Science.gov

Sample records for bottom short-term station

  1. BWRSAR (Boiling Water Reactor Severe Accident Response) calculations of reactor vessel debris pours for Peach Bottom short-term station blackout

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Ott, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes recent analyses performed by the BWR Severe Accident Technology (BWRSAT) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to estimate the release of debris from the reactor vessel for the unmitigated short-term station blackout accident sequence. Calculations were performed with the BWR Severe Accident Response (BWRSAR) code and are based upon consideration of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The modeling strategies employed within BWRSAR for debris relocation within the reactor vessel are briefly discussed and the calculated events of the accident sequence, including details of the calculated debris pours, are presented. 4 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Effect of short-term natural weathering on MSWI and wood waste bottom ash leaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gori, M; Bergfeldt, B; Pfrang-Stotz, G; Reichelt, J; Sirini, P

    2011-05-15

    Short term natural weathering was applied on municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incinerator bottom ash (BA). The materials were analysed at different steps of treatment and characterized for chemical and mineralogical composition. Both short and long term leaching behaviour of main elements and heavy metals were investigated as well. Lead, zinc and copper were the main heavy metals to be released. After 12 weeks of treatment the concentration of leached zinc decreased. Lead concentration was not found to be influenced by pH and decreased only for the biomass samples. Weathering did not have beneficial effects on copper leaching, which was well described by complexation processes with DOC. The findings from the experimental campaign indicated that weathering reactions improved the mineral stability of the analysed materials but, in contrast with previous works, the treatment was not sufficient to guarantee pH stability and to comply with leaching law limits.

  3. Trophic look at soft-bottom communities - Short-term effects of trawling cessation on benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannheim, Jennifer; Brey, Thomas; Schröder, Alexander; Mintenbeck, Katja; Knust, Rainer; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2014-01-01

    The trophic structure of the German Bight soft-bottom benthic community was evaluated for potential changes after cessation of bottom trawling. Species were collected with van-Veen grabs and beam trawls. Trophic position (i.e. nitrogen stable isotope ratios, δ15N) and energy flow (i.e. species metabolism approximated by body mass scaled abundance) of dominant species were compared in trawled areas and an area protected from fisheries for 14 months in order to detect trawling cessation effects by trophic characteristics. At the community level, energy flow was lower in the protected area, but we were unable to detect significant changes in trophic position. At the species level energy flow in the protected area was lower for predating/scavenging species but higher for interface feeders. Species trophic positions of small predators/scavengers were lower and of deposit feeders higher in the protected area. Major reasons for trophic changes after trawling cessation may be the absence of artificial and additional food sources from trawling likely to attract predators and scavengers, and the absence of physical sediment disturbance impacting settlement/survival of less mobile species and causing a gradual shift in food availability and quality. Our results provide evidence that species or community energy flow is a good indicator to detect trawling induced energy-flow alterations in the benthic system, and that in particular species trophic properties are suitable to capture subtle and short-term changes in the benthos following trawling cessation.

  4. Copper leaching of MSWI bottom ash co-disposed with refuse: effect of short-term accelerated weathering.

    PubMed

    Su, Lianghu; Guo, Guangzhai; Shi, Xinlong; Zuo, Minyu; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Aihua; Zhao, Youcai

    2013-06-01

    Co-disposal of refuse with municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash (IBA) either multi-layered as landfill cover or mixed with refuse could pose additional risk to the environment because of enhanced leaching of heavy metals, especially Cu. This study applied short-term accelerated weathering to IBA, and monitored the mineralogical and chemical properties of IBA during the weathering process. Cu extractability of the weathered IBA was then evaluated using standard leaching protocols (i.e. SPLP and TCLP) and co-disposal leaching procedure. The results showed that weathering had little or no beneficial effect on Cu leaching in SPLP and TCLP, which can be explained by the adsorption and complexation of Cu with DOM. However, the Cu leaching of weathered IBA was reduced significantly when situated in fresh simulated landfill leachate. This was attributed to weakening Cu complexation with fulvic acid or hydrophilic fractions and/or intensifying Cu absorption to neoformed hydr(oxide) minerals in weathered IBA. The amount of total leaching Cu and Cu in free or labile complex fraction (the fraction with the highest mobility and bio-toxicity) of the 408-h weathered IBA were remarkably decreased by 86.3% and 97.6% in the 15-day co-disposal leaching test. Accelerated weathering of IBA may be an effective pretreatment method to decrease Cu leaching prior to its co-disposal with refuse.

  5. Vessel failure time for a low-pressure short-term station blackout in a BWR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J. )

    1993-01-01

    A low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident sequence has been analyzed using the MELCOR code, version 1.8.1, in a boiling water reactor (BWR)-4. This paper presents a sensitivity study evaluating the effect of several MELCOR input parameters on vessel failure time. Results using the MELCOR/CORBH package and the BWRSAR code are also presented and compared to the MELCOR results. These calculated vessel failure times are discussed, and a judgment is offered as to which is the most realistic.

  6. Seasonal and Short-Term Load Deformation at Antarctic GPS Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, S. L.; Linick, C.; Wilson, C. R.; Chen, J.; Bevis, M. G.; van den Broeke, M.; van Wessem, M.; Wilson, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    We compare vertical surface deformation time series from 64 mainly coastal Antarctic GPS stations to vertical deformation predicted from various geophysical models and observations: Antarctic surface mass balance (RACMO 2.3/ANT and GRACE), atmospheric loading (ERA-Interim), and non-tidal ocean loading (ECCO). The goal is to account for vertical deformation in terms of air and water loads. Linear trends were removed from all time series to focus on seasonal and shorter time scales, evident in all the series. Annual and semiannual sinusoids were fit and compared in terms of amplitude and phase. At most stations, atmospheric loads dominate shorter period variations, but ocean and surface mass balance loading effects are observable at seasonal time scales.

  7. Constraint satisfaction and optimization for space station short-term mission planning based on an iterative conflict-repair method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Hui-Jiao; Zhang, Jin; Luo, Ya-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    This article studies the optimization of space station short-term mission planning (STMP) problems. The domain knowledge including description and the concept definitions of the STMP problem are presented, an STMP constraint satisfaction model is developed, and then an iterative conflict-repair method with the resolving strategies is proposed to satisfy complicated constraints. A genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to optimize the STMP problem. The proposed approach is evaluated using a test case with 15 missions, 13 devices and three astronauts. The results show that the established STMP constraint satisfaction model is effective, and the iterative conflict-repair method can make the plan satisfy all constraints considered and can effectively improve the optimization performance of the GA.

  8. Study on optimization of the short-term operation of cascade hydropower stations by considering output error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liping; Wang, Boquan; Zhang, Pu; Liu, Minghao; Li, Chuangang

    2017-06-01

    The study of reservoir deterministic optimal operation can improve the utilization rate of water resource and help the hydropower stations develop more reasonable power generation schedules. However, imprecise forecasting inflow may lead to output error and hinder implementation of power generation schedules. In this paper, output error generated by the uncertainty of the forecasting inflow was regarded as a variable to develop a short-term reservoir optimal operation model for reducing operation risk. To accomplish this, the concept of Value at Risk (VaR) was first applied to present the maximum possible loss of power generation schedules, and then an extreme value theory-genetic algorithm (EVT-GA) was proposed to solve the model. The cascade reservoirs of Yalong River Basin in China were selected as a case study to verify the model, according to the results, different assurance rates of schedules can be derived by the model which can present more flexible options for decision makers, and the highest assurance rate can reach 99%, which is much higher than that without considering output error, 48%. In addition, the model can greatly improve the power generation compared with the original reservoir operation scheme under the same confidence level and risk attitude. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper can significantly improve the effectiveness of power generation schedules and provide a more scientific reference for decision makers.

  9. Source terms released into the environment for a station blackout severe accident at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-07-01

    This study calculates source terms released into the environment at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station after containment failure during a postulated low-pressure, short-term station blackout severe accident. The severe accident analysis code MELCOR, version 1.8.1, was used in these calculations. Source terms were calculated for three different containment failure modes. The largest environmental releases occur for early containment failure at the drywell liner in contact with the cavity by liner melt-through. This containment failure mode is very likely to occur when the cavity is dry during this postulated severe accident sequence.

  10. Short-term Variability of Physical and Chemical Parameters in Suboxic/Anoxic Bottom Waters of the Chesapeake Bay During Late July 2002.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montbriand, P. J.; Lewis, B. L.; Luther, G. W.; Glazer, B. T.; Ma, S.; Reedy, S.; Nuzzio, D. B.; Spencer, T.; Theberge, S.

    2002-12-01

    concentrations of ~40-70 μM (7-12 m depth), and 0.1-0.3 μM nitrite was observed in the surface layer. In the bottom waters, nitrite increased over the sampling period from 0 to about 0.07 μM. The data imply two sources of nitrite, ammonification/nitrification in the oxygenated waters and denitrification in the deep waters. Dissolved Mn increased below 12-14 meters, coincident with oxygen concentrations < 20 μM. Concentrations in the deep waters varied widely, from ~ 0.2 to 7 μM. Dissolved Fe(II) was detected only at oxygen levels < 5 μM, with concentrations in the deep waters ranging from ~ 0.2 to 1.4 μM. Plotting the chemical data versus salinity rather than depth decreases the scatter due to tidal variation and displays a clear separation between the onset of Mn and Fe reduction. This study illustrates the dynamic, rapidly changing nature of water-column anoxia in the Chesapeake Bay. The depth of oxygen penetration, the thickness of the suboxic zone and the concentration of sulfide in the deep waters fluctuate in response to tidal oscillations and to the passage of storm events. Real-time measurements are necessary to document these short-term variations.

  11. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.

  12. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra...Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Jason C. Weale and Devinder S. Sodhi Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) U.S...Division of Polar Programs operates an over-sea-ice traverse from McMurdo Station to rou- tinely resupply Marble Point Camp. The traverse requires that

  13. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  14. Long and short-term atmospheric radiation analyses based on coupled measurements at high altitude remote stations and extensive air shower modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, G.; Federico, C. A.; Pazianotto, M. T.; Gonzales, O. L.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper are described the ACROPOL and OPD high-altitude stations devoted to characterize the atmospheric radiation fields. The ACROPOL platform, located at the summit of the Pic du Midi in the French Pyrenees at 2885 m above sea level, exploits since May 2011 some scientific equipment, including a BSS neutron spectrometer, detectors based on semiconductor and scintillators. In the framework of a IEAv and ONERA collaboration, a second neutron spectrometer was simultaneously exploited since February 2015 at the summit of the Pico dos Dias in Brazil at 1864 m above the sea level. The both high station platforms allow for investigating the long period dynamics to analyze the spectral variation of cosmic-ray- induced neutron and effects of local and seasonal changes, but also the short term dynamics during solar flare events. This paper presents long and short-term analyses, including measurement and modeling investigations considering the both high altitude stations data. The modeling approach, based on ATMORAD computational platform, was used to link the both station measurements.

  15. Do TETRA (Airwave) Base Station Signals Have a Short-Term Impact on Health and Well-Being? A Randomized Double-Blind Provocation Study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Background “Airwave” is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. Objectives We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported “electrosensitivity” and of participants who served as controls. Methods Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. Results We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself. PMID:20075020

  16. Does short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals increase symptoms in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields? A double-blind randomized provocation study.

    PubMed

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Mirshekar-Syahkal, Dariush; Rasor, Paul; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2007-11-01

    Individuals with idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) believe they suffer negative health effects when exposed to electromagnetic fields from everyday objects such as mobile phone base stations. This study used both open provocation and double-blind tests to determine if sensitive and control individuals experience more negative health effects when exposed to base station-like signals compared with sham. Fifty-six self-reported sensitive and 120 control participants were tested in an open provocation test. Of these, 12 sensitive and 6 controls withdrew after the first session. The remainder completed a series of double-blind tests. Subjective measures of well-being and symptoms as well as physiological measures of blood volume pulse, heart rate, and skin conductance were obtained. During the open provocation, sensitive individuals reported lower levels of well-being in both the global system for mobile communication (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) compared with sham exposure, whereas controls reported more symptoms during the UMTS exposure. During double-blind tests the GSM signal did not have any effect on either group. Sensitive participants did report elevated levels of arousal during the UMTS condition, whereas the number or severity of symptoms experienced did not increase. Physiological measures did not differ across the three exposure conditions for either group. Short-term exposure to a typical GSM base station-like signal did not affect well-being or physiological functions in sensitive or control individuals. Sensitive individuals reported elevated levels of arousal when exposed to a UMTS signal. Further analysis, however, indicated that this difference was likely to be due to the effect of order of exposure rather than the exposure itself.

  17. A method for a short-term forecast of the absorbed dose accumulation dynamics on the international space station based on radiation monitoring system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Many papers are devoted to the prediction of radiation conditions on board of a spacecraft (Pichkhadze et al., 2004; Khamidullina et al., 2008; 2012), and a number of software systems for corresponding calculations have been developed: the US information system CREME96 (https://creme.isde.vander-bilt.edu/); European SPENVIS (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/intro.php); Russian SEREIS (Kuznetsov et al., 2001; Model' kosmosa, 2007) and COSRAD (http://cosrad.sinp.msu.ru/manual.html; Kuznetsov et al., 2011) based on the models of the radiation environment in near-Earth space (Bashkirov et al., 1998; Nymmik, 2004; Model' kosmosa, 2007; Kuznetsov et al., 2011). In this paper we propose a simple calculation algorithm of short-term (for a few days) forecasting of dynamics of the radiation dose on the International Space Station (ISS) in radiation environment undisturbed by solar proton events. This algorithm does not use radiation environment models and detailed ballistic calculations, while it uses data of the onboard radiation monitoring system (RMS) and empirical relations, obtained for ISS orbital motion.

  18. Effect of Short-Term Mobile Phone Base Station Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Body Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure of Malaysians

    PubMed Central

    Malek, F.; Rani, K. A.; Rahim, H. A.; Omar, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals who report their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often undergo cognitive impairments that they believe are due to the exposure of mobile phone technology. The aim of this study is to clarify whether short-term exposure at 1 V/m to the typical Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) affects cognitive performance and physiological parameters (body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate). This study applies counterbalanced randomizing single blind tests to determine if sensitive individuals experience more negative health effects when they are exposed to base station signals compared with sham (control) individuals. The sample size is 200 subjects with 50.0% Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) also known as sensitive and 50.0% (non-IEI-EMF). The computer-administered Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB eclipseTM) is used to examine cognitive performance. Four tests are chosen to evaluate Cognitive performance in CANTAB: Reaction Time (RTI), Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Span (SSP). Paired sample t-test on the other hand, is used to examine the physiological parameters. Generally, in both groups, there is no statistical significant difference between the exposure and sham exposure towards cognitive performance and physiological effects (P’s > 0.05). PMID:26286015

  19. Effect of Short-Term Mobile Phone Base Station Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Body Temperature, Heart Rate and Blood Pressure of Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Malek, F; Rani, K A; Rahim, H A; Omar, M H

    2015-08-19

    Individuals who report their sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often undergo cognitive impairments that they believe are due to the exposure of mobile phone technology. The aim of this study is to clarify whether short-term exposure at 1 V/m to the typical Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) affects cognitive performance and physiological parameters (body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate). This study applies counterbalanced randomizing single blind tests to determine if sensitive individuals experience more negative health effects when they are exposed to base station signals compared with sham (control) individuals. The sample size is 200 subjects with 50.0% Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) also known as sensitive and 50.0% (non-IEI-EMF). The computer-administered Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB eclipse(TM)) is used to examine cognitive performance. Four tests are chosen to evaluate Cognitive performance in CANTAB: Reaction Time (RTI), Rapid Visual Processing (RVP), Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Spatial Span (SSP). Paired sample t-test on the other hand, is used to examine the physiological parameters. Generally, in both groups, there is no statistical significant difference between the exposure and sham exposure towards cognitive performance and physiological effects (P's > 0.05).

  20. Precursory slow crustal deformation before short-term slow slip event in January 2006, recorded at Shingu borehole station southern Kii Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, M.; Sagiya, T.

    2007-12-01

    In January 2006, a deep low frequency tremor activity and an associated short-term slow slip event occurred in the eastern Kii Peninsula and this coupled activity migrated to the northeast at a rate of 10km/day. We are monitoring crustal deformation at Shingu borehole station in the southeastern Kii peninsula. The Shingu borehole site is located about 100km landward from the Nankai Trough axis, and close to the epicenter of the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake. The borehole is 500 m deep and is equipped with an integrated multi-component borehole monitoring system developed by Ishii et al. (2002), consisting of 6 strain sensors (4 in horizontal, 2 in vertical), 2 pendulum tilt sensors, a magnetic direction finder, and a quartz thermometer. Each signal is originally recorded with a sampling frequency of 50 Hz. We decimated the original data into hourly data, which we decomposed into tidal response, barometric response, smoothed trend and random noise component by applying BAYTAP-G software [Tamura et al., 1991]. In the trend component from November 2005 to March 2006, we did not found deformation signal at the time of the Jan. 2006 tremor event. However, we found three significant slow strain changes from the processed records. Two of them coincide with the occurrence of the tremor activities in the southern Kii Peninsula, and are characterized by N-S contraction (0.019-0.031 ppm) and E-W extension (0.025-0.038 ppm). These are the first evidence of the short-term slow slip event in this area. The third change is characterized by NW-SE extension (0.026 ppm), N-S contraction (0.012 ppm), E-W extension (0.022 ppm), and southwestward tilting (0.23 micro rad). It occurred from December 29, 2005 to January 2, 2006, just before the tremor and slip event in January 2006, but was not accompanied by any tremor activity. We conducted a series of inversion analysis to infer the source of this possible slow slip event. We assumed that the slow slip event was caused by a reverse fault

  1. Containment venting analysis for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-12-01

    The extent to which containment venting is an effective means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of overpressurization during severe accidents was evaluated for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (boiling water reactors with Mark I containments). Detailed analyses were conducted on operator performance, equipment performance, and the physical phenomenology for three severe accident sequences currently identified as being important contributors to risk. The results indicate that containment venting can be effective in reducing risk for several classes of severe accidents but, based on procedures in draft form and equipment in place at the time of the analyses, has limited potential for further reducing the risk for severe accidents currently identified as being important contributors to the risk for Peach Bottom.

  2. Commuters' Eye Contact with Strangers in City and Suburban Train Stations: Evidence of Short-Term Adaptation to Interpersonal Overload in the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Clark; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Experimenters attempted to make eye contact with commuters as they approached an express train linking city and suburb. Results support the hypothesis that reduced eye contact with strangers in the city is a short-term adaptation to interpersonal overload. (Author)

  3. Analysis of Peach Bottom station blackout with MELCOR

    SciTech Connect

    Dingman, S.E.; Cole, R.K.; Haskin, F.E.; Summers, R.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    A demonstration analysis of station blackout at Peach Bottom has been performed using MELCOR and the results have been compared with those from MARCON 2.1B and the Source Term Code Package (STCP). MELCOR predicts greater in-vessel hydrogen production, earlier melting and core collapse, but later debris discharge than MARCON 2.1B. The drywell fails at vessel breach in MELCOR, but failure is delayed about an hour in MARCON 2.1B. These differences are mainly due to the MELCOR models for candling during melting, in-core axial conduction, and continued oxidation and heat transfer from core debris following lower head dryout. Three sensitivity calculations have been performed with MELCOR to address uncertainties regarding modeling of the core-concrete interactions. The timing of events and the gas and radionuclide release rates are somewhat different in the base case and the three sensitivity cases, but the final conditions and total releases are similar.

  4. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.S.; Catapano, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: removal of previously installed plugs; videoprobe inspection of failed areas; extraction of tube samples for further analysis; eddy current testing of selected tubes; evaluation of the condition of insurance plugged tubes for return to service; hydrostatic testing of selected tubes; final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should be solely relied upon in establishing: the extent of actual degraded conditions; the source(s) of failure mechanisms; and the details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  5. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  6. Evaluation of MELCOR improvements: Peach Bottom station blackout analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1993-12-31

    Long-term station blackout analyses in Peach Bottom were first carried out using MELCOR 1.8BC, and later with 1.8DN, as part of an overall program between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), to provide independent assessment of MELCOR as a severe accident/source term analysis tool. In addition to the reference MELCOR calculation, several sensitivity calculations were also performed to explore the impact of varying user-input modeling and timestep control parameters on the accident progression and radionuclide releases to the environment calculated by MELCOR. An area of concern that emerged from these studies was the impact of the selection of maximum allowable timestep ({Delta}t{sub max}) on the calculational behavior of MELCOR, where the results showed significant differences in timing of key events, and a lack of convergence of the solution with reduction of {Delta}t{sub max}. These findings were reported to the NRC, SNL, and the MELCOR Peer Review Committee. As a consequence, a significant effort was undertaken to eliminate or mitigate these sensitivities. The latest released version of MELCOR, Version 1.8.2, released in April 1993, contains several new or improved models, and has corrections to mitigate numerical sensitivities. This paper presents the results of updating the earlier sensitivity studies on maximum timestep, to more properly represent the abilities of the improved MELCOR version 1.8.2. Results are presenter in terms of timing of key events, thermal-hydraulic response of the system, and environmental release of radionuclides. The impact of some of the newer models, such as falling debris quench model, and ORNL`s new BH model, is also evaluated.

  7. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Catapano, M.C.; Thomas, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    Many papers published over the last 15 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. With deregulation of the electric utility industry in various phases of implementation, utilities must decrease costs, both O&M and capital, while optimizing plant efficiency. In order to accomplish this coal, utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, correct/eliminate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures while optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed area resolves the immediate need for return for service, however, heater life will not be graded/failed area resolves optimized. This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy`s Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: (1) Removal of previously installed plugs. (2) Videoprobe inspection of failed areas. (3) Extraction of tube samples for further analysis. (4) Eddy current testing of selected tubes. (5) Evaluation of the condition of {open_quotes}insurance{close_quotes} plugged tubes for return to service. (6) Hydrostatic testing of selected tubes. (7) Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: (1) The extent of actual degraded conditions, (2) The source(s) of failure mechanisms, (3) The details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life.

  8. Validation of the new HelioClim-3 version 4 real-time and short-term forecast service using 14 BSRN stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Claire; Saboret, Laurent; Wey, Etienne; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-07-01

    Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite images acquired every 15 min during daytime are currently processed by the Heliosat-2 method every night to generate the HelioClim-3 (HC3) database of the surface solar irradiation for the day before. A new service is proposed based on version 4 of HC3 (HC3v4) that offers real-time and forecasted irradiation for horizons up to a few hours. The service is based on a local persistence of the clear-sky index. Its results were compared to coincident high quality 15 min global irradiations measured in fourteen stations belonging to the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). For forecasts for a temporal horizon of 15 min ahead, the relative bias and root mean square error (RMSE) range respectively from 0 to 2 %, and 20 to 23 % for most stations. The correlation coefficient ranges from 0.94 to 0.95. These performances are similar to HC3v4 for the same stations. Expectedly, the quality of the forecasts degrades as the temporal horizon increases. For 1 h ahead forecasts of 15 min irradiation, the relative bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient range respectively from -3 to 1 %, 30 to 37 %, and 0.90 to 0.91.

  9. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  10. Signal Detection and Earthquake Catalogue Development Using a Short-term, Over 800-station, Mixed-mode Seismic Array Deployed Above the Socorro Magma Body, NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, S. L.; Schmandt, B.; Hansen, S. M.; Worthington, L. L.; Aster, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Magma movement and emplacement within the crust is an important aspect to understanding crustal formation and deformation. The 19-km deep Socorro Magma Body, the second largest mid-crustal continental magma body known worldwide, produces measurable crustal deformation and seismicity within the Rio Grande Rift region in central New Mexico. There have been a variety of studies to estimate the location and size of this feature as well as possible changes related to magma or fluid migration. The extent of the feature has been previously estimated by observation of reflected phases arising from earthquakes located above the feature recorded by a sparse local seismic network. To improve our understanding of the spatial extent of the Socorro Magma Body, we deployed a mixed mode seismic array for 2 weeks over the northern portion of the magma body consisting of 7 3-component broadband seismometers and over 800 Fairfield vertical-component autonomous node seismographs with integral 10 Hz seismometers. This array will allow for us to improve our estimates of spatial extent of the body and possible heterogeneities resulting from fluid or magma migration at shallower depths. Here we focus on initial steps to analyze this large volume of data, in conjunction with other local and regional seismic stations, to determine a local and teleseismic earthquake catalog during the deployment time period. These earthquakes will then be used to probe the structure of the Socorro Magma Body and its surroundings. We employ multiple strategies for building this catalog, including standard amplitude-based detection tools with the broadband data, triggering algorithms with the node data, and back-projection of the node data over limited sections of the array. Initial results suggest a number of previously undetected earthquakes located beneath the array, as well as regional events from an earthquake sequence in Arizona.

  11. Condensate polishing cost reduction at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    In May 1995, PECO Nuclear began an investment of over 3 million dollars for improvements in the condensate polishers at Peach Bottom Unit 3. Based on current performance, the investment is expected to be returned by the first quarter of 1997. The centerpiece of the improvements is the backfit of pleat filters on most of the vessels. Manual isolation valves and new precoating equipment will assure sustained performance. This report summarizes the improved performance and the new equipment and methods used to achieve it.

  12. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in subparts D, E, F and H of this part, except wireless video assist devices, may be operated on a... notification provision shall not apply where an unanticipated need for immediate short-term mobile station...

  13. A method for foF2 short-term (1-24 h) forecast using both historical and real-time foF2 observations over European stations: EUROMAP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.

    2014-04-01

    A method for foF2 short-term forecast over Europe has been developed and implemented in the EUROMAP model. The input-driving parameters are 3 h ap indices (converted to ap(τ)), effective ionospheric T index, and real-time foF2 observations. The method includes local (for each station) regression storm models to describe strong negative disturbances under ap(τ) > 30 and training models to describe foF2 variations under ap(τ) ≤ 30. The derived model was tested in two regimes: descriptive when observed 3 h ap indices were used and real forecast when predicted daily Ap were used instead of 3 h ap indices—. In the case of strong negative disturbances the EUROMAP model demonstrates on average the improvement over the lnternational Reference Ionosphere STORM-time correction model (IRI(STORM)) model: 40% in winter, 24% in summer, and 39% in equinox. The average improvement over climatology is 41% in winter, 59% in summer, and 55% in equinox. In the majority of cases this difference is statistically significant. In the case of strong positive disturbances, higher-latitude stations also manifest a significant difference between the two models but this difference is insignificant at lower latitude stations. The substitution of 3 h ap input indices for the predicted daily Ap ones decreases the foF2 prediction accuracy in the case of negative disturbances but practically has no effect with positive disturbances. In both cases the proposed method manifests better accuracy than the IRI(STORM) model provides. The obtained results show a real opportunity to provide foF2 forecast with the (1-24 h) lead time on the basis of predicted Ap indices.

  14. Short-term energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) presents future scenarios of quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and prices for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes previous estimate errors, compares recent scenarios with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics of the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook: Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The scenario period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1990 through the fourth quarter of 1991. Some data for the third quarter of 1990 are preliminary EIA estimates of actual data (for example, some petroleum estimates are based on statistics from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are derived from internal model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, some electricity demand estimates are based on recent weather data). 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located in...

  16. 75 FR 6071 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3...

  17. Identifying and removing noise from the Monterey ocean bottom broadband seismic station (MOBB) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, David; Romanowicz, Barbara; Uhrhammer, Robert; McGill, Paul; Neuhauser, Doug; Stakes, Debra

    2007-02-01

    When compared to quiet land stations, the very broadband Monterey ocean bottom seismic station (MOBB) shows increased long-period background as well as signal-generated noise. Both sources of noise are unavoidable in shallow ocean bottom installations, and postprocessing is required to remove them from seismic observations. The long-period background noise observed for periods longer than 20 s is mainly due to infragravity waves and ocean currents. The shorter-period signal-generated noise, on the other hand, is due to reverberations of the seismic waves in the shallow sedimentary layers as well as in the water layer. We first present the steps that were taken prior to and during the instrument deployment to minimize instrument generated noise as well as to avoid noise due to water flow around the instrument. We then present results from two postprocessing methods that can be used to remove the long-period background noise, which both utilize the ocean bottom pressure signal locally recorded on a differential pressure gauge (DPG). One consists of subtracting the locally recorded ocean bottom pressure from the vertical seismic acceleration signal. In this case the frequency-independent scale factor is linearly estimated from the data. The other one makes use of the transfer function between the vertical seismic and pressure signal to predict the vertical component deformation signal. The predicted signal is then removed from the vertical seismic data in either frequency or time domain. We also present two methods that can be used to remove the signal-generated noise. One employs the empirical transfer function constructed from MOBB data and nearby land station data that do not show the signal-generated noise. The other one uses a synthetic transfer function computed by modeling the response of shallow layers at the MOBB location. Using either of the two transfer functions, most of the signal-generated noise can be removed from the MOBB data by deconvolution.

  18. Characterization of bottom-sediment, water, and elutriate chemistry at selected stations at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broshears, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    To better-understand and predict the potential effect of dredging on water quality at Reelfoot Lake, chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water. Chemical analyses were conducted on samples of lake water, bottom sediment, and elutriate water collected at five stations in the lake during November 1988. Lake water was of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with an average dissolved-solids concentration of 120 milligrams per liter. Trace constituents were present in bottom sediments at concentrations representative of their average relative abundance in the earth?s crust. Elutriate waters prepared by mixing bottom sediment and lake water had suspended-solids concentrations as high as 2,000 milligrams per liter which exerted significant oxygen demand Trace constituents in the unfiltered elutriate waters were elevated with respect to lake water; elevated concentrations were attributable to the increased suspended-solids concentrations. Concentrations of total-recoverable copper, lead., and zinc in many elutriate waters exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s water-quality criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. The toxicity of elutriate waters, as measured by a 48-hour bioassay with Ceriodaphnia dubia, was low.

  19. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Wright, R.E.; Leonard, M.T.; DiSalvo, R.

    1986-10-24

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed.

  20. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1991--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.A.; Jones, T.S.; Frithsen, J.B.; McLean, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1991 through 1994 and is the fifth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at PBAPS in 1979.

  1. Short-term variability during an anchor station study in the southern Benguela upwelling system: Abundance, distribution and estimated production of mesozooplankton with special reference to Calanoides carinatus (Krøyer, 1849)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verheye, Hans M.

    Daytime zooplankton samples collected at a fixed station position in St Helena Bay during a 27-day time series in March-April 1987 were used to describe the variability in the vertical distribution, abundance and population age structure of Calanoides carinatus in response to upwelling-related processes, and to provide an estimate of their production. The vertical distribution of C. carinatus was characterized by ontogenetic layering of copepodites and adults. The thermocline delimited the maximum depth of young copepodites (CI-CIII). Older stages avoided low-oxygen (<1ml O 2l -1) bottom water. C. carinatus was usually not associated with the chlorophyll a maximum. The spatial segregation of young and older stages is briefly discussed in relation to differential feeding habits and diel vertical migration behaviour. The demographic structure of the C. carinatus population showed evidence of a stable age distribution of copepodites and adults during the first of two upwelling cycles observed during the study. Overall mean abundance was 360 animals m -3. However, during the second upwelling cycle their mean abundance was reduced to 183 animals m -3 and adults dominated the population by 54%. These changes in abundance and age structure are discussed in relation to upwelling-induced advective processes. Surface-dwelling young copepodites (CI-CIII) are thought to be transported away from the study site, while re-seeding of the reduced nearshore population probably took place through advection of diapausal pre-adults (CV) in the upwelled water. Daily production of juvenile C. carinatus was estimated at 0.7 mg C m -3d -1 which, combined with an egg production of 1.0mg C m -3d -1 by addult females, is equivalent to 2% of the observed daily primary production. The mean P:B ratio for the copepodite stages was 0.167d -1. The role of this dominant copepod and the mesozooplankton in the carbon budget in St Helena Bay is discussed. Consumption by mesozooplankters was estimated

  2. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases.

  3. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Convergence of the Uncertainty Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, Nathan E.; Osborn, Douglas M.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Mattie, Patrick D.; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the convergence of MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) probabilistic results of offsite consequences for the uncertainty analysis of the State-of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. The consequence metrics evaluated are individual latent-cancer fatality (LCF) risk and individual early fatality risk. Consequence results are presented as conditional risk (i.e., assuming the accident occurs, risk per event) to individuals of the public as a result of the accident. In order to verify convergence for this uncertainty analysis, as recommended by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, a ‘high’ source term from the original population of Monte Carlo runs has been selected to be used for: (1) a study of the distribution of consequence results stemming solely from epistemic uncertainty in the MACCS2 parameters (i.e., separating the effect from the source term uncertainty), and (2) a comparison between Simple Random Sampling (SRS) and Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) in order to validate the original results obtained with LHS. Three replicates (each using a different random seed) of size 1,000 each using LHS and another set of three replicates of size 1,000 using SRS are analyzed. The results show that the LCF risk results are well converged with either LHS or SRS sampling. The early fatality risk results are less well converged at radial distances beyond 2 miles, and this is expected due to the sparse data (predominance of “zero” results).

  4. Analysis of containment venting for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D.J.; Wright, R.E.; Jenkins, J.P.

    1986-09-12

    The effectiveness of containment venting as a means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents was evaluated for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). Results from this evaluation indicate that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment failure is highly dependent on the severe accident sequence. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks in the containment and transients with a failure of containment heat removal. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with several sequences currently identified as significant contributors to risk. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction were identified, but their influence on risk was not analyzed.

  5. MELCOR simulation of long-term station blackout at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results from MELCOR (Version 1.8BC) calculations of the Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Sequence, with failure to depressurize the reactor vessel, at the Peach Bottom (BWR Mark I) plant, and presents comparisons with Source Term Code Package (STCP) calculations of the same sequence. This sequence assumes that batteries are available for six hours following loss of all power to the plant. Following battery failure, the reactor coolant system (RCS) inventory is boiled off through the relief valves by continued decay heat generation. This leads to core uncovery, heatup, clad oxidation, core degradation, relocation, and, eventually, vessel failure at high pressure. STCP has calculated the transient out to 13.5 hours after core uncovery. The results include the timing of key events, pressure and temperature response in the reactor vessel and containment, hydrogen production, and the release of source terms to the environment. 12 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  7. Five Years of Data at the Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband Seismic Station (MOBB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2007-12-01

    We present an overview of the results obtained at MOBB in the past 5.5 years of its continuous operation. In particular we focus on the observations of the long-period ocean surface gravity waves (infragravity waves; 0.002 to 0.05 Hz) and different methods to remove the long-period background and signal-generated noise from the seismic observations. MOBB was installed 40 km offshore in the Monterey Bay at a water depth of 1000 m in April 2002 in collaboration between Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). It is located west of the San Gregorio Fault and represents the first step towards extending the onshore broadband seismic network in northern California westward of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. MOBB comprises a three- component broadband seismometer Guralp CMG-1T, sensitive over a wide frequency range, from 50 Hz to 2.8 mHz (360 s), a water current meter measuring current speed and direction, and a differential pressure gauge. At present, the station is autonomous and the data are on average retrieved every 4 months using MBARI's remotely operated vehicle Ventana. Work is under way to connect it to the MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable so that it will contribute continuous real time data to the northern California earthquake monitoring system. Lessons learned from the MOBB deployment as well as noise removal techniques that are specific to the ocean bottom installation will provide us reference for future installations of broadband seismic stations in the oceans. When compared to the quiet land stations, ocean bottom seismic station MOBB shows increased background noise in the band pass of interest for the study of regional and teleseismic signals. This is mainly due to deformation of the seafloor under the pressure forcing by infragravity waves. Also observed is additional signal- generated noise which is due to the reverberations in the shallow sedimentary layers as well as in the

  8. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    SciTech Connect

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  9. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  10. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1987-1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.A.; McLean, R.I.

    1995-12-20

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of the monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. The data report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1987 through 1990 and is the fourth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at Peach Bottom in 1978.

  11. Short-term energy outlook: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, C.; Paxson, D.; Reznek, A. P.; Chu, C.; Sitzer, S.; Gamson, N.; Childress, J. P.; Paul, S.; Weigel, H.; Sutton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Detailed discussions of forecasting methodology and analytical topics concerning short-term energy markets are presented. Major assumptions necessary to make the energy forecasts are also discussed. Supplementary analyses of topics related to short-term energy forecasting are also given. The discussions relate to the forecasts prepared using the short term integrated forecasting system. This set of computer models uses data from various sources to develop energy supply and demand balances. Econmetric models used to predict the demand for petroleum products, natural gas, coal, and electricity are discussed. Price prediction models are also discussed. The role of oil inventories in world oil markets is reviewed. Various relationship between weather patterns and energy consumption are discussed.

