D tissue construction, in vitro pseudo tissue models for drug testing and in vivo implantation. Additionally, we discuss current challenges regarding CLM technologies and their potential applications.

  2. Underwater MASW to evaluate stiffness of water-bottom sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Ivanov, J.; Sonnichsen, G.V.; Hunter, J.A.; Good, R.L.; Burns, R.A.; Christian, H.

    2005-01-01

    The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) is initially intended as a land survey method to investigate the near-surface materials for their elastic properties. The acquired data are first analyzed for dispersion characteristics and, from these the shear-wave velocity is estimated using an inversion technique. Land applications show the potential of the MASW method to map 2D bedrock surface, zones of low strength, Poisson's ratio, voids, as well as to generate shear-wave profiles for various othe geotechnical problems. An overview is given of several underwater applications of the MASW method to characterize stiffness distribution of water-bottom sediments. The first application details the survey under shallow-water (1-6 m) in the Fraser River (Canada). The second application is an innovative experimental marine seismic survey in the North Atlantic Ocean near oil fields in Grand Bank offshore Newfoundland.

  3. Transformation of surface waves over a bottom step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurkin, A. A.; Semin, S. V.; Stepanyants, Yu. A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze in detail the problem of the transformation of surface gravity waves over a bottom step in a basin of arbitrary depth in the linear approximation. We found that strict analytical results can be obtained only when a denumerable set of modes condensed near the step is taken into account. At the same time, one can use the formulas suggested in this work for the practical calculations. They provide an accuracy of 5% for the wave transmission coefficient. The specific peculiarities of transformation coefficients are discussed, including their nonmonotonic dependence on the parameters, asymptotic behavior at strong depth variations, etc. The data of a direct numerical simulation of wave transformation over a step are presented, which are compared with the exact and approximate formulas. The coefficients of excitation of modes condensed near the step by an incident quasi-monochromatic wave are found. A relationship between the transformation coefficients that follows from the conservation law of wave energy flux is found.

  4. Ocean Bottom Seismograph Performance during the Cascadia Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderhold, K.; Evers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Ocean Bottom Seismograph Instrument Pool (OBSIP) provides instrumentation and operations support for the Cascadia Initiative community experiment. This experiment investigates geophysical processes across the Cascadia subduction zone through a combination of onshore and offshore seismic data. The recovery of Year 4 instruments in September 2015 marks the conclusion of a multi-year experiment that utilized 60 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBSs) specifically designed for the subduction zone boundary, including shallow/deep water deployments and active fisheries. The new instruments feature trawl-resistant enclosures designed by Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) for shallow deployment [water depth ≤ 500 m], as well as new deep-water instruments designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Existing OBSIP instruments were also deployed along the Blanco Transform Fault and on the Gorda Plate through complementary experiments. Stations include differential pressure gauges (DPG) and absolute pressure gauges (APG). All data collected from the Cascadia, Blanco, and Gorda deployments will be freely available through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC). The Cascadia Initiative is the largest amphibious seismic experiment undertaken to date and demonstrates an effective structure for community experiments through collaborative efforts from the Cascadia Initiative Expedition Team (CIET), OBSIP (institutional instrument contributors [LDEO, SIO, WHOI] and Management Office [IRIS]), and the IRIS DMC. The successes and lessons from Cascadia are a vital resource for the development of a Subduction Zone Observatory (SZO). To guide future efforts, we investigate the quality of the Cascadia OBS data using basic metrics such as instrument recovery and more advanced metrics such as noise characteristics through power spectral density analysis. We also use this broad and

  5. Attenuation of sound in shallow-water areas with gas-saturated bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, V. A.; Lun'kov, A. A.; Petnikov, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the specific features low-frequency (50-300 Hz) sound propagation in shallow-water areas to relatively small distances r ≈ 3 H-50 H from the sound source, where H is the waveguide depth. The bottoms of water areas were assumed to be fluid homogeneous gas-containing media. Situations were compared in which the sound velocity in the bottom is higher and lower than in the water layer (hard and soft bottom). It was confirmed in experiment that the average effective sound velocity in the bottom may have rather low values (≈100 m/s). The mode description of the acoustic field was used in calculations, and both propagating and outgoing modes, including quasi-modes, were taken into account. The averaged dependences of the field intensity decay on distance were obtained for different frequencies and sound velocities in the bottom. The sound damping factors β in the waveguide were found as functions of frequency and sound velocity in the bottom. It is shown that for a soft bottom, the value of β monotonically increases with an increase in the sound velocity in the bottom, while for a hard bottom, β monotonically decreases. The maximum of β depends on the sound frequency and is reached at the approximate equality of the sound velocities in the bottom and water.

