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Sample records for boundary current final

  1. Birkeland current boundary flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, W. E.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Jackel, B.; Donovan, E.; Connors, M.; Juusola, L.

    2017-04-01

    Intense zonal ion velocity jets in the northern nightside auroral zone are measured during quiet geomagnetic conditions by the Swarm satellites around 500 km altitude. These velocity jets, exceeding 1 km/s in over 50% of orbits measured, range from 20 to 100 km in meridional thickness and reach a maximum at the boundary between upward and downward field-aligned current. On average they represent a potential difference of approximately 3 kV between the R1/R2 currents. This boundary also separates different regions of electron temperature and meridional flow and is associated with ion upflows and anisotropic heating. Both dawnward and duskward velocity jets are observed, including some oppositely directed pairs bounding regions of upward field-aligned current. Coincident ground-based observations place ion velocity jets adjacent to auroral arcs, embedded in the auroral electrojets. Previous literature has focused on fast flows occurring in regions of relative low conductivity surrounding auroral arcs, typically during geomagnetically active conditions, and does not address the occurrence frequency of these events. We show ion velocity jets to be a persistent and ubiquitous property of the electrodynamics of quiet time R1/R2 current closure near midnight in the winter hemisphere.

  2. Western boundary currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Nelson G.; Johns, William E.

    1995-07-01

    The past decade has seen considerable progress toward clarifying the mean circulation of the World's oceans. At the same time we have come to realize that the specification of a mean circulation is difficult as there is energy at all time scales which are quantifiable and the spectrum is usually red. The western boundary currents (WBCs) of the oceans are the principal conduits for communication between the equatorial regions, where heat is added to the oceans and the polar regions where it is removed. Understanding how these current systems work is fundamental to understanding the earth's global climate engine. Several substantial observational programs focussed on WBCs have been undertaken in recent years especially within the North and South Atlantic. These include studies of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence and the South Atlantic Ventilation Experiment (SAVE) within the South Atlantic, the Western Tropical Atlantic Experiment (WESTRAX) in the tropics, and the Subtropical Atlantic Climate Study (STACS) and Synoptic Ocean Prediction experiment (SYNOP) in the subtropics. We shall concentrate in this review with a summary of the results from these programs but will also briefly cover new findings from other parts of the globe. Efforts connected with programs of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment in the Pacific and the South Atlantic (particularly the Deep Basin Experiment) are still underway and can be expected to make substantial contributions to the knowledge of WBCs in the future. The nature of this review also compells us to emphasize recent U.S. research but we will incorporate results from the international community, as well, especially in regions of the globe where the U.S. has done little. The reader may also wish to consult recent reviews by Ierley [1990] and Huang [1991], which discuss many issues relevant to WBCs in subtropical gyres.

  3. Western boundary currents and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, Richard; Simpson, Isla R.

    2016-09-01

    A recent paper in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans connects recent changes in atmospheric circulation to poleward movement and intensification of western boundary currents. Causes and characteristics of past and future trends in surface wind stress and western boundary currents are discussed here.

  4. Boundary cartilage lubrication: review of current concepts.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Matej

    2014-03-01

    Effective lubrication of synovial joints is important to prevent cartilage degeneration and to keep the joints healthy. This paper sets out the basics of engineering lubrication with respect to the composition and properties of synovial fluid constituents. Two basic types of boundary lubrication are discussed: the presence of highly hydrophilic proteoglycans that provide a water liquid film, and the existence of multilamellar phospholipids lubricating layers at the surface ofarticular cartilage. Based on current knowledge, we may conclude that no single mechanism of boundary lubrication exists, and that effective boundary lubrication of synovial joints is maintained by the synergic effect of all synovial fluid constituents.

  5. Contrasting Boundary Scavenging in two Eastern Boundary Current Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. F.; Fleisher, M. Q.; Pavia, F. J.; Vivancos, S. M.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, P.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    We use data from two US GEOTRACES expeditions to compare boundary scavenging intensity in two eastern boundary current systems: the Canary Current off Mauritania and the Humboldt Current off Peru. Boundary scavenging refers to the enhanced removal of trace elements from the ocean by sorption to sinking particles in regions of greater than average particle abundance. Both regimes experience high rates of biological productivity and generation of biogenic particles, with rates of productivity potentially a little greater off Peru, whereas dust fluxes are an order of magnitude greater off NW Africa (see presentation by Vivancos et al., this meeting). Despite greater productivity off Peru, we find greater intensity of scavenging off NW Africa as measured by the residence time of dissolved 230Th integrated from the surface to a depth of 2500 m (10-11 years off NW Africa vs. 15-17 years off Peru). Dissolved 231Pa/230Th ratios off NW Africa (Hayes et al., Deep Sea Res.-II 116 (2015) 29-41) are nearly twice the values observed off Peru. We attribute this difference to the well-known tendency for lithogenic phases (dust) to strongly fractionate in favor of Th uptake during scavenging and removal, leaving the dissolved phase enriched in Pa. This behavior needs to be considered when interpreting sedimentary 231Pa/230Th ratios as a paleo proxy.

  6. Boundary stability under nonequilibrium conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackney, S.A.; Lee, J.K.; Plichta, M.R.

    1999-08-01

    Summaries of research accomplished are given for the following areas: Morphological (Diffusional) Stability; A New Algorithm for Numerical Modeling of Non-equilibrium Materials Behavior; A Unified Treatment of Single and Microcrystalline Film Edge Instabilities; and Validation of the Structure Based Grain Boundary Diffusion/Migration Model.

  7. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  8. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy from Western Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, John M.; He, Ruoying; Muglia, Michael; Lowcher, Caroline F.; Gong, Yanlin; Haines, Sara M.

    2017-01-01

    The kinetic energy in ocean currents, or marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, is a renewable energy resource that can help meet global energy requirements. An ocean circulation model–based census shows that subtropical surface western boundary currents (WBCs) are the only nearshore, large-scale currents swift enough to drive large electricity-generating ocean turbines envisioned for future use. We review several WBCs in the context of kinetic energy extraction. The power density in the Gulf Stream off North Carolina at times reaches several thousand watts per square meter at 75 m below the surface, and the annual average power is approximately 500–1,000 W m‑2. Significant fluctuations occur with periods of 3–20 days (Gulf Stream meanders) and weeks to months (Gulf Stream path shifts). Interannual variations in annual average power occur because of year-to-year changes in these WBC motions. No large-scale turbines presently exist, and the road to establishing MHK facilities in WBCs will encounter challenges that are similar in many aspects to those associated with the development of offshore wind power.

  9. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy from Western Boundary Currents.

    PubMed

    Bane, John M; He, Ruoying; Muglia, Michael; Lowcher, Caroline F; Gong, Yanlin; Haines, Sara M

    2017-01-03

    The kinetic energy in ocean currents, or marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, is a renewable energy resource that can help meet global energy requirements. An ocean circulation model-based census shows that subtropical surface western boundary currents (WBCs) are the only nearshore, large-scale currents swift enough to drive large electricity-generating ocean turbines envisioned for future use. We review several WBCs in the context of kinetic energy extraction. The power density in the Gulf Stream off North Carolina at times reaches several thousand watts per square meter at 75 m below the surface, and the annual average power is approximately 500-1,000 W m(-2). Significant fluctuations occur with periods of 3-20 days (Gulf Stream meanders) and weeks to months (Gulf Stream path shifts). Interannual variations in annual average power occur because of year-to-year changes in these WBC motions. No large-scale turbines presently exist, and the road to establishing MHK facilities in WBCs will encounter challenges that are similar in many aspects to those associated with the development of offshore wind power.

  10. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy from Western Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, J.; He, R.; Muglia, M.; Lowcher, C.; Gong, Y.; Haines, S.; VanZwieten, J.

    2016-12-01

    The kinetic energy in ocean currents, or marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, is a renewable energy resource that can help meet global energy requirements. An ocean circulation model-based census shows that subtropical surface western boundary currents (WBCs) are the only nearshore, large-scale currents swift enough to drive large, electricity-generating ocean turbines envisioned for future use. We review several WBCs in the context of kinetic energy extraction. The power density in the Gulf Stream off North Carolina at times reaches several thousand watts per square meter at 75 m below the surface, and the annual average power is approximately 500 to 1,000 Watts per square meter - a level that is comparable to wind power density over the nearby continental shelf in an area suitable for marine wind turbine installation. Significant fluctuations in MHK power density occur at a fixed site, with periods of 3 to 20 days (Gulf Stream meanders) and weeks to months (Gulf Stream path shifts). Interannual variations in annual-average power occur because of year-to-year changes in these WBC motions. No large-scale turbines presently exist, and the road to establishing MHK facilities in WBCs will encounter challenges that are similar in many aspects to those associated with the development of offshore wind power. Even so, important differences between wind and ocean current power need to be appreciated. To this end, we mention the two urban legends of ocean current power: "Unlike the wind, the Gulf Stream is always flowing" and "Ocean water is so much denser than air ( 800 times) that slower ocean currents have much more power than faster winds." We propose these new urban truths: "The Gulf Stream is always flowing, but it is not always in the same place" and "The greater density of ocean water as compared with air compensates for speed differences ( 1 m/s for currents and 10 m/s for winds), resulting in comparable power densities for both currents and winds."

  11. Regional Wave Climates along Eastern Boundary Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Two types of wind-generated gravity waves coexist at the ocean surface: wind sea and swell. Wind sea waves are waves under growing process. These young growing waves receive energy from the overlaying wind and are strongly coupled to the local wind field. Waves that propagate away from their generation area and no longer receive energy input from the local wind are called swell. Swell waves can travel long distances across entire ocean basins. A qualitative study of the ocean waves from a locally vs. remotely generation perspective is important, since the air sea interaction processes is strongly modulated by waves and vary accordingly to the prevalence of wind sea or swell waves in the area. A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves along eastern boundary currents (EBC; California Current, Canary Current, in the Northern Hemisphere, and Humboldt Current, Benguela Current, and Western Australia Current, in the Southern Hemisphere), based on the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis will be presented. The wind regime along EBC varies significantly from winter to summer. The high summer wind speeds along EBC generate higher locally generated wind sea waves, whereas lower winter wind speeds in these areas, along with stronger winter extratropical storms far away, lead to a predominance of swell waves there. In summer, the coast parallel winds also interact with coastal headlands, increasing the wind speed through a process called "expansion fan", which leads to an increase in the height of locally generated waves downwind of capes and points. Hence the spatial patterns of the wind sea or swell regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean along EBC, due to coastal geometry and fetch dimensions. Swell waves will be shown to be considerably more prevalent and to carry more energy in winter along EBC, while in summer locally generated wind sea waves are either more comparable to swell waves or

  12. Coherence of surface western boundary currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, Joel; Barnier, Bernard; Biastoch, Arne; Coward, Andrew; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Fransner, Filippa

    2013-04-01

    Surface western boundary currents (WBCs) like the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio or the Agulhas Current are among the strongest ocean currents. They account for a large fraction of the eastern branch of horizontal ocean gyres. In the North Atlantic the Gulf Stream also accounts for a large part of the northward branch of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Since 1982 the Gulf Stream transport across the Straits of Florida at 26°N has been observed. This provides us with a unique 30-year long timeseries of a WBC which is central for studying both the MOC and North Atlantic subpolar Gyre at 26°N. However, how representative are such local observations for the wider ocean circulation? Is e.g. a peak/trough in the transport trough Florida Straits at 26°N representative for transports further north or south? Here we study the spatial coherence of WBCs using output from a series of 1/12° eddy-resolving runs performed with the NEMO ocean model in the framework of the DRAKKAR project. The simulations cover the period from 1978 to 2007. Using composite analysis we find a large spatial coherence for the major WBCs. On interannual timescales weak/strong WBC transports coincide with a poleward/equatorward shift in the position of the eastward extensions once the WBCs have separated from the continents. In the North Atlantic increased/decreased WBC transport and southward/northward shifts of the eastward extension coincide with anticyclonic/cyclonic wind stress anomalies over the western North Atlantic. Using the observed transports through Florida Straits and geostrophic surface velocities derived from satellite altimetry reveals spatial WBC coherence patterns similar those simulated in the eddy-resolving ocean model.

  13. Spatial variation of the current in grain boundary Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Carmody, M.; Moeckly, B. H.; Merkle, K. L.; Marks, L. D.

    2000-03-01

    The spatial variation of the current across the boundary in several YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} grain boundary Josephson junctions was determined using direct methods. A phase retrieval algorithm was used to calculate the positional critical current density J(x) from critical current versus applied magnetic field, I{sub c}(B), measurements. The current distributions were highly nonuniform along the length of the junctions. These measurements are consistent with existing filamentary grain boundary models, low temperature scanning microscopy studies, and laser scanning microscopy studies of high T{sub c} grain boundaries. The very large scatter in the critical currents reported in the literature for grain boundaries of the same macroscopic geometry appear to be due to the underlying variations in local critical currents. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Quantifying Boundary Currents in the Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    existing HRX transect data, currently maintained by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO DMAR. In particular, the focus will be on transect...All XBT data from 1986 through 2014 along IX12 have now been obtained from the Bureau of Meteorology . Initial efforts have concentrated on quality

  15. Boundary Waves on the Ice Surface Created by Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, K.; Izumi, N.; Yokokawa, M.; Yamada, T.; de Lima, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of periodic boundary waves, e.g. antidunes and cyclic steps (Parker & Izumi 2000) has been known to be caused by instabilities between flow and bed (e.g. Engelund 1970), and are observed not only on river beds or ocean floors but also on ice surfaces, such as the surface of glaciers and underside of river ice (Carey 1966). In addition, owing to recent advancements of remote sensing technology, it has been found that the surfaces of the polar ice caps on Mars as well as on the Earth have step-like formations (Smith & Holt 2010) which are assumed to be boundary waves, because they are generated perpendicularly to the direction of the currents. These currents acting on the polar ice caps are density airflow, i.e. katabatic wind (Howard et al 2000). The comprehension of the formation process of the Martian polar ice caps may reveal climate changes which have occurred on Mars. Although the formation of boundary waves on river beds or ocean floors has been studied by a number of researchers, there are few works on their formation on ice surfaces. Yokokawa et al (2013) suggested that the temperature distribution of the ambient air, fluid and ice is a factor which determines the direction of migration of boundary waves formed on ice surfaces through their experiments. In this study, we propose a mathematical model in order to describe the formation process of the boundary waves and the direction of their migration. We consider that a liquid is flowing through a flume filled with a flat ice layer on the bottom. The flow is assumed to be turbulent and its temperature is assumed to merge with the ambient temperature at the flow surface and with the melting point of ice at the bottom (ice surface). The ice surface evolution is dependent on the unbalance between the interfacial heat flux of the liquid and ice, and we employ the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, the continuity equation, heat transfer equations for the liquid and ice, and a heat balance

  16. The Coastal Boundary Layer of the Yucatan Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, C.; Candela, J.

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution measurements of the Yucatan Current, one of the most intense western-boundary currents in the World at these latitudes, were performed by CICESE as part of its CANEK project to understand the mechanisms that transfer properties across the shelf slope. Eight shallow water and moored acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were deployed along a transect southeast of the shallow fringing reef lagoon of Puerto Morelos, through the narrow continental shelf and down the slope of the Yucatan Channel. The dataset spans 22 months, starting in May 2006, and includes full water column current profiles. Currents were found more variable over the shelf break than on the shelf or the slope. The mean current strongly follows the bathymetry everywhere and particularly on the slope. Currents were highly depth-independent in the upper 100 m, accounting for more than 80% of the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in this layer. The analysis suggest that the transition between deep and shallow water current regimes is driven by the coupling of the lateral boundary layer imposed by the shelf-break, and the shallow surface and bottom boundary layers originated by wind stress, tidal currents, and wind wave bottom stress.

  17. The current structure of stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow

    SciTech Connect

    Myrhaug, D.; Slaattelid, O.H.

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents the bottom shear stress and velocity profiles in stratified tidal planetary boundary layer flow by using similarity theory. For a given seabed roughness length, free stream current velocity components, frequency of tidal oscillation, Coriolis parameter and stratification parameter the maximum bottom shear stress is determined for flow conditions in the rough, smooth and transitional smooth-to-rough turbulent regime. Further, the direction of the bottom shear stress and the velocity profiles are given. Comparison is made with data from field measurements of time-independent as well as tidal planetary boundary layer flow for neutral conditions, and the agreement between the predictions and the data is generally good. Further, an example of application for stable stratification is given, and qualitatively the predictions show, as expected, that the bottom shear stress and the thickness of the boundary layer become smaller for stable than for neutral stratification. Other features of the tidal planetary boundary layer flow are also discussed.

  18. Current leakage performance of dielectric elastomers under different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tongqing; Shi, Zhibao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Huang, He; Wang, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade, dielectric elastomers have become promising candidates in the applications of soft electromechanical transducers due to their outstanding properties of large deformation and high energy density. Current leakage of dielectric elastomer is one of the important dissipative mechanisms affecting the energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we experimentally investigate the current leakage performance of dielectric elastomers with different boundary conditions. We find that for displacement-type boundary conditions, the transition from Ohmic conduction to non-Ohmic conduction is abrupt near the critical electric field. By comparison, for force-type boundary conditions, the current leakage density versus electric field curve is smooth and is fit well by an exponential function. The equivalent resistivity of dielectric elastomers under force-type boundary conditions is approximately an order of magnitude smaller than that under displacement-type boundary conditions. The difference is qualitatively explained by a microscopic physical model. These results will help to design and optimize dielectric elastomer transducers to improve their energy conversion efficiency.

  19. Plasma Transport at the Magnetospheric Flank Boundary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, Antonius

    2012-04-23

    Progress is highlighted in these areas: 1. Model of magnetic reconnection induced by three-dimensional Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes at the magnetospheric flank boundary; 2. Quantitative evaluation of mass transport from the magnetosheath onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 3. Comparison of mass transfer by cusp reconnection and Flank Kelvin Helmholtz modes; 4. Entropy constraint and plasma transport in the magnetotail - a new mechanism for current sheet thinning; 5. Test particle model for mass transport onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 6. Influence of density asymmetry and magnetic shear on (a) the linear and nonlinear growth of 3D Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes, and (b) three-dimensional KH mediated mass transport; 7. Examination of entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail; 8. Entropy change and plasma transport by KH mediated reconnection - mixing and heating of plasma; 9. Entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail - tail reconnection; and, 10. Wave coupling at the magnetospheric boundary and generation of kinetic Alfven waves.

  20. Pacific western boundary currents and their roles in climate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dunxin; Wu, Lixin; Cai, Wenju; Gupta, Alex Sen; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Qiu, Bo; Gordon, Arnold L; Lin, Xiaopei; Chen, Zhaohui; Hu, Shijian; Wang, Guojian; Wang, Qingye; Sprintall, Janet; Qu, Tangdong; Kashino, Yuji; Wang, Fan; Kessler, William S

    2015-06-18

    Pacific Ocean western boundary currents and the interlinked equatorial Pacific circulation system were among the first currents of these types to be explored by pioneering oceanographers. The widely accepted but poorly quantified importance of these currents-in processes such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Indonesian Throughflow-has triggered renewed interest. Ongoing efforts are seeking to understand the heat and mass balances of the equatorial Pacific, and possible changes associated with greenhouse-gas-induced climate change. Only a concerted international effort will close the observational, theoretical and technical gaps currently limiting a robust answer to these elusive questions.

  1. Integrating Observations of the Boundary Current Flow around Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    around Sri Lanka 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Boundary Current Flow around Sri Lanka Uwe Send and Matthias Lankhorst Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0230...time at two sites near Sri Lanka . OBJECTIVES Deploy and operate two seafloor instruments called PIES (pressure-sensing inverted echo sounders) in

  2. Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans Robin D. Muench Earth & Space Research 1910 Fairview Ave E., Ste 210 Seattle...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Earth & Space Research,1910 Fairview Ave E., Ste 210,Seattle,WA,98102 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...for field platforms and instrumentation used for data collection. Laurence Padman ( Earth & Space Research) has been the primary collaborator. Other

  3. Current Oscillations, Interacting Hall Discs and Boundary CFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, A. P.; Vaidya, S.; Bimonte, G.; Govindarajan, T. R.; Gupta, K. S.; John, V.

    In this paper, we discuss the behavior of conformal field theories interacting at a single point. The edge states of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) system give rise to a particular representation of a chiral Kac-Moody current algebra. We show that in the case of QHE systems interacting at one point we obtain a "twisted" representation of the current algebra. The condition for stationarity of currents is the same as the classical Kirchoff's law applied to the currents at the interaction point. We find that in the case of two discs touching at one point, since the currents are chiral, they are not stationary and one obtains current oscillations between the two discs. We determine the frequency of these oscillations in terms of an effective parameter characterizing the interaction. The chiral conformal field theories can be represented in terms of bosonic Lagrangians with a boundary interaction. We discuss how these one-point interactions can be represented as boundary conditions on fields, and how the requirement of chirality leads to restrictions on the interactions described by these Lagrangians. By gauging these models we find that the theory is naturally coupled to a Chern-Simons gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, and this coupling is completely determined by the requirement of anomaly cancellation.

  4. Western boundary currents in the atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M. M.; Lewis, S. R.; Read, P. L.; Catling, D. C.

    1994-02-01

    WESTERN boundary currents (WBCs) are an intensification of north-south flow adjacent to an eastward-facing meridional boundary. Although most familiar in the oceans (where the Gulf Stream is the best known example), WBCs also occur in the Earth's troposphere, the main example being the East African Jet1, which is thought to play an important role in the Asiatic monsoon. Here we identify boundary currents in a different geophysical context: a numerical simulation of the atmosphere of Mars. In our simulation, WBCs exist in association with significant cross-equatorial flow and the presence of equatorial martian topography, which has vertical scale far exceeding terrestrial relief2. The intensity and width of these currents depend on model parameters, notably the surface drag. From a comparison of our results with other martian models we suggest that WBCs have already been simulated, although they were not previously identified as such3. The available observational evidence appears to be consistent with the presence of martian WBCs, which may be important in the generation of global and great dust storms.

  5. A New DMSP Magnetometer & Auroral Boundary Dataset and Estimates of Field Aligned Currents in Dynamic Auroral Boundary Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Kilcommons, Liam M; Redmon, Robert J; Knipp, Delores J

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a method for reprocessing the multi-decadal, multi-spacecraft Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Magnetometer (DMSP SSM) dataset and have applied it to fifteen spacecraft-years of data (DMSP Flight 16-18, 2010-2014). This Level-2 dataset improves on other available SSM datasets with recalculated spacecraft locations and magnetic perturbations, artifact signal removal, representations of the observations in geomagnetic coordinates, and in-situ auroral boundaries. Spacecraft locations have been recalculated using ground-tracking information. Magnetic perturbations (measured field minus modeled main-field) are recomputed. The updated locations ensure the appropriate model field is used. We characterize and remove a slow-varying signal in the magnetic field measurements. This signal is a combination of ring current and measurement artifacts. A final artifact remains after processing: step-discontinuities in the baseline caused by activation/deactivation of spacecraft electronics. Using coincident data from the DMSP precipitating electrons and ions instrument (SSJ4/5), we detect the in-situ auroral boundaries with an improvement to the Redmon et al. [2010] algorithm. We embed the location of the aurora and an accompanying figure of merit in the Level-2 SSM data product. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of this new dataset by estimating field-aligned current (FAC) density using the Minimum Variance Analysis (MVA) technique. The FAC estimates are then expressed in dynamic auroral boundary coordinates using the SSJ-derived boundaries, demonstrating a dawn-dusk asymmetry in average FAC location relative to the equatorward edge of the aurora. The new SSM dataset is now available in several public repositories.

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, David D.

    2016-03-01

    The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

  7. 76 FR 57729 - Boundary Hydroelectric Project; Sullivan Creek Project; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boundary Hydroelectric Project; Sullivan Creek Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Relicensing of the Boundary Hydroelectric... reviewed the applications for license for the Boundary Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 2144-38), and...

  8. A western boundary current east of New Caledonia: Observed characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparin, Florent; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Maes, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    Waters from the South Equatorial Current (SEC), the northern branch of the South Pacific subtropical gyre, are a major supply of heat to the equatorial warm pool, and have an important contribution to climate variability and ENSO which motivated the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Climate Experiment (SPICE, CLIVAR/WCRP). Initially a broad westward current extending from the equator to 30°S, the SEC splits upon arriving at the major islands and archipelagoes of Fiji (18°S, 180°E), Vanuatu (16°S, 168°E), and New Caledonia (22°S, 165°E), resulting in a complex system of western boundary currents and zonal jets that feed the Coral and Solomon Seas. We focus here on the formation of one specific jet feeding the Coral Sea, the North Caledonian Jet (NCJ). Using a combination of recent oceanographic cruises, we describe the ocean circulation to the northeast of New Caledonia, where the SEC forms a western boundary current that ultimately becomes the NCJ. This current, which we document for the first time and propose to refer to as the East Caledonian Current (ECC), has its core located 10-100 km off the east coast of New Caledonia, and extends vertically to at least 1000 m depth. Water mass properties show continuous westward transports through the ECC, from the SEC to the NCJ in both the South Pacific Tropical Waters in the thermocline and Antarctic Intermediate Waters near 700 m depth. The ECC extends about 100 km horizontally; its average 0-1000 m transport was estimated at 14.5±3 Sv off the north tip of the New Caledonian reef, with a maximum of 20 Sv in May 2010. South of that the upstream branch of the ECC east of the Loyalty is close to 8 Sv suggesting an important additional contribution from central Pacific waters carried by the SEC at 16°S and diverted to our region through the western boundary current system east of Vanuatu.

  9. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, P; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF; Turner, DD; Chilson, P; Blumberg, WG; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M; Jacobsen, EP; Wharton, S

    2015-11-01

    The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.

  10. LES of a Stratified Boundary Layer under an Oscillating Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayen, Bishakhdatta; Sarkar, Sutanu; Taylor, John

    2008-11-01

    A numerical study based on large-eddy simulation (LES) is performed in the case of an oscillating tidal flow with a uniform ambient stratification. Here, the Reynolds number Reδ=U0δs/ν=1790 (U0= maximum amplitude of the outer flow, δs= √2 ν/φ is the Stokes layer thickness, ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and φ the angular frequency of the oscillatory current), and N∞^2/2̂= 500 where N∞ is the buoyancy frequency of the overlying stratified layer. Turbulence appears at a tidal phase of approximately π/4 and is sustained throughout the deceleration phase (π/2<φtd<π, 3π/2<φtd<2π). Production of turbulence is confined to the the wall region and, for stratified flow, in the mixed layer between the wall and the thermocline. For both the stratified and unstratified cases, there is a log layer over a significant extent of the tidal cycle. Our unstratified flow results are verified against the numerical simulations of Salon et ; al (2007) %. JFM, 2007, vol 570, 253-296 and experimental data of Jensen et ; al. (1987). %JFM, 1987, vol 206, 256-297. In the presence of stratification, the boundary layer height decreases substantially and the wall shear stress increases slightly with respect to the unstratified case. Stratification effects on boundary layer turbulence and on the thermal field including the formation and collapse of the thermocline will be discussed.

  11. On the cooling of a buoyant boundary current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Hsien-Wang

    2005-06-01

    Through a steady-state reduced-gravity model, we examine the downstream evolution of a buoyant boundary current as it is subjected to surface cooling. It is found that the adverse pressure gradient associated with the diminishing buoyancy is countered by falling pressure head, so the overall strength of the current—as measured by the (transport-weighted) mean square velocity—remains unchanged. This constancy also applies to the cross-stream difference of the square velocity because of the vorticity constraint, which leads to the general deduction that the net current shear is enhanced regardless of its upstream sign. As a consequence, if the upstream flow contains near-shore and offshore branches that are comparable in strength, this parity would persist downstream; but if the near-shore branch is weaker to begin with, it may be stagnated by cooling, with the ensuing generation of anti-cyclonic eddies. On account of the geostrophic balance, the buoyant layer narrows as the square root of the buoyancy—the same rate as the falling pressure head, but more rapid than that of the local deformation radius. Some of the model predictions are compared with observations from the Tsushima Current in the Japan/East Sea.

  12. Production regimes in four eastern boundary current systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. E.; Kearns, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    High productivity (maxima 3 g C m(sup -2)day(sup -1)) of the Eastern Boundary Currents (EBCs), i.e. the California, Peru-Humboldt, Canary and Benguela Currents, is driven by a combination of local forcing and large-scale circulation. The characteristics of the deep water brought to the surface by upwelling favorable winds depend on the large-scale circulation patterns. Here we use a new hydrographic and nutrient climatology together with satellite measurements ofthe wind vector, sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll concentration, and primary production modeled from ocean color to quantify the meridional and seasonal patterns of upwelling dynamics and biological response. The unprecedented combination of data sets allows us to describe objectively the variability for small regions within each current and to characterize the governing factors for biological production. The temporal and spatial environmental variability was due in most regions to large-scale circulation, alone or in combination with offshore transport (local forcing). The observed meridional and seasonal patterns of biomass and primary production were most highlycorrelated to components representing large-scale circulation. The biomass sustained by a given nutrient concentration in the Atlantic EBCs was twice as large as that of the Pacific EBCs. This apparent greater efficiency may be due toavailability of iron, physical retention, or differences in planktonic community structure.

  13. Production regimes in four eastern boundary current systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. E.; Kearns, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    High productivity (maxima 3 g C m(sup -2)day(sup -1)) of the Eastern Boundary Currents (EBCs), i.e. the California, Peru-Humboldt, Canary and Benguela Currents, is driven by a combination of local forcing and large-scale circulation. The characteristics of the deep water brought to the surface by upwelling favorable winds depend on the large-scale circulation patterns. Here we use a new hydrographic and nutrient climatology together with satellite measurements ofthe wind vector, sea-surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll concentration, and primary production modeled from ocean color to quantify the meridional and seasonal patterns of upwelling dynamics and biological response. The unprecedented combination of data sets allows us to describe objectively the variability for small regions within each current and to characterize the governing factors for biological production. The temporal and spatial environmental variability was due in most regions to large-scale circulation, alone or in combination with offshore transport (local forcing). The observed meridional and seasonal patterns of biomass and primary production were most highlycorrelated to components representing large-scale circulation. The biomass sustained by a given nutrient concentration in the Atlantic EBCs was twice as large as that of the Pacific EBCs. This apparent greater efficiency may be due toavailability of iron, physical retention, or differences in planktonic community structure.

  14. Reversal process of the South China Sea western boundary current in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2016-05-01

    Using merged sea level anomaly and absolute geostrophic velocity products from satellite altimetry and Argos drifter data, we analyzed the reversal process of the South China Sea (SCS) western boundary current (SCSwbc) from a summer to winter pattern in 2011 and important oceanic phenomena during this process. Results show that the outbreak time of the northeast monsoon over the southern SCS lagged that over the northern SCS by about 1 month. During the SCS monsoon reversal period, the SCSwbc reversed rapidly into the winter pattern at the Guangdong continental slope in late September. Subsequently, the southward Vietnam coastal boundary current strengthened. However, the northward Natuna Current maintained a summer state until mid-October. Thus, the balance between the southward and northward currents was lost when they met, their junction moved gradually southward. However, a loop current formed southeast of Vietnam because the main stream of the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) remained near its original latitude. Meanwhile, the VOC and associated dipole circulation system strengthened. After mid-October, the northward Natuna Current began to weaken, the loop current finally shed, becoming a cool ring. The VOC and its associated dipole sub-basin circulation system also weakened gradually until it disappeared.

  15. Carbon transport in the bottom boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, S.E.; Asper, V.L.

    1997-09-01

    The authors objective was to characterize distributions of chloropigment fluorescence in relation to physical processes in the benthic boundary layer in support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Ocean Margins Program`s (OMP) goal of quantifying carbon transport across the continental shelf. Their approach involved participation in the Ocean Margins Program (OMP) field experiment on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras by conducting multi-sensor fluorescence measurements of photosynthetic pigments. Specific tasks included (1) pre- and post-deployment calibration of multiple fluorescence sensors in conjunction with Woods Hole personnel; (2) collection and analysis of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and total particulate carbon in water column samples to aid in interpretation of the fluorescence time-series during the field experiment; (3) collaboration in the analysis and interpretation of 1994 and 1996 time-series data in support of efforts to quantify pigment and particulate organic carbon transport on the continental shelf off Cape Hatteras. This third component included analysis of data obtained with a multi-sensor fiber-optic fluorometer in the benthic boundary layer of the inner shelf off Cape Hatteras during summer 1994.

  16. Downscaling biogeochemistry in the Benguela eastern boundary current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machu, E.; Goubanova, K.; Le Vu, B.; Gutknecht, E.; Garçon, V.

    2015-06-01

    Dynamical downscaling is developed to better predict the regional impact of global changes in the framework of scenarios. As an intermediary step towards this objective we used the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to downscale a low resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean global circulation model (AOGCM; IPSL-CM4) for simulating the recent-past dynamics and biogeochemistry of the Benguela eastern boundary current. Both physical and biogeochemical improvements are discussed over the present climate scenario (1980-1999) under the light of downscaling. Despite biases introduced through boundary conditions (atmospheric and oceanic), the physical and biogeochemical processes in the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS) have been improved by the ROMS model, relative to the IPSL-CM4 simulation. Nevertheless, using coarse-resolution AOGCM daily atmospheric forcing interpolated on ROMS grids resulted in a shifted SST seasonality in the southern BUS, a deterioration of the northern Benguela region and a very shallow mixed layer depth over the whole regional domain. We then investigated the effect of wind downscaling on ROMS solution. Together with a finer resolution of dynamical processes and of bathymetric features (continental shelf and Walvis Ridge), wind downscaling allowed correction of the seasonality, the mixed layer depth, and provided a better circulation over the domain and substantial modifications of subsurface biogeochemical properties. It has also changed the structure of the lower trophic levels by shifting large offshore areas from autotrophic to heterotrophic regimes with potential important consequences on ecosystem functioning. The regional downscaling also improved the phytoplankton distribution and the southward extension of low oxygen waters in the Northern Benguela. It allowed simulating low oxygen events in the northern BUS and highlighted a potential upscaling effect related to the nitrogen irrigation from the productive BUS towards the tropical

  17. Current Dynamics of Estuarine Circulation in the Lateral Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudsepp, U.

    1998-12-01

    High spatial resolution measurements of current velocity performed by the shipboard mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) in the lateral boundary layer of the southern Gulf of Finland during two 5-day periods are described and analysed with a focus on the dominant dynamics. The measurement site represents a small (15×20 km), relatively deep (up to 100 m) bay opened to large-scale estuarine circulation. The measurement period was characterized by calm winds and a strong seasonal pycnocline (Brunt-Väisälä frequencyN=6-9*10-2 s-1). The quasi-steady velocity field revealed polarization of currents along the shore whereas an intensive baroclinic coastal jet was observed over a cross-shore scale of 1-2 km. The level of vertical separation of the alongshore flow coincided with the pycnocline at the coast, but was shifted below it in the offshore region. The cross-shore flow was considerably weaker and showed a three-layer structure with an opposite phase between the first and second surveys. It is suggested that the observed jet resembles a non-locally forced eastward propagating coastally trapped wave. In the offshore area the alongshore flow field satisfies local geostrophic balance quite well, except in the pycnocline where strong vertical stratification exerts considerable vertical stress. As vertical velocity shear is well correlated with vertical stratification, the horizontal advection prevails over vertical mixing. Horizontal inhomogeneities of density distribution are partly explained by vertical velocities with an estimated magnitude of less than 0·6 mm/s and the spatial pattern following bottom topography.

  18. 78 FR 56650 - Boundary Description and Final Map for Roaring Wild and Scenic River, Mount Hood National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Forest Service Boundary Description and Final Map for Roaring Wild and Scenic River, Mount Hood National... transmitting the final boundary description and map of the Roaring Wild and Scenic River to Congress. DATES... Stat. 906 as amended; 16 U.S.C. 1274), the detailed boundary descriptions and final maps were...

  19. Intensified diapycnal mixing in the midlatitude western boundary currents.

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Wu, Lixin

    2014-12-10

    The wind work on oceanic near-inertial motions is suggested to play an important role in furnishing the diapycnal mixing in the deep ocean which affects the uptake of heat and carbon by the ocean as well as climate changes. However, it remains a puzzle where and through which route the near-inertial energy penetrates into the deep ocean. Using the measurements collected in the Kuroshio extension region during January 2005, we demonstrate that the diapycnal mixing in the thermocline and deep ocean is tightly related to the shear variance of wind-generated near-inertial internal waves with the diapycnal diffusivity 6 × 10(-5) m(2)s(-1) almost an order stronger than that observed in the circulation gyre. It is estimated that 45%-62% of the local near-inertial wind work 4.5 × 10(-3) Wm(-2) radiates into the thermocline and deep ocean and accounts for 42%-58% of the energy required to furnish mixing there. The elevated mixing is suggested to be maintained by the energetic near-inertial wind work and strong eddy activities causing enhanced downward near-inertial energy flux than earlier findings. The western boundary current turns out to be a key region for the penetration of near-inertial energy into the deep ocean and a hotspot for the diapycnal mixing in winter.