  12. Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

  13. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  14. Intercultural Learning on Short-Term Sojourns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic case study of advanced second language (L2) students from Hong Kong who took part in a short-term sojourn in England after 14 weeks of preparation. While abroad, they lived with a host family, took literary/cultural studies courses, visited cultural sites, participated in debriefing sessions, and conducted…

  15. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  16. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

  17. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  18. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  19. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  20. Near real-time noise removal for the Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) seismic station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinois, M.; Zheng, Z.; Taira, T.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) observatory, located 40 km offshore central California, at a water depth of 1000 m, provides important complementary coverage of the San Andreas Fualt system to the land-based network. First installed in 2002, it is arguably the longest lived ocean bottom broadband seismic station. It includes a three-component broadband Guralp CMG-1T seismometer and a collocated differential pressure gauge (DPG) to measure the local water pressure continuously, as well as a current meter. After 7 years of autonomous operation, in February 2009, MOBB was successfully connected to the MARS cable (http://www.mbari.org/mars), and the data have been available in real time at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (Romanowicz et al., 2009). However, the usage of MOBB data has been limited because of the noisy character of the data, in particular at periods of interest for regional moment tensor studies (20-100 sec), due to the ocean infragravity waves. Crawford and Webb (2000) demonstrated that there is a strong correlation between the water pressure and the vertical component of seafloor ground velocity in the infragravity wave band. Applying this to MOBB vertical component data, a transfer function (TF) was determined and utilized to successfully deconvolve the pressure-correlated noise from the vertical component of MOBB seismograms (Dolenc et al., 2007) in the period band 20-200 sec. Romanowicz et al. (2003, 2009) presented examples of how the cleaned MOBB data contribute to the determination of source parameters and regional structure. These past efforts, however, have been mostly case studies for illustration purpose. In this study, we systematically process all the available MOBB data since 2009 (because the cable was trawled, about a year of data is missing from February 2010 to June 2011). We calculate the TF over time and find that it is generally very stable, except for one change in 2010 due to an instrument replacement. Two

  1. Short-term solar activity forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie-Zhen, C.; Ai-Di, Z.

    1979-01-01

    A method of forecasting the level of activity of every active region on the surface of the Sun within one to three days is proposed in order to estimate the possibility of the occurrence of ionospheric disturbances and proton events. The forecasting method is a probability process based on statistics. In many of the cases, the accuracy in predicting the short term solar activity was in the range of 70%, although there were many false alarms.

  2. The economics of short-term leasing.

    PubMed

    Flath, D

    1980-04-01

    Short-term leasing is an everyday occurrence. Tax savings cannot account for the ubiquity of leasing by temporary users. Monopoly explanations are inconsistent with concurrent leasing and selling markets for perfect substitutes. Leasing economizes upon the costs of detecting, assuring, and maintaining quality, costs of search, and costs of risk-bearing. This view is based on standard economic reasoning and has numerous specific implications.

  3. Short-term memory: a brief commentary.

    PubMed

    Shiffrin, R M

    1993-03-01

    Over the years, a metatheoretical view of short-term memory has developed. This view, closely related to the "modal" model from the 1960s, is supported by an increasing base of neurophysiological data, and a wide variety of empirical findings. It treats short-term memory as (1) the temporary, above threshold, activation of neural structures (related in not-too-well-specified ways to various recency effects); (2) a work space for carrying out virtually all cognitive operations involved in human cognition; and (3) the source of capacity limitations, accounting for certain memory limitations and most attentional limitations. The main problem with this view is the fact that it encompasses virtually everything that we are concerned with in human cognition--a successful model would almost be a general model of cognition, something the field has not yet approached. This situation is not grounds for despair. Progress is being made on many fronts, notwithstanding the fact that the most successful models are focused on specific task domains. Recent advances include an increasing awareness of the necessity for detailed models of short-term retrieval, a theme reflected in a number of articles in the present collection.

  4. Traffic-related Air Pollution and Attention in Primary School Children: Short-term Association.

    PubMed

    Sunyer, Jordi; Suades-González, Elisabet; García-Esteban, Raquel; Rivas, Ioar; Pujol, Jesús; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Forns, Joan; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier

    2017-03-01

    Although air pollution's short-term effects are well understood to be marked and preventable, its acute neuropsychological effects have, to our knowledge, not yet been studied. We aim to examine the association between daily variation in traffic-related air pollution and attention. We conducted a follow-up study from January 2012 to March 2013 in 2,687 school children from 265 classrooms in 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed four domains of children's attention processes every 3 months over four repeated visits providing a total of 10,002 computerized tests on 177 different days using the child Attention Network test (ANT). Ambient daily levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and elemental carbon (EC) in particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) filters were measured at a fixed air quality background monitoring station and in schools. Daily ambient levels of both NO2 and EC were negatively associated with all attention processes (e.g., children in the bottom quartile of daily exposure to ambient NO2 levels had a 14.8 msecond [95% confidence interval, 11.2, 18.4] faster response time than those in the top quartile, which was equivalent to a 1.1-month [0.84, 1.37] retardation in the natural developmental improvement in response speed with age). Similar findings were observed after adjusting for the average indoor (classroom) levels of pollutants. Associations for EC were similar to those for NO2 and robust to several sensitivity analyses. The short-term association of traffic-related air pollutants with fluctuations in attention adds to the evidence that air pollution may have potential harmful effects on neurodevelopment. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B158.

  5. Behavior study of trace elements in pulverized lignite, bottom ash, and fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece.

    PubMed

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Papastergios, Georgios; Filippidis, Anestis

    2013-07-01

    The Kozani-Ptolemais-Amyntaio basin constitutes the principal coal field of Greece. Approximately 50% of the total power production of Greece is generated by five power stations operating in the area. Lignite samples, together with the corresponding fly ash and bottom ash were collected, over a period of 3 months, from the power plant of Amyntaio and analyzed for their content in 16 trace elements. The results indicate that Y, Nb, U, Rb, Zr, Ni, Pb, Ba, Zn, Sr, Cu, and Th demonstrate an organic affinity during the combustion of lignite, while V has an inorganic affinity. Three elements (Co, Cr, and Sc) show an intermediate affinity.

  6. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Short Term Exogenic Climate Change Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel

    Several short term exogenic forcings affecting Earth's climate are but recently identified. Lunar nutation periodicity has implications for numerical meteorological prediction. Abrupt shifts in solar wind bulk velocity, particle density, and polarity exhibit correlation with terrestrial hemispheric vorticity changes, cyclonic strengthening and the intensification of baroclinic disturbances. Galactic Cosmic ray induced tropospheric ionization modifies cloud microphysics, and modulates the global electric circuit. This dissertation is constructed around three research questions: (1): What are the biweekly declination effects of lunar gravitation upon the troposphere? (2): How do United States severe weather reports correlate with heliospheric current sheet crossings? and (3): How does cloud cover spatially and temporally vary with galactic cosmic rays? Study 1 findings show spatial consistency concerning lunar declination extremes upon Rossby longwaves. Due to the influence of Rossby longwaves on synoptic scale circulation, our results could theoretically extend numerical meteorological forecasting. Study 2 results indicate a preference for violent tornadoes to occur prior to a HCS crossing. Violent tornadoes (EF3+) are 10% more probable to occur near, and 4% less probable immediately after a HCS crossing. The distribution of hail and damaging wind reports do not mirror this pattern. Polarity is critical for the effect. Study 3 results confirm anticorrelation between solar flux and low-level marine-layer cloud cover, but indicate substantial regional variability between cloud cover altitude and GCRs. Ultimately, this dissertation serves to extend short term meteorological forecasting, enhance climatological modeling and through analysis of severe violent weather and heliospheric events, protect property and save lives.

  9. Forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  10. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway. PMID:25544838

  11. OCEAN-BOTTOM BROADBAND SEISMIC STATIONS AS TOOLS TO IDENTIFY AND MONITOR SEISMIC HAZARD IN COASTAL ZONES (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean-bottom broadband seismic stations (OBSs) are installed at the interface of the solid earth and the ocean. As such, they are sensitive to the processes that originate in the solid earth (e.g., earthquakes), ocean (e.g., tsunamis), and even atmosphere (e.g., cyclones). Observations of ground motions at the OBSs can therefore be used to study and monitor processes that contribute to hazards in the coastal zones. These processes include earthquakes, underwater landslides, underwater volcanoes, and tsunamis. Numerous offshore faults are located too far from the shore for their background seismicity to be studied by land seismic stations alone, yet they are capable of generating large earthquakes that can threaten coastal communities. OBSs can record offshore seismicity that would be missed by relying only on the land stations. OBS data can also significantly improve locations and source mechanism determination for stronger offshore events that are observed on the land stations as they can significantly improve azimuthal coverage. As such, OBSs are essential for identifying seismic hazard from offshore faults. In addition, nearshore OBSs can improve studies of earthquakes on the land faults, in particular when the faults are located close to the ocean, resulting in limited azimuthal coverage provided by land stations alone. OBSs can also provide information about the offshore subsurface velocity structure, which can significantly affect the amount of shaking in the coastal regions. Velocity structure can be determined by compliance analysis that takes advantage of the seafloor deformation due to infragravity waves (long-period ocean surface waves). Reliable offshore velocity models are needed for modeling seismic wave propagation and for subsequent modeling of the amount of shaking expected in the coastal regions due to strong local and regional offshore earthquakes. We will present examples from the permanent ocean-bottom broadband seismic station MOBB located at

  12. Short-term impact of atmospheric pollution on fecundability.

    PubMed

    Slama, Rémy; Bottagisi, Sébastien; Solansky, Ivo; Lepeule, Johanna; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Sram, Radim

    2013-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported associations between air pollution levels and semen characteristics, which might in turn affect a couple's ability to achieve a live birth. Our aim was to characterize short-term effects of atmospheric pollutants on fecundability (the month-specific probability of pregnancy among noncontracepting couples). For a cohort of births between 1994 and 1999 in Teplice (Czech Republic), we averaged fine particulate matter (PM2.5), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide levels estimated from a central measurement site over the 60-day period before the end of the first month of unprotected intercourse. We estimated changes in the probability of occurrence of a pregnancy during the first month of unprotected intercourse associated with exposure, using binomial regression and adjusting for maternal behaviors and time trends. Among the 1,916 recruited couples, 486 (25%) conceived during the first month of unprotected intercourse. Each increase of 10 µg/m in PM2.5 levels was associated with an adjusted decrease in fecundability of 22% (95% confidence interval = 6%-35%). NO2 levels were also associated with decreased fecundability. There was no evidence of adverse effects with the other pollutants considered. Biases related to pregnancy planning or temporal trends in air pollution were unlikely to explain the observed associations. In this polluted area, we highlighted short-term decreases in a couple's ability to conceive in association with PM2.5 and NO2 levels assessed in a central monitoring station.

  13. Writing and overwriting short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.

    2008-01-01

    An integrative account of short-term memory is based on data from pigeons trained to report the majority color in a sequence of lights. Performance showed strong recency effects, was invariant over changes in the interstimulus interval, and improved with increases in the intertrial interval. A compound model of binomial variance around geometrically decreasing memory described the data; a logit transformation rendered it isomorphic with other memory models. The model was generalized for variance in the parameters, where it was shown that averaging exponential and power functions from individuals or items with different decay rates generates new functions that are hyperbolic in time and in log time, respectively. The compound model provides a unified treatment of both the accrual and the dissipation of memory and is consistent with data from various experiments, including the choose-short bias in delayed recall, multielement stimuli, and Rubin and Wenzel’s (1996) meta-analyses of forgetting. PMID:11340865

  14. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  15. Vitreon, a short-term vitreoretinal tamponade.

    PubMed Central

    Blinder, K J; Peyman, G A; Desai, U R; Nelson, N C; Alturki, W; Paris, C L

    1992-01-01

    This investigation of the liquid perfluorocarbon, perfluorophenanthrene (Vitreon), establishes its safety and efficacy as a short-term vitreoretinal tamponade. We utilised Vitreon as an intraoperative tool and postoperative vitreoretinal tamponade in 16 patients. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (six), giant retinal tear (four), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (three), retinal detachment with keratoprosthesis (two), and submacular and vitreous haemorrhage (one) were successfully repaired. Vitreon was left in the eye and removed 5 days to 4 weeks postoperatively. Complications encountered included proliferative PVR (five), limited peripheral retinal detachment (three), macular pucker (two) cataract (three), hypotony (two), excessive fibrin reaction (one), and elevated intraocular pressure (one). At the latest evaluation, all retinas are attached with a follow-up of 1.25 to 12 months (mean 6.8 months). PMID:1420054

  16. Short Term Forecasting of Cloud and Precipitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-15

    economical procedure for Cartesian interpolation and display of reflectivity factor data in three-dimensional space. J. Appl. Meteorol. 18:661-670. 3...C4 r 1 0 0 s.. C-CMC C zc @0i -9 Cr- a* CD f- 0c Lq CC! Y C Lq CL LO 0 - M c C# CL C- V- Lei i a; C- cc Li co p1 CL C N~ CV mCq L 64 LIn c a;fi OLn fr...Short Term Forecasting of Cloud and Precipitation, AFGL-TR-85-0343. AD A169744. 3. Mohr, C.G. and Vaughan, R. (1979) An economical procedure for

  17. Observations of Infragravity Waves at the Ocean-Bottom Broadband Seismic Stations Endeavour (KEBB) and Explorer (KXBB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; McGill, P.; Wilcock, W.

    2007-12-01

    The long-period background noise observed at ocean-bottom seismic stations is mainly due to deformation of the seafloor under the pressure forcing by long-period ocean surface gravity waves (infragravity waves; 0.002 to 0.05 Hz). Understanding the nature and characteristics of the coupling between the infragravity waves and the solid earth is important for the study of the infragravity wave generation and dissipation as well as for the study of the earth's hum and structure using non-seismic sources. Ocean-bottom broadband stations KEBB and KXBB were deployed as part of a three-year multidisciplinary experiment funded by the W. M. Keck foundation to monitor the linkages between seismic deformation and hydrothermal fluxes on the northern Juan de Fuca plate. The seismic component of the project was a collaboration between the University of Washington, the University of Oregon, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Station KEBB was installed 247 km west of Vancouver Island (VI) at a water depth of 2376 m in August 2003. A year later station KXBB was installed 105 km offshore VI at a water depth of 2370 m. Each station comprised a Guralp CMG-1T three-component broadband seismometer, sensitive over a wide frequency range from 50 Hz to 2.8 mHz (360 sec), connected to a recording and battery package. Both seismometers were completely buried in the ocean floor sediments. The two stations recorded data continuously and stored them locally until retrieval once per year. Infragravity waves can be observed at KEBB and KXBB on stormy as well as quiet days in the period band from 30 to 400 sec. When compared to the energy of short-period ocean waves recorded at local buoys, the low- frequency seismic noise is found to be mainly generated when the short-period ocean waves reach the coast, and not when the storm passes directly above the stations. Two types of modulation of the infragravity signal are observed. First, a longer-period modulation of the infragravity

  18. Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164324.html Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury But ... of endurance are also tough on the kidneys. "Marathon runners demonstrate transient or reverse short-term kidney ...

  19. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  20. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  1. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  2. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the peach bottom atomic power station: 1985-1986. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Domotor, S.L.; McLean, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectroscopy was used to determine radionuclide concentrations in over 450 biota and sediment samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) during 1985-1986. Low concentrations of PBAPS-related radionuclides (Zn65, Cs-134, and Cs-137) were detected in finfish, mussels, and crayfish. These PBAPS-related radionuclides and Co-60 were also detected in sediments. I-131 attributable to the Chernobyl reactor accident (April 26, 1986) was detected in environmental samples collected in May 1986. PBAPS-related radionuclide concentrations in biota and sediments represent small increments to the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system relative to natural and weapons test levels; radionuclide releases by PBAPS, and radiation doses to man, are well within regulatory limits.

  3. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  4. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Short-term Drought Prediction in India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Medium range soil moisture drought forecast helps in decision making in the field of agriculture and water resources management. Part of skills in medium range drought forecast comes from precipitation. Proper evaluation and correction of precipitation forecast may improve drought predictions. Here, we evaluate skills of ensemble mean precipitation forecast from Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for medium range drought predictions over India. Climatological mean (CLIM) of historic data (OBS) are used as reference forecast to evaluate GEFS precipitation forecast. Analysis was conducted based on forecast initiated on 1st and 15th dates of each month for lead up to 7-days. Correlation and RMSE were used to estimate skill scores of accumulated GEFS precipitation forecast from lead 1 to 7-days. Volumetric indices based on the 2X2 contingency table were used to check missed and falsely predicted historic volume of daily precipitation from GEFS in different regions and at different thresholds. GEFS showed improvement in correlation of 0.44 over CLIM during the monsoon season and 0.55 during the winter season. Lower RMSE was showed by GEFS than CLIM. Ratio of RMSE in GEFS and CLIM comes out as 0.82 and 0.4 (perfect skill is at zero) during the monsoon and winter season, respectively. We finally used corrected GEFS forecast to derive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which was used to develop short-term forecast of hydrologic and agricultural (soil moisture) droughts in India.

  6. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.

  7. Short-term variability on mesozooplankton community in a shallow mixed estuary (Bahía Blanca, Argentina): Influence of tidal cycles and local winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, María C.; Piccolo, María C.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.

    2012-10-01

    The short-term dynamics of zooplankton in coastal ecosystems are strongly influenced by physical processes such as tides, riverine runoff and winds. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes of the representative taxa within mesozooplankton in relation to the semidiurnal tidal cycles. Also, we evaluated the influence of local winds on this short-term variability. Sampling was carried out bimonthly from December 2004 to April 2006 in a fixed point located in the inner zone of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. Mesozooplankton samples were taken by pumps during 14-h tidal cycles at 3-h intervals, from surface and bottom. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity as well as water samples to determine suspended particulate matter were acquired at each sampling date. All data concerning winds were obtained from a meteorological station and water level was recorded with a tide gauge. Holoplankton dominated numerically on meroplankton and adventitious fraction. Concerning holoplanktonic abundance, the highest values were attained by the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora americana. Meroplankton occurred mainly as barnacle larvae while benthic harpacticoids and Corophium sp. dominated the adventitious component. Semidiurnal tide was the main influence on the A. tonsa variability. However, noticeable differences in the abundance pattern as function of wind intensity were detected. Meroplankton abundance did not show a clear variation along the tidal cycle. Distributional pattern of harpacticoids seemed to be mainly modulated by velocity asymmetries in the tidal currents, in the same way as suspended particulate matter. However, the Corophium sp. distribution indicated probable behavioural responses associated with tides. The obtained results show how variable the mesozooplankton community structure can be over short-term time scales in mesotidal temperate estuaries. This variability should be taken into account for any zooplankton monitoring

  8. A single-station method for the detection, classification and location of fin whale calls using ocean-bottom seismic stations.

    PubMed

    Matias, Luis; Harris, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Passive seismic monitoring in the oceans uses long-term deployments of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs). An OBS usually records the three components of ground motion and pressure, typically at 100 Hz. This makes the OBS an ideal tool to investigate fin and blue whales that vocalize at frequencies below 45 Hz. Previous applications of OBS data to locate whale calls have relied on single channel analyses that disregard the information that is conveyed by the horizontal seismic channels. Recently, Harris, Matias, Thomas, Harwood, and Geissler [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134, 3522-3535 (2013)] presented a method that used all four channels recorded by one OBS to derive the range and azimuth of fin whale calls. In this work, the detection, classification, and ranging of calls using this four-channel method were further investigated, focusing on methods to increase the accuracy of range estimates to direct path arrivals. Corrections to account for the influences of the sound speed in the water layer and the velocity structure in the top strata of the seabed were considered. The single station method discussed here is best implemented when OBSs have been deployed in deep water on top of seabed strata with low P-wave velocity. These conditions maximize the ability to detect and estimate ranges to fin whale calls.

  9. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    PubMed

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  11. Analysis of Long-Term Station Blackout without automatic depressurization at Peach Bottom using MELCOR (Version 1.8)

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results from MELCOR calculations of the Long-Term Station Blackout Accident Sequence, with failure to depressurize the reactor vessel, at the Peach Bottom (BWR Mark I) plant, and presents comparisons with Source Term Code Package calculations of the same sequence. STCP has calculated the transient out to 13.5, hours after core uncovery. Most of the MELCOR calculations presented have been carried out to between 15 and 16.7 hours after core uncovery. The results include the release of source terms to the environment. The results of several sensitivity calculations with MELCOR are also presented, which explore the impact of varying user-input modeling and timestep control parameters on the accident progression and release of source terms to the environment. Most of the calculations documented here were performed in FY1990 using MELCOR Version 1.8BC. However, the appendices also document the results of more recent calculations performed in FY1991 using MELCOR versions 1.8CZ and 1.8DNX.

  12. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  13. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  14. Three Models for Short-Term Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachau, Daniel; Brasher, Niel; Fee, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 250,000 U.S. college students participate in study abroad programs each year. A growing proportion of students are participating in short-term study abroad programs. Despite the large number of students in these programs, there are relatively few articles that describe how to start or manage a short-term, business-related, study abroad…

  15. A Short-Term Delivery Model for Counseling Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, J. Eugene

    The author discusses a short-term delivery model which forms the essential mode of operation at the counseling center at Rhode Island College. He prefaces his discription of the model by indicating that not all clients, problems or counselors are amenable to this short-term approach. There are three steps or elements in the delivery model: 1)…

  16. Short-Term Training--Where the Action Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George R.

    In order to address major permanent changes in the economic structure and workforce of its community, Chemeketa Community College (CCC) in Oregon has made a commitment to initiate as many short-term training programs as its resources permit. Short-term training, which takes less time than regular one-year certificate or two-year associate degree…

  17. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  18. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  19. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  20. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans AGENCY: National Credit Union... federal credit unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative...

  1. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  2. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  3. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2014-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, with special attention to questions of capacity and how—or whether—short-term memory can be separated from long-term memory. Second, we ask how the components of that architecture enact processes of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Third, we describe the debate over the reason about forgetting from short-term memory, whether interference or decay is the cause. We close with a conceptual model tracing the representation of a single item through a short-term memory task, describing the biological mechanisms that might support psychological processes on a moment-by-moment basis as an item is encoded, maintained over a delay with some forgetting, and ultimately retrieved. PMID:17854286

  4. Short-term cosmetic orthodontics for general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Maini, A

    2013-01-01

    The demand for cosmetic dental treatments in the UK has grown dramatically in the last decade possibly due to increased public awareness of new techniques coupled with greater media attention for celebrities following smile enhancement treatments. In view of this, the aim of this article and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference and Exhibition is to provide an overview of short-term cosmetic orthodontics for general dental practitioners. The presentation will cover the differences between short-term cosmetic orthodontics and comprehensive orthodontic treatment, and explain how using short-term orthodontics can be an effective tool to deliver minimally invasive cosmetic dentistry.

  5. Analog VLSI Circuits for Short-Term Dynamic Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shih-Chii

    2003-12-01

    Short-term dynamical synapses increase the computational power of neuronal networks. These synapses act as additional filters to the inputs of a neuron before the subsequent integration of these signals at its cell body. In this work, we describe a model of depressing and facilitating synapses derived from a hardware circuit implementation. This model is equivalent to theoretical models of short-term synaptic dynamics in network simulations. These circuits have been added to a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. A cortical model of direction-selectivity that uses short-term dynamic synapses has been implemented with this network.

  6. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  7. MONITORING SHORT-TERM COSMIC-RAY SPECTRAL VARIATIONS USING NEUTRON MONITOR TIME-DELAY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P.; Nutaro, T.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C.; Asavapibhop, B.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Munakata, K.

    2016-01-20

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007–2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  8. Monitoring Short-term Cosmic-ray Spectral Variations Using Neutron Monitor Time-delay Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Mangeard, P.-S.; Kamyan, N.; Muangha, P.; Nutaro, T.; Sumran, S.; Chaiwattana, C.; Gasiprong, N.; Channok, C.; Wuttiya, C.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Asavapibhop, B.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Munakata, K.

    2016-01-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based detectors of cosmic-ray showers that are widely used for high-precision monitoring of changes in the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux due to solar storms and solar wind variations. In the present work, we show that a single neutron monitor station can also monitor short-term changes in the GCR spectrum, avoiding the systematic uncertainties in comparing data from different stations, by means of NM time-delay histograms. Using data for 2007-2014 from the Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor, a station at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, with the world’s highest vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of 16.8 GV, we have developed an analysis of time-delay histograms that removes the chance coincidences that can dominate conventional measures of multiplicity. We infer the “leader fraction” L of neutron counts that do not follow a previous neutron count in the same counter from the same atmospheric secondary, which is inversely related to the actual multiplicity and increases for increasing GCR spectral index. After correction for atmospheric pressure and water vapor, we find that L indicates substantial short-term GCR spectral hardening during some but not all Forbush decreases in GCR flux due to solar storms. Such spectral data from Doi Inthanon provide information about cosmic-ray energies beyond the Earth’s maximum geomagnetic cutoff, extending the reach of the worldwide NM network and opening a new avenue in the study of short-term GCR decreases.

  9. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  10. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  11. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  12. Optimal fuzzy inference for short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hidenori

    1996-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimal fuzzy inference method for short-term load forecasting. The proposed method constructs an optimal structure of the simplified fuzzy inference that minimizes model errors and the number of the membership functions to grasp nonlinear behavior of power system short-term loads. The model is identified by simulated annealing and the steepest descent method. The proposed method is demonstrated in examples.

  13. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, M.J.; Furman, J.; Ryan, C.; Durrant, J.; Kern, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  14. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for existing models of memory decay and interference. PMID:19271849

  15. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  16. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  17. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury. PMID:23874280

  18. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789

  20. Asymmetric features of short-term blood pressure variability.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    Prolongations of cardiac cycles have a significantly larger contribution to short-term heart rate variability than shortenings--this is called heart rate asymmetry. Our aim is to establish the existence of blood pressure asymmetry phenomenon, which has not been done so far. We used 30-min resting continuous recordings of finger pressure waveforms from 227 healthy young volunteers (19-31 years old; 97 female), and performed Poincaré plot analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to quantify the effect. Median contribution of SBP increases (C(i)) to short-term blood pressure variability was 52.8% (inter-quartile range: 50.9-55.1%) and median number of SBP increases (N(i)) was 48.8% (inter-quartile range: 47.2-50.1%). The C(i)>50% was found in 82% (P<0.0001; binomial test) and N(i)<50% in 75% (P<0.0001) of the subjects. Although SBP increases are significantly less abundant than reductions, their contribution to short-term blood pressure variability is significantly larger, which means that short-term blood pressure variability is asymmetric. SBP increases and reductions have unequal contribution to short-term blood pressure variability at supine rest in young healthy people. As this asymmetric behavior of blood pressure variability is present in most of the healthy studied people at rest, it can be concluded that blood pressure asymmetry is a physiological phenomenon.

  1. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  2. Short-Term Resilience Processes in the Family

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review naturalistic studies of short-term processes that appear to promote resilience in children in the context of everyday family life and argue that warm and supportive family interactions foster resilience through their cumulative impact on children’s emotional and physiological stress response systems. In the short-term, these family interactions promote the experience and expression of positive emotion and healthy patterns of diurnal cortisol. Over time, these internal resources – a propensity to experience positive emotion and a well-functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system –enhance a child’s capacity to avoid, or limit, the deleterious effects of adversity. This article highlights naturalistic research methods that are well suited to the study of these short-term resilience processes and points to clinical applications of our conceptual and methodological approach. PMID:26246651

  3. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook.

  4. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  5. Short-term tocolytics for preterm delivery - current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Haas, David M; Benjamin, Tara; Sawyer, Renata; Quinney, Sara K

    2014-01-01

    Administration of short-term tocolytic agents can prolong pregnancy for women in preterm labor. Prolonging pregnancy has many benefits because it allows for other proven interventions, such as antenatal corticosteroid administration, to be accomplished. This review provides an overview of currently utilized tocolytic agents and the evidence demonstrating their efficacy for prolonging pregnancy by at least 48 hours. General pharmacological principles for the clinician regarding drugs in pregnancy are also briefly discussed. In general, while the choice of the best first-line short-term tocolytic drug is not clear, it is evident that use of these agents has a clear place in current obstetric therapeutics.

  6. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  7. [Impulsiveness Among Short-Term Prisoners with Antisocial Personality Disorder].

    PubMed

    Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela

    2015-07-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  9. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power station: 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.S.; Frithsen, J.B.; McLean, R.I.

    1997-02-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS.

  10. Short-Term Therapy: A Shift in Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhriman, Addie

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Steenbarger on science-practice integration in brief counseling and therapy. Considers three dimensions that emerge from the integrated analysis presented in Steenbarger's article: catalysis, involvement, and time. Discusses each of these three characteristics as they are related specifically to a short-term format.…

  11. Relation between Intelligence and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ronald L.; Sandberg, Tor

    1977-01-01

    Intelligence and short-term memory correlations in children were measured using probed serial recall of supraspan digit lists. Results showed the predictive power of intelligence to range from a maximum in the case of recall for recency items to practically zero in the case of primacy items. (Author/MV)

  12. Improving the Short-Term Prediction of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    Aspirational Goal 3 of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s Research Prioritization Task Force is to predict who is at risk for attempting suicide in the near future. Despite decades of research devoted to the study of risk and protective factors for suicide and suicidal behavior, surprisingly little is known about the short-term prediction of these behaviors. In this paper, we propose several questions that, if answered, could improve the identification of short-term, or imminent, risk for suicidal behavior. First, what factors predict the transition from suicidal thoughts to attempts? Second, what factors are particularly strong predictors of making this transition over the next hours, days, or weeks? Third, what are the most important objective markers of short-term risk for suicidal behavior? And fourth, what method of combining information about risk and protective factors yields the best prediction? We propose that the next generation of research on the assessment and prediction of suicidal behavior should shift, from cross-sectional studies of bivariate risk and protective factors, to prospective studies aimed at identifying multivariate, short-term prediction indices, examining methods of synthesizing this information, and testing the ability to predict and prevent suicidal events. PMID:25145736

  13. Short-term memory for scenes with affective content.

    PubMed

    Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo

    2005-03-18

    The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: higher arousal results in faster accumulation. Valence has a more interesting effect: while a picture is being viewed, information from positive and neutral scenes accumulates in memory at a constant rate, whereas information from negative scenes is encoded slowly at first, then increasingly faster. We provide evidence showing that neither differences in low-level image properties nor differences in the ability to apprehend the meaning of images at short exposures can account for the observed results, and propose that the effects are specific to the short-term memory mechanism. We interpret this pattern of results to mean that information accumulation in short-term memory is a controlled process, whose gain is modulated by valence and arousal acting as endogenous attentional cues.

  14. Validation of a Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay is an in vivo assay conducted with fathead minnows and is designed to detect changes in spawning, gross morphology, histopathology, and specific biochemical endpoints that reflect disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...

  15. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  16. Facilitation and Distraction in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John William; Kail, Robert V., Jr.

    Children's short-term memory was studied under two experimental conditions: one in which recall was expected to be facilitated because of the provision of a study period, and one in which a distracting task was imposed that was expected to interfere with recall. Forty subjects at each of two age levels, 7 and 11 years, were tested in a…

  17. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  18. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  19. Guidelines for designing short-term bird monitoring projects

    Treesearch

    Jonathan Bart

    2005-01-01

    The Coordinated Bird Monitoring Program (Bart and Ralph, this volume) program is helping biologists around the country design short-term monitoring projects for birds. We have found that addressing a series of questions (table 1), in a systematic way, helps insure that projects are well planned. The process is being used by several States and...

  20. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  1. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  2. Short Term Skill Training. Alternative Approaches. Information Series No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Russell

    Short term skill training programs are those programs, usually one year or less, designed to train, retrain, or upgrade the skills of workers. Such programs provide an opportunity for postsecondary vocational institutions to respond to the human resource needs of their communities. A number of important policy issues are involved in the provision…

  3. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  4. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  5. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  6. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  7. A SHORT-TERM TERMINAL COURSE FOR POTENTIAL DROPOUTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANGEMI, JOSEPH P.

    STUDENTS IDENTIFIED AS "HARD-CORE" FUTURE DROPOUTS BY COUNSELORS, TEACHERS, AND SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS SHOULD BE GROUPED TOGETHER FOR A COMPREHENSIVE, SHORT-TERM COURSE. SOME OF THE REALISTIC OBJECTIVES OF A TERMINAL PROGRAM FOR POTENTIAL DROPOUTS ARE--TO PREPARE STUDENTS WHO ARE DROPPING OUT OF SCHOOL FOR IMMEDIATE EMPLOYMENT, TO…

  8. 77 FR 61229 - Short-Term Investment Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... resilience of STIFs to credit and liquidity events while not unduly restricting a bank's ability to invest... liquidity or valuation stress. \\29\\ See Interagency Policy on Banks/Thrifts Providing Financial Support to... revises the requirements imposed on national banks pursuant to the OCC's short-term investment fund...

  9. A DAPHNIA MAGNA SHORT-TERM SURVIVAL AND GROWTH TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the change in acceptable test temperatures for invertebrate toxicity tests from <20oC to 25oC, it is now possible to use Daphnia magna for short-term chronic testing. When cultured at 25oC the dry weight of <24 hr old D. magna ranges from 7 to 15 g depending upon nutrition,...

  10. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  11. Short-term forecasting tools for agricultural nutrient management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The advent of real time/short term farm management tools is motivated by the need to protect water quality above and beyond the general guidance offered by existing nutrient management plans. Advances in high performance computing and hydrologic/climate modeling have enabled rapid dissemination of ...

  12. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  13. Valuing Short-Term Study Abroad in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Chung-Ping A.; Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Gallo, Andres; Michelman, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad courses often claim to provide a unique experience for students, but it is not clear how the value translates into a dollar amount. The paper uses the contingent valuation method to assess participating students' pre- and post-trip perceived dollar value of their study abroad courses at an AACSB accredited business school.…

  14. Climax spent fuel dosimetry. Short term exposure, 8 March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Quam, W.; DeVore, T.

    1984-06-01

    The second short-term exposure (performed 8 March 1983) in Hole CFH3 at the Climax Spent Fuel Test site is described. These short-term (1 hour long) exposures are intended to provide an independent measurement of the exposure rate at the wall and the 0.51-m and 0.66-m locations. Only CaF{sub 2} TLD`s were used in the second short-term exposure. Harshaw chips were cut to 0.32 x 0.18 x 0.09 cm size and aged by several exposure/readout/bakeout cycles until all odd chips were weeded out and the remaining chips exhibited stable sensitivities. Exposure at Climax was done by removing the existing long-term dosimetry strings and inserting identical strings using the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s in the stainless steel holders. The first short-term exposure produced absorbed doses as high as {similar_to}000 rads-LiF. The linearity corrections determined for the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s at these exposure levels were {similar_to}2%. The present post-exposure calibration method used calibration doses very close to those encountered in the field.

  15. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  16. Writing Better Goals and Short-Term Objectives or Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; Marchand-Martella, Nancy; Martella, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides strategies for writing precise goals and short-term objectives or benchmarks as part of individualized education programs (IEPs). Guidelines and examples address: definitions, reasons for clarity and precision, individual parts of goals and objectives, inclusion of time factors in objectives and benchmarks, number of…

  17. Pigeon visual short-term memory directly compared to primates.

    PubMed

    Wright, Anthony A; Elmore, L Caitlin

    2016-02-01

    Three pigeons were trained to remember arrays of 2-6 colored squares and detect which of two squares had changed color to test their visual short-term memory. Procedures (e.g., stimuli, displays, viewing times, delays) were similar to those used to test monkeys and humans. Following extensive training, pigeons performed slightly better than similarly trained monkeys, but both animal species were considerably less accurate than humans with the same array sizes (2, 4 and 6 items). Pigeons and monkeys showed calculated memory capacities of one item or less, whereas humans showed a memory capacity of 2.5 items. Despite the differences in calculated memory capacities, the pigeons' memory results, like those from monkeys and humans, were all well characterized by an inverse power-law function fit to d' values for the five display sizes. This characterization provides a simple, straightforward summary of the fundamental processing of visual short-term memory (how visual short-term memory declines with memory load) that emphasizes species similarities based upon similar functional relationships. By closely matching pigeon testing parameters to those of monkeys and humans, these similar functional relationships suggest similar underlying processes of visual short-term memory in pigeons, monkeys and humans.

  18. Short-Term Therapy: A Shift in Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhriman, Addie

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Steenbarger on science-practice integration in brief counseling and therapy. Considers three dimensions that emerge from the integrated analysis presented in Steenbarger's article: catalysis, involvement, and time. Discusses each of these three characteristics as they are related specifically to a short-term format.…

  19. Retrieval-Induced Inhibition in Short-Term Memory.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Suk; Choi, Joongrul

    2015-07-01

    We used a visual illusion called motion repulsion as a model system for investigating competition between two mental representations. Subjects were asked to remember two random-dot-motion displays presented in sequence and then to report the motion directions for each. Remembered motion directions were shifted away from the actual motion directions, an effect similar to the motion repulsion observed during perception. More important, the item retrieved second showed greater repulsion than the item retrieved first. This suggests that earlier retrieval exerted greater inhibition on the other item being held in short-term memory. This retrieval-induced motion repulsion could be explained neither by reduced cognitive resources for maintaining short-term memory nor by continued inhibition between short-term memory representations. These results indicate that retrieval of memory representations inhibits other representations in short-term memory. We discuss mechanisms of retrieval-induced inhibition and their implications for the structure of memory. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Precategorical Nature of Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…

  1. Short-Term Effects of Televised Aggression on Children's Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebert, Robert M.; Baron, Robert A.