  6. Usability of ocean-bottom seismograms for broadband waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Sigloch, Karin

    2013-04-01

    Recordings made by broadband seismometers on the ocean-bottom are generally noisier than recordings of land stations using the same sensor type. The primary reason is that oceanic recordings are more affected by microseismic noise, which originates in the oceans. A similar drawback applies to data from stations on oceanic islands. The frequency band between 0.05 Hz and 0.2 Hz is most affected by microseismic noise -- unfortunately a large overlap with the band that is most useful in highly-resolving body-wave tomography when using land stations. On the other hand, waveform inversion methods, unlike traditional ray theory, do not necessarily depend on the availability of clean, pulse-like broadband signals across the entire frequency range. For example in finite-frequency tomography, the method of our choice, modelling procedures permit the exclusion of unusable frequency bands on a case-by-case basis. Hence we investigate to what extent seismograms from the ocean-bottom and from island stations can be used for broadband waveform inversion of teleseismic P-waves, as compared to continental land stations. We have re-analyzed data from one of the largest onshore-offshore, broadband, long-term seismological experiment to date: the Hawaiian PLUME project (Wolfe et al. 2009, Laske 2009). The data quality was studied in eight overlapping frequency bands (dominant periods between 30.0 s and 2.7 s), for year-long records from 62 ocean-bottom stations (January 2005 - June 2007), complemented by seismograms from 74 regional island stations and 236 continental stations from four different networks on the Pacific-rim, recorded in the same time frame. P-wave seismograms from 103 earthquakes of moment magnitude 6.2 and above, recorded at epicentral distances of 32° to 85° to Hawaii were assessed in this study. The quality of the recorded data was evaluated by calculating the cross-correlation coefficient between the first 1.5 dominant periods of real and predicted waveforms, in

  7. Utilization of power plant bottom ash as aggregates in fiber-reinforced cellular concrete.

    PubMed

    Lee, H K; Kim, H K; Hwang, E A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, millions tons of bottom ash wastes from thermoelectric power plants have been disposed of in landfills and coastal areas, regardless of its recycling possibility in construction fields. Fiber-reinforced cellular concrete (FRCC) of low density and of high strength may be attainable through the addition of bottom ash due to its relatively high strength. This paper focuses on evaluating the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash of thermoelectric power plant wastes as aggregates in FRCC. The flow characteristics of cement mortar with bottom ash aggregates and the effect of aggregate type and size on concrete density and compressive strength were investigated. In addition, the effects of adding steel and polypropylene fibers for improving the strength of concrete were also investigated. The results from this study suggest that bottom ash can be applied as a construction material which may not only improve the compressive strength of FRCC significantly but also reduce problems related to bottom ash waste. PMID:19910181

  8. Search for scalar bottom quarks from gluino decays in collisions at.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciverez, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; di Giovanni, G P; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J L; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Dennis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-05-01

    We searched for scalar bottom quarks 156 pb(-1) of pp collisions at radicalS = 1.96 recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II experiment at the Tevatron. Scalar bottom quarks can be produced from gluino decays in -parity conserving models of supersymmetry when the mass of the gluino exceeds that of the scalar bottom quark. Then, a scalar bottom quark can decay into a bottom quark and a neutralino. To search for this scenario, we investigated events with large missing transverse energy and at least three jets, two or more of which were identified as containing a secondary vertex from the hadronization of quarks. We found four candidate events, where 2.6 +/- 0.7 are expected from standard model processes, and placed 95% confidence level lower limits on gluino and scalar bottom quark masses of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c(2), respectively.

  9. Measurements by Ocean Bottom Gravimeter at Harima-nada in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshima, Masato; Ishihara, Takemi; Koizumi, Kin-Ichiro; Seama, Nobukazu; Oshida, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    Gravity measurements on the sea bottom using an ocean bottom gravimeter(OBG) and a small survey vessel of 8.5 tons were performed at Harima-nada, in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Measurements at one bottom station were completed in about 30 minutes including 2 mile transit from the previous station, and 23 new data were obtained during 4 days. The measurement noise on the shallow sea-bottom was reduced considerably by attaching an anchor to the rope between the deployed ocean bottom gravimeter and the ship, and by keeping the ship almost fixed to the deployed anchor. The measurement accuracy is better than 0.005 mgal at the base station and is better than 0.05 mgal for the sea bottom measurements with the anchor. The new measurements combined with old data revealed the presence of high gravity anomaly zone running in Harima-nada sub-parallel to the Median Tectonic Line.

  10. Search for scalar bottom quarks from gluino decays in collisions at.

    PubMed

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciverez, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; di Giovanni, G P; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J L; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Dennis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-05-01

    We searched for scalar bottom quarks 156 pb(-1) of pp collisions at radicalS = 1.96 recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II experiment at the Tevatron. Scalar bottom quarks can be produced from gluino decays in -parity conserving models of supersymmetry when the mass of the gluino exceeds that of the scalar bottom quark. Then, a scalar bottom quark can decay into a bottom quark and a neutralino. To search for this scenario, we investigated events with large missing transverse energy and at least three jets, two or more of which were identified as containing a secondary vertex from the hadronization of quarks. We found four candidate events, where 2.6 +/- 0.7 are expected from standard model processes, and placed 95% confidence level lower limits on gluino and scalar bottom quark masses of up to 280 and 240 GeV/c(2), respectively. PMID:16712288

  11. NLO QCD corrections to Zbb production with massive bottom quarks at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Febres Cordero, F.; Reina, L.; Wackeroth, D.