  20. Intensified Diapycnal Mixing in the Midlatitude Western Boundary Currents

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Zhao; Wu, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    The wind work on oceanic near-inertial motions is suggested to play an important role in furnishing the diapycnal mixing in the deep ocean which affects the uptake of heat and carbon by the ocean as well as climate changes. However, it remains a puzzle where and through which route the near-inertial energy penetrates into the deep ocean. Using the measurements collected in the Kuroshio extension region during January 2005, we demonstrate that the diapycnal mixing in the thermocline and deep ocean is tightly related to the shear variance of wind-generated near-inertial internal waves with the diapycnal diffusivity 6 × 10−5 m2s−1 almost an order stronger than that observed in the circulation gyre. It is estimated that 45%–62% of the local near-inertial wind work 4.5 × 10−3 Wm−2 radiates into the thermocline and deep ocean and accounts for 42%–58% of the energy required to furnish mixing there. The elevated mixing is suggested to be maintained by the energetic near-inertial wind work and strong eddy activities causing enhanced downward near-inertial energy flux than earlier findings. The western boundary current turns out to be a key region for the penetration of near-inertial energy into the deep ocean and a hotspot for the diapycnal mixing in winter. PMID:25491363

  1. Temporal and Spatial Variability along the Deep Western Boundary Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtko, Sunke; Fischer, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    The North Atlantic Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) connects the polar and subpolar regions, where the ocean is ventilated to greater depth, with the tropical oceans and beyond. It is part of the global ocean circulation as the deep branch of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). It has a core depth between 1500-4500m with water mass properties varying by origin and decade. We analyze all publically available CTD data from Porcupine Abyssal Plain along Denmark Straight, Labrador Sea, Cape Cod, Cape Hatteras and Bahamas to the equator. The spatial and temporal development is analyzed for the past five decades. Waters originating from the overflow regions between Greenland and Scotland and from the Labrador Sea merge along the pathway but show distinct temporal variability and trends. We distinguish between local and large-scale variability and relate our results with the atmospheric forcing of the North Atlantic. This gives insight into new key aspects to be validated with state of the art ocean circulation models.

  2. Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layers: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    bottom stress and confirmed the presence of logarithmic velocity profiles in the continental shelf bottom boundary layer. Grant et al. (1984) also...stress layer and is often used to define the location of boundary fluxes of momentum and suspended sediment concentration in models. On continental ...propagation termed Stokes drift . Stokes drift is a consequence of mass conservation and vertical shear as the water column is deeper under the crest

  3. The influence of the large scale circulation on an eastern boundary current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Rizzoli, P. M.; Spall, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The wind-driven gyre circulation in the ocean interior varies across large temporal and spatial scales, while the current along the eastern boundary is concentrated in a narrow jet with smaller temporal and spatial scales. These boundary currents are often hydrodynamically unstable and generate mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability. In this study, we investigate the influence of the large scale circulation on an unstable eastern boundary current. One example is the influence of the Pacific subtropical gyre on the California current system. We study the problem using both a linear stability analysis and a nonlinear numerical model in a barotropic and quasi-geostrophic framework. The large scale circulation and the boundary current are specified in the linear analysis and are generated by an Ekman forcing in the numerical model. The linear stability analysis shows that to the lowest order the eastward (westward) flow of the large scale circulation stabilizes (destabilizes) the boundary current. Additionally, the meridional flow contributed by the large scale circulation accelerates or decelerates the originally parallel boundary current and modifies the stability of the current through the Doppler effect. Unstable perturbations which can be represented by normal modes for a parallel current then develop streamwise spatial structures. In the nonlinear numerical simulations, the streamwise nonuniformity of the boundary current influenced by the large scale circulation is clearly shown in the eddy kinetic energy. The location of the maximum eddy kinetic energy depends on the relative strength of the large scale circulation and the boundary current. The meridionally nonuniform eddy activities are important in offshore tracer transport. The nonlinear numerical simulation is forced by a wind curl field which generates a southward eastern boundary current and a large scale circulation with double gyres (white contours). The mean eddy kinetic energy of the boundary current

  4. Dependence of an eastern boundary current on the horizontal resolution in thermally driven circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Gyu

    2006-09-01

    Through an idealized modeling study with a depth level coordinate general ocean circulation model (GFDL/MOM), the sensitivity of an eastern boundary current on the horizontal resolution in thermally driven circulations is investigated. In general the circulation patterns do not show significant sensitivity to the resolution except in the northern and the eastern boundaries. When the resolution is low, a notable eastern boundary current is not observed. As the resolution becomes higher, a northward eastern boundary current emerges. A simple scaling analysis based on a linear vorticity equation reveals that such an eastern boundary current is initiated by vortex column stretching due to the downwelling of a zonal flow, which is driven by the sea surface temperature gradient, along the eastern wall. The scaling law predicts that the magnitude of the boundary current is inversely proportional to the horizontal resolution, if the downwelling occurs along the eastern most grid points. The model results follow the scaling law very well when the eastern boundary current, and subsequently the vertical stratification along the eastern wall are weak. In higher resolution cases, when the eastern boundary current becomes strong enough, the vertical stratification along the eastern wall becomes higher due to warm advection by the current, and downwelling is reduced. Therefore a larger part of the zonal flow turns to the north, and the eastern boundary current becomes stronger than predicted by the scaling law, which neglects the effects of the vertical stratification.

  5. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Feedbacks in Boundary Current Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    The focus of this dissertation is on studying ocean-atmosphere (OA) interactions in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) and Kuroshio Extension (KE) region using satellite observations and the Scripps Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Regional (SCOAR) model. Within SCOAR, a new technique is introduced by implementing an interactive 2-D spatial smoother within the SST-flux coupler to remove the mesoscale SST field felt by the atmosphere. This procedure allows large-scale SST coupling to be preserved while extinguishing the mesoscale eddy impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This technique provides insights to spatial-scale dependence of OA coupling, and the impact of mesoscale features on both the ABL and the surface ocean. For the HCS, the use of downscaled forcing from SCOAR, as compared to NCEP Reanalysis 2, proves to be more appropriate in quantifying wind-driven upwelling indices along the coast of Peru and Chile. The difference in their wind stress distribution has significant impact on the wind-driven upwelling processes and total upwelling transport along the coast. Although upwelling induced by coastal Ekman transport dominates the wind-driven upwelling along coastal areas, Ekman pumping can account for 30% of the wind-driven upwelling in several coastal locations. Control SCOAR shows significant SST-wind stress coupling during fall and winter, while Smoothed SCOAR shows insignificant coupling throughout, indicating the important role of ocean mesoscale eddies on air-sea coupling in HCS. The SST-wind stress coupling however, did not produce any rectified response on the ocean eddies. Coupling between SST, wind speed and latent heat flux is insignificant on large-scale coupling and full coupling mode. On the other hand, coupling between these three variables are significant on the mesoscale for most of the model run, which suggests that mesoscale SST affects latent heat through direct flux anomalies as well as indirectly through stability changes on the

  6. 78 FR 56650 - Boundary Description and Final Map for Sandy Wild and Scenic River, Upper Portion, Mount Hood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Forest Service Boundary Description and Final Map for Sandy Wild and Scenic River, Upper Portion, Mount..., is transmitting the final boundary description and map of the Sandy Wild and Scenic River, Upper... descriptions and final maps were forwarded on August 21, 2013. ADDRESSES: Documents may be viewed at...

  7. Terdecadal Observations of Western Boundary Currents in the Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, C. R.; Burrage, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    Since 1985, a 30 year time series of current and temperature data has been collected by AIMS and since 2007 in partnership with Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System. The data derive from a current meter mooring pair along the continental shelf slope monitoring currents in the Coral Sea adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. The array was deployed to provide direct measurements of flow on the continental shelf and slope and estimates of geostrophic current anomalies to compare with satellite altimeter derived currents. The two locations are located near Jewell Reef at 14o S in 360m and near Myrmidon Reef at 18 o S in 200m water depth. Initially point Rotary Current Meters were used but were replaced by Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers from the late 1990s so the observations have evolved from a few points in the water column to true current profiles. The northern mooring is located in the region where the Southern Equatorial Current impacts on the North Queensland shelf causing it to bifurcate into the equatorward Gulf of Papua Current and the poleward East Australian Current. Embedded in these are eddies that cause pulsing and at times current reversals that can significantly affect across shelf intrusions and cross shelf exchange. Being located in the sub-tropics the observations have captured multiple extreme tropical cyclone events and seasonal internal wave activity. The data is being used in conjunction with satellite altimetry to validate hindcasts of a number of hydrodynamic models.

  8. Statistical Description of a Current-Dominated Bottom Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howd, P. A.

    2001-12-01

    A multi-year effort was recently initiated to study the time history of the seabed (and objects placed on it) on the inner continental shelf off the west coast of Florida (Gulf of Mexico). One goal is to quantify both the bedforms and trends of the spatially averaged seabed elevation. Clearly an important step in understanding the evolution of the seabed is being able to estimate the bed shear stress. We choose to accomplish this through measurement of the vertical profile of horizontal velocity near the bed - the bottom boundary layer. Measurements of the bottom boundary layer are made using a downward looking acoustic Doppler profiler operating in pulse-coherent mode. The profile distance is approximately 1.5 m with bins of 5 cm. The near bed flows are tied to the remainder of the water column using a standard bottom-mounted ADP. The total water depth at the measurement site is approximately 14 m. These instruments give excellent vertical resolution of the near bed flow for estimation of bed shear velocity and bed roughness using standard log-layer approach. We will report on the initial months of these data, concentrating first on the time history of boundary layer shape (how often can it be described as a log layer?), then quantifying the variability of the BBL when it is a log layer (magnitudes of defining parameters), and also on statistical description of those cases when the BBL is not adequately described by a log profile (are there other preferred BBL shapes?). The Office of Naval Research supports this work.

  9. Current concepts and techniques in complete denture final impression procedures.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Vicki C; Rashedi, Behnoush

    2003-12-01

    In 2001, a survey of U.S. dental schools was conducted to determine which concepts, techniques and materials are currently prevalent in the teaching of final impression procedures for complete dentures in the predoctoral clinical curriculum. The questionnaire was mailed to the chairperson of the prosthodontic/restorative departments of 54 U.S. dental schools. Of these, 44 schools returned the completed survey resulting in a response rate of 82%. Results from this survey show that the majority of schools (71%) teach the selective-pressure technique for final impression making; the majority of the schools (64%) use modeling plastic impression compound for border molding the final impression tray; 39% of the schools do not place vent holes in the final impression tray, 30% of schools place more than one hole and 27% place one hole only; the majority of the schools (98%) are using custom trays for final impressions. Ninety-eight percent of the schools are border molding the custom tray and 70% of schools are using a visible light-cured (VLC) composite resin material to make the trays. Thirty-six percent of the schools are teaching the Boucher impression technique and 34% are teaching the modified Boucher impression technique. Predoctoral clinical complete denture educational programs agree on many aspects of final impression making, however, there is variability in their teachings regarding the impression philosophy and the materials used.

  10. Current-driven domain wall depinning from an anisotropy boundary in nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, T; Drews, A; Meier, G

    2014-05-21

    The interaction of a current-driven domain wall with an anisotropy boundary in nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is investigated. A local reduction of the anisotropy constant is used to create an artificial boundary where the domain wall gets pinned. Micromagnetic simulations and analytical calculations, based on a one-dimensional model, are employed to describe the interaction of the domain wall and the anisotropy boundary and to determine the depinning current densities. Two different pinning regimes-an intrinsic and an extrinsic-can be identified in dependence with the characteristic of the boundary. A very good agreement between simulated and analytically obtained data is achieved.

  11. Remote sensing of ocean current boundary layer. [Loop Current in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A time series of the Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico, covering an annual cycle of growth, spreading, and decay, has been obtained in synchronization with ERTS-1. Computer enhanced images, which are necessary to extract useful oceanic information, show that the current can be observed either by color or sea state effects associated with the cyclonic boundary. The color effect relates to the spectral variations in the optical properties of the water and its suspended particles, and is studied by radiative transfer theory. Significant oceanic parameters identified are: the probability of forward scattering, and the ratio of scattering to total attenuation. Several spectra of upwelling diffuse light are computed as a function of the concentration of particles and yellow substance. These calculations compare favorably with experimental measurements and show that the ratio of channels method gives ambiguous interpretative results. These results are used to discuss features in images where surface measurements were obtained and are extended to tentative explanation in others.

  12. Current Large Deviations for Asymmetric Exclusion Processes with Open Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.

    2006-04-01

    We study the large deviation functional of the current for the Weakly Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process in contact with two reservoirs. We compare this functional in the large drift limit to the one of the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, in particular to the Jensen-Varadhan functional. Conjectures for generalizing the Jensen-Varadhan functional to open systems are also stated.

  13. Fermionic current densities induced by magnetic flux in a conical space with a circular boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Bezerra, V. B.; Saharian, A. A.; Bardeghyan, V. M.

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the vacuum expectation value of the fermionic current induced by a magnetic flux in a (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime in the presence of a circular boundary. On the boundary the fermionic field obeys the MIT bag boundary condition. For irregular modes, a special case of boundary conditions at the cone apex is considered, when the MIT bag boundary condition is imposed at a finite radius, which is then taken to zero. We observe that the vacuum expectation values for both the charge density and azimuthal current are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum whereas the expectation value of the radial component vanishes. For both exterior and interior regions, the expectation values of the current are decomposed into boundary-free and boundary-induced parts. For a massless field the boundary-free part in the vacuum expectation value of the charge density vanishes, whereas the presence of the boundary induces nonzero charge density. Two integral representations are given for the boundary-free part in the case of a massive fermionic field for arbitrary values of the opening angle of the cone and magnetic flux. The behavior of the induced fermionic current is investigated in various asymptotic regions of the parameters. At distances from the boundary larger than the Compton wavelength of the fermion particle, the vacuum expectation values decay exponentially with the decay rate depending on the opening angle of the cone. We make a comparison with the results already known from the literature for some particular cases.

  14. Exact asymptotics of the current in boundary-driven dissipative quantum chains in large external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenarčič, Zala; Prosen, Tomaž

    2015-03-01

    A boundary-driven quantum master equation for a general inhomogeneous (nonintegrable) anisotropic Heisenberg spin-1 /2 chain, or an equivalent nearest neighbor interacting spinless fermion chain, is considered in the presence of a strong external field f . We present an exact closed form expression for large f asymptotics of the current in the presence of a pure incoherent source and sink dissipation at the boundaries. In application, we demonstrate an arbitrary large current rectification in the presence of the interaction.

  15. Phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state of electrons in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ma, Yinfeng; Ting, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using a four-band Hamiltonian, we study the phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state (SPCS) of interacting electrons in bilayer graphene. The model of spin-polarized-current state has previously been shown to resolve a number of experimental puzzles in bilayer graphene. The phase boundaries of the SPCS with and without the external voltage between the two layers are obtained in this work. An unusual phase boundary where there are two transition temperatures for a given carrier concentration is found at finite external voltage. The physics of this phenomenon is explained.

  16. Evaluation of Current Planetary Boundary Layer Retrieval Capabilities from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Schaefer, Alexander J.; Blaisdell, John; Yorks, John

    2016-01-01

    The PBL over land remains a significant gap in our water and energy cycle understanding from space. This work combines unique NASA satellite and model products to demonstrate the ability of current sensors (advanced IR sounding and lidar) to retrieve PBL properties and in turn their potential to be used globally to evaluate and improve weather and climate prediction models. While incremental progress has been made in recent AIRS retrieval versions, insufficient vertical resolution remains in terms of detecting PBL properties. Lidar shows promise in terms of detecting vertical gradients (and PBLh) in the lower troposphere, but daytime conditions over land remain a challenge due to noise, and their coverage is limited to approximately 2 weeks or longer return times.

  17. A high-latitude, low-latitude boundary layer model of the convection current system

    SciTech Connect

    Siscoe, G.L. ); Lotko, W.; Sonnerup, B.U.O. )

    1991-03-01

    Observations suggest that both the high- and low-latitude boundary layers contribute to magnetospheric convection, and that their contributions are linked. In the interpretation pursued here, the high-latitude boundary layer (HBL) generates the voltage while the low-latitude boundary layer (LBL) generates the current for the part of the convection electric circuit that closes through the ionosphere. This paper gives a model that joins the high- and low-latitude boundary layers consistently with the ionospheric Ohm's law. It describes an electric circuit linking both boundary layers, the region 1 Birkeland currents, and the ionospheric Pedersen closure currents. The model works by using the convection electric field that the ionosphere receives from the HBL to determine two boundary conditions to the equations that govern viscous LBL-ionosphere coupling. The result provides the needed self-consistent coupling between the two boundary layers and fully specifies the solution for the viscous LBL-ionosphere coupling equations. The solution shows that in providing the current required by the ionospheric Ohm's law, the LBL needs only a tenth of the voltage that spans the HBL. The solution also gives the latitude profiles of the ionospheric electric field, parallel currents, and parallel potential. It predicts that the plasma in the inner part of the LBL moves sunward instead of antisunward and that, as the transpolar potential decreases below about 40 kV, reverse polarity (region 0) currents appear at the poleward border of the region 1 currents. A possible problem with the model is its prediction of a thin boundary layer ({approximately}1000 km), whereas thicknesses inferred from satellite data tend to be greater.

  18. Observations of the magnetopause current layer: Cases with no boundary layer and tests of recent models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence for the probable existence of magnetospheric boundary layers was first presented by Hones, et al. (1972), based on VELA satellite plasma observations (no magnetic field measurements were obtained). This magnetotail boundary layer is now known to be the tailward extension of the high-latitude boundary layer or plasma mantle (first uniquely identified using HEOS 2 plasma and field observations by Rosenbauer et al., 1975) and the low-latitude boundary layer (first uniquely identified using IMP 6 plasma and field observations by Eastman et al., 1976). The magnetospheric boundary layer is the region of magnetosheath-like plasma located Earthward of, but generally contiguous with the magnetopause. This boundary layer is typically identified by comparing low-energy (less than 10 keV) ion spectra across the magnetopause. Low-energy electron measurements are also useful for identifying the boundary layer because the shocked solar wind or magnetosheath has a characteristic spectral signature for electrons as well. However, there are magnetopause crossings where low-energy electrons might suggest a depletion layer outside the magnetopause even though the traditional field-rotation signature indicates that this same region is a boundary layer Earthward of the current layer. Our analyses avoided crossings which exhibit such ambiguities. Pristine magnetopause crossings are magnetopause crossings for which the current layer is well defined and for which there is no adjoining magnetospheric boundary layer as defined above. Although most magnetopause models to date apply to such crossings, few comparisons between such theory and observations of pristine magnetopause crossings have been made because most crossings have an associated magnetospheric boundary layer which significantly affects the applicable boundary conditions for the magnetopause current layer. Furthermore, almost no observational studies of magnetopause microstructure have been done even though key

  19. Dynamics of turbulent western-boundary currents at low latitude in a shallow-water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuetevi, C. Q. C.; Wirth, A.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of low latitude turbulent western-boundary currents (WBCs) crossing the Equator are considered using numerical results from integrations of a reduced-gravity shallow-water model. For viscosity values of 1000 m2 s-1 and greater, the boundary layer dynamics compares well to the analytical Munk-layer solution. When the viscosity is reduced, the boundary layer becomes turbulent and coherent structures in the form of anticyclonic eddies, bursts (violent detachments of the viscous sub-layer, VSL) and dipoles appear. Three distinct boundary layers emerge, the VSL, the advective boundary layer and the extended boundary layer. The first is characterized by a dominant vorticity balance between the viscous transport and the advective transport of vorticity; the second by a balance between the advection of planetary vorticity and the advective transport of relative vorticity. The extended boundary layer is the area to which turbulent motion from the boundary extends. The scaling of the three boundary layer thicknesses with viscosity is evaluated. Characteristic scales of the dynamics and dissipation are determined. A pragmatic approach to determine the eddy viscosity diagnostically for coarse-resolution numerical models is proposed.

  20. Break-up of the Atlantic deep western boundary current into eddies at 8 degrees S.

    PubMed

    Dengler, M; Schott, F A; Eden, C; Brandt, P; Fischer, J; Zantopp, R J

    2004-12-23

    The existence in the ocean of deep western boundary currents, which connect the high-latitude regions where deep water is formed with upwelling regions as part of the global ocean circulation, was postulated more than 40 years ago. These ocean currents have been found adjacent to the continental slopes of all ocean basins, and have core depths between 1,500 and 4,000 m. In the Atlantic Ocean, the deep western boundary current is estimated to carry (10-40) x 10(6) m3 s(-1) of water, transporting North Atlantic Deep Water--from the overflow regions between Greenland and Scotland and from the Labrador Sea--into the South Atlantic and the Antarctic circumpolar current. Here we present direct velocity and water mass observations obtained in the period 2000 to 2003, as well as results from a numerical ocean circulation model, showing that the Atlantic deep western boundary current breaks up at 8 degrees S. Southward of this latitude, the transport of North Atlantic Deep Water into the South Atlantic Ocean is accomplished by migrating eddies, rather than by a continuous flow. Our model simulation indicates that the deep western boundary current breaks up into eddies at the present intensity of meridional overturning circulation. For weaker overturning, continuation as a stable, laminar boundary flow seems possible.

  1. Net currents in the wave bottom boundary layer: On waveshape streaming and progressive wave streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranenburg, Wouter M.; Ribberink, Jan S.; Uittenbogaard, Rob E.; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

    2012-09-01

    The net current (streaming) in a turbulent bottom boundary layer under waves above a flat bed, identified as potentially relevant for sediment transport, is mainly determined by two competing mechanisms: an onshore streaming resulting from the horizontal non-uniformity of the velocity field under progressive free surface waves, and an offshore streaming related to the nonlinearity of the waveshape. The latter actually contains two contributions: oscillatory velocities under nonlinear waves are characterized in terms of velocity-skewness and acceleration-skewness (with pure velocity-skewness under Stokes waves and acceleration-skewness under steep sawtooth waves), and both separately induce offshore streaming. This paper describes a 1DV Reynolds-averaged boundary layer model withk-ɛturbulence closure that includes all these streaming processes. The model is validated against measured period-averaged and time-dependent velocities, from 4 different well-documented laboratory experiments with these processes in isolation and in combination. Subsequently, the model is applied in a numerical study on the waveshape and free surface effects on streaming. The results show how the dimensionless parameterskh (relative water depth) and A/kN (relative bed roughness) influence the (dimensionless) streaming velocity and shear stress and the balance between the mechanisms. For decreasing kh, the relative importance of waveshape streaming over progressive wave streaming increases, qualitatively consistent with earlier analytical modeling. Unlike earlier results, simulations for increased roughness (smaller A/kN) show a shift of the streaming profile in onshore direction for all kh. Finally, the results are parameterized and the possible implications of the streaming processes on sediment transport are shortly discussed.

  2. Comparison of DMSP and SECS region-1 and region-2 ionospheric current boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weygand, J. M.; Wing, S.

    2016-06-01

    The region-1 and region-2 boundary has traditionally been identified using data from a single spacecraft crossing the auroral region and measuring the large scale changes in the cross track magnetic field. With data from the AUTUMN, CANMOS, CARISMA, GIMA, DTU MGS, MACCS, McMAC, STEP, THEMIS, and USGS ground magnetometer arrays we applied a state-of-art technique based on spherical elementary current system (SECS) method developed by Amm and Viljanen (1999) in order to calculate maps of region-1 and region-2 current system over the North American and Greenland auroral region. Spherical elementary current (SEC) amplitude (proxy for vertical currents) maps can be inferred at 10 s temporal resolution, ~1.5° geographic latitude (Glat), and 3.5° geographic longitude (Glon) spatial resolution. We compare the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary obtained by the DMSP spacecraft with the region-1 and region-2 boundary observed in the SEC current amplitudes. We find that the boundaries typically agree within 0.2°±1.3°. These results indicate that the location of the region-1 and region-2 boundary can reasonably be determined from ground magnetometer data. The SECS maps represent a value-added product from the magnetometer database and can be used for contextual interpretation in conjunction with other missions as well as help with our understanding of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanisms using the ground arrays and the magnetospheric spacecraft data.

  3. Final report: Constructing comprehensive models of grain boundaries using high-throughput experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Michael; Schuh, Christopher; Marzouk, Youssef

    2016-08-29

    This is the final report on project DE-SC0008926. The goal of this project was to create capabilities for constructing, analyzing, and modeling experimental databases of the crystallographic characters and physical properties of thousands of individual grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline metals. This project focused on gallium permeation through aluminum (Al) GBs and hydrogen uptake into nickel (Ni) GBs as model problems. This report summarizes the work done within the duration of this project (including the original three-year award and the subsequent one-year renewal), i.e. from August 1, 2012 until April 30, 2016.

  4. Laboratory Investigation of Combined Wave and Current Bottom Boundary Layer Flows on a Planar Beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styles, R.; Bryant, D. B.

    2016-02-01

    Modeling combined wave and current flows in shallow water systems present several challenges. Shoaling waves propagate at oblique angles to the shoreline and the underlying bed contours. Long-shore currents generated by waves and other processes such as wind or tides advect the wave driven transport in the down drift direction. The nearshore region is characterized by waves propagating at high angles to the current over variable topography, which presents unique challenges in describing momentum flux and sediment transport not associated with flatbed conditions. The Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF), operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineer's Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, is designed to investigate surf zone and near-shore sediment transport processes in combined flows. The 30 m x 50 m basin includes an offshore wave maker and a recirculating system to produce long-shore currents. Recent laboratory work was conducted to examine the wave/current boundary layer using a suite of cross-shore ADVs, wave gauges and a Nortek Vectrino to measure vertical profiles (mm scale) within the wave boundary layer. Comparisons to existing bottom boundary layer models under a variety of wave and current conditions show good agreement within the turbulent boundary layer but diverge in the near-bed viscous region. Model accuracy in the context of waves and currents at high angles and variable intensity will be discussed.

  5. Electron current in the boundary layer of a mini-magnetosphere above a lunar magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, H.; Miyake, Y.; Nishino, M. N.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation study of the electron current in the boundary layer of a mini-magnetosphere created above a magnetic anomaly on the lunar surface. The size of the magnetic anomaly (characterized by the distance from the center of the magnetic dipole to the position where the pressure of the local magnetic field equals the dynamic pressure of the solar wind) considered here is about four times smaller than the Larmor radius of the solar wind ions. As shown in the previous works, we found that an asymmetric mini-magnetosphere is formed above the magnetic anomaly by the solar wind interaction. We also confirmed that the boundary layer current is dominated by the electron flux perpendicular to the dipole field. As an intense electric field is induced in the boundary layer by the charge separation between electrons and ions, the electrons entering the boundary layer undergo the E×B drift motion in the equator. In the high latitude region, on the other hand, the electron flux turns around and the direction of the electron motion becomes reversed. This causes a turn-around electron current in each hemisphere. As stated above, the electrons in the boundary layer overall make the E×B drift motion in the equator. At the most inner edge of the boundary layer, however, the averaged electron velocity shows the peak value and it cannot be explained with the local E×B drift velocity. We found that the peak velocity of electrons observed in the most inner edge of the boundary layer is due to the electron cyclotron motion itself rather than the drift motion of the electrons' guiding center. We also confirmed that the width of the boundary layer is approximately equal to the radius of the local electron cyclotron motion.

  6. A High-Lift Building Block Flow: Turbulent Boundary Layer Relaminarization A Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence exists which suggests turbulent boundary layer relaminarization may play an important role in the inverse Reynolds number effect in high-lift systems. An experimental investigation of turbulent boundary layer relaminarization has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame's Hessert Center for Aerospace Research in cooperation with NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. A wind tunnel facility has been constructed at the Hessert Center and relaminarization achieved. Preliminary evidence suggests the current predictive tools available are inadequate at determining the onset of relaminarization. In addition, an in-flight relaminarization experiment for the NASA Dryden FTF-II has been designed to explore relaminarization at Mach and Reynolds numbers more typical of commercial high-lift systems.

  7. Effects of the current boundary conditions at the plasma-gun gap on density in SSPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Roman; Lodestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.

    2012-10-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) was a toroidal magnetic-confinement device without toroidal magnetic-field coils or a central transformer but which generated core-plasma currents by dynamo processes driven by coaxial plasma-gun injection into a flux-conserving vessel. Record electron temperatures in a spheromak (Te˜500eV) were achieved, and final results of the SSPX program were reported in [1]. Plasma density, which depended strongly on wall conditions, was an important parameter in SSPX. It was observed that density rises with Igun and that confinement improved as the density was lowered. Shortly after the last experiments, a new feature was added to the Corsica code's solver used to reconstruct SSPX equilibria. Motivated by n=0 fields observed in NIMROD simulations of SSPX, an insulating boundary condition was implemented at the plasma-gun gap. Using this option we will perform new reconstructions of SSPX equilibria and look for correlations between the location of the separatrix (which moves up the gun wall and onto the insulating gap as Igun increases) and plasma density and magnetic-flux amplification [2].[4pt] [1] H. S. McLean, APS, DPP, Dallas, TX, 2008.[0pt] [2] E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1064 (2007).

  8. Unexpected behavior of transient current in thin PZT films caused by grain-boundary conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delimova, L. A.; Guschina, E. V.; Seregin, D. S.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    The behavior of the transient current at different preliminary polarizations has been studied in Pb(ZrTi)O3 (PZT) films with various grain structures. To affect the grain structure, PZT films were prepared by chemical solution deposition with a two-step crystallization process using combination of seed layers with a low Pb excess and the main layers with a 30 wt. % Pb excess. Some films were prepared with a fixed Pb excess in all the deposited layers. We found that the lead excess and the seed layer crystalline structure can affect the grain-boundary conduction which, in turn, influences the polarization dependence of the transient current and the appearance of current peaks which look like the so-called negative differential resistance region in the current-voltage curves. We show that the emergence of the current peaks in the PZT films depends on (i) whether the current flows inside the ferroelectric phase (grains) or outside, along grain boundaries and (ii) whether the applied bias direction is parallel or opposite to the polarization vector. A correlation between the grain-boundary conduction and current-polarization dependences is confirmed by the local current distribution measured by conductive atomic force microscopy. Possible mechanisms responsible for specific features of the transient current and appearance of the current peaks are discussed. The effect of grain-boundary conduction on the behavior of the current may be significant and should be taken into account in ferroelectric random access memory whose readout operation assumes registration of the magnitude of the polarization switching current under positive bias.

  9. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, J.

    2013-01-01

    Phantoms are essentially required to generate boundary data for studying the inverse solver performance in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). A MATLAB-based boundary data simulator (BDS) is developed to generate accurate boundary data using neighbouring current pattern for assessing the EIT inverse solvers. Domain diameter, inhomogeneity number, inhomogeneity geometry (shape, size, and position), background conductivity, and inhomogeneity conductivity are all set as BDS input variables. Different sets of boundary data are generated by changing the input variables of the BDS, and resistivity images are reconstructed using electrical impedance tomography and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). Results show that the BDS generates accurate boundary data for different types of single or multiple objects which are efficient enough to reconstruct the resistivity images for assessing the inverse solver. It is noticed that for the BDS with 2048 elements, the boundary data for all inhomogeneities with a diameter larger than 13.3% of that of the phantom are accurate enough to reconstruct the resistivity images in EIDORS-2D. By comparing the reconstructed image with an original geometry made in BDS, it would be easier to study the inverse solver performance and the origin of the boundary data error can be identified. PMID:27006909

  10. Diffusion length and grain boundary recombination activity determination by means of induced current methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabelnikova, Yana; Yakimov, Eugene

    2016-11-01

    The application of induced current methods for a quantitative description of multicrystalline silicon solar cell properties is demonstrated. For the minority carriers' diffusion length (L) and grain boundary recombination velocity (Vs) determination three types of measurements were used. They included the measurement of EBIC signal dependence on electron beam energy and of EBIC and XBIC grain boundary contrast profiles. The L and Vs values obtained by means of minimization the residual function between measured and model induced current curves are presented. The inaccuracy of obtained parameters is discussed for each of three types of measurements.

  11. Transforming the representation of the boundary layer and low clouds for high-resolution regional climate modeling: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hsin-Yuan; Hall, Alex

    2013-07-24

    Stratocumulus and shallow cumulus clouds in subtropical oceanic regions (e.g., Southeast Pacific) cover thousands of square kilometers and play a key role in regulating global climate (e.g., Klein and Hartmann, 1993). Numerical modeling is an essential tool to study these clouds in regional and global systems, but the current generation of climate and weather models has difficulties in representing them in a realistic way (e.g., Siebesma et al., 2004; Stevens et al., 2007; Teixeira et al., 2011). While numerical models resolve the large-scale flow, subgrid-scale parameterizations are needed to estimate small-scale properties (e.g. boundary layer turbulence and convection, clouds, radiation), which have significant influence on the resolved scale due to the complex nonlinear nature of the atmosphere. To represent the contribution of these fine-scale processes to the resolved scale, climate models use various parameterizations, which are the main pieces in the model that contribute to the low clouds dynamics and therefore are the major sources of errors or approximations in their representation. In this project, we aim to 1) improve our understanding of the physical processes in thermal circulation and cloud formation, 2) examine the performance and sensitivity of various parameterizations in the regional weather model (Weather Research and Forecasting model; WRF), and 3) develop, implement, and evaluate the advanced boundary layer parameterization in the regional model to better represent stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, and their transition. Thus, this project includes three major corresponding studies. We find that the mean diurnal cycle is sensitive to model domain in ways that reveal the existence of different contributions originating from the Southeast Pacific land-masses. The experiments suggest that diurnal variations in circulations and thermal structures over this region are influenced by convection over the Peruvian sector of the Andes cordillera, while

  12. Theoretical model and experimental investigation of current density boundary condition for welding arc study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutaghane, A.; Bouhadef, K.; Valensi, F.; Pellerin, S.; Benkedda, Y.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents results of theoretical and experimental investigation of the welding arc in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes. A theoretical model consisting in simultaneous resolution of the set of conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and current, Ohm's law and Maxwell equation is used to predict temperatures and current density distribution in argon welding arcs. A current density profile had to be assumed over the surface of the cathode as a boundary condition in order to make the theoretical calculations possible. In stationary GTAW process, this assumption leads to fair agreement with experimental results reported in literature with maximum arc temperatures of ~21 000 K. In contrast to the GTAW process, in GMAW process, the electrode is consumable and non-thermionic, and a realistic boundary condition of the current density is lacking. For establishing this crucial boundary condition which is the current density in the anode melting electrode, an original method is setup to enable the current density to be determined experimentally. High-speed camera (3000 images/s) is used to get geometrical dimensions of the welding wire used as anode. The total area of the melting anode covered by the arc plasma being determined, the current density at the anode surface can be calculated. For a 330 A arc, the current density at the melting anode surface is found to be of 5 × 107 A m-2 for a 1.2 mm diameter welding electrode.

  13. The Atlantic Water boundary current in the Nansen Basin: Transport and mechanisms of lateral exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vâge, Kjetil; Pickart, Robert S.; Pavlov, Vladimir; Lin, Peigen; Torres, Daniel J.; Ingvaldsen, Randi; Sundfjord, Arild; Proshutinsky, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Data from a shipboard hydrographic survey near 30°E in the Nansen Basin of the Arctic Ocean are used to investigate the structure and transport of the Atlantic Water boundary current. Two high-resolution synoptic crossings of the current indicate that it is roughly 30 km wide and weakly middepth-intensified. Using a previously determined definition of Atlantic Water, the transport of this water mass is calculated to be 1.6 ± 0.3 Sv, which is similar to the transport of Atlantic Water in the inner branch of the West Spitsbergen Current. At the time of the survey a small anticyclonic eddy of Atlantic Water was situated just offshore of the boundary current. The data suggest that the feature was recently detached from the boundary current, and, due to compensating effects of temperature and salinity on the thermal wind shear, the maximum swirl speed was situated below the hydrographic property core. Two other similar features were detected within our study domain, suggesting that these eddies are common and represent an effective means of fluxing warm and salty water from the boundary current into the interior. An atmospheric low-pressure system transiting south of our study area resulted in southeasterly winds prior to and during the field measurements. A comparison to hydrographic data from the Pacific Water boundary current in the Canada Basin under similar atmospheric forcing suggests that upwelling was taking place during the survey. This provides a second mechanism related to cross-stream exchange of heat and salt in this region of the Nansen Basin.

  14. Critical-current diffraction patterns of grain-boundary Josephson weak links

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.L.; Ekin, J.W. )

    1990-11-01

    We discuss the diffraction patterns and other characteristics of the critical current as a function of magnetic field in grain-boundary Josephson barriers. Diffraction patterns occur not just for {ital SIS} junctions but for all types of Josephson links, including {ital SNS} junctions, which may be present at grain boundaries in high-{Tc} superconductors. We discuss the generality of the Airy diffraction pattern, which is expected to characterize grain-boundary barriers in bulk material more accurately than the Fraunhofer pattern. The transport critical-current density in many bulk, granular high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconductors has a power-law dependence on very low magnetic fields, characteristic of averaged diffraction patterns, and cannot be fitted by an exponential magnetic-field dependence, which may result from the material properties of the barriers.