    Recently collected data appear to warrant advancing some tentative conslusions concerning the short-term effects of violence in television on children: 1) children are exposed to a substantial amount of violent content on television, and they can remember and learn from such exposure; 2) correlational studies have disclosed a regular association…

  2. Validation of a Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay is an in vivo assay conducted with fathead minnows and is designed to detect changes in spawning, gross morphology, histopathology, and specific biochemical endpoints that reflect disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...

  3. Assurance of Learning in Short-Term, Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Mary L.; Gullekson, Nicole L.; McCambridge, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Business students are increasingly seeking international experience in short-term, study abroad programs to enhance their intercultural knowledge, intercultural communication skills, and global perspectives to be more competitive in the global arena. Intuitively, universities initiating these programs and the students sojourning abroad believe in…

  4. Short-Term International Experiences and Teacher Language Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbon, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    This research study had as its focus the impact of a short-term international experience on teacher language awareness (TLA). In-country intensive immersion experiences were considered beneficial for language teacher professional development. This project examined the Australian teachers' perceptions of their teaching and home-stay experiences…

  5. The Precategorical Nature of Visual Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Philip T.; Cohen, Dale J.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a series of recognition experiments that assessed whether visual short-term memory (VSTM) is sensitive to shared category membership of to-be-remembered (tbr) images of common objects. In Experiment 1 some of the tbr items shared the same basic level category (e.g., hand axe): Such items were no better retained than others. In the…

  6. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaoqian; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2014-03-19

    One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation.

  7. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  8. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  9. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  10. Selenium deficiency, reversible cardiomyopathy and short-term intravenous feeding.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J. B.; Jones, H. W.; Gordon, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with Crohn's disease receiving short-term postoperative parenteral nutrition supplemented with trace elements who nevertheless became selenium deficient with evidence of a cardiomyopathy. This was fully reversible with oral selenium supplementation. Current parenteral feeding regimes may not contain enough selenium for malnourished patients. PMID:8183763

  11. Regularization in Short-Term Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew; Bylsma, Lauren M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that short-term memory for serial order can be influenced by background knowledge concerning regularities of sequential structure. Specifically, it has been shown that recall is superior for sequences that fit well with familiar sequencing constraints. The authors report a corresponding effect pertaining to serial…

  12. The Challenge of Short-Term Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Elizabeth; Stoecker, Randy; Martin, Amy; Seblonka, Kristy; Hilgendorf, Amy; Nellis, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of interviews with staff from 64 community organizations regarding their experiences with service-learners. One of the themes that emerged from the interviews focused on concerns related to short-term service-learning commitments that last a semester or less. We explore the challenges presented to community groups…

  13. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  14. End Anchoring in Short-Term Order Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon; Lelievre, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Temporally grouping lists has systematic effects on immediate serial recall accuracy, order errors, and recall latencies, and is generally taken to reflect the use of multiple dimensions of ordering in short-term memory. It has been argued that these representations are fully relative, in that all sequence positions are anchored to both the start…

  15. Relation between Intelligence and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ronald L.; Sandberg, Tor

    1977-01-01

    Intelligence and short-term memory correlations in children were measured using probed serial recall of supraspan digit lists. Results showed the predictive power of intelligence to range from a maximum in the case of recall for recency items to practically zero in the case of primacy items. (Author/MV)

  16. Short-term storage options for fresh-market onions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet onions have proven to be an excellent spring specialty crop in southeastern Oklahoma. Growers are interested in fuel-efficient methods of short term storage (up to 6 months) to lengthen market windows and enhance returns. Onions were seeded in high tunnels in November of 2005, transplanted to...

  17. Short-Term Memory for Auditory Sequences and Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Thomas G.; Payne, M. Carr, Jr.

    A study investigated connections between reading difficulties and short term memory processes in order to explore the psychological basis for some individual differences in reading comprehension skills. Drawing on previous research indicating that poor readers were inferior to normal ones in judging whether two patterns of long and short tones…

  18. Enhanced Visual Short-Term Memory for Angry Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Wu, Chia-Yun; Linden, David E. J.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2009-01-01

    Although some views of face perception posit independent processing of face identity and expression, recent studies suggest interactive processing of these 2 domains. The authors examined expression-identity interactions in visual short-term memory (VSTM) by assessing recognition performance in a VSTM task in which face identity was relevant and…

  19. A DAPHNIA MAGNA SHORT-TERM SURVIVAL AND GROWTH TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the change in acceptable test temperatures for invertebrate toxicity tests from <20oC to 25oC, it is now possible to use Daphnia magna for short-term chronic testing. When cultured at 25oC the dry weight of <24 hr old D. magna ranges from 7 to 15 g depending upon nutrition,...

  20. Emotive-reconstruction psychotherapy: a short-term cognitive approach.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J K; Cometa, M S

    1977-04-01

    Emotive-Reconstructive Therapy, a recently developed therapeutic modality deriving from cognitive theory, may be a promising short-term approach to psychopathology. Combining the use of imagery with selective hyperventilation, a therapist induces patients to reexperience past events, and subsequently to radically reconstrue themselves and significant others in a personally satisfying direction.

  1. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  2. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  3. Short-term solar irradiance forecast for the efficiency assessment of photovoltaic systems in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, K.; Struzewska, J.; Kaminski, J. W.

    2010-09-01

    Efficiency of solar based energy generation systems depend to a large extent on weather conditions. In Poland, the solar irradiance is often highly variable due to passages of frontal zones and extratropical cyclones. Consequently, electricity generation varies in time and often energy production pattern does not follow load demand. Efficient management of a solar electricity production system requires reliable short-term forecast of solar irradiance and energy yield. The existing methodologies are based on different approaches depending on the forecast length, e.g. satellite images, statistical models and numerical weather prediction models. Although the use of short-term meteorological forecast products to predict energy production from photovoltaic systems does not seem to be a complicated issue, the outcome from such experiments is very often inconclusive and in general less accurate than from statistical models. In Poland there is a growing effort to expand installations of photovoltaic systems; however, there is no foresting system for solar energy production and the existing maps of solar irradiance are based mainly on measurements from a sparse network of stations. An attempt will be made to develop a short-term solar electricity production forecast for Poland based on the environmental forecast prepared by EcoForecast.EU. The GEM-AQ meteorological and air quality model is used as a computational platform. We will present modeling results for solar irradiance and a comparison with available measurement and climatological data. In addition, the developed parameterization of the energy production using GEM-AQ forecast will be presented.

  4. Identification of anomalous ULF emission related to short term earthquake precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihotang, Bertalina; Ahadi, Suaidi

    2017-07-01

    The observation of ULF emission recorded in geomagnetic station is a powerful study of short term earthquake precursor. Anomalies that arise when there is no disturbance magnetic storm can be considered as precursors of the earthquake. Data used in this research were geomagnetic data recorded in LWA station as a main station, GSI station and TSI station as reference station and earthquake data. The earthquakes were on September 23, 2015 (Mw. 5.1), October 1, 2015 (Mw 5.4), and November 18, 2015 (Mw. 5.2). In determining onset time and lead time, polarization ratio Z/H at frequency of 0.012 Hz was used. Lead time detected were 4 days, 7 days, 4 days before the earthquakes respectively. The azimuth of anomalies ULF emission was investigated with Single Station Transfer Function (SSTF) that represent earthquake preparation zone. The azimuth of anomalous ULF emissions for each earthquakes were 217.3°, 208.5°, and 184.3°.

  5. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  6. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  7. Infrastructure design integration to optimize structures and minimize groundwater impacts. Case of a bottom slab and groundwater by-pass integration in La Sagrera railway station, Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Juan, Alejandro; Vázquez-Suñè, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Velasco, Violeta; Criollo, Rotman; Jurado, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Underground constructions search the most efficient solutions to increase safety, reduce impacts in both underground construction (such as bottom slab water pressures) and groundwater (such as groundwater barrier effect), reduce future maintenance processes and ensure that everything is implemented by the minimum cost. Even being all the previous solutions directly related to groundwater, independent solutions are usually designed to independently deal with each problem. This paper shows how with a groundwater by-pass design that enables the groundwater flow through the structure it is possible to provide an homogeneous distribution of the water pressures under the bottom slab and reduce the barrier effect produced by the structure. The new integrated design has been applied to the largest infrastructure of Barcelona: La Sagrera railway station. Through a hydrogeological model has been possible to test the project and the integrated designs in three different scenarios. This new solution resolves the barrier effect produced by the structure and optimizes the bottom slab, reducing considerably the costs and increasing safety during the construction phase.

  8. The psychotomimetic effects of short-term sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Oliver J; Brady, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    People experiencing sensory deprivation often report perceptual disturbances such as hallucinations, especially over extended periods of time. However, there is little evidence concerning short-term sensory deprivation and whether its effects differ depending on the individual concerned, and in particular their proneness to psychosis. This study explored whether perceptual disturbances could be elicited by a brief period of complete isolation from sound and vision in both highly hallucination prone and nonhallucination prone groups. Greater psychotomimetic experiences taking the form of perceptual disturbances, paranoia, and anhedonia were found across both groups when under sensory deprivation. In addition, hallucination-prone individuals experienced more perceptual disturbances when placed in short-term sensory deprivation than nonprone individuals. This result is discussed in terms of difficulties in source monitoring as a possible mechanism involved in proneness to hallucinations.

  9. Effects of sleep deprivation on short-term recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Polzella, D J

    1975-03-01

    A probe-recognition short-term memory paradigm was used to inquire into the precise effects of sleep deprivation on human memory. It was found that recognition performance, as measured by d', was generally impaired for each subjects after 24 hr of sleep deprivation. While d' was shown to decrease exponentially as the number of items intervening between the target and the probe increased, this decay rate was not affected by sleep loss. In addition there was confirmation of a previously observed increase in the positive skewness of reaction times after wakefulness. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that sleep deprivation increases the occurrence of lapses, periods of lowered reactive capacity, which prevent the encoding of items in short-term memory.

  10. Modality differences in short-term memory for rhythms.

    PubMed

    Collier, G L; Logan, G

    2000-06-01

    Prior research has established that performance in short-term memory tasks using auditory rhythmic stimuli is frequently superior to that in tasks using visual stimuli. In five experiments, the reasons for this were explored further. In a same-different task, pairs of brief rhythms were presented in which each rhythm was visual or auditory, resulting in two same-modality conditions and two cross-modality conditions. Three different rates of presentation were used. The results supported the temporal advantage of the auditory modality in short-term memory, which was quite robust at the quickest presentation rates. This advantage tended to decay as the presentation rate was slowed down, consistent with the view that, with time, the temporal patterns were being recoded into a more generic form.

  11. Visual dot interaction with short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Etindele Sosso, Faustin Armel

    2017-06-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases have a memory component. Brain structures related to memory are affected by environmental stimuli, and it is difficult to dissociate effects of all behavior of neurons. Here, visual cortex of mice was stimulated with gratings and dot, and an observation of neuronal activity before and after was made. Bandwidth, firing rate and orientation selectivity index were evaluated. A primary communication between primary visual cortex and short-term memory appeared to show an interesting path to train cognitive circuitry and investigate the basics mechanisms of the neuronal learning. The findings also suggested the interplay between primary visual cortex and short-term plasticity. The properties inside a visual target shape the perception and affect the basic encoding. Using visual cortex, it may be possible to train the memory and improve the recovery of people with cognitive disabilities or memory deficit.

  12. Item repetition in short-term memory: Ranschburg repeated.

    PubMed

    Henson, R N

    1998-09-01

    In serial recall from short-term memory, repeated items are recalled well when close together (repetition facilitation), but not when far apart (repetition inhibition; the Ranschburg effect). These effects were re-examined with a new scoring scheme that addresses the possibility that repetitions are distinct tokens in memory. Repetition facilitation and repetition inhibition proved robust, and were shown to interact with the temporal grouping of items (Experiment 1), which affected the probability of detecting repetition (Experiments 2A and 2B). It is argued that detection of a repetition is necessary for repetition facilitation, attributable to the tagging of immediate repetition, whereas the failure to detect or remember a repetition results in repetition inhibition, attributable to an automatic suppression of previous responses and a bias against guessing repeated items (Experiment 3). The findings are discussed in relation to models of short-term memory and the phenomenon of repetition blindness.

  13. Short term UV line profile variation in 59 Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Doazan, V.; Peters, G. J.; Willis, A.; Snow, T. P.; Aitken, D.; Barker, P. K.; Bolton, C. T.; Henrichs, H.; Kitchen, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The International ultraviolet Explorer high dispersion spectra of 59 Cyg obtained as part of the long term monitoring program have shown that noticeable variation can occur in C 5 and N 5 on timescales 3 hours t24 to 28 hours. In order to begin to resolve whether these changes occur continuously or sporadically, 48 hours were devoted to monitoring this star in January 1982. The January spectra show no short term variation, which may be consistent with sporadic rather than continuous variation.

  14. The perils and promise of short-term healthcare missions.

    PubMed

    Seager, Greg; Seager, Candi; Tazelaar, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Short-term healthcare missions have the potential to help and, sadly, also to harm. Pharmacy driven missions where the focus is on medication distribution can lead to disastrous consequences when standards of care are not followed; respecting best practices can help ensure better outcomes for recipients of care. Focusing on health education through community health fairs can be a more effective and safe way to impact the health of developing communities.

  15. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-02-14

    Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, "Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training." The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum. The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably. The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad.

  16. Short-term synchronization of intercostal motoneurone activity.

    PubMed

    Sears, T A; Stagg, D

    1976-12-01

    1. The hypothesis is advanced that the joint occurrence of unitary excitatory post-synaptic potentials e.p.s.p.s) evoked in motoneurones by branches of common stem pre-synaptic fibres causes short-term synchronization of their discharge during the rising phases of the unitary e.p.s.p.s. 2. This hypothesis was tested using the pre- and post-stimulus time (PPST) histogram to detect synchronized firing among groups of intercostal motoneurones discharging in response to their natural synaptic drives. 3. Motor nerve action potentials were recorded monophasically from nerve filaments of the external intercostal muscles of anaesthetized, paralysed cats maintained on artificial ventilation. 4. Computer methods were used to measure peak spike amplitude, spike amplitude, spike interval and filament identification for simultaneous recordings from four filaments. The spike amplitude histograms were derived for each filament and groups of spikes were selected for analysis. 5. With spikes of one group designated as 'stimuli' (occurring at zero time) and those of a second as 'response' the PPST histogram was computed with different time bin widths. 6. With bin widths of 100 and 10 msec the central respiratory periodicity was apparent in the PPST histogram. With 1.0 msec bins the PPST histogram showed a narrow central peak extending to +/- 3.0 msec at its base. This 'short-term synchronization' supports the hypothesis of joint firing due to common presynaptic connectivity. 7. It was shown that detection of short-term synchronization was critically dependent on a sufficient quantity of data but that provided a simple criterion of adequate counts per bin in the PPST histogram was met, short-term synchronization could be detected between intercostal motoneurones of the same and adjacent segments.

  17. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  18. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, “Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.” The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum. Results The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably. Conclusions The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad. PMID:23410089

  19. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  20. Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

  1. Short-Term Planning and Forecasting for Petroleum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    the past sales data from the Norfolk DFSP is used to construct seasonality indices. Finally, the budgeL/ saleg relationship is combined with the...to construct seasonality indices. Finally, the budget/sales relationship is combined with the seasonality indices to provide a new forecasting model...governing the short-term wholesale bulk petroleum inventory 11 management will be reviewed through the Petroleum-Oils- Lubricants (POL) chain -of-command. B

  2. Short-term changes in beach morphology on Louisiana coast

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, L.D.

    1988-09-01

    A study of the short-term response of seven shoreline segments between the Sabine River and Sandy Point is based on data from a three-year coastal erosion monitoring project. Seventy-eight beach-profile transects were surveyed quarterly between December 1985 and March 1988 to determine their patterns and rates of shoreline change. Efforts were made to characterize straight and curved shorelines as well as those that have been artificially stabilized.

  3. Electricity price short-term forecasting using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Szkuta, B.R.; Sanabria, L.A.; Dillon, T.S.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the System Marginal Price (SMP) short-term forecasting implementation using the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) computing technique. The described approach uses the three-layered ANN paradigm with back-propagation. The retrospective SMP real-world data, acquired from the deregulated Victorian power system, was used for training and testing the ANN. The results presented in this paper confirm considerable value of the ANN based approach in forecasting the SMP.

  4. Short-term memory in networks of dissociated cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Dranias, Mark R; Ju, Han; Rajaram, Ezhilarasan; VanDongen, Antonius M J

    2013-01-30

    Short-term memory refers to the ability to store small amounts of stimulus-specific information for a short period of time. It is supported by both fading and hidden memory processes. Fading memory relies on recurrent activity patterns in a neuronal network, whereas hidden memory is encoded using synaptic mechanisms, such as facilitation, which persist even when neurons fall silent. We have used a novel computational and optogenetic approach to investigate whether these same memory processes hypothesized to support pattern recognition and short-term memory in vivo, exist in vitro. Electrophysiological activity was recorded from primary cultures of dissociated rat cortical neurons plated on multielectrode arrays. Cultures were transfected with ChannelRhodopsin-2 and optically stimulated using random dot stimuli. The pattern of neuronal activity resulting from this stimulation was analyzed using classification algorithms that enabled the identification of stimulus-specific memories. Fading memories for different stimuli, encoded in ongoing neural activity, persisted and could be distinguished from each other for as long as 1 s after stimulation was terminated. Hidden memories were detected by altered responses of neurons to additional stimulation, and this effect persisted longer than 1 s. Interestingly, network bursts seem to eliminate hidden memories. These results are similar to those that have been reported from similar experiments in vivo and demonstrate that mechanisms of information processing and short-term memory can be studied using cultured neuronal networks, thereby setting the stage for therapeutic applications using this platform.

  5. Research about Short- Term Production Capacity Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    bi-xi, Zhang; jing, Song; xiu-li, Yu

    Under the circumstances of uncertain fluctuation of market demand, the degree of matching between production capacity and customers demand can affect the cost, the efficiency and the profits of an enterprise. Choosing the appropriate production capacity level is an important task for decision makers. The paper analyzes the characters of the short-term demand variation, the matching between the capacity and the demand, and its influence on the enterprise. Supposing the short-term demand varies seasonally, and the objective is minimum the loss of mismatch between the production capacity and market demand.Then,short-term production capacity decision model has been developed.Based on the model, this paper has probed into the mismatching loss of three strategies: fixed capacity strategy, subsection adjustment capacity strategy and dynamic adjustment capacity strategy,and an optimal capacity strategy is provided. By fixing the capacity-demand mismatching loss and changing the capacity adjustment rate, this paper also studies the sensitivity of the capacity strategy. The result shows that, firstly, as the capacity adjustment rate is less than a certain numerical value, the dynamic adjustment capacity is the optimal choice; secondly, as the capacity adjustment rate exceeds a certain numerical value, the optimal one is fixed capacity strategy; finally, as the rate falls in some specific area, the optimal one is subsection adjustment capacity strategy. One practical example is provided to prove the model's validity.

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  7. Short-term intraocular tamponade with perfluorocarbon heavy liquid.

    PubMed

    Drury, Brett; Bourke, Robert D

    2011-05-01

    Inferior retinal detachment pathology can be difficult to manage due to inadequate tamponade with low specific gravity tamponade agents and the propensity for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We report the efficacy and adverse effects associated with the use of perfluorocarbon heavy liquid as a short-term tamponade in managing such pathologies. Retrospective analysis of 17 eyes treated with short-term perfluoro-n-octane tamponade for complex inferior retinal pathology, including inferior detachment and PVR. Mean follow-up time was 14 months and mean tamponade duration was 7 days. Reattachment of the retina during the study period was achieved with a single set of operations in 13/17 (76%) eyes, with four eyes requiring a subsequent set of vitreoretinal operations. Postoperative visual acuity (VA) was equal to or better than preoperative VA in 14 (82%) of 17 eyes. Complications arising during the follow-up period included superior redetachment, atrophic macular changes, minor macular haemorrhage, cataract, elevated intraocular pressure, corneal defects, PVR, epiretinal membrane and retained perfluorocarbon heavy liquid. One case of intraocular inflammation occurred >6 months after removal of perfluoro-n-octane tamponade. Short-term perfluoro-n-octane tamponade achieved a stable reattachment rate of 76% when used to manage challenging retinal pathologies.

  8. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-03-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure.

  9. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-06

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    The digit span is one of the most widely used memory tests in clinical and experimental neuropsychology for reliably measuring short-term memory capacity. In the forward version, sequences of digits of increasing length have to be reproduced in the order in which they are presented, whereas in the backward version items must be reproduced in the reversed order. Here, we assessed whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) increases the memory span for digits of young and midlife adults. Imperceptibly weak electrical currents in the alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), theta (5 Hz), and gamma (40 Hz) range, as well as a sham stimulation, were delivered over the left posterior parietal cortex, a cortical region thought to sustain maintenance processes in short-term memory through oscillatory brain activity in the beta range. We showed a frequency-specific effect of beta-tACS that robustly increased the forward memory span of young, but not middle-aged, healthy individuals. The effect correlated with age: the younger the subjects, the greater the benefit arising from parietal beta stimulation. Our results provide evidence of a short-term memory capacity improvement in young adults by online frequency-specific tACS application. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure. PMID:26926885

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  14. A test program for predicting and monitoring the emergency diesel generator heat exchangers at Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.J.; Fusegni, L.J.; McFarland, W.J.; Andreone, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    The USNRC issued Generic Letter 89-13, ``Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment`` to all nuclear power plant licensees which requires the implementation of a program to ensure that nuclear safety-related heat exchangers are capable of performing their intended functions. The heat exchangers on the standby emergency diesel generator (EDG) skids are covered by this requirement. PECo and SWEC have developed a program of testing and analysis to monitor the level of fouling in the EDG`s at the Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants in response to the Generic Letter. The development of an EDG heat exchanger test program is significantly more complex than for most other heat exchangers. This is because the process fluid flows are controlled by self-modulating thermostatic valves to maintain proper process temperature setpoints. As a result, under some test conditions the process flows may be reduced to as little as 20% of their design values. Flow changes of this magnitude significantly affect the performance of the coolers and obscure observation of the effects of fouling if not properly addressed. This paper describes the methods developed by PECo and SWEC to address this problem.

  15. Integrating short-term and long-term forecasting with reservoir optimisation; Mantaro Basin, Peru.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, R. A.; Lasarte, A.; Butts, M. B.

    2009-04-01

    Operational water management often requires a trade-off between short-term and long-term water demands, where short-term demands are driven for example by hydropower generation and flood protection requirements and the long-term demands by water and irrigation supply, sustainable reservoir management and the seasonal impacts of snow melt or climate. This paper presents an operational decision support system designed to forecast and optimise reservoir operations in both the short-term and long-term. The system has been established for the 20,000 km2 Mantaro river basin located in the high Andes with altitudes ranging from 3500 to nearly 6000 m.a.s.l.. The two main power stations at Tablachaca have a combined capacity of more than 1000 MW that supplies 30% of Peru's electrical energy. In addition, the basin's water resources supply extensive agricultural areas, an urban population and mining activities and sustain important ecological habitats. In this paper, the methodologies used for the integrating short-term and long-term forecasting are presented together with their application to the optimal operation of reservoirs. A key element in the system is the MIKE BASIN modelling tool. The system uses several modelling capabilities of MIKE BASIN: rainfall-runoff, reservoir operation, hydropower production, and river flow routing. The system also takes advantage of long-term forecasts (based on statistical information) and short-term forecasts (based on telemetry data). The continually updated runoff and flow forecasts enter the optimization, which applies the Model Predictive Control principle for MIKE BASIN as the core simulation model. For each optimization, a non-linear program algorithm is used to find the best release strategy. On the basis of the forecasted inflows and the real time data the system suggests to the user from which reservoirs to release water for alleviation of possible forecasted deficits. In addition to the Tablachaca scheme the model accounts for

  16. Construction and testing of a Top Counting Detector and a Bottom Counting Detector for the Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass experiment on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, H. J.; Anderson, T.; Angelaszek, D.; Copley, M.; Coutu, S.; Han, J. H.; Huh, H. G.; Kah, D. H.; Kim, K. C.; Kwashnak, K.; Lee, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nutter, S.; Ofoha, O.; Jeon, H. B.; Hyun, H. J.; Park, H.; Park, J. M.; Patterson, P.; Seo, E. S.; Wu, J.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2015-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) mission is planned for launch in 2015 to the International Space Station (ISS) to research high-energy cosmic rays. Its aim is to understand the acceleration and propagation mechanism of high-energy cosmic rays by measuring their compositions. The Top Counting Detector and Bottom Counting Detector (T/BCD) were built to discriminate electrons from protons by using the difference in cascade shapes between electromagnetic and hadronic showers. The T/BCD provides a redundant instrument trigger in flight as well as a low-energy calibration trigger for ground testing. Each detector consists of a plastic scintillator and two-dimensional silicon photodiode array with readout electronics. The TCD is located between the carbon target and the calorimeter, and the BCD is located below the calorimeter. In this paper, we present the design, assembly, and performance of the T/BCD.

  17. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1996--1997. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.I.; Jones, T.S.

    1998-11-20

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant-produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the 1996 and 1997 calendar years. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, historic atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS.

  18. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including {sup 14}C, {sup 99}{Tc}, and {sup 129}I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  19. Short-term geomorphological evolution of proglacial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Heckmann, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Proglacial systems are amongst the most rapidly changing landscapes on Earth, as glacier mass loss, permafrost degradation and more episodes of intense rainfall progress with climate change. This review addresses the urgent need to quantitatively define proglacial systems not only in terms of spatial extent but also in terms of functional processes. It firstly provides a critical appraisal of prevailing conceptual models of proglacial systems, and uses this to justify compiling data on rates of landform change in terms of planform, horizontal motion, elevation changes and sediment budgets. These data permit us to produce novel summary conceptual diagrams that consider proglacial landscape evolution in terms of a balance of longitudinal and lateral water and sediment fluxes. Throughout, we give examples of newly emerging datasets and data processing methods because these have the potential to assist with the issues of: (i) a lack of knowledge of proglacial systems within high-mountain, arctic and polar regions, (ii) considerable inter- and intra-catchment variability in the geomorphology and functioning of proglacial systems, (iii) problems with the magnitude of short-term geomorphological changes being at the threshold of detection, (iv) separating short-term variability from longer-term trends, and (v) of the representativeness of plot-scale field measurements for regionalisation and for upscaling. We consider that understanding of future climate change effects on proglacial systems requires holistic process-based modelling to explicitly consider feedbacks and linkages, especially between hillslope and valley-floor components. Such modelling must be informed by a new generation of repeated distributed topographic surveys to detect and quantify short-term geomorphological changes.

  20. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Power system very short-term load prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Johnson, J.M.; Whitney, P.

    1997-02-01

    A fundamental objective of a power-system operating and control scheme is to maintain a match between the system`s overall real-power load and generation. To accurately maintain this match, modern energy management systems require estimates of the future total system load. Several strategies and tools are available for estimating system load. Nearly all of these estimate the future load in 1-hour steps over several hours (or time frames very close to this). While hourly load estimates are very useful for many operation and control decisions, more accurate estimates at closer intervals would also be valuable. This is especially true for emerging Area Generation Control (AGC) strategies such as look-ahead AGC. For these short-term estimation applications, future load estimates out to several minutes at intervals of 1 to 5 minutes are required. The currently emerging operation and control strategies being developed by the BPA are dependent on accurate very short-term load estimates. To meet this need, the BPA commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Montana Tech (an affiliate of the University of Montana) to develop an accurate load prediction algorithm and computer codes that automatically update and can reliably perform in a closed-loop controller for the BPA system. The requirements include accurate load estimation in 5-minute steps out to 2 hours. This report presents the results of this effort and includes: a methodology and algorithms for short-term load prediction that incorporates information from a general hourly forecaster; specific algorithm parameters for implementing the predictor in the BPA system; performance and sensitivity studies of the algorithms on BPA-supplied data; an algorithm for filtering power system load samples as a precursor to inputting into the predictor; and FORTRAN 77 subroutines for implementing the algorithms.

  2. Emergency presentation of cancer and short-term mortality

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, S; Elliss-Brookes, L; Shelton, J; Ives, A; Greenslade, M; Vernon, S; Morris, E J A; Richards, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: The short-term survival following a cancer diagnosis in England is lower than that in comparable countries, with the difference in excess mortality primarily occurring in the months immediately after diagnosis. We assess the impact of emergency presentation (EP) on the excess mortality in England over the course of the year following diagnosis. Methods: All colorectal and cervical cancers presenting in England and all breast, lung, and prostate cancers in the East of England in 2006–2008 are included. The variation in the likelihood of EP with age, stage, sex, co-morbidity, and income deprivation is modelled. The excess mortality over 0–1, 1–3, 3–6, and 6–12 months after diagnosis and its dependence on these case-mix factors and presentation route is then examined. Results: More advanced stage and older age are predictive of EP, as to a lesser extent are co-morbidity, higher income deprivation, and female sex. In the first month after diagnosis, we observe case-mix-adjusted excess mortality rate ratios of 7.5 (cervical), 5.9 (colorectal), 11.7 (breast ), 4.0 (lung), and 20.8 (prostate) for EP compared with non-EP. Conclusion: Individuals who present as an emergency experience high short-term mortality in all cancer types examined compared with non-EPs. This is partly a case-mix effect but EP remains predictive of short-term mortality even when age, stage, and co-morbidity are accounted for. PMID:24045658

  3. Short-term memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-15

    Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  5. Improving digit span assessment of short-term verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Kishiyamaa, Mark M; Lund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Edwards, Ben; Poliva, Oren; Hink, Robert F; Reed, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    We measured digit span (DS) in two experiments that used computerized presentation of randomized auditory digits with performance-adapted list length adjustment. A new mean span (MS) metric of DS was developed that showed reduced variance, improved test-retest reliability, and higher correlations with the results of other neuropsychological test results when compared to traditional DS measures. The MS metric also enhanced the sensitivity of forward versus backward span comparisons, enabled the development of normative performance criteria with subdigit precision, and elucidated changes in DS performance with age and education level. Computerized stimulus delivery and improved scoring metrics significantly enhance the precision of DS assessments of short-term verbal memory.

  6. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10-26~ 10-27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz~100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  7. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Simmons, M.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh.

  8. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-18

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10{sup −26}∼10{sup −27} are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  9. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Short-term muscle power during growth and maturation.

    PubMed

    Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Doré, Eric

    2002-01-01

    During growth and maturation, the study of very brief high-intensity exercise has not received the same attention from researchers as, for instance, aerobic function. In anaerobic tasks or sports events such as sprint cycling, jumping or running, the children's performance is distinctly lower than that of adults. This partly reflects children's lesser ability to generate mechanical energy from chemical energy sources during short-term intensive activity. For many years, various attempts have been made to quantify the anaerobic energy yield in maximal-intensity exercise, but many assumptions have had to be made with respect to mechanical efficiency, lactate turnover, dilution space for lactate, and so on. During childhood and adolescence, direct measurements of the rate or capacity of anaerobic pathways for energy turnover presents several ethical and methodological difficulties. Thus, rather than measure energy supply, paediatric exercise scientists have concentrated on measuring short-term muscle power (STMP) by means of standardised tests. Previously, investigators have used various protocols such as short-term cycling power tests, vertical jump tests or running tests. Cycling ergometer tests are the most common. There is, however, no ideal test, and so it is important to acknowledge the limitations of each test. Progress has been made in assessing instantaneous cycling STMP from a single exercise bout. Several investigators have reported STMP increases with age and have suggested that late pubertal period may accentuate anaerobic glycolysis. Mass-related STMP was shown to increase dramatically during childhood and adolescence, whereas the corresponding increase in peak blood lactate was considerably lower. The latter results support the hypothesis that the difference observed between children and adolescents during STMP testing is more related to neuromuscular factors, hormonal factors and improved motor coordination, rather than being an indicator of reduced

  11. Short-term energy outlook. Volume 2. Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-05-01

    Recent changes in forecasting methodology for nonutility distillate fuel oil demand and for the near-term petroleum forecasts are discussed. The accuracy of previous short-term forecasts of most of the major energy sources published in the last 13 issues of the Outlook is evaluated. Macroeconomic and weather assumptions are included in this evaluation. Energy forecasts for 1983 are compared. Structural change in US petroleum consumption, the use of appropriate weather data in energy demand modeling, and petroleum inventories, imports, and refinery runs are discussed.

  12. Short-Term Treatment of Children With Encopresis

    PubMed Central

    FIREMAN, GARY; KOPLEWICZ, HAROLD S.

    1992-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a short-term behavioral treatment of encopresis, 52 encopretic children were evaluated and treated according to a standardized protocol. The treatment was highly effective, with a significant decrease in soiling during the first month (P < 0.01). Of the children who began treatment, 84.6% successfully reached the criterion of 2 consecutive weeks with no soiling accidents in a mean time of 28 days, and 78.8% successfully completed an additional 7-week phaseout period. The evaluations provided rich descriptive information regarding the characteristics of encopretic children. In agreement with the literature, no specific pattern of behavioral pathology was apparent. PMID:22700057

  13. Overwriting and intrusion in short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Jones, Jeffery A; Ensor, Tyler M; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Studies of interference in working and short-term memory suggest that irrelevant information may overwrite the contents of memory or intrude into memory. While some previous studies have reported greater interference when irrelevant information is similar to the contents of memory than when it is dissimilar, other studies have reported greater interference for dissimilar distractors than for similar distractors. In the present study, we find the latter effect in a paradigm that uses auditory tones as stimuli. We suggest that the effects of distractor similarity to memory contents are mediated by the type of information held in memory, particularly the complexity or simplicity of information.

  14. Deformability of expanded polystyrene under short-term compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnip, I. J.; Vaitkus, S. I.; Kersulis, V. I.; Veyelis, S. A.

    2007-09-01

    The results obtained in an experimental investigation of deformability of expanded polystyrene (EPS) under short-term compression are presented. The density of EPS varied from 13 to 28 kg/m3. The method of design of experiments was used to determine the elastic modulus and the ultimate strain (corresponding to the end of quasi-linear deformability) under compression stresses operating perpendicularly and parallel to the faces of EPS products. A graphical interpretation of the models is also presented. Based on the experimental data obtained, it was concluded that the expanded polystyrene was homogeneous in mutually perpendicular planes with respect to its deformability in compression.

  15. Short-term memory load and pronunciation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickert, Richard; Hayt, Cathrin

    1988-01-01

    In a test of short-term memory recall, two subjects attempted to recall various lists. For unpracticed subjects, the time it took to read the list is a better predictor of immediate recall than the number of items on the list. For practiced subjects, the two predictors do about equally well. If the items that must be recalled are unfamiliar, it is advantageous to keep the items short to pronounce. On the other hand, if the same items will be encountered over and over again, it is advantageous to make them distinctive, even at the cost of adding to the number of syllables.

  16. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Binda, Paola; Lunghi, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark) and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements), slow pupil oscillations, "hippus," spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry). This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure) provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity.

  17. Short-term extractability of sulfadiazine after application to soils.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tanja; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Focks, Andreas; Siemens, Jan; Klasmeier, Jörg; Matthies, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The long-term environmental fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soils is determined by a reversible sequestration into a residual fraction and an irreversible formation of non-extractable residues (NER), which can be described as first-order rate processes. However, the concentration dynamics of the resulting fractions of SDZ in soil show an unexplained rapid reduction of extractability during the first 24 h. We therefore investigated the short-term extractability of SDZ in two different soils under different SDZ application procedures over 24 h: with and without manure, for air-dried and for moist soils. In all batches, we observed an instantaneous loss of extractability on a time scale of minutes as well as kinetically determined sequestration and NER formation over 24 h. Data evaluation with a simple kinetic model led to the conclusion that application with manure accelerated the short-term formation of NER, whereas sequestration was very similar for all batches.

  18. Short term dynamics of the debris-covered Miage Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyffe, Catriona; Brock, Ben; Kirkbride, Martin; Mair, Doug; Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina

    2016-04-01

    Due to the often inaccessible nature of debris-covered glaciers, studies of their dynamics tend to be restricted to those using remotely sensed data. This paper presents data on the short-term glacier dynamics of the debris-covered Miage Glacier, Western Italian Alps. The glacier velocity was calculated from repeat occupation of up to 22 points using a differential GPS system over two melt seasons. Meteorological, hydrological and water chemistry data were collected over the same time periods, and the nature of the hydrological system was studied using dye tracing, to allow the short term variations in glacier dynamics to be understood in terms of the likely glacial drainage system and its evolution. The highest glacier velocities and the greatest velocity variability was found near to where a cluster of moulins enter the glacier, close to the limit of continuous debris cover. The melt from the clean and dirty ice occasionally led to inputs overcoming the channelized system (both in spring and mid-summer), leading to increased velocities. On the debris-covered lower glacier however velocities were lower and less variable, and significant speed-up was confined to a period when subglacial water was thought to have been transferred subglacially from higher upglacier. The subdued sub-debris melt signal is thought to be the cause of the reduced velocity variability, in spite of the hydrological system beneath this part of the glacier remaining inefficient.