    2008-10-01

    We calculate the next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD corrections to Zbb production in hadronic collisions including full bottom-quark mass effects. We present results for the total cross section and the invariant mass distribution of the bottom-quark jet pair at the Fermilab Tevatron pp collider. We perform a detailed comparison with a calculation that considers massless bottom quarks, as implemented in the Monte Carlo program MCFM. We find that neglecting bottom-quark mass effects overestimates the total NLO QCD cross section for Zbb production at the Tevatron by about 7%, independent of the choice of the renormalization and factorization scales. Moreover, bottom-quark mass effects can impact the shape of the bottom-quark pair invariant mass distribution, in particular, in the low invariant mass region.

  12. The impact of bottom brightness on spectral reflectance of suspended sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tolk, Brian L.; Han, L.; Rundquist, D. C.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted outdoors to investigate how bottom brightness impacts the spectral response of a water column under varied suspended sediment concentrations. A white aluminum panel placed at the bottom of the tank was used as the bright bottom, and a flat-black tank liner served as the dark bottom. Sixteen levels of suspended sediment from 25 to 400 mg litre -1 were used in each experiment. Spectral data were collected using a Spectron SE-590 spectroradiometer. The major findings include the following: the bright bottom had the greatest impact at visible wavelengths; when suspended sediment concentrations exceeded 100 mg litre -1, the bright bottom response was found to be negligible; and, substrate brightness has minimal impact between 740 and 900 nm, suggesting that these wavelengths are best for measuring suspended sediment concentrations by means of remote sensing.

  13. Modelling the Adriatic Sea Bottom Trapped Gravity "River"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Sclavo, Mauro; Russo, Aniello; Warner, John C.

    2013-04-01

    Cold and dry intense winds blowing over shallow sea shelfs produce favorable conditions for water column evaporation and cooling. The new formed water is denser than the out-shelf environmental water and moves away from the production basin, barotropically adjusted. This flow propagates as a wide and slow "river" whose destiny is twofold: on one hand local sea bottom changes force the denser waters to cascade into deeper depressions, while it mixes with the warmer ambient waters, decreasing velocity and so terminate their well defined propagation when it reaches the local neutral buoyancy, and spreading become mainly isopycnic. In this context, the semi-enclosed Adriatic Sea (the North-easternmost sub-basin of Mediterranean Sea) is a representative domain to investigate the dynamics of this bottom trapped gravity "river" (namely North Adriatic Dense Water, NadDW). NAdDW originates in the northern shallow Adriatic (average depth is approximately 20 m) part, and then it moves southward parallel to the eastern Italian coast and branches to partially fill the mid-Adriatic (Jabuca) and the South Adriatic pits. NAdDW reaches the southern Adriatic in 2-3 months covering a route of approximately 800 km, moving with an average speed in the order of 10 cm/s. To investigate different aspects that contribute to produce and spread the dense water an eddy resolving high-resolution (1 km) numerical model has been setup in the Adriatic Sea. The numerical runs have relied on the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere- Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, which is based on the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System), the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), and the CSTMS (Community Sediment Transport Modeling System) routines (Benetazzo et al., 2013). To drive the modeling system, the atmosphere forcings provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7 (an atmospheric mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) have been used. The

  14. Phase-modulated solitary waves controlled by a boundary condition at the bottom.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhik; Janaki, M S

    2014-06-01

    A forced Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived to describe weakly nonlinear, shallow-water surface wave propagation over nontrivial bottom boundary condition. We show that different functional forms of bottom boundary conditions self-consistently produce different forced KdV equations as the evolution equations for the free surface. Solitary wave solutions have been analytically obtained where phase gets modulated controlled by bottom boundary condition, whereas amplitude remains constant. PMID:25019847

  15. The Role of Bottom Simulating Reflectors in Gas Hydrate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, U.; Shedd, W. W.; Cook, A.; Frye, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this research we test the viability of using a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) to detect gas hydrate. Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) occur at many gas hydrate sites near the thermodynamic base of the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), and are frequently used to identify possible presence of gas hydrate on a regional scale. To find if drilling a BSR actually increases the chances of finding gas hydrate, we combine an updated dataset of BSR distribution from the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management with a comprehensive dataset of natural gas hydrate distribution as appraised from well logs, covering an area of around 200,000 square kilometers in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The BSR dataset compiles industry 3-D seismic data, and includes mostly good-quality and high-confidence traditional and non-traditional BSRs. Resistivity well logs were used to identify the presence of gas hydrate from over 700 existing industry wells and we have found over 110 wells with likely gas hydrate occurrences. By integrating the two datasets, our results show that the chances of encountering gas hydrate when drilling through a BSR is ~ 42%, while that when drilling outside the BSR is ~15%. Our preliminary analysis indicates that a positive relationship exists between BSRs and gas hydrate accumulations, and the chances of encountering gas hydrate increases almost three-fold when drilling through a BSR. One interesting observation is that ~ 58% of the wells intersecting a BSR show no apparent evidence of gas hydrate. In this case, a BSR may occur at sites with no gas hydrate accumulations due to the presence of very low concentration of free gas that is not detected on resistivity logs. On the other hand, in a few wells, accumulations of gas hydrate were observed where no BSR is present. For example in a well in Atwater Valley Block 92, two intervals of gas hydrate accumulation in fractures have been identified on resistivity logs, of which, the deeper interval has 230 feet thick

  16. Incinerator bottom ash as a soil substitute: Physical and chemical behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard-Lentz, D.J.; Sweeney, L.R.; Demars, K.R.