  15. The boundary currents east and north of Madagascar: 2. Direct measurements and model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Friedrich; Fieux, MichèLe; Kindle, John; Swallow, John; Zantopp, Rainer

    1988-05-01

    Moored current measurements of 11-month duration were carried out in the boundary currents east of Madagascar, near 12°S at Cape Amber where the mean current flows northwestward and near 23°S where the mean current flows approximately southward. Transports derived from the moored current measurements in the depth range 150-1100 m compare reasonably well with those derived from ship sections by Swallow et al. (this issue). At 12°S, very energetic boundary current transport variations occur in the 40- to 55-day-period band, contributing about 40% to the total transport variance, while at 23°S the 40- to 55-day-period band fluctuations contribute only 15% to the total transport variance. The fluctuations near 12°S do not seem to be caused by local wind forcing, which does not show an energy peak in this period band. A significant annual cycle cannot be detected in the moored current and transport time series despite significant variation of wind forcing over the subtropical Indian Ocean. A comparison of the observations is carried out with two different numerical Indian Ocean models, both forced by the seasonally varying winds of Hellerman and Rosenstein (1983). A reduced-gravity model gives mean boundary current transports which compare well with the observations and also shows a negligible seasonal cycle. The multilayer Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory model also shows a small seasonal cycle. The observational evidence from the western subtropical Indian Ocean appears to be similar to that from the subtropical North Atlantic east of the Bahamas-Antilles arc where also no significant seasonal boundary current response was detected, despite large annual variation of wind forcing over the ocean. The two observational situations and numerical model results for both oceans are compared.

  16. Annual variation of the southern boundary current in the Banda Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syamsudin, Fadli; van Aken, Hendrik M.; Kaneko, Arata

    2010-08-01

    ADCP measurements in the southern Banda Sea, obtained with the bulk carrier "MS First Jupiter" from 1997 until 2000, have been analysed. The observations reveal the presence of an eastward flowing southern boundary current, bringing water from the Indonesian throughflow towards the connections with the Indian Ocean in Ombai Strait and the Timor Sea. The mean transport in the upper 300 m is estimated to be about 5 Sv, over 50% of the outflow towards the Indian Ocean in this layer through the eastern passages near Timor. The velocity in the boundary current shows a clear annual variation, more or less in phase with the annually varying inflow through Makassar Strait and the outflow near Timor. The phase of the annual variation cannot be explained by the monsoonal variation of the local winds. Therefore this annual variation of the throughflow is probably generated by large-scale forcing. A considerable reduction of the strength of the boundary current was observed in 1998, following the 1997-1998 El Niño with a delay of about half a year. On shorter time scales, Kelvin waves, entering the Banda Sea from the Indian Ocean, cause flow reversals of the boundary current.

  17. Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Boundary between Norwegian Atlantic Current and Norwegian Sea Deep Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, P.; Holbrook, W. S.; Pearse, S.; Paramo, P.

    2003-12-01

    Water-column reflections acquired on a seismic survey in the Norwegian Sea and corroborated by an XBT survey suggest that traditional multi-channel seismic methods can distinguish boundaries between major water masses. The study area traverses the boundary between the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and the adjacent, and underlying, Norwegian Sea Deep Water (NSDW). Stacked seismic reflection profiles clearly delineate an upper acoustically transparent surface layer separated from a lower transparent water mass by a highly reflective boundary layer. We interpret the upper water mass to be the NwAC and the lower water mass to be NSDW. Depth to the bottom of the upper layer and thickness of the boundary layer correspond to the published depth of the NwAC and thickness of a layer of rapidly varying temperature separating it from the NSDW. Reflections seen in the seismic data result from abrupt, but subtle, changes in sound speed caused by change in temperature on the order of 0.1° C in the boundary layer. These results suggest that the boundaries between major water masses can be seismically imaged if they contain fine-scale thermohaline structure.

  18. Observation of chiral currents at the magnetic domain boundary of a topological insulator

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Y. H.; Kirtley, J. R.; Katmis, F.; ...

    2015-08-28

    A magnetic domain boundary on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator is predicted to host a chiral edge state, but direct demonstration is challenging. Here, we used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device to show that current in a magnetized EuS/Bi2Se3 heterostructure flows at the edge when the Fermi level is gate-tuned to the surface band gap. We further induced micron-scale magnetic structures on the heterostructure, and detected a chiral edge current at the magnetic domain boundary. The chirality of the current was determined by magnetization of the surrounding domain and its magnitude by the local chemical potential rathermore » than the applied current. As a result, such magnetic structures, provide a platform for detecting topological magnetoelectric effects and may enable progress in quantum information processing and spintronics.« less

  19. Observation of chiral currents at the magnetic domain boundary of a topological insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. H.; Kirtley, J. R.; Katmis, F.; Jarillo-Herrero, P.; Moodera, J. S.; Moler, K. A.

    2015-08-28

    A magnetic domain boundary on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator is predicted to host a chiral edge state, but direct demonstration is challenging. Here, we used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device to show that current in a magnetized EuS/Bi2Se3 heterostructure flows at the edge when the Fermi level is gate-tuned to the surface band gap. We further induced micron-scale magnetic structures on the heterostructure, and detected a chiral edge current at the magnetic domain boundary. The chirality of the current was determined by magnetization of the surrounding domain and its magnitude by the local chemical potential rather than the applied current. As a result, such magnetic structures, provide a platform for detecting topological magnetoelectric effects and may enable progress in quantum information processing and spintronics.

  20. Biogeochemical and ecological impacts of boundary currents in the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Raleigh R.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Wiggert, Jerry D.

    2017-08-01

    Monsoon forcing and the unique geomorphology of the Indian Ocean basin result in complex boundary currents, which are unique in many respects. In the northern Indian Ocean, several boundary current systems reverse seasonally. For example, upwelling coincident with northward-flowing currents along the coast of Oman during the Southwest Monsoon gives rise to high productivity which also alters nutrient stoichiometry and therefore, the species composition of the resulting phytoplankton blooms. During the Northeast Monsoon most of the northern Indian Ocean boundary currents reverse and favor downwelling. Higher trophic level species have evolved behavioral responses to these seasonally changing conditions. Examples from the western Arabian Sea include vertical feeding migrations of a copepod (Calanoides carinatus) and the reproductive cycle of a large pelagic fish (Scomberomorus commerson). The impacts of these seasonal current reversals and changes in upwelling and downwelling circulations are also manifested in West Indian coastal waters, where they influence dissolved oxygen concentrations and have been implicated in massive fish kills. The winds and boundary currents reverse seasonally in the Bay of Bengal, though the associated changes in upwelling and productivity are less pronounced. Nonetheless, their effects are observed on the East Indian shelf as, for example, seasonal changes in copepod abundance and zooplankton community structure. In contrast, south of Sri Lanka seasonal reversals in the boundary currents are associated with dramatic changes in the intensity of coastal upwelling, chlorophyll concentration, and catch per unit effort of fishes. Off the coast of Java, monsoon-driven changes in the currents and upwelling strongly impact chlorophyll concentrations, seasonal vertical migrations of zooplankton, and sardine catch in Bali Strait. In the southern hemisphere the Leeuwin is a downwelling-favorable current that flows southward along western Australia

  1. The Atlantic Water boundary current north of Svalbard in late summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Hernández, M. Dolores; Pickart, Robert S.; Pavlov, Vladimir; Vâge, Kjetil; Ingvaldsen, Randi; Sundfjord, Arild; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Torres, Daniel J.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.

    2017-03-01

    Data from a shipboard hydrographic/velocity survey carried out in September 2013 of the region north of Svalbard in the Nansen Basin are analyzed to characterize the Atlantic Water (AW) boundary current as it flows eastward along the continental slope. Eight meridional transects across the current, spanning an alongstream distance of 180 km, allow for a detailed description of the current and the regional water masses. During the survey the winds were light and there was no pack-ice. The mean section reveals that the boundary current was O(40 km) wide, surface-intensified, with a maximum velocity of 20 cm/s. Its mean transport during the survey was 3.11 ± 0.33 Sv, of which 2.31 ± 0.29 Sv was AW. This suggests that the two branches of AW entering the Arctic Ocean via Fram Strait—the Yermak Plateau branch and the Svalbard branch—have largely combined into a single current by 30°E. At this location the boundary current meanders with a systematic change in its kinematic structure during offshore excursions. A potential vorticity analysis indicates that the flow is baroclinically unstable, consistent with previous observations of AW anticyclones offshore of the current as well as the presence of a near-field cyclone in this data set. Our survey indicates that only a small portion of the boundary current is diverted into the Kvitøya Trough (0.17 ± 0.08 Sv) and that the AW temperature/salinity signal is quickly eroded within the trough.

  2. Interannual variability of South Equatorial Current bifurcation and western boundary currents along the Madagascar coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tozuka, T.

    2015-12-01

    The South Equatorial Current (SEC) in the southern Indian Ocean bifurcates at the east coast of Madagascar into the Northeast and Southeast Madagascar Currents (NEMC and SEMC, respectively). In observational and reanalysis data, interannual variations of the NEMC and SEMC transports are strongly correlated with those of the SEC transport, rather than those of the SEC bifurcation latitude (SBL). Their dynamical mechanisms are then examined based on the Time-Dependent Island Rule for the first time. It is shown that interannual anomalies of the SBL as well as the NEMC and SEMC transports are predominantly a response to the anomalous inflow from the ocean interior that is determined by the meridional interior transport. This, in turn, is a result of westward propagating Rossby waves induced by wind stress curl anomalies mainly in 60°E-90°E. The above mechanism is contrasted with that of the seasonal variation, where the local transport driven by wind stress around the island plays a role. Furthermore, the interannual variations of the SBL and the NEMC and SEMC transports are significantly correlated with the Niño 3.4 index with 5-15 months lag. It is suggested that diabatic heating anomalies associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) along with a local process in the southeastern Indian Ocean may generate wind stress curl anomalies over the southern Indian Ocean.

  3. Current Transport with and Without Grain-Boundary Recombination for Polycrystalline Copper Indium SELENIUM(2) Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoxiang

    The relatively low efficiency of thin-film polycrystalline solar cells compared to the crystalline cells results in part from grain-boundary recombination. This recombination can enhance the forward current of solar cells and can severely limit the photovoltaic parameters. A model of minority-carrier transport mechanism with grain-boundary recombination has been developed and compared with the non-grain boundary situation for polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe_2 solar cells. The model is based on the self-consistent determination of barrier height, effective grain-boundary recombination velocity, and recombination rate. To get a physically reasonable effective grain-boundary recombination velocity, the quasi -Fermi level of the electrons must be allowed to vary with distance in the grain-boundary space-charge region. For typical CuInSe_2 cells, grain-boundary effects are small and can be neglected when grain-boundary trap density is below 5 times 10 ^{11} cm^ {-2}. When trap density is above 10 ^{12} cm^{ -2}, however, the grain-boundary recombination is comparable or even larger than the p-n junction space -charge region recombination. The calculated current-voltage characteristics both with and without grain-boundary recombination are compared with temperature-dependent light and dark experimental results for three CuInSe_2 cells which were fabricated by different groups using different deposition methods. The results show that the calculations without grain-boundary recombination can adequately fit experimental data for cells with relatively small forward -current density. For cells with larger forward-current density, however, inclusion of grain-boundary effects is necessary to match the experimental results. When light forward-current density is extremely high, the calculations both with and without grain-boundary effects fail to fit the experimental I-V curves. In this situation, the grain -boundary effects on current generation may have to be considered.

  4. Current-Driven Filament Instabilities in Relativistic Plasmas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Chuang

    2013-02-13

    This grant has supported a study of some fundamental problems in current- and flow-driven instabilities in plasmas and their applications in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysics. It addressed current-driven instabilities and their roles in fast ignition, and flow-driven instabilities and their applications in astrophysics.

  5. Atomistic studies of grain boundaries and heterophase interfaces in alloys and compounds. Final report, July 1987-August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, Vaclav

    1998-08-01

    The overarching goal of the research supported by this grant was investigation of the structure and properties of interfaces in multicomponent systems by atomistic modeling. Initially, the research was devoted to studies of segregation to grain boundaries in binary disordered alloys. The next step was then studies of the structure and properties of grain boundaries in ordered compounds, specifically Ni3Al and NiAl, and grain boundary segregation in these compounds in the case of off-stoichiometry. Finally, the structure of Nb/sapphire interfaces, in particular the core configurations of the misfit dislocations, was studied.

  6. Lagrangian observations in the Intermediate Western Boundary Current of the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legeais, Jean-François; Ollitrault, Michel; Arhan, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Subsurface float measurements at 800 m depth carried out from 1994 to 2003 in the Brazil Basin are used to characterise the equatorward Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) and its connections to the ocean interior. Transversally, the boundary flow is less than 100 km wide, and most intense at 10-20 km from the 800 m isobath. Its average velocities range from ˜0.1 ms-1 to 0.3 ms-1 depending on latitude, with individual daily values as high as 0.7 ms-1. The flow meridional extent exhibits 3 contrasted domains: (i) from 27°S to the Vitoria-Trindade Ridge at 20°30'S, the boundary flow intensifies northward along a relatively smooth topography. A counter current adjacent to it on its seaward side feeds it with intermediate water from the northern limb of the subtropical gyre. (ii) At latitudes 20-15°S characterised by a very irregular topography, the IWBC becomes weaker with even no real proof of its presence at 18-15°S. An intense mesoscale variability prevails there, which apparently takes over from the boundary flow to ensure the northward transport of water to 15°S, where the IWBC re-forms. (iii) North of this latitude, the boundary flow increases again to ˜10°S along smooth isobaths, then decreases when encountering a rougher topography and the zonal jets of the equatorial current system. A counter current present from ˜5°S to 14°S, partly fed from the boundary flow, contributes to its drainage. The IWBC shows two main input locations, at 27-23°S and 15-12°S in the southern parts of the two latitudinal domains of smooth topography where the northward current increases. Output locations coincide with major capes in the continental slope geometry, at 20°S and 18°S (the southeastern and northeastern corners of the Abrolhos Bank), at 8°S near the Recife Plateau, and at 5°S near Cape São Roque.

  7. The Effects of Grain Boundaries on the Current Transport Properties in YBCO-Coated Conductors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Xia, Yudong; Xue, Yan; Zhang, Fei; Tao, Bowan; Xiong, Jie

    2015-12-01

    We report a detailed study of the grain orientations and grain boundary (GB) networks in Y2O3 films grown on Ni-5 at.%W substrates. Electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) exhibited different GB misorientation angle distributions, strongly decided by Y2O3 films with different textures. The subsequent yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) barrier and CeO2 cap layer were deposited on Y2O3 layers by radio frequency sputtering, and YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition. For explicating the effects of the grain boundaries on the current carry capacity of YBCO films, a percolation model was proposed to calculate the critical current density (J c) which depended on different GB misorientation angle distributions. The significantly higher J c for the sample with sharper texture is believed to be attributed to improved GB misorientation angle distributions.

  8. A Final Approach Trajectory Model for Current Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Chester; Sadovsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Predicting accurate trajectories with limited intent information is a challenge faced by air traffic management decision support tools in operation today. One such tool is the FAA's Terminal Proximity Alert system which is intended to assist controllers in maintaining safe separation of arrival aircraft during final approach. In an effort to improve the performance of such tools, two final approach trajectory models are proposed; one based on polynomial interpolation, the other on the Fourier transform. These models were tested against actual traffic data and used to study effects of the key final approach trajectory modeling parameters of wind, aircraft type, and weight class, on trajectory prediction accuracy. Using only the limited intent data available to today's ATM system, both the polynomial interpolation and Fourier transform models showed improved trajectory prediction accuracy over a baseline dead reckoning model. Analysis of actual arrival traffic showed that this improved trajectory prediction accuracy leads to improved inter-arrival separation prediction accuracy for longer look ahead times. The difference in mean inter-arrival separation prediction error between the Fourier transform and dead reckoning models was 0.2 nmi for a look ahead time of 120 sec, a 33 percent improvement, with a corresponding 32 percent improvement in standard deviation.

  9. Simulations of the Arctic Boundary Current in an eddy-resolving global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, Y.; Nurser, A. J. G.; Bacon, S.; Coward, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is shielded from winds by sea ice and is strongly stratified, resulting in extremely low mixing rates. In this quiescent ocean, currents along the continental shelves become the principal dynamical features of the circulation. Observations and model results suggest the existence of a fast oceanic current in the Arctic Ocean, the Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC). The current flows counterclockwise (cyclonically) along the shelf break of the Siberian, Alaskan and Canadian Arctic shelves all way around the Arctic Ocean margins, leaving through western Fram Strait, and taking about two decades to complete the circuit (Aksenov et al., 2011). Simulations with an eddy-resolving global 1/12 degree NEMO model show that the ACBC consists of several jets with the fastest flow occurring at the shelf break. We compare the models results with observations and examine mechanisms driving the ACBC. Through the analysis of the NEMO simulations performed with eddy-resolving, eddy-permitting and non-eddying model configurations we investigate the effect of resolution on the current. Reference Aksenov, Y., V. V. Ivanov, A. J. G. Nurser, S. Bacon, I. V. Polyakov, A. C. Coward, A. C. Naveira-Garabato, and A. Beszczynska-Moeller (2011), The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C09017, doi:10.1029/2010JC006637.

  10. Southern hemisphere western boundary current variability revealed by GEOS 3 altimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.L.; Horai, K.; Donn, M.

    1983-01-20

    GEOS 3 altimeter data are adjusted to minimize differences at the intersections or crossovers between ascending and descending orbits. This procedure removes noise created by orbital uncertainty and permits study of sea level variations, without knowledge of the geoid. The root mean squares (rms) of the adjusted differences, grouped within 2/sup 0/ latitude by 2/sup 0/ longitude boxes, are mapped for the western boundary current regime and adjacent Antarctic Circumpolar Current segment for each southern hemisphere ocean, as well as for the eastern Indian Ocean, where sufficient crossover data are available. The rms crossover values are compared to surface-based hydrographic data studies of ocean transients for verification of the altimeter results. The altimeter data clearly reveal reasonable patterns of sea level transients associated with the western boundary currents and Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In addition, the rms values reveal regions of locally amplified tidal features adjacent to the Patagonian coast of Argentina and in the region west of New Zealand. The altimeter data verify and expand on the results of limited surface-based data sets, particularly in the case of the circulation transients south of Madagascar, and southwest of New Caledonia. In the eastern Indian Ocean the altimeter data suggest variable sea level conditions near 10/sup 0/-20/sup 0/S, near 20/sup 0/-30/sup 0/S, and near 50/sup 0/S. The last is associated with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, but the source of the northern variable regions is not clear.

  11. Western boundary currents regulated by interaction between ocean eddies and the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaohui; Jing, Zhao; Chang, Ping; Liu, Xue; Montuoro, Raffaele; Small, R Justin; Bryan, Frank O; Greatbatch, Richard J; Brandt, Peter; Wu, Dexing; Lin, Xiaopei; Wu, Lixin

    2016-07-28

    Current climate models systematically underestimate the strength of oceanic fronts associated with strong western boundary currents, such as the Kuroshio and Gulf Stream Extensions, and have difficulty simulating their positions at the mid-latitude ocean's western boundaries. Even with an enhanced grid resolution to resolve ocean mesoscale eddies-energetic circulations with horizontal scales of about a hundred kilometres that strongly interact with the fronts and currents-the bias problem can still persist; to improve climate models we need a better understanding of the dynamics governing these oceanic frontal regimes. Yet prevailing theories about the western boundary fronts are based on ocean internal dynamics without taking into consideration the intense air-sea feedbacks in these oceanic frontal regions. Here, by focusing on the Kuroshio Extension Jet east of Japan as the direct continuation of the Kuroshio, we show that feedback between ocean mesoscale eddies and the atmosphere (OME-A) is fundamental to the dynamics and control of these energetic currents. Suppressing OME-A feedback in eddy-resolving coupled climate model simulations results in a 20-40 per cent weakening in the Kuroshio Extension Jet. This is because OME-A feedback dominates eddy potential energy destruction, which dissipates more than 70 per cent of the eddy potential energy extracted from the Kuroshio Extension Jet. The absence of OME-A feedback inevitably leads to a reduction in eddy potential energy production in order to balance the energy budget, which results in a weakened mean current. The finding has important implications for improving climate models' representation of major oceanic fronts, which are essential components in the simulation and prediction of extratropical storms and other extreme events, as well as in the projection of the effect on these events of climate change.

  12. Anomalous currents in a driven XXZ chain with boundary twisting at weak coupling or weak driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkov, Vladislav; Salerno, Mario

    2013-02-01

    The spin 1/2 XXZ chain driven out of equilibrium by coupling with boundary reservoirs targeting perpendicular spin orientations in the XY plane is investigated. The existence of an anomaly in the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) at the isotropic point Δ = 1 is demonstrated in both the weak coupling and weak driving limits. The nature of the anomaly is studied analytically by calculating exact NESSs for small system sizes, and investigating steady currents. The spin current at the points Δ =± 1 has a singularity which leads to a current discontinuity when either driving or coupling vanishes, and the current of energy develops a twin peak anomaly. The character of the singularity is shown to depend qualitatively on whether the system size is even or odd.

  13. Gliders Measure Western Boundary Current Transport from the South Pacific to the Equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. E.; Kessler, W. S.; Sherman, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2007, the Consortium on the Ocean's Role in Climate (CORC) has used repeated glider transects across the southern Solomon Sea to measure the previously nearly unsampled mass and heat transport from the South Pacific to the equatorial zone. Mean transport is dominated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent (NGCUC). This low-latitude western boundary current is a major element of the shallow meridional overturning circulation, returning water from the subtropical South Pacific to the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) where it upwells. We find the mean NGCUC to be a jet less than 100 km wide, centered near 300 m depth, with equatorward velocities reaching 35 cm/s and salinity anomalies on isopycnals up to 0.05. Weaker poleward flow is found near the surface in the eastern basin. Equatorward transport above 700 m is typically 20 Sv, but nearly vanished during two La Niñas and reached 25 Sv during an El Niño. Within these events the seasonal cycle cannot yet be defined. Transport variability is strongest outside the boundary current and appears to consist of two independently moving layers with a boundary near 250 m. ENSO variability is predominantly in the upper layer. The relation of Solomon Sea mass and heat transport with ENSO indicators will be discussed The ability to initiate and maintain measurements that support such quantitative analyses with a small effort in a remote site far from research institutions demonstrates that gliders can be a productive part of the global ocean observing system.

  14. Observation of chiral currents at the magnetic domain boundary of a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yihua

    2015-03-01

    The broken time-reversal symmetry (TRS) states on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3D-TI) promise many exotic quantum phenomena. Breaking TRS opens a band gap on the surface Dirac cone and transforms the metallic surface into a Chern insulator. The TRS-broken surface states coupled to a superconductor are predicted to lead to Majorana fermions, which are the fundamental ingredients of topological quantum computation. Just as the surface Dirac cone is a signature of the non-trivial topological bulk band structure of a time-reversal invariant 3D-TI, bulk-boundary correspondence dictates that the TRS-broken surface states with a nonzero Chern number is manifested by a gapless chiral edge state (CES) at the domain boundary. In the special case where the domain boundary is the edge of the sample surface, CES along the edge leads to a quantized anomalous Hall conductance, which was recently measured in a magnetically doped 3D-TI. More generally, a magnetic domain boundary on the surface of TI hosts a CES, which is yet to be directly demonstrated because any local change of conductivity due to the CES does not affect conductance globally. Here we use a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to show that in a uniformly magnetized topological insulator - ferromagnetic insulator (TI-FMI) heterostructure current flows at the edge of the surface of the topological insulator when the Fermi level is gate-tuned to the surface band gap. We further induce micron-scale magnetic structures using the field coil of the SQUID and show that there emerges a chiral edge current at the magnetic domain boundary. In both cases the magnitude of the chiral edge current depends on the chemical potential rather than the applied current. Such magnetic nano-structures, which can be readily created on a TI in an arbitrary geometry, provide a versatile platform for detecting topological magnetoelectric effects and may allow the engineering of

  15. 59 FR- Availability of the Final Management Plan and Corridor Boundaries for the Main, West Little and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-02-01

    ... Boundaries for the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee Rivers AGENCY: Vale District, Bureau of Land... the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee Rivers, components of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers... Owyhee Rivers lie entirely within Malheur County, Oregon. ADDRESSES: The Final Management Plan...

  16. Eastern and Western Boundary Currents in the Labrador Sea, 1995-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.; Torres, D. J.; Yashayaev, I.

    2010-12-01

    Since 1995, the annual occupation of AR7W in the Labrador Sea has usually included LADCP data in addition to hydrographic measurements and tracers. We have previously presented results discussing the section-wide circulation for particular years, comparison with geostrophic velocities, and heat flux as determined from individual as well as composite sections. In this work, we present boundary current transports for a sampling of AR7W sections from 1995 through 2008. Both eastern and western boundary currents (EBCs, WBCs) are examined by combining LADCP data with density (or hydrographic) measurements from ships and profiling floats (Argo, PALACE). The transport estimates from LADCP data are also compared with the currents based on along-track multi-mission altimetry and with the lagrangian velocities from historic float and drifter trajectories. We find that WBC transports are mostly weaker than EBC transports, with slightly less variability year to year. Transports may be underestimated by 2 - 4 Sv when LADCP data are not available far enough onshore, so we extrapolate the velocities (carefully) to improve our estimate. Geostrophic velocities from hydrographic data can also be used to extend the coverage. WBC transports are about 32 Sv in the mean, but range from 22 to as much as 55 Sv. EBC transports range from 26 to 70 (!) Sv, with a mean of about 45 Sv. Higher transports, year to year, result from a combination of greater current width and faster velocities. Baroclinic transport relative to 1500 dbars for the upper level current ranges from 2.5 - 4.6 Sv, in good agreement with Lazier and Wright (1993). Using hydrographic data to determine transport in prescribed density layers, we find reasonable agreement with other recent observations in the Labrador Sea: for the western boundaries, Fischer et al. (2004) and Dengler et al. (2006) (CTD, LADCP and moored array data near 53 N and 56 N, respectively); for the eastern boundaries, Holliday et al. (2009), their

  17. Current Pattern Change in the Fram Strait at the Pliocene/Pleistocene Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, C.; Geissler, W. H.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Jokat, W.

    2014-12-01

    Thick packages of drift-type sediments were identified in the northwestern and central part of the Fram Strait, mainly along the western Yermak Plateau flank, but also in the central, flat part of the Fram Strait. A large-scale field of sediment waves was found north of 80.5°, along the Yermak Plateau rise. This field separates two drift bodies, a deeper one towards west and a shallower one towards east. The drift bodies were deposited by bottom currents, most likely by the northbound Yermak Branch of the West Spitsbergen Current, but an influence of a southbound current on the westren drift body cannot be ruled out. Within the drift bodies and even more pronounced withing the sediment waves, a stratigraphic boundary is clearly visible. It separates a lower package of waves migrating upslope at a low angle of ~5° from an upper package with significantly increased wave crest migration at ~16.5°. Using the seismic network, this stratigraphic boundary could be tracked to ODP Leg 151, Site 911, where it corresponds to the lithostratigraphic boundary between units IA and IB dated to 2.7 Ma. The increase in wave-crest migration angle points at a shift towards higher sedimentation rates at 2.7 Ma. This corresponds to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation with a major expansion of the Scandinavian, northern Barents Sea, North American and Greenland ice sheets. The Barents Shelf that was subaerially exposed and the expansion of the northern Barents Sea ice sheet (as well as Svalbard) are the likely sources for enhanced erosion and fluvial input along the pathway of the West Spitsbergen Current, resulting in higher sedimentation rates in the Fram Strait.

  18. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive coverage of low clouds over the subtropical eastern oceans greatly impacts the current climate. In addition, the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty, which thwarts accurate prediction of future climate change. Low clouds are poorly simulated in climate models, partly due to inadequate long-term simultaneous observations of their macrophysical and microphysical structure, radiative effects, and associated aerosol distribution in regions where their impact is greatest. The thickness and extent of subtropical low clouds is dependent on tight couplings between surface fluxes of heat and moisture, radiative cooling, boundary layer turbulence, and precipitation (much of which evaporates before reaching the ocean surface and is closely connected to the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei). These couplings have been documented as a result of past field programs and model studies. However, extensive research is still required to achieve a quantitative understanding sufficient for developing parameterizations, which adequately predict aerosol indirect effects and low cloud response to climate perturbations. This is especially true of the interactions between clouds, aerosol, and precipitation. These processes take place in an ever-changing synoptic environment that can confound interpretation of short time period observations.

  19. Current Fluctuations in the One-Dimensional Symmetric Exclusion Process with Open Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.; Roche, P.-E.

    2004-05-01

    We calculate the first four cumulants of the integrated current of the one dimensional symmetric simple exclusion process of $N$ sites with open boundary conditions. For large system size $N$, the generating function of the integrated current depends on the densities $\\rho_a$ and $\\rho_b$ of the two reservoirs and on the fugacity $z$, the parameter conjugated to the integrated current, through a single parameter. Based on our expressions for these first four cumulants, we make a conjecture which leads to a prediction for all the higher cumulants. In the case $\\rho_a=1$ and $\\rho_b=0$, our conjecture gives the same universal distribution as the one obtained by Lee, Levitov and Yakovets for one dimensional quantum conductors in the metallic regime.

  20. Final Technical Report: Grain Boundary Complexions and Transitions in Doped Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Luo

    2012-10-15

    This four-year research project has advanced the fundamental knowledge of grain boundary (GB) complexions (i.e., "two-dimensional interfacial phases") and associated GB "phase" transitions in several grounds. First, a bilayer interfacial phase, which had been directly observed by microscopy only in complex ceramic systems in prior studies, has been identified in simpler systems such as Au-doped Si and Bi-doped Ni in this study, where the interpretations of the their formation mechanisms and microscopic images are less equivocal. Second, convincing evidence for the existence of a first-order GB transition from a nominally "clean" GB to a bilayer adsorption interfacial phase has been revealed for Au-doped Si; the confirmation of the first-order nature of interfacial transitions at GBs, which was rare in prior studies, is scientifically significant and technologically important. Third, the bilayer interfacial phase discovered in Bi-doped Ni has been found to be the cause of the mysterious liquid metal embrittlement phenomenon in this system; the exact atomic level mechanism of this phenomenon has puzzled the materials and physics communities for over a century. Finally, significant advancements have been made to establish phenomenological thermodynamic models for GB complexions and transitions. Since GB complexions can control the transport, mechanical and physical properties of a broad range of metallic and ceramic materials, the fundamental knowledge generated by this project can have broad impacts on materials design in general. In this regard, understanding and controlling GB phase behaviors (complexions and transitions) can be an important component for the "Materials Genome" project.

  1. High current rf (HCRF) linac program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The High Current Radio Frequency (HCRF) Accelerator program began as an effort funded by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) through the Office of Naval Research (ONR). The three options carried a negotiated total of $3,731,115 so that the total negotiated amount was $3,950,340. SDIO only provided $600,000 for the effort, and only one of the three options was exercised. An additional $310,000 was provided by DARPA, the Office of Naval Technology (ONT) and the Naval Ocean System Center (NOSC) for a collaborative effort to explore an RF technology application in naval surveillance (ultra-wideband radar), an activity covered by the HCRF statement of work. Technical work on the HCRF program consisted of in-depth technology studies and experimental support on the naval radar task. The overall goal of the HCRF program was to develop an fundamentally new technology for compact (high gradient) electron accelerators that can efficiently drive high gain, single pass FEL amplifiers producing output radiation at a wavelength of approximately one micron or less in a pulsed format for boost phase and mid-course SDIO missions. SDIO mission requirements dictated that the accelerator technology goals be consistent with a laser system that can produce greater than ten megawatts of average optical power during a 200 second battle from a space platform placed in orbit with a single heavy lift booster.

  2. On the Structure of the Ice-Shelf-Ocean Boundary Layer and Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, A.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean-forced basal melting has been implicated in the widespread thinning of Antarctic ice shelves that has been causally linked with acceleration in the outflow of grounded ice. What determines the distribution and rates of basal melting and freezing beneath an ice shelf and how these respond to changes in the ocean temperature or circulation are therefore key questions. Recent years have seen major progress in our ability to observe basal melting and the ocean conditions that drive it, but data on the latter remain sparse, limiting our understanding of the key processes of ice-ocean heat transfer. In particular, we have no observations of current profiles through the buoyancy- and frictionally-controlled flows along the ice shelf base that drive mixing through the ice-ocean boundary layer. This presentation represents an attempt to address this gap in our knowledge through the application of a very simple model of such boundary flows that considers only the spatial dimension perpendicular to the boundary. Results indicate that for the purely buoyancy-driven flow two possible regimes exist: a weakly-stratified, geostrophic cross-slope current with an embedded Ekman layer; or a strongly-stratified upslope jet with weak cross-slope flow. The latter regime, while well-known to students of katabatic winds, has no analogue in the ocean, and is most appropriate when the ice-ocean interface is very steep. For the gentle slopes typical of ice shelves the buoyant Ekman regime provides some useful insight. When combined with a background flow a range of possible near-ice current profiles emerges as a result of arrest or enhancement of the upslope Ekman transport. Furthermore a simple expression for the upslope transport can be formed that is analogous to that for the wind-forced surface Ekman layer, with the curvature of the ice shelf base replacing the wind-stress curl in driving Ekman pumping to and from the geostrophic flow.

  3. Finite Element Analysis for Imaging Steel Bars Placed Under a Mild Steel Boundary Using Eddy Current Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hussin, H.; Zaid, M.; Gaydecki, P.; El-Madaani, F.; Fernandes, B.

    2006-03-06

    This paper reports on recent modelling results obtained using finite-element analysis for penetrating a magnetic field through a 2 mm steel boundary. The object is to detect 16 mm steel bars placed under mild steel boundaries at different operating frequencies. To penetrate thicker steel boundaries and increase the depth penetration, a different configuration based on remote field eddy currents (RFEC) has been modelled.

  4. Space resolved imaging of currents and dissipation at low-angle grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooss, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Using quantitative magneto-optical imaging (MOI)(Ch. Jooss, J. Albrecht, H. Kuhn, H. Kronmüller, S. Leonhardt, Rep. Prog. Phys. 65) (2002) 651. and electric field imaging by magneto optics (EFIMO)(Ch. Jooss, K. Guth, V. Born, J. Albrecht, Phys. Rev. B 65) (2002) 014505., the local critical current density, electric field and dissipated power distributions of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGB) in different REBaCuO films (RE=Y, Er, ...) and coated conductors are investigated. With these local methods, we obtain unique information on the spatial variation of local intergranular current densities and magnetic self field effects, depending on the length of the boundary and the magnetic history of the sample. The electric field distribution and the power dissipation are strongly inhomogeneous at LAGBs and deviate up to two orders of magnitude from the intragrain values in our experimental conditions. These results may have strong implications for the interpretation of E(j) curves of superconductors with inhomogeneous current. We apply these results to series of LAGB's in REBaCuO and Ca-doped YBaCuO films on different bicrystalline and textured substrates. An explanation of the observed electric field patterns is given in terms of vortex velocity fields. The transport data will be related to recent results on the microscopic properties of pure and Ca-doped LAGB in YBaCuO.

  5. Grain boundary phase equilibrium in metallic systems. Final report, December 1, 1986--May 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Deymier, P.A.

    1991-04-01

    Progresses in the structural and chemical characterization of grain boundaries in metals are reported. We have developed a solid state method for fabrication of a variety of important grain boundaries. This method is based on a sequence of heavy deformation of single crystals followed by controlled recrystallization. The structure of complex grain boundaries such as the quasiperiodic 45{degree}[100] twist in pure aluminum or the periodic {Sigma}5[310] in aluminum-5%Mg alloy has been elucidated. We have found the structural unit (SU) model to be very powerful for the description of quasiperiodic interfaces. The applicability of the SU model to heterophase interfaces is verified for Si-Al interfaces. Further advances have been achieved in the understanding of the driving forces for grain boundary segregation including elastic and electronic effects. Chemical effects on grain boundary core structure are observed in the case of Al-Mg alloys and Sr doped Si.

  6. Numerical analysis of contaminant release from suspended sediment in the benthic boundary layer under combined action of wave and current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, B.

    2016-12-01

    The benthic boundary layer is the layer of water directly above the sediment at the bottom of a river, lake or sea. The benthic boundary layer under the combined action of waves and currents plays an important role in sediment dynamic process. Sediment is the main carrier for pollutants movement, of which the suspension, settlement and transportation have important influence on pollutants movement. The contaminant release from suspended sediment is closely related to sediment concentration and sediment grain size. To study the mechanism of sediment suspension and contaminant release in benthic boundary layer, the turbulence model, hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, convection-diffusion model and the Langmuir adsorption kinetics model were coupled to simulate flow structure, turbulence diffusion, sediment suspension and contaminant release in the benthic boundary layer. The numerical results and analyses reveal the mechanism of sediment suspension and contaminant release in the benthic boundary layer. A high concentration layer of sediment would be formed under the combined action of waves and currents. Because the turbulent mixing strength within the boundary layer is much larger than that out of boundary, the high concentration layer is very thin and even difficult to detect. Although the thickness of benthic boundary layer is very small, the contaminant release quantity from the suspended sediment may be enormous because the concentration in the layer is very large. The high concentration layer of sediment in benthic boundary layer is an important factor which can not be ignored under the combined action of waves and currents.