  19. Statistical approaches to short-term electricity forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellova, Andrea

    The study of the short-term forecasting of electricity demand has played a key role in the economic optimization of the electric energy industry and is essential for power systems planning and operation. In electric energy markets, accurate short-term forecasting of electricity demand is necessary mainly for economic operations. Our focus is directed to the question of electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic. Firstly, we describe the current structure and organization of the Czech, as well as the European, electricity market. Secondly, we provide a complex description of the most powerful external factors influencing electricity consumption. The choice of the most appropriate model is conditioned by these electricity demand determining factors. Thirdly, we build up several types of multivariate forecasting models, both linear and nonlinear. These models are, respectively, linear regression models and artificial neural networks. Finally, we compare the forecasting power of both kinds of models using several statistical accuracy measures. Our results suggest that although the electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic is for the considered years rather a nonlinear than a linear problem, for practical purposes simple linear models with nonlinear inputs can be adequate. This is confirmed by the values of the empirical loss function applied to the forecasting results.

  20. Short-Term Effects of Hydrokinesiotherapy in Hospitalized Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Tobinaga, Welcy Cassiano; Abelenda, Vera Lucia Barros; de Sá, Paula Morisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, preterm newborns are subject to environmental stress and numerous painful interventions. It is known that hydrokinesiotherapy promotes comfort and reduces stress because of the physiological properties of water. Objective. To evaluate the short-term effects of hydrokinesiotherapy on reducing stress in preterm newborns admitted to the NICU. Materials and Methods. Fifteen preterm newborns underwent salivary cortisol measurement, pain evaluation using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation measurements before and after the application of hydrokinesiotherapy. Results. The mean gestational age of the newborns was 34.2 ± 1.66 weeks, and the mean weight was 1823.3 ± 437.4 g. Immediately after application of hydrokinesiotherapy, a significant reduction was observed in salivary cortisol (p = 0.004), heart rate (p = 0.003), and respiratory rate (p = 0.004) and a significant increase was observed in peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.002). However, no significant difference was observed in the NIPS score (p > 0.05). Conclusion. In the present study, neonatal hydrotherapy promoted short-term relief from feelings of stress. Neonatal hydrokinesiotherapy may be a therapeutic alternative. However, this therapy needs to be studied in randomized, crossover, and blinded trials. This trial is registered with NCT02707731. PMID:27672453

  1. Chlorella sorokiniana Extract Improves Short-Term Memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Morgese, Maria Grazia; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Francavilla, Matteo; Bove, Maria; Morgano, Lucia; Tucci, Paolo; Trabace, Luigia; Schiavone, Stefania

    2016-09-29

    Increasing evidence shows that eukaryotic microalgae and, in particular, the green microalga Chlorella, can be used as natural sources to obtain a whole variety of compounds, such as omega (ω)-3 and ω-6 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFAs). Although either beneficial or toxic effects of Chlorella sorokiniana have been mainly attributed to its specific ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs content, the underlying molecular pathways remain to be elucidated yet. Here, we investigate the effects of an acute oral administration of a lipid extract of Chlorella sorokiniana, containing mainly ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs, on cognitive, emotional and social behaviour in rats, analysing possible underlying neurochemical alterations. Our results showed improved short-term memory in Chlorella sorokiniana-treated rats compared to controls, without any differences in exploratory performance, locomotor activity, anxiety profile and depressive-like behaviour. On the other hand, while the social behaviour of Chlorella sorokiniana-treated animals was significantly decreased, no effects on aggressivity were observed. Neurochemical investigations showed region-specific effects, consisting in an elevation of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) content in hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. In conclusion, our results point towards a beneficial effect of Chlorella sorokiniana extract on short-term memory, but also highlight the need of caution in the use of this natural supplement due to its possible masked toxic effects.

  2. The short-term effects of merger on hospital operations.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J A; Halpern, M T; Lee, S Y

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The short-term effects of merger on three areas of hospital operations - scale of activity, personnel/staffing practices, and operating efficiency - is examined. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data obtained from the AHA Annual Surveys (1980-1990) were applied to analyze 92 hospital mergers over the period 1982-1989. STUDY DESIGN: The study employed a multiple time-series design involving a six-year longitudinal assessment of change in hospital operating characteristics before and after merger, and a parallel analysis of change in a randomly selected group of nonmerging hospitals. DATA COLLECTION: Pooled, cross-sectional data files were constructed. Comparisons were evaluated using paired and two-sample t-tests. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: General merger effects occurred primarily in areas related to operating efficiency. Merger resulted in slowing rates of preexisting trends, rather than dramatic improvements in operating practices. CONCLUSIONS: The short-term impact of merger was generally modest but differed by the conditions under which the merger occurred. Specifically, mergers occurring later in the study period and mergers between similarly sized hospitals displayed greater change in operating characteristics than those occurring earlier in the study period and those between hospitals of dissimilar size. Such differences are attributed respectively to increased competitive pressures after PPS and to greater opportunities for consolidation and efficiencies in mergers involving similarly sized hospitals. PMID:8591932

  3. Gaze direction affects visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Carlei, Christophe; Kerzel, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries were investigated by changing the horizontal position of stimuli that had to be remembered in a visuo-spatial short-term memory task. Observers looked at matrices containing a variable number of filled squares on the left or right side of the screen center. At stimulus offset, participants reproduced the positions of the filled squares in an empty response matrix. Stimulus and response matrices were presented in the same quadrant. We observed that memory performance was better when the matrices were shown on the left side of the screen. We distinguished between recall strategies that relied on visual or non-visual (verbal) cues and found that the effect of gaze position occurred more reliably in participants using visual recall strategies. Overall, the results show that there is a solid enhancement of visuo-spatial short-term memory when observers look to the left. In contrast, vertical position had no influence on performance. We suggest that unilateral gaze to the left activates centers in the right hemisphere contributing to visuo-spatial memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Harrell, P T; Montoya, I D; Preston, K L; Juliano, L M; Gorelick, D A

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N=200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

  6. SHORT-TERM SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING MULTIRESOLUTION PREDICTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Daren; Huang Xin; Hu Qinghua; Zhou Rui; Wang Huaning; Cui Yanmei

    2010-01-20

    Multiresolution predictors of solar flares are constructed by a wavelet transform and sequential feature extraction method. Three predictors-the maximum horizontal gradient, the length of neutral line, and the number of singular points-are extracted from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager longitudinal magnetograms. A maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform is used to decompose the sequence of predictors into four frequency bands. In each band, four sequential features-the maximum, the mean, the standard deviation, and the root mean square-are extracted. The multiresolution predictors in the low-frequency band reflect trends in the evolution of newly emerging fluxes. The multiresolution predictors in the high-frequency band reflect the changing rates in emerging flux regions. The variation of emerging fluxes is decoupled by wavelet transform in different frequency bands. The information amount of these multiresolution predictors is evaluated by the information gain ratio. It is found that the multiresolution predictors in the lowest and highest frequency bands contain the most information. Based on these predictors, a C4.5 decision tree algorithm is used to build the short-term solar flare prediction model. It is found that the performance of the short-term solar flare prediction model based on the multiresolution predictors is greatly improved.

  7. The Optimization of Short-Term Hepatocyte Preservation Before Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Kengo; Inagaki, Akiko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Matsumura, Muneyuki; Yoshida, Satoru; Imura, Takehiro; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Miyagi, Shigehito; Ohashi, Kazuo; Enosawa, Shin; Kamei, Takashi; Unno, Michiaki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Satomi, Susumu; Goto, Masafumi

    2017-07-01

    No optimal methods for short-term hepatocyte preservation have been established. We have recently developed a prominent oxygen-permeable bag (Tohoku Device [TD]) for pancreatic islet culture and transplantation. In this study, we investigated whether TD is also effective for hepatocyte preservation and tried to optimize other conditions. Hepatocytes were preserved in the following conditions, and their outcomes were observed. First, the effectiveness of TD was investigated. Second, hepatocyte medium (HM) and organ preservation solutions with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared. Third, as supplementations, FBS and human serum albumin (HSA) were compared. Fourth, low, room and high temperature were compared. And finally, hepatocytes preserved in various conditions were transplanted into the subrenal capsule space of nonalbumin rats and engrafted areas were assessed. The survival rate of hepatocytes preserved in TD tended to be higher and their viability and function were maintained significantly greater than those of non-TD group. Irrespective of FBS supplementation, the survival rate of HM group was significantly higher than those of organ preservation solution group while viabilities and plating efficiency were similar among them. Although survival rates of groups without FBS were extremely low, results of HSA supplemented group were not inferior to FBS supplemented group. Hepatocytes preserved at high temperature had the worst results. The engrafted area of TD group tended to be higher than those of other groups. TD is effective for short-term hepatocyte preservation. HSA is a useful substitute for FBS, and preserving in HM at low temperature is recommended.

  8. Micro package of short term wireless implantable microfabricated systems.

    PubMed

    Bu, Leping; Cong, Peng; Kuo, Hung-I; Ye, Xuesong; Ko, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Package is a critical part in biomedical implantable systems. Many factors affecting the host body and the life time of implantable systems need to be considered. Package becomes more critical for microfabricated systems with wireless charging and communication. This paper presents the first phase study on micro package techniques for short term (30 to 90 days) implantable systems. A MEMS implantable telemetry model system was designed for packaging evaluation. The transmitter was custom designed and fabricated using MOSIS processes and an external receiver was designed and built for data collection. For short term implantable systems, medical grade silicone outer coating is used for "tissue compatibility"; while multilayer polymeric and nanometer-thin metal or ceramic films were used for inner coatings to provide mechanical strength and to block vapor and moisture penetration. The total coating thickness is less than 0.6 mm. The electrical performances (leakage resistance) of test board and model devices coated with various package materials and processes are evaluated in 40 degrees C saline. This paper presents: the model system; the evaluation methods and analysis of failure modes of polymeric coating on test boards; the solution to the failures and suggested coating techniques of polymeric materials; and the evaluation of model systems packaged with multi-layer coatings in 40 degrees C saline. The expected performance of developed packaging method was verified by experiments. Implantable wireless MEMS system can be packaged with thin multilayer materials to have an expected life time greater than 30 days.

  9. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  10. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  11. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Enhances Physiological Pupillary Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Binda, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Short-term monocular deprivation alters visual perception in adult humans, increasing the dominance of the deprived eye, for example, as measured with binocular rivalry. This form of plasticity may depend upon the inhibition/excitation balance in the visual cortex. Recent work suggests that cortical excitability is reliably tracked by dilations and constrictions of the pupils of the eyes. Here, we ask whether monocular deprivation produces a systematic change of pupil behavior, as measured at rest, that is independent of the change of visual perception. During periods of minimal sensory stimulation (in the dark) and task requirements (minimizing body and gaze movements), slow pupil oscillations, “hippus,” spontaneously appear. We find that hippus amplitude increases after monocular deprivation, with larger hippus changes in participants showing larger ocular dominance changes (measured by binocular rivalry). This tight correlation suggests that a single latent variable explains both the change of ocular dominance and hippus. We speculate that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine may be implicated in this phenomenon, given its important role in both plasticity and pupil control. On the practical side, our results indicate that measuring the pupil hippus (a simple and short procedure) provides a sensitive index of the change of ocular dominance induced by short-term monocular deprivation, hence a proxy for plasticity. PMID:28163935

  12. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  13. Short-Term Lifestyle Strategies for Sustaining Cognitive Status

    PubMed Central

    Morris, John N.; Steel, Knight; Strout, Kelley A.; Fries, Brant E.; Moore, Alice; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool. Decline or no decline on the Cognitive Performance Scale was the dependent variable. We examined sustaining one's status on this measure over a one-year period in relation to key dimensions of wellness through intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and spiritual variables. Engaging in physical activity, formal exercise, and specific recreational activities had a favorable effect on short-term cognitive decline. Involvement with computers, crossword puzzles, handicrafts, and formal education courses also were protective factors. The physical and intellectual domains of wellness are prominent aspects in protection from cognitive decline. Inherent in these two domains are mutable factors suitable for targeted efforts to promote older adult health and well-being. PMID:27891520

  14. Exploring the Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Hydrological Response of Small Czech Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Ludek; Weyskrabova, Lenka; Müller, Miloslav; Kozant, Petr

    2017-04-01

    The short-term rainfall temporal distribution is known to have a significant effect on the small watersheds' hydrological response. In Czech Republic there are limited publicly available data on rainfall patterns of short-term precipitation. On one side there are catalogues of very short-term synthetic rainfalls used in urban drainage planning and on the other side hourly distribution of daily totals of rainfalls with long return period for larger catchments analyses. This contribution introduces the preliminary outcomes of a running three years' project, which should bridge this gap and provide such data and methodology to the community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. Six generalized 6-hours hyetographs with 1 minute resolution were derived from 10 years of radar and gauging stations data. These hyetographs are accompanied with information concerning the region of occurrence as well as their frequency related to the rainfall amount. In the next step these hyetographs are used in a complex sensitivity analysis focused on a rainfall-runoff response of small watersheds. This analysis takes into account the uncertainty related to type of the hydrological model, watershed characteristics and main model routines parameterization. Five models with different methods and structure are considered and each model is applied on 5 characteristic watersheds selected from a classification of 7700 small Czech watersheds. For each combination of model and watershed 30, rainfall scenarios were simulated and other scenarios will be used to address the parameters uncertainty. In the last step the variability of outputs will be assessed in the context of economic impacts on design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research is supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, rainfall data were provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  15. Evaluation of Drinking Water Disinfectant Byproducts Compliance Data as an Indirect Measure for Short-Term Exposure in Humans.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Shahid; Frost, Kali; Sundararajan, Madhura

    2017-05-20

    In the absence of shorter term disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) data on regulated Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs), epidemiologists and risk assessors have used long-term annual compliance (LRAA) or quarterly (QA) data to evaluate the association between DBP exposure and adverse birth outcomes, which resulted in inconclusive findings. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of using long-term LRAA and QA data as an indirect measure for short-term exposure. Short-term residential tap water samples were collected in peak DBP months (May-August) in a community water system with five separate treatment stations and were sourced from surface or groundwater. Samples were analyzed for THMs and HAAs per the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standard methods (524.2 and 552.2). The measured levels of total THMs and HAAs were compared temporally and spatially with LRAA and QA data, which showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Most samples from surface water stations showed higher levels than LRAA or QA. Significant numbers of samples in surface water stations exceeded regulatory permissible limits: 27% had excessive THMs and 35% had excessive HAAs. Trichloromethane, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid were the major drivers of variability. This study suggests that LRAA and QA data are not good proxies of short-term exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine if other drinking water systems show consistent findings for improved regulation.

  16. Evaluation of Drinking Water Disinfectant Byproducts Compliance Data as an Indirect Measure for Short-Term Exposure in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Shahid; Frost, Kali; Sundararajan, Madhura

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of shorter term disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) data on regulated Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs), epidemiologists and risk assessors have used long-term annual compliance (LRAA) or quarterly (QA) data to evaluate the association between DBP exposure and adverse birth outcomes, which resulted in inconclusive findings. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of using long-term LRAA and QA data as an indirect measure for short-term exposure. Short-term residential tap water samples were collected in peak DBP months (May–August) in a community water system with five separate treatment stations and were sourced from surface or groundwater. Samples were analyzed for THMs and HAAs per the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standard methods (524.2 and 552.2). The measured levels of total THMs and HAAs were compared temporally and spatially with LRAA and QA data, which showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Most samples from surface water stations showed higher levels than LRAA or QA. Significant numbers of samples in surface water stations exceeded regulatory permissible limits: 27% had excessive THMs and 35% had excessive HAAs. Trichloromethane, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid were the major drivers of variability. This study suggests that LRAA and QA data are not good proxies of short-term exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine if other drinking water systems show consistent findings for improved regulation. PMID:28531123

  17. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  18. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  19. Hurricane Arthur and its effect on the short term variation of pCO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, Jonathan; Thomas, Helmuth; Craig, Susanne; Greenan, Blair; Fennel, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal changes in carbon cycling over the years have become better understood on the Scotian Shelf, however little is resolved in short term variation. Hourly measurements were collected from an autonomous moored instrument (CARIOCA) stationed at Halifax Line 2 (HL2), roughly 30km off the coast of Halifax for the 2014 year. Data from the 2007 deployment of the SeaHorse vertical sampling mooring at HL2 was also collected. Focusing on the storm event, Hurricane Arthur, July 5th 2014 reveals a significant drop in pCO2. With the shelf having carbon rich deep water, a reduction of pCO2 due to mixing went against current understanding. It was revealed that slightly above the mixed layer there is a sustained population of phytoplankton. When wind mixing from storms occurs, this population moves to the surface allowing greater light and nutrients for short term growth. This growth then reduces pCO2 for a short period of time until wind speeds slow down reducing mixing of the water column.

  20. Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Landa, Martin; Neuman, Martin; Kožant, Petr; Muller, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to introduce the recently started three year's project named "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Its main goal is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The outcomes of the project will especially be helpful in modelling hydrological or soil erosion problems when designing common measures for promoting water retention or landscape drainage systems in or out of the scope of Landscape consolidation projects. The precipitation scenarios will be derived from 10 years of observed data from point gauging stations and radar data. The analysis is focused on events' return period, rainfall total amount, internal intensity distribution and spatial distribution over the area of Czech Republic. The methodology will account for the choice of the simulation model. Several representatives of practically oriented models will be tested for the output sensitivity to selected precipitation scenario comparing to variability connected with other inputs uncertainty. The variability of the outputs will also be assessed in the context of economic impacts in design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research was supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, using data provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  1. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  2. Application of Remote Sensing to Assess the Impact of Short Term Climate Variability on Coastal Sedimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzel, W. Paul; Huh, Oscar K.; Walker, Nan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this joint University of Wisconsin (UW) and Louisiana State University (LSU) project has been to relate short term climate variation to response in the coastal zone of Louisiana in an attempt to better understand how the coastal zone is shaped by climate variation. Climate variation in this case largely refers to variation in surface wind conditions that affect wave action and water currents in the coastal zone. The primary region of focus was the Atchafalaya Bay and surrounding bays in the central coastal region of Louisiana. Suspended solids in the water column show response to wind systems both in quantity (through resuspension) and in the pattern of dispersement or transport. Wind systems associated with cold fronts are influenced by short term climate variation. Wind energy was used as the primary signature of climate variation in this study because winds are a significant influence on sediment transport in the micro-tidal Gilf of Mexico coastal zone. Using case studies, the project has been able to investigate the influence of short term climate variation on sediment transport. Wind energy data, collected daily for National Weather Service (NWS) stations at Lake Charles and New Orleans, LA, were used as an indicator of short term climate variation influence on seasonal time scales. A goal was to relate wind energy to coastal impact through sediment transport. This goal was partially accomplished by combining remote sensing and wind energy data. Daily high resolution remote sensing observations are needed to monitor the complex coastal zone environment, where winds, tides, and water level all interact to influence sediment transport. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) era brings hope for documenting and revealing response of the complex coastal transport mosaic through regular high spatial resolution observations from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument. MODIS observations were sampled in this project for

  3. Short-term Variability of Extinction by Broadband Stellar Photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Musat, I.C.; Ellingson, R.G.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol optical depth variation over short-term time intervals is determined from broadband observations of stars with a whole sky imager. The main difficulty in such measurements consists of accurately separating the star flux value from the non-stellar diffuse skylight. Using correction method to overcome this difficulty, the monochromatic extinction at the ground due to aerosols is extracted from heterochromatic measurements. A form of closure is achieved by comparison with simultaneous or temporally close measurements with other instruments, and the total error of the method, as a combination of random error of measurements and systematic error of calibration and model, is assessed as being between 2.6 and 3% rms.

  4. The Delicate Analysis of Short-Term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Changwei; Zheng, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a new method for short-term load forecasting based on the similar day method, correlation coefficient and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to achieve the precision analysis of load variation from three aspects (typical day, correlation coefficient, spectral analysis) and three dimensions (time dimension, industry dimensions, the main factors influencing the load characteristic such as national policies, regional economic, holidays, electricity and so on). First, the branch algorithm one-class-SVM is adopted to selection the typical day. Second, correlation coefficient method is used to obtain the direction and strength of the linear relationship between two random variables, which can reflect the influence caused by the customer macro policy and the scale of production to the electricity price. Third, Fourier transform residual error correction model is proposed to reflect the nature of load extracting from the residual error. Finally, simulation result indicates the validity and engineering practicability of the proposed method.

  5. Short-Term Planning of Hybrid Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knežević, Goran; Baus, Zoran; Nikolovski, Srete

    2016-07-01

    In this paper short-term planning algorithm for hybrid power system consist of different types of cascade hydropower plants (run-of-the river, pumped storage, conventional), thermal power plants (coal-fired power plants, combined cycle gas-fired power plants) and wind farms is presented. The optimization process provides a joint bid of the hybrid system, and thus making the operation schedule of hydro and thermal power plants, the operation condition of pumped-storage hydropower plants with the aim of maximizing profits on day ahead market, according to expected hourly electricity prices, the expected local water inflow in certain hydropower plants, and the expected production of electrical energy from the wind farm, taking into account previously contracted bilateral agreement for electricity generation. Optimization process is formulated as hourly-discretized mixed integer linear optimization problem. Optimization model is applied on the case study in order to show general features of the developed model.

  6. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. liquid fuels production increased from 7.43 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2008 to 13.75 million b/d in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) expects liquid fuels production to decline to 12.99 million b/d in 2017, mainly as a result of prolonged low oil prices. The liquid fuels production forecast reflects a 1.24 million b/d decline in crude oil production by 2017 that is partially offset by a 450,000 b/d increase in the production of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL)—a group of products including ethane, propane, butane (normal and isobutane), natural gasoline, and refinery olefins. This analysis will discuss the outlook for each of these four HGL streams and related infrastructure projects through 2017.

  7. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. liquid fuels production increased from 7.43 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2008 to 13.75 million b/d in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) expects liquid fuels production to decline to 12.99 million b/d in 2017, mainly as a result of prolonged low oil prices. The liquid fuels production forecast reflects a 1.24 million b/d decline in crude oil production by 2017 that is partially offset by a 450,000 b/d increase in the production of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL)—a group of products including ethane, propane, butane (normal and isobutane), natural gasoline, and refinery olefins. This analysis will discuss the outlook for each of these four HGL streams and related infrastructure projects through 2017.

  8. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  9. Short-term risk forecasts of heavy rainfall.

    PubMed

    Schmid, W; Mecklenburg, S; Joss, J

    2002-01-01

    Methodologies for risk forecasts of severe weather hardly exist on the scale of nowcasting (0-3 hours). Here we discuss short-term risk forecasts of heavy precipitation associated with local thunderstorms. We use COTREC/RainCast: a procedure to extrapolate radar images into the near future. An error density function is defined using the estimated error of location of the extrapolated radar patterns. The radar forecast is folded ("smeared") with the density function, leading to a probability distribution of radar intensities. An algorithm to convert the radar intensities into values of precipitation intensity provides the desired probability (or risk) of heavy rainfall at any position within the considered window in space and time. We discuss, as an example, a flood event from summer 2000.

  10. Short-term scheduling of reactive power controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Yingyi; Liao Csongming

    1995-05-01

    A two-level approach is presented to solve the problem of optimal short-term (one day) scheduling of reactive power controllers in this paper. The entire problem is decomposed into two levels: the master and the slave levels. The master level deals with minimization of the depreciation cost of compensators and EHV transformer taps in order to reduce the control action for compensators and EHV transformer taps while satisfying operating constraints. The slave level treats minimization of capitalized MW losses while satisfying system security constraints. The slave level also treats OLTCs and determines scheduling of the generator voltages. These two levels interact through linear constraints in the iteration process. A practical 265-bus system, namely Taiwan Power System, are used to serve as a sample to show the applicability of the presented approach.

  11. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  12. Emulating short-term synaptic dynamics with memristive devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdan, Radu; Vasilaki, Eleni; Khiat, Ali; Indiveri, Giacomo; Serb, Alexandru; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic architectures offer great promise for achieving computation capacities beyond conventional Von Neumann machines. The essential elements for achieving this vision are highly scalable synaptic mimics that do not undermine biological fidelity. Here we demonstrate that single solid-state TiO2 memristors can exhibit non-associative plasticity phenomena observed in biological synapses, supported by their metastable memory state transition properties. We show that, contrary to conventional uses of solid-state memory, the existence of rate-limiting volatility is a key feature for capturing short-term synaptic dynamics. We also show how the temporal dynamics of our prototypes can be exploited to implement spatio-temporal computation, demonstrating the memristors full potential for building biophysically realistic neural processing systems.

  13. Emulating short-term synaptic dynamics with memristive devices

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Radu; Vasilaki, Eleni; Khiat, Ali; Indiveri, Giacomo; Serb, Alexandru; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic architectures offer great promise for achieving computation capacities beyond conventional Von Neumann machines. The essential elements for achieving this vision are highly scalable synaptic mimics that do not undermine biological fidelity. Here we demonstrate that single solid-state TiO2 memristors can exhibit non-associative plasticity phenomena observed in biological synapses, supported by their metastable memory state transition properties. We show that, contrary to conventional uses of solid-state memory, the existence of rate-limiting volatility is a key feature for capturing short-term synaptic dynamics. We also show how the temporal dynamics of our prototypes can be exploited to implement spatio-temporal computation, demonstrating the memristors full potential for building biophysically realistic neural processing systems. PMID:26725838

  14. Short-term contracts: Descending the career ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    Elizabeth Griffin brings a personal insight to the hurdles that women seeking a scientific career face, arguing that the only gender differences are those of attitude, tradition and style. The policy of employing some but not all academic researchers through short-term contracts is highly divisive, in that it creates a two-tier system not only of opportunities and expectations but also of personal worth and value. Far more women than men are trapped in these career cul-de-sacs, and a seriously large fraction is unable to stay in research until retirement. It is the employment policy that is at fault, not the potential of the researchers or the quality of their research.

  15. Short-term Jovian rotation profiles, 1970-1972.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inge, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a study of the motions of features in Jupiter's atmosphere noted on blue-light photographs from three 25-day periods centered on opposition in 1970, 1971, and 1972. Short-term rotation profiles for these years are obtained which, at certain latitudes, differ significantly from a mean multiple-year profile and from each other. In particular, it is found that in 1970 and 1971 the rotational period was slightly shorter near the edges of the equatorial jet than at its center, while in 1972 it was not. This center-to-edge shear of 1970 and 1971 amounted to about 10 m/sec. In addition, a feature observed in 1972 at 37 N was found to exhibit an abrupt change in period amounting to an increase of 95.1 sec.

  16. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  17. Short-term Cost of Suicides in India

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Gopala Sarma

    2016-01-01

    Background: India is experiencing increasing suicides that have much economic impact. Objective: To calculate the short-term costs of suicide in India. Materials and Methods: All the official data of suicides in India in 2014 formed the base of computation. Both direct and indirect costs were computed basing on market rates and official estimates. Perceived gains were deducted to arrive at the total cost. Results: The contribution of middle age group in the loss was high. Each suicide costs 2.65 L and the total cost of suicide in 2014 amounts to 348842.65 L in the first year. Conclusion: Much suffering and burden on individuals, family, and society can be reduced if adequate treatment facilities for psychiatry patients are made available at affordable rates everywhere. This should be complemented by much needed public education. PMID:28031587

  18. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  19. Long and short term memory in head injured patients.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D N

    1975-12-01

    A group of severely head injured patients were compared with 15 controls on auditory vocal digit span, and on a free recall memory task, enabling short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM) to be examined. The free recall curves differed for the two groups suggesting that the head injured patients had an essentially normal STM, but a poor LTM. This was supported by the finding of a significantly lower number of semantic errors (presumably retrieved from LTM) and a normal digit span (STM) in the head injury patients. The severity of the injury as judged by post-traumatic amnesia or the presence of neurological signs at the time of memory testing showed only a weak relationship to the severity of the memory deficit. The presence of a skull fracture was of minor importance in determining the severity of the LTM defect. Patients tested early after the injury were significantly poorer on STM, but not on LTM.

  20. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  1. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ‘working memory’ bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ‘match’ stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. PMID:26541581

  2. Human short-term spatial memory: precision predicts capacity.

    PubMed

    Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Boujon, Valérie; Ndarugendamwo, Angélique; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Here, we aimed to determine the capacity of human short-term memory for allocentric spatial information in a real-world setting. Young adults were tested on their ability to learn, on a trial-unique basis, and remember over a 1-min interval the location(s) of 1, 3, 5, or 7 illuminating pads, among 23 pads distributed in a 4m×4m arena surrounded by curtains on three sides. Participants had to walk to and touch the pads with their foot to illuminate the goal locations. In contrast to the predictions from classical slot models of working memory capacity limited to a fixed number of items, i.e., Miller's magical number 7 or Cowan's magical number 4, we found that the number of visited locations to find the goals was consistently about 1.6 times the number of goals, whereas the number of correct choices before erring and the number of errorless trials varied with memory load even when memory load was below the hypothetical memory capacity. In contrast to resource models of visual working memory, we found no evidence that memory resources were evenly distributed among unlimited numbers of items to be remembered. Instead, we found that memory for even one individual location was imprecise, and that memory performance for one location could be used to predict memory performance for multiple locations. Our findings are consistent with a theoretical model suggesting that the precision of the memory for individual locations might determine the capacity of human short-term memory for spatial information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific.

  4. Assessment of peak power and short-term work capacity.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Brian R; Rishaug, Peter; Svedahl, Krista

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate conditions for conducting a 30 s Wingate test such as load selection, and the method of starting the test (stationary or flying start). Nine male and four female athletes volunteered to be tested on four laboratory visits. Tests were performed on a modified Monark cycle ergometer (Varberg, Sweden) equipped with force transducers on the friction belt and an optical encoder for velocity measurement. Power was calculated with the moment of inertia (I) of the flywheel taken into consideration. One laboratory visit was used to determine individualized optimal resistance conditions. The other three visits were for performance of one of three Wingate tests: a flying start with 0.834 N x kg(-1) [85 g x kg(-1) body weight (BW)] resistance (FLY-0.8); a stationary start with 0.834 N x kg(-1) BW resistance (ST-0.8), or a stationary start with optimal resistance (ST-OPT). FLY-0.8 gave a lower (P<0.05) value for short-term work capacity [19,986 (827) J] than either ST-OPT [23,014 (1,167) J] or ST-0.8 [22,321 (1075) J]. Peak power output per pedal revolution was lower ( P<0.005) for FLY-0.8 [833 (40) W] than for either ST-0.8 [974 (57) W] or ST-OPT [989 (61) W]. The results of this study demonstrate that higher values for peak power and short-term work capacity are obtained with a test from a stationary start. It is apparently not necessary to use an individualized optimal resistance when I is considered in a Wingate test initiated from a standstill.

  5. Short-term lung function decline in tunnel construction workers.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Bente; Lund, May Brit; Bakke, Berit; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-02-01

    Tunnel construction workers are exposed to particulate and gaseous air contaminants. Previous studies carried out in the 1990s showed that tunnel construction workers were at increased risk of both short-term and long-term lung function decline. Since then, efforts have been made to reduce exposure. The objective of the present study was to investigate if current exposure may still cause short-term lung function impairment. Tunnel workers work 12 days consecutively, and then they are off for 9 days. Ninety tunnel workers and 51 referents were examined with spirometry and questionnaires before their work period started and again 11 days later. Personal exposure to particles and α-quartz in the thoracic aerosol subfraction, elemental carbon and organic carbon, oil mist, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia was assessed on two consecutive days between the two health examinations. The geometric means air concentrations for particulate matter in the thoracic mass aerosol subfraction, α-quartz, oil mist, organic carbon and elemental carbon for all workers were 561, 63, 210, 146 and 35 μg/m(3), respectively. After 11 days of work, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in healthy participants had declined 73 mL (SD 173), p<0.001 in the tunnel workers, compared to 3 mL (SD 21), p=0.9 in the referents. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC) had declined significantly. Declines in FVC and FEV1 were significantly associated with exposure to organic carbon. In spite of reduced levels of exposure in modern tunnelling operations, a negative impact on lung function was still observed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Biocor No- React stentless aortic valve--short-term results.

    PubMed

    Von Oppell, U O; Stemmet, F; Levetan, B; Heijke, S A; Brink, J

    2001-01-01

    Short-term results of the bioprosthetic Biocor No-React composite porcine stentless aortic valve (Biocor Industria e Pesquisas LTDA, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) implanted in patients in whom anticoagulation was thought to be contraindicated or expected to be non-compliant. Retrospective review of 52 consecutive prospective patients in whom this valve was implanted, between September 1994 and May 1998. Average age was 44 +/- 17 years; 75% of patients were operated on for rheumatic heart disease and combined procedures were done in 40% of cases. Early mortality was 5.8%, and related to pre-operative ejection fraction ( P < 0.03), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P < 0.01), and bacterial endocarditis (P < 0.04). On discharge, 84% of survivors were in NYHA class I and 16% in class II. The average postoperative prosthetic valve peak gradient on echocardiography was 19.9 +/- 11 mmHg and was related to pre-operative ejection fraction and smaller valve sizes. Postoperative residual trivial or mild aortic regurgitation was seen in 19 patients (36.6%), resolved on follow-up in 10 cases, and did not correlate with structural deterioration, re-operation, mortality, or widening of the non-coronary sinus. The non-coronary aortic sinus was widened on closure, because of perceived crowding of the adjacent stentless valve commisures, in 52% of cases. This was thought to be related to the use of an oblique as opposed to transverse aortotomy. Patient survival, inclusive of operative deaths, was 88.5%, and event-free survival was 80.0% at 4 years. The short-term results of this stentless aortic valve in a young predominantly third-world population group are acceptable, and appear to be superior to the results for mechanical valves in a similar patient group. We would recommend a transverse aortotomy above the sinotubular ridge to be the more appropriate aortotomy incision when using stentless aortic valves.

  7. Short-term regulation of adiponectin secretion in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Szkudelski, T; Nogowski, L; Szkudelska, K

    2011-01-01

    Adiponectin belongs to the group of biologically active substances secreted by adipocytes and referred to as adipokines. Disturbances in its secretion and/or action are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of some metabolic diseases. However, regulation of adiponectin secretion is poorly elucidated. In the present study, short-term regulation of adiponectin secretion in primary rat adipocytes was investigated. Isolated rat adipocytes were incubated in Krebs-Ringer buffer containing 5 mM glucose and insulin alone or in the combination with epinephrine, dibutyryl-cAMP, adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist (DPCPX), palmitate, 2-bromopalmitate or inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport (rotenone). Adipocyte exposure for 2 h to insulin (1-100 nM) significantly increased secretion of adiponectin compared with secretion observed without insulin. Furthermore, secretion of adiponectin from adipocytes incubated with glucose and insulin was reduced by 1 and 2 microM epinephrine, but not by 0.25 and 0.5 microM epinephrine. Under similar conditions, 1 and 2 mM dibutyryl-cAMP substantially diminished secretion of adiponectin, whereas 0.5 mM dibutyryl-cAMP was ineffective. Secretion of adiponectin was found to be effectively decreased by DPCPX. Moreover, adipocyte exposure to rotenone also resulted in a substantial diminution of secretory response of adipocytes incubated for 2 h with glucose and insulin. It was also demonstrated that palmitate and 2-bromopalmitate (0.06-0.5 mM) failed to affect secretion of leptin. The obtained results indicated that in short-term regulation of adiponectin secretion, insulin and epinephrine exert the opposite effects. These effects appeared as early as after 2 h of exposure. Moreover, deprivation of energy or blockade of adenosine action substantially decreased secretion of adiponectin.

  8. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  9. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  10. Short-term outcomes after conventional transthoracic esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Yukiko; Koike, Masahiko; Hattori, Masashi; Iwata, Naoki; Takami, Hideki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kanda, Mitsuro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In our department, we have attempted to reduce the incidence of complications of conventional esophagectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was to report the short-term outcomes of esophagectomy. We reviewed 138 consecutive patients who had undergone subtotal esophagectomy by combined laparotomy via a 12-cm upper abdominal vertical incision combined with right anterior muscle-sparing thoracotomy from August 2010 to August 2014. Most of the cervical para-esophageal lymph node dissection was completed within the thoracic cavity. We performed three-field dissection in patients with tumors in the upper or middle third of the esophagus with clinical lymph node metastases in the superior mediastinum; the others underwent two-field dissection. We performed neck anastomoses in patients undergoing three-field dissection and thoracic anastomoses in those undergoing two-field dissection. Effective postoperative pain management was achieved with a combination of epidural anesthesia and paravertebral block. Postoperative rehabilitation was instituted for early ambulation and recovery. Enteral nutrition via a duodenal feeding tube was administered from postoperative day 2. Median hospital stay after surgery was 15 days (range, 10–129). Rates for both 30-day and in-hospital mortality were 0%. Morbidity rate for all Clavien–Dindo grades was 41.3%, whereas the morbidity rate for Clavien–Dindo grades III and IV was 7.2%. Anastomotic leakage developed in two patients (1.4%), recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 11 (8.0%), and pneumonia in nine (6.5%). Good short-term outcomes, especially regarding anastomotic leaks, were achieved by consistent improvements in surgical techniques, optimization of several operative procedures, and appropriate perioperative management. PMID:27018983

  11. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., use only the effective radiated power and antenna height necessary for satisfactory system performance... the transmission of the call sign of the associated part 73 broadcast station or broadcast auxiliary... south of Line A or west of Line C unless the effective radiated power of the station is 5 watts or less...