    1997-12-31

    Bottom ash from one mass-burn incinerator and one refuse derived fuel incinerator was subjected to laboratory testing and evaluation of physical and chemical properties and behavior. Testing was performed on natural bottom ash and bottom ash amended with other fine grained natural aggregates such as clay and coal fly ash. Gradation analyses show that bottom ash is similar in grain size distribution to a well-graded gravelly sand. Bottom ash has lower compacted density and specific gravity than a typical well-graded coarse grained natural aggregate but has equivalent or higher strength properties. This indicates bottom ash could be used as a structural fill. While pre- and post-processing have been used to remove ferrous particles, a significant quantity of ferrous particles remain following processing. The permeability of the bottom ash is similar to well-graded coarse grained natural aggregates but can be reduced significantly with the blending of fine-grained natural aggregates. The addition of 10 percent by weight of clay will reduce the permeability sufficiently to meet the USEPA criteria for a landfill cap/liner. Based on limited TCLP testing the bottom ash is categorized as non-hazardous under USEPA guidelines. However, batch and column leaching tests produce leachate that is alkaline and demonstrates elevated levels of soluble metals and salts. The levels of some soluble metals and chlorides in the leachate exceed USEPA drinking water standards indicating that further amending would be necessary to be able to use bottom ash outside the landfill setting.

  17. Industrial bottoming-cycle targeting of opportunities at the plant site. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, N.L.; Brown, H.L.; Hamel, B.B.; Toy, M.P.; Hedman, B.A.

    1982-09-01

    Bottoming cycle potential in the US industrial marketplace is identified using the General Energy Associates Industrial Plant Energy Profile Data Base. From the data base technology evaluations and economic estimates can be made directly at the plant site level. The top 10,000 plants in the country were individually analyzed for these bottoming cycle applications. Results are summarized as follows: potential number of plant sites and megawatts, potential energy savings, electric production, regional and state profiles, bottoming cycle/working fluid systems, and projection of future bottoming cycle applications.

  18. Creation of Functional Micro/Nano Systems through Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Tak-Sing; Brough, Branden; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Mimicking nature’s approach in creating devices with similar functional complexity is one of the ultimate goals of scientists and engineers. The remarkable elegance of these naturally evolved structures originates from bottom-up self-assembly processes. The seamless integration of top-down fabrication and bottom-up synthesis is the challenge for achieving intricate artificial systems. In this paper, technologies necessary for guided bottom-up assembly such as molecular manipulation, molecular binding, and the self assembling of molecules will be reviewed. In addition, the current progress of synthesizing mechanical devices through top-down and bottom-up approaches will be discussed. PMID:19382535

  19. Evaluation of concrete incorporating bottom ash as a natural aggregates replacement.

    PubMed

    Andrade, L B; Rocha, J C; Cheriaf, M

    2007-01-01

    A study on the incorporation of coal bottom ash from thermoelectric power stations as a substitute material for natural sand in the production of concrete is here presented. The normally coarse, fused, glassy texture of bottom ash makes it an ideal substitute for natural aggregates. The use of bottom ash in concrete presents several technical challenges: the physical and mineralogical characteristics of the bottom ash; the effect on water demand and the participation on cements hydratation. In the production of the concrete, substitutions in volume were used. Two different ways to employ bottom ash were used to make up the mix proportions: one considering the natural humidity present in the porous particles and the other not considering it, seeking to maintain the same strength. These considerations are fundamental given that the process of bottom ash extraction is carried out through moisture. Mechanical tests by compressive strength were performed and the elastic modulus was determined. An analysis of the influence of bottom ash in the formation of pores was carried out through tests for the water loss by air drying and water uptake by capillary absorption. The results show that the higher the bottom ash contents in the concrete, the worse the performance regarding moisture transport. However, for one bottom ash concrete type, the mechanical properties were maintained.