  7. Australian Sphingidae – DNA Barcodes Challenge Current Species Boundaries and Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Rougerie, Rodolphe; Kitching, Ian J.; Haxaire, Jean; Miller, Scott E.; Hausmann, Axel; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objective We examine the extent of taxonomic and biogeographical uncertainty in a well-studied group of Australian Lepidoptera, the hawkmoths (Sphingidae). Methods We analysed the diversity of Australian sphingids through the comparative analysis of their DNA barcodes, supplemented by morphological re-examinations and sequence information from a nuclear marker in selected cases. The results from the analysis of Australian sphingids were placed in a broader context by including conspecifics and closely related taxa from outside Australia to test taxonomic boundaries. Results Our results led to the discovery of six new species in Australia, one case of erroneously synonymized species, and three cases of synonymy. As a result, we establish the occurrence of 75 species of hawkmoths on the continent. The analysis of records from outside Australia also challenges the validity of current taxonomic boundaries in as many as 18 species, including Agrius convolvuli (Linnaeus, 1758), a common species that has gained adoption as a model system. Our work has revealed a higher level of endemism than previously recognized. Most (90%) Australian sphingids are endemic to the continent (45%) or to Australia, the Pacific Islands and the Papuan and Wallacean regions (45%). Only seven species (10%) have ranges that extend beyond this major biogeographical boundary toward SE Asia and other regions of the Old World. Main Conclusions This study has established that overlooked cryptic diversity and inaccurate species delineation produced significant misconceptions concerning diversity and distribution patterns in a group of insects that is considered well known taxonomically. Because DNA barcoding represents a straightforward way to test taxonomic boundaries, its implementation can improve the accuracy of primary diversity data in biogeography and conservation studies. PMID:24987846

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of Free-Boundary Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarator Equilibria with Finite Bootstrap Current

    SciTech Connect

    Coope, Wilfred Anthony; Ferrando i Margalet, Sergi; Allfrey, Simon J.; Kisslinger, Johann; Wobig, Horst F.G.; Narushima, Yoshiro; Okamura, Shoichi; Suzuki, Chihiro; Watanabe, Kiyomasa Y.; Yamazaki, Kozo; Isaev, Maxim Yu

    2004-09-15

    The impact of the bootstrap current is investigated on the equilibrium properties of a two-period quasi-axisymmetric stellarator reactor with free boundary and on the corresponding ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability properties. Although the magnetic field strength B spectrum is dominated by a m/n = 1/0 component, the discrete filamentary coils trigger some small-amplitude symmetry-breaking components that can disturb the quasi-symmetry of B. Finite {beta} causes the plasma column to shift outward in the absence of bootstrap current. With a self-consistent bootstrap current in the 1/{nu} regime, the plasma becomes more elongated and more distorted in the horizontally elongated up-down symmetric cross section. At {beta} (approximately equal to) 3.25%, the plasma can be restored to its near-vacuum shape with the application of a vertical field with coil currents 20% of those of the modular coils, but at the expense of a significant mirror component in the B-field spectrum. The bootstrap current causes the rotational transform {iota} profile to increase above the critical resonant value ({iota}{sub c} = 1/2 for {beta} {>=}1.1%) and combines with the Pfirsch-Schlueter current to destabilize a m/n = 2/1 external kink mode for {beta} {>=}1.8%.

  9. Alternation of sign of magnetization current in driven XXZ chains with twisted XY boundary gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkov, V.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate an open XXZ spin 1/2 chain driven out of equilibrium by coupling with boundary reservoirs targeting different spin orientations in the XY-plane. Symmetries of the model are revealed which appear to be different for spin chains of odd and even sizes. As a result, the spin current is found to alternate with chain length, ruling out the possibility of ballistic transport. Heat transport is switched off completely by virtue of another global symmetry. Further, we investigate the model numerically and analytically. At strong coupling, we find an exact nonequilibrium steady state using perturbation theory. The state is determined by solving secular conditions which guarantee self-consistency of the perturbative expansion. We find nontrivial dependence of the magnetization current on the spin chain anisotropy Δ in the critical region |Δ| < 1, and a phenomenon of tripling of the twisting angle along the chain for narrow lacunae of Δ.

  10. Influence of grain boundary structure distribution and processing history on intergranular creep cavitation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new measure of grain boundary structure in polycrystalline materials has been introduced which overcomes two difficult obstacles in modeling properties. Previous microstructural measures described intercrystalline misorientation and boundary physical orientation separately. The new measure, called the Intercrystalline Structure Distribution Function, successfully combines both of these elements into a single cohesive measure application to a wide class of property models. A method for determining the function from microdiffraction measurements in section planes was developed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study: discussion of licensing issues and site boundary considerations at three candidate sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klauda, R.J.; Portner, E.M.

    1984-10-01

    This document is one of a series of technical reports prepared for the Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study. Selected licensing issues for the three remaining candidate sites are discussed and related to site boundary considerations. None of the four licensing issues evaluated (noise, fugitive dust, solid waste disposal, point source water discharges) would eliminate any of the three candidate sites from the comparison study. All three sites could likely comply with the air quality standards applicable to fugitive dust emissions. Compliance could be periodically complicated by levels of airborne coal dust at WP-26 during high wind episodes. Noise and fugitive dust level predictions suggested that the original site boundaries could be further refined. Final site boundaries will not be established until after the preferred site is selected.

  12. DROPOUTS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES: ASSOCIATED WITH LOCAL TRAPPING BOUNDARIES OR CURRENT SHEETS?

    SciTech Connect

    Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P. E-mail: scdjr@mahidol.ac.t E-mail: piyanate@gmail.co

    2010-03-10

    In recent observations by the Advanced Composition Explorer, the intensity of solar energetic particles exhibits sudden, large changes known as dropouts. These have been explained in terms of turbulence or a flux tube structure in the solar wind. Dropouts are believed to indicate filamentary magnetic connection to a localized particle source near the solar surface, and computer simulations of a random-phase model of magnetic turbulence have indicated a spatial association between dropout features and local trapping boundaries (LTBs) defined for a two-dimensional (2D) + slab model of turbulence. Previous observations have shown that dropout features are not well associated with sharp magnetic field changes, as might be expected in the flux tube model. Random-phase turbulence models do not properly treat sharp changes in the magnetic field, such as current sheets, and thus cannot be tested in this way. Here, we explore the properties of a more realistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence model (2D MHD), in which current sheets develop and the current and magnetic field have characteristic non-Gaussian statistical properties. For this model, computer simulations that trace field lines to determine magnetic connection from a localized particle source indicate that sharp particle gradients should frequently be associated with LTBs, sometimes with strong 2D magnetic fluctuations, and infrequently with current sheets. Thus, the 2D MHD + slab model of turbulent fluctuations includes some realistic features of the flux tube view and is consistent with the lack of an observed association between dropouts and intense magnetic fields or currents.

  13. Seasonal variability of alongshore winds and sea surface temperature fronts in Eastern Boundary Current Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuntao; Castelao, Renato M.; Yuan, Yeping

    2015-03-01

    Seven years of satellite observations (2003-2009) are used to describe variability in sea surface temperature (SST) fronts and in the alongshore component of ocean winds, and to investigate their relations in four Eastern Boundary Current Systems (EBCS). The general patterns of SST frontal activity are remarkably similar in all EBCS, with high frontal probabilities along the coast decreasing with distance from the coastline. Results from empirical orthogonal function decompositions reveal that the seasonal evolution of SST fronts and wind stress are significantly correlated, with intensified upwelling favorable winds associated with an increase in frontal probabilities. An offshore migration of the region of high frontal activity is observed during the period of upwelling favorable alongshore wind stress in EBCS. In all regions, the seasonal variability of frontal activity and wind stress is stronger at mid than at low latitudes. The width of the region of high frontal activity is relatively broader in the California and Benguela Current Systems, and narrower in the Canary and Humboldt Current Systems. The width of the band of high frontal activity may be influenced by multiple factors, including wind forcing, flow topography interactions, and mesoscale dynamics. While seasonal variability in frontal activity in the California Current System acts to reinforce or weaken the average pattern, they are substantially different in the Canary Current System, where there is little overlap in the areas characterized by persistent and seasonally varying front activity.

  14. Net-phytoplankton communities in the Western Boundary Currents and their environmental correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunyan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhun, Mingliang

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated net-phytoplankton biomass, species composition, the phytoplankton abundance horizontal distribution, and the correlations between net-phytoplankton communities and mesoscale structure that were derived from the net samples taken from the Western Boundary Currents during summer, 2014. A total of 199 phytoplankton species belonging to 61 genera in four phyla were identified. The dominant species included Climacodium frauenfeldianum, Thalassiothrix longissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis var. styliformis, Pyrocystis noctiluca, Ceratium trichoceros, and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Four phytoplankton communities were divided by cluster analysis and the clusters were mainly associated with the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the Subtropical Counter Current (STCC), and the Luzon Current (LC), respectively. The lowest phytoplankton cell abundance and the highest Trichodesmium filament abundance were recorded in the STCC region. The principal component analysis showed that T. thiebautii preferred warm and nutrient poor water. There was also an increase in phytoplankton abundance and biomass near 5°N in the NECC region, where they benefit from upwellings and eddies.

  15. Boundary conditions and formation of pure spin currents in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliashvili, Merab; Tsitsishvili, George

    2017-09-01

    Schrödinger equation for an electron confined to a two-dimensional strip is considered in the presence of homogeneous orthogonal magnetic field. Since the system has edges, the eigenvalue problem is supplied by the boundary conditions (BC) aimed in preventing the leakage of matter away across the edges. In the case of spinless electrons the Dirichlet and Neumann BC are considered. The Dirichlet BC result in the existence of charge carrying edge states. For the Neumann BC each separate edge comprises two counterflow sub-currents which precisely cancel out each other provided the system is populated by electrons up to certain Fermi level. Cancelation of electric current is a good starting point for developing the spin-effects. In this scope we reconsider the problem for a spinning electron with Rashba coupling. The Neumann BC are replaced by Robin BC. Again, the two counterflow electric sub-currents cancel out each other for a separate edge, while the spin current survives thus modeling what is known as pure spin current - spin flow without charge flow.

  16. Boundary current instabilities, upwelling, shelf mixing and eutrophication processes in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Hali˙l. İ.; Özsoy, Emi˙n.; Ünlüata, Ümi˙t.

    Satellite and in situ data are utilized to investigate the mesoscale dynamics of the Black Sea boundary current system with special emphasis on aspects of transport and productivity. The satellite data are especially helpful in capturing rapid sub-mesoscale motions insufficiently resolved by the in situ measurements. Various forms of isolated features, including dipole eddies and river plumes, are identified in the satellite images. Unstable flow structures at these sites appear to transport materials and momentum across the continental shelf. Species differentiation and competition are evident along the boundary current system and at the frontal regions during the development of early summer productivity. A time series of Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS) images indicate dynamical modulation of the springtime surface productivity in the southern Black Sea. Unstable meandering motions generated at Sakarya Canyon propagate east with speeds of ∼10-15 km d -1. Within weeks, a turbulent jet is created which separates from the coast, covering the entire southwestern sector. The nutrients driving the phytoplankton production (mainly Emiliana huxleyi) of the current system evidently originate from fluvial discharge entering from the northwestern region including the Danube river. The productivity pattern develops in early summer when the Danube inflow is at its peak, and through meandering motions spreads into an area several times wider than the continental shelf. In 1980, the CZCS data, and in 1991 and 1992, the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data indicate patches of upwelling along the west Anatolian coastline between Sakarya Canyon and Cape İnce ( Ince Burun) in summer. The upwelling phenomenon is outstanding because it occurs on a coast where normally the surface convergence near the coast implies downwelling, and under conditions of unfavorable winds. In 1992, the hydrographic data indicated the upwelling to be the result of a surface

  17. Nonlinear effects on western boundary current structure and separation: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, S.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.; McClimans, T. A.; Ellingsen, I.

    2009-04-01

    The role played by nonlinear effects in shaping the structure of barotropic western boundary currents (WBCs) and in determining WBC separation from the coast has been investigated through laboratory simulations by means of the 5-m-diameter Coriolis rotating basin at SINTEF (Trondheim, Norway) in the framework of the HYDRALAB-III project. The laboratory setup consists of two parallel rectangular channels separated by an island and linked by two curved connections: in the first channel, a piston is forced at a constant speed U ranging from 0.05 to 3 cm/s over a distance of 2.5 m, producing a virtually unsheared current at the entrance of the second channel. In the latter, a linear reduction of the water depth provides the topographic beta-effect that produces the westward intensification. Nearly steady currents are obtained and measured photogrammetrically over a region of about 1 m2. The broad range of piston speeds permitted by the mechanical apparatus has allowed us to achieve an unprecedented coverage of the range of nonlinearity for WBCs in terms of experimental data, so that the cross-stream WBC profile could be analyzed from the nearly linear Munk-type case (e.g., for U=0.1 cm/s with T=30 s, where T is the rotation period of the basin) up to the more realistic highly nonlinear limit (particularly significant is the case U=1 cm/s and T=30 s, which is close to be dynamically similar to the Gulf Stream). Thanks to the large size of the rotating basin, cross-stream widths of the simulated WBC as large as 80 cm could be obtained. Moreover, in order to analyze the process of WBC separation, coastal variations have been introduced along the western boundary in the form of wedge-shaped continents with different coastline orientations, whose northern limit corresponds to an idealized Cape Hatteras. While weak WBCs follow the coast also past the cape, for sufficiently strong nonlinear effects the current detaches from the coast as a consequence of flow deceleration

  18. Constructing Integrable Full-pressure Full-current Free-boundary Stellarator Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, S. R.; Monticello, D. A.; Reiman, A. H.; Strickler, D. J.; Hirshman, S. P.

    2003-06-01

    For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands are guaranteed to exist. Magnetic islands break the smooth topology of nested flux surfaces and chaotic field lines result when magnetic islands overlap. An analogous case occurs with 11/2-dimension Hamiltonian systems where resonant perturbations cause singularities in the transformation to action-angle coordinates and destroy integrability. The suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Techniques for `healing' vacuum fields and fixed-boundary plasma equilibria have been developed, but what is ultimately required is a procedure for designing stellarators such that the self-consistent plasma equilibrium currents and the coil currents combine to produce an integrable magnetic field, and such a procedure is presented here for the first time. Magnetic islands in free-boundary full-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver [A.H.Reiman & H.S.Greenside, Comp. Phys. Comm., 43:157, 1986.] which iterates the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator eXperiment [G.H.Neilson et.al., Phys. Plas., 7:1911, 2000.].

  19. Modelling the coronal hole -- coronal loop boundary as a compressible current-vortex sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlburg, R.; Einaudi, G.

    Recent observations and theoretical developments have re-awakened interest in finding out what happens at the boundary between closed and open magnetic field regions in the solar corona, i.e., between coronal loops and coronal holes. Habbal et al. (2001) report the existence of a pervasive radial magnetic field in the solar corona These observations appear to indicate that closed and open magnetic fields are in close proximity in the solar corona, making it likely that that interactions between the two are common. However, it is not necessary that open magnetic field lines thread through closed magnetic fields. It is possible that coronal holes have a fractal boundary, and that instead "estuaries" of open field intrude into active regions. Theoretical interest is shown in the ideas behind coronal whips (Pneumann 1974) and more recently models based of the magnetic junkyard (Dowdy et al. 1986) and the magnetic furnace (Axford and McKenzie 1992). A model for the coronal hole - coronal loop boundary, based on the linear and nonlinear evolution of a compressible current-vortex sheet, is proposed. The loop is modelled as force-free and massive, with the plasma in motion along the magnetic field. The hole is modelled with a potential magnetic field containing a rarer, static plasma. Both linear and nonlinear properties are explored. An acceleration along the coronal hole magnetic field direction is observed which would enhance the fast solar wind speed. W. I. Axford and J. F. McKenzie, in Solar Wind Seven, eds. E. Marsch and R. Schwenn, (Oxford: Pergamon Press), pp 1-5 (1992). J. F. Dowdy, D. Rabin, and R. L. Moore, Solar Phys. 105, 35 (1986). S. R. Habbal, R. Woo, and J. Arnaud, Astrophys. J. 55, 852 (2001). G. W. Pneumann, in Coronal Disturbances, ed. G. Newkirk, (Dordrecht: Reidel), p 35 (1974).

  20. Statistics of auroral hiss and relationship to auroral boundaries and upward current regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasojevic, M.

    2016-08-01

    An 8 year database of VLF auroral hiss observations from South Pole station (invariant latitude of -74° with magnetic local time (MLT) = UT -3.5 h) is analyzed. There are three peaks in hiss occurrence as a function of MLT in the evening sector (19-23 MLT), afternoon sector (13-17 MLT), and morning sector (7-11 MLT). The geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) drivers of hiss are examined in the three MLT sectors, and the results are interpreted using an empirical model of auroral boundaries and an empirical model of field-aligned current patterns. Auroral hiss on the dayside occurs when the auroral oval is centered near the latitude of the station, and in the afternoon sector higher disturbance levels are required. The afternoon sector favors positive By when Bz is positive and negative By when Bz is strongly negative, while the morning sector favors the complementary conditions. In each case the preference for hiss occurrence follows the pattern of upward field-aligned currents, and hiss is more likely in the configuration where the peak in the upward current is closer to the latitude of the station. IMF By does not play a role on the nightside where hiss is most likely to occur during moderately weak driving conditions as higher disturbance levels are expected to move the auroral oval and upward current systems to latitudes well equatorward of South Pole.

  1. Structure and variability of the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnyushkov, Andrey V.; Polyakov, Igor V.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Coward, Andrew C.; Janout, Markus; Rabe, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    The Arctic Circumpolar Boundary Current (ACBC) transports a vast amount of mass and heat around cyclonic gyres of the deep basins, acting as a narrow, topographically-controlled flow, confined to the continental margins. Current observations during 2002-2011 at seven moorings along the major Atlantic Water (AW) pathway, complemented by an extensive collection of measured temperatures and salinities as well as results of state-of-the-art numerical modeling, have been used to examine the spatial structure and temporal variability of the ACBC within the Eurasian Basin (EB). These observations and modeling results suggest a gradual, six-fold decrease of boundary current speed (from 24 to 4 cm/s) on the route between Fram Strait and the Lomonosov Ridge, accompanied by a transformation of the vertical flow structure from mainly barotropic in Fram Strait to baroclinic between the area north of Spitsbergen and the central Laptev Sea continental slope. The relative role of density-driven currents in maintaining AW circulation increases with the progression of the ACBC eastward from Fram Strait, so that baroclinic ACBC forcing dominates over the barotropic in the eastern EB. Mooring records have revealed that waters within the AW and the cold halocline layers circulate in roughly the same direction in the eastern EB. The seasonal signal, meanwhile, is the most powerful mode of variability in the EB, contributing up to ~70% of the total variability in currents (resolved by moorings records) within the eastern EB. Seasonal signal amplitudes for current speed and AW temperature both decrease with the eastward progression of AW flow from source regions, and demonstrate strong interannual modulation. In the 2000s, the state of the EB (e.g., circulation pattern, thermohaline conditions, and freshwater balance) experienced remarkable changes. Results showing anomalous circulation patterns for an extended period of 30 months in 2008-2010 for the eastern EB, and a two-core AW

  2. Enthalpy and Momentum Fluxes During Hurricane Earl over the North Atlantic Western Boundary Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shay, L. K.; Jaimes, B.; Uhlhorn, E.

    2013-05-01

    The North Atlantic Western Boundary Current System consists of several energetic currents such as the Antilles Current, Caribbean Current, Yucatan Current, Loop Current, Florida Current, and Gulf Stream. These currents often support a rich eddy field along strong frontal regimes where thermal gradients change over distances of O(10) km. These warm oceanic regimes force the marine atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at differing temporal scales which impact the wind stress and air-sea fluxes. The impact of these oceanic regimes on the evolution of the ABL in tropical cyclones (TC) and on rapid TC intensity fluctuations remains an important research question, where forecasts of TC intensity are typically inaccurate. This problem is relevant to recent hurricanes Earl (2010), Irene (2011), and Sandy (2012) that moved over the Gulf Stream. Using Global Positioning System Sondes deployed from several research flights in hurricane Earl (2010) from NASA and NOAA aircraft, satellite products, ocean buoys and drifters, this study estimates enthalpy and momentum fluxes, as well as the ocean heat loss, during Earl's rapid intensity changes (category 4 hurricane) over the Antilles Current and Gulf Stream. In an environment of weak wind shear, Earl experienced rapid intensification (40 kt in 24 hrs) over warm waters of the Antilles Current where the oceanic heat content was high (>100 kJ cm-2). This intensification was temporarily halted by increased wind shear and an eyewall replacement cycle. Subsequently, Earl experienced a second intensification, attaining its maximum intensity of 125 kt over warm waters where the Antilles Current and Gulf Stream merge. Earl then rapidly weakened as it moved in less favorable atmospheric environment and over cooler shelf waters on the western flank of the Gulf Stream. Reduced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling of less than 2°C occurred over the Antilles Current during Earl's rapid intensification, while SST cooling of 4°C occurred during

  3. The change features of the west boundary bifurcation line of the North Equatorial Current in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junru; Liu, Yulong; Song, Jun; Bao, Xianwen; Li, Yan; Chen, Shaoyang; Yang, Jinkun

    2015-12-01

    The equatorial Current in the North Pacific (NEC) is an upper layer westward ocean current, which flows to the west boundary of the ocean, east of the Philippines, and bifurcates into the northerly Kuroshio and the main body of the southerly Mindanao current. Thus, NEC is both the south branch of the Subtropical Circulation and the north branch of the Tropical Circulation. The junction of the two branches extends to the west boundary to connect the bifurcation points forming the bifurcation line. The position of the North Pacific Equatorial Current bifurcation line of the surface determines the exchange between and the distribution of subtropical and tropical circulations, thus affecting the local or global climate. A new identification method to track the line and the bifurcation channel was used in this study, focusing on the climatological characteristics of the western boundary of the North Equatorial Current bifurcation line. The long-term average NEC west boundary bifurcation line shifts northwards with depth. In terms of seasonal variation, the average position of the western boundary of the bifurcation line is southernmost in June and northernmost in December, while in terms of interannual variation, from spring to winter in the years when ENSO is developing, the position of the west boundary bifurcation line of NEC is relatively to the north (south) in EI Niño (La Niña) years as compared to normal years.

  4. Importance of the Western Oceanic Boundary Currents for the Northern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Nour-Eddine; Ogawa, Fumiaki; Nakamura, Hisashi; Keenlyside, Noel; Lubis, Sandro; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    The importance of the extra-tropical Western Ocean Boundary Currents for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) Climate is assessed using a set of model experiments. Here we show that Sea Surface Temperature (SST)-fronts associated with Gulf Stream and Kuroshio-Oyashio Systems play significant role in maintaining the wintertime strong mid-latitude NH tropospheric Eddy-driven Jet and the weaker stratospheric polar night Jet. The strong tropospheric Eddy-driven Jet is maintained mainly by the enhanced lower tropospheric baroclinicty induced by oceanic front and associated baroclinic wave activities. The reduced stratospheric polar night jet is maintained mainly by upward planetary wave propagation induced by tropospheric circulation change. The implications of our results for the leading mode of NH variability, atmospheric energy balance and ozone depletion are also discussed.

  5. Flowfield measurements in a separated and reattached flat plate turbulent boundary layer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, W.P.

    1987-03-01

    The separation and reattachment of a large-scale, two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at low subsonic speed on a flat plate has been studied experimentally. The separation bubble was 55 cm long and had a maximum bubble thickness, measured to the height of the mean dividing streamline, of 17 cm, which was twice the thickness of the inlet boundary layer. A combination of laser velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, pneumatic probing techniques, and flow visualization were used as diagnostics. Principal findings were that an outer inviscid rotational flow was defined which essentially convected over the blockage associated with the inner, viscously dominated bubble recirculation region. A strong backflow region in which the flow moved upstream 100 percent of the time was measured near the test surface over the central 35 percent of the bubble. A laminar backflow boundary layer having pseudo-turbulent characteristics including a log-linear velocity profile was generated under the highly turbulent backflow. Velocity profile shapes in the reversed flow region matched a previously developed universal backflow profile at the upstream edge of the separation region but not in the steady backflow region downstream. A smoke flow visualization movie and hot-film measurements revealed low frequency nonperiodic flapping at reattachment. However, forward flow fraction data at reattachment and mean velocity profiles in the redeveloping boundary layer downstream of reattachment correlated with backward-facing step data when the axial dimension was scaled by the distance from the maximum bubble thickness to reattachment.

  6. Seismotectonics of plate boundaries. Final report, 1 November 1973-30 June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.; Brune, J.N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D.C.; Beaumont, C.

    1981-06-01

    Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

  7. The velocity and mixing time scale of the Arctic Ocean Boundary Current estimated with transient tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldin, A.; Schlosser, P.; Newton, R.; Smethie, W. M.; Bayer, R.; Rhein, M.; Jones, E. Peter

    2010-08-01

    The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current (AOBC) is a persistent, large-scale feature of Arctic circulation that transports water of Atlantic origin around the Eurasian and Canadian Basins. Despite its importance as a link between North Atlantic sea surface temperature and the heat budget of the Arctic Ocean, elements of the pathways of the AOBC are still not well understood. Here we use transient tracer data collected during the 1990s at 22 locations to calculate the velocity and mixing time scale of the AOBC. The apparent spreading velocity derived from correlating 3H-3He ages in the Barents Sea branch water (BSBW) with the distance from its entry point at the Santa Anna Trough is 0.9 cm s-1. To correct this apparent velocity for the effects of mixing along the pathway, the AOBC is modeled as a leaky pipe, and 3H-3He and chlorofluorocarbon data are used to calculate the parameters of its transit time distribution function. The modeled velocity of the AOBC is 2.5 ± 0.5 cm s-1, and the time scale for mixing of waters between the core of the boundary current and the adjacent water masses is 5-10 years. These results imply that the advective time for transport around the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean from the Santa Anna Trough to the southern Canada Basin (approximately 6000 km) is 7.5 years, and the amplitude of a temperature anomaly or salinity anomaly in BSBW should decrease by 50%-75% along this path.

  8. Orbital obliquity cycles recorded in Kuroshio Current region, eastern Asia, around Plio-Pleistocene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwatani, Hokuto; Kondo, Yasuo; Irizuki, Toshiaki; Iwai, Masao; Ikehara, Minoru

    2016-05-01

    Global climate underwent a period of significant cooling at the Plio-Pleistocene Transition (˜2.6 Ma). The influence of this change on the Kuroshio Current region in the Pacific Ocean, off eastern Asia, is not well known. In this study, we clarify temporal changes in the paleoenvironment under the influence of the Kuroshio Current during the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene using high-resolution faunal proxy records of fossil Ostracoda (Crustacea). The study unit is the Ananai Formation in the southeastern region of Shikoku, southwest Japan. The modern analog technique (MAT) is employed for the quantitative estimation of paleo-bottom water temperatures (PBWTs) and paleo-water depth (PWD) during the deposition of the formation. Ostracode MAT results show PBWT fluctuations during warmest and coldest months, with values of 16°C-20 °C and 12°C-16 °C, respectively, and a PWD of 70-140 m, reflecting sea-level oscillations. Moreover, the PBWT in the coldest month is 3 °C-4 °C lower than present-day water temperatures at the same shallow water depths. Temporal changes in these paleoenvironmental variables based on MAT are in good agreement with global oxygen isotope records. Orbital obliquity cycles with 41-kyr periodicity are recorded for the first time in an onshore section in the Kuroshio Current region at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary interval.

  9. New observations of eddies and boundary currents in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Amy S.; Swift, Stephen A.; Churchill, James H.; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Abualnaja, Yasser; Limeburner, Richard; Zhai, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Physical oceanographic studies of the Red Sea have often focused on the large-scale overturning circulation, in which water entering the sea from the Gulf of Aden becomes cooler, saltier and more dense as it flows northward, due mainly to strong evaporation (~2 m/y), and then flows back southward and exits the sea as a dense overflow through Bab al Mandeb. Less attention has been focused on the details of the horizontal circulation, in large part due to the dearth of high-resolution observations of the three-dimensional structure of water properties and currents. Two high-resolution hydrographic and current surveys were recently carried out in the eastern Red Sea, in March 2010 and September-October 2011. Of particular note are the continuous measurements of current velocity, taken along the cruise tracks from the sea surface to 600 m with a hull-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler, which revealed the presence and structure of several basin-scale eddies and eastern boundary currents. In March 2010, a strong, 200-km diameter anticyclonic eddy was found centered near 23oN, with peak azimuthal velocities of nearly 1 m/s, a transport of 6-7 Sv and eddy currents extending to ~400 m depth. The eddy's core was in solid body rotation, with six-day rotation period and a relative vorticity of 0.5f (i.e., 1/2 the local Coriolis parameter). Surface drifters deployed in the eddy core remained trapped for their entire lifetimes (up to 5 months). An eddy was observed several times previously in this location-20 years of satellite-derived altimetric measurements of sea level anomaly indicate that it is a quasi-permanent feature of the Red Sea circulation and that there is an annual cycle in its strength. This may be linked to the annual cycle in buoyancy forcing and the strength of the cyclonic circulation in the northern Red Sea. In September 2011, cross-basin transects in the southern Red Sea (17-19oN) revealed a layer of relatively cold, fresh, low-oxygen, high

  10. Variations of deep western boundary currents in the Melanesian Basin in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Masaki; Yanagimoto, Daigo; Kitagawa, Shoji

    2006-06-01

    Five moorings ML1-ML5 were deployed on the slope of the Solomon Rise in the Melanesian Basin in the western North Pacific, northeastward at increasing water depths. We measured the velocities of the western branch current of the deep western boundary current (DWBC) and the upper deep current carrying the Lower and Upper Circumpolar Waters (LCPW, UCPW), respectively. The daily mean velocity data from 1-3 February 1999 to 24-26 February 2000 were analyzed, and variability of the DWBCs was clarified. Although the current meters did not entirely cover the western branch current of the DWBC composed of two or three streams, a stream of the western branch current was observed at a depth of 4700 m at ML4 or 4260 m at ML5 for more than half of the observation period. The stream had a mean velocity of 3.7 cm s -1 and alternated between ML4 and ML5 at 20- to 40-day intervals without occupying both of ML4 and ML5 simultaneously. This shows that the width of the stream is less than 120 km (distance between ML4 and ML5), and the position changes in a similar range. In contrast to the velocity of the eastern branch current of the DWBC, that of the western branch current did not decrease with decreasing depths to 4000 m. This reflects the vertical division into the branch currents by the bifurcation of the DWBC. The western branch current of the DWBC is located at the deep side of the countercurrent which was almost always observed at depths of 3880 and 4080 m at ML3. The countercurrent was thought to be the return flow of the western branch current that is partly reversed in the East Mariana Basin. The previous estimate of geostrophic transport of LCPW at the time of the mooring deployment was corrected to 1.4 Sv (10 6 m 3 s -1) in the western branch current, 1.7 Sv in the countercurrent, and 1.1 Sv in the inflow to the East Caroline Basin. The upper deep current was located over the slope of the Solomon Rise with water depth less than 4500 m including ML1-ML3. It flowed at

  11. Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding operations for dietary supplements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-06-25

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule regarding current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) for dietary supplements. The final rule establishes the minimum CGMPs necessary for activities related to manufacturing, packaging, labeling, or holding dietary supplements to ensure the quality of the dietary supplement. The final rule is one of many actions related to dietary supplements that we are taking to promote and protect the public health.

  12. Eddy surface properties and propagation at Southern Hemisphere western boundary current systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilo, G. S.; Mata, M. M.; Azevedo, J. L. L.

    2015-08-01

    Oceanic eddies exist throughout the world oceans, but are more energetic when associated with western boundary currents (WBC) systems. In these regions, eddies play an important role in mixing and energy exchange. Therefore, it is important to quantify and qualify eddies associated with these systems. This is particularly true for the Southern Hemisphere WBC system where only few eddy censuses have been performed to date. In these systems, important aspects of the local eddy population are still unknown, like their spatial distribution and propagation patterns. Moreover, the understanding of these patterns helps to establish monitoring programs and to gain insight in how eddies would affect local mixing. Here, we use a global eddy data set to qualify eddies based on their surface characteristics in the Agulhas Current (AC), the Brazil Current (BC) and the East Australian Current (EAC) systems. The analyses reveal that eddy propagation within each system is highly forced by the local mean flow and bathymetry. Large values of eddy amplitude and temporal variability are associated with the BC and EAC retroflections, while small values occur in the centre of the Argentine Basin and in the Tasman Sea. In the AC system, eddy polarity dictates the propagation distance. BC system eddies do not propagate beyond the Argentine Basin, and are advected by the local ocean circulation. EAC system eddies from both polarities cross south of Tasmania but only the anticyclonic ones reach the Great Australian Bight. For all three WBC systems, both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies present a geographical segregation according to radius size and amplitude. Regions of high eddy kinetic energy are associated with the eddies' mean amplitudes, and not with their densities.

  13. The Influence of a Western Boundary Current on Continental Shelf Processes Along Southeastern Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, M.

    2016-02-01

    The East Australian Current (EAC) flows as a jet over the narrow shelf of southeastern Australia, dominating shelf circulation, and shedding vast eddies at the highly variable separation point. These characteristics alone make it a dynamically challenging region to measure, model and predict. In recent years a significant effort has been placed on understanding continental shelf processes along the coast of SE Australia, adjacent to the EAC, our major Western Boundary Current. We have used a multi-pronged approach by combining state of the art in situ observations and data assimilation modelling. Observations are obtained from a network of moorings, HF Radar and ocean gliders deployed in shelf waters along SE Australia, made possible through Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). In addition, we have developed a high resolution reanalysis of the East Australian Current using ROMS and 4DVar data Assimilation. In addition to the traditional data streams (SST, SSH and ARGO) we assimilate the newly available IMOS observations in the region. These include velocity and hydrographic observations from the EAC transport array, 1km HF radar measurements of surface currents, CTD casts from ocean gliders, and temperature, salinity and velocity measurements from a network of shelf mooring arrays. We use these vast data sets and numerical modelling tools combined with satellite remote sensed data to understand spatio-temporal variability of shelf processes and water mass distributions on synoptic, seasonal and inter-annual timescales. We have quantified the cross shelf transport variability inshore of the EAC, the driving mechanisms, the seasonal cycles in shelf waters and to some extent variability in the biological (phytoplankton) response. I will present a review of some of the key results from a number of recent studies.

  14. Downscaling Future Changes of the Global Warming Hot Spots in the Western Boundary Current Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean warming most obvious in the upper 200-300 m due to extra heat being absorbed is an important manifestation of anthropogenic climate change. Global mean sea surface temperature (SST) warming is projected to be between 0.8 and 3.1 oC over 2081-2100 relative to 1986-2005, as reported in the Fifth Assessment Report of IPCC based on Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models. However, SST changes are not expected to be geographically uniform, and there are several hot spots with much faster warming than the global mean, especially in the western boundary currents (WBCs) and their extension regions. However, with coarse resolution ( 1o in the ocean component), CMIP5 climate models cannot resolve these WBCs and their eddy field very well. Here we use a near-global eddy-resolving (0.1o resolution) ocean general circulation model (OGCM) to downscale future climate changes over the 21st century, by applying atmospheric anomaly fields derived from the ensemble mean of 17 CMIP5 models under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Localized strong upper ocean warming ( 5 oC), not only in the surface layer but often extending down to several hundred of meters, can be found in all WBCs and their extensions (namely, Kuroshio, Gulf Stream, Agulhas Current, East Australian Current and Brazil Current). Through examining changes of ocean fields (velocity, temperature and salinity), mean and eddy kinetic energy and upper ocean heat budget, we study those warming hot spots in detail and find that they can be explained to the first order by the poleward expansion and/or intensification of subtropical ocean gyres. With embedded biogeochemical fields in the OGCM, we further investigate how the WBCs and associated eddy activity changes affect nutrient supply, biogeochemical response and primary productivity.

  15. Features and variability of the South China Sea western boundary current from 1992 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Qi; Xue, Huijie; Qin, Huiling; Zeng, Xuezhi; Peng, Shiqiu

    2016-07-01

    Different from the traditional definition of the South China Sea western boundary current (SCSWBC), in this paper, only the southwestward and southward currents along the northern and western slopes in the SCS, which are closely associated with the basin-wide wind stress curl, are defined as the SCSWBC, while the flows on the southwestern shelf driven directly by the local wind stress are regarded as part of the shelf circulation. Using a new reanalysis dataset of the SCS in conjunction with the in situ and remote sensing data, the main features and variability of the SCSWBC from 1992 to 2011 were studied. Dictated by the prevailing monsoonal winds and in- and outflows, the SCSWBC in winter extended the full length of the western slope and reached its maximum intensity off the southeast coast of Vietnam, while in summer the main body of the SCSWBC was limited to the northern half of the western slope and merged with the northward coastal current to form the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) at about 12° N. Moreover, the respective seasonal patterns of the SCSWBC showed pronounced interannual variations in its structure, including the axis, the width, and the maximum depth. The strength of the SCSWBC, with the transport of -11.8 ± 3.5 Sv in winter and -3.0 ± 1.6 Sv in summer off the central coast of Vietnam, also varied significantly from year to year. It was demonstrated that the monsoonal forcing over the SCS, the interannual variability of which was closely associated with El Niño events, played an important role in modulating the interannual variability of the SCSWBC, whereas the influence from the upper-layer Luzon Strait transport was secondary.