  12. 47 CFR 74.24 - Short-term operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., use only the effective radiated power and antenna height necessary for satisfactory system performance... the transmission of the call sign of the associated part 73 broadcast station or broadcast auxiliary... south of Line A or west of Line C unless the effective radiated power of the station is 5 watts or less...

  13. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  14. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  15. [Polish and worldwide short term exposure limits: concept, interpretation and proposed sampling strategy for assessing short term exposure].

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    Short term exposure limits (STEL) are introduced to prevent acute effects of substances whose workday concentrations are maintained below OEL-TWA. The aim of this paper was to compare the procedures of setting STEL and practicing their application for chemical agents in Poland and other selected countries (USA, Germany, UK) and in the European Union in general. Based on the review, a new concept of STEL was proposed. It involves drastic decrease in the number of substances with dual hygiene standards and maintenance of departures above TWA within some reasonable limits, depending on variability of concentrations expressed as geometric standard deviation, if the availability of toxicological data is limited. In view of the changed STEL definition, a new air sampling strategy has been proposed. It is based on the worst case samples with possibility of restrain from sampling in case of homogenous exposure.

  16. Short-term Suicide Risk After Psychiatric Hospital Discharge.

    PubMed

    Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Shuai; Crystal, Stephen; Liu, Shang-Min; Gerhard, Tobias; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    Although psychiatric inpatients are recognized to be at increased risk for suicide immediately after hospital discharge, little is known about the extent to which their short-term suicide risk varies across groups with major psychiatric disorders. To describe the risk for suicide during the 90 days after hospital discharge for adults with first-listed diagnoses of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance use disorder, and other mental disorders in relation to inpatients with diagnoses of nonmental disorders and the general population. This national retrospective longitudinal cohort included inpatients aged 18 to 64 years in the Medicaid program who were discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of a mental disorder (depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance use disorder, and other mental disorder) and a 10% random sample of inpatients with diagnoses of nonmental disorders. The cohort included 770 643 adults in the mental disorder cohort, 1 090 551 adults in the nonmental disorder cohort, and 370 deaths from suicide from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2007. Data were analyzed from March 5, 2015, to June 6, 2016. Suicide rates per 100 000 person-years were determined for each study group during the 90 days after hospital discharge and the demographically matched US general population. Adjusted hazard ratios (ARHs) of short-term suicide after hospital discharge were also estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Information on suicide as a cause of death was obtained from the National Death Index. In the overall population of 1 861 194 adults (27% men; 73% women; mean [SD] age, 35.4 [13.1] years), suicide rates for the cohorts with depressive disorder (235.1 per 100 000 person-years), bipolar disorder (216.0 per 100 000 person-years), schizophrenia (168.3 per 100 000 person-years), substance use disorder (116.5 per 100 000 person-years), and other mental disorders (160.4 per 100 000

  17. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  18. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short-term and medium-term rental... and Eligible Activities § 576.106 Short-term and medium-term rental assistance. (a) General provisions... assistance may be short-term rental assistance, medium-term rental assistance, payment of rental arrears, or...

  19. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Short-term and medium-term rental... and Eligible Activities § 576.106 Short-term and medium-term rental assistance. (a) General provisions... assistance may be short-term rental assistance, medium-term rental assistance, payment of rental arrears, or...

  20. 24 CFR 576.106 - Short-term and medium-term rental assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term and medium-term rental... and Eligible Activities § 576.106 Short-term and medium-term rental assistance. (a) General provisions... assistance may be short-term rental assistance, medium-term rental assistance, payment of rental arrears, or...

  1. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  2. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  3. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  4. Fuzzy system applications for short-term electric load forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kandari, Ahmad Mohammad

    Load forecasting is an important function in economic power generation, allocation between plants (Unit Commitment Scheduling), maintenance scheduling, and for system security applications such as peak shaving by power interchange with interconnected utilities. In this thesis the problem of fuzzy short term load forecasting is formulated and solved. The thesis starts with a discussion of conventional algorithms used in short-term load forecasting. These algorithms are based on least error squares and least absolute value. The theory behind each algorithm is explained. Three different models are developed and tested in the first part of the thesis. The first model (A) is a regression model that takes into account the weather parameters in summer and winter seasons. The second model (B) is a harmonics based model, which does not account for weather parameters, but considers the parameters as a function of time. Model (B) can be used where variations in weather parameters are not available. Finally, model (C) is created as a hybrid combination of models A and B. The parameters of the three models are estimated using the two static estimation algorithms and are used later to predict the load for twenty-four hours ahead. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are drawn for these models. In the second part of the thesis new fuzzy models are developed for crisp load power with fuzzy load parameters and for fuzzy load power with fuzzy load parameters. Three fuzzy models (A), (B) and (C) are developed. The fuzzy load model (A) is a fuzzy linear regression model for summer and winter seasons. Model (B) is a harmonic fuzzy model, which does not account for weather parameters. Finally fuzzy load model (C) is a hybrid combination of fuzzy load models (A) and (B). Estimating the fuzzy parameters for the three models turns out to be one of linear optimization. The fuzzy parameters are obtained for the three models. These parameters are used to predict the load as a

  5. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  6. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  7. Local short-term variability in solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerald M.; Monahan, Adam H.; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing spatiotemporal irradiance variability is important for the successful grid integration of increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Using 1 Hz data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), we analyze field variability of clear-sky index k* (i.e., irradiance normalized to clear-sky conditions) and sub-minute k* increments (i.e., changes over specified intervals of time) for distances between tens of meters and about 10 km. By means of a simple classification scheme based on k* statistics, we identify overcast, clear, and mixed sky conditions, and demonstrate that the last of these is the most potentially problematic in terms of short-term PV power fluctuations. Under mixed conditions, the probability of relatively strong k* increments of ±0.5 is approximately twice as high compared to increment statistics computed without conditioning by sky type. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation structures of k* increment fields differ considerably between sky types. While the profiles for overcast and clear skies mostly resemble the predictions of a simple model published by , this is not the case for mixed conditions. As a proxy for the smoothing effects of distributed PV, we finally show that spatial averaging mitigates variability in k* less effectively than variability in k* increments, for a spatial sensor density of 2 km-2.

  8. Slave systems in verbal short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks. PMID:24347786

  9. Sequential dynamics in visual short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Andrew R. A.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is thought to help bridge across changes in visual input, and yet many studies of VSTM employ static displays. Here we investigate how VSTM copes with sequential input. In particular, we characterize the temporal dynamics of several different components of VSTM performance, including: storage probability, precision, variability in precision, guessing, and swapping. We used a variant of the continuous-report VSTM task developed for static displays, quantifying the contribution of each component with statistical likelihood estimation, as a function of serial position and set size. In Experiments 1 and 2, storage probability did not vary by serial position for small set sizes, but showed a small primacy effect and a robust recency effect for larger set sizes; precision did not vary by serial position or set size. In Experiment 3, the recency effect was shown to reflect an increased likelihood of swapping out items from earlier serial positions and swapping in later items, rather than an increased rate of guessing for earlier items. Indeed, a model that incorporated responding to non-targets provided a better fit to these data than alternative models that did not allow for swapping or that tried to account for variable precision. These findings suggest that VSTM is updated in a first-in-first-out manner, and they bring VSTM research into closer alignment with classical working memory research that focuses on sequential behavior and interference effects. PMID:25228092

  10. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

  11. Short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, A-L; Sibai, A; Mahfoud, L; Oubari, D; Ashkar, J; Fuleihan, N

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the short term effect of hubble-bubble smoking on voice. Prospective study. Eighteen non-dysphonic subjects (seven men and 11 women) with a history of hubble-bubble smoking and no history of cigarette smoking underwent acoustic analysis and laryngeal video-stroboscopic examination before and 30 minutes after hubble-bubble smoking. On laryngeal video-stroboscopy, none of the subjects had vocal fold erythema either before or after smoking. Five patients had mild vocal fold oedema both before and after smoking. After smoking, there was a slight increase in the number of subjects with thick mucus between the vocal folds (six, vs four before smoking) and with vocal fold vessel dilation (two, vs one before smoking). Acoustic analysis indicated a drop in habitual pitch, fundamental frequency and voice turbulence index after smoking, and an increase in noise-to-harmonics ratio. Even 30 minutes of hubble-bubble smoking can cause a drop in vocal pitch and an increase in laryngeal secretions and vocal fold vasodilation.

  12. Fatigue and optimal conditions for short-term work capacity.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Brian R; Svedahl, Krista; Kim, Minhan

    2004-08-01

    There is an optimal load and corresponding velocity at which peak power output occurs. It is reasonable to expect that these conditions will change as a result of fatigue during 30 s of all-out cycling. This study evaluated optimal velocity after 30 s of maximal isokinetic cycle ergometer exercise and tested the hypothesis that progressive adjustment of velocity (optimized) during 30 s of all-out cycling would permit greater short-term work capacity (STWC). Non-fatigued optimal cadence [NF(OC), 109.6 (2.5) rpm] was determined for ten males on an SRM ergometer using regression analysis of the torque-angular velocity relation during a 7-s maximal acceleration. Fatigued optimal cadence [73.4 (2.4) rpm] was determined in the same way, immediately after a 30-s isokinetic test at NF(OC). A subsequent trial with cadence decreasing in steps from NF(OC) to a conservative estimate of fatigued optimal cadence [83.9 (2.8) rpm] was completed to see if more work could be done with a more optimal cadence during the test. STWC was not different ( P=0.50) between the constant [23,681 (764) J] and optimized [23,679 (708) J] conditions. Another more radical progressive change in cadence with four subjects yielded the same result (no increase in STWC). Extraneous factors apparently contribute more to variability in STWC than differences between constant and adjusted optimization of conditions.

  13. Short-Term Dynamical Interactions Among Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Chambers, John E.; DiVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We show that short-term perturbations among massive planets in multiple planet systems can result in radial velocity variations of the central star which differ substantially from velocity variations derived assuming the planets are executing independent Keplerian motions. We discuss two alternate fitting methods which can lead to an improved dynamical description of multiple planet systems. In the first method, the osculating orbital elements are determined via a Levenberg-Marquardt minimization scheme driving an N-body integrator. The second method is an improved analytic model in which orbital elements such as the periods and longitudes of periastron are allowed to vary according to a simple model for resonant interactions between the planets. Both of these methods can potentially determine the true masses for the planets by eliminating the sin(i) degeneracy inherent in fits that assume independent Keplerian motions. As more radial velocity data is accumulated from stars such as GJ876, these methods should allow for unambiguous determination of the planetary masses and relative inclinations.

  14. Short term effects of airborne pollen concentrations on asthma epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, A; Galan, I; Banegas, J; Aranguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Methods: This study, based on time series analysis adjusting for meteorological factors and air pollution variables, assessed the short term effects of different types of allergenic pollen on asthma hospital emergencies in the metropolitan area of Madrid (Spain) for the period 1995–8. Results: Statistically significant associations were found for Poaceae pollen (lag of 3 days) and Plantago pollen (lag of 2 days), representing an increase in the range between the 99th and 95th percentiles of 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2 to 32.8) and 15.9% (95% CI 6.5 to 26.2) for Poaceae and Plantago, respectively. A positive association was also observed for Urticaceae (lag of 1 day) with an 8.4% increase (95% CI 2.8 to 14.4). Conclusions: There is an association between pollen levels and asthma related emergencies, independent of the effect of air pollutants. The marked relationship observed for Poaceae and Plantago pollens suggests their implication in the epidemic distribution of asthma during the period coinciding with their abrupt release into the environment. PMID:12885991

  15. Tactile short-term memory in sensory-deprived individuals.

    PubMed

    Papagno, Costanza; Minniti, Giovanna; Mattavelli, Giulia C; Mantovan, Lara; Cecchetto, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on practice or are biologically determined, we investigated 13 deafblind participants, 16 deaf participants, 15 blind participants, and 13 matched normally sighted and hearing controls on a tactile short-term memory task, using checkerboard matrices of increasing length in which half of the squares were made up of a rough texture and half of a smooth one. Time of execution of a fixed matrix, number of correctly reproduced matrices, largest matrix correctly reproduced and tactile span were recorded. The three groups of sensory-deprived individuals did not differ in any measure, while blind and deaf participants outscored controls in all parameters except time of execution; the difference approached significance for deafblind people compared to controls only in one measure, namely correctly reproduced matrices. In blind and deafblind participants, performance negatively correlated with age of Braille acquisition, the older being the subject when acquiring Braille, the lower the performance, suggesting that practice plays a role. However, the fact that deaf participants, who did not share tactile experience, performed similarly to blind participants and significantly better than controls highlights that practice cannot be the only contribution to better tactile memory.

  16. Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Claudia T.; Wood, Malcolm R.; Kiosses, William B.

    2010-01-01

    Disruption of autophagy—a key homeostatic process in which cytosolic components are degraded and recycled through lysosomes—can cause neurodegeneration in tissue culture and in vivo. Upregulation of this pathway may be neuroprotective, and much effort is being invested in developing drugs that cross the blood brain barrier and increase neuronal autophagy. One well-recognized way of inducing autophagy is by food restriction, which upregulates autophagy in many organs including the liver; but current dogma holds that the brain escapes this effect, perhaps because it is a metabolically privileged site. Here, we have re-evaluated this tenet using a novel approach that allows us to detect, enumerate and characterize autophagosomes in vivo. We first validate the approach by showing that it allows the identification and characterization of autophagosomes in the livers of food-restricted mice. We use the method to identify constitutive autophagosomes in cortical neurons and Purkinje cells, and we show that short-term fasting leads to a dramatic upregulation in neuronal autophagy. The increased neuronal autophagy is revealed by changes in autophagosome abundance and characteristics, and by diminished neuronal mTOR activity in vivo, demonstrated by a reduction in levels of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein in Purkinje cells. The increased abundance of autophagosomes in Purkinje cells was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Our data lead us to speculate that sporadic fasting might represent a simple, safe and inexpensive means to promote this potentially therapeutic neuronal response. PMID:20534972

  17. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Short-term stabilization of grape marc through earthworms.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lazcano, Cristina; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-03-15

    The winery industry generates vast amounts of organic waste during the various stages of wine production. Among the possible methodological alternatives available for its treatment, vermicomposting is one of the best-known processes for the biological stabilization of solid organic wastes by transforming them into safer and more stabilized materials suitable for application to soil. In this study we carried out a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the active phase of vermicomposting for the stabilization of grape marc, an enriched lignocellulosic by-product obtained after the grape crushing and pressing stages in wine production. For this we analysed the chemical, biochemical and microbiological properties of the product resulting from this phase, in comparison with those in a control treatment. Earthworm activity reduced the abundance of both bacterial and fungal PLFA biomarkers. Decreases in microbial activity and in protease and cellulase activities were also attributed to the presence of earthworms. The differences in microbial communities were accompanied by a reduction in the labile C pool and the cellulose content. These results indicate that earthworms played a key role in the stabilization of the grape marc in the short-term, via its effects on organic matter decomposition and microbial biomass and activity.

  19. Field comparison of commercially available short-term radon detectors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kainan; Majdan, Marek; Field, Daniel W; Field, R William

    2006-09-01

    We performed a comparison of commercially available short-term radon detectors in order to determine the accuracy and precision of the detectors under actual field conditions. We exposed fifteen radon detectors, under field conditions, from each of six companies to a reference radon concentration. Five of the six companies tested did not pass the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's previously established accuracy guideline (all individual relative errors

  20. Multisensory integration in short-term memory: Musicians do rock.

    PubMed

    Aizenman, Avigael M; Gold, Jason M; Sekuler, Robert

    2017-04-29

    Demonstrated interactions between seeing and hearing led us to assess the link between music training and short-term memory for auditory, visual and audiovisual sequences of rapidly presented, quasi-random components. Visual sequences' components varied in luminance; auditory sequences' components varied in frequency. Concurrent components in audiovisual sequences were either congruent (the frequency of an auditory item increased monotonically with the luminance of the visual item it accompanied), or incongruent (an item's frequency was uncorrelated with luminance of the item it accompanied). Subjects judged whether the last four items in a sequence replicated its first four items. With audiovisual sequences, subjects were instructed to ignore the sequence's auditory components, basing their judgments solely on the visual input. Subjects with prior instrumental training significantly outperformed their untrained counterparts, with both auditory and visual sequences, and with sequences of correlated auditory and visual items. Reverse correlation showed that the presence of a correlated, concurrent auditory stream altered subjects' reliance on particular visual items in a sequence. Moreover, congruence between auditory and visual items produced performance above what would be predicted from simple summation of information from the two modalities, a result that might reflect a contribution from special-purpose, multimodal neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential short-term memorisation for vocal and instrumental rhythms.

    PubMed

    Klyn, Niall A M; Will, Udo; Cheong, Yong-Jeon; Allen, Erin T

    2016-07-01

    This study explores differential processing of vocal and instrumental rhythms in short-term memory with three decision (same/different judgments) and one reproduction experiment. In the first experiment, memory performance declined for delayed versus immediate recall, with accuracy for the two rhythms being affected differently: Musicians performed better than non-musicians on clapstick but not on vocal rhythms, and musicians were better on vocal rhythms in the same than in the different condition. Results for the second experiment showed that concurrent sub-vocal articulation and finger-tapping differentially affected the two rhythms and same/different decisions, but produced no evidence for articulatory loop involvement in delayed decision tasks. In a third experiment, which tested rhythm reproduction, concurrent sub-vocal articulation decreased memory performance, with a stronger deleterious effect on the reproduction of vocal than of clapstick rhythms. This suggests that the articulatory loop may only be involved in delayed reproduction not in decision tasks. The fourth experiment tested whether differences between filled and empty rhythms (continuous vs. discontinuous sounds) can explain the different memorisation of vocal and clapstick rhythms. Though significant differences were found for empty and filled instrumental rhythms, the differences between vocal and clapstick can only be explained by considering additional voice specific features.

  2. Thermodynamics of short-term cell adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, E A

    1988-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory of short-term (less than 2 hr) in vitro cell adhesion has been developed which allows calculation of reversible work of adhesion and estimation of a term proportional to cell-substrate contact area. The theory provides a means of determining a parameter related to membrane wetting tension for microscopic cells that does not require special manipulations which might desiccate or denature delicate cell membranes. Semiquantitative agreement between predicted and experimentally-measured cell adhesion obtained for three different cell types (MDCK, RBL-1, and HCT-15) in two different liquid phase compositions of surfactants (Tween-80 and fetal bovine serum) supports concepts and approximations utilized in development of theory. Cell-substrate contact areas were largest for wettable surfaces treated with ionizing corona or plasma discharges and smallest for hydrophobic materials for each cell type studied. Contact area for the continuous dog-kidney cell line MDCK was larger than that of either the leukemic blood cell RBL-1 or the anaplastic human colon cell HCT-15. PMID:3390519

  3. Optimize Short Term load Forcasting Anomalous Based Feed Forward Backpropagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyadi, Y.; Abdullah, A. G.; Rohmah, K. A.

    2017-03-01

    This paper contains the Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) using artificial neural network especially feed forward back propagation algorithm which is particularly optimized in order to getting a reduced error value result. Electrical load forecasting target is a holiday that hasn’t identical pattern and different from weekday’s pattern, in other words the pattern of holiday load is an anomalous. Under these conditions, the level of forecasting accuracy will be decrease. Hence we need a method that capable to reducing error value in anomalous load forecasting. Learning process of algorithm is supervised or controlled, then some parameters are arranged before performing computation process. Momentum constant a value is set at 0.8 which serve as a reference because it has the greatest converge tendency. Learning rate selection is made up to 2 decimal digits. In addition, hidden layer and input component are tested in several variation of number also. The test result leads to the conclusion that the number of hidden layer impact on the forecasting accuracy and test duration determined by the number of iterations when performing input data until it reaches the maximum of a parameter value.

  4. Role of short-term memory in loudness comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Werner, Birgit

    2003-04-01

    In an earlier study of the auditory discrimination of time-varying noise bursts [Ellermeier and Schrödl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2596 (2000)], listeners were found to place greater weight on the beginning and end of the sounds than on the middle portion. To investigate whether this outcome is due to primacy and recency effects in short-term memory which tend to be sensitive to manipulations of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), the ISI separating the two noise bursts in a 2IFC task was varied systematically. Six participants performed loudness comparisons on 1-s samples of white noise randomly changing in level every 100 ms. In different blocks of trials, the two noise bursts to be compared were either separated by a 500-ms or a 2-s ISI. COSS analysis [Berg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1743-1746 (1989)] of the overall loudness judgments revealed elevated weights for the beginning and end of the noises, as in the earlier study. These weighting patterns were largely unaffected by the manipulation of ISI, suggesting that the temporal weights found characterize loudness integration in general, and are not just due to idiosyncrasies of the timing used in the 2IFC procedure.

  5. Short-term heart rate dynamics of women during labor.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J J; Peña, M A; Echeverría, J C; García, M T; Ortiz, M R; Vargas, C; González-Camarena, R

    2011-01-01

    We studied 10 minutes segments of heartbeat interval fluctuations from 18 young women in labor with normal outcome of pregnancy. Data of each studied case were classified into two distinct groups. One group involving segments where the uterine activity was observable (three or more contractions in ten minutes), and the other group of reference having segments with fewer uterine activity or not presenting contractions at all. For comparison, we also included segments collected during the last trimester of gestation prior to labor from a third group of women. Corresponding RR interval series were analyzed to estimate RR(mean), RMSSD, α(1), α(1(MAG)) and α(1(SIGN)) parameters. No significant differences among groups were identified in RMSSD, α(1) and α(1(MAG)) Nevertheless, α(1(SIGN)) did present significant differences in comparison with the last trimester results (p<0.007), revealing a subtle change in the temporal organization of maternal RR series during labor. Results of these parameters then suggest that during labor, despite preserving a concomitant non-linear influence, the maternal short-term autonomic cardiac regulation behaves with less antagonism.

  6. Short-term Aerosol Trends: Reality or Myth?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Zubko, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The main questions addressed in this slide presentation involve short-term trends of MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over 6 years: (1) Why are the trends different in different regions? (2) How are these trends so high? (3) Why are they "coherent" in many areas? (4) Are these changes in aerosol concentrations real, i.e., are they monotonic changes in emissions? Several views of the Spatial Distribution of AOT from Terra are shown. In conclusion there are several trends: (1) There is a broad spatial inhomogenueity in AOT trends over 6 years of MODIS Terra and Aqua (2) Some of the areas demonstrate clear positive trends related to increase of emission (e.g., Eastern China) (3) Strong trends in some other areas are superficial and might be attributed, in part, to: (3a) Least squares linear trend sensitivity to outliers (need to use more robust linear fitting method) (3b) Spatial and temporal shifts or trends in meteorological conditions, especially in wind patterns responsible for aerosol transport (6) Aerosol trends should be studied together with changes in meteorology patterns as they might closely linked together

  7. Dimension-based attention in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Barrett, Doug J K

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how dimension-based attention influences visual short-term memory (VSTM). This was done through examining the effects of cueing a feature dimension in two perceptual comparison tasks (change detection and sameness detection). In both tasks, a memory array and a test array consisting of a number of colored shapes were presented successively, interleaved by a blank interstimulus interval (ISI). In Experiment 1 (change detection), the critical event was a feature change in one item across the memory and test arrays. In Experiment 2 (sameness detection), the critical event was the absence of a feature change in one item across the two arrays. Auditory cues indicated the feature dimension (color or shape) of the critical event with 80 % validity; the cues were presented either prior to the memory array, during the ISI, or simultaneously with the test array. In Experiment 1, the cue validity influenced sensitivity only when the cue was given at the earliest position; in Experiment 2, the cue validity influenced sensitivity at all three cue positions. We attributed the greater effectiveness of top-down guidance by cues in the sameness detection task to the more active nature of the comparison process required to detect sameness events (Hyun, Woodman, Vogel, Hollingworth, & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35; 1140-1160, 2009).

  8. Short-term visual deprivation improves the perception of harmonicity.

    PubMed

    Landry, Simon P; Shiller, Douglas M; Champoux, François

    2013-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the perception of auditory stimuli involves occipital cortical regions traditionally associated with visual processing, even in the absence of any overt visual component to the task. Analogous behavioral evidence of an interaction between visual and auditory processing during purely auditory tasks comes from studies of short-term visual deprivation on the perception of auditory cues, however, the results of such studies remain equivocal. Although some data have suggested that visual deprivation significantly increases loudness and pitch discrimination and reduces spatial localization inaccuracies, it is still unclear whether such improvement extends to the perception of spectrally complex cues, such as those involved in speech and music perception. We present data demonstrating that a 90-min period of visual deprivation causes a transient improvement in the perception of harmonicity: a spectrally complex cue that plays a key role in music and speech perception. The results provide clear behavioral evidence supporting a role for the visual system in the processing of complex auditory stimuli, even in the absence of any visual component to the task.

  9. Short-term temporal stability in observed retail food characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zenk, Shannon N; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Curry, Susan J; Berbaum, Michael; Schneider, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Use of direct observation to characterize neighborhood retail food environments is increasing, but to date most studies have relied on a single observation. If food availability, prices, and quality vary over short time periods, repeated measures may be needed to portray these food characteristics. This study evaluated short-term (2-week), within-season temporal stability in retail food availability, prices, and quality. In-person observations of retail food stores at 2 time points, 2 weeks apart. Southwest Chicago, IL. 157 food stores. Availability and prices of food items selected from the following food groups: fruit, vegetables, grains, meats and beans, and dairy, as well as fresh produce quality. Temporal stability was tested for availability using a McNemar test and for price and quality using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Measures of food availability and prices as well as fresh produce quality at stores were generally stable at the 2 time points. This study suggests that a single observation may be sufficient to accurately characterize within-season food availability, food prices, and fresh produce quality.

  10. Reducing variability in short term orbital lifetime prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Braun, Vitali; Gelhaus, Johannes; Möckel, Marek; Wiedemann, Carsten; Vörsmann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Within the last year three major re-entries occurred. The satellites UARS, ROSAT and Phobos-Grunt entered Earth's atmosphere with fragments reaching the surface. Due to a number of uncertainties in propagating an object's trajectory the exact place and time of a satellite's re-entry is hard to determine. Major influences when predicting the re-entry time are the changing precision of the available orbital data, the satellite's ballistic coefficient, the activity of the sun which influences the Earth's atmosphere and the underlying quality of the atmospheric model. In this paper a method is presented which can reduce the variability in short-term orbital lifetime prediction induced by fluctuating orbital data accuracies. A re-entry campaign is used as a reference for this purpose. For a window of a few weeks before the re-entry the position data of a synthetic object is disturbed considering different degrees of orbital data errors. As a result different predictions will exist for the generated position data of a given day. Using a regression algorithm on the available data an average position is obtained, which is then used for the orbital lifetime prediction. The effect of this measure is a more consistent prediction of the orbital lifetime. The paper concludes with the comparison of the generated re-entry windows in various test cases for the original and the averaged data.

  11. Short-term memory stores organized by information domain.

    PubMed

    Noyce, Abigail L; Cestero, Nishmar; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2016-04-01

    Vision and audition have complementary affinities, with vision excelling in spatial resolution and audition excelling in temporal resolution. Here, we investigated the relationships among the visual and auditory modalities and spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM) using change detection tasks. We created short sequences of visual or auditory items, such that each item within a sequence arose at a unique spatial location at a unique time. On each trial, two successive sequences were presented; subjects attended to either space (the sequence of locations) or time (the sequence of inter item intervals) and reported whether the patterns of locations or intervals were identical. Each subject completed blocks of unimodal trials (both sequences presented in the same modality) and crossmodal trials (Sequence 1 visual, Sequence 2 auditory, or vice versa) for both spatial and temporal tasks. We found a strong interaction between modality and task: Spatial performance was best on unimodal visual trials, whereas temporal performance was best on unimodal auditory trials. The order of modalities on crossmodal trials also mattered, suggesting that perceptual fidelity at encoding is critical to STM. Critically, no cost was attributable to crossmodal comparison: In both tasks, performance on crossmodal trials was as good as or better than on the weaker unimodal trials. STM representations of space and time can guide change detection in either the visual or the auditory modality, suggesting that the temporal or spatial organization of STM may supersede sensory-specific organization.

  12. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  13. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  14. Airway response to ultra short-term exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, J.M.; Delemos, R.A.; McFadden, E.R. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    To determine whether acute short-term exposure to oxidant pollutants can cause changes in respiratory mechanics, we gave 0.5 ppm ozone for 5 min to 7 baboons. We measured pulmonary resistance (RL) and obtained dose response curves to methacholine before and after the exposures. This brief insult increased resistance (control RL = 1.53 +/- 0.21 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s; post-ozone RL = 3.53 +/- 0.54 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s). On a second occasion, 6 of these animals were restudied before and after the administration of cromolyn sodium. Although this drug had no effect on the measurements of mechanics made in the control period, it significantly reduced the ozone-induced changes in mechanics. The increase in RL was 52% of that produced in the first study. The results demonstrated that the ozone injury with its acute and subacute airway sequelae occurs quite rapidly and after very brief exposure. The time course of the change in mechanics and the effects of cromolyn suggest the hypothesis that surface epithelial cells are disrupted, causing subsequent release of bronchoconstricting agents.

  15. Short-term survival of hyperammonemic neonates treated with dialysis.

    PubMed

    Picca, Stefano; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Bartuli, Andrea; De Palo, Tommaso; Papadia, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Materassi, Marco; Donati, Maria Alice; Verrina, Enrico; Schiaffino, Maria Cristina; Pecoraro, Carmine; Iaccarino, Emilia; Vidal, Enrico; Burlina, Alberto; Emma, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    In severe neonatal hyperammonemia, extracorporeal dialysis (ECD) provides higher ammonium clearance than peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, there are limited outcome data in relation to dialysis modality. Data from infants with hyperammonemia secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) treated with dialysis were collected in six Italian centers and retrospectively analyzed. Forty-five neonates born between 1990 and 2011 were enrolled in the study. Of these, 23 were treated with PD and 22 with ECD (14 with continuous venovenous hemodialysis [CVVHD], 5 with continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis [CAVHD], 3 with hemodialysis [HD]). Patients treated with PD experienced a shorter duration of predialysis coma, while those treated with HD had a shorter ammonium decay time compared with all the other patients (p < 0.05). No difference in ammonium reduction rate was observed between patients treated with PD, CAVHD or CVVHD. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency (CPS) was significantly associated with increased risk of death (OR: 9.37 [1.52-57.6], p = 0.016). Predialysis ammonium levels were significantly associated with a composite end-point of death or neurological sequelae (adjusted OR: 1.13 [1.02-1.27] per 100 μmol/l, p = 0.026). No association was found between outcome and dialysis modality. In this study, a delayed ECD treatment was not superior to PD in improving the short-term outcome of neonates with hyperammonemia secondary to IEM.

  16. Short-Term Musical Training and Pyschoacoustical Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Chandni; Mohamed, Hijas; Kumar, Ajith U.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of short-term perceptual training of music on some psycho-acoustical measures. The study was carried out in three phases. In first the phase pre-training evaluation was done which included raga identification and various psycho acoustical tests. Psycho-acoustical tests included measurement of differential limen of frequency and intensity, duration discrimination, gap detection, modulation detection, backward masking and duration pattern test. In the second phase, auditory perceptual training was given for raga identification and in the third phase post- training evaluation was done though same tests as mentioned in pre-training phase. A total of 10 normal hearing adults (7 males, 3 females) in the age range of 18-25 years participated in the study. The results revealed that all the subjects performed significantly better on raga identification after training. However; there was no significant difference in psycho-acoustical measures in pre and post-training. PMID:26557354

  17. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  18. Short-term ensemble radar rainfall forecasts for hydrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codo de Oliveira, M.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is a very common natural disaster around the world, putting local population and economy at risk. Forecasting floods several hours ahead and issuing warnings are of main importance to permit proper response in emergency situations. However, it is important to know the uncertainties related to the rainfall forecasting in order to produce more reliable forecasts. Nowcasting models (short-term rainfall forecasts) are able to produce high spatial and temporal resolution predictions that are useful in hydrological applications. Nonetheless, they are subject to uncertainties mainly due to the nowcasting model used, errors in radar rainfall estimation, temporal development of the velocity field and to the fact that precipitation processes such as growth and decay are not taken into account. In this study an ensemble generation scheme using rain gauge data as a reference to estimate radars errors is used to produce forecasts with up to 3h lead-time. The ensembles try to assess in a realistic way the residual uncertainties that remain even after correction algorithms are applied in the radar data. The ensembles produced are compered to a stochastic ensemble generator. Furthermore, the rainfall forecast output was used as an input in a hydrodynamic sewer network model and also in hydrological model for catchments of different sizes in north England. A comparative analysis was carried of how was carried out to assess how the radar uncertainties propagate into these models. The first named author is grateful to CAPES - Ciencia sem Fronteiras for funding this PhD research.

  19. Visual short term memory related brain activity predicts mathematical abilities.

    PubMed

    Boulet-Craig, Aubrée; Robaey, Philippe; Lacourse, Karine; Jerbi, Karim; Oswald, Victor; Krajinovic, Maja; Laverdière, Caroline; Sinnett, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Lippé, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Previous research suggests visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and mathematical abilities are significantly related. Moreover, both processes activate similar brain regions within the parietal cortex, in particular, the intraparietal sulcus; however, it is still unclear whether the neuronal underpinnings of VSTM directly correlate with mathematical operation and reasoning abilities. The main objective was to investigate the association between parieto-occipital brain activity during the retention period of a VSTM task and performance in mathematics. The authors measured mathematical abilities and VSTM capacity as well as brain activity during memory maintenance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 19 healthy adult participants. Event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) were computed on the MEG data. Linear regressions were used to estimate the strength of the relation between VSTM related brain activity and mathematical abilities. The amplitude of parieto-occipital cerebral activity during the retention of visual information was related to performance in 2 standardized mathematical tasks: mathematical reasoning and calculation fluency. The findings show that brain activity during retention period of a VSTM task is associated with mathematical abilities. Contributions of VSTM processes to numerical cognition should be considered in cognitive interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been proposed that the face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM). For example, introducing a brief delay between the presentation of target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study sought to determine whether deficits of STFM contribute to impaired face recognition seen in Developmental Prosopagnosia. To determine whether developmental prosopagnosics exhibit impaired STFM, the present study used a six-alternative-forced-choice match-to-sample procedure. Memory demand was manipulated by employing a short or long delay between the presentation of the target face, and the six test faces. Crucially, the perceptual demands were identical in both conditions, thereby allowing the independent contribution of STFM to be assessed. Prosopagnosics showed clear evidence of a category-specific impairment for face-matching in both conditions; they were both slower and less accurate than matched controls. Crucially, however, the prosopagnosics showed no evidence of disproportionate face recognition impairment in the long-interval condition. While individuals with DP may have problems with the perceptual encoding of faces, it appears that their representations are stable over short durations. These results suggest that the face recognition difficulties seen in DP and autism may be qualitatively different, attributable to deficits of perceptual encoding and perceptual maintenance, respectively.

  1. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  2. Ethical review of global short-term medical volunteerism.

    PubMed

    DeCamp, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Global short-term medical volunteerism is growing, and properly conducted, is a tool in the fight for greater global health equity. It is intrinsically "ethical" (i.e., it involves ethics at every step) and depends upon ethical conduct for its success. At present, ethical guidelines remain in their infancy, which presents a unique opportunity. This paper presents a set of basic ethical principles, building on prior work in this area and previously developed guidelines for international clinical research. The content of these principles, and the benchmarks used to evaluate them, remain intentionally vague and can only be filled by collaboration with those on-the-ground in local communities where this work occurs. Ethical review must additionally take into consideration the different obligations arising from the type of institution, type of intervention, and type of relationship involved. This paper argues that frequent and formalized ethical review, conducted from the beginning with the local community (where this community helps define the terms of debate), remains the most important ethical safeguard for this work.

  3. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age. PMID:27403390

  4. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  5. Diverse thalamocortical short-term plasticity elicited by ongoing stimulation.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Quesada, Marta; Martini, Francisco J; Ferrati, Giovanni; Bureau, Ingrid; Maravall, Miguel

    2014-01-08

    To produce sensation, neuronal pathways must transmit and process stimulus patterns that unfold over time. This behavior is determined by short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), which shapes the temporal filtering properties of synapses in a pathway. We explored STP variability across thalamocortical (TC) synapses, measuring whole-cell responses to stimulation of TC fibers in layer 4 neurons of mouse barrel cortex in vitro. As expected, STP during stimulation from rest was dominated by depression. However, STP during ongoing stimulation was strikingly diverse across TC connections. Diversity took the form of variable tuning to the latest interstimulus interval: some connections responded weakly to shorter intervals, while other connections were facilitated. These behaviors did not cluster into categories but formed a continuum. Diverse tuning did not require disynaptic inhibition. Hence, monosynaptic excitatory lemniscal TC connections onto layer 4 do not behave uniformly during ongoing stimulation. Each connection responds differentially to particular stimulation intervals, enriching the ability of the pathway to convey complex, temporally fluctuating information.