  20. Aerosol particle and trace gas emissions from earthworks, road construction, and asphalt paving in Germany: Emission factors and influence on local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol emissions from construction sites have a strong impact on local air quality. The chemical and physical characteristics of particles and trace gases emitted by earthworks (excavation and loading of soil as well as traffic on unpaved roads) and road works (asphalt sawing, smashing, soil compacting, asphalt paving) have therefore been addressed in this study by using a mobile set-up of numerous modern online aerosol and trace gas instruments including a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer. Fuel-based emission factors for several variables have been determined, showing that earthwork activities and compacting by use of a plate compactor revealed the highest median emission factors for PM10 (up to 54 g l-1). Construction activities were assigned to contribute about 17% (36 000 t a-1) to total PM10 emissions and 3% (13 500 t a-1) to total traffic-related NOx emissions in Germany. In particular, calculated PM10 emissions by earthworks are about 15 800 t a-1 corresponding to 44% of total PM10 emissions by construction activities in Germany. Mechanical processes such as asphalt sawing (PM1/PM10 = 18 ± 31%), soil compacting by a plate compactor (PM1/PM10 = 5 ± 6%) and earthworks (PM1/PM10 = 2 ± 5%) emit predominantly coarse mineral dust particles. Contrary to that, particle emissions by thermal construction processes (asphalt paving: PM1/PM10 = 62 ± 14%) and by the internal combustion engines of heavy machinery (e.g. road roller PM1/PM10 = 94 ± 9%) are mostly in the submicron range. These particles were mainly composed of organics containing non-polar saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons (e.g. asphalting: O:C < 0.01, H:C = 2.01). Besides construction activities, mineral dust is also emitted over cleared land by wind-driven resuspension depending on wind speed. PM10 emissions by construction activities often result in local concentrations > 100 μg m-3 and can easily breach the European limit level of PM10. This study also shows that particulate mineral

  1. Microwave methods and apparatus for paving and paving maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeppson, M. R.

    1983-07-01

    The MPH strip-patcher-recycler eliminates most of the conventional patching equipment, operators and the hot-mix plant, and should reduce costs dramatically. In practice, the machine simply drives along over the damaged strip heating it in-place with microwave; roto-mixing it while injecting hot engine exhaust and make up asphalt or conditioners; screening and tamping. A follow up roller completes the job. Traffic control is simpler and work can be performed in cold or damp weather, and more easily at night - if necessary. The design and operation of the MPH machine are described.

  2. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Bottom-Up View.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Sarah R; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2016-07-01

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has attracted great interest from neuroscientists because it is associated with so many important cognitive functions. Despite, or perhaps because of, its rich functional repertoire, we lack a single comprehensive view of its function. Most research has approached this puzzle from the top down, using aggregate measures such as neuroimaging. We provide a view from the bottom up, with a focus on single-unit responses and anatomy. We summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the three major approaches to characterizing the dACC: as a monitor, as a controller, and as an economic structure. We argue that neurons in the dACC are specialized for representing contexts, or task-state variables relevant for behavior, and strategies, or aspects of future plans. We propose that dACC neurons link contexts with strategies by integrating diverse task-relevant information to create a rich representation of task space and exert high-level and abstract control over decision and action. PMID:27090954

  3. Bottom-Up Colloidal Crystal Assembly with a Twist.

    PubMed

    Mahynski, Nathan A; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Likos, Christos N; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2016-05-24

    Globally ordered colloidal crystal lattices have broad utility in a wide range of optical and catalytic devices, for example, as photonic band gap materials. However, the self-assembly of stereospecific structures is often confounded by polymorphism. Small free-energy differences often characterize ensembles of different structures, making it difficult to produce a single morphology at will. Current techniques to handle this problem adopt one of two approaches: that of the "top-down" or "bottom-up" methodology, whereby structures are engineered starting from the largest or smallest relevant length scales, respectively. However, recently, a third approach for directing high fidelity assembly of colloidal crystals has been suggested which relies on the introduction of polymer cosolutes into the crystal phase [Mahynski, N.; Panagiotopoulos, A. Z.; Meng, D.; Kumar, S. K. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4472]. By tuning the polymer's morphology to interact uniquely with the void symmetry of a single desired crystal, the entropy loss associated with polymer confinement has been shown to strongly bias the formation of that phase. However, previously, this approach has only been demonstrated in the limiting case of close-packed crystals. Here, we show how this approach may be generalized and extended to complex open crystals, illustrating the utility of this "structure-directing agent" paradigm in engineering the nanoscale structure of ordered colloidal materials. The high degree of transferability of this paradigm's basic principles between relatively simple crystals and more complex ones suggests that this represents a valuable addition to presently known self-assembly techniques.

  4. Seismicity surveys with ocean bottom seismographs off Western Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hyndman, R.D.; Rogers, G.C.

    1981-05-10

    Three arrays of ocean bottom seismographs have been deployed to study the seismicity at the northern end of the Juan de Fuca ridge system off western Canada. Nearly 100 events were located with estimated accuracies generally better than +- 10 km, all lying on or near the en echelon ridge-transform fault plate boundaries as defined in this area by the magnetic anomalies, the seafloor morphology and by other geophysical data. The depths of 12 events were determined to lie between 2 and 6 km below the top of the crust. The seismograms exhibit clear P and S wave arrivals along with phases that involve P to S and sometimes S to P conversion probably at the base of the sediments beneath the instruments. The event magnitudes have been estimated from signal duration using four calibration events that were well recorded by a land station. The magnitude estimates permit the determination of rough magnitude-frequency of occurrence relations over the magnitude range of 1 to 3 that are in surprisingly good agreement with the recurrence relations for the area at larger magnitudes from 75 years of land station data. The mean P wave velocity in the uppermost mantle from the earthquake data recorded by the sea floor arrays is 7.6 km s/sup -1/ and the mean V/sub p//V/sub s/ ratio is 1.71 or a Poisson's ratio of 0.24.