  16. Nonlinear Gulf Stream Interaction with the Deep Western Boundary Current System: Observations and a Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, David E.; Mehra, Avichal; Haney, Robert L.; Bowman, Malcolm J.; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2003-01-01

    Gulf Stream (GS) separation near its observed Cape Hatteras (CH) separation location, and its ensuing path and dynamics, is a challenging ocean modeling problem. If a model GS separates much farther north than CH, then northward GS meanders, which pinch off warm core eddies (rings), are not possible or are strongly constrained by the Grand Banks shelfbreak. Cold core rings pinch off the southward GS meanders. The rings are often re-absorbed by the GS. The important warm core rings enhance heat exchange and, especially, affect the northern GS branch after GS bifurcation near the New England Seamount Chain. This northern branch gains heat by contact with the southern branch water upstream of bifurcation, and warms the Arctic Ocean and northern seas, thus playing a major role in ice dynamics, thermohaline circulation and possible global climate warming. These rings transport heat northward between the separated GS and shelf slope/Deep Western Boundary Current system (DWBC). This region has nearly level time mean isopycnals. The eddy heat transport convergence/divergence enhances the shelfbreak and GS front intensities and thus also increases watermass transformation. The fronts are maintained by warm advection by the Florida Current and cool advection by the DWBC. Thus, the GS interaction with the DWBC through the intermediate eddy field is climatologically important.

  17. Nonlinear Mechanisms of Low-Frequency Variability in Unstable Western Boundary Currents Under Variable Atmospheric Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, A. E.; Frankcombe, L. M.

    2016-02-01

    Western boundary currents (WBCs) are known to have intrinsic modes of nonlinear variability, and also to respond to variable wind forcing. Previous process studies have mostly focused on either the nonlinear dynamics of intrinsic variability under steady forcing, or the linear response to variable forcing. Here we combine these approaches, presenting a detailed survey of the response of a nonlinear, intrinsically time-dependent WBC to a variable wind stress curl in a simple barotropic model and also an idealized two-layer model driven by observed South Pacific winds. A rich variety of complex nonlinear behavior is observed (e.g. phase locking, chaos and hysteresis), depending on the forcing amplitude and frequency. Periodic wind forcing can make an intrinsically periodic WBC chaotic or partially phase-locked, introducing frequencies one or two orders of magnitude lower than those present in the forcing or intrinsic to the current. These effects arise even with weak wind variability of under 1%, less than the annual wind stress curl cycle across most of the mid-latitudes. These dynamics suggest that low-frequency WBC variability may not be attributable purely to the WBC or forcing in isolation, but may also arise from a nonlinear WBC response to variable forcing.

  18. Lagrangian and Eulerian characterization of two counter-rotating submesoscale eddies in a western boundary current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovanelli, Alessandra; Keating, Shane; Wyatt, Lucy R.; Roughan, Moninya; Schaeffer, Amandine

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, high-spatial resolution ocean radar and satellite imagery measurements have revealed a complex tangle of submesoscale filaments and eddies, in the surface velocity, temperature, and chlorophyll a fields. We use a suite of high-resolution data to characterize two counter-rotating, short-lived eddies formed at the front between the warm East Australian Current (EAC) and temperate coastal waters (30°S, Eastern Australia). In this region, submesoscale filaments and short-lived eddies are dynamically generated and decay at time scales of hours to days. Dominant cyclonic filaments of O(1) Rossby number formed along frontal jets and eddy boundaries, generating localized ageostrophic circulations at the submesoscale. Measurements of over-ocean wind direction and surface currents from high-frequency radars reveal the influence of the short-term, small-scale wind forcing on the surface circulation, enhancement of the horizontal shear, frontal jet destabilization, and the generation and decay of the cyclonic eddy. By contrast, the anticyclonic eddy formation was most likely associated with EAC mesoscale instability and anticyclonic vorticity. Lagrangian tracks show that surface particles can be temporarily trapped in the eddies and frontal convergent zones, limiting their transport. Mixing between EAC-derived and coastal waters was increased along the frontal regions, and particles starting at the divergent regions around the eddies experienced significant dispersion at submesoscales. The cyclonic cold-core eddy entrained high chlorophyll a shelf waters on its convergent side, suggesting spiral eddy cyclogenesis.

  19. Grain and grain-boundary critical currents in coated conductors with noncorrelating YBa2Cu3O7 and substrate grain-boundary networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, A.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Feenstra, R.; Gapud, A. A.; Specht, E. D.; Feldmann, D. M.; Holesinger, T. G.

    2006-03-01

    The superconducting grain-boundary (GB) network of coated conductors (CCs) is usually assumed to be a replica of the substrate network. In this letter, we analyze IBAD and RABITS CCs, where such replica either do or do not exist. We have analyzed the effect of GB overgrowth on the critical currents by quantifying the average superconducting grain size and determining the intragrain and grain-boundary critical current densities, JcG and JcGB. We have employed a recently developed inductive methodology enabling the simultaneous determination of these three parameters. We show that the percolative JcGB may be reduced by 50% if the GB networks do not correlate, while JcG and the grain pinning properties appear unaffected.

  20. Constructing Integrable High-pressure Full-current Free-boundary Stellarator Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Hudson; D.A. Monticello; A.H. Reiman; D.J. Strickler; S.P. Hirshman; L-P. Ku; E. Lazarus; A. Brooks; M.C. Zarnstorff; A.H. Boozer; G-Y. Fu; and G.H. Neilson

    2003-09-15

    For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schluter currents, diamagnetic currents, and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver [Reiman and Greenside, Comp. Phys. Comm. 43 (1986) 157] which iterate s the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Reiman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8 (May 2001) 2083].

  1. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis by boundary element method. Ph.D. Thesis, 1986 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Shahid

    1991-01-01

    An advanced implementation of the direct boundary element method (BEM) applicable to free-vibration, periodic (steady-state) vibration and linear and nonlinear transient dynamic problems involving two and three-dimensional isotropic solids of arbitrary shape is presented. Interior, exterior, and half-space problems can all be solved by the present formulation. For the free-vibration analysis, a new real variable BEM formulation is presented which solves the free-vibration problem in the form of algebraic equations (formed from the static kernels) and needs only surface discretization. In the area of time-domain transient analysis, the BEM is well suited because it gives an implicit formulation. Although the integral formulations are elegant, because of the complexity of the formulation it has never been implemented in exact form. In the present work, linear and nonlinear time domain transient analysis for three-dimensional solids has been implemented in a general and complete manner. The formulation and implementation of the nonlinear, transient, dynamic analysis presented here is the first ever in the field of boundary element analysis. Almost all the existing formulation of BEM in dynamics use the constant variation of the variables in space and time which is very unrealistic for engineering problems and, in some cases, it leads to unacceptably inaccurate results. In the present work, linear and quadratic isoparametric boundary elements are used for discretization of geometry and functional variations in space. In addition, higher order variations in time are used. These methods of analysis are applicable to piecewise-homogeneous materials, such that not only problems of the layered media and the soil-structure interaction can be analyzed but also a large problem can be solved by the usual sub-structuring technique. The analyses have been incorporated in a versatile, general-purpose computer program. Some numerical problems are solved and, through comparisons

  2. Relative impact of seasonal and oceanographic drivers on surface chlorophyll a along a Western Boundary Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jason D.; Baird, Mark E.; Roughan, Moninya; Suthers, Iain M.; Doblin, Martina A.

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening Western Boundary Currents (WBCs) advect warm, low nutrient waters into temperate latitudes, displacing more productive waters. WBCs also influence phytoplankton distribution and growth through current-induced upwelling, mesoscale eddy intrusion and seasonal changes in strength and poleward penetration. Here we examine dynamics of chlorophyll a (Chl. a) in the western Pacific Ocean, a region strongly influenced by the East Australian Current (EAC). We interpreted a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite-derived surface Chl. a, using a hydrodynamic model, a wind-reanalysis product and an altimetry-derived eddy-census. Our analysis revealed regions of persistently elevated surface Chl. a along the continental shelf and showed that different processes have a dominant effect in different locations. In the northern and central zones, upwelling events tend to regulate surface Chl. a patterns, with peaks in phytoplankton biomass corresponding to two known upwelling locations south of Cape Byron (28.5°S) and Smoky Cape (31°S). Within the central EAC separation zone, positive surface Chl. a anomalies occurred 65% of the time when both wind-stress (τw) and bottom-stress (τB) were upwelling-favourable, and only 17% of the time when both were downwelling-favourable. The interaction of wind and the EAC was a critical driver of surface Chl. a dynamics, with upwelling-favourable τW resulting in a 70% increase in surface Chl. a at some locations, when compared to downwelling-favourable τW . In the southern zone, surface Chl. a was driven by a strong seasonal cycle, with phytoplankton biomass increasing up to 152% annually each spring. The Stockton Bight region (32.25-33.25°S) contained ⩾20% of the total shelf Chl. a on 27% of occasions due to its location downstream of upwelling locations, wide shelf area and reduced surface velocities. This region is analogous to productive fisheries regions in the Aghulus Current (Natal Bight) and Kuroshio Current

  3. Intensification and poleward shift of subtropical western boundary currents in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Wei, Wei; Dima, Mihai; Ionita, Monica; Liu, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    A significant increase in sea surface temperature (SST) is observed over the midlatitude western boundary currents (WBCs) during the past century. However, the mechanism for this phenomenon remains poorly understood due to limited observations. In the present paper, several coupled parameters (i.e., sea surface temperature (SST), ocean surface heat fluxes, ocean water velocity, ocean surface winds and sea level pressure (SLP)) are analyzed to identify the dynamic changes of the WBCs. Three types of independent data sets are used, including reanalysis products, satellite-blended observations. and climate model outputs from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Based on these broad ranges of data, we find that the WBCs (except the Gulf Stream) are intensifying and shifting toward the poles as long-term effects of global warming. An intensification and poleward shift of near-surface ocean winds, attributed to positive annular mode-like trends, are proposed to be the forcing of such dynamic changes. In contrast to the other WBCs, the Gulf Stream is expected to be weaker under global warming, which is most likely related to a weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, we also notice that the natural variations of WBCs might conceal the long-term effect of global warming in the available observational data sets, especially over the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, long-term observations or proxy data are necessary to further evaluate the dynamics of the WBCs.

  4. Effect of meridional wind on gap-leaping western boundary current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Yuan, Dongliang; Hou, Yijun

    2010-03-01

    Using a 1.5-layer reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow-water equation model, we studied the effect of the meridional wind on the western boundary currents (WBC) at critical states with hysteresis courses. The results of the simulation indicate that the WBC is prone to penetrating into the gap under northerly winds, and its path is more difficult to alter due to the larger interval between the two critical transition curves ( C 1 P and C 1 L). For southerly winds, the WBC is prone to leaping across the gap, and its path is easier to alter due to the smaller interval between the two critical transition curves. The simulation results also indicate that the meridional winds over the southern region of the gap are the dominant factor determining the formation of the WBC. The dynamic mechanism influencing the transport of WBC near the gap is both Ekman transport and the blocking of Ekman transport. Ekman transport induced by northerly winds may reduce the transport of the WBC, causing the β-effect to dominate the meridional advection (promoting the penetration). Southerly winds, however, may enhance the transport of the WBC, causing the meridional advection to dominate the β-effect (promoting the leaping state). These results explain some structural features of the Kuroshio at the Luzon Strait.

  5. Field-Aligned Current at Plasma Sheet Boundary Layers During Storm Time: Cluster Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, T.; Dunlop, M.; Liu, Z.

    2007-05-01

    The magnetic field data from the FGM instruments on board the four Cluster spacecrafts were used to study Field Aligned Current (FAC) at the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layers (PSBLs) with the so called "curlometer technique". We analyzed the date obtained in 2001 in the magnetotail and only two cases were found in the storm time. One (August 17, 2001) occurred from sudden commencement to main phase, and the other (October 1, 2001) lay in the main phase and recovery phase. The relationship between the FAC density and the AE index was studied and the results are shown as follows. (1) In the sudden commencement and the main phase the density of the FAC increases obviously, in the recovery phase the density of the FAC increases slightly. (2) From the sudden commencement to the initial stage of the main phase the FAC increases with decreasing AE index and decreases with increasing AE index. From the late stage of the main phase to initial stage of the recovery phase, the FAC increases with increasing AE index and decreases with decreasing AE index. In the late stage of the recovery phase the disturbance of the FAC is not so violent, so that the FAC varying with the AE index is not very obvious.

  6. Intensification and poleward shift of subtropical western boundary currents under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hu; Lohmann, Gerrit; Wei, Wei; Dima, Mihai; Liu, Jiping

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic changes of subtropical western boundary currents (WBCs) are investigated based on three types of independent data sets. These include reconstructed and reanalysis products, satellite/blended observations and climate models output from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Consistent increasing of sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean surface heat loss are found over the mid-latitude expansions of WBCs. Furthermore, the upper 100 m ocean water velocity are increasing in the same direction as the background WBCs, demonstrating that WBCs are strengthening. In addition, the positions of WBCs induced sharp SST fronts and intensive ocean heat loss are migrating towards the poles, suggesting that the routes of WBCs are shifting poleward. According to the ensemble projections from the CMIP5 models, the WBCs (except the Gulf Stream) will continue strengthening and shifting poleward if carbon dioxide levels keep rising in this century. The significant dynamic changes of WBCs are affected by an intensified and poleward shift of near-surface ocean zonal winds, which are attributed to positive annular modes-like trends, particularly over the Southern Hemisphere.

  7. The recirculation of the intermediate western boundary current at the Tubarão Bight - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Vladimir S.; Mill, Guilherme N.; Gabioux, Mariela; Grossmann-Matheson, Guisela S.; Paiva, Afonso M.

    2017-02-01

    Lagrangian floats and current meter measurements from two moored arrays are analyzed, in combination with altimetry data, in order to investigate the recirculation of Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW), and of the Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) at the Tubarão Bight, in the vicinity of the Vitória-Trindade Ridge (VTR), Brazil. Results from a high-resolution numerical simulation provide a complementary view of the flow at intermediate and surface levels. The data depict a topographically-induced cyclonic recirculation at intermediate levels, and five Argo floats are successively trapped inside the bight for two-and-a-half years, performing a total of 10 closed clockwise gyres during this period of time. In situ measurements at the western side of the bight show an intense alongshore flow at intermediate levels, with averaged velocities at 800 m of 30 cm/s, and peak velocities exceeding 50 cm/s, magnitudes comparable to the Brazil Current (BC) flow at surface levels. The recirculation extends from at least 1000 m deep up to 370 m, reaching sometimes depths as shallow as 150 m, but is mostly uncoupled from the surface flow during the one-and-a-half year long current meter record. Three different flow patterns are observed, and simulated, at surface levels inside the bight during the time the recirculation is well established at intermediate levels: a shallow cyclonic circulation, somewhat akin to the Vitória Eddy; a recurrent anticyclonic flow that encompasses the entire bight; and a southwestward-oriented circulation, associated with the BC being reorganized in a coherent flow after negotiating its way through the VTR channels. A significant portion (about 50% according to the model) of the inflow of intermediate waters recirculates, enhancing the flow of the IWBC within the bight, and increasing the age of AAIW that will eventually cross the VTR on its way to lower latitudes. Although the data are not conclusive about a preferential pathway of the

  8. Analysis of the photodiode boundary layer transition indicator. LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, D.W.; Wilken, A.C.; Payne, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    The photodiode transition indicator is a device which has been successfully used to determine the onset of boundary layer transition on numerous hypersonic flight vehicles. The exact source of the electromagnetic radiation detected by the photodiode at transition was not understood. In some cases early saturation of the device occurred, and the device failed to detect transition. Analyses have been performed to determine the source of the radiation producing the photodiode signal. The results of these analyses indicate that the most likely source of the radiation is blackbody emission from the heatshield material bordering the quartz window of the device. Good agreement between flight data and calculations based on this radiation source has been obtained. Analyses also indicate that the most probable source of the radiation causing early saturation is blackbody radiation from carbon particles which break away from the nosetip during the ablation process.

  9. Investigations of ultrasonic wave interactions at boundaries separating anisotropic media. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, L.

    1984-03-31

    The analytical problem of elastic wave propagation through an interface separating two simi-infinite anisotropic solids has been formulated. Solutions have been obtained for 3 cases typical of weld and cast structures such as isotropic-cubic, isotropic-hexagonal, and cubic-cubic symmetrics. Reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated for the various types of wave modes. Special effects such as mode conversion, deviation between energy transport and phase velocity surface waves are addressed. Pure nickel (fcc) is selected as an anisotropic material suitable for modeling the various structural variables such as grain boundaries, columnar structure interior interfaces, etc. A crystal pulley has been added to the levitation zone refiner to produce cylindrical crystals with controlled orientation. All crystal samples had their orientation determined using Laue back reflection technique. Several single crystals with different orientation as well as a bicrystal with rough boindaries ahs been produced. In addition, bonding of nickel samples have been prepared using both diffusion bonding as well as fusion welding processes. A new computer-controlled ultrasonic experimental system has been developed for measurement of ultrasonic parameters in single crystals as well as in the bonded region between two crystals. The system has an angular resolution of 1/60/sup 0/ and linear resolution of 40 ..mu... The ultrasonic transit time and amplitude signals are recorded in digital form. Ultrasonic spectroscopic information (e.g. reflection coefficient as function of frequency from the interface) as well as two dimensional image displays from various regions may be produced. Ultrasonic measurements of various wave mode types, mode conversion effects and energy transport across boundaries are considered.

  10. Characterising primary productivity measurements across a dynamic western boundary current region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Jason D.; Doblin, Martina A.

    2015-06-01

    Determining the magnitude of primary production (PP) in a changing ocean is a major research challenge. Thousands of estimates of marine PP exist globally, but there remain significant gaps in data availability, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In situ PP estimates are generally single-point measurements and therefore we rely on satellite models of PP in order to scale up over time and space. To reduce the uncertainty around the model output, these models need to be assessed against in situ measurements before use. This study examined the vertically-integrated productivity in four water-masses associated with the East Australian Current (EAC), the major western boundary current (WBC) of the South Pacific. We calculated vertically integrated PP from shipboard 14C PP estimates and then compared them to estimates from four commonly used satellite models (ESQRT, VGPM, VGPM-Eppley, VGPM-Kameda) to assess their utility for this region. Vertical profiles of the water-column show each water-mass had distinct temperature-salinity signatures. The depth of the fluorescence-maximum (fmax) increased from onshore (river plume) to offshore (EAC) as light penetration increased. Depth integrated PP was highest in river plumes (792±181 mg C m-2 d-1) followed by the EAC (534±116 mg C m-2 d-1), continental shelf (140±47 mg C m-2 d-1) and cyclonic eddy waters (121±4 mg C m-2 d-1). Surface carbon assimilation efficiency was greatest in the EAC (301±145 mg C (mg Chl-a)-1 d-1) compared to other water masses. All satellite primary production models tested underestimated EAC PP and overestimated continental shelf PP. The ESQRT model had the highest skill and lowest bias of the tested models, providing the best first-order estimates of PP on the continental shelf, including at a coastal time-series station, Port Hacking, which showed considerable inter-annual variability (155-2957 mg C m-2 d-1). This work provides the first estimates of depth integrated PP associated with the

  11. Effects of grain size and grain boundary on critical current density of high T(sub c) superconducting oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Q. R.; Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    By means of adding impurity elements in high T sub c oxides, the effects were studied of grain size and grain boundary on the critical current density of the following systems: YBa2Cu3O(7-y) and Bi-Pr-Sr-Ca-Cu-O. In order to only change the microstructure instead of the superconductivity of the grains in the samples, the impurity elements were added into the systems in terms of the methods like this: (1) substituting Y with the lanthanide except Pr, Ce, and Tb in YBa2Cu3O(7-y) system to finning down grains in the samples, therefore, the effect can be investigated of the grain size on the critical current density of 1:2:3 compounds; (2) mixing the high T sub c oxides with the metal elements, such as Ag, according to the composition of (high T sub c oxide)1-xAgx to metallize the grain boundaries in the samples, studying the effect of the electric conductivity of the grain boundaries on the critical current density; (3) adding SiO2, PbO2, and SnO2 into the high T sub c oxide to form impurity phases in the grain boundaries, trying to find out the effects of the impurity phases or metalloid grain boundaries on the critical current density of the high T sub c superconductors. The experimental results indicate that in the case of of the presence of the metalloid grain boundaries finning down grains fails to enhance the j sub c, but restrains it strongly, the granular high T sub c superconductors with the small size grains coupled weakly is always the low j sub c system.

  12. Modeling the polluted coastal urban environment: Volume 1, The PBL (planetary boundary level) model: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, R.; Pechinger, U.; Miller, R.; Klotz, S.; Street, R.

    1987-02-01

    The two-dimensional vorticity-mode URBMET planetary boundary-layer model has been extended to three dimensions by use of a second vorticity component and a second stream function. The model is capable of simulating the time-varying distributions of velocity, temperature, and (sub-saturation) moisture in a Boussinesq, hydrostatic, and incompressible flow field. The model consists of a numerical soil layer, and in the atmosphere, both an analytical constant-flux layer and numerical transition layer. Sea breeze flow conditions in the New York City (NYC) area have been simulated utilizing first-order turbulence closure, with surface temperature and moisture predicted from energy and moisture balances. Results reproduced many of the observed features of sea breeze fronts in the NYC area. Predicted meteorological variables were used as input to a three-dimensional Eulerian-grid sulfur-dioxide dispersion model of point and area sources within the NYC area, as described in Volume II of this report. The model was also used to simulate sea breeze flow at an idealized coastline using the Level 2.5 turbulence parameterization of Mellor and Yamada. This formulation involves solution of an additional prognostic differential equations for turbulent kinetic energy. Results indicate that turbulence from the mid-morning unstable land area was advected offshore into the stable marine region for significant distances.

  13. The remote electron beam-induced current analysis of grain boundaries in semiconducting and semi-insulating materials.

    PubMed

    Holt, D B

    2000-01-01

    When no charge collecting p-n junction or Schottky barrier is present in the specimen, but two contacts are applied, conductive mode scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations known as remote electron beam-induced current (REBIC) can be made. It was described as "remote" EBIC because the contacts to the specimen can lie at macroscopic distances from the beam impact point. In recent years, REBIC has been found to be useful not only for studies of grain boundaries in semiconducting silicon and germanium, but also in semi-insulating materials such as the wider bandgap II-VI compounds and electroceramic materials like varistor ZnO and positive temperature coefficient resistor (PTCR) BaTiO3. The principles of this method are outlined. Accounts are given of the five forms of charge collection and resistive contrast that appear at grain boundaries (GBs) in REBIC micrographs. These are (1) terraced contrast due to high resistivity boundary layers, (2) peak and trough (PAT) contrast due to charge on the boundary, (3) reversible contrast seen only under external voltage bias due to the beta-conductive effect in a low conductivity boundary layer, (4) dark contrast due to enhanced recombination, and (5) bright contrast apparently due to reduced recombination. For comparison, the results of the extensive EBIC studies of GBs in Si and Ge are first outlined and then the results of recent REBIC grain boundary studies in both semiconducting and semi-insulating materials are reviewed.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of Two Western Boundary Currents Colliding at a Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Yuan, D.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamics and hysteresis of two western boundary currents of Munk thickness LM encounter near a gap is studied using a 1.5 layer reduced-gravity quasi-geostrophic ocean model. When the gap (of width 2a) is narrow, γ≤7.3 (where γ= (a/LM), neither of the flow can penetrate into the western basin due to the viscous force. When 7.3<γ<9.0, both flows penetrate into the western basin for small transport, and choke at the gap for large transport. When 9.0≤γ≤9.6, two WBC flows penetrate for small transport and choke for large transport, and become periodic eddy-shedding for even larger transport, multiple steady states exist and hysteresis behavior show up. When γ>9.6, there is no choke state, and multiple states and hysteresis exist between penetrating states and periodic eddy-shedding states. A Hopf bifurcation emerges when the two flows transit from steady penetrating or choke state to periodic eddy-shedding state, and is found to be sensitive to the magnitude of γ and the baroclinic deformation radius. It occurs at lower Reynolds numbers for larger γ or deformation radius. Multiple steady states and hysteresis exist between some certain range parameters. Through vorticity term analysis, we found the time-dependent relative vorticity term varies remarkably and triggers the WBCs to alternately shed eddy into the western basin. The hysteresis is derived from the difference magnitude of the nonlinear inertial between the two different initial states.

  15. Small scale processes influencing the deep western boundary current in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talandier, C.; Deshayes, J.; Treguier, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to address the impact of small scale processes on large scale circulation in the North Atlantic with a focus on the Labrador Sea where strong mesoscale and submesoscale activity occurs.The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) plays a key role in the regulation of the earth climate. This large circulation represents a synthetic view of the basin-wide transport with a northward warm and salty flow at the surface and an equatorward cold and fresh flow at depth. The latter is dominated by the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) which exports to the south dense water masses such as the Labrador Sea Water (LSW) formed during winter convective events in the interior Labrador Sea. In a simplified, laminar view of the AMOC, a direct link could exist between dense water formation in the Labrador Sea and the DWBC transport intensity. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that this link may be more complex. Indeed, it seems that the LSW, once formed, may be exported to the surrounding DWBC by lateral density turbulent fluxes. It is also put forward that dense water formation signal may be lagged by several years when reaching the DWBC due to eddies. So the small scale processes may be key in the LSW export process. The exploration of these dynamics requires numerical models of very high resolution due to the small Rossby radius deformation in the Labrador Sea (about 7km). We develop a high resolution primitive equation configuration which relies on a global config- uration at 1/2◦ horizontal resolution including two embedded grids covering respectively the North Atlantic (1/8◦) and the subpolar gyre (1/32◦). At the highest resolution, the mesoscale and submesoscale processes are explicitely resolved by the model and lead for instance to a strong seasonality in the dynamics due to convection. Our objective here is to evaluate their impact on the DWBC by reconstructing the potential vorticity budget in the Labrador Sea.

  16. 77 FR 16556 - Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge, Boundary County, ID; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... the State's season. A 200-yard no- shooting area (91 acres) would continue along the auto tour route... acres due to increasing the size of the 200-yard non-shooting area to include the area along the Deep... as under current management because the non-shooting area is rarely hunted. The location of...

  17. Direct imaging of enhanced current collection on grain boundaries of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, JunHo; Kim, SeongYeon; Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Ramanathan, Kannan; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2014-02-10

    We report on direct imaging of current collection by performing conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) measurement on a complete Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell. The localized current was imaged by milling away the top conductive layer of the device by repeated C-AFM scans. The result exhibits enhanced photocurrent collection on grain boundaries (GBs) of CIGS films, consistent with the argument for electric-field-assisted carrier collection on the GBs.

  18. Seasonal variability in the Deep Western Boundary Current around the Eastern tip of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, Monika; Stramma, Lothar

    2005-08-01

    The spreading of recently ventilated North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) from the formation region to the equatorial Atlantic occurs mainly in the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC). When crossing the equator between 44°W and 35°W, the DWBC is split in two velocity cores through a chain of seamounts around the Atoll das Rocas at 3.5°S. Further eastward the DWBC contributes to the zonally oriented equatorial current system. The circulation of the NADW in the crucial region around the eastern tip of Brazil is examined using 8 CTD and Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) sections along 35°W and along 5°S, respectively, taken mainly in spring and fall in the years 1990-2002. As expected from the short direct flow path between the two sections, the CFC concentrations in the upper NADW (1400-2200 m) were similar at 35°W and 5°S during boreal autumn. In spring, however, a significant downstream CFC decrease was observed. If one attributes the decrease solely to the older age of water further downstream, the CFC concentration age difference between 35°W and 5°S in May 2002 would be 3-5 years. We interpret the aging to be caused by an eastward detour of the flow with the deep equatorial circulation before reaching 5°S in spring. Another conspicuous anomaly was found in the middle NADW (2200-3400 m) with downstream decreasing salinities in boreal spring, but not in autumn. This variability might also be caused by differences in the deep equatorial circulation, but in contrast to the uNADW, one cannot exclude enhanced mixing with water of South Atlantic origin in spring to be the cause of that variability. No seasonal difference was observed in the hydrography or the CFC concentrations for the lower NADW. The weaker CFC decrease along the equator compared with that in the DWBC downstream of 35°W, and the topographic features along the downstream path, point to a predominantly eastward flow of the deep lNADW core. The lNADW CFC core is no longer observed at 11°S. Repeated

  19. Rectification and one-way street for the energy current in boundary-driven asymmetric quantum spin chains.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the demand for efficient quantum devices to engineer energy transport, we analyze some inhomogeneous quantum spin systems, including XXZ chains, with magnetization baths at the ends. With a goal of finding general properties, we study the effects of suitable transformations on the boundary-driven Lindblad master equation associated with the dynamics of the systems. For asymmetric models with target polarization at the edges or twisted XY boundary gradients, we show the properties of the steady state, which establish the features of the energy current irrespective of the system size and the regime of transport. We show the ubiquitous occurrence of energy rectification and, more interestingly, of an unusual phenomenon: in the absence of an external magnetic field, there is a one-way street for the energy current, i.e., the direction of the energy current does not change as we invert the magnetization baths at the boundaries. Given the extensiveness of the procedures, which essentially involve the properties of the Lindblad master equation, our results certainly follow for other interactions and other boundary conditions. Moreover, our results indicate graded spin chains as genuine quantum rectifiers.

  20. Rectification and one-way street for the energy current in boundary-driven asymmetric quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the demand for efficient quantum devices to engineer energy transport, we analyze some inhomogeneous quantum spin systems, including X X Z chains, with magnetization baths at the ends. With a goal of finding general properties, we study the effects of suitable transformations on the boundary-driven Lindblad master equation associated with the dynamics of the systems. For asymmetric models with target polarization at the edges or twisted X Y boundary gradients, we show the properties of the steady state, which establish the features of the energy current irrespective of the system size and the regime of transport. We show the ubiquitous occurrence of energy rectification and, more interestingly, of an unusual phenomenon: in the absence of an external magnetic field, there is a one-way street for the energy current, i.e., the direction of the energy current does not change as we invert the magnetization baths at the boundaries. Given the extensiveness of the procedures, which essentially involve the properties of the Lindblad master equation, our results certainly follow for other interactions and other boundary conditions. Moreover, our results indicate graded spin chains as genuine quantum rectifiers.

  1. The Gulf Stream pathway and the impacts of the eddy-driven abyssal circulation and the Deep Western Boundary Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, Harley E.; Hogan, Patrick J.

    2008-08-01

    A hydrodynamic model of the subtropical Atlantic basin and the Intra-Americas Sea (9-47°N) is used to investigate the dynamics of Gulf Stream separation from the western boundary at Cape Hatteras and its mean pathway to the Grand Banks. The model has five isopycnal Lagrangian layers in the vertical and allows realistic boundary geometry, bathymetry, wind forcing, and a meridional overturning circulation (MOC), the latter specified via ports in the northern and southern boundaries. The northward upper ocean branch of the MOC (14 Sv) was always included but the southward Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) was excluded in some simulations, allowing investigation of the impacts of the DWBC and the eddy-driven mean abyssal circulation on Gulf Stream separation from the western boundary. The result is resolution dependent with the DWBC playing a crucial role in Gulf Stream separation at 1/16° resolution but with the eddy-driven abyssal circulation alone sufficient to obtain accurate separation at 1/32° resolution and a realistic pathway from Cape Hatteras to the Grand Banks with minimal DWBC impact except southeast of the Grand Banks. The separation from the western boundary is particularly sensitive to the strength of the eddy-driven abyssal circulation. Farther to the east, between 68°W and the Grand Banks, all of the 1/16° and 1/32° simulations with realistic topography (with or without a DWBC) gave similar generally realistic mean pathways with clear impacts of the topographically constrained eddy-driven abyssal circulation versus very unrealistic Gulf Stream pathways between Cape Hatteras and the Grand Banks from otherwise identical simulations run with a flat bottom, in reduced-gravity mode, or with 1/8° resolution and realistic topography. The model is realistic enough to allow detailed model-data comparisons and a detailed investigation of Gulf Stream dynamics. The corresponding linear solution with a Sverdrup interior and Munk viscous western boundary

  2. Dynamics of the Leeuwin Current: Part 2. Impacts of mixing, friction, and advection on a buoyancy-driven eastern boundary current over a shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthuysen, Jessica; Furue, Ryo; McCreary, Julian P.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Phillips, Helen E.

    2014-03-01

    The boundary currents over the Western Australian continental shelf and slope consist of the poleward flowing Leeuwin Current (LC) and the equatorward flowing Leeuwin Undercurrent (LUC). Key properties of the LC are its poleward strengthening, deepening to the south, and shelfbreak intensification. The alongshore flow reverses direction below about 300 m, forming the LUC at greater depths. To investigate the processes that cause these features, we obtain solutions to an idealized, regional ocean model of the South Indian Ocean. Solutions are forced by relaxing surface density to a prescribed, meridionally varying density profile ρ*(y) with a timescale of δt. In addition, vertical diffusion is intensified near the ocean surface. This diffusion establishes the minimum thickness over which density is well-mixed. We define this thickness as the “upper layer”. Solutions are obtained with and without a continental shelf and slope off Western Australia and for a range of values of δt and mixing parameters. Within this upper layer, there is a meridional density gradient that balances a near-surface, eastward geostrophic flow. The eastward current downwells near the eastern boundary, leading to westward flow at depth. The upper layer's meridional structure and zonal currents crucially depend on coastal processes, including the presence of topography near the eastern boundary. Kelvin waves inhibit the upper layer from deepening at the coast. Rossby waves propagate the coastal density structure offshore, hence modifying the interior currents. A comparison of the solutions with or without a continental shelf and slope demonstrate that topographic trapping of Rossby waves is a necessary process for maintaining realistic eastern boundary current speeds. Significant poleward speeds occur only onshore of where the upper layer intersects the slope, that is, at a grounding line. Its poleward transport increases when surface-enhanced vertical mixing is applied over a greater

  3. Modelling coastal connectivity in a Western Boundary Current: Seasonal and inter-annual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, Moninya; Macdonald, Helen S.; Baird, Mark E.; Glasby, Tim M.

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the transport and distribution of marine larvae by ocean currents is one of the key goals of population ecology. Here we investigate circulation in the East Australian Current (EAC) and its impact on the transport of larvae and coastal connectivity. A series of Lagrangian particle trajectory experiments are conducted in summer and winter from 1992-2006 which enables us to investigate seasonal and inter-annual variability. We also estimate a mean connectivity state from the average of each of the individual realisations. Connectivity patterns are related to the movement of five individual larval species (two tropical, two temperate and one invasive species) and are found to be in qualitative agreement with historical distribution patterns found along the coast of SE Australia. We use a configuration of the Princeton Ocean Model to investigate physical processes in the ocean along the coast of SE Australia where the circulation is dominated by the EAC, a vigorous western boundary current. We assimilate hydrographic fields from a ˜10-km global analysis into a ˜3-km resolution continental shelf model to create a high-resolution hindcast of ocean state for each summer and winter from 1992-2006. Particles are released along the coast of SE Australia, and at various isobaths across the shelf (25-1000 m) over timescales ranging from 10-90 days. Upstream of the EAC separation point across-shelf release location dominates the particle trajectory length scales, whereas seasonality dominates in the southern half of the domain, downstream of the separation point. Lagrangian probability density functions show dispersion pathways vary with release latitude, distance offshore and the timescale of dispersion. Northern (southern) release sites are typified by maximum (minimum) dispersal pathways. Offshore release distance also plays a role having the greatest impact at the mid-latitude release sites. Maximum alongshore dispersion occurs at the mid-latitude release

  4. A QR accelerated volume-to-surface boundary condition for finite element solution of eddy current problems

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Fasenfest, B; Rieben, R; Stowell, M

    2006-09-08

    We are concerned with the solution of time-dependent electromagnetic eddy current problems using a finite element formulation on three-dimensional unstructured meshes. We allow for multiple conducting regions, and our goal is to develop an efficient computational method that does not require a computational mesh of the air/vacuum regions. This requires a sophisticated global boundary condition specifying the total fields on the conductor boundaries. We propose a Biot-Savart law based volume-to-surface boundary condition to meet this requirement. This Biot-Savart approach is demonstrated to be very accurate. In addition, this approach can be accelerated via a low-rank QR approximation of the discretized Biot-Savart law.

  5. Line W measurements of the Deep Western Boundary Current reflect changes in Labrador Sea deep convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, I.; Curry, R. G.; Yashayaev, I.; Toole, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    The Line W moored array on the continental slope southeast of New England measured the North Atlantic's Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) properties and velocity from 2004 to 2014. The DWBC is the primary branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation's (AMOC) cold limb, bringing North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) equatorward along the continental slope. Building on the work of Peña-Molino et al. 2011, we analyze intermediate water properties at five Line W moorings, focusing on the convectively-formed Classical Labrador Sea Water (CLSW) with its low planetary potential vorticity (PPV) signature. In all five moorings there is a trend of increasing PPV in the CLSW neutral density range, reflecting weakening convection in the Labrador Sea. The CLSW also warms (+0.016 °C/yr) and becomes saltier (+0.0014 /yr) over the course of the decade, consistent with decreasing dominance of cold, fresh CLSW. Shipboard hydrographic data extend our analysis back to the mid 1990s. Through this 20 year record the CLSW layer's T/S character changes. Ensembles of early T/S-profiles are broad in the CLSW range due to significant amounts of exceptionally cold, fresh water formed in the 1990s intermingling with warmer/saltier waters. By 2010, profile collections are narrow and lack the signature of especially cold, fresh CLSW. Our results are consistent with measurements in the Labrador Sea (Kieke et al. 2014), where there was intense convection in the 1990s but much weaker convection in the 2000s. The decay of the cold/fresh CLSW at Line W by 2010 indicates a travel time upper bound of approximately 10 years from the Labrador Sea to Line W. The observed warming is also consistent with measurements of the DWBC at 53 °N (Fischer et al. 2010) though at a decreased rate, most likely due to stirring with the interior. Future work will include a detailed comparison of these moored observations in order to quantify travel times of CLSW and bulk exchange with the interior.