  6. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  7. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  8. Nutritional status in short-term overtraining boxers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrova, Albena; Petrov, Lubomir; Zaekov, Nikolay; Bozhkov, Borislav; Zsheliaskova-Koynova, Zshivka

    2017-03-01

    The diet is essential to the recovery process in athletes, especially those undergoing intensive training. The continuous imbalance between loading and recovery leads to development of overtraining syndrome. The purpose of this study was to establish the changes in the nutritional status of short-term overtrained athletes. Twelve boxers from the team of National Spoils Academy Sofia, Bulgaria during their preparation for the National Championship 2016 were studied. The measurements were conducted three times.in the beginning of preparation (T1), 22 days later (2) and 10 days after (32 days after first measurement), in the beginning of the recovery period, one week prior the competition (T3).The measurements included basic anthropometric data, overtraining questionnaire RESTO-Sport and nutrition questionnaire, plasma concentration of testosterone and cortisol.On the data of dietary survey the percent proportion and the amount of daily consumed proteins, fats and carbohydrates were defined and the energy intake of the tested athletes was calculated. According to the RESTO-Sport a significant decrease in the ratio stress/recovery was observed in the period with the heaviest training load T2, and an increase was estimated in the pre­competition recovery period T3. It was found a typical for the overtraining syndrome decrease in the concentration of testosterone and the ratio of testosterone/cortisol in T3. In some respondents a reduction in carbohydrates and proteins intake was observed in T2 and especially in T3, which correlates with the hormonal changes. In this work the diet changes was discussed as a possible consequence and/or a cause of the overtraining syndrome.

  9. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; Rampersad, K; Reyes, D; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any immediate impact on blood pressure levels. The flavonoid content of three 100% cocoa powder products and four cocoa-based formulas was measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. The brand with the highest flavonoid content, 372 gallic acid equivalents, was selected to evaluate the short-term impact of cocoa consumption on blood pressure. Thirty-six participants comprising nineteen hypertensives and seventeen persons with normal blood pressure had their blood pressure recorded on three separate days using ambulatory blood pressure monitors; the blood pressure was recorded every half hour for eight hours. On the first day, the participants received no intervention but on the second and third days, they received either the intervention (5 g cocoa in 125 ml water) or a placebo, in any order. Statistical analysis conducted using t-test statistic and a 95% confidence interval revealed that whether participants regularly took antihypertensive medication or not, a single intervention of cocoa induced decreases in both the diastolic and systolic BPs that were significant (p = 0.0001). Mean decreases of between 8 mmHg and 18 mmHg were observed. PMID:25429467

  10. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  11. Conceptual short term memory in perception and thought.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle - identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material - may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed.

  12. Packed Perturbers: Short-term Interactions Among Uranus’ Inner Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene; French, R. G.; Showalter, M. R.

    2010-05-01

    Packed within 2-3 radii of Urarnus are thirteen tiny moons. Because of their close spacing, these satellites exert strong mutual perturbations, an unstable configuration in many ways analogous to planetesimals packed in proto-planetary disks. With Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations, Showalter and Lissauer (2006) discovered significant orbital changes since Voyager 2 observed the system (Jacobson 1998), signatures of the instability revealed in long-term numerical integrations by Duncan and Lissauer (1997), which predicted collisions in 4-100 million years. Previously, we reported pairs of moons near first-order mean motion resonances -- Bianca and Cressida, (16:15), Cressida and Desdemona (47:46), Desdemona and Portia (13:12), Perdita and Belinda (44:43), Belinda and Cupid (58:57) -- and results of short timescale integrations demonstrating close coupling of the satellites’ orbital variations (Dawson, French, and Showalter, DDA Meeting #40, #6.04). To further probe the moons’ mutual perturbations and chaotic orbital changes, we integrate subsets of satellites using a range of assumed masses. To assess the variation of the orbital elements and behavior of resonant arguments, we transform integrated state vectors to geometric elements, which account for the oblateness of Uranus - significant for moons so close to Uranus - and avoid erroneous short-term oscillations induced by oblateness in the osculating elements (Renner and Sicardy 2006). We link librations of Cressida and Desdemona to orbital changes in neighboring satellites Bianca and Portia. We also find the system's behavior is very sensitive to assumed masses, allowing us to assess the consistency of masses estimated from photometrically volumes (Karkoschka 2001), uncertain by a factor of 2-3, with observed orbital changes. In future work, we will combine our analysis with astrometry from a high quality set of observations to better constrain the moons’ masses. See abstract by Showalter et al

  13. Finding Short-Term Variability in Methanol Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Samuel; Barott, W. C.; Catanach, T.

    2012-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) performed 53 observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers between July 2010 and January 2011 in an effort to identify short-timescale variability. With the notable exception of Weisberg et al. (2005), few analyses have been performed analyzing variability in masers on timescales of minutes or less. This work is aimed both at providing additional data (including refined positions) on the catalog of observed sources as well as identifying the prevalence and cause of short-term phenomena. Observations utilized both the ATA correlator (for mapping) and beamformer (for recording voltage time series). A combination of Fast-Fourier Transforms and Continuous Wavelet Transforms are applied to channelized power series waterfalls) in this investigation. Wavelet analysis can be thought of as a generalization of Fourier analysis that allows us to examine non-stationary characteristics of the spectra. The survey included both short (10 minute), long (60 minute), and follow-up observations on candidate targets. Analysis so far has identified three variable sources out of 43 distinct objects that were observed. These objects exhibit significant variation on the order of several minutes, are consistent in follow-up observations, and we have ruled out instrumental variation. Future and ongoing work includes identifying the source of this variation as intrinsic to the source or a property of the ISM. Shorter time-scales will be investigated using a combination of techniques, including total power variation, pulse searching (in an attempt to find pulsars), and phase-shift demodulation techniques. The case for SETI analysis of these data is given, for example, by Cordes (1993), who suggested that extraterrestrial intelligences could use masers to amplify interstellar signals.This project was funded by the National Science Foundation Grant AST0852095. [1] Weisberg J. M. et al. (2005) Science, 309, 5731. [2] Cordes J. M. (1993) Astron. Soc. Pacific Conf. Series

  14. Short-term cholinergic desensitization of rat pancreatic secretory response

    SciTech Connect

    Asselin, J.; Larose, L.; Morisset, J.

    1987-03-01

    Dispersed pancreatic acini were first exposed to carbamylcholine (10/sup -7/-10/sup -4/ M) for 60 min, washed, and reexposed to this same agonist (10/sup -8/-10/sup -3/ M) for 15 min. During this second incubation, the functional secretory capacity of these acini was evaluated by measuring amylase release. Acini preexposed to concentrations of carbamylcholine of 10/sup -6/ M or greater showed shifts to the right in the subsequent carbamylcholine dose-response curves of amylase release. A 3-h recovery period (without carbamylcholine) did not restore the altered carbamylcholine dose-response curve. Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations of 10/sup -7/ M or 2.5 x 10/sup -3/ M instead of 0.5 x 10/sup -3/ M during the 60-min preincubation did not affect the desensitization process. With use of N-(/sup 3/H)methylscopolamine to evaluate muscarinic receptors, the only changes observed after desensitization were a significant decrease in the high-affinity and an equivalent increase in that of the low-affinity receptors. After cholinergic exposure amylase release stimulated by caerulein was only slightly modified, whereas amylase release in response to a phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and to the ionophore A23187 was not altered. These data indicate that short-term desensitization with a cholinergic agent is relatively specific to muscarinic agonists, causes changes in the muscarinic receptor high-and low-affinity concentration but does not alter intracellular steps after calcium mobilization or protein kinase C activation known to be involved in the secretion process.

  15. Short-term load forecasting of power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    In order to ensure the scientific nature of optimization about power system, it is necessary to improve the load forecasting accuracy. Power system load forecasting is based on accurate statistical data and survey data, starting from the history and current situation of electricity consumption, with a scientific method to predict the future development trend of power load and change the law of science. Short-term load forecasting is the basis of power system operation and analysis, which is of great significance to unit combination, economic dispatch and safety check. Therefore, the load forecasting of the power system is explained in detail in this paper. First, we use the data from 2012 to 2014 to establish the partial least squares model to regression analysis the relationship between daily maximum load, daily minimum load, daily average load and each meteorological factor, and select the highest peak by observing the regression coefficient histogram Day maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature and daily average temperature as the meteorological factors to improve the accuracy of load forecasting indicators. Secondly, in the case of uncertain climate impact, we use the time series model to predict the load data for 2015, respectively, the 2009-2014 load data were sorted out, through the previous six years of the data to forecast the data for this time in 2015. The criterion for the accuracy of the prediction is the average of the standard deviations for the prediction results and average load for the previous six years. Finally, considering the climate effect, we use the BP neural network model to predict the data in 2015, and optimize the forecast results on the basis of the time series model.

  16. Intranasal ketorolac: for short-term pain management.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2012-06-01

    Ketorolac is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of NSAIDs, and has been available in several formulations for some time, for the treatment of pain. Intranasal ketorolac has recently become available. Intranasal ketorolac was effective in providing short-term relief from postoperative pain in four well designed, phase II or III trials. In the two phase III trials, a single intranasal dose of ketorolac 31.5 mg, with or without backup analgesia, was associated with significantly higher 6-hour summed post-treatment pain intensity difference scores (primary endpoint) than placebo in adult patients with acute pain following major surgery, including abdominal and orthopaedic surgery. Intranasal ketorolac 31.5 mg up to three or four times daily for ≤5 days also had an opioid-sparing effect in these trials, with significantly less morphine used among ketorolac than among placebo recipients over the first 48 hours of treatment. Moreover, a greater proportion of ketorolac recipients experienced analgesia onset within 1 and 1.5 hours but not 2 hours than placebo recipients, indicating a more rapid onset with intranasal ketorolac. In adult patients with acute pain following major surgery, intranasal ketorolac 31.5 mg three or four times daily for ≤5 days was generally well tolerated. Most adverse events in clinical trials were considered to be of mild severity and transient in nature, with those in the phase III trials generally being characteristic of common events following major abdominal surgery and morphine administration.

  17. Short-term landfill methane emissions dependency on wind.

    PubMed

    Delkash, Madjid; Zhou, Bowen; Han, Byunghyun; Chow, Fotini K; Rella, Chris W; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Short-term (2-10h) variations of whole-landfill methane emissions have been observed in recent field studies using the tracer dilution method for emissions measurement. To investigate the cause of these variations, the tracer dilution method is applied using 1-min emissions measurements at Sandtown Landfill (Delaware, USA) for a 2-h measurement period. An atmospheric dispersion model is developed for this field test site, which is the first application of such modeling to evaluate atmospheric effects on gas plume transport from landfills. The model is used to examine three possible causes of observed temporal emissions variability: temporal variability of surface wind speed affecting whole landfill emissions, spatial variability of emissions due to local wind speed variations, and misaligned tracer gas release and methane emissions locations. At this site, atmospheric modeling indicates that variation in tracer dilution method emissions measurements may be caused by whole-landfill emissions variation with wind speed. Field data collected over the time period of the atmospheric model simulations corroborate this result: methane emissions are correlated with wind speed on the landfill surface with R(2)=0.51 for data 2.5m above ground, or R(2)=0.55 using data 85m above ground, with emissions increasing by up to a factor of 2 for an approximately 30% increase in wind speed. Although the atmospheric modeling and field test are conducted at a single landfill, the results suggest that wind-induced emissions may affect tracer dilution method emissions measurements at other landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  19. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI) predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI), this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL). Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI) with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life. PMID:26246968

  20. European eel sperm diluent for short-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, D S; Pérez, L; Gallego, V; Barrera, R; Jover, M; Asturiano, J F

    2010-06-01

    The sperm of European eel shows a high density and the time of spermatozoa motility is very short after activation with sea water. These characteristics make difficult the sperm handling and its quality assessment. Several diluents were previously described for the Japanese eel obtaining over 3 weeks' conservation times under refrigeration, but they rendered bad results in the European species. In the present study, several diluents were developed taking as basis the P1 medium, and using different dilution ratios (1 : 50, 1 : 100) and two pH (6.5, 8.5). The effect of the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA, 2% w/v) was also evaluated. At 24 h, undiluted samples already showed significant lower motility and viability than sperm samples diluted in the different media. The results for diluents with pH 6.5 and 8.5 were different. Spermatozoa diluted in media at pH 6.5 cannot be activated at 24 h, while samples diluted in the diluents with pH 8.5 and added with BSA did not show significant differences with respect to the fresh sperm motility until 48 h. The viability (percentage of alive cells) did not show differences until 1 week, independent of the dilution ratio. After 1 week, the motility was approximately 30% in the media containing BSA, which presented no differences for head size of the spermatozoa (perimeter and area) until 72 h and 1 week, respectively. In conclusion, the combination of one medium having similar physico-chemical characteristics to the seminal plasma, including pH 8.5, and supplemented with BSA can be used in different dilution ratios for the sperm's short-term storage, preserving its motility capacity.

  1. Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts using Doppler Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerman, Beth

    With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the upwind side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, radial wind velocity measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps, scanning up to 10 kilometers away. This region consisted of complex terrain, with the scans made between mountains. The dataset was utilized for techniques being studied for short-term forecasting of wind power by correlating changes in energy content and of turbulence intensity by tracking spatial variance, in the wind ahead of a wind farm. A ramp event was also captured and its propagation was tracked. Orthogonal horizontal wind vectors were retrieved from the radial velocity using a sector Velocity Azimuth Display method. Streamlines were plotted to determine the potential sites for a correlation of upstream wind speed with wind speed at downstream locations near the wind farm. A "virtual wind turbine" was "placed" in locations along the streamline by using the time-series velocity data at the location as the input to a modeled wind turbine, to determine the extractable energy content at that location. The relationship between this time-dependent energy content upstream and near the wind farm was studied. By correlating the energy content with each upstream location based on a time shift estimated according to advection at the mean wind speed, several fits were evaluated. A prediction of the downstream energy content was produced by shifting the power output in time and applying the best-fit function. This method made predictions of the power near the wind farm several minutes in advance. Predictions were also made up to an hour in advance for a large ramp event. The Magnitude Absolute Error and Standard Deviation are presented for the predictions based on each selected upstream location.

  2. Short-term financial outcomes of pilon fractures.

    PubMed

    Volgas, David; DeVries, J George; Stannard, James P

    2010-01-01

    Fractures of the distal tibia are potentially devastating injuries fraught with many complications and poor outcomes, including financial hardships. The purpose of this study was to examine the financial outcomes in the short term of pilon fractures. Sixty patients who sustained pilon fractures were prospectively assessed on financial criteria and injury characteristics. This included various scores and also introduced a financial data sheet and outcome form. Twenty-five patients met inclusion/exclusion criteria and were available for follow-up. The mean age was 46.3 +/- 12.0 years (19-61 years), with a mean follow-up of 11.8 +/- 4.8 months (6-20 months). Only 7 patients (29.2%) returned to work at latest follow-up. Seven of 19 patients (36.8%) reported selling possessions to meet financial obligations, and 8 of 19 patients (42.1%) used social assistance programs. All 4 white-collar workers returned to work whereas only 3 (14.3%) of 21 blue-collar workers had returned to work at last follow-up (P = .001). Five (62.5%) of 8 patients who had graduated from college returned to work, but only 2 (14.3%) of 14 patients who did not attend college returned to work (P = .01). Because there are no widely used measures of financial status change in the literature, we have introduced some in this article including preinjury financial preparedness and postinjury strategies to fulfill financial obligations. These may be useful in evaluating outcomes and counseling patients. In addition, we have again demonstrated that there is a significantly higher return to work outcome in white collar jobs and higher education. Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Short term prospective study of cognitive functioning in lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Stollery, B T; Broadbent, D E; Banks, H A; Lee, W R

    1991-01-01

    In a short term prospective study 70 male lead workers performed a series of cognitive tasks on three occasions during an eight month period. Concurrently with the cognitive testing, the concentrations of blood lead, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and urinary aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) were measured. Indicators of lead absorption were stable during the study and each subject was allocated to either a low (below 20 micrograms/dl), medium (21-40 micrograms/dl), or high (41-80 micrograms/dl) group on the basis of their average blood lead concentrations. Performance deficits tended to be restricted to the high lead group and, in general, neither practice nor continued exposure during the study altered the magnitude of these deficits. The main deficit was a slowing of sensory motor reaction time, which was seen most clearly when the cognitive demands of the task were low. In the cognitively simple five choice task, blood lead concentration correlated with impaired decision making, response execution, and "lapses in concentration." In the other cognitive tasks the high blood lead group tended also to be slower by a factor of about 1.08 but the dominance of cognitive over sensory motor demands attenuated the exposure-performance correlations. The high lead group also had difficulty in recalling nouns poorly related to the focus of an earlier semantic classification task. This difficulty increased over time and was one of the few findings that correlated with all measures of lead absorption. It is concluded that the primary psychological profile of lead impairment is one of sensory motor slowing coupled with difficulties in remembering incidental information. PMID:1954152

  4. Short-Term Variability on the Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenan, B.; Petrie, B.; Harrison, G.; Oakey, N.; Strain, P.

    2002-12-01

    The traditional view of the production cycle on the continental shelf of Nova Scotia features a spring bloom followed by a period of low production and a less intense fall bloom. The annual cycle of primary productivity thus has a large, low frequency component. However, there is increasing evidence that the production cycle has significant variability on shorter time scales. Physical, chemical and biological variability on the Scotian Shelf is examined on a daily to weekly timescale. This is accomplished through the use of a newly developed mooring platform (SeaHorse) that uses surface wave energy to enable the instrument to climb down the mooring wire and then float upwards while sampling the water column. This provides bi-hourly profiles of temperature, salinity, pressure and chlorophyll at one location over month-long periods. Results from the three-week deployment in October 2000 indicate a subsurface chlorophyll maximum below the pycnocline during the first part of the time series. An event occurred in mid-October during which the temperature, salinity and density iso-surfaces rose approximately 25 m. During this event, a small bloom, with peak chlorophyll concentrations of about 2 mg m-3 and duration of several days, began as nutrients were brought into the upper part of the water column by upwelling-favorable winds. SeaWiFS ocean color satellite images were valuable in providing a spatial context for chlorophyll concentrations, however, the lack of temporal resolution due to poor quality images means that this data set provided limited information for short-term chlorophyll variability. Gradient Richardson Numbers were estimated for 2 m vertical bins using SeaHorse CTD data and nearby ADCP current measurements. A trend of decreasing Ri in the ocean mixed layer with increasing surface wind stress is suggested.

  5. Short-term effects of endotracheal intubation on voice.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Sibai, Abla; Rameh, Charbel; Kanazeh, Ghassan

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the vocal symptoms and acoustic changes perceived in the short period after endotracheal intubation, and to find the association between these changes and the endotracheal tube parameters. A total of 35 subjects were included. They were examined preoperatively, and 2 and 24 hours postoperatively. The vocal symptoms of hoarseness, vocal fatigue, loss of voice, throat clearing, globus pharyngeus, throat pain, and the acoustic variables mainly average fundamental frequency, relative average perturbation, shimmer, noise to harmony ratio, voice turbulence index, habitual pitch, and maximum phonation time (MPT) were assessed as such and in relation to the following endotracheal tube parameters: duration of anesthesia, number of intubation attempts, size of the tube, cuff volume, cuff mean pressure, and the emergence. The association between anesthesia parameters with incidence of vocal complaints and changes in acoustic parameters were examined using logistic and linear regression. Vocal fatigue was associated significantly with the increase in cuff volume and the number of intubation attempts. Throat clearing was associated significantly with the increase in cuff mean pressure. Only the increase in habitual pitch was associated significantly with the increase in cuff volume. The acute short-term effect of endotracheal intubation on voice is significant. The most important endotracheal tube parameters that affect the vocal changes are the cuff mean pressure and volume. The laryngeal contribution to these vocal changes seems to be minimal. All vocal symptoms increased significantly except for globus pharyngeus at 2 hours postoperatively. The acoustic parameters did not change significantly except for a decrease in MPT. At 24 hours postoperatively, all vocal symptoms subsided with no significant difference to baseline value. The habitual pitch increased significantly, and the rest of the parameters remained comparable to baseline

  6. Is Earthquake Prediction Possible from Short-Term Foreshocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Avlonitis, Markos; Di Fiore, Boris; Minadakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Foreshocks preceding mainshocks in the short-term, ranging from minutes to a few months prior the mainshock, have been known from several decades ago. Understanding the generation mechanisms of foreshocks was supported by seismicity observations and statistics, laboratory experiments, theoretical considerations and simulation results. However, important issues remain open. For example, (1) How foreshocks are defined? (2) Why only some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks but others do not? (2) Is the mainshock size dependent on some attributes of the foreshock sequence? (3) Is that possible to discriminate foreshocks from other seismicity styles (e.g. swarms, aftershocks)? To approach possible replies to these issues we reviewed about 400 papers, reports, books and other documents referring to foreshocks as well as to relevant laboratory experiments. We found that different foreshock definitions are used by different authors. We found also that the ratio of mainshocks preceded by foreshocks increases with the increase of monitoring capabilities and that foreshock activity is dependent on source mechanical properties and favoured by material heterogeneity. Also, the mainshock size does not depend on the largest foreshock size but rather by the foreshock area. Seismicity statistics may account for an effective discrimination of foreshocks from other seismicity styles since during foreshock activities the seismicity rate increases with the inverse of time and, at the same, the b-value of the G-R relationship as a rule drops significantly. Our literature survey showed that only the last years the seismicity catalogs organized in some well monitored areas are adequately complete to search for foreshock activities. Therefore, we investigated for a set of "good foreshock examples" covering a wide range of mainshock magnitudes from 4.5 to 9 in Japan (Tohoku 2011), S. California, Italy (including L' Aquila 2009) and Greece. The good examples used indicate that foreshocks

  7. Short-term effect of antibiotics on human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Panda, Suchita; El khader, Ismail; Casellas, Francesc; López Vivancos, Josefa; García Cors, Montserrat; Santiago, Alba; Cuenca, Silvia; Guarner, Francisco; Manichanh, Chaysavanh

    2014-01-01

    From birth onwards, the human gut microbiota rapidly increases in diversity and reaches an adult-like stage at three years of age. After this age, the composition may fluctuate in response to external factors such as antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that resilience is not complete months after cessation of the antibiotic intake. However, little is known about the short-term effects of antibiotic intake on the gut microbial community. Here we examined the load and composition of the fecal microbiota immediately after treatment in 21 patients, who received broad-spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. A fecal sample was collected from all participants before treatment and one week after for microbial load and community composition analyses by quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, respectively. Fluoroquinolones and β-lactams significantly decreased microbial diversity by 25% and reduced the core phylogenetic microbiota from 29 to 12 taxa. However, at the phylum level, these antibiotics increased the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (p = 0.0007, FDR = 0.002). At the species level, our findings unexpectedly revealed that both antibiotic types increased the proportion of several unknown taxa belonging to the Bacteroides genus, a Gram-negative group of bacteria (p = 0.0003, FDR<0.016). Furthermore, the average microbial load was affected by the treatment. Indeed, the β-lactams increased it significantly by two-fold (p = 0.04). The maintenance of or possible increase detected in microbial load and the selection of Gram-negative over Gram-positive bacteria breaks the idea generally held about the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on gut microbiota.

  8. Models for short term malaria prediction in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Briët, Olivier JT; Vounatsou, Penelope; Gunawardena, Dissanayake M; Galappaththy, Gawrie NL; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient allocation of resources for malaria control. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models with seasonal components, and seasonal multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were compared on monthly time series of district malaria cases for their ability to predict the number of malaria cases one to four months ahead. The addition of covariates such as the number of malaria cases in neighbouring districts or rainfall were assessed for their ability to improve prediction of selected (seasonal) ARIMA models. Results The best model for forecasting and the forecasting error varied strongly among the districts. The addition of rainfall as a covariate improved prediction of selected (seasonal) ARIMA models modestly in some districts but worsened prediction in other districts. Improvement by adding rainfall was more frequent at larger forecasting horizons. Conclusion Heterogeneity of patterns of malaria in Sri Lanka requires regionally specific prediction models. Prediction error was large at a minimum of 22% (for one of the districts) for one month ahead predictions. The modest improvement made in short term prediction by adding rainfall as a covariate to these prediction models may not be sufficient to merit investing in a forecasting system for which rainfall data are routinely processed. PMID:18460204

  9. Short term hypothyroidism affects ovarian function in the cycling rat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rats made hypothyroid with propilthyouracil start showing abnormal cycling on the second cycle after the start of the treatment, with a high proportion of spontaneous pseudopregnancies and reduced fertility. Methods To investigate some of the mechanisms involved in these reproductive abnormalities, hypothyroidism was induced in virgin rats by propilthyouracil (0.1 g/L in the drinking water) and we determined circulating hormones by radioimmunoassay and whole ovary expression of ovarian hormone receptors, growth factors and steroidogenic enzymes using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The study was performed on days 6 to 9 of treatment, corresponding to diestrus I (at 20.00-22.00 h), diestrus II (at 20.00-22.00 h), proestrus and estrus (both at 8.00-10.00 h and 20.00-22.00 h) of the second estrous cycle after beginning propilthyouracil treatment. Another group of rats was mated on day 8 and the treatment continued through the entire pregnancy to evaluate reproductive performance. Results Hypothyroidism increased circulating prolactin and estradiol on estrus 5 to 7-fold and 1.2 to 1.4-fold respectively. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 diminished 60 and 20% respectively on proestrus morning. Hypothyroidism doubled the ovarian mRNA contents of estrogen receptor-beta on proestrus and estrus evenings, cyp19A1 aromatase mRNA on estrus evening and of growth hormone receptor on proestrus evening. Hypothyroidism did not influence ovulation rate or the number of corpora lutea at term, but a diminished number of implantation sites and pups per litter were observed (Hypothyroid: 11.7 +/- 0.8 vs. Control: 13.9 +/- 0.7). Conclusions Short term hypothyroidism alters normal hormone profile in the cycling rat increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta and cyp19A1 aromatase on estrus, which in turn may stimulate estradiol and prolactin secretion, favouring corpus luteum survival and the subsequent instauration of pseudopregnancy. PMID:20149258

  10. Conceptual Short Term Memory in Perception and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle – identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material – may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed. PMID:22557984

  11. Short-term outcome and patient satisfaction after sialendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Tobias; Finkensieper, Mira; Sharma, Shachi Jenny; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Wittekindt, Claus

    2013-11-01

    Sialendoscopy is an established, minimally invasive technique to diagnose and treat obstructive disorders of major salivary glands. Knowledge about patient satisfaction and quality of life is limited. All patients who underwent sialendoscopy were prospectively followed and evaluated. To determine the quality of life after sialendoscopy, an established questionnaire was evaluated (Short-Form-36 Health Survey-SF-36). To determine patient satisfaction, a self-made questionnaire was applied and evaluated. Furthermore, postoperative follow-up examination and the amount of patients who could be saved from sialadenectomy were determined. Main reasons for sialendoscopy were recurrent or permanent swelling of the affected salivary gland. 46 patients were included, 52 sialendoscopies were performed. Immediately after sialendoscopy operative ablation of the respective gland was averted in 98.1 % of the patients. After the follow-up period of 225.4 ± 79.0 days operative ablation of the respective gland was avoided in 89.9 % of the patients. Overall, 85.2 % reported an improvement of symptoms during follow-up, however, values for role-physical functioning (p = 0.025) and bodily pain (p = 0.011) still showed a significant difference when compared to a matched reference group of healthy individuals. Significant negative influence factors towards the outcome were younger age, long-term duration of symptoms and selected SF-36 items (vitality, social functioning, and mental health). Operative ablation of major salivary glands can be avoided by means of sialendoscopy in high percentages during short-term. There seems to be a high patient satisfaction in these selected cases. The duration of preoperative symptoms appears to be an important factor predisposing towards poor satisfaction.

  12. Psychiatric Hospitalization Increases Short-Term Risk of Stroke.

    PubMed

    Zuflacht, Jonah P; Shao, Yuefan; Kronish, Ian M; Edmondson, Donald; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Kamel, Hooman; Boehme, Amelia K; Willey, Joshua Z

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that psychological distress, including the symptoms of psychiatric illness, may acutely increase the risk of stroke. However, existing studies are limited by small sample sizes, inherent recall bias, and poorly defined criteria for what constitutes psychological distress. We analyzed administrative data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project for the state of California from 2007 to 2009 using a case-crossover design. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for combined hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke risk occurring within 15, 30, 90, 180, and 365 days of a hospitalization for a psychiatric diagnosis (as defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code) among adults. Psychiatric hospitalizations within 1 year before stroke were found in 2585 (5.3%) of 48 558 stroke patients. Hospitalization for a psychiatric condition was associated with increased risk of stroke within all 5 time periods, with the highest odds of stroke occurring within 15 days (0-15 days: OR, 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-4.8; 0-30 days: OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.4-3.8; 0-90 days: OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.0-2.7; 0-180 days: OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 2.0-2.5; and 0-365 days: OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 2.4-2.8). Psychiatric hospitalization increases the short-term risk of stroke, particularly within the 15-day period after hospitalization. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Short-term dietary compensation in free-living adults.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, F; Hollis, J H; Mattes, R D

    2008-03-18

    Evidence suggests that compensatory behaviors operate in infants and pre-school children, such that the high variance characteristic of single eating occasions is much reduced over the day. However, the concept has not been fully explored in adults. The present within-subject, observational study investigated short-term dietary compensation patterns in fifty, weight-stable, normal weight (n=27), overweight (n=14), and obese (n=9) free-living adults (11 M, 39 F; age 30+/-11 y; BMI 26.3+/-5.9). Twenty four-hour diet recalls were obtained for 7 consecutive days, by the multi-pass technique. Each 24-h period was divided into 7 eating occasions. The coefficient of variation for energy intake was calculated for each adult, for each eating occasion, and over each 24-h period. Sub-group variability was assessed by BMI and frequency of consumption of sweetened energy-yielding beverages. The mean coefficient of variation for energy intake for the 7 eating occasions was 110.5%, compared to 28.9% for the day as a whole. Correlations between energy intakes at successive eating events were uniformly negative. No significant differences were noted in the sub-group analyses. Significantly greater variation in energy intake was noted for snacks compared to meals (P<0.0001). These data suggest that adults regulate energy intake over a 24-h period more closely than they do at individual eating occasions, similar to the pattern previously observed in children. Further studies of compensatory responses by larger sub-groups of individuals at risk for weight gain are warranted.

  14. Short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Koual, Meriem; Abbou, Hind; Carbonnel, Marie; Picone, Olivier; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia constitutes a cause of increased mortality in mothers and fetuses. Screening for promoting factors is essential for adequate prevention in the event of any subsequent pregnancy, and for the adequate follow-up of concerned patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term outcome of patients with preeclampsia and to identify possible new factors predisposing them to the disease. Methods One hundred fifty-five patients having experienced preeclampsia between 2005 and 2010 from the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of the Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France) were included in the study. All patients had undergone close clinical and standard biological follow-up immediately postpartum and then 3 months later with a reference practitioner. In severe cases, further investigation was carried out by full etiological examination with an assessment of both autoimmune and thrombophilic status. Results Obesity and gestational diabetes were observed to be major risk factors for preeclampsia, which were found in 46% and 15% of the cases, respectively. The etiological assessment showed abnormalities in 11% of the patients. Impaired thrombophilia was found in 3% of the patients, impaired autoimmune status in 4%, a combination of both abnormalities in only 1% of the patients, and detection of renal abnormalities in 3% of the patients were observed. In the immediate postpartum period, 66% of patients had maintained elevated blood pressure levels, and 66% had proteinuria > 0.3 g/24 hours. At the 3-month postpartum assessment, persisting arterial hypertension was found in 16% of the patients, requiring continuation of antihypertensive therapy, and 22% of the patients had proteinuria over the accepted threshold (0.15 g/24 hours). Conclusion Patients with preeclampsia have increased cardiovascular risk, necessitating lifestyle measures and long-term follow-up. Etiological assessment must be carried out, systematically aiming at the detection

  15. Understanding Coral's Short-term Adaptive Ability to Changing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisthammer, K.; Richmond, R. H.

    2016-02-01

    Corals in Maunalua Bay, Hawaii are under chronic pressures from sedimentation and terrestrial runoffs containing multiple pollutants as a result of large scale urbanization that has taken place in the last 100 years. However, some individual corals thrive despite the prolonged exposure to these environmental stressors, which suggests that these individuals may have adapted to withstand such stressors. A recent survey showed that the lobe coral Porites lobata from the `high-stress' nearshore site had an elevated level of stress ixnduced proteins, compared to those from the `low-stress,' less polluted offshore site. To understand the genetic basis for the observed differential stress responses between the nearshore and offshore P. lobata populations, an analysis of the lineage-scale population genetic structure, as well as a reciprocal transplant experiment were conducted. The result of the genetic analysis revealed a clear genetic differentiation between P. lobata from the nearshore site and the offshore site. Following the 30- day reciprocal transplant experiment, protein expression profiles and other stress-related physiological characteristics were compared between the two populations. The experimental results suggest that the nearshore genotype can cope better with sedimentation/pollutants than the offshore genotype. This indicates that the observed genetic differentiation is due to selection for tolerance to these environmental stressors. Understanding the little-known, linage-scale genetic variation in corals offers a critical insight into their short-term adaptive ability, which is indispensable for protecting corals from impending environmental and climate change. The results of this study also offer a valuable tool for resource managers to make effective decisions on coral reef conservation, such as designing marine protected areas that incorporate and maintain such genetic diversity, and establishing acceptable pollution run-off levels.

  16. Short-term effects of air temperature and mitochondrial DNA lesions within an older population.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Wilson, Ander; Mehta, Amar J; Zhong, Jia; Zanobetti, Antonella; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra E; Coull, Brent A; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have linked both extreme and sub-optimal air temperature to cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, especially in older individuals. However, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be determined. We hypothesized that short-term increases in air temperature may induce blood mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lesions in older individuals, which could contribute to temperature-related pathogenesis. We repeatedly measured mtDNA lesions in blood samples from 654 participants in the Normative Aging Study from 1999 to 2013 (1142 observations) by quantitative long-amplicon polymerase chain reaction assay. Hourly temperature data were obtained from the Boston Logan Airport weather station (located approximately 12km from the clinical site). We calculated 2-, 7-, and 14-day moving averages of 24-hour mean and 24-hour variability of temperature. We fit covariate-adjusted linear-mixed models accounting for repeated measures to evaluate the association between short-term increases in mean and variability of temperature with mtDNA lesions within each season. Interquartile increases in 7- and 14-day moving averages of 24-hour mean temperature in summer were associated with a 0.17 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.27; p=0.0007) and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.32; p=0.0001) increase in the number of mtDNA lesions per 10kb, respectively. Results were similar when we further adjusted for temperature variability. We also observed significant associations between increases in temperature variability and mtDNA lesions independent of mean air temperature. An interquartile range increase in the 7-day moving average of 24-hour standard deviation in summer was associated with a 0.19 (95% CI: 0.07, 0.31; p=0.0023) increase in the number of mtDNA lesions per 10kb. Short-term exposure to higher mean air temperature was associated with increased mtDNA lesions in older adults, supporting the hypothesis that sub-optimal meteorological conditions may induce pathophysiological responses among susceptible

  17. Multivariate time series modeling of short-term system scale irrigation demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Kushan C.; Western, Andrew W.; George, Biju; Nawarathna, Bandara

    2015-12-01

    Travel time limits the ability of irrigation system operators to react to short-term irrigation demand fluctuations that result from variations in weather, including very hot periods and rainfall events, as well as the various other pressures and opportunities that farmers face. Short-term system-wide irrigation demand forecasts can assist in system operation. Here we developed a multivariate time series (ARMAX) model to forecast irrigation demands with respect to aggregated service points flows (IDCGi, ASP) and off take regulator flows (IDCGi, OTR) based across 5 command areas, which included area covered under four irrigation channels and the study area. These command area specific ARMAX models forecast 1-5 days ahead daily IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR using the real time flow data recorded at the service points and the uppermost regulators and observed meteorological data collected from automatic weather stations. The model efficiency and the predictive performance were quantified using the root mean squared error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (NSE), anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) and mean square skill score (MSSS). During the evaluation period, NSE for IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR across 5 command areas were ranged 0.98-0.78. These models were capable of generating skillful forecasts (MSSS ⩾ 0.5 and ACC ⩾ 0.6) of IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR for all 5 lead days and IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR forecasts were better than using the long term monthly mean irrigation demand. Overall these predictive performance from the ARMAX time series models were higher than almost all the previous studies we are aware. Further, IDCGi, ASP and IDCGi, OTR forecasts have improved the operators' ability to react for near future irrigation demand fluctuations as the developed ARMAX time series models were self-adaptive to reflect the short-term changes in the irrigation demand with respect to various pressures and opportunities that farmers' face, such as

  18. Long short-term memory neural network for air pollutant concentration predictions: Method development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Ling; Yao, Xiaojing; Cui, Shaolong; Hu, Yuan; You, Chengzeng; Chi, Tianhe

    2017-09-08

    Air pollutant concentration forecasting is an effective method of protecting public health by providing an early warning against harmful air pollutants. However, existing methods of air pollutant concentration prediction fail to effectively model long-term dependencies, and most neglect spatial correlations. In this paper, a novel long short-term memory neural network extended (LSTME) model that inherently considers spatiotemporal correlations is proposed for air pollutant concentration prediction. Long short-term memory (LSTM) layers were used to automatically extract inherent useful features from historical air pollutant data, and auxiliary data, including meteorological data and time stamp data, were merged into the proposed model to enhance the performance. Hourly PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm) concentration data collected at 12 air quality monitoring stations in Beijing City from Jan/01/2014 to May/28/2016 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed LSTME model. Experiments were performed using the spatiotemporal deep learning (STDL) model, the time delay neural network (TDNN) model, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model, the support vector regression (SVR) model, and the traditional LSTM NN model, and a comparison of the results demonstrated that the LSTME model is superior to the other statistics-based models. Additionally, the use of auxiliary data improved model performance. For the one-hour prediction tasks, the proposed model performed well and exhibited a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 11.93%. In addition, we conducted multiscale predictions over different time spans and achieved satisfactory performance, even for 13-24 h prediction tasks (MAPE = 31.47%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Natile, Miria; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Colombo, Marco; Bernasconi, Davide; Locatelli, Anna; Plevani, Cristina; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Tagliabue, Paolo

    2014-06-03

    To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005-2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation - MV, nasal continuous positive airway pressure--N-CPAP, nasal oxygen) and the duration of pressure support (hours in N-CPAP and/or MV). During the study period 14,515 infants were delivered. There were 856 (5.9%) LPI and 12,948 (89.2%) TI. CRM affected 105 LPI (12.4%), and 121 TI (0.9%), with an overall rate of 1.6%. Eighty-four LPI (9.8%) and 73 TI (0.56%) received respiratory support, of which 13 LPI (1.5%) and 16 TI (0.12%) were ventilated. The adjusted OR for developing CRM significantly increased from 3.3 (95% CI 2.0-5.5) at 37 weeks to 40.8 (95% CI 19.7-84.9%) at 34 weeks. The adjusted OR for the need of MV significantly increased from 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-10) at 37 weeks to 34.4 (95% CI 6.7-180.6%) at 34 weeks. Median duration of pressure support was significantly higher at 37 weeks (66.6 h vs 40.5 h). Twin pregnancies were related to a higher risk of CRM (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-7.3), but not independent of gestational age (GA). Cesarean section (CS) was associated with higher risk of CRM independently of GA, but the OR was lower in CS with labour (2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4 vs 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). In this single third level care study late preterm births, pulmonary diseases and supportive respiratory interventions were lower than previously documented. LPI are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary disease than TI. Infants born from elective cesarean sections, late preterm twins in particular and 37 weekers too might benefit from preventive intervention.