  5. A top-bottom price approach to understanding financial fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Castro, Miguel A.; Miranda, José G. V.; Borges, Ernesto P.; Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.

    2012-02-01

    The presence of sequences of top and bottom (TB) events in financial series is investigated for the purpose of characterizing such switching points. They clearly mark a change in the trend of rising or falling prices of assets to the opposite tendency, are of crucial importance for the players' decision and also for the market stability. Previous attempts to characterize switching points have been based on the behavior of the volatility and on the definition of microtrends. The approach used herein is based on the smoothing of the original data with a Gaussian kernel. The events are identified by the magnitude of the difference of the extreme prices, by the time lag between the corresponding events (waiting time), and by the time interval between events with a minimal magnitude (return time). Results from the analysis of the inter day Dow Jones Industrial Average index (DJIA) from 1928 to 2011 are discussed. q-Gaussian functions with power law tails are found to provide a very accurate description of a class of measures obtained from the series statistics.

  6. Complex decay chains of top and bottom squarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Jonathan; Su, Shufang; Zhang, Huanian

    2015-07-01

    Current searches for the top squark mostly focus on the decay channels of or , leading to tt/bbWW + [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] final states for top squark pair production at the LHC. In supersymmetric scenarios with light gauginos other than the neutralino lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), different decay modes of the top squark could be dominant, which significantly weaken the current top squark search limits at the LHC. Additionally, new decay modes offer alternative discovery channels for top squark searches. In this paper, we study the top squark and bottom squark decay in the Bino-like LSP case with light Wino or Higgsino next-to-LSPs (NLSPs), and identify cases in which additional decay modes become dominant. We also perform a collider analysis for top squark pair production with mixed top squark decay final states of , leading to the bbbbjjℓ + [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] collider signature. The branching fraction for such decay varies between 25% and 50% for a top squark mass larger than 500 GeV with M 2 = M 1 + 150 GeV. At the 14 TeV LHC with 300 fb-1 integrated luminosity, the top squark can be excluded up to about 1040 GeV at the 95% C.L., or be discovered up to 940 GeV at 5 σ significance.

  7. Atomically precise bottom-up fabrication of graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinming; Ruffieux, Pascal; Jaafar, Rached; Bieri, Marco; Braun, Thomas; Blankenburg, Stephan; Muoth, Matthias; Seitsonen, Ari P; Saleh, Moussa; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman

    2010-07-22

    Graphene nanoribbons-narrow and straight-edged stripes of graphene, or single-layer graphite-are predicted to exhibit electronic properties that make them attractive for the fabrication of nanoscale electronic devices. In particular, although the two-dimensional parent material graphene exhibits semimetallic behaviour, quantum confinement and edge effects should render all graphene nanoribbons with widths smaller than 10 nm semiconducting. But exploring the potential of graphene nanoribbons is hampered by their limited availability: although they have been made using chemical, sonochemical and lithographic methods as well as through the unzipping of carbon nanotubes, the reliable production of graphene nanoribbons smaller than 10 nm with chemical precision remains a significant challenge. Here we report a simple method for the production of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons of different topologies and widths, which uses surface-assisted coupling of molecular precursors into linear polyphenylenes and their subsequent cyclodehydrogenation. The topology, width and edge periphery of the graphene nanoribbon products are defined by the structure of the precursor monomers, which can be designed to give access to a wide range of different graphene nanoribbons. We expect that our bottom-up approach to the atomically precise fabrication of graphene nanoribbons will finally enable detailed experimental investigations of the properties of this exciting class of materials. It should even provide a route to graphene nanoribbon structures with engineered chemical and electronic properties, including the theoretically predicted intraribbon quantum dots, superlattice structures and magnetic devices based on specific graphene nanoribbon edge states. PMID:20651687

  8. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Snell, George J.; Kydd, Paul H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  9. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, P.L.; Williams, M.C.; Parsons, E.L.

    1995-09-12

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes. 1 fig.

  10. Evidence that biological activity affects Ocean Bottom Seismograph recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskirk, Ruth E.; Frohlich, Cliff; Latham, Gary V.; Chen, Allen T.; Lawton, Jeff

    1981-06-01

    Brief and impulsive signals of uncertain origin appear regularly on records from Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBS) of several institutions. These signals have been recorded on nearly all deployments of the Texas OBS, including sites at depths greater than 7000 m. At some sites, they account for over 90% of the events recorded. They are of short duration (usually 0.5 4.0 s) and have a characteristic frequency (usually in the range of 4 18 Hz) that differs from site to site. When networks of OBS instruments are deployed, the signals are not recorded simultaneously by different instruments. Neither the frequency content nor the distribution of durations of these signals is similar to what is observed for known earthquake events. We present evidence suggesting that the signals are of biological origin, perhaps caused by animals touching the OBS units. (1) The distribution of these signals on instruments deployed at depths shallower than 1000 m shows a 24 h periodicity, while there is a 24 h periodic pattern on instruments deployed at sites deeper than 1000 m (where there is no visible light). (2) The frequency of occurrence of signals is similar to the vertical distribution of biomass in the oceans, i.e., they appear most frequently on OBS instruments deployed at very shallow depths. (3) Biological material has been found attached to several OBS units upon recovery.