  6. The Plate Boundary Observatory: Current status and plans for the next five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Feaux, K.; Meertens, C. M.; Mencin, D.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    UNAVCO currently operates and maintains the NSF-funded Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is the geodetic facility of EarthScope. PBO was designed and built from 2003 to 2008 with $100M investment from the NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) Program. UNAVCO operated and maintained PBO under a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF from 2008 to 2013 and will continue PBO O&M for the next five years as part of the new Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility. PBO is largest continuous GPS and borehole geophysical network in the Americas, with 1100 continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) sites, including several with multiple monuments, 79 boreholes, with 75 tensor strainmeters, 78 short-period, 3-component seismometers, and pore pressure sensors at 23 sites. PBO also includes 26 tiltmeters deployed at volcanoes in Alaska, Mt St Helens, and Yellowstone caldera and 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters. Surface meteorological sensors are collocated at 154 GPS sites. UNAVCO provides high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) GPS data streams (RT-GPS) from 382 stations in PBO. UNAVCO has delivered over 62 Tb of geodetic data to the EarthScope community since its PBO's inception in 2004. Over the past year, data return for the cGPS component of PBO is 98%, well above the data return metric of 85% set by the NSF, a result of efforts to upgrade power systems and communications infrastructure. In addition, PBO has set the standard for the design, construction, and operation of other multi-hazard networks across the Americas, including COCONet in the Caribbean region and TLALOCNet in Mexico. Funding to support ongoing PBO O&M has declined from FY2012 CA levels under the new GAGE Facility. The implications for data return and data quality metrics as well as replacement of aging PBO GPS instruments with GNSS-compatible systems are as yet unknown. A process to assess the cost of specific PBO components, data rates, enhanced