  20. Short-term geriatric assessment units: 30 years later

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increasing number of hospitalized elderly persons has greatly challenged decision makers to reorganize services so as to meet the needs of this clientele. Established progressively over the last 30 years, the short-term Geriatric Assessment Unit (GAU) is a specialized care program, now implemented in all the general hospital centres in Quebec. Within the scope of a broader reflection upon the appropriate care delivery for elderly patients in our demographic context, there is a need to revisit the role of GAU within the hospital and the continuum of care. The objective of this project is to describe the range of activities offered by Quebec GAU and the resources available to them. Methods In 2004, 64 managers of 71 GAU answered a mail questionnaire which included 119 items covering their unit's operation and resources in 2002-2003. The clinical and administrative characteristics of the clientele admitted during this period were obtained from the provincial database Med-Echo. The results were presented according to the geographical location of GAU, their size, their university academic affiliation, the composition of their medical staff, and their clinical care profile. Results Overall, GAU programs admitted 9% of all patients aged 65 years and older in the surveyed year. GAU patients presented one or more geriatric syndromes, including dementia. Based on their clientele, three distinct clinical care profiles of GAU were identified. Only 19% of GAU were focused on geriatric assessment and acute care management; 23% mainly offered rehabilitation care, and the others offered a mix of both types. Thus, there was a significant heterogeneity in GAU's operation. Conclusions The GAU is at the cutting edge of geriatric services in hospital centres. Given the scarcity of these resources, it would be appropriate to better target the clientele that may benefit from them. Standardizing and promoting GAU's primary role in acute care must be reinforced. In order to

  1. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  2. Short-term change detection for UAV video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    In the last years, there has been an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. An important application in this context is change detection in UAV video data. Here we address short-term change detection, in which the time between observations ranges from several minutes to a few hours. We distinguish this task from video motion detection (shorter time scale) and from long-term change detection, based on time series of still images taken between several days, weeks, or even years. Examples for relevant changes we are looking for are recently parked or moved vehicles. As a pre-requisite, a precise image-to-image registration is needed. Images are selected on the basis of the geo-coordinates of the sensor's footprint and with respect to a certain minimal overlap. The automatic imagebased fine-registration adjusts the image pair to a common geometry by using a robust matching approach to handle outliers. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed length of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. To detect changes in image pairs we analyzed image differencing, local image correlation, and a transformation-based approach (multivariate alteration detection). As input we used color and gradient magnitude images. To cope with local misalignment of image structures we extended the approaches by a local neighborhood search. The algorithms are applied to several examples covering both urban and rural scenes. The local neighborhood search in combination with intensity and gradient magnitude differencing clearly improved the results. Extended image differencing performed better than both the correlation based approach and the multivariate alternation detection. The algorithms are adapted to be used in semi-automatic workflows for the ABUL video exploitation system of Fraunhofer

  3. Short-term patterns of vertical particle flux in northern Benguela: a comparison between sinking POC and respiratory carbon consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osma, N.; Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Packard, T. T.; Postel, L.; Gómez, M.; Pollehne, F.

    2014-11-01

    Short-term variability of vertical carbon flux (C-flux) was assessed by two approaches at two stations on the Namibian shelf upwelling system (20°S). The first approach was based on modeling water-column respiratory CO2 production (Fc) by integrating vertical profiles of the respiratory electron transport system. The second approach was based on automated sediment trap sampling daily. In both cases, temporal variability at the same station proved to be greater than the spatial variability between stations. Comparison of the two methods yielded higher C-flux values from the sediment traps in the presence of upwelling filaments (7.85 vs 3.67 mmol C m- 2 d- 1). Contrarily, in the post-filament stage of the upwelling system, the values from the Fc models were higher (1.43 vs 2.57 mmol C m- 2 d- 1). This difference was attributed to compositional changes in sinking particles and their settling velocities. In combination, both approaches served to increase current understanding of the short-term particle fluxes in this northern Benguela upwelling system. The Fc approach was further applied to zooplankton from the same area in order to quantify their importance in attenuating the particulate organic C-flux. This attenuation, as measured by fractional consumption of the primary productivity, ranged from 2% to 20%.

  4. Novel strategies for diagnosing the cause of short-term organic fouling in ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the usefulness of a multi-strategic approach for identifying the extent and mechanism of fouling in the ultrafiltration (UF) of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM). In this study, we combined EfOM fractionation with spectroscopic autopsies for clean and fouled UF membranes. The EfOM fractions were sequentially removed from the wastewater effluent using relatively gentle techniques (neutral pH and no extractions). The residual EfOM samples were then used in UF tests. This work showed that resistance to filtration was partially reduced with the removal of particles (>20 nm), but almost all of the short-term fouling was eliminated with the removal of organic acids, which constitute 22% of the total organic carbon. The membrane autopsies were conducted using attenuated reflectance infrared spectroscopy for the top and bottom fouled membranes, and comparison was made with the infrared spectra of a clean membrane. Hydrophilic base/neutrals were the dominant EfOM constituents at the top of the fouled membranes. Hydrophobic acids were adsorbed onto the pore walls deep inside the membranes, which coincided with the permeability recovery of fouled membranes. The fouling mechanisms were examined by measuring the resistance to filtration as a function of permeate flux using various operational conditions and by investigating the effectiveness of hydraulic and chemical cleaning on the restoration of membrane permeability.

  5. Short-term estimation of GNSS TEC using a neural network model in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Arthur Amaral; Borges, Renato Alves; Paparini, Claudia; Ciraolo, Luigi; Radicella, Sandro M.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a novel Neural Network (NN) model to estimate Total Electron Content (TEC) from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements in three distinct sectors in Brazil. The purpose of this work is to start the investigations on the development of a regional model that can be used to determine the vertical TEC over Brazil, aiming future applications on a near real-time frame estimations and short-term forecasting. The NN is used to estimate the GNSS TEC values at void locations, where no dual-frequency GNSS receiver that may be used as a source of data to GNSS TEC estimation is available. This approach is particularly useful for GNSS single-frequency users that rely on corrections of ionospheric range errors by TEC models. GNSS data from the first GLONASS network for research and development (GLONASS R&D network) installed in Latin America, and from the Brazilian Network for Continuous Monitoring of the GNSS (RMBC) were used on TEC calibration. The input parameters of the NN model are based on features known to influence TEC values, such as geographic location of the GNSS receiver, magnetic activity, seasonal and diurnal variations, and solar activity. Data from two ten-days periods (from DoY 154 to 163 and from 282 to 291) are used to train the network. Three distinct analyses have been carried out in order to assess time-varying and spatial performance of the model. At the spatial performance analysis, for each region, a set of stations is chosen to provide training data to the NN, and after the training procedure, the NN is used to estimate vTEC behavior for the test station which data were not presented to the NN in training process. An analysis is done by comparing, for each testing station, the estimated NN vTEC delivered by the NN and reference calibrated vTEC. Also, as a second analysis, the network ability to forecast one day after the time interval (DoY 292) based on information of the second period of investigation is also assessed

  6. Distribution of Short-Term and Lifetime Predicted Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Poterico, Julio A; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Huffman, Mark D; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term risk assessment tools for prediction of cardiovascular disease events are widely recommended in clinical practice and are used largely for single time-point estimations; however, persons with low predicted short-term risk may have higher risks across longer time horizons. Methods and Results We estimated short-term and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in a pooled population from 2 studies of Peruvian populations. Short-term risk was estimated using the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. Lifetime risk was evaluated using the algorithm derived from the Framingham Heart Study cohort. Using previously published thresholds, participants were classified into 3 categories: low short-term and low lifetime risk, low short-term and high lifetime risk, and high short-term predicted risk. We also compared the distribution of these risk profiles across educational level, wealth index, and place of residence. We included 2844 participants (50% men, mean age 55.9 years [SD 10.2 years]) in the analysis. Approximately 1 of every 3 participants (34% [95% CI 33 to 36]) had a high short-term estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Among those with a low short-term predicted risk, more than half (54% [95% CI 52 to 56]) had a high lifetime predicted risk. Short-term and lifetime predicted risks were higher for participants with lower versus higher wealth indexes and educational levels and for those living in urban versus rural areas (P<0.01). These results were consistent by sex. Conclusions These findings highlight potential shortcomings of using short-term risk tools for primary prevention strategies because a substantial proportion of Peruvian adults were classified as low short-term risk but high lifetime risk. Vulnerable adults, such as those from low socioeconomic status and those living in urban areas, may need greater attention regarding cardiovascular preventive strategies. PMID:26254303

  7. Short-term Ensemble Flood Forecasting Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Fan, Fernando; Moreira, Demerval; Dias, Pedro; Buarque, Diogo; Bravo, Juan

    2013-04-01

    Flood Forecasting and issuing early warnings to communities under risk can help reduce the impacts of those events. However, to be effective, warnings should be given several hours in advance. The best solution to extend the lead time is possibly the use of rainfall-runoff models with input given by rainfall and streamflow observations and by forecasts of future precipitation derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent studies showed that probabilistic or ensemble flood forecasts produced using ensemble precipitation forecasts as input data outperform deterministic flood forecasts in several cases in Europe and the United States, and ensemble flood forecasting systems are increasingly becoming operational in these regions. In Brazil, on the other hand, operational flood warning systems are rare, and often based on simplified river routing or linear transfer function models. However, a large number of global and regional meteorological models is operationally run covering most of the country, and forecasts of those models are available for recent years. We used this available data to conduct experiments of short term ensemble flood forecasting in the Paraopeba River basin (12 thousand km2), located in Southeastern Brazil. Streamflow forecasts were produced using the MGB-IPH hydrological model, using a simple empirical state updating method and using an ensemble of precipitation forecasts generated by several models, with different initial conditions and parameterizations, from several weather forecasting centers. A single deterministic streamflow forecast, based on a quantitative precipitation forecast derived from the optimal combination of several outputs of NWP models was used as a reference to assess the performance of the ensemble streamflow forecasts. Flood forecasts experiments were performed for three rainy seasons (austral summer) between 2008-2011. The results for predictions of dichotomous events, which mean exceeding or not flood

  8. Short term precursors of Strombolian explosions at Yasur volcano (Vanuatu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, Jean; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe; Garaebiti, Esline

    2016-03-01

    The seismic wavefield associated with Strombolian activity is usually dominated by explosion quakes (EQs), tremor, and various signals generated by surface phenomena. Looking at the seismicity recorded at Yasur volcano in 2008, we found that beside the transient events which occur simultaneously with surface explosions, the seismicity includes events related to a deeper process. These long period (LP) events form a family of similar events located below the southeastern part of the crater rim at a depth of about 700-1200 m below the summit. They are commonly followed by EQs with a variable delay. The examination of about 20,000 LP-EQ sequences at several stations near the summit shows that interevent delays follow distributions peaked around 11-12 s. This short delay compared to the relatively great source depth of the LPs favors a causal relationship linked to pressure transfer rather than gas slug propagation after nucleation at the LP source.

  9. Interplate coupling along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan, inferred from inversion analyses of GPS data: Effects of subducting plate geometry and spacing of hypothetical ocean-bottom GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shoichi; Matsuoka, Yoshiko

    2013-07-01

    We estimated the slip-deficit rate distribution on the plate boundary between the subducting Philippine Sea plate and the continental Amurian plate along the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan. Horizontal and vertical displacement rates were calculated from land-based Global Positioning System (GPS) data during the 5-year period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2009. We employed an inversion analysis of geodetic data using Akaike's Bayesian information criterion (ABIC), including an indirect prior constraint that slip distribution is smooth to some extent and a direct prior constraint that slip is mainly oriented in the plate-convergent direction. The results show that a large slip deficit exists at depths ranging from 15 to 20 km on the plate boundary in a belt-like form. The maximum slip-deficit rate was identified off Shikoku and reached 6 cm/year. The slip-deficit rate differed by as much as 1 cm/year when using a different geometric model of the subducting plate. On the basis of the spatial distribution of estimation errors and the resolution of the obtained slip-deficit rate on the plate boundary, we also found that the offshore slip-deficit rate cannot be estimated with sufficient accuracy using only land-based GPS data. Therefore, we tested the improvement in results when introducing hypothetical ocean-bottom GPS stations. The stations were arranged in four along-arc and across-arc spacings of 80 km and 40 km. The ocean-bottom data improved the estimation errors and resolutions, and successful results were obtained for a checkerboard with each square 75 km × 76 km. Our results indicate that 40-km along-arc and across-arc two-dimensional spacing of ocean-bottom GPS stations is required to obtain reliable slip-deficit distributions near the trough axis, assuming the current estimation accuracy for ocean-bottom horizontal displacement rates.

  10. Reduction of randomness in seismic noise as a short-term precursor to a volcanic eruption

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, C. C.; Konstantinou, K. I.

    2016-01-01

    Ambient seismic noise is characterized by randomness incurred by the random position and strength of the noise sources as well as the heterogeneous properties of the medium through which it propagates. Here we use ambient noise data recorded prior to the 1996 Gjálp eruption in Iceland in order to show that a reduction of noise randomness can be a clear short-term precursor to volcanic activity. The eruption was preceded on 29 September 1996 by a Mw ~5.6 earthquake that occurred in the caldera rim of the Bárdarbunga volcano. A significant reduction of randomness started occurring 8 days before the earthquake and 10 days before the onset of the eruption. This reduction was observed even at stations more than 100 km away from the eruption site. Randomness increased to its previous levels 160 minutes after the Bárdarbunga earthquake, during which time aftershocks migrated from the Bárdarbunga caldera to a site near the Gjálp eruption fissure. We attribute this precursory reduction of randomness to the lack of higher frequencies (>1 Hz) in the noise wavefield caused by high absorption losses as hot magma ascended in the upper crust. PMID:27883050

  11. Reduction of randomness in seismic noise as a short-term precursor to a volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, C. C.; Konstantinou, K. I.

    2016-11-01

    Ambient seismic noise is characterized by randomness incurred by the random position and strength of the noise sources as well as the heterogeneous properties of the medium through which it propagates. Here we use ambient noise data recorded prior to the 1996 Gjálp eruption in Iceland in order to show that a reduction of noise randomness can be a clear short-term precursor to volcanic activity. The eruption was preceded on 29 September 1996 by a Mw ~5.6 earthquake that occurred in the caldera rim of the Bárdarbunga volcano. A significant reduction of randomness started occurring 8 days before the earthquake and 10 days before the onset of the eruption. This reduction was observed even at stations more than 100 km away from the eruption site. Randomness increased to its previous levels 160 minutes after the Bárdarbunga earthquake, during which time aftershocks migrated from the Bárdarbunga caldera to a site near the Gjálp eruption fissure. We attribute this precursory reduction of randomness to the lack of higher frequencies (>1 Hz) in the noise wavefield caused by high absorption losses as hot magma ascended in the upper crust.

  12. Decoupling eye and hand movement control: visual short-term memory influences reach planning more than saccade planning.

    PubMed

    Issen, Laurel A; Knill, David C

    2012-01-04

    When reaching for objects, humans make saccades to fixate the object at or near the time the hand begins to move. In order to address whether the CNS relies on a common representation of target positions to plan both saccades and hand movements, we quantified the contributions of visual short-term memory (VSTM) to hand and eye movements executed during the same coordinated actions. Subjects performed a sequential movement task in which they picked up one of two objects on the right side of a virtual display (the "weapon"), moved it to the left side of the display (to a "reloading station") and then moved it back to the right side to hit the other object (the target). On some trials, the target was perturbed by 1° of visual angle while subjects moved the weapon to the reloading station. Although subjects did not notice the change, the original position of the target, encoded in VSTM, influenced the motor plans for both the hand and the eye back to the target. Memory influenced motor plans for distant targets more than for near targets, indicating that sensorimotor planning is sensitive to the reliability of available information; however, memory had a larger influence on hand movements than on eye movements. This suggests that spatial planning for coordinated saccades and hand movements are dissociated at the level of processing at which online visual information is integrated with information in short-term memory.

  13. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  14. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  15. Community in a Hurry: Social Contracts and Social Covenants in Short-Term ESL Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2009-01-01

    Like many adult ESL instructors, the author has felt firsthand the challenges of creating community in short-term courses. Through his experience, he has noticed that in order to successfully build community in short-term ESL courses, teachers need to lay a foundation for social contracts and social covenants from the first day of the course and…

  16. Cash Management and Short-Term Investments for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Leonard H.

    Effective cash management and short-term investing are discussed in this "how to" guide designed to benefit most institutions of higher education. The following premises are examined: proper compensation for effective cash management is not an expense but an investment; effective cash management and short-term investment programs do not depend on…

  17. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  18. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  19. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  20. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  1. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  2. 14 CFR § 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. § 1214.809 Section § 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated...

  3. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  4. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  5. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military Traffic... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use. 101-39.203 Section 101-39.203 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  6. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term “working memory”) that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1. PMID:18394484

  7. Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

  8. Cash Management and Short-Term Investments for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Leonard H.

    Effective cash management and short-term investing are discussed in this "how to" guide designed to benefit most institutions of higher education. The following premises are examined: proper compensation for effective cash management is not an expense but an investment; effective cash management and short-term investment programs do not depend on…

  9. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  10. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  11. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  12. The Role of Short-Term Memory in the Comprehension of Written Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnison, J.

    Current research on information processing suggests that short term memory plays a central role in the sorting and manipulation of text information during reading. Because an entire text cannot be processed simultaneously, successive "chunks" or units of information enter the short term memory where they are compared to the reader's previous…

  13. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  14. A Short-Term Study Abroad Program for School Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Teddi; Caldwell, Charmaine; Geltner, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Well planned, short-term study abroad programs can benefit school counseling students through exposure to new and different cultural experiences. Students gain knowledge and skills that will help them serve the diverse cultural groups found in public school settings. The objective of the short-term study abroad program described in this article…

  15. "Leaving the comfort of the familiar": fostering workplace cultural awareness through short-term global experiences.

    PubMed

    Smith-Miller, Cherie A; Leak, Ashley; Harlan, Christina A; Dieckmann, Janna; Sherwood, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    Facilitating the development of student nurses' cultural competence and translating these experiences into the clinical setting. Qualitative methods. A short-term global immersion experience informs student nurses' cultural awareness, education, and future clinical practice. Participation in a short-term global health experience contributes to students' personal growth and broadens their insight into multicultural care.

  16. Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

  17. Outcome Research on Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: A Preliminary Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Scott Allyn

    This paper reviews the empirical research on short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STDP). It begins with a brief history of STDP, identifying current developers and researchers of STDP and listing commonalities among various short-term dynamic psychotherapies. In this review, research is grouped broadly into two categories: controlled…

  18. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is...

  19. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is...

  20. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is...

  1. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which the licensee retains de jure control of the license while de facto control of the leased spectrum...

  2. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  3. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which the licensee retains de jure control of the license while de facto control of the leased spectrum...

  4. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  5. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  6. Deducing acidification rates based on short-term time series

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Hon-Kit; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2015-01-01

    We show that, statistically, the simple linear regression (SLR)-determined rate of temporal change in seawater pH (βpH), the so-called acidification rate, can be expressed as a linear combination of a constant (the estimated rate of temporal change in pH) and SLR-determined rates of temporal changes in other variables (deviation largely due to various sampling distributions), despite complications due to different observation durations and temporal sampling distributions. Observations show that five time series data sets worldwide, with observation times from 9 to 23 years, have yielded βpH values that vary from 1.61 × 10−3 to −2.5 × 10−3 pH unit yr−1. After correcting for the deviation, these data now all yield an acidification rate similar to what is expected under the air-sea CO2 equilibrium (−1.6 × 10−3 ~ −1.8 × 10−3 pH unit yr−1). Although long-term time series stations may have evenly distributed datasets, shorter time series may suffer large errors which are correctable by this method. PMID:26143749

  7. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and general admissions to public hospitals due to respiratory causes were considered. The statistical analysis was based on a time series procedure using linear regression modelling followed by a Poisson regression. Meterological variables, epidemics of influenza A and B, and strikes of medical staff were included in the models. The mean daily concentration of PM13 and daily 1 hour maximum of SO2 significantly affected daily mortality from respiratory causes. An increase in the concentration of PM13 of 100 micrograms/m3 above its 5th centile value increased the risk of respiratory death by 17%. PM13 and BS were also associated with hospital admissions due to all respiratory diseases (4.1% increased risk when the BS level exceeded its 5th centile value by 100 micrograms/m3). SO2 levels consistently influenced hospital admissions for all respiratory diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. Asthma was also correlated with NO2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though the relative risk is weak in areas with low levels of pollution, ambient air pollution, and especially particulate matter and SO2, nonetheless require attention because of the number of people exposed and the existence of high risk groups. PMID:8758223

  8. Qualitative similarities in the visual short-term memory of pigeons and people

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Brett; Wasserman, Edward; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Visual short-term memory plays a key role in guiding behavior, and individual differences in visual short-term memory capacity are strongly predictive of higher cognitive abilities. To provide a broader evolutionary context for understanding this memory system, we directly compared the behavior of pigeons and humans on a change detection task. Although pigeons had a lower storage capacity and a higher lapse rate than humans, both species stored multiple items in short-term memory and conformed to the same basic performance model. Thus, despite their very different evolutionary histories and neural architectures, pigeons and humans have functionally similar visual short-term memory systems, suggesting that the functional properties of visual short-term memory are subject to similar selective pressures across these distant species. PMID:21748417

  9. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    PubMed

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental forcing metrics to quantify short-term foredune morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spore, N.; Conery, I.; Brodie, K. L.; Palmsten, M.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal foredunes evolve continuously due to competing aeolian and hydrodynamic processes. Onshore to shore-parallel winds transport sand to the dune while storm-driven surge and wave runup remove sand from the dune. Dune-growth requires periods of time when the wind exceeds a threshold velocity to initiate transport and the relative geometry of the dry beach to the wind direction to create large fetches. This study aims to derive an aeolian transport potential (ATP) metric from the precipitation, available fetch (a function of wind angle and dry-beach width), and a threshold wind speed to initiate transport. ATP is then combined with a hydrodynamic transport potential (HTP) metric, defined as the number of hours of wave impact to the foredune or upper beach, to assess the time-dependent magnitude of the forcing factors affecting morphological evolution of the foredune between monthly terrestrial lidar surveys.This study focuses on two distinctly different dune fields and their frontal or incipient dune ridges in Duck, NC at the USACE Field Research Facility (FRF): (1) an undisturbed, tall and narrow recently impacted dune with a near vertical face; and (2) an undisturbed, shorter and wider dune with gentler and more hummocky slopes. The two sites are separated by < 1km alongshore and experience similar environmental forcings due to their close proximity. We used hourly precipitation, wind, wave, and imagery-derived runup data from the FRF and surrounding weather stations as inputs to ATP and HTP for each site. We scanned each site at monthly intervals for 18 months with high-resolution terrestrial lidar and generated 10 cm digital elevation models (DEM) for each scan. Incremental and cumulative changes in elevation, volume, and dune toe position were extracted from the DEMs and compared to the ATP and HTP values between the surveys to evaluate the dominant factors affecting sediment flux to the system.

  11. Real-time monitoring and short-term forecasting of drought in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok Wong, Wai; Hisdal, Hege

    2013-04-01

    Drought is considered to be one of the most costly natural disasters. Drought monitoring and forecasting are thus important for sound water management. In this study hydrological drought characteristics applicable for real-time monitoring and short-term forecasting of drought in Norway were developed. A spatially distributed hydrological model (HBV) implemented in a Web-based GIS framework provides a platform for drought analyses and visualizations. A number of national drought maps can be produced, which is a simple and effective way to communicate drought conditions to decision makers and the public. The HBV model is driven by precipitation and air temperature data. On a daily time step it calculates the water balance for 1 x 1 km2 grid cells characterized by their elevation and land use. Drought duration and areal drought coverage for runoff and subsurface storage (sum of soil moisture and groundwater) were derived. The threshold level method was used to specify drought conditions on a grid cell basis. The daily 10th percentile thresholds were derived from seven-day windows centered on that calendar day from the reference period 1981-2010 (threshold not exceeded 10% of the time). Each individual grid cell was examined to determine if it was below its respective threshold level. Daily drought-stricken areas can then be easily identified when visualized on a map. The drought duration can also be tracked and calculated by a retrospective analysis. Real-time observations from synoptic stations interpolated to a regular grid of 1 km resolution constituted the forcing data for the current situation. 9-day meteorological forecasts were used as input to the HBV model to obtain short-term hydrological drought forecasts. Downscaled precipitation and temperature fields from two different atmospheric models were applied. The first two days of the forecast period adopted the forecasts from Unified Model (UM4) while the following seven days were based on the 9-day forecasts

  12. A joint Monte Carlo analysis of seafloor compliance, Rayleigh wave dispersion and receiver functions at ocean bottom seismic stations offshore New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Justin S.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Stachnik, Joshua C.; Lin, Fan-Chi; Collins, John A.

    2014-12-01

    body-wave imaging techniques such as receiver function analysis can be notoriously difficult to employ on ocean-bottom seismic data due largely to multiple reverberations within the water and low-velocity sediments. In lieu of suppressing this coherently scattered noise in ocean-bottom receiver functions, these site effects can be modeled in conjunction with shear velocity information from seafloor compliance and surface wave dispersion measurements to discern crustal structure. A novel technique to estimate 1-D crustal shear-velocity profiles from these data using Monte Carlo sampling is presented here. We find that seafloor compliance inversions and P-S conversions observed in the receiver functions provide complimentary constraints on sediment velocity and thickness. Incoherent noise in receiver functions from the MOANA ocean bottom seismic experiment limit the accuracy of the practical analysis at crustal scales, but synthetic recovery tests and comparison with independent unconstrained nonlinear optimization results affirm the utility of this technique in principle.

  13. Short-term impact of deep sand extraction and ecosystem-based landscaping on macrozoobenthos and sediment characteristics.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Maarten F; Baptist, Martin J; Lindeboom, Han J; Hoekstra, Piet

    2015-08-15

    We studied short-term changes in macrozoobenthos in a 20m deep borrow pit. A boxcorer was used to sample macrobenthic infauna and a bottom sledge was used to sample macrobenthic epifauna. Sediment characteristics were determined from the boxcore samples, bed shear stress and near-bed salinity were estimated with a hydrodynamic model. Two years after the cessation of sand extraction, macrozoobenthic biomass increased fivefold in the deepest areas. Species composition changed significantly and white furrow shell (Abra alba) became abundant. Several sediment characteristics also changed significantly in the deepest parts. Macrozoobenthic species composition and biomass significantly correlated with time after cessation of sand extraction, sediment and hydrographical characteristics. Ecosystem-based landscaped sand bars were found to be effective in influencing sediment characteristics and macrozoobenthic assemblage. Significant changes in epifauna occurred in deepest parts in 2012 which coincided with the highest sedimentation rate. We recommend continuing monitoring to investigate medium and long-term impacts.

  14. Improved national modelling by short-term measurement campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit; Lindström, Göran; Strömqvist, Johan; Spângmyr, Henrik

    2010-05-01

    The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) produces hydrological predictions in Sweden both within the national early warning services and to the waterpower industry. SMHI is also responsible for delivering high-resolution data to water authorities. Most of the waterbodies of interest to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) in Sweden do not have monitoring programmes. Thus, modelled data has to be used for expert judgments. Recently, SMHI got a new request from the government to support water authorities with relevant data to fulfill the reporting and assist implementation of environmental goals within the WFD. SMHI then started the internal "Water management programme" in cooperation with water authorities, to better harmonise and develop SMHI databases, monitoring, model systems and internet services for efficient data delivery free of charge. Since the early 70's operational flood forecasts in Sweden has been based on the HBV model, but the environmental sector has other needs which has promoted a new model concept, called HYPE. The model is applied according to the Swedish water authorities classification of waterbodies (at present 17 313 limnic systems), and will be up-dated annually following water authorities requests. The model system delivers a large amount of hydrological, chemical, and physico-chemical variables. However, national monitoring programmes for calibration and validation is only available for 300 discharge stations and 900 grab sampling sites for nutrient concentrations. The HYPE model is a semi-distributed processed-based hydrological model for small-scale and large-scale assessments of water resources and water quality. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, land-use and altitude. In agricultural lands, the soil is divided into three layers, each with individual computations of soil wetness and nutrient processes. The model simulates water flows, and flow and turnover of

  15. Factors related to short-term memory dysfunction in children residing near a Petrochemical Industrial Estate.

    PubMed

    Aungudornpukdee, Piraya; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factors that affect short-term memory dysfunction among children, 6 to 13 years of age, residing near the Petrochemical Industrial Estate, Map Ta Phut sub-district, Rayong province. A population-based cross-sectional study was employed for collecting data on neurobehavioral effects using the Digit Span Test. The present study found one-third of 2,158 children presented with short-term memory dysfunction. It was found an inverse association between short-term memory dysfunction with 2 out of 25 communities; Islam (adjusted OR 0.382) and Taladmabtaput (adjusted OR 0.297). In addition, short-term memory dysfunction was also found an inverse association with distance from residential areas to the industrial park (adjusted OR 0.871). It was also found that an association between short-term memory dysfunction and length of living period in study areas was not clear The finding on short-term memory dysfunction indicated that children with short-term memory dysfunction were affected by the distance from residential areas to source of pollution and community.

  16. Distributions of Pu isotopes in seawater and bottom sediments in the coast of the Japanese archipelago before and soon after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Takata, Hyoe

    2015-04-01

    A radioactivity measurement survey was carried out from 24 April 2008 to 3 June 2011 to determine the levels of plutonium isotopes and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the marine environments off the sites of commercial nuclear power stations around the Japanese islands; the sampling period extended to two months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In our previous study (Oikawa et al., 2015), data on Pu isotopes and (241)Am in sediments have already been reported. In this study, we report those on Pu isotopes in seawater as well as sediments, and the characteristics of sediments in addition (e.g., ignition loss and biogenic opals). Concentrations of (239+240)Pu in seawater and bottom sediments remained nearly constant at all sampling locations during the survey period. In addition, no regional differences were observed in the (239+240)Pu concentrations in surface waters. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were found in bottom waters at deeper sampling locations, but the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were nearly constant regardless of the water depth. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were also found in bottom sediments at deeper sampling locations, but vice versa for (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios as reported in the previous report. The sediments samples from deeper locations showed the higher percentage of ignition loss as well as the higher content of biogenic opal. There was likely to be some driving force participating in the transfer of Pu isotopes associated with biogenic substances to the deeper seabed. The present survey showed that the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station did not contribute much to the inventory of Pu isotopes in the adjacent sea area.

  17. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  18. Developing a Global, Short-Term Fire Weather Forecasting Tool Using NWP Input Meteorology and Satellite Fire Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. A.; Hyer, E. J.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    In order to meet the emerging need for better estimates of biomass burning emissions in air quality and climate models, a statistical model is developed to characterize the effect of a given set of meteorological conditions on the following day's fire activity, including ignition and spread potential. Preliminary tests are conducted within several spatial domains of the North American boreal forest by investigating a wide range of meteorological information, including operational fire weather forecasting indices, such as the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS). However, rather than using local noon surface station data, the six components of the CFFDRS are modified to use inputs from the North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and the Navy's Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System Model (NOGAPS). The Initial Spread Index (ISI) and the Fire Weather Index (FWI) are shown to be the most relevant components of the CFFDRS for short-term changes in fire activity. However, both components are found to be highly sensitive to variations in relative humidity and wind speed input data. Several variables related to fire ignition from dry lighting, such as instability and the synoptic pattern, are also incorporated. Cases of fire ignition, growth, decay, and extinction are stratified using satellite fire observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and compared to the available suite of meteorological information. These comparisons reveal that combinations of meteorological variables, such as the FWI, ISI, and additional indices developed for this study, produce the greatest separability between major fire growth and decay cases, which are defined by the observed change in fire counts and fire radiative power. This information is used to derive statistical relationships affecting the short-term changes in fire activity and subsequently applied to other

  19. Verbal Short-Term Memory Reflects the Organization of Long-Term Memory: Further Evidence from Short-Term Memory for Emotional Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…

  20. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  1. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  2. Verbal Short-Term Memory Reflects the Organization of Long-Term Memory: Further Evidence from Short-Term Memory for Emotional Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Many studies suggest that long-term lexical-semantic knowledge is an important determinant of verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This study explored the impact of emotional valence on word immediate serial recall as a further lexico-semantic long-term memory (LTM) effect on STM. This effect is particularly interesting for the study of…

  3. Genetic deletion of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons impairs hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Le Barillier, Léa; Léger, Lucienne; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice; Malleret, Gaël; Salin, Paul-Antoine

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive role of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons, a neuronal population located in the mammalian postero-lateral hypothalamus sending projections to all cortical areas, remains poorly understood. Mainly activated during paradoxical sleep (PS), MCH neurons have been implicated in sleep regulation. The genetic deletion of the only known MCH receptor in rodent leads to an impairment of hippocampal dependent forms of memory and to an alteration of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. By using MCH/ataxin3 mice, a genetic model characterized by a selective deletion of MCH neurons in the adult, we investigated the role of MCH neurons in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent forms of memory. MCH/ataxin3 mice exhibited a deficit in the early part of both long-term potentiation and depression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) was diminished while synaptic depression induced by repetitive stimulation was enhanced suggesting an alteration of pre-synaptic forms of short-term plasticity in these mice. Behaviorally, MCH/ataxin3 mice spent more time and showed a higher level of hesitation as compared to their controls in performing a short-term memory T-maze task, displayed retardation in acquiring a reference memory task in a Morris water maze, and showed a habituation deficit in an open field task. Deletion of MCH neurons could thus alter spatial short-term memory by impairing short-term plasticity in the hippocampus. Altogether, these findings could provide a cellular mechanism by which PS may facilitate memory encoding. Via MCH neuron activation, PS could prepare the day's learning by increasing and modulating short-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Short-term effects of air pollution on wheeze in asthmatic children in Fresno, California.

    PubMed

    Mann, Jennifer K; Balmes, John R; Bruckner, Tim A; Mortimer, Kathleen M; Margolis, Helene G; Pratt, Boriana; Hammond, S Katharine; Lurmann, Frederick W; Tager, Ira B

    2010-10-01

    Although studies have demonstrated that air pollution is associated with exacerbation of asthma symptoms in children with asthma, little is known about the susceptibility of subgroups, particularly those with atopy. This study was designed to evaluate our a priori hypothesis that identifiable subgroups of asthmatic children are more likely to wheeze with exposure to ambient air pollution. A cohort of 315 children with asthma, 6-11 years of age, was recruited for longitudinal follow-up in Fresno, California (USA). During the baseline visit, children were administered a respiratory symptom questionnaire and allergen skin-prick test. Three times a year, participants completed 14-day panels during which they answered symptom questions twice daily. Ambient air quality data from a central monitoring station were used to assign exposures to the following pollutants: particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, particulate matter between 2.5 and 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10-2.5), elemental carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrate, and O3. For the group as a whole, wheeze was significantly associated with short-term exposures to NO2 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10 for 8.7-ppb increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.20] and PM10-2.5 (OR = 1.11 for 14.7-μg/m3 increase; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22). The association with wheeze was stronger for these two pollutants in children who were skin-test positive to cat or common fungi and in boys with mild intermittent asthma. A pollutant associated with traffic emissions, NO2, and a pollutant with bioactive constituents, PM10-2.5, were associated with increased risk of wheeze in asthmatic children living in Fresno, California. Children with atopy to cat or common fungi and boys with mild intermittent asthma were the subgroups for which we observed the largest associations.

  5. Sounding-derived indices for neural network based short-term thunderstorm and rainfall forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzato, Agostino

    2007-02-01

    A neural network-based scheme to do a multivariate analysis for forecasting the occurrence and intensity of a meteo event is presented. Many sounding-derived indices are combined together to build a short-term forecast of thunderstorm and rainfall events, in the plain of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (hereafter FVG, NE Italy). For thunderstorm forecasting, sounding, lightning strikes and mesonet station data (rain and wind) from April to November of the years 1995-2002 have been used to train and validate the artificial neural network (hereafter ANN), while the 2003 and 2004 data have been used as an independent test sample. Two kind of ANNs have been developed: the first is a "classification model" ANN and is built for forecasting the thunderstorm occurrence. If this first ANN predicts convective activity, then a second ANN, built as a "regression model", is used for forecasting the thunderstorm intensity, as defined in a previous article. The classification performances are evaluated with the ROC diagram and some indices derived from the Table of Contingency (like KSS, FAR, Odds Ratio). The regression performances are evaluated using the Mean Square Error and the linear cross correlation coefficient R. A similar approach is applied to the problem of 6 h rainfall forecast in the Friuli Venezia Giulia plain, but in this second case the data cover the period from 1992 to 2004. Also the forecasts of binary events (defined as the occurrence of 5, 20 or 40 mm of maximum rain), made by classification and regression ANN, were compared. Particular emphasis is given to the sounding-derived indices which are chosen in the first places by the predictor forward selection algorithm.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  7. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  9. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  10. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  11. An Approach toward the Development of a Functional Encoding Model of Short Term Memory during Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Mary Anne

    1978-01-01

    In a model of the functioning of short term memory, the encoding of information for subsequent storage in long term memory is simulated. In the encoding process, semantically equivalent paragraphs are detected for recombination into a macro information unit. (HOD)

  12. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  14. Impact of medication adherence on absenteeism and short-term disability for five chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Carls, Ginger S; Roebuck, M Christopher; Brennan, Troyen A; Slezak, Julie A; Matlin, Olga S; Gibson, Teresa B

    2012-07-01

    To estimate the impact of medication adherence on absenteeism and short-term disability among employees with chronic disease. Cross-sectional analysis of administrative health care claims, absenteeism, and short-term disability data using multivariate regression and instrumental variable models for five cohorts of employees: diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, dyslipidemia, and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Adherence was defined as possessing medication on at least 80% of days during follow-up. Adherent employees with diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease realized between 1.7 and 7.1 fewer days absent from work and between 1.1 and 5.0 fewer days on short-term disability. Absenteeism and short-term disability days by adherent employees with congestive heart failure were not significantly different from nonadherent employees with the condition in most specifications. Appropriate management of chronic conditions can help employers minimize losses due to missed work.

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  17. Differential light threshold in automated static perimetry. Factors influencing short-term fluctuation.

    PubMed

    Flammer, J; Drance, S M; Fankhauser, F; Augustiny, L

    1984-06-01

    The scatter of the differential light threshold observed during a single visual field test is called the short-term fluctuation. A number of factors that may influence the magnitude of the short-term fluctuation were studied. The main factor was the level of the differential light sensitivity itself, followed by the rate of false responses in the catch trials. The pupil size was only notable in patients with glaucoma, while age as well as the mean reaction time did not appear to be notable. The short-term fluctuation is not dependent on the location in the visual field up to 27 degrees of eccentricity degrees tested in normal subjects and patients suspected of having glaucoma, but there is a slight tendency in patients with glaucoma for a larger short-term fluctuation in the upper half of the visual field.

  18. Short-Term Practice Effects and Brain Hypometabolism: Preliminary Data from an FDG PET Study.

    PubMed

    Duff, Kevin; Horn, Kevin P; Foster, Norman L; Hoffman, John M

    2015-05-01

    Practice effects are improvements in cognitive test scores due to repeated exposure to the same tests. Typically viewed as error, short-term practice effects have been shown to provide valuable clinical information about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in older patients with mild cognitive impairments. This study examined short-term practice effects across one week and brain hypometabolism on fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 25 older adults (15 intact, 10 Mild Cognitive Impairment). Averaged cerebral brain metabolism on FDG PET was correlated with multiple cognitive scores at baseline in those with Mild Cognitive Impairment, and short-term practice effects accounted for additional variance in these same subjects. The relationship between brain metabolism and cognition (either at baseline or practice effects) was minimal in the intact individuals. Although needing replication in larger samples, short-term practice effects on tests of executive functioning and memory may provide valuable information about biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Short-Term Behavioral Intervention with Delinquent Families: Impact on Family Process and Recidivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James F.; Parsons, Bruce V.

    1973-01-01

    Based on prior family interaction studies and a systems conceptualization of deviant behavior, a specific, short-term behaviorally oriented family intervention program designed to increase family reciprocity, clarity of communication, and contingency contracting was developed for delinquent teenagers. (Author)

  20. A Short-term Therapeutic Camping Program for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Tom R.; Radka, Jerome E.

    1975-01-01

    This article described a short-term therapeutic camping program for emotionally disturbed adolescent boys employing behavior modification techniques, reliable observation of target behaviors, and implementation by staff members of the local community mental health clinic. (Author/RK)

  1. Response of middle atmosphere to short-term solar ultraviolet variations: 1. observations

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, G.M.; Pitts, M.C.; Brasseur, G.; De Rudder, A.

    1987-01-20

    A series of studies were performed concerning the response of low-latitude ozone and temperature in the stratosphere and mesosphere to short-term solar ultraviolet variability associated with the rotation of the sun.

  2. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  5. A Master Equation Approach to Modeling Short-term Behaviors of the Stock Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Conan; Yang, Xiaoxiang; Mazilu, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Short term fluctuations in stock prices are highly random, due to the multitude of external factors acting on the price determination process. While long-term economic factors such as inflation and revenue growth rate affect short-term price fluctuation, it is difficult to obtain the complete set of information and uncertainties associated with a given period of time. Instead, we propose a simpler short-term model based on only prior price averages and extrema. In this paper, we take a master equation under the random walk hypothesis and fit parameters based on AAPL stock price data over the past ten years. We report results for small system sizes and for the short term average price. These results may lead to a general closed-form solution to this particular master equation.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  7. An Approach toward the Development of a Functional Encoding Model of Short Term Memory during Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Mary Anne

    1978-01-01

    In a model of the functioning of short term memory, the encoding of information for subsequent storage in long term memory is simulated. In the encoding process, semantically equivalent paragraphs are detected for recombination into a macro information unit. (HOD)

  8. Neural network based short-term electric load forecasting: EMS-integrated and PC-based stand-alone systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khadem, M.; Lago, A.

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the application of a neural network (NN) based short-term electric load forecast model that is being used for the energy control center of the electric utilities. This NN based short-term load forecast program has been developed with a version integrated with the electric utility`s Energy management System (EMS), as well as a PC-based stand-alone version. The model forecasts the hourly electrical load for the current day and up to seven days. A multi-layer neural network is used to provide a non-linear mapping between weather parameters and electric load. Using historical weather parameters and electric load. Using historical weather parameters (such as dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and light intensity), and historical hourly loads, a neural network is trained for each day type and each weather-defined season. The forecast of weather parameters can be obtained by a weather station for the forecast period. The program is capable to generate hourly weather forecast if the forecast form the weather service is partial, such as if only a few hours per day are available, or even if the maximum or minimum daily values of the temperature forecast is available. A separate NN model has also been developed for identifying seasons based on the historical weather data. This paper will discuss features of the system, the neural network models and algorithm, and a sample result of the program performance.

  9. The octopus vertical lobe modulates short-term learning rate and uses LTP to acquire long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Shomrat, Tal; Zarrella, Ilaria; Fiorito, Graziano; Hochner, Binyamin

    2008-03-11

    Analyzing the processes and neuronal circuitry involved in complex behaviors in phylogenetically remote species can help us understand the evolution and function of these systems. Cephalopods, with their vertebrate-like behaviors but much simpler brains, are ideal for such an analysis. The vertical lobe (VL) of Octopus vulgaris is a pivotal brain station in its learning and memory system. To examine the organization of the learning and memory circuitry and to test whether the LTP that we discovered in the VL is involved in behavioral learning, we tetanized the VL to induce a global synaptic enhancement of the VL pathway. The effects of tetanization on learning and memory of a passive avoidance task were compared to those of transecting the same pathway. Tetanization accelerated and transection slowed short-term learning to avoid attacking a negatively reinforced object. However, both treatments impaired long-term recall the next day. Our results suggest that the learning and memory system in the octopus, as in mammals [9], is separated into short- and long-term memory sites. In the octopus, the two memory sites are not independent; the VL, which mediates long-term memory acquisition through LTP, also modulates the circuitry controlling behavior and short-term learning.

  10. Measurement and multifractal properties of short-term international capital flows in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Yang, Zhenyu; Geng, Yan

    2017-02-01

    The paper measures monthly short-term international capital flows during Jan. 2000 to Jul. 2015 in China. It is shown that, since mid-2014 the amount of short-term international capital outflows in China has increased rapidly, reaching the historical peak at 65.8 billion dollars per month in July, 2015. By conducting multifractal analysis with MF-DFA method, it is proved that China's short-term international capital flows exhibit significant non-linear multifractal properties. Further study indicates that the long-range correlations and fat-tailed distribution both contribute to the multifractal properties, while the former is the main reason. The non-linearity of capital flows calls for non-linear tools instead of conventional linear tools to further study features of China's short-term international capital flows or to build early warning system of international capital flow risks. The paper measures monthly short-term international capital flows during Jan. 2000 to Jul. 2015 in China. It is shown that, since mid-2014 the amount of short-term international capital outflows in China has increased rapidly, reaching the historical peak at 65.8 billion dollars per month in July, 2015. By conducting multifractal analysis with MF-DFA method, it is proved that China's short-term international capital flows exhibit significant non-linear multifractal properties. Further study indicates that the long-range correlations and fat-tailed distribution both contribute to the multifractal properties, while the former is the main reason. The non-linearity of capital flows calls for non-linear tools instead of conventional linear tools to further study features of China's short-term international capital flows or to build early warning system of international capital flow risks.

  11. Short-Term Sleep Deprivation Stimulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats Following Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Oumei; Li, Rong; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Lijuan; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jia; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Junqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation (SD) plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR). Methods One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d. Results The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects. Conclusions Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process. PMID:26039740

  12. Short Term Cyber Attacks with Long Term Effects and Degradation of Supply Chain Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    product returns . Risk is assessed in the supply chain by the determination of likelihood and consequence based on short- term views (non-black swan...supplying goods during periods of critical needs. Using a life-cycle approach, quantifiable metrics were used to compare short-term risks with long...term risks in a network supply chain to establish the existence of black swan events. 14. SUBJECT TERMS cybersecurity, supply chain risk

  13. CF6-6D engine short-term performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, W. H.; Paas, J. E.; Smith, J. J.; Wulf, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies conducted as part of the NASA-Lewis CF6 jet engine diagnostics program are summarized. An 82-engine sample of DC-10-10 aircraft engine checkout data that were gathered to define the extent and magnitude of CF6-6D short term performance deterioration were analyzed. These data are substantiated by the performance testing and analytical teardown of CF6-6D short term deterioration engine serial number (ESN) 451507.

  14. Short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; de Vries, Emmely M; van Nierop, F Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies indicate that short-term fasting alters drug metabolism. However, the effects of short-term fasting on drug metabolism in humans need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term fasting (36 h) on P450-mediated drug metabolism. In a randomized crossover study design, nine healthy subjects ingested a cocktail consisting of five P450-specific probe drugs [caffeine (CYP1A2), S-warfarin (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4)] on two occasions (control study after an overnight fast and after 36 h of fasting). Blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. In addition, we studied in Wistar rats the effects of short-term fasting on hepatic mRNA expression of P450 isoforms corresponding with the five studied P450 enzymes in humans. In the healthy subjects, short-term fasting increased oral caffeine clearance by 20% (P = 0.03) and decreased oral S-warfarin clearance by 25% (P < 0.001). In rats, short-term fasting increased mRNA expression of the orthologs of human CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 (P < 0.05), and decreased the mRNA expression of the ortholog of CYP2C9 (P < 0.001) compared with the postabsorptive state. These results demonstrate that short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in a nonuniform pattern. Therefore, short-term fasting is another factor affecting cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

  15. Effects of Short-term Hypergravity Exposure on Germination, Growth and Photosynthesis of Triticum aestivum L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyasagar, Pandit B.; Jagtap, Sagar S.; Dixit, Jyotsana P.; Kamble, Shailendra M.; Dhepe, Aarti P.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the hypergravity effect on plants, where seedlings (4-5 days old) were continuously exposed and grown under hypergravity condition. Here, we have used a novel `shortterm hypergravity exposure experimental method' where imbibed caryopses (instead of seedlings) were exposed to higher hypergravity values ranging from 500 g to 2500 g for a short interval time of 10 minutes and post short-term hypergravity treated caryopses were grown under 1 g conditions for five days. Changing patterns in caryopsis germination and growth, along with various photosynthetic and biochemical parameters were studied. Results revealed the significant inhibition of caryopsis germination and growth in short-term hypergravity treated seeds over control. Photosynthesis parameters such as chlorophyll content, rate of photosynthesis (PN), transpiration rate (Evap) and stomatal conductance (Gs), along with intracellular CO2 concentration (Cint) were found to be affected significantly in 5 days old seedlings exposed to short-term hypergravity treatment. In order to investigate the cause of observed inhibition, we examined the α-amylase activity and antioxidative enzyme activities. α-amylase activity was found to be inhibited, along with the reduction of sugars necessary for germination and earlier growth in short-term hypergravity treated caryopses. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and guaiacol peroxidase were increased in short-term hypergravity treated caryopses, suggesting that caryopses might have experienced oxidative stress upon short-term hypergravity exposure.

  16. Long-term associative learning predicts verbal short-term memory performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill

    2017-10-02

    Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.

  17. Analysis of excess lung cancer risk in short-term employees.

    PubMed

    Lamm, S H; Levine, M S; Starr, J A; Tirey, S L

    1988-06-01

    An excess of lung cancer found in a cohort of 741 New York State tremolitic talc workers observed from 1947 through 1978 has been shown paradoxically to be concentrated in short-term workers. Review of past work histories suggests that the excess of lung cancer in these short-term workers may be accounted for by prior exposures rather than by exposures at the employment under investigation. This finding has significant implications in view of the developing practice of including short-term workers in occupational cohort studies in contrast to the more traditional practice of excluding short-term workers. The traditional practice was based on the assumption that the inclusion of short-term workers with little exposure, and thus little risk, might dilute an otherwise apparent association between mortality and exposure. This study suggests that in certain instances the inclusion of short-term workers may magnify rather than dilute the estimation of risk, reflecting the presence of confounding variables.

  18. [Short-term memory characteristics of vibration intensity tactile perception on human wrist].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fei; Chen, Li-Juan; Lu, Wei; Song, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-25

    In this study, a recall experiment and a recognition experiment were designed to assess the human wrist's short-term memory characteristics of tactile perception on vibration intensity, by using a novel homemade vibrotactile display device based on the spatiotemporal combination vibration of multiple micro vibration motors as a test device. Based on the obtained experimental data, the short-term memory span, recognition accuracy and reaction time of vibration intensity were analyzed. From the experimental results, some important conclusions can be made: (1) The average short-term memory span of tactile perception on vibration intensity is 3 ± 1 items; (2) The greater difference between two adjacent discrete intensities of vibrotactile stimulation is defined, the better average short-term memory span human wrist gets; (3) There is an obvious difference of the average short-term memory span on vibration intensity between the male and female; (4) The mechanism of information extraction in short-term memory of vibrotactile display is to traverse the scanning process by comparison; (5) The recognition accuracy and reaction time performance of vibrotactile display compares unfavourably with that of visual and auditory. The results from this study are important for designing vibrotactile display coding scheme.

  19. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: are their influences cumulative?

    PubMed

    Belmore, Suzanne C; Shevell, Steven K

    2011-02-09

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Very-long-term and short-term chromatic adaptation: Are their influences cumulative?

    PubMed Central

    Belmore, Suzanne C.; Shevell, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Very-long-term (VLT) chromatic adaptation results from exposure to an altered chromatic environment for days or weeks. Color shifts from VLT adaptation are observed hours or days after leaving the altered environment. Short-term chromatic adaptation, on the other hand, results from exposure for a few minutes or less, with color shifts measured within seconds or a few minutes after the adapting light is extinguished; recovery to the pre-adapted state is complete in less than an hour. Here, both types of adaptation were combined. All adaptation was to reddish-appearing long-wavelength light. Shifts in unique yellow were measured following adaptation. Previous studies demonstrate shifts in unique yellow due to VLT chromatic adaptation, but shifts from short-term chromatic adaptation to comparable adapting light can be far greater than from VLT adaptation. The question considered here is whether the color shifts from VLT adaptation are cumulative with large shifts from short-term adaptation or, alternatively, does simultaneous short-term adaptation eliminate color shifts caused by VLT adaptation. The results show the color shifts from VLT and short-term adaptation together are cumulative, which indicates that both short-term and very-long-term chromatic adaptation affect color perception during natural viewing. PMID:21130799

  1. Assessment of short-term memory in Arabic speaking children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Kaddah, F A; Shoeib, R M; Mahmoud, H E

    2010-12-15

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) may have some kind of memory disorder that could increase their linguistic impairment. This study assessed the short-term memory skills in Arabic speaking children with either Expressive Language Impairment (ELI) or Receptive/Expressive Language Impairment (R/ELI) in comparison to controls in order to estimate the nature and extent of any specific deficits in these children that could explain the different prognostic results of language intervention. Eighteen children were included in each group. Receptive, expressive and total language quotients were calculated using the Arabic language test. Assessment of auditory and visual short-term memory was done using the Arabic version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Both groups of SLI performed significantly lower linguistic abilities and poorer auditory and visual short-term memory in comparison to normal children. The R/ELI group presented an inferior performance than the ELI group in all measured parameters. Strong association was found between most tasks of auditory and visual short-term memory and linguistic abilities. The results of this study highlighted a specific degree of deficit of auditory and visual short-term memories in both groups of SLI. These deficits were more prominent in R/ELI group. Moreover, the strong association between the different auditory and visual short-term memories and language abilities in children with SLI must be taken into account when planning an intervention program for these children.

  2. Short-term effects of ambient air pollution on pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases in Yichang city, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuewei; Xie, Shuguang; Yu, Qing; Huo, Xixiang; Ming, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Yun; Peng, Zhe; Zhang, Hai; Cui, Xiuqing; Xiang, Hua; Huang, Xiji; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Weihong; Shi, Tingming

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with pediatric hospital admissions and emergency room visits for certain respiratory diseases; however, there is limited evidence on the association between short-term air pollution exposure and pediatric outpatient visits. Our aim was to quantitatively assess the short-term effects of ambient air pollution on pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases. We conducted a time-series study in Yichang city, China between Jan 1, 2014 and Dec 31, 2015. Daily counts of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits were collected from 3 large hospitals, and then linked with air pollution data from 5 air quality monitoring stations by date. We used generalized additive Poisson models to conduct linear and nonlinear exposure-response analyses between air pollutant exposures and pediatric respiratory outpatient visits, adjusting for seasonality, day of week, public holiday, temperature, and relative humidity. Each interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5 (lag 0), PM10 (lag 0), NO2 (lag 0), CO (lag 0), and O3 (lag 4) concentrations was significantly associated with a 1.91% (95% CI: 0.60%, 3.23%), 2.46% (1.09%, 3.85%), 1.88% (0.49%, 3.29%), 2.00% (0.43%, 3.59%), and 1.91% (0.45%, 3.39%) increase of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits, respectively. Similarly, the nonlinear exposure-response analyses showed monotonic increases of pediatric respiratory outpatient visits by increasing air pollutant exposures, though the associations for NO2 and CO attenuated at higher concentrations. These associations were unlikely modified by season. We did not observe significant association for SO2 exposure. Our results suggest that short-term exposures to PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3 may account for increased risk of pediatric outpatient visits for respiratory diseases, and emphasize the needs for reduction of air pollutant exposures for children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  3. Indian MST radar: A remote sensing tool for studying long- and short- term cross tropopause transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Siddarth Shankar; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Suneeth, K. V.

    The stratospheric air is dry and ozone rich in nature, whereas the tropospheric air is enriched in humidity with high aerosol concentration. The tropopause is the stable layer which acts as a semi-permeable membrane between these two spheres (i.e. troposphere and stratosphere) and thus hinders the exchange of the minors constituents (e.g. water vapour and ozone) between these two spheres. This complex equilibrium region is known as the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. The major mixing process befalls over the tropical region, where the maximum convective systems occur through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Thus, it is necessary to understand the dynamical and chemical processes that occurring at UTLS region and quantative analysis of the mass exchange is essential. Ten years of data obtained from Indian MST radar located at a Tropical station Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) is used to study the long- and short (event) term cross tropopause transport. The prime mechanisms responsible for the radar backscattering echoes are isotropic/anisotropic turbulence fluctuations in the refractive index and Fresnel reflection/scattering due to sharp gradients in the radio refractive index. The inhomogeneties in the radio refractive index are contributed by both humidity and temperature below 8 km height, whereas above it, it is only contributed by the temperature gradients. When the dry stratospheric air penetrates into the troposphere, it will take some time to mix with the humid air of troposphere. Due to two different constituents of the air, there will be strong refractive index gradient, which will be reflected as enhanced radar backscattering echoes. The dry stratospheric air will slowly mix with the humid tropospheric air by means of small scale turbulence. Using this scattering mechanism behavior, the long-term and its seasonal characteristics, and the short-term event wise (convective disturbances) stratospheric air intrusion into the troposphere

  4. Short-term changes in ambient temperature and risk of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Wilker, Elissa H; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gold, Diane R; Wellenius, Gregory A; Mittleman, Murray A

    2014-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence of a higher short-term risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with ambient temperature, there have been discrepant findings on the association between temperature and ischemic stroke. Moreover, few studies have considered potential confounding by ambient fine particulate matter air pollution <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and none have examined the impact of temperature changes on stroke in the subsequent hours rather than days. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changes in temperature trigger an ischemic stroke in the following hours and days and whether humid days are particularly harmful. We reviewed the medical records of 1,705 patients residing in the metropolitan region of Boston, Mass., USA, who were hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed ischemic stroke, and we abstracted data on the time of symptom onset and clinical characteristics. We obtained hourly meteorological data from the National Weather Service station and hourly PM2.5 data from the Harvard ambient monitoring station. We used the time-stratified case-crossover design to assess the association between ischemic stroke and apparent temperature averaged over 1-7 days prior to stroke onset adjusting for PM2.5. We assessed whether differences in apparent temperature trigger a stroke within shorter time periods by examining the association between stroke onset and apparent temperature levels averaged in 2-hour increments prior to stroke onset (0-2 h through 36-38 h). We tested whether the association varied by health characteristics or by PM2.5, ozone or relative humidity. The incidence rate ratio of ischemic stroke was 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.18) following a 5°C decrement in average apparent temperature over the 2 days preceding symptom onset. The higher risk associated with cooler temperatures peaked in the first 14-34 h. There was no statistically significant difference in the association between temperature and ischemic stroke across seasons

  5. The Importance of Data Quality on Studies of Short-term and Long-Term Ionospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherhead, E. C.; Araujo-Pradere, E.

    2004-12-01

    The 50-year record of ionospheric observations from ground-based stations worldwide provides a valuable data set for several applications, including studies of short-term processes and detection of long-term environmental change. The ionospheric region is subject to large natural variability as a result of numerous influences including solar and geomagnetic activity. These variations occur on both short and long timescales and must be well understood before a clear trend or signal can be identified. Previous analyses of the layer heights and critical frequencies have provided conflicting results, and an evaluation of various approaches suggests that data quality has a significant influence on studies of both short- and long-term ionospheric behavior. Exploring the quality of the observations brought to light three main areas that must be addressed before the data are suitable for analysis. First, changes in instrumentation, including the switch from analog to digital technology, have resulted in observable shifts in the data records. Understanding and accounting for these shifts can reduce biases that may result when analyzing the time series of observations. Second, many of the records contained time periods during which no data were reported. These gaps, if not properly addressed in the data analysis, can affect the evaluation of both trends and forcing mechanisms. Third, changes in how parameters (particularly peak layer heights and virtual heights) are inferred can also affect the analysis. These problems have been carefully addressed for four ionosonde stations and have resulted in a corrected, more robust data set for analyzing storms and other short-term processes and for assessing long-term trends. We will summarize some of the issues affecting the data record and will present preliminary results from analyses of the improved data set.

  6. Effect of CaO on retention of S, Cl, Br, As, Mn, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, W and Pb in bottom ashes from fluidized-bed coal combustion power station.

    PubMed

    Bartoňová, Lucie; Klika, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate whether Ca-bearing additives used during coal combustion can also help with the retention of some other elements. This work was focused on the evaluation of bottom ashes collected during four full-scale combustion tests at an operating thermal fluidized-bed power station. Bottom ashes were preferred to fly ashes for the study to avoid interference from condensation processes usually occurring in the post-combustion zone. This work focused on the behaviors of S, Cl, Br, As, Mn, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, W, and Pb. Strong positive correlations with CaO content in bottom ashes were observed (for all four combustion tests) for S, As, Cl and Br (R=0.917-0.999). Strong inverse proportionality was calculated between the contents of Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr and Mn and CaO, so these elements showed association to materials other than Ca-bearing compounds (e.g., to aluminosilicates, organic matter, etc.). Somewhat unclear behaviors were observed for W, Cu, and V. Their correlation coefficients were evaluated as statistically "not significant", i.e., these elements were not thought to be significantly associated with CaO. It was also discovered that major enrichment of CaO in the finest bottom ash fractions could be advantageously used for simple separation of elements strongly associated with these fractions, mainly S and As, but also Cl or Br. Removal of 5% of the finest ash particles brings about a decrease in As concentration down to 77%-80% of its original bulk ash content, which can be conveniently used e.g., when high As content complicates further ash utilization.

  7. A Single 2-Spike Burst Induces GluR1-dependent Associative Short-term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2011-01-01

    Recent work [Sanderson, D., Good, M.A., Skelton, K., Sprengel, R., Seeburg, P. H., Nicholas, J., et al. Enhanced long-term and impaired short-term spatial memory in GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice: Evidence for a dual-process memory model. Learning and Memory, in press] showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon that has received little attention. Here we examined several properties of STP and tested the dependence of STP on GluR1. The minimal requirement for inducing STP was examined using a test pathway and a conditioning pathway. Several closely spaced stimuli in the test pathway, forming a single brief burst, were sufficient to induce STP. Thus, STP is likely to be induced by the similar bursts that occur in vivo. STP induction is associative in nature and dependent on the NMDAR. STP decays with two components, a fast component (1.6 ± 0.26 min) and a slower one (19 ± 6.6 min). To test the role of GluR1 in STP, experiments were conducted on GluR1 knockout mice. We found that STP was greatly reduced. These results, taken together with the behavioral work of D. Sanderson et al. [Sanderson, D., Good, M. A, Skelton, K., Sprengel, R., Seeburg, P. H., Nicholas, J., et al. Enhanced long-term and impaired short-term spatial memory in GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice: Evidence for a dual-process memory model. Learning and Memory, in press], provide genetic evidence that STP is a likely mechanism of STM. PMID:19925206

  8. Short-term EEG spectral pattern as a single event in EEG phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Al A; Fingelkurts, An A

    2010-09-08

    Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a "static" picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term spectra of various types in accordance with the number of types of EEG stationary segments instead of using averaged power spectrum for the whole EEG. It is suggested that the various perceptual and cognitive operations associated with a mental or behavioural condition constitute a single distinguishable neurophysiological state with a distinct and reliable spectral pattern. In this case, one type of short-term spectral pattern may be considered as a single event in EEG phenomenology. To support this assumption the following issues are considered in detail: (a) the relations between local EEG short-term spectral pattern of particular type and the actual state of the neurons in underlying network and a volume conduction; (b) relationship between morphology of EEG short-term spectral pattern and the state of the underlying neurodynamical system i.e. neuronal assembly; (c) relation of different spectral pattern components to a distinct physiological mechanism; (d) relation of different spectral pattern components to different functional significance; (e) developmental changes of spectral pattern components; (f) heredity of the variance in the individual spectral pattern and its components; (g) intra-individual stability of the sets of EEG short-term spectral patterns and their percent ratio; (h) discrete dynamics of EEG short-term spectral patterns. Functional relevance (consistency) of EEG short-term spectral patterns in accordance with the changes of brain functional state

  9. Short-term Mobility and Increased Partnership Concurrency among Men in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Cassels, Susan; Manhart, Lisa; Jenness, Samuel M.; Morris, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration has long been understood as an underlying factor for HIV transmission, and sexual partner concurrency has been increasingly studied as an important component of HIV transmission dynamics. However, less work has examined the role of short-term mobility in sexual partner concurrency using a network approach. Short-term mobility may be a risk for HIV for the migrant’s partner as well either through the partner’s risk behaviors while the migrant is away, such as the partner having additional partners, or via exposure to the return migrant. Methods Using data from the 2010–11 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, weighted generalized linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between short-term mobility and partnership concurrency at the individual and partnership levels. Results At the individual level, we find strong evidence of an association between short-term mobility and concurrency. Men who traveled were more likely to have concurrent partnerships compared to men who did not travel and the relationship was non-linear: each trip was associated with a 2% higher probability of concurrency, with a diminishing risk at 60 trips (p<0.001). At the partnership level, short-term mobility by the male only or both partners was associated with male concurrency. Couples in which the female only traveled exhibited less male concurrency. Conclusions Short-term mobility has the ability to impact population-level transmission dynamics by facilitating partnership concurrency and thus onward HIV transmission. Short-term migrants may be an important population to target for HIV testing, treatment, or social and behavioral interventions to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:23824635

  10. Short-Term EEG Spectral Pattern as a Single Event in EEG Phenomenology

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Al. A; Fingelkurts, An. A

    2010-01-01

    Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a “static” picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term spectra of various types in accordance with the number of types of EEG stationary segments instead of using averaged power spectrum for the whole EEG. It is suggested that the various perceptual and cognitive operations associated with a mental or behavioural condition constitute a single distinguishable neurophysiological state with a distinct and reliable spectral pattern. In this case, one type of short-term spectral pattern may be considered as a single event in EEG phenomenology. To support this assumption the following issues are considered in detail: (a) the relations between local EEG short-term spectral pattern of particular type and the actual state of the neurons in underlying network and a volume conduction; (b) relationship between morphology of EEG short-term spectral pattern and the state of the underlying neurodynamical system i.e. neuronal assembly; (c) relation of different spectral pattern components to a distinct physiological mechanism; (d) relation of different spectral pattern components to different functional significance; (e) developmental changes of spectral pattern components; (f) heredity of the variance in the individual spectral pattern and its components; (g) intra-individual stability of the sets of EEG short-term spectral patterns and their percent ratio; (h) discrete dynamics of EEG short-term spectral patterns. Functional relevance (consistency) of EEG short-term spectral patterns in accordance with the changes of brain functional state

  11. Effect of Short-Term Hypergravity Treatment on Mouse 2-Cell Embryo Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Li-Na; Lei, Xiao-Hua; Cao, Yu-Jing; Zhang, Yun-Fang; Cao, Zhong-Hong; Chen, Qi; Duan, En-Kui

    2015-11-01

    Though there are numerous biological experiments, which have been performed in a space environment, to study the physiological effect of space travel on living organisms, while the potential effect of weightlessness or short-term hypergravity on the reproductive system in most species, particularly in mammalian is still controversial and unclear. In our previous study, we investigated the effect of space microgravity on the development of mouse 4-cell embryos by using Chinese SJ-8. .Unexpectedly, we did not get any developed embryo during the space-flight. Considering that the process of space experiment is quite different from most experiments done on earth in several aspects such as, the vibration and short-term hypergravity during the rock launching and landing. Thus we want to know whether the short-term hypergravity produced by the launch process affect the early embryo development in mice, and howthe early embryos respond to the hypergravity. In present study, we are mimicking the short-term hypergravity during launch by using a centrifuge to investigate its influence on the development of early embryo (2-cell) in mice. We also examined the actin filament distribution in 2-cell embryos by immunostaining to test their potential capacity of development under short-term hypergravity exposure. Our results showed that most 2-cell embryos in the hypergravity exposure groups developed into blastocysts with normal morphology after 72h cultured in vitro, and there is no obvious difference in the development rate of blastocyst formation compared to the control. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in birth rates after oviduct transfer of 2-cell mouse embryos exposed on short-term hypergravity compared with 1 g condition. In addition, the well-organized actin distribution appeared in 2-cell embryos after exposed on hypergravity and also in the subsequent developmental blastocysts. Taken together, our data shows that short-term exposure in

  12. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  13. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  15. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  16. GF-GC Theory of Human Cognition: Differentiation of Short-Term Auditory and Visual Memory Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Ron; Lieberman, Lewis

    1994-01-01

    Study sought to determine whether separate short-term auditory and visual memory factors would emerge given a sufficient number of markers in a factor matrix. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Short-term visual and short-term auditory memory factors emerged as expected. (RJM)

  17. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  18. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Green, Tyler; Green, Heidi; Scandlyn, Jean; Kestler, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. Methods The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin) to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Results Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. Conclusion The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the individual project. In this

  19. Short-term delays (hours) of ionospheric spread F occurrence at a range of latitudes, following geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, G. G.

    1998-06-01

    The analyses have investigated the short-term responses of spread F occurrence (as identified on ionograms) at low- and middle-latitude stations to geomagnetic activity changes so that comparisons can be made with results from equatorial stations reported earlier [Bowman, 1995]. Using superposed-epoch methods, it is found that the AE index is either enhanced or depressed a few hours prior to spread F occurrence depending on whether or not low or high (respectively) spread F controls are used. The geomagnetic activity related to this inverse relationship is centered mainly around the local times of 1200 and 1800. A direct relationship is also found for geomagnetic activity which occurs in the night hours. The results for these other latitude stations are the same as those reported in the earlier paper for equatorial stations. This paper also considers for the equatorial station Huancayo extreme responses of spread F occurrence to geomagnetic activity, involving occasions of high spread F occurrence when there is a sudden drop in the level to zero for isolated days when a few hours earlier at the favored times mentioned above enhanced geomagnetic activity occurs. It is suggested that the inverse relationship involves the control of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (MS-TID) wave amplitudes by neutral-density changes, produced by large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LS-TIDs) generated by geomagnetic activity concentrated mainly around the local times of 1200 and 1800. The LS-TIDs generated by geomagnetic activity at night behave differently. Height rises are produced, and as a result of the lower neutral-density levels, spread F is recorded particularly in the presunrise period. Extending the comparison of spread F characteristics at different latitudes, some comments are made on recent observations using data from satellite recordings, concerning the similarities between electron-density depletions detected for equatorial regions and those for

  20. Semantic and phonological contributions to short-term repetition and long-term cued sentence recall.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Rose, Nathan S; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C; Panamsky, Lilia; Silberberg, Alexandra; Madani, Noushin; Links, Kira A

    2016-02-01

    The function of verbal short-term memory is supported not only by the phonological loop, but also by semantic resources that may operate on both short and long time scales. Elucidation of the neural underpinnings of these mechanisms requires effective behavioral manipulations that can selectively engage them. We developed a novel cued sentence recall paradigm to assess the effects of two factors on sentence recall accuracy at short-term and long-term stages. Participants initially repeated auditory sentences immediately following a 14-s retention period. After this task was complete, long-term memory for each sentence was probed by a two-word recall cue. The sentences were either concrete (high imageability) or abstract (low imageability), and the initial 14-s retention period was filled with either an undemanding finger-tapping task or a more engaging articulatory suppression task (Exp. 1, counting backward by threes; Exp. 2, repeating a four-syllable nonword). Recall was always better for the concrete sentences. Articulatory suppression reduced accuracy in short-term recall, especially for abstract sentences, but the sentences initially recalled following articulatory suppression were retained better at the subsequent cued-recall test, suggesting that the engagement of semantic mechanisms for short-term retention promoted encoding of the sentence meaning into long-term memory. These results provide a basis for using sentence imageability and subsequent memory performance as probes of semantic engagement in short-term memory for sentences.