  11. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration.

  12. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project.

  13. Hydrophobic allergens from the bottom fraction membrane of Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mengumpun, Kesajee; Tayapiwatana, Chatchai; Hamilton, Robert G; Sangsupawanich, Pasuree; Wititsuwannakul, Rapepun

    2008-01-01

    Several proteins of rubber latex have been recognized as allergens causing immediate hypersensitivity in humans. In this study, a bottom fraction membrane (BFM) protein preparation from Hevea brasiliensis trees grown in southern Thailand was used to detect specific IgE in four groups of serum samples. The first group included 170 samples of latex glove factory workers (LGWs); group 2 consisted of the sera of 35 health care workers (HCWs) who were repeatedly exposed to powdered latex gloves; groups 3 and 4 were 31 positive and 22 negative sera, respectively, obtained from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA, tested for IgE to latex allergen. It was found that 56/170 (33%), 5/35 (14%), 11/31 (35.5%) and 1/22 (4.5%) samples of the LGWs, HCWs, CAP+ and CAP- groups had significant IgE to the BFM proteins, respectively. However, of all subjects only one subject of group 1 had experienced allergic morbidity consisting of eczema, conjunctivitis and asthma. The IgE of this subject bound to a 55 kDa component in the rubber latex BFM preparation. Thus, this protein may be regarded as a novel, although minor, latex allergen. Further investigation is needed to characterize the component and to pinpoint its allergenic role. PMID:19054931

  14. [Aerobic methanotrophic communities in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal].

    PubMed

    Gaĭnutdinova, E A; Eshinimaev, B Ts; Tsyrenzhapova, I S; Dagurova, O P; Suzina, N E; Khmelenina, V N; Namsaraev, B B; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2005-01-01

    The results of the first methodical investigation into the aerobic methanotrophic communities inhabiting the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal are reported. Use of the radioisotopic method revealed methane consumption in 12 10- to 50-cm-long sediment cores. The maximum methane consumption rates (495-737 microl/(dm3 day) were recorded in sediments in the regions of hydrothermal vents and oil and gas occurrence. Methane consumption was most active in the surface layers of the sediments (0-4 cm); it decreased with the sediment depth and became negligible or absent at depths below 20 cm. The number of methanotrophic bacteria usually ranged from 100 to 1000 cells/cm3 of sediment and reached 1 million cells/cm3 in the regions of oil and gas occurrence. The 17 enrichment cultures obtained were represented mainly by morphotype II methanotrophs. Phylogenetic analysis of the enrichment cultures in terms of the amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit of the membrane-bound methane monooxygenase revealed the predominance of methanotrophs of the genus Methylocystis. The results obtained suggest the presence of an active aerobic methanotrophic community in Lake Baikal. PMID:16211862

  15. Understanding photosynthetic light-harvesting: a bottom up theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Renger, Thomas; Müh, Frank

    2013-03-14

    We discuss a bottom up approach for modeling photosynthetic light-harvesting. Methods are reviewed for a full structure-based parameterization of the Hamiltonian of pigment-protein complexes (PPCs). These parameters comprise (i) the local transition energies of the pigments in their binding sites in the protein, the site energies; (ii) the couplings between optical transitions of the pigments, the excitonic couplings; and (iii) the spectral density characterizing the dynamic modulation of pigment transition energies and excitonic couplings by protein vibrations. Starting with quantum mechanics perturbation theory, we provide a microscopic foundation for the standard PPC Hamiltonian and relate the expressions obtained for its matrix elements to quantities that can be calculated with classical molecular mechanics/electrostatics approaches including the whole PPC in atomic detail and using charge and transition densities obtained with quantum chemical calculations on the isolated building blocks of the PPC. In the second part of this perspective, the Hamiltonian is utilized to describe the quantum dynamics of excitons. Situations are discussed that differ in the relative strength of excitonic and exciton-vibrational coupling. The predictive power of the approaches is demonstrated in application to different PPCs, and challenges for future work are outlined.

  16. Indirect-fired gas turbine bottomed with fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Micheli, Paul L.; Williams, Mark C.; Parsons, Edward L.

    1995-01-01

    An indirect-heated gas turbine cycle is bottomed with a fuel cell cycle with the heated air discharged from the gas turbine being directly utilized at the cathode of the fuel cell for the electricity-producing electrochemical reaction occurring within the fuel cell. The hot cathode recycle gases provide a substantial portion of the heat required for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. A separate combustor provides the balance of the heat needed for the indirect heating of the compressed air used in the gas turbine cycle. Hot gases from the fuel cell are used in the combustor to reduce both the fuel requirements of the combustor and the NOx emissions therefrom. Residual heat remaining in the air-heating gases after completing the heating thereof is used in a steam turbine cycle or in an absorption refrigeration cycle. Some of the hot gases from the cathode can be diverted from the air-heating function and used in the absorption refrigeration cycle or in the steam cycle for steam generating purposes.

  17. Pulsar emission at the bottom end of the electromagnetic spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratiev, Vladislav; LOFAR Pulsar Working Group

    2013-03-01

    Pulsars are arguably the only astrophysical sources whose emission spans the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from decameter radio wavelengths to TeV energies. The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) offers the unique possibility to study pulsars over a huge fractional bandwidth in the bottom 4 octaves of the radio window, from 15-240 MHz. Here we present a LOFAR study of pulsar single pulses, focussing specifically on the bright nearby pulsar B0809+74. We show that the spectral width of bright low-frequency pulses can be as narrow as 1 MHz and scales with increasing frequency as Δ f/f c ~ 0.15, at least in the case of the PSR B0809+74. This appears to be intrinsic to the pulsar, as opposed to being due to propagation effects. If so, this behavior is consistent with predictions by the strong plasma turbulence model of pulsar radio emission. We also present other observed properties of the single pulses and discuss their relation to other single-pulse phenomena like giant pulses.

  18. Low energy isomers of (H2O)25 from a hierarchical method based on Monte Carlo temperature basin paving and molecular tailoring approaches benchmarked by MP2 calculations.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Nityananda; Gadre, Shridhar R; Rakshit, Avijit; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2014-10-28

    We report new global minimum candidate structures for the (H2O)25 cluster that are lower in energy than the ones reported previously and correspond to hydrogen bonded networks with 42 hydrogen bonds and an interior, fully coordinated water molecule. These were obtained as a result of a hierarchical approach based on initial Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving sampling of the cluster's Potential Energy Surface with the Effective Fragment Potential, subsequent geometry optimization using the Molecular Tailoring Approach with the fragments treated at the second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation (MTA-MP2) and final refinement of the entire cluster at the MP2 level of theory. The MTA-MP2 optimized cluster geometries, constructed from the fragments, were found to be within <0.5 kcal/mol from the minimum geometries obtained from the MP2 optimization of the entire (H2O)25 cluster. In addition, the grafting of the MTA-MP2 energies yields electronic energies that are within <0.3 kcal/mol from the MP2 energies of the entire cluster while preserving their energy rank order. Finally, the MTA-MP2 approach was found to reproduce the MP2 harmonic vibrational frequencies, constructed from the fragments, quite accurately when compared to the MP2 ones of the entire cluster in both the HOH bending and the OH stretching regions of the spectra.

  19. Paving the Way for Speech: Voice-Training-Induced Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech—Three Single Cases

    PubMed Central

    Jungblut, Monika; Huber, Walter; Mais, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties with temporal coordination or sequencing of speech movements are frequently reported in aphasia patients with concomitant apraxia of speech (AOS). Our major objective was to investigate the effects of specific rhythmic-melodic voice training on brain activation of those patients. Three patients with severe chronic nonfluent aphasia and AOS were included in this study. Before and after therapy, patients underwent the same fMRI procedure as 30 healthy control subjects in our prestudy, which investigated the neural substrates of sung vowel changes in untrained rhythm sequences. A main finding was that post-minus pretreatment imaging data yielded significant perilesional activations in all patients for example, in the left superior temporal gyrus, whereas the reverse subtraction revealed either no significant activation or right hemisphere activation. Likewise, pre- and posttreatment assessments of patients' vocal rhythm production, language, and speech motor performance yielded significant improvements for all patients. Our results suggest that changes in brain activation due to the applied training might indicate specific processes of reorganization, for example, improved temporal sequencing of sublexical speech components. In this context, a training that focuses on rhythmic singing with differently demanding complexity levels as concerns motor and cognitive capabilities seems to support paving the way for speech. PMID:24977055

  20. The Muscle Sensor for on-site neuroscience lectures to pave the way for a better understanding of brain-machine-interface research.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Amane; Nagata, Osamu; Togawa, Morio; Sazi, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience is an expanding field of science to investigate enigmas of brain and human body function. However, the majority of the public have never had the chance to learn the basics of neuroscience and new knowledge from advanced neuroscience research through hands-on experience. Here, we report that we produced the Muscle Sensor, a simplified electromyography, to promote educational understanding in neuroscience. The Muscle Sensor can detect myoelectric potentials which are filtered and processed as 3-V pulse signals to shine a light bulb and emit beep sounds. With this educational tool, we delivered "On-Site Neuroscience Lectures" in Japanese junior-high schools to facilitate hands-on experience of neuroscientific electrophysiology and to connect their text-book knowledge to advanced neuroscience researches. On-site neuroscience lectures with the Muscle Sensor pave the way for a better understanding of the basics of neuroscience and the latest topics such as how brain-machine-interface technology could help patients with disabilities such as spinal cord injuries.