  7. Subauroral polarization stream on the outer boundary of the ring current during an energetic ion injection event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhigang; Qiao, Zheng; Li, Haimeng; Huang, Shiyong; Wang, Dedong; Yu, Xiongdong; Yu, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Subauroral polarization stream (SAPS) electric field can play an important role in the coupling between the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere; however, the production mechanism of SAPS has not been yet solved. During an energetic ion injection event on 26 March 2004, at latitudes lower than the equatorward boundaries of precipitating plasma sheet electrons and ions, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F13 satellite simultaneously observed a strong SAPS with the peak velocity of 1294 m/s and downward flowing field-aligned currents (FACs). Conjugate observations of DMSP F13 and NOAA 15 satellites have shown that FACs flowing into the ionosphere just lie in the outer boundary of the ring current (RC). The downward flowing FACs were observed in a region of positive latitudinal gradients of the ion energy density, implying that the downward flowing FACs are more likely linked to the azimuthal gradient than the radial gradient of the RC ion pressure. Our result demonstrates that RC ion pressure gradients on the outer boundary of the RC in the evening sector during energetic ion injection events can lead to downward flowing FACs so as to cause strong SAPS in condition of low ionospheric conductivities.Plain Language SummaryThis paper provides a good case that the SAPS and FAC occurred in the outer <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the ring <span class="hlt">current</span> during an energetic ion injection event. Our result demonstrates that RC ion pressure gradients on the outer <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the RC in the evening sector during energetic ion injection events can lead to downward flowing FACs so as to cause strong SAPS in condition of low ionospheric conductivities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM43A2279Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSM43A2279Y"><span>Global Simulations of the March 17, 2013 Storm: Importance of <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Conditions in Reproducing Ring <span class="hlt">Current</span> Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Y.; Jordanova, V.; Larsen, B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Welling, D. T.; Skoug, R. M.; Kletzing, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>As modeling capabilities become increasingly available for the study of inner magnetospheric dynamics, the models' <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions remain a crucial controlling factor in reproducing observations. In this study, we use the kinetic Ring <span class="hlt">current</span>-Atmosphere Interaction Model (RAM) two-way coupled with the global MHD model BATS-R-US to study the evolution of the ring <span class="hlt">current</span> and its feedback to the ionospheric electrodynamics during the March 17, 2013 storm. The MHD code solves fluid quantities and provides the inner magnetosphere code with plasma sheet plasma, which is the primary source for the development of the ring <span class="hlt">current</span>. In this study, we examine the effect of different <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions in specifying the plasma sheet plasma source on reproducing observations of the inner magnetospheric/subauroral region, such as in-situ observations (e.g., flux, magnetic fields, and electric fields) from Van Allen Probes (RBSP), field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> from AMPERE, and global convection maps from SuperDARN. These different <span class="hlt">boundary</span> settings include a Maxwellian distribution assumption with MHD single-fluid temperature and density, a Kappa distribution assumption with MHD single-fluid temperature and density, and a bi-Maxwellian distribution with anisotropic pressures passed from the MHD code. Results indicate that a Kappa distribution at the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of RAM leads to a better ring <span class="hlt">current</span> flux prediction than that with a Maxwellian distribution assumption, as well as a more realistic spatial distribution of ion anisotropy, which is important in driving electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The anisotropic pressure coupling between the kinetic code and the MHD code with a bi-Maxwellian function significantly improves the agreement with observations, especially the Dst index prediction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1086588','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1086588"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report Experimental Study of Impulsive Reconnection in a <span class="hlt">Current</span> Carrying Magnetic Arcade</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Craig, Darren</p> <p>2011-10-27</p> <p>The Wheaton Impulsive Reconnection Experiment (WIRX) is a new experiment now underway at Wheaton College for the study of magnetic reconnection. The experiment is composed of two parallel electrodes, linked by a magnetic arcade that is generated by a coil surrounding the electrodes. <span class="hlt">Current</span> is driven along the arcade from one electrode to another. When enough <span class="hlt">current</span> is driven, the arcade is expected to disrupt or segment by reconnection allowing a study of 3D reconnection. This report is the <span class="hlt">final</span> report for a three year grant period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18064770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18064770"><span>Amendment to the <span class="hlt">current</span> good manufacturing practice regulations for finished pharmaceuticals. Direct <span class="hlt">final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-12-04</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending certain regulations as the first phase of an incremental approach to modifying the <span class="hlt">current</span> good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for finished pharmaceuticals. We are amending the regulations to modernize or clarify some of the CGMP requirements, as well as harmonize some of the CGMP requirements with those of other foreign regulators and other FDA regulations. These amendments are also consistent with <span class="hlt">current</span> industry practice. We are taking this action as part of our continuing effort to revise outdated regulations without diminishing public health protection. We are issuing a direct <span class="hlt">final</span> rule for this action because FDA expects there will be no significant adverse comments on these amendments. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, we are publishing a companion proposed rule, under our usual notice-and-comment rulemaking procedures, to provide a procedural framework to <span class="hlt">finalize</span> the rule in the event the agency receives any significant adverse comments and withdraws this direct <span class="hlt">final</span> rule. The companion proposed rule and direct <span class="hlt">final</span> rule are substantively identical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3983B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.3983B"><span>Heat exchange between the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre and the atmosphere: Insights from numerical models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnier, B.; Molines, J. M.; Penduff, T.; Mathiot, P.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The role of strong ocean <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the general circulation is intrinsically linked to the mesoscale turbulence they generate. In the Labrador Sea, the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre is known to generate a great variety of eddies which have a strong impact on the seasonal cycle of deep convection, fluxing heat from the relatively warm water core of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> into the interior of the Sea. This paper investigate the possible existence of an eddy-driven process that could connect the subsurface core of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> to the atmosphere. The life cycle of Irminger Rings (IRs) in the Labrador Sea is investigated over several seasonal cycles in model simulations carried out with a full primitive equation, eddy resolving (4 km resolution), circulation model driven by realistic air-sea fluxes. It is found that a local topographic feature off Cape Desolation (west coast of Greeland) generates IRs, which are the main source of high EKE levels seen north of about 60°N in satellite altimetry. Model IRs characteristics are found to compare well with recent observations from gliders. Like ocean rings, their peculiar potential vorticity structure (a negative core surrounded by a positive ring) insulates them from surrounding waters, and eddies survive several winters. Model IRs properties primarily evolve through surface exchanges with the atmosphere, especially heat loss, as suggested by recent observations. Lateral exchange of heat with ambient waters appears to be significantly smaller. Under the forcing conditions of our simulations, it takes about two winters to the atmosphere to extract the heat contained in the subsurface core of a ring (at 1000 m depth) and to bring it to a colder temperature comparable to that of the deep convection area. The Ring usually collapses shortly after that. Therefore, the heat extracted by Irminger Rings from the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> is not given up to the interior ocean, but to the atmosphere. In that sense</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120m4303L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120m4303L"><span>Mesoscopic <span class="hlt">current</span> transport in two-dimensional materials with grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lotz, Mikkel R.; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Dirch H.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We have studied the behavior of micro four-point probe (M4PP) measurements on two-dimensional (2D) sheets composed of grains of varying size and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> resistivity by Monte Carlo based finite element (FE) modelling. The 2D sheet of the FE model was constructed using Voronoi tessellation to emulate a polycrystalline sheet, and a square sample was cut from the tessellated surface. Four-point resistances and Hall effect signals were calculated for a probe placed in the center of the square sample as a function of grain density n and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> resistivity ρ GB . We find that the dual configuration sheet resistance as well as the resistance measured between opposing edges of the square sample have a simple unique dependency on the dimension-less parameter √{ n } ρ GB G 0 , where G0 is the sheet conductance of a grain. The value of the ratio R A / R B between resistances measured in A- and B-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the <span class="hlt">current</span> transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> resistivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740003047','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740003047"><span>Remote sensing of ocean <span class="hlt">currents</span>. [detection of <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">boundary</span> in Gulf of Mexico through changes in sea state or ocean color</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. Fourteen field experiments in support of the NOAA investigation of ocean color <span class="hlt">boundary</span> determination using ERTS-1 data have been conducted since June 1972. The <span class="hlt">boundary</span> between coastal waters and the Loop <span class="hlt">Current</span> has been detected by ERTS-1 as a result of sea state changes as well as color differences. Computer enchancement of MSS data are revealing many features not shown in the NDPF product. Analysis of the 24 channel MSS data shows that a thermal IR channel is required on an ERTS MSS to distinguish between atmospheric and sea state effects. Cloud cover analysis suggests the need for daily coverage of this type sensor for routinely useful oceanographic applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016882','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016882"><span>Wave-<span class="hlt">current</span> interaction in the bottom <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer during storm and non-storm conditions: observations and model predictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Bottom <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer measurements of <span class="hlt">current</span> velocity profiles and bed response under combined wave and <span class="hlt">current</span> conditions were obtained at a water depth of 145 m on the shelf off central California during December 1988. High quality logarithmic <span class="hlt">current</span> profiles, excellent time-series bottom photographs, and a large variation in the relative strengths of the wave-induced oscillatory <span class="hlt">currents</span> and the quasi-steady low frequency <span class="hlt">currents</span> provided a dataset that is ideal for examining the effects of wave-<span class="hlt">current</span> interaction near a rough <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. During one period of 3 days that included a brief storm event, the wave-induced bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span> (Ub 1 10) ranged from 2.3 to 22 cm s-1 and the steady <span class="hlt">currents</span> (Ur) ranged from 1.8 to 28.1 cm s-1 at 0.18 m above the bottom; the ratio Ub U18 varied from below 0.2 to more than 7. Velocity profiles were highly logarithmic (R2 > 0.95) 60% of the time and 27 profiles collected at 2-h intervals had R2 {slanted equal to or greater-than} 0.994 which allowed reliable estimates of the <span class="hlt">current</span> shear velocity (U*c) and roughness length (zoc). Mean U*c values had magnitudes of 0.3-2.4 cm s-1 and zoc, which ranged from 0.04 to 3.5 cm, was strongly correlated to the Ub U18 ratio. Drag coefficients (CD = ??c/??U1002) ranged from about 2.5 ?? 10-3-12 ?? 10-3 in direct response to the wave-<span class="hlt">current</span> variation; the use of a constant CD of 3 ?? 10-3 for steady flow over a rough bed would have underpredicted the shear stress by up to four times during the storm event. The large zoc and U*c values cannot be explained by changes in the carefully-observed, small (<1 cm) physical bed roughness elements that covered the mud-rich study site. A side-scan sonar site survey also eliminated the possibility of flow disturbance by larger upstream topography. The observations clearly demonstrate the importance of wave-<span class="hlt">current</span> interaction near a rough <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. Comparison of the observations with results of the combined flow models of Grant and Madsen and Glenn</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214754B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214754B"><span>Assimilation of high-frequency radar surface <span class="hlt">currents</span> measurements to optimize tidal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions and wind forcing (Outstanding Young Scientist Lecture)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barth, Alexander; Alvera-Azcárate, Aida; Gurgel, Klaus-Werner; Staneva, Joanna; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Port, Alexander; Stanev, Emil</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>An ensemble smoother scheme is presented to assimilate high-frequency (HF) radar surface <span class="hlt">currents</span> to improve tidal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions and wind forcings of a circulation model of the German Bight. To create an ensemble of dynamically realistic tidal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions, a cost function is formulated which is directly related to the probability of each perturbation. This cost function ensures that the perturbations are spatially smooth and that the structure of the perturbations satisfies approximately the harmonic linearized shallow water equations. Based on those perturbations an ensemble simulation is carried out using the full three-dimensional General Estuarine Ocean Model (GETM). Optimized <span class="hlt">boundary</span> values are obtained using all observations within the assimilation period using the covariances of the ensemble simulation. The approach acts like a smoother scheme since past and future observations are taken into account. The <span class="hlt">final</span> analysis is obtained by rerunning the model using the optimal perturbation of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. The analyzed model solution satisfies thus the model equations exactly and does not suffer from spurious adjustments often observed with sequential assimilation schemes. Model results are also compared to independent tide gage data. The assimilation also reduces the model error compared to those sea level observations. The same scheme is also used to correct surface winds. Surface winds are crucial for accurately modeling the marine circulation in coastal waters. The method is validated directly by comparing the analyzed wind speed to in situ measurements and indirectly by assessing the impact of the corrected winds on sea surface temperature (SST) relative to satellite SST.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..DPP..3Q26W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996APS..DPP..3Q26W"><span>Application of Neural Networks for Real Time Determination of High-β Disruption <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> and <span class="hlt">Current</span> Profile Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wroblewski, D.; Jahns, G. L.; Leuer, J. A.; Ferron, J. R.; Kellman, A. G.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Neural networks are adept at reproducing multidemensional non-linear mappings and, due to the simplicity of computation of network outputs, are particularly suitable for real time applications. A neural network empirical model of the high-β disruption <span class="hlt">boundary</span> was constructed and its real-time performance demonstrated on the DIII--D tokamak. Neural network using multiple diagnostic signals provides much better evaluation of the disruption <span class="hlt">boundary</span> than the Troyon limit, and can predict the β-limit tens of milliseconds before the disruption occurs, which makes this approach applicable in a disruption avoidance scheme. In another study, a neural network was successfully used to provide a mapping from internal and external magnetic measurements to selected parameters of the safety factor profile. The neural network approach circumvents the speed limitations of the MHD equilibrium codes that are presently used to reconstruct the plasma <span class="hlt">current</span> profile, and may be used in feedback control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHE51B..05B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSHE51B..05B"><span>Stationary Sea Surface Height Anomalies in Cyclonic <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Currents</span>; the Role of PV-Conservation Along a Topographic Slope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Broomé, S.; Nilsson, J.; Nycander, J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In northern high-latitude sub-polar seas, such as the Nordic Seas and the Labrador Sea, time-mean geostrophic <span class="hlt">currents</span> mediate the meridional oceanic heat transport. These <span class="hlt">currents</span> are often found on the continental slopes as intense cyclonic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span>, which, due to the relatively weak stratification, are strongly steered by the bottom topography. However, analysis of hydrographic and satellite altimetric data along depth contours exhibit some remarkable stationary along-stream variations in the depth-integrated buoyancy. A closer examination reveals that the variations seem to be linked to changes in steepness and curvature of the topography beneath.In order to examine the underlying dynamics, a steady-state model of a cyclonic stratified <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> over a topographic slope is developed in the limit of small Rossby numbers. To the lowest order, the bottom velocities are aligned with the bottom topography. Based on the conservation of potential vorticity, equations for variations of the first-order pressure and buoyancy fields along the depth contours are derived. These show that the pressure and the depth-integrated buoyancy tend to increase (decrease) where the lowest order flow increases (decreases) its relative vorticity. Along-isobath variations in relative vorticity, in turn, tend to be most pronounced for cyclonic anomalies and occur where the topography is steep and/or curves. The thus predicted variations in pressure and buoyancy are comparable in magnitude to the ones found in the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25f7401T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25f7401T"><span>Critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density behaviors across a grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> inclined to <span class="hlt">current</span> with different angles in YBa2Cu3O7-δ bicrystal junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tao, Hua; Wei-Wei, Xu; Zheng-Ming, Ji; Da-Yuan, Guo; Qing-Yun, Wang; Xiang-Rong, Ma; Rui-Yu, Liang</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density behaviors across a bicrystal grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> (GB) inclined to the <span class="hlt">current</span> direction with different angles in YBa2Cu3O7-δ bicrystal junctions in magnetic fields are investigated. There are two main reasons for the difference in critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density in junctions at different GB inclined angles in the same magnetic field: (i) the GB plane area determines the <span class="hlt">current</span> carrying cross section; (ii) the vortex motion dynamics at the GB affects the critical <span class="hlt">current</span> value when the vortex starts to move along the GB by Lorentz force. Furthermore, the vortex motion in a bicrystal GB is studied by investigating transverse (Hall) and longitudinal <span class="hlt">current</span>-voltage characteristics (I-V xx and I-V xy ). It is found that the I-V xx curve diverges from linearity at a high driving <span class="hlt">current</span>, while the I-V xy curve keeps nearly linear, which indicates the vortices inside the GB break out of the GB by Lorentz force. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61501222, 61371036, and 61571219) and the School Scientific Research Fund of Nanjing Institute of Technology, China (Grant Nos. YKJ201418).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA451754','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA451754"><span>Dynamics of Eastern <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Currents</span> and Their Effects on Sound Speed Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>69 LIST OF REFERENCES Ambar , I., A Shallow Core of Mediterranean Water off Western Portugal, Deep-Sea Res., 30, 6A, 677-680, 1983. Ambar , I. and...<span class="hlt">Currents</span>, Eddies and Meanders in the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span> System, Deep-Sea Res., Submitted, 2006. Bower, A., L. Armi, and I. Ambar , Lagrangian Observations...Frouin, R., A. F. G. Fiuza, I. Ambar , and T. J. Boyd, Observations of a Poleward Surface <span class="hlt">Current</span> off the Coasts of Portugal and Spain during Winter, J</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.888a2171M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.888a2171M"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> status of <span class="hlt">final</span>-state interaction models and their impact on neutrino-nucleus interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ma, W. Y.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Yu, M.; Fiorentini, A.; Feusels, T.; <author pre="for the ">T2K collaboration</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Hadrons produced in neutrino-nucleus interactions may re-scatter while propagating through the nuclear medium. Such re-scatters, often called <span class="hlt">Final</span> State Interactions (FSI), can change the charge and multiplicity of the outgoing hadrons, as well as altering their <span class="hlt">final</span> state kinematics. A good description of these processes is crucial for accurate measurements of the neutrino energy spectra – a key part of neutrino oscillation analyses. We present the comparison of predictions from various neutrino interaction event generators (NEUT, GENIE, Geant4, NuWro and FLUKA) with thin-target pion/nucleon scattering data. The FSI model used in NEUT is a microscopic cascade where the hadrons are propagated semiclassically through a nuclear medium in finite steps. A new tune of the cascade model has been performed for improvements from the <span class="hlt">current</span> NEUT parameters using external data, and is presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/3892424','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/3892424"><span>Sea turtle distribution along the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the Gulf Stream <span class="hlt">current</span> off eastern Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hoffman, W.; Fritts, T.H.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Aerial surveys, out to 222 km off the east coast of central Florida during August 1980, revealed that marine turtles were distributed in a narrow zone west of the Gulf Stream. Of 255 loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, only three were observed east of the western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the Gulf Stream. Radiometric thermometry revealed that the waters occupied by most Caretta were markedly cooler than the nearby waters of the Gulf Stream. Of 18 leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, all were seen west of the Gulf Stream in waters less than 70 m in depth. Marine turtles off eastern Florida are confined seasonally to nearshore waters west of the Gulf Stream. The records of Dermochelys in nearshore waters are in contrast with a deep water oceanic ecology often hypothesized for this species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..67.1102Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..67.1102Z"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> Lead System of the SuperKEKB <span class="hlt">Final</span> Focus SC Magnet Cryostats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zong, Z. G.; Ohuchi, N.; Tsuchiya, K.; Arimoto, Y.; Higashi, N.; Yamaoka, H.; Kondou, Y.; Kawai, M.</p> <p></p> <p>To energize the SuperKEKB <span class="hlt">final</span> focus superconducting (SC) magnets, 110 <span class="hlt">current</span> leads in total will be equipped in the two service cryostats. For the SC quadrupoles and solenoids, 22 leads are the conventional vapor cooled type and the others for the SC correction coils employ an HTS section at the cold ends. The qualification program on the leads is being carried out at KEK as the cryogenic acceptance test prior to installation. This paper presents the thermal and electrical results of the cryogenic tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.4841N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.4841N"><span>Transient, small-scale field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer during storm time substorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, R.; Sergeev, V. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Varsani, A.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Leinweber, H. K.; Le, G.; Bromund, K. R.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Paterson, W.; Avanov, L. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; Genestreti, K.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Chutter, M.; Argall, M. R.; Anderson, B. J.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Ergun, R. E.; Singer, H. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Moore, T. E.; Lavraud, B.; Coffey, V.; Saito, Y.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We report on field-aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> observations by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft near the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer (PSBL) during two major substorms on 23 June 2015. Small-scale field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> were found embedded in fluctuating PSBL flux tubes near the separatrix region. We resolve, for the first time, short-lived earthward (downward) intense field-aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> sheets with thicknesses of a few tens of kilometers, which are well below the ion scale, on flux tubes moving equatorward/earthward during outward plasma sheet expansion. They coincide with upward field-aligned electron beams with energies of a few hundred eV. These electrons are most likely due to acceleration associated with a reconnection jet or high-energy ion beam-produced disturbances. The observations highlight coupling of multiscale processes in PSBL as a consequence of magnetotail reconnection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170003265&hterms=cohen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcohen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170003265&hterms=cohen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcohen"><span>Transient, Small-Scale Field-Aligned <span class="hlt">Currents</span> in the Plasma Sheet <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer During Storm Time Substorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, R.; Sergeev, V. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Varsani, A.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Russell, C. T.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170003265'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170003265_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170003265_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170003265_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20170003265_hide"></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We report on field-aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> observations by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft near the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer (PSBL) during two major substorms on 23 June 2015. Small-scale field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> were found embedded in fluctuating PSBL flux tubes near the Separatrix region. We resolve, for the first time, short-lived earthward (downward) intense field-aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> sheets with thicknesses of a few tens of kilometers, which are well below the ion scale, on flux tubes moving equatorward earth ward during outward plasma sheet expansion. They coincide with upward field-aligned electron beams with energies of a few hundred eV. These electrons are most likely due to acceleration associated with a reconnection jet or high-energy ion beam-produced disturbances. The observations highlight coupling of multiscale processes in PSBL as a consequence of magnetotail reconnection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27867235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27867235"><span>Transient, small-scale field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer during storm time substorms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakamura, R; Sergeev, V A; Baumjohann, W; Plaschke, F; Magnes, W; Fischer, D; Varsani, A; Schmid, D; Nakamura, T K M; Russell, C T; Strangeway, R J; Leinweber, H K; Le, G; Bromund, K R; Pollock, C J; Giles, B L; Dorelli, J C; Gershman, D J; Paterson, W; Avanov, L A; Fuselier, S A; Genestreti, K; Burch, J L; Torbert, R B; Chutter, M; Argall, M R; Anderson, B J; Lindqvist, P-A; Marklund, G T; Khotyaintsev, Y V; Mauk, B H; Cohen, I J; Baker, D N; Jaynes, A N; Ergun, R E; Singer, H J; Slavin, J A; Kepko, E L; Moore, T E; Lavraud, B; Coffey, V; Saito, Y</p> <p>2016-05-28</p> <p>We report on field-aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> observations by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft near the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer (PSBL) during two major substorms on 23 June 2015. Small-scale field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> were found embedded in fluctuating PSBL flux tubes near the separatrix region. We resolve, for the first time, short-lived earthward (downward) intense field-aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> sheets with thicknesses of a few tens of kilometers, which are well below the ion scale, on flux tubes moving equatorward/earthward during outward plasma sheet expansion. They coincide with upward field-aligned electron beams with energies of a few hundred eV. These electrons are most likely due to acceleration associated with a reconnection jet or high-energy ion beam-produced disturbances. The observations highlight coupling of multiscale processes in PSBL as a consequence of magnetotail reconnection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222896"><span>Near-surface Density <span class="hlt">Currents</span> Observed in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus-topped Marine <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilbanks, Matt C.; Yuter, S. E.; de Szoeke, S.; Brewer, W. A.; Miller, Matthew A.; Hall, Andrew M.; Burleyson, Casey D.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Density <span class="hlt">currents</span> (i.e. cold pools or outflows) beneath marine stratocumulus clouds are characterized using a 30-d data set of ship-based observations obtained during the 2008 Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) in the southeast Pacific. An objective method identifies 71 density <span class="hlt">current</span> fronts using an air density criterion and isolates each density current’s core (peak density) and tail (dissipating) zone. Compared to front and core zones, most density <span class="hlt">current</span> tails exhibited weaker density gradients and wind anomalies elongated about the axis of the mean wind. The mean cloud-level advection relative to the surface layer wind (1.9 m s-1) nearly matches the mean density <span class="hlt">current</span> propagation speed (1.8 m s-1). The similarity in speeds allows drizzle cells to deposit tails in their wakes. Based on high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar data, prefrontal updrafts had a mean intensity of 0.91 m s-1, reached an average altitude of 800 m, and were often surmounted by low-lying shelf clouds not connected to the overlying stratocumulus cloud. Nearly 90% of density <span class="hlt">currents</span> were identified when C-band radar estimated 30-km diameter areal average rain rates exceeded 1 mm d-1. Rather than peaking when rain rates are highest overnight, density <span class="hlt">current</span> occurrence peaks between 0600 and 0800 local solar time when enhanced local drizzle co-occurs with shallow subcloud dry and stable layers. The dry layers may contribute to density <span class="hlt">current</span> formation by enhancing subcloud evaporation of drizzle. Density <span class="hlt">currents</span> preferentially occur in regions of open cells but also occur in regions of closed cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA192272','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA192272"><span>Prediction of Continental Shelf Sediment Transport Using a Theoretical Model of the Wave-<span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>and E) Leet and Judson (1958) (illustration from Dietz, 1963). * ~ 28 5. ’ wide variety of variables in this location: seasonal waves and <span class="hlt">currents</span>...34________ I___.________,-_____ I I I 111111 " IiI I -I Nr-I c( ,) c( 0. ) v-; ..1. t,.’..0,;9,,. 1.- ..-. , I TT . .. . I . . . .O0 I ’ ’ ’ I I I " . , 0 7...the American Gas Association, 63 pp. Grant, W. D. and S. M. Glenn, 1983c. A continental shelf bottom <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer model. Vol. III : Users manual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922980"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> good manufacturing practices, quality control procedures, quality factors, notification requirements, and records and reports, for infant formula. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-06-10</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a <span class="hlt">final</span> rule that adopts, with some modifications, the interim <span class="hlt">final</span> rule (IFR) entitled "<span class="hlt">Current</span> Good Manufacturing Practices, Quality Control Procedures, Quality Factors, Notification Requirements, and Records and Reports, for Infant Formula'' (February 10, 2014). This <span class="hlt">final</span> rule affirms the IFR's changes to FDA's regulations and provides additional modifications and clarifications. The <span class="hlt">final</span> rule also responds to certain comments submitted in response to the request for comments in the IFR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25761975','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25761975"><span>Growth of a deep-water, predatory fish is influenced by the productivity of a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Rountrey, Adam N; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Coulson, Peter G; Feng, Ming; Newman, Stephen J; Waite, Anya M; Wakefield, Corey B; Meekan, Mark G</p> <p>2015-03-12</p> <p>The effects of climate change on predatory fishes in deep shelf areas are difficult to predict because complex processes may govern food availability and temperature at depth. We characterised the net impact of recent environmental changes on hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios), an apex predator found in continental slope habitats (>200 m depth) by using dendrochronology techniques to develop a multi-decadal record of growth from otoliths. Fish were sampled off temperate south-western Australia, a region strongly influenced by the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span>, a poleward-flowing, eastern <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>. The common variance among individual growth records was relatively low (3.4%), but the otolith chronology was positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.02) with sea level at Fremantle, a proxy for the strength of the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span> influences the primary productivity of shelf ecosystems, with a strong <span class="hlt">current</span> favouring growth in hapuku. Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span> strength is predicted to decline under climate change models and this study provides evidence that associated productivity changes may flow through to higher trophic levels even in deep water habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4356959','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4356959"><span>Growth of a deep-water, predatory fish is influenced by the productivity of a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Rountrey, Adam N.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Coulson, Peter G.; Feng, Ming; Newman, Stephen J.; Waite, Anya M.; Wakefield, Corey B.; Meekan, Mark G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The effects of climate change on predatory fishes in deep shelf areas are difficult to predict because complex processes may govern food availability and temperature at depth. We characterised the net impact of recent environmental changes on hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios), an apex predator found in continental slope habitats (>200 m depth) by using dendrochronology techniques to develop a multi-decadal record of growth from otoliths. Fish were sampled off temperate south-western Australia, a region strongly influenced by the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span>, a poleward-flowing, eastern <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>. The common variance among individual growth records was relatively low (3.4%), but the otolith chronology was positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.02) with sea level at Fremantle, a proxy for the strength of the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span> influences the primary productivity of shelf ecosystems, with a strong <span class="hlt">current</span> favouring growth in hapuku. Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span> strength is predicted to decline under climate change models and this study provides evidence that associated productivity changes may flow through to higher trophic levels even in deep water habitats. PMID:25761975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E9044N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E9044N"><span>Growth of a deep-water, predatory fish is influenced by the productivity of a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Hoang Minh; Rountrey, Adam N.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Coulson, Peter G.; Feng, Ming; Newman, Stephen J.; Waite, Anya M.; Wakefield, Corey B.; Meekan, Mark G.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The effects of climate change on predatory fishes in deep shelf areas are difficult to predict because complex processes may govern food availability and temperature at depth. We characterised the net impact of recent environmental changes on hapuku (Polyprion oxygeneios), an apex predator found in continental slope habitats (>200 m depth) by using dendrochronology techniques to develop a multi-decadal record of growth from otoliths. Fish were sampled off temperate south-western Australia, a region strongly influenced by the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span>, a poleward-flowing, eastern <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>. The common variance among individual growth records was relatively low (3.4%), but the otolith chronology was positively correlated (r = 0.61, p < 0.02) with sea level at Fremantle, a proxy for the strength of the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span> influences the primary productivity of shelf ecosystems, with a strong <span class="hlt">current</span> favouring growth in hapuku. Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span> strength is predicted to decline under climate change models and this study provides evidence that associated productivity changes may flow through to higher trophic levels even in deep water habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7142803','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7142803"><span>Two-equation low-Reynolds-number turbulence modeling of transitional <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer flows characteristic of gas turbine blades. Ph. D. Thesis. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Contractor Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmidt, R.C.; Patankar, S.V.</p> <p>1988-05-01</p> <p>The use of low Reynolds number (LRN) forms of the k-epsilon turbulence model in predicting transitional <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer flow characteristic of gas turbine blades is developed. The research presented consists of: (1) an evaluation of two existing models; (2) the development of a modification to <span class="hlt">current</span> LRN models; and (3) the extensive testing of the proposed model against experimental data. The prediction characteristics and capabilities of the Jones-Launder (1972) and Lam-Bremhorst (1981) LRN k-epsilon models are evaluated with respect to the prediction of transition on flat plates. Next, the mechanism by which the models simulate transition is considered and the need for additional constraints is discussed. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the transition predictions of a new model are compared with a wide range of different experiments, including transitional flows with free-stream turbulence under conditions of flat plate constant velocity, flat plate constant acceleration, flat plate but strongly variable acceleration, and flow around turbine blade test cascades. In general, calculational procedure yields good agreement with most of the experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880013801','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880013801"><span>Two-Equation Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulence Modeling of Transitional <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Flows Characteristic of Gas Turbine Blades. Ph.D. Thesis. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Contractor Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Rodney C.; Patankar, Suhas V.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The use of low Reynolds number (LRN) forms of the k-epsilon turbulence model in predicting transitional <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer flow characteristic of gas turbine blades is developed. The research presented consists of: (1) an evaluation of two existing models; (2) the development of a modification to <span class="hlt">current</span> LRN models; and (3) the extensive testing of the proposed model against experimental data. The prediction characteristics and capabilities of the Jones-Launder (1972) and Lam-Bremhorst (1981) LRN k-epsilon models are evaluated with respect to the prediction of transition on flat plates. Next, the mechanism by which the models simulate transition is considered and the need for additional constraints is discussed. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the transition predictions of a new model are compared with a wide range of different experiments, including transitional flows with free-stream turbulence under conditions of flat plate constant velocity, flat plate constant acceleration, flat plate but strongly variable acceleration, and flow around turbine blade test cascades. In general, calculational procedure yields good agreement with most of the experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989DSRA...36..901A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989DSRA...36..901A"><span>Quantifying sediment disturbance by bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span> and its effect on benthic communities in a deep-sea western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aller, Josephine Y.</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>Erosion, transport and redeposition of sediment by near-bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span> are major sources of disturbance for soft-sediment habitats and associated benthic communities. This phenomenon takes place in western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slope regions of the deep sea such as the HEBBLE area on the Nova Scotian Rise, western North Atlantic. Bottom disturbance in this western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> region can be characterized and quantified, first in terms of the driving force—the <span class="hlt">current</span> and directly related bed shear stress; and second, by the expression of the <span class="hlt">current</span> effect as observed in sedimentary fabric, %CaCO 3, and granulometry. These physical characteristics can be correlated with biologic features, including abundances and activities of sediment microorganisms, and apparently, in abundances and distributions of meio- and macrofauna. <span class="hlt">Currents</span> measured at heights of 1-59 m above the seabed at the HEBBLE site (4815-4830 m) from February 1982 to 15 September 1986 show evidence of "benthic storms" with <span class="hlt">current</span> speeds of 15-23 cm s -1 for ⩾2 days. These "storms" occur with a frequency of about 21 days and have mean durations of 7 ± 5.8 days. Storms with mean velocities over 23 cm s -1 occur every 10 months and last 12 ± 11 days. X-radiographs of vertical slabs of sediment taken from box cores at the HEBBLE site show stratification features related to <span class="hlt">current</span> speeds and bed shear stress, immediately preceeding the time of core collection. These relationships are corroborated by radiochemical distributions of 234Th. Both erosional and depositional processes affect physical and chemical properties of the sediment and have positive and negative effects on the benthic community. Erosional periods result in sediment transport and sweeping of surficial organic matter, micro-organisms, larvae and juveniles from the area. During transitional periods of intermediate <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities there is deposition of fresh organic matter, removal of metabolites, and mechanical stimulation of sediment micro</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.3395F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.3395F"><span>Invigorating ocean <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> systems around Australia during 1979-2014: As simulated in a near-global eddy-resolving ocean model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Ming; Zhang, Xuebin; Oke, Peter; Monselesan, Didier; Chamberlain, Matthew; Matear, Richard; Schiller, Andreas</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Ocean <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span>, transporting water masses and marine biota along the coastlines, are important for regional climate and marine ecosystem functions. In this study, we review the dominant multi-decadal trends of ocean <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> around Australia. Using an eddy-resolving global ocean circulation model, this study has revealed that the major ocean <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> systems around Australia, the East Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span> (EAC), the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span>, the South Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span> and the Flinders <span class="hlt">Current</span>, have strengthened during 1979-2014, consistent with existing observations. Eddy energetics in the EAC, the ITF/South Equatorial <span class="hlt">Current</span> in the southeast Indian Ocean, and the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span> have also enhanced during the same period. The multi-decadal strengthening of the ocean <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> systems are primarily driven by large scale wind patterns associated with the dominant modes of climate variability and change - the phase shift of the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation/Pacific Decadal Oscillation strengthens the ITF and the Leeuwin <span class="hlt">Current</span>/South Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span>; and the poleward shift and strengthening of surface winds in the subtropical gyres reinforce the EAC and the Flinders <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The invigorating ocean <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> systems have induced extreme oceanographic conditions along the Australian coastlines in recent years, including the poleward shift of marine ecosystems off the east coast of Australia and the consecutive Ningaloo Niño - marine heatwave events off the west coast during 2011-2013. Understanding long-term trends and decadal variations of the ocean <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> is crucial to project future changes of the coastal marine systems under the influence of human-induced greenhouse gas forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApPhL..85.3854S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApPhL..85.3854S"><span>Near-field optical beam-induced <span class="hlt">currents</span> in CdTe /CdS solar cells: Direct measurement of enhanced photoresponse at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, S.; Zhang, P.; Gessert, T.; Mascarenhas, A.</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Using near-field optical beam induced <span class="hlt">current</span>, we spatially resolve the photocurrent in polycrystalline CdTe /CdS solar cells, and observe increased photocurrent collection at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> (relative to the intragrain volume). This observation supports previously reported hypotheses that grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> present a hole-barrier, thereby assisting in charge separation at the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in these devices. The results offer compelling evidence, in an actual working-device structure, of the role of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in explaining the surprisingly high performance of these highly defected devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052817&hterms=Beans&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBeans','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052817&hterms=Beans&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBeans"><span>Simulation of electrostatic turbulence in the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer with electron <span class="hlt">currents</span> and bean-shaped ion beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Plasma data from ISEE-1 show the presence of electron <span class="hlt">currents</span> as well as energetic ion beams in the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. Broadband electrostatic noise and low-frequency electromagnetic bursts are detected in the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer, especially in the presence of strong ion flows, <span class="hlt">currents</span>, and steep spacial gradients in the fluxes of few-keV electrons and ions. Particle simulations have been performed to investigate electrostatic turbulence driven by a cold electron beam and/or ion beams with a bean-shaped velocity distribution. The simulation results show that the counterstreaming ion beams as well as the counterstreaming of the cold electron beam and the ion beam excite ion acoustic waves with a given Doppler-shifted real frequency. However, the effect of the bean-shaped ion velocity distributions reduces the growth rates of ion acoustic instability. The simulation results also show that the slowing down of the ion bean is larger at the larger perpendicular velocity. The wave spectra of the electric fields at some points of the simulations show turbulence generated by growing waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4595N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4595N"><span>On the wave and <span class="hlt">current</span> interaction with a rippled seabed in the coastal ocean bottom <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nayak, Aditya R.; Li, Cheng; Kiani, Bobak T.; Katz, Joseph</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Interactions of <span class="hlt">currents</span> and waves with a rippled seabed in the inner part of the coastal ocean bottom <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer are studied using particle image velocimetry, ADV, and bottom roughness measurements. Mean velocity profiles collapse with appropriate scaling in the log layer, but vary substantially in the roughness sublayer. When wave-induced motions are similar or greater than the mean <span class="hlt">current</span>, the hydrodynamic roughness (z0) determined from velocity profiles is substantially larger than directly measured values. The roughness signature in turbulent energy spectra persists with elevation when its scale falls in the dissipation range, but decays in the log layer for larger roughness elements. Reynolds shear stress profiles peak in the lower parts of the log layer, diminishing below it, and gradually decaying at higher elevations. In contrast, wave shear stresses are negligible within the log layer, but become significant within the roughness sublayer. This phenomenon is caused by an increase in the magnitude and phase lag of the vertical component of wave-induced motion. No single <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer length scale collapses the Reynolds stresses, but both the Prandtl mixing length and eddy viscosity profiles agree well with the classical model of linear increase with elevation, especially near the seabed. Within the log region, profiles of shear production and dissipation rates of turbulence converge. Below it, dissipation rapidly increases, peaking near the seabed. Conversely, the shear production decays near the seabed, in agreement with the eddy viscosity model, but in contrast to both laboratory and computational rough wall studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM52A..05O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM52A..05O"><span>The Poleward <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Intensification (PBI) of Auroral Emission: Its Dynamics and Associated Field-aligned <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtani, S.; Motoba, T.; Gjerloev, J. W.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The poleward <span class="hlt">boundary</span> intensification (PBI) of aurora emission is often addressed in terms of distant reconnection. Recently, however, Ohtani and Yoshikawa [2016] proposed that the PBIs, at least at the initial stage of their formation, are actually the effect of ionospheric polarization in the presence of the enhanced convection in the polar cap and conductance gradient at the poleward <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the auroral oval. Whereas the ionospheric polarization itself is a transient process, it is known that the PBIs occasionally extend longitudinally suggesting that a 3D <span class="hlt">current</span> system forms subsequently, which electrodynamically couples the magnetosphere and ionosphere. In the present study we observationally examine the associated field-aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> (FAC) observed by the SWARM satellites and compare its characteristics with ground all-sky images. It is found that complex signatures of FACs as suggested by magnetic disturbances reflect the spatial structure of aurora (e.g., location and orientation), whereas the overall motion of PBIs is well explained in terms of the background convection suggested by the FAC distribution. We shall discuss the implications of these results for the responsible evolution process of the PBIs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.8962W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.8962W"><span>Decadal fCO2 trends in global ocean margins and adjacent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>-influenced areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongjie; Hu, Xinping; Cai, Wei-Jun; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Determination of the rate of change of sea surface CO2 fugacity <fi>(f</fi>CO2) is important, as the <fi>f</fi>CO2 gradient between the atmosphere and the ocean determines the direction of CO2 flux and hence the fate of this greenhouse gas. Using a newly available, community-based global CO2 database (Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas Version 3 coastal data set) and a newly developed statistical method, we report that the global ocean margins (within 400 km offshore, 30°S-70°N) <fi>f</fi>CO2 temporal trends on decadal time scales (1.93 ± 1.59 μatm yr-1) closely follow the atmospheric <fi>f</fi>CO2 increase rate (1.90 ± 0.06 μatm yr-1) in the Northern Hemisphere but are lower (1.35 ± 0.55 μatm yr-1) in the Southern Hemisphere, reflecting dominant atmospheric forcing in conjunction with different warming rates in the two hemispheres. In addition to the atmospheric <fi>f</fi>CO2 forcing, a direct warming effect contributes more to <fi>f</fi>CO2 increase in the western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>-influenced areas, while intensified upwelling contributes more to <fi>f</fi>CO2 increase in eastern <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>-influenced areas.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052817&hterms=Beans&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBeans','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052817&hterms=Beans&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBeans"><span>Simulation of electrostatic turbulence in the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer with electron <span class="hlt">currents</span> and bean-shaped ion beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, L. A.; Huang, C. Y.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Plasma data from ISEE-1 show the presence of electron <span class="hlt">currents</span> as well as energetic ion beams in the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. Broadband electrostatic noise and low-frequency electromagnetic bursts are detected in the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer, especially in the presence of strong ion flows, <span class="hlt">currents</span>, and steep spacial gradients in the fluxes of few-keV electrons and ions. Particle simulations have been performed to investigate electrostatic turbulence driven by a cold electron beam and/or ion beams with a bean-shaped velocity distribution. The simulation results show that the counterstreaming ion beams as well as the counterstreaming of the cold electron beam and the ion beam excite ion acoustic waves with a given Doppler-shifted real frequency. However, the effect of the bean-shaped ion velocity distributions reduces the growth rates of ion acoustic instability. The simulation results also show that the slowing down of the ion bean is larger at the larger perpendicular velocity. The wave spectra of the electric fields at some points of the simulations show turbulence generated by growing waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...155...73D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMS...155...73D"><span>Zooplankton abundance, biovolume and size spectra at western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the subtropical North Pacific during winter 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, Luping; Li, Chaolun; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiaoxia</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Horizontal changes in mesozooplankton abundance, biovolume and size spectra at western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the subtropical North Pacific during winter 2012 were evaluated by ZooScan measurement on samples collected by net towing from 23 stations. Zooplankton abundance and biovolume ranged from 35.1 to 456.8 ind. m- 3 and 4.3 to 231.7 mm3 m- 3, respectively. Copepoda were the most dominant species, followed by Chaetognatha and Tunicata. According to the Bray-Curtis cluster analysis based on biovolume of zooplankton size classes of each taxonomic group at intervals of 1 (log2 mm3 ind.- 1) between - 6 and 12 and considering the effect of regional factors, zooplankton communities were classified into four groups, which basically coincided with the geographical patterns of different <span class="hlt">currents</span>: the North Equatorial <span class="hlt">Current</span> (NEC), the North Equatorial Counter <span class="hlt">Current</span> (NECC), the Kuroshio <span class="hlt">Current</span> (KC), and the Mindanao Eddy (ME), respectively. The largest and lowest biovolumes were observed in the NECC region and the NEC region, respectively, and both were dominated by the 0.3 to 1 mm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) size class, while the ME region was dominant by the 1 to 2 mm ESD size class. The slopes of the normalized biovolume size spectra for each group were slightly lower than - 1 (range from - 0.85 to - 0.92), which indicates that zooplankton communities in the study area were characterized by low productivity and high energy transfer efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7184M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.7184M"><span>Multiscale wind cycles and <span class="hlt">current</span> pulses at the Black Sea eastern <span class="hlt">boundary</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melnikov, Vasiliy; Moskalenko, Lidija; Piotoukh, Vladimir; Zatsepin, Andrey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The goal of the research is to examine meteorological descriptive elements, sea-water properties, regional hydrodynamics and energy conversion fluxes in order to study sea responses to the local and far-field weather system. The Black Sea is situated in the chain of internal basins between the North Atlantic and Central Asia deserts in the marginal interaction zone and, accordingly, is under the influence of the Azores and Siberian anticyclones, Arctic cold-air surges and subtropical desert belt to the south. The analysis is based on the data of modern oceanographic measuring network "Hydro-physical Polygon" of the Institute of oceanology, using contact and remote sensing methods, weather stations around the Black Sea coasts, including long-term (1938-2014) measurements at the Gelendzhik weather station. Various satellite and Reanalysis databases are used. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, there are three long-time measuring moored stations (each contains ADCP and thermistor chain) and scanning profiling system "Akvalog". Hydrological sections and field surveys using towed ADCP and CTD are performed on a regular basis. The data are accumulated in the coastal archive which allows calibration of satellite measurements and testing results of numerical modeling. Data processing includes data sets preparation, editing, time series statistical calculations using histograms, progressive vector diagrams, traditional Fourier spectral analysis including auto- and cross spectra, auto and mutual wavelet diagrams, moving spectrograms, vector data methods using rotary components, spectral invariants, empirical modes, hodograph and pre-specified spectrum representations on the basis of stochastic models with imposed dynamical assumptions. Due to the intermittent nature of the time rows, spectral representation is misleading, often. In order to identify the individual evolving dynamical phenomenon, typical background (seasonal) three-dimensional structures of the hydrological field, as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JNuM..196..421E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JNuM..196..421E"><span>Magnetic perturbation effects on <span class="hlt">boundary</span> plasmas during high power lower hybrid <span class="hlt">current</span> drive in Tore Supra</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, T. E.; Goniche, M.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Hess, W.; Vallet, J.-C.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Small time-independent magnetic perturbations (δ br), produced with the Tore Supra ergodic divertor coils, have been used to control thermal loads on plasma facing components, <span class="hlt">current</span> density profiles, the transport of non-Maxwellian particles, and the confinement properties of thermal plasmas during high power ( PLH≤3.3 MW) lower hybrid <span class="hlt">current</span> drive (LHCD) discharges. MARFEs with 0.12 ≤ϱ m=π a2 < ne20> Ip-1≤0.22 (i.e., roughly a factor of 3 less than the smallest value of ϱ m previously reported) are obtained during the δ br pulse when PLH>2.0 MW and the edge safety factor is slightly less than 3. These MARFEs generally appear to have the same characteristics as high ϱ m MARFEs and are positionally stable throughout the LHCD+δ br pulse. Steady state conditions in which more than 90% of the total input power is radiated from a 0.15 m wide region near the high-field side wall were obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1145S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1145S"><span>Observed evidence of the anomalous South China Sea western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> during the summers of 2010 and 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Xie, Qiang; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; Chen, Rongyu; He, Yunkai; Li, Daning</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Seven years of directly measured <span class="hlt">current</span> data from a mooring in the Xisha area of the South China Sea (SCS), together with shipboard ADCP and satellite data, have shown the western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> (WBC) anomaly and its vertical structure during the summers of 2010 and 2011. The observed WBC presented obvious year-to-year variability, especially in the summer. Overall, the summer mean velocity at the mooring site over 7-year (2007-2013) was northeastward. The moored ADCP showed that the northeastward velocity was particularly strong in the summer of 2010, but the increase was confined in the upper 120 m. In contrast, the northeastward <span class="hlt">current</span> disappeared throughout the observed depth range (from 50 to 450 m) in the summer of 2011. Even at the deepest observed position, the monthly velocity anomalies reached 14 cm s-1 westward and 12 cm s-1 southward in the zonal and meridional directions, respectively. Both the Vietnam offshore <span class="hlt">current</span> (VOC) and double gyres in the western SCS disappeared and the southern anticyclonic gyre expanded to strengthened the northward WBC in the summer of 2010. However, in summer of 2011, the VOC intensified, and the northern cyclonic gyre enlarged with its northern edge reaching 18°N, slightly north of mooring site, which weakened the northeastward WBC. The observed SCS circulation anomalies during 2010 and 2011 were mainly induced by the basin-scale wind field anomalies associated with the 2009/2010 El Niño and 2010/2011 La Niña.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44C3164Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44C3164Y"><span>Mechanism of Interannual Variability in Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Currents</span> along Madagascar and their Relation with the ENSO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamagami, Y.; Tozuka, T.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The South Equatorial <span class="hlt">Current</span> (SEC) in the Indian Ocean bifurcates at the east coast of Madagascar into the Northeast and Southeast Madagascar <span class="hlt">Currents</span> (NEMC and SEMC, respectively). The NEMC and SEMC transport anomalies influence eddy activities in the Mozambique Channel and the southwest of Madagascar. These eddies not only influence the ecosystems in the Mozambique Channel, but may also modulate the global thermohaline circulation by affecting water mass exchange between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans through their influence on the Agulhas Ring shedding. Therefore, to enhance understanding of the dynamical connection between NEMC and SEMC variability and physical and biological variability in their downstream, the dynamical mechanism of interannual variations in the NEMC and SEMC transport is investigated. The NEMC (SEMC) transport in reanalysis data undergoes interannual variations with the peak-to-peak amplitude of about 15 (6) Sv. The time-dependent Island Rule indicates that the above interannual variations are due to the responses to anomalous meridional interior transport. This is a result of westward popagating Rossby waves generated by Ekman pumping anomalies over 60°E - 90°E. It is shown that the NEMC and SEMC transports are correlated with the Niño 3.4 index with 5-15 months lag and ENSO-related diabatic heating anomalies over the western tropical Pacific generate wind stress curl anomalies over the southern Indian Ocean. These wind stress anomalies are also modified by local SST anomalies in the southeastern Indian Ocean. The above influences from the local and remote SST anomalies are confirmed by atmospheric general circulation model experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...119f5302K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...119f5302K"><span>Temperature-dependent recombination velocity analysis on artificial small angle grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> using electron beam induced <span class="hlt">current</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kojima, Takuto; Tachibana, Tomihisa; Ohshita, Yoshio; Prakash, Ronit R.; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The details of the process of carrier recombination via the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) defect level, at the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of multicrystalline silicon, were investigated. For this, the temperature-dependent recombination velocities, as determined by experiments, were analyzed by the application of an electron beam induced <span class="hlt">current</span> method. For the model, the misorientation angles at the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> were defined using a multi-seed casting-growth method. The results of our experiments indicated different temperature behaviors at low and high temperatures. These can be explained by controlling the process anticipated by the SRH model, that is, the process whereby minority carriers (electrons) are captured at lower temperatures, followed by the reemission of the carriers before recombination with Arrhenius behavior at higher temperatures. The minority capture process appeared to conform to the power law T-α temperature behavior. Thus, there are two candidate electron capture mechanisms, namely, cascade phonon emission capture for shallow centers and excitonic-Auger capture for deep centers. The activation energy for the reemission of carriers was around 0.1 eV. These findings regarding the temperature dependence are essentially independent of the misorientation angles, suggesting a common defect level and recombination mechanism. The difference in the recombination velocities can be regarded as being derived from the difference in the density at the defect level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22273503','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22273503"><span>Investigations on residual strains and the cathodoluminescence and electron beam induced <span class="hlt">current</span> signal of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nacke, M.; Allardt, M.; Hieckmann, E.; Weber, J.; Chekhonin, P.; Skrotzki, W.</p> <p>2014-04-28</p> <p>Cathodoluminescence (CL) and electron beam induced <span class="hlt">current</span> (EBIC) measurements were used to investigate the optical behavior and electrical activity of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> (GBs) in coarsely grained silicon. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was applied for a comprehensive characterization of the structural properties of the high angle and low angle GBs (HAGBs and LAGBs) in the sample. It was found that not only the EBIC but also the panchromatic (pan) CL contrast of Σ3 HAGBs strongly depends on the hkl-type of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> plane. At room temperature coherent Σ3 GBs exhibit no significant contrast in the CL or EBIC images, whereas at low temperatures the pan-CL contrast is strong. For incoherent Σ3 GBs, a strong pan-CL and EBIC contrast was observed in the entire temperature range. Only on a LAGB (misorientation angle 4.5°) CL investigations at low temperatures revealed a line with peak position at about (0.82 ± 0.01) eV, usually related to the dislocation associated D1 transition. Cross-correlation EBSD was applied to analyze the strain fields of Σ3 HAGBs as well as of the LAGB. All the components of the local strain tensors were quantitatively determined. The relationship between the extension of the strain field at the LAGB and the spatial D1 intensity distribution is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493892','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493892"><span>Control of plasma properties in a short direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> glow discharge with active <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adams, S. F.; Demidov, V. I.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>To demonstrate controlling electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature by applying negative voltages to the active (conducting) discharge wall in a low-pressure plasma with nonlocal electron energy distribution function, modeling has been performed in a short (lacking the positive-column region) direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> glow discharge with a cold cathode. The applied negative voltage can modify the trapping of the low-energy part of the energetic electrons that are emitted from the cathode sheath and that arise from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. These electrons are responsible for heating the slow, thermal electrons, while production of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms is mostly due to the energetic electrons with higher energies. Increasing electron temperature results in increasing decay rate of slow, thermal electrons (ions), while decay rate of metastable atoms and production rates of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms practically are unchanged. The result is in the variation of electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature with the variation of the wall negative voltage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12112871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12112871"><span>Direct measurements of HOx radicals in the marine <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer: testing the <span class="hlt">current</span> tropospheric chemistry mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kanaya, Yugo; Akimoto, Hajime</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>OH and HO(2) radicals, atmospheric detergents, and the reservoir thereof, play central roles in tropospheric chemistry. In spite of their importance, we had no choice but to trust their concentrations predicted by modeling studies based on known chemical processes. However, recent direct measurements of these radicals have enabled us to test and revise our knowledge of the processes by comparing the predicted and observed values of the radical concentrations. We developed a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) instrument and successfully observed OH and HO(2) at three remote islands of Japan (Oki Island, Okinawa Island, and Rishiri Island). At Okinawa Island, the observed daytime level of HO(2) agreed closely with the model estimates, suggesting that the photochemistry at Okinawa is well described by the <span class="hlt">current</span> chemistry mechanism. At Rishiri Island, in contrast, the observed daytime level of HO(2) was consistently much lower than the calculated values. We proposed that iodine chemistry, usually not incorporated into the mechanism, is at least partly responsible for the discrepancy in the results. At night, HO(2) was detected at levels greater than 1 pptv at all three islands, suggesting the presence of processes in the dark that produce radicals. We showed that ozone reactions with unsaturated hydrocarbons, including monoterpenes, could significantly contribute to radical production. Copyright 2002 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Chem Rec 2: 199-211, 2002: Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/tcr.10019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..75...92M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..75...92M"><span>Spatial, seasonal and vertical distributions of <span class="hlt">currently</span>-used pesticides in the marine <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer of the North Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mai, Carolin; Theobald, Norbert; Lammel, Gerhard; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Pesticides are transported beyond source regions and reach coastal waters and shelf seas. 23 representatives of six chemical classes of <span class="hlt">currently</span>-used pesticides (CUPs) were simultaneously quantified in the marine <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer and the surface seawater of the German Bight and the central North Sea in 2009 and 2010.Terbuthylazine, metolachlor, metazachlor, pendimethalin and trifluralin exhibited the highest concentrations, seasonally highly variable. Advection of contaminated air from land and subsequent atmospheric deposition was shown to contribute to surface seawater contamination significantly, in particular in regions beyond riverine input and during the main seasons of application in agriculture. Deposition was most significant for the seasonal and spatial distributions of pendimethalin and trifluralin. Atrazine and simazine levels in the air are lower than 1-2 decades ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OcSci..13..175M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OcSci..13..175M"><span>Characteristics and causes of Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> transport variability at 34.5° S during 2009-2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meinen, Christopher S.; Garzoli, Silvia L.; Perez, Renellys C.; Campos, Edmo; Piola, Alberto R.; Chidichimo, Maria Paz; Dong, Shenfu; Sato, Olga T.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (DWBC) at 34.5° S in the South Atlantic carries a significant fraction of the cold deep limb of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), and therefore its variability affects the meridional heat transport and consequently the regional and global climate. Nearly 6 years of observations from a line of pressure-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIESs) have yielded an unprecedented data set for studying the characteristics of the time-varying DWBC volume transport at 34.5° S. Furthermore, the horizontal resolution of the observing array was greatly improved in December 2012 with the addition of two <span class="hlt">current</span>-and-pressure-equipped inverted echo sounders (CPIESs) at the midpoints of the two westernmost pairs of PIES moorings. Regular hydrographic sections along the PIES/CPIES line confirm the presence of recently ventilated North Atlantic Deep Water carried by the DWBC. The time-mean absolute geostrophic transport integrated within the DWBC layer, defined between 800-4800 dbar and within longitude bounds of 51.5 to 44.5° W, is -15 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1; negative indicates southward flow). The observed peak-to-peak range in volume transport using these integration limits is from -89 to +50 Sv, and the temporal standard deviation is 23 Sv. Testing different vertical integration limits based on time-mean water-mass property levels yields small changes to these values, but no significant alteration to the character of the transport time series. The time-mean southward DWBC flow at this latitude is confined west of 49.5° W, with recirculations dominating the flow further offshore. As with other latitudes where the DWBC has been observed for multiple years, the time variability greatly exceeds the time mean, suggesting the presence of strong coherent vortices and/or Rossby Wave-like signals propagating to the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> from the interior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS54A..04P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS54A..04P"><span>Dramatic Weakening of the Pacific Water <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in the Beaufort Sea during the First Decade of the 2000s.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pickart, R. S.; Brugler, E.; Moore, K.; Roberts, S.; Weingartner, T.; Statscewich, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Pacific-origin water has profound impacts on the physical state andecosystem of the Western Arctic Ocean. The cold winter waterventilates the upper halocline and supplies nutrients that fuelprimary productivity, while the warm summer waters melt sea ice andsupply freshwater to the Beaufort Gyre. Here we use mooring datacollected as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) to examine theinterannual trends in the <span class="hlt">current</span> over the period 2002-2011.Strikingly, the volume transport of the <span class="hlt">current</span> has decreased by morethan 80%, despite the fact that the flow through Bering Strait hasincreased over this time period. The largest changes have occurred inthe summer months. Using atmospheric reanalysis fields and weatherstation data, we demonstrate that an increase in summer easterly windsis the primary cause for the reduction in transport, which is largelydictated by the behavior of the two atmospheric centers of action, theBeaufort High and Aleutian Low. Using additional mooring and shipboarddata, together with satellite fields, we argue that a significantportion of the mass and heat passing through Bering Strait in recentyears has been advected out of Barrow Canyon into the interior CanadaBasin - rather than entering the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> in the Beaufort Sea- where it is responsible for a significant portion of the increasedsea ice melt in the basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NucFu..55g3018H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NucFu..55g3018H"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> status of <span class="hlt">final</span> design and R&D for ITER blanket shield blocks in Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ha, M. S.; Kim, S. W.; Jung, H. C.; Hwang, H. S.; Heo, Y. G.; Kim, D. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, H. G.; Jung, K. J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p> them and to optimize the cooling channels. The SB #8 FSP was manufactured and tested in accordance with the pre-qualification program based on the preliminary design, and related R&D activities were implemented to resolve the fabrication issues. This paper provides the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of the <span class="hlt">final</span> design and relevant R&D activities of the blanket SB.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS54A..01M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS54A..01M"><span>Diagnostic Studies of Mesoscale Variability in the Florida <span class="hlt">Current</span> at the Downstream <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mooers, C. N.; Bang, I.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Most of the throughflow of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS) passes through the Straits of Florida as the Florida <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The Florida <span class="hlt">Current</span> forms an intense jet and frontal system along the shelfbreak of the East Florida Shelf. It exhibits extrinsic variability associated with tides, synoptic weather systems, and seasonal and longer- term variations of atmospheric forcing and oceanic general circulation. The Florida <span class="hlt">Current</span> also exhibits intrinsic variability associated with dynamical instabilities resulting in the formation of the well-known cyclonic Florida <span class="hlt">Current</span> frontal eddies (FCFEs), their less well-known anticyclonic counterparts, and meanders on time scales similar to those of the synoptic atmospheric forcing. Here, the results of a limited-area, two-year numerical simulation using the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) [with mesoscale-admitting resolution; realistic bottom topography for the Straits of Florida; and realistic tidal, atmospheric, and open <span class="hlt">boundary</span> forcing] are used for diagnostic studies of the aforementioned Florida <span class="hlt">Current</span> variability. The simulations are validated against various types of observations and then used to examine processes beyond the scope and grasp of available observations. For example, powerful downwelling events occur along the East Florida Shelf (and upwelling events along the Bahamas) as the consequence of the passage of wintertime cold fronts which available observations can only partially characterize, while the simulations provide a much more comprehensive view of the associated countercurrent flows and related phenomena. Overall, a scientific strategy of diagnostic analyses based on numerical simulations is illustrated that should prove useful in improving the understanding of how other elements of the Gulf Stream System interact with the continental shelf and slope regions of the IAS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040568&hterms=COMPUTER+algorithms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCOMPUTER%2Balgorithms','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040568&hterms=COMPUTER+algorithms&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DCOMPUTER%2Balgorithms"><span>I-BIEM, an iterative <span class="hlt">boundary</span> integral equation method for computer solutions of <span class="hlt">current</span> distribution problems with complex <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>: A new algorithm. I - Theoretical</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cahan, B. D.; Scherson, Daniel; Reid, Margaret A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm for an iterative computation of solutions of Laplace's or Poisson's equations in two dimensions, using Green's second identity, is presented. This algorithm converges strongly and geometrically and can be applied to curved, irregular, or moving <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> with nonlinear and/or discontinuous <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. It has been implemented in Pascal on a number of micro- and minicomputers and applied to several geometries. Cases with known analytic solutions have been tested. Convergence to within 0.1 percent to 0.01 percent of the theoretical values are obtained in a few minutes on a microcomputer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040568&hterms=new+computers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bcomputers','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040568&hterms=new+computers&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dnew%2Bcomputers"><span>I-BIEM, an iterative <span class="hlt">boundary</span> integral equation method for computer solutions of <span class="hlt">current</span> distribution problems with complex <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>: A new algorithm. I - Theoretical</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cahan, B. D.; Scherson, Daniel; Reid, Margaret A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm for an iterative computation of solutions of Laplace's or Poisson's equations in two dimensions, using Green's second identity, is presented. This algorithm converges strongly and geometrically and can be applied to curved, irregular, or moving <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> with nonlinear and/or discontinuous <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. It has been implemented in Pascal on a number of micro- and minicomputers and applied to several geometries. Cases with known analytic solutions have been tested. Convergence to within 0.1 percent to 0.01 percent of the theoretical values are obtained in a few minutes on a microcomputer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194695','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194695"><span>Influence of point defects on grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> diffusion in oxides. <span class="hlt">Final</span> technical report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1993</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stubican, V.S.</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> diffusion coefficients of {sup 57}Co and {sup 59}Co in polycrys. NiO, NiO bicrystal, and polycrys. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were determined at various oxygen pressures at 750 C. For NiO, the low oxygen pressure region (<10{sup {minus}10} MPa) displayed constant grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> diffusion coefficients as the oxygen pressure decreased, indicating an extrinsic region in which the impurity-induced defects dominated the intrinsic defects. At greater oxygen pressures, the intrinsic defects (Ni vacancies) dominated the extrinsic defects, causing the diffusion to increase with pressure. For Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, at low oxygen pressures (<10{sup {minus}16} MPa), the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> diffusion coefficient increased when the pressure decreased, owing to interstitial type diffusion; at >10{sup {minus}15} MPa, the diffusion increased with pressure, owing to vacancy type diffusion. D{sub gb} of Co ions in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is proportional to pO{sub 2}{sup {minus}2/3} in the low pressure region and to pO{sub 2}{sup 2/3} in the high pressure region, indicating similar mechanisms in the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> diffusion and volume diffusion. Ratio of D{sub gb}/D was about 10{sup 3}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.7037M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985JGR....90.7037M"><span>A numerical study of the roles of Subgyre-scale mixing and the Western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> on homogenization of a passive tracer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Musgrave, David L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A numerical model integrated the steady advection-diffusion equation by using a kinematic circulation with characteristics of a subtropical gyre, i.e., closed streamlines and western intensification. Homogenization of the interior concentration increased, and the gradients were forced to the <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> as mixing, parameterized as eddy diffusion, decreased. As the western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> intensified, the value of the homogenized interior became closer to the southern <span class="hlt">boundary</span> value. This indicated that cross-stream mixing was enhanced within the western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>. Tongues of high and low tracer concentration spiraled across streamlines toward the center of the gyre. These simulations will be helpful in the interpretation of lateral distributions of geochemical tracers, which are being generated by programs such as TTO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/484534','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/484534"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span>-layer cumulus over heterogeneous landscapes: A subgrid GCM parameterization. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, December 1991--November 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stull, R.B.; Tripoli, G.</p> <p>1996-01-08</p> <p>The authors developed single-column parameterizations for subgrid <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer cumulus clouds. These give cloud onset time, cloud coverage, and ensemble distributions of cloud-base altitudes, cloud-top altitudes, cloud thickness, and the characteristics of cloudy and clear updrafts. They tested and refined the parameterizations against archived data from Spring and Summer 1994 and 1995 intensive operation periods (IOPs) at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM CART site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The authors also found that: cloud-base altitudes are not uniform over a heterogeneous surface; tops of some cumulus clouds can be below the base-altitudes of other cumulus clouds; there is an overlap region near cloud base where clear and cloudy updrafts exist simultaneously; and the lognormal distribution of cloud sizes scales to the JFD of surface layer air and to the shape of the temperature profile above the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860008195','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860008195"><span>Low Reynold's number <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers in a disturbed environment. Ph.D. Thesis - August, 1985 - <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Paik, D. K.; Reshotko, E.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Studies of flat plate <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer development were made in a low speed wind tunnel at turbulence levels from 2%to 7%. Only transitional and turbulent flows were observed in the range 280 Re sub theta 700. The mean turbulent velocity profiles display law-of-the-wall behavior but have negligible wake component. The u' disturbance profiles compare well with those of other experiments, the peak value of u'/u sub tau being about 2.5. The effect of free-stream turbulence level on turbulent skin friction can be nicely correlated with those of other investigations on a plot of u sub e/u sub tau versus Re sub theta. A discussion on the u' spectra for the transitional <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layers is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.1009H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.1009H"><span>Decadal changes in the South Pacific western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system revealed in observations and ocean state estimates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, K. L.; Rintoul, S. R.; Ridgway, K. R.; Oke, P. R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Observations and ocean state estimates are used to investigate the nature and mechanism of decadal variability in the East Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span> (EAC) system and South Pacific subtropical gyre. A 62 year record on the Tasmanian continental shelf shows decadal variations of temperature and salinity, as well as a long-term trend, which has been related to wind-driven variations in the poleward extension of the EAC. Repeat expendable bathythermograph lines spanning the last 15 years suggest that low-frequency variations in the transport of the EAC extension and Tasman Front are anticorrelated, but the time series are too short to draw firm conclusions. Here we use two ocean state estimates spanning the past 50 years to diagnose the physical mechanisms and spatial structure of the decadal variability of the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The observations and state estimates paint a consistent picture of the decadal variability of the gyre and EAC system. Strengthening of the basin-wide wind stress curl drives a southward expansion of the subtropical gyre. As the gyre shifts south, the EAC extension pathway is favored at the expense of the Tasman Front, resulting in the observed anticorrelation of the these two major <span class="hlt">currents</span>. The results suggest that the subtropical gyre and western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> respond to decadal variability in basin-scale wind stress curl, consistent with Island Rule dynamics; that strong decadal variability of the South Pacific gyre complicates efforts to infer trends from short-term records; and that wind stress curl changes over the South Pacific basin drive changes in the EAC system that are likely to have implications for marine ecosystems and regional climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS43C1291A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS43C1291A"><span>How to diagnose the horizontal flux of mesoscale / Rossby eddy energy in the extension regions of western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aiki, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There have been few studies on the horizontal flux of energy associated with mesoscale eddies and Rossby eddies. (Many studies in the past decade are on either energy conversions or the flux-divergence of eddy energy). This is partly attributed to the fact that, in general, the pressure flux in the traditional eddy energy equation does not look in the direction of the group velocity of Rossby waves. This has been a limitation in the understanding of the maintenance mechanism of the extension of western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> (WBCs). The present study has developed a new eddy energy equation which (is independent of the quasi-geostrophic approximation but) allows us to diagnose the horizontal flux of eddy / wave energy with retaining the direction of the group velocity of a wide-array of Rossby-wave types. The types of Rossby waves include that are associated with both pure and equivalent beta effects, namely variants of Rossby waves concerning the horizontal gradient of (i) planetary vorticity, (ii) relative vorticity associated with mean <span class="hlt">currents</span> (which is as in atmospheric dynamics), and (iii) the background stratification (which is associated with the slope of thermocline and yields an effect similar to topographic Rossby waves). A diagnosis of an idealised experiment shows that, in the regions of the extension of WBCs, the effects (ii) and (iii) prevail over the effect (i) to yield the eastward flux of eddy / wave energy. The result is that the total westward flux of eddy / wave energy by an array of Rossby-wave types may sometimes cancel out the eastward flux of eddy / wave energy owing to advection by mean <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the extension regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9415J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9415J"><span>Transport of Iceland-Scotland Overflow waters in the Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> along the Reykjanes Ridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johns, William; Houk, Adam; Koman, Greg; Zou, Sijia; Lozier, Susan</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Since 2014, an array of <span class="hlt">current</span> meters deployed as part of the OSNAP trans-basin observing system has provided new measurements of the southward flow of Iceland-Scotland Overflow water (ISOW) along the eastern flank of the Reykjanes Ridge in the Iceland Basin. The location of the array, near 58-59°N, captures the ISOW Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> at the farthest downstream location in the Iceland Basin before significant amounts of ISOW can flow into the Irminger Basin through deep fractures in the Reykjanes Ridge. The transport of the ISOW DWBC at this location - based on the first two years of OSNAP observations (July 2014 to July 2016) - is 5.8 ± 0.9 Sv for σθ >27.8. Most of this transport is carried in a main branch of the DWBC along the upper ridge crest in depths from 1400-2200 m, while a secondary branch in depths of 2400-2700 m along the lower ridge crest carries about 1 Sv. The branching of the DWBC at this location is consistent with numerical model results and is caused by an upstream topographic plateau at mid-depths along the ridge crest. The T-S properties of the flow and backward trajectories computed from high-resolution FLAME and VIKING models confirm that the flow in both branches is derived from ISOW and its entrainment products. The transport of the ISOW plume varies over a considerable range, from about 2-10 Sv on weekly to monthly time scales (std. dev. = 2.4 Sv); however the mean <span class="hlt">currents</span> from two individual year-long deployments are very similar and indicate a robust mean flow structure. The observed ISOW transport at this location is larger by almost 2 Sv than previous values obtained (mostly) farther north in the Iceland Basin, suggesting that additional entrainment into the ISOW plume occurs as it approaches the southern tip of the Reykjanes Ridge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740019719','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740019719"><span>Identifications of the polar cap <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and the auroral belt in the high altitude magnetosphere: A model for field aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugiura, M.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Using the OGO-5 fluxgate magnetometer data, the polar cap <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is identified in the high altitude magnetosphere by a sudden transition from a dipolar field to a more tail like configuration. The basic pattern of the magnetic field variations observed during the satellite's traversal of the auroral belt is presented. This pattern shows the existence of a field aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> layer on the equator side of the polar cap <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. <span class="hlt">Currents</span> flow in the opposite directions in the two field aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> layers. The <span class="hlt">current</span> directions in these layers as observed by OGO-5 in the high-altitude magnetosphere are the same as those observed at low altitudes by the polar orbiting TRIAD satellite. The magnetic field in the region where the lower latitude field aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> layer is situated is essentially meridional. Thus the equatorial <span class="hlt">current</span> closure of this <span class="hlt">current</span> system must be via the equatorial <span class="hlt">current</span> sheet. The two field aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> systems, one at the polar cap <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and the other on the low latitude side of the auroral belt, are coupled through the Pedersen <span class="hlt">current</span> in the ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214170M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214170M"><span>Links Between the Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, Labrador Sea Water Formation and Export, and the Meridional Overturning Circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myers, Paul G.; Kulan, Nilgun</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Based on an isopyncal analysis of historical data, 3-year overlapping triad fields of objectively analysed temperature and salinity are produced for the Labrador Sea, covering 1949-1999. These fields are then used to spectrally nudge an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model of the sub-polar gyre, otherwise forced by inter annually varying surface forcing based upon the Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE). High frequency output from the reanalysis is used to examine Labrador Sea Water formation and its export. A number of different apprpoaches are used to estimate Labrador Sea Water formation, including an instanteous kinematic approach to calculate the annual rate of water mass subduction at a given density range. Historical transports are computed along sections at 53 and 56N for several different water masses for comparison with recent observations, showing a decline in the stength of the deep western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> with time. The variability of the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) from the reanalysis is also examined in both depth and density space. Linkages between MOC variability and water mass formation variability is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18040890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18040890"><span>Inverse <span class="hlt">current</span>-source density method in 3D: reconstruction fidelity, <span class="hlt">boundary</span> effects, and influence of distant sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Łeski, Szymon; Wójcik, Daniel K; Tereszczuk, Joanna; Swiejkowski, Daniel A; Kublik, Ewa; Wróbel, Andrzej</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Estimation of the continuous <span class="hlt">current</span>-source density in bulk tissue from a finite set of electrode measurements is a daunting task. Here we present a methodology which allows such a reconstruction by generalizing the one-dimensional inverse CSD method. The idea is to assume a particular plausible form of CSD within a class described by a number of parameters which can be estimated from available data, for example a set of cubic splines in 3D spanned on a fixed grid of the same size as the set of measurements. To avoid specificity of particular choice of reconstruction grid we add random jitter to the points positions and show that it leads to a correct reconstruction. We propose different ways of improving the quality of reconstruction which take into account the sources located outside the recording region through appropriate <span class="hlt">boundary</span> treatment. The efficiency of the traditional CSD and variants of inverse CSD methods is compared using several fidelity measures on different test data to investigate when one of the methods is superior to the others. The methods are illustrated with reconstructions of CSD from potentials evoked by stimulation of a bunch of whiskers recorded in a slab of the rat forebrain on a grid of 4x5x7 positions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3815601G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3815601G"><span>Temperature signature of high latitude Atlantic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> revealed by marine mammal-borne sensor and Argo data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grist, Jeremy P.; Josey, Simon A.; Boehme, Lars; Meredith, Michael P.; Davidson, Fraser J. M.; Stenson, Garry B.; Hammill, Mike O.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Results from the development and analysis of a novel temperature dataset for the high latitude North-West Atlantic are presented. The new 1° gridded dataset (“ATLAS”) has been produced from about 13,000 Argo and 48,000 marine mammal (hooded seal, harp seal, grey seal and beluga) profiles spanning 2004-8. These data sources are highly complementary as marine mammals greatly enhance shelf region coverage where Argo floats are absent. ATLAS reveals distinctive <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> related temperature minima in the Labrador Sea (-1.1°C) and at the east Greenland coast (1.8°C), largely absent in the widely-used Levitus'09 and EN3v2a datasets. The ATLAS 0-500 m average temperature is lower than Levitus'09 and EN3v2a by up to 3°C locally. Differences are strongest from 0-300 m and persist at reduced amplitude from 300-500 m. Our results clearly reveal the value of marine mammal-borne sensors for a reliable description of the North-West Atlantic at a time of rapid change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840017873','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840017873"><span>Scaling and modeling of three-dimensional, end-wall, turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers. Ph.D. Thesis - <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, U. C.; Reshotko, E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The method of matched asymptotic expansion was employed to identify the various subregions in three dimensional, turbomachinery end wall turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers, and to determine the proper scaling of these regions. The two parts of the b.l. investigated are the 3D pressure driven part over the endwall, and the 3D part located at the blade/end wall juncture. Models are proposed for the 3d law of the wall and law of the wake. These models and the data of van den Berg and Elsenaar and of Mueller are compared and show good agreement between models and experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.7673Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.7673Z"><span>Weakest winter South China Sea western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> caused by the 2015-2016 El Niño event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Ruixiang; Zhu, Xiao-Hua</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>During the winter of 2015-2016, the strongest El Niño event of the twenty-first century occurred. At the same time, volume transport (VT) time series of the South China Sea western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> (SCSWBC) exhibited a minimum value of 3.7 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3 s-1) toward the southwest, indicating the weakest strength ever recorded in boreal winter (from November to February). The South China Sea (SCS) cyclonic gyre, inferred from the satellite-derived surface absolute geostrophic <span class="hlt">current</span>, was significantly reduced. It was considered that the weakened wind stress curl (negative anomaly) over the SCS resulting from an anticyclone over the Philippine Sea played an essential role. The anticyclone arose from a Rossby-wave response to a negative sea surface temperature anomaly in the northwest Pacific. This idea is further supported by composite analysis, which shows that during El Niño (La Niña) winter, negative (positive) wind stress curl anomalies prevail in the Philippine Sea and the SCS; thus, the wind stress curl over the SCS is reduced (strengthened), leading to a weaker (stronger) SCS cyclonic gyre and SCSWBC. The mean VT of SCSWBC is 4.7 Sv (5.6 Sv), which is smaller (larger) than 5.2 Sv in normal years. This study provides robust observational evidence from long-term in situ volume transport monitoring that El Niño can have a significant impact on the SCSWBC through an atmosphere-bridged teleconnection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53D..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53D..05D"><span>Prototyping global Earth System Models at high resolution: Representation of climate, ecosystems, and acidification in Eastern <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Currents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.; Stock, C. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The world's major Eastern <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Currents</span> (EBC) such as the California <span class="hlt">Current</span> Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME) are critically important areas for global fisheries. Computational limitations have divided past EBC modeling into two types: high resolution regional approaches that resolve the strong meso-scale structures involved, and coarse global approaches that represent the large scale context for EBCs, but only crudely resolve only the largest scales of their manifestation. These latter global studies have illustrated the complex mechanisms involved in the climate change and acidification response in these regions, with the CCLME response dominated not by local adjustments but large scale reorganization of ocean circulation through remote forcing of water-mass supply pathways. While qualitatively illustrating the limitations of regional high resolution studies in long term projection, these studies lack the ability to robustly quantify change because of the inability of these models to represent the baseline meso-scale structures of EBCs. In the present work, we compare <span class="hlt">current</span> generation coarse resolution (one degree) and a prototype next generation high resolution (1/10 degree) Earth System Models (ESMs) from NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in representing the four major EBCs. We review the long-known temperature biases that the coarse models suffer in being unable to represent the timing and intensity of upwelling-favorable winds, along with lack of representation of the observed high chlorophyll and biological productivity resulting from this upwelling. In promising contrast, we show that the high resolution prototype is capable of representing not only the overall meso-scale structure in physical and biogeochemical fields, but also the appropriate offshore extent of temperature anomalies and other EBC characteristics. Results for chlorophyll were mixed; while high resolution chlorophyll in EBCs were strongly enhanced over the coarse resolution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/125352','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/125352"><span>Application of taxonomy theory, Volume 1: Computing a Hopf bifurcation-related segment of the feasibility <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zaborszky, J.; Venkatasubramanian, V.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>Taxonomy Theory is the first precise comprehensive theory for large power system dynamics modeled in any detail. The motivation for this project is to show that it can be used, practically, for analyzing a disturbance that actually occurred on a large system, which affected a sizable portion of the Midwest with supercritical Hopf type oscillations. This event is well documented and studied. The report first summarizes Taxonomy Theory with an engineering flavor. Then various computational approaches are sighted and analyzed for desirability to use with Taxonomy Theory. Then working equations are developed for computing a segment of the feasibility <span class="hlt">boundary</span> that bounds the region of (operating) parameters throughout which the operating point can be moved without losing stability. Then experimental software incorporating large EPRI software packages PSAPAC is developed. After a summary of the events during the subject disturbance, numerous large scale computations, up to 7600 buses, are reported. These results are reduced into graphical and tabular forms, which then are analyzed and discussed. The report is divided into two volumes. This volume illustrates the use of the Taxonomy Theory for computing the feasibility <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and presents evidence that the event indeed led to a Hopf type oscillation on the system. Furthermore it proves that the Feasibility Theory can indeed be used for practical computation work with very large systems. Volume 2, a separate volume, will show that the disturbance has led to a supercritical (that is stable oscillation) Hopf bifurcation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9922S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9922S"><span>Low-frequency variability of Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Currents</span> in the turbulent ocean: intrinsic modes and atmospheric forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sérazin, Guillaume; Penduff, Thierry; Terray, Laurent; Grégorio, Sandy; Barnier, Bernard; Molines, Jean-Marc</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes are particularly strong in Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (WBC) regions where SST front variations influence basin-scale climate variability. Observed low-frequency fluctuations in latitude and strength of these oceanic jets are classically thought to be essentially atmospherically-driven by wind stress curl variability via the oceanic Rossby wave adjustment. Yet academic eddy-resolving process-oriented models with double-gyre configurations have revealed that an idealized WBC may exhibit low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations without low-frequency external forcing (e.g. Berloff et al., 2007, Dijkstra and Ghil, 2005, etc). Experiments with eddying Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) have also shown that the amount of low-frequency Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) variability is largely intrinsic in WBCs (Penduff et al. 2011; Sérazin et al 2014) and that the frontal-scale (<10°) pattern of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) variability is similar to intrinsic modes (Taguchi et al. 2010). Based on a pair of atmospherically-forced 1/12° OGCM experiments that simulate with accuracy either the intrinsic variability (seasonally-forced) or the observed total variability (forced with the full range of atmospheric timescales), Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis is performed on zonally-averaged SLA fields of four main WBCs (e.g. Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Extension, Agulhas <span class="hlt">Current</span> and East Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span>). The first two modes of the KE and GS exhibit a similar spatial structure that is shaped by oceanic intrinsic processes. The frequency content is however different between the intrinsic and total Principal Components, the former containing a wide range of timescales similar to a red noise and the latter being more autocorrelated at interannual-to-decadal timescales. These modes are compared with those obtained from the 20 years of altimetry observation and relationships with low-frequency westward propagative features in the respective oceanic basin are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED406805.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED406805.pdf"><span>Eliminating <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span> through Family Centered Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Preschool and Primary Children with Disabilities. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Holland, Francine; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">final</span> report describes activities and achievements of a Texas project to facilitate inclusive programming for preschool and primary children with disabilities using the High/Scope approach, which provides for developmentally appropriate programming for young children with and without disabilities. The project focused on capacity building…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6942896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6942896"><span>Boric acid corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> components in PWRs: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Neill, A.S.; Hall, J.F.</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>This report presents the results of a literature survey of the effects of borated water leakage on carbon and low-alloy steel components (other than fasteners) in PWR applications. Boric acid corrosion field experience and laboratory test results are addressed. The report reviews and summarizes corrosion events that have occurred in PWRs and provides, for each event, plant identification, year of occurrence, component or part affected, materials, leak rates (where available), extent of corrosion and repair procedures. Laboratory test data are also discussed, including some recent unpublished data. The report recommends corrective actions that the utilities should take to prevent boric acid corrosion of pressure <span class="hlt">boundary</span> components. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345053','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/345053"><span>Low frequency RF <span class="hlt">current</span> drive. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, January 1, 1988--May 31, 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hershkowitz, N.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>This report starts with a summary of research done on the Phaedrus Tandom Mirror concept and how this research led to the design and construction of the Phaedrus-T Tokamak. Next it gives a more detailed description of the results from the last four years of research, which include the following areas: (1) first experimental demonstration of AWCD (Alfven Wave <span class="hlt">Current</span> Drive); (2) <span class="hlt">current</span> drive location and loop voltage response; (3) trapping and <span class="hlt">current</span> drive efficiency; and (4) reflectometry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15119881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15119881"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> impressions: a review of material properties and description of a <span class="hlt">current</span> technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perakis, Nikolaos; Belser, Urs C; Magne, Pascal</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>Esthetic rehabilitations are characterized by a sequence of well-structured clinical and laboratory steps, during which different kinds of impressions are required. This review presents a survey of the most clinically relevant physical properties that characterize <span class="hlt">final</span> impression materials and their interactions with the products they are commonly in contact with. The principal steps of an esthetic rehabilitation involving a diagnostic phase, together with a rational step-by-step approach to <span class="hlt">final</span> impressions, are described. The one-step/double-mix impression using polyvinyl siloxane materials associated with a "double cord" gingival displacement is explained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6757518','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6757518"><span>Long-term salinity, temperature and <span class="hlt">current</span> measurements in upper Chesapeake Bay. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hamilton, P.; Boicourt, W.C.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to gather data on temperature, salinity and <span class="hlt">current</span> velocity in the upper Chesapeake Bay for a period of a year. These data represent the longest continuous record of <span class="hlt">current</span> measurement to date. This study was performed by Science Applications, Inc. The Maryland Power Plant Siting Program provided funds for the project under contract PB81-81-04.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED391670.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED391670.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> Interdisciplinary Science Research in the High School Classroom. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Evaluation Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shann, Mary H.</p> <p></p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">final</span> evaluation report of the On Growth and Form (OGAF): Learning Concepts of Probability and Fractals by Doing Science project that aimed at engaging high school students in hands-on science activities, experiments, and computer simulations that use probability and fractal geometry to model ragged structures in the real world.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5282123','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5282123"><span>Benefit-cost analysis of DOE's <span class="hlt">Current</span> Federal Program to increase hydrothermal resource utilization. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1981-12-10</p> <p>The impact of DOE's <span class="hlt">Current</span> Federal Program on the commercialization of hydrothermal resources between 1980 and 2000 is analyzed. The hydrothermal resources of the United States and the types of DOE activities used to stimulate the development of these resources for both electric power and direct heat use are described briefly. The No Federal Program and the <span class="hlt">Current</span> Federal Program are then described in terms of funding levels and the resultant market penetration estimates through 2000. These market penetration estimates are also compared to other geothermal utilization forecasts. The direct benefits of the <span class="hlt">Current</span> Federal Program are next presented for electric power and direct heat use applications. An analysis of the external impacts associated with the additional hydrothermal resource development resulting from the <span class="hlt">Current</span> Federal Program is also provided. Included are environmental effects, national security/balance-of-payments improvements, socioeconomic impacts and materials requirements. A summary of the analysis integrating the direct benefits, external impacts and DOE program costs concludes the report.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/531124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/531124"><span>Fundamental studies of the inter-relationship between grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> properties and the macroscopic properties of polycrystalline materials. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, October 1991--December 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clarke, D.R.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>The research performed under this grant has been principally devoted to understanding and quantifying the relationship between the macroscopic electrical transport properties of ZnO based materials and the properties of their grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Two forms of polycrystalline ZnO have been extensively investigated, polycrystalline thin films, such as are used as optically transmitting, conducting electrodes and as piezoelectric films, and polycrystalline bulk forms, such as are widely used as surge arrestors. The former are essentially two-dimensional and the latter three-dimensional. The research has included both simulation and experimental studies. The simulation studies have been primarily addressing how the macroscopic properties of bulk ZnO ceramics are determined by the electrical and crystallographic properties of their grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. The behavior of varistors has been the focus since the highly nonlinear electrical characteristics provide an opportunity to test the models in much greater detail than is possible if the characteristics were simply ohmic. Furthermore, there is a continuing desire to improve varistor characteristics, such as the sharpness of the switching voltage and the degree of nonlinearity, so the effect of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> variations on these parameters have been specifically addressed and found to quantitatively depend on the variation in both grain size and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> barrier height. New methods of quantifying the effect of microstructural variations on the I-V characteristics have been introduced. The simulations have included both electrical network methods and effective medium methods. During the course of the research, the studies were extended to describe electrical breakdown, specifically on how microstructural variations lead to <span class="hlt">current</span> localization which in turn leads to a form of electrical discharge failure, a common form of failure of varistors under electrical loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...110k3905I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...110k3905I"><span>Increased grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density Jcgb by Pr-doping in pulsed laser-deposited Y1-xPrxBCO thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irjala, M.; Huhtinen, H.; Awana, V. P. S.; Falter, M.; Paturi, P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A comparative study has been performed on Pr-doped Y1-x PrxBCO (x =0-0.20) thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition on MgO and buffered NiW substrates to study the effect of Pr-doping on the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density (Jcgb). Our earlier work on bulk materials and SrTiO3 substrates indicated that, whereas Pr increases Jc in bulk samples, it does not increase Jc in film samples without grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. In this work, we present increased Jc in low concentrations of Pr3+-doping (x < 0.04) at temperatures above 60 K in film samples on MgO substrates and at all temperatures and fields in film samples on buffered NiW substrates. Results indicate that Pr segregates into grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> regions, improving the local hole concentration and carrier density, hence, increasing Jcgb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T51A2455C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T51A2455C"><span>Constraints on <span class="hlt">current</span> crustal deformation of the Taiwan plate <span class="hlt">boundary</span> from CGPS strain rate field and focal mechanism stress inversions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, K.; Wu, Y.; Hsu, Y.; Chan, Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>There are many studies using the continuous GPS (CGPS) observations and forward modeling to represent the <span class="hlt">current</span> crustal deformation around the global plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. However, the relation between surface geodetic data and crustal deformation is still a major debate since there are only few available data at depth for constraints. In this study, 3D spatial variations of interseismic surface strain rate and crustal stress state in Taiwan are evaluated by using both CGPS data and earthquake focal mechanisms from 1994 to 2010 and 1991 to 2010, respectively. We estimated strain rate with a simple approach that solves for surface velocity on a 0.1 x 0.1° grid while weighting the distance between observations and each grid node. The surface velocities used in this study are after the process of removing the coseismic and postseismic effects caused by local main shocks. We applied the genetic algorithm in a nonlinear global search for the focal mechanism solution determination with magnitude ranging from ML 1.6 to 7.3 by first motion polarities of P waves. Earthquakes were excluded the redundant aftershock sequences which perturbed the estimation of interseismic stress state. There are 7083 events determined around Taiwan for performing a stress tensor inversion. In the comparison of orientations between strain rate and stress axes, we found the regional variation of stress orientations from surface to the base of crust is significant and not homogenous in Taiwan. In general, the orientations of strain rate and stress axes are consistent from surface to 20 km depth in most of Taiwan regimes. We suggest that the common decoupling phenomenon between both axes starts from 20 km implying a rheological change. The consistency of orientations from strain rate and stress field extends from surface down to more than 30 km in Central Taiwan and southern Coastal Range (COR) could be associated with stress accumulation in the crust for the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi and 2003 Mw 6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Effect+AND+Performance+AND+management+AND+practices+AND+organizational+AND+effectiveness&pg=2&id=ED179883','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Effect+AND+Performance+AND+management+AND+practices+AND+organizational+AND+effectiveness&pg=2&id=ED179883"><span>Forecasting Performance in Organizations: An Application of <span class="hlt">Current</span>-Value Human Resources Accounting. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pecorella, Patricia A.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A methodology to describe <span class="hlt">current</span>-value human resources accounting (HRA) was developed to aid management in decision making and provide information about the effects of organizational policies and practices on the value of the organizations' human resources. A two-phase activity was designed to investigate the nature of the relationship between…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=United+AND+States+AND+Marine+AND+Corps&id=ED137390','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=United+AND+States+AND+Marine+AND+Corps&id=ED137390"><span>Training Effectiveness Assessment: Volume I, <span class="hlt">Current</span> Military Training Evaluation Programs. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hall, Eugene R.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A study was conducted to clarify issues and problems involved in the assessment of the effectiveness of military training and to evaluate and recommend objective procedures for determining the effectiveness of Navy training. The study results are reported in two volumes. This volume reviews <span class="hlt">current</span> military training evaluation programs. Evaluation…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Metro..47.1001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Metro..47.1001D"><span>SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report EURAMET.EM-S30 on EURAMET Project 1081: Supplementary comparison of measurements of <span class="hlt">current</span> transformers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dimitrov, Emil; Kumanova, Ginka; Styblíková, Renata; Draxler, Karel; Dierikx, Erik</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The supplementary comparison was carried out between CMI, Czech Republic and BIM, NCM Bulgaria in the field of <span class="hlt">current</span> transformer ratio measurements. The <span class="hlt">current</span> errors and phase displacement of the traveling standards, <span class="hlt">current</span> transformers: Tettex 4720, CLA 2.2, CLA 2.2, CLA 3.2, CLB 10, I 523 were determined at 50 Hz, 5 VA burden at unity power factor at ratios: primary (4000, 2000, 1000, 500, 100, 5, 1 and 0.5) A/secondary 5 A. Both participants used their own standard measurement method. The obtained results show good agreement for all of the <span class="hlt">current</span> ratio error measurements (except for the measurements at 2 kA) and for the <span class="hlt">current</span> phase displacement measurements (the agreement on several measurement points is marginal). The aim of the comparison was to demonstrate the improvement and extension of the calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of BIM in this working field and to support the improved CMCs in Appendix C of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The <span class="hlt">final</span> report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130555','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130555"><span>Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean <span class="hlt">Current</span> Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska <span class="hlt">final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wright, Bruce Albert</p> <p>2014-05-07</p> <p>The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean <span class="hlt">Current</span> Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean <span class="hlt">current</span> data to develop a basic model of <span class="hlt">current</span> circulation at False Pass, measured <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the <span class="hlt">current</span> resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on <span class="hlt">current</span> costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7080141','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7080141"><span>Commuter rail state-of-the-art: A study of <span class="hlt">current</span> systems. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shen, L.D.; Wu, J.W.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>The report documents the results of the state-of-the-art study on <span class="hlt">current</span> commuter rail systems in the United States. Detailed information on operations, fare collection, stations, maintenance facilities, patronage, railcars, and feeder systems are presented. This commuter rail report is intended to provide a database of actual operation statistics for the 12 commuter rail systems in the United States. Statistics were collected on existing commuter rail services through Federal Transit Administration (FTA) reports, American Public Transit Association (APTA) and railroad industry publications. In addition, a survey was also conducted to collect the pertinent information on existing systems. A comparative analysis of commuter rail service with respect to other mass transit systems was conducted. New and proposed systems are also discussed. <span class="hlt">Current</span> trends in commuter rail operations are presented. Startup costs for new systems were analyzed. This report found that many cities are considering commuter rail as a potential part of the solution to local transportation problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6547361','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6547361"><span>Evaluation of stainless steel cladding for use in <span class="hlt">current</span> design LWRs. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Strasser, A.; Santucci, J.; Lindquist, K.; Yario, W.; Stern, G.; Goldstein, L.; Joseph, L.</p> <p>1982-12-01</p> <p>The design of stainless steel-clad LWR fuel and its performance at steady-state, transient, and accident conditions were reviewed. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits and disadvantages of substituting stainless steel-clad fuel for the <span class="hlt">currently</span> used Zircaloy-clad fuel. For a large, modern PWR, the technology and the fuel-cycle costs of stainless steel- and Zircaloy-clad fuels were compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1084052','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1084052"><span>R & D on Very-High-<span class="hlt">Current</span> Superconducting Proton Linac, <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ben-Zvi, Ilan</p> <p>2013-03-31</p> <p>The aim of this R&D project was to develop a superconducting cavity for a very-­ high-<span class="hlt">current</span> proton accelerator. The particular application motivating the proposal was a LHC upgrade called the Superconducting Proton Linac, or SPL. Under the grant awarded to Stony Brook University the cavity was designed, a prototype copper cavity, followed by the niobium cavity, were built. A new set of HOM dampers was developed. The cavity has outstanding RF performance parameters – low surface fields, low power loss and all HOMs are fully damped. In fact, it is a “universal cavity” in the sense that it is suited for the acceleration of high-­<span class="hlt">current</span> protons and well as high <span class="hlt">current</span> electrons. Its damping of HOM modes is so good that it can see service in a multi-pass linac or an Energy Recovery Linac in addition to the easier service in a single-pass linac. Extensive measurements were made on the cavities and couplers, with the exception of the cold test of the niobium cavity. At the time of this report the cavity has been chemically processed and is ready for vertical testing which will be carried out shortly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/584963','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/584963"><span>[Magnetic helicity and <span class="hlt">current</span> drive in fusion devices]. <span class="hlt">Final</span> technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-02-02</p> <p>The research program focused on two main themes: (i) magnetic helicity and (ii) <span class="hlt">current</span> drive by low-frequency waves. At first these themes seemed unrelated, but as time progressed, they became interwoven, and ultimately closely connected. A sub-theme is that while the MHD model of a plasma stimulates many intriguing counter-intuitive ideas for creating and sustaining magnetic confinement configurations, usually the crux of these schemes involves some sort of breakdown of MHD, i.e., involves physics which transcends MHD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvB..67e2503F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhRvB..67e2503F"><span>Influence of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> network on the critical <span class="hlt">current</span> of YBa2Cu3O7 films grown on biaxially textured metallic substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernández, L.; Holzapfel, B.; Schindler, F.; de Boer, B.; Attenberger, A.; Hänisch, J.; Schultz, L.</p> <p>2003-02-01</p> <p>YBa2Cu3O7/YSZ/CeO2 heterostructures have been grown epitaxially on biaxially textured Ni substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The texture of the film was determined by electron backscattering diffraction, providing information on the propagation of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> network from the Ni substrate to the YBa2Cu3O7 film via the epitaxial growth. The grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> network limits the critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density to 0.3 MA/cm2 (77 K, 0 T), compared with 1.3 MA/cm2 (77 K, 0 T) for a film grown on a single crystalline Ni substrate. Transport measurements on the coated conductor sample at different temperatures and magnetic fields show that there is a crossover field between intergrain and intragrain critical <span class="hlt">current</span> that is shifted to higher magnetic fields as the temperature is reduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27906532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27906532"><span>Medical Gas Containers and Closures; <span class="hlt">Current</span> Good Manufacturing Practice Requirements. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-11-18</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is amending its <span class="hlt">current</span> good manufacturing practice (CGMP) and labeling regulations regarding medical gases. FDA is requiring that portable cryogenic medical gas containers not manufactured with permanent gas use outlet connections have gas-specific use outlet connections that cannot be readily removed or replaced except by the manufacturer. FDA is also requiring that portable cryogenic medical gas containers and high-pressure medical gas cylinders meet certain labeling, naming, and color requirements. These requirements are intended to increase the likelihood that the contents of medical gas containers are accurately identified and reduce the likelihood of the wrong gas being connected to a gas supply system or container. FDA is also revising an existing regulation that conditionally exempts certain medical gases from certain otherwise-applicable labeling requirements in order to add oxygen and nitrogen to the list of gases subject to the exemption, and to remove cyclopropane and ethylene from the list.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922983','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922983"><span>Obtaining evidence beyond the <span class="hlt">current</span> "special arrangement sources." Interim <span class="hlt">final</span> rule with request for comments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-06-12</p> <p>We are amending our regulations to state that we will obtain evidence from any appropriate source. Our <span class="hlt">current</span> regulations provide that we will obtain information from "special arrangement sources'' for those infrequent situations when we are in a better position than our State agency partners to obtain evidence. Due to improved evidence collection through our increased use of health information technology (health IT), we are obtaining evidence electronically with increasing frequency. We expect that, over time, the electronic exchange of medical records will become our primary means for obtaining medical evidence. As we increase our use of health IT, the designation of "special arrangement sources'' will no longer adequately describe from whom we collect evidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107298','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107298"><span>Utilization of low-quality natural gas: A <span class="hlt">current</span> assessment. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Acheson, W.P.; Hackworth, J.H.; Kasper, S.; McIlvried, H.G.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this report is to evaluate the low quality natural gas (LQNG) resource base, <span class="hlt">current</span> utilization of LQNG, and environmental issues relative to its use, to review processes for upgrading LQNG to pipeline quality, and to make recommendations of research needs to improve the potential for LQNG utilization. LQNG is gas from any reservoir which contains amounts of nonhydrocarbon gases sufficient to lower the heating value or other properties of the gas below commercial, pipeline standards. For the purposes of this study, LQNG is defined as natural gas that contains more than 2% carbon dioxide, more than 4% nitrogen, or more than 4% combined CO{sub 2} plus N{sub 2}. The other contaminant of concern is hydrogen sulfide. A minor contaminant in some natural gases is helium, but this inert gas usually presents no problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/43775','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/43775"><span>Analysis of environmental constraints on expanding reserves in <span class="hlt">current</span> and future reservoirs in wetlands. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harder, B.J.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>Louisiana wetlands require careful management to allow exploitation of non-renewable resources without destroying renewable resources. <span class="hlt">Current</span> regulatory requirements have been moderately successful in meeting this goal by restricting development in wetland habitats. Continuing public emphasis on reducing environmental impacts of resource development is causing regulators to reassess their regulations and operators to rethink their compliance strategies. We examined the regulatory system and found that reducing the number of applications required by going to a single application process and having a coherent map of the steps required for operations in wetland areas would reduce regulatory burdens. Incremental changes can be made to regulations to allow one agency to be the lead for wetland permitting at minimal cost to operators. Operators need cost effective means of access that will reduce environmental impacts, decrease permitting time, and limit future liability. Regulators and industry must partner to develop incentive based regulations that can provide significant environmental impact reduction for minimal economic cost. In addition regulators need forecasts of future E&P trends to estimate the impact of future regulations. To determine future activity we attempted to survey potential operators when this approach was unsuccessful we created two econometric models of north and south Louisiana relating drilling activity, success ratio, and price to predict future wetland activity. Results of the econometric models indicate that environmental regulations have a small but statistically significant effect on drilling operations in wetland areas of Louisiana. We examined <span class="hlt">current</span> wetland practices and evaluated those practices comparing environmental versus economic costs and created a method for ranking the practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhL..88g2902K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApPhL..88g2902K"><span>Direct <span class="hlt">current</span> bias effects on grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> Schottky barriers in CaCu3Ti4O12</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Il-Doo; Rothschild, Avner; Tuller, Harry L.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>CaCu3Ti4O12 exhibits an unusually high dielectric constant on the order of 105 and highly nonlinear I-V characteristics. Impedance spectroscopy measurements carried out in this work point to the crucial role played by grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> barriers in controlling the electrical properties of this material. Under dc bias, the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> resistance decreases, followed by a precipitous breakdown at higher applied voltages. The barrier height is estimated to be ˜0.82eV. The grain conductivity shows a transition from a negative temperature coefficient of resistance with activation energy of ˜0.08eV to a positive temperature coefficient of resistance at 280 °C suggesting a transition from impurity ionization to scattering controlled mobility in the carrier saturation region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA488977','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA488977"><span>The Gulf Stream Pathway and the Impacts of the Eddy-Driven Abyssal Circulation and the Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-07-06</p> <p>Western North Atlantic Ocean Gulf Stream region ABSTRACT A hydrodynamic model of the subtropical Atlantic basin and the Intra-Americas Sea (9-47 N) is...Atlantic basin and the I ntra-Americas Sea (9 -47°N) is used to investigate the dynamics of Gulf Stream separation from the western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> at Cape...between Cape Hatteras and the Grand Banks based on comparisons with Gulf Stream pathways from the satellite infrared (IR) sea surface temperature (SST</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM51D2522O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMSM51D2522O"><span>Field-aligned <span class="hlt">Currents</span> Induced by Electrostatic Polarization at the Ionosphere: Application to the Poleward <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Intensification (PBI) of Auroral Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ohtani, S.; Yoshikawa, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Although the field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> (Birkeland <span class="hlt">currents</span>) are generally considered to be driven by magnetospheric processes, it is possible that some field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> are locally induced in the ionosphere in the presence of sharp conductance gradient. In this presentation we shall discuss the poleward <span class="hlt">boundary</span> intensification (PBI) of auroral emission as an example effect of such electrostatic polarization. The observations show that the PBIs are very often preceded by the fast polar cap convection approaching the nightside auroral oval. We propose that the ionospheric <span class="hlt">currents</span> driven by the associated electric field diverges/converges at the poleward <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the auroral oval as the background ionospheric conductance changes sharply in space, and they close with field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span>. The associated upward field-aligned <span class="hlt">current</span> is accompanied by electron precipitation, which may cause auroral emission as observed as PBIs. We test this idea by modeling the ionosphere as a slab-shaped enhancement of conductance and the polar cap flow channel as a pair of upward and downward FACs. The results show that (i) a pair of upward and downward FACs is induced at the poleward <span class="hlt">boundary</span> when the front of the polar cap flow channel approaches the auroral oval; (ii) the upward FAC extends westward much wider in longitude than the flow channel; (iii) the peak FAC density is significantly larger than the incident FAC; and (iv) the induced upward and downward FACs are distributed almost symmetrically in longitude, indicating that the Pedersen polarization dominates the Hall polarization. These results are consistent with some general characteristics of PBIs, which are rather difficult to explain if the PBIs are the ionospheric manefestation of distant reconnection as often suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/181525','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/181525"><span>RF <span class="hlt">current</span> drive antenna. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, August 15, 1993--August 14, 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Probert, P.H.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>This work represents an attempt to solve a fundamental problem with all coupling devices in tokamaks intended to launch waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), that of excessive voltage levels on the launcher and its feed lines. These voltages can lead to impurity problems in the plasma, and they determine the maximum power that can be coupled to the plasma, since it is when arcs caused by this voltage frequently occur that the power must be reduced. The approach taken is to consider an antenna which is composed of many smaller units, each operating at much lower voltages, stacked on end to provide the equivalent functionality of a conventional launcher. The work described herein involved designing, building, and operating such a launcher in the Phaedrus-T tokamak. The results showed that the antenna worked as expected, reducing the voltage dramatically, while still functioning property, and producing fewer impurity problems and no arcing. A design extrapolating the principles of this idea to reactor-sized tokamaks such as ITER was developed. In addition, a novel decoupling scheme was developed in order to adapt this antenna idea to low frequency <span class="hlt">current</span> drive schemes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18850678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18850678"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> good manufacturing practice and investigational new drugs intended for use in clinical trials. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-07-15</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the <span class="hlt">current</span> good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for human drugs, including biological products, to exempt most phase 1 investigational drugs from complying with the regulatory CGMP requirements. FDA will continue to exercise oversight of the manufacture of these drugs under FDA's general statutory CGMP authority and through review of the investigational new drug applications (IND). In addition, elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a guidance document entitled "Guidance for Industry: CGMP for Phase 1 Investigational Drugs" dated November 2007 (the companion guidance). This guidance document sets forth recommendations on approaches to compliance with statutory CGMP for the exempted phase 1 investigational drugs. FDA is taking this action to focus a manufacturer's effort on applying CGMP that is appropriate and meaningful for the manufacture of the earliest stage investigational drug products intended for use in phase 1 clinical trials while ensuring safety and quality. This action will also streamline and promote the drug development process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6737315','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6737315"><span>Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> power systems. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Long, W F</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>High voltage direct <span class="hlt">current</span> (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/350649','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/350649"><span>Thermal plasma waste remediation technology: Historical perspective and <span class="hlt">current</span> trends. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Counts, D.A.; Sartwell, B.D.; Peterson, S.H.; Kirkland, R.; Kolak, N.P.</p> <p>1999-01-29</p> <p>The idea of utilizing thermal plasma technology for waste processing goes back to the mid-1970`s during the energy crisis. Since then, more interest has been shown by universities, industry, and government in developing thermal plasma waste processing technology for hazardous and non-hazardous waste treatment. Much of the development has occurred outside of the United States, most significantly in Japan and France, while the market growth for thermal plasma waste treatment technology has remained slow in the United States. Despite the slow expansion of the market in the United States, since the early 1990`s there has been an increase in interest in utilizing thermal plasma technology for environmental remediation and treatment in lieu of the more historical methods of incineration and landfilling. <span class="hlt">Currently</span> within the Department of Defense there are several demonstration projects underway, and details of some of these projects are provided. Prior to these efforts by the U.S. Government, the State of New York had investigated the use of thermal plasma technology for treating PCB contaminated solvent wastes from the Love Canal cleanup. As interest continues to expand in the application of thermal plasma technology for waste treatment and remediation, more and more personnel are becoming involved with treatment, regulation, monitoring, and commercial operations and many have little understanding of this emerging technology. To address these needs, this report will describe: (1) characteristics of plasmas; (2) methods for generating sustained thermal plasmas; (3) types of thermal plasma sources for waste processing; (4) the development of thermal plasma waste treatment systems; and (5) Department of Defense plasma arc waste treatment demonstration projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1156544','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1156544"><span>Characterization of <span class="hlt">Final</span> State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged <span class="hlt">Current</span> Charged Pion Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eberly, Brandon M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through <span class="hlt">final</span> state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the <span class="hlt">final</span> state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing <span class="hlt">final</span> state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dT<sub>π</sub> and dσ/dθ<sub>π</sub> for muon-neutrino charged <span class="hlt">current</span> charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of <span class="hlt">final</span> state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain <span class="hlt">final</span> state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AdWR...33.1062B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AdWR...33.1062B"><span>Influence of shallowness, bank inclination and bank roughness on the variability of flow patterns and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> shear stress due to secondary <span class="hlt">currents</span> in straight open-channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blanckaert, K.; Duarte, A.; Schleiss, A. J.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> shear stress and flow variability due to its interaction with main flow and secondary <span class="hlt">currents</span> were investigated under conditions that extend previous research on trapezoidal channels. Secondary <span class="hlt">currents</span> that scale with the flow depth were found over the entire width in all experiments. These findings contradict the widespread perception that secondary <span class="hlt">currents</span> die out at a distance of 2.5 times the flow depth from the bank, a perception which is largely based on experiments with smooth <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. The reported results indicate that a stable pattern of secondary <span class="hlt">currents</span> over the entire channel width can only be sustained over a fixed horizontal bed if the bed's roughness is sufficient to provide the required transverse oscillations in the turbulent shear stresses. Contrary to laboratory flumes, alluvial river bed always provide sufficient roughness. The required external forcing of this hydrodynamic instability mechanism is provided by the turbulence-generated near-bank secondary <span class="hlt">currents</span>. The pattern of near-bank secondary <span class="hlt">currents</span> depends on the inclination and the roughness of the bank. In all configurations, secondary <span class="hlt">currents</span> result in a reduction of the bed shear stress in the vicinity of the bank and a heterogeneous bank shear stress that reaches a maximum close to the toe of the bank. Moreover, these <span class="hlt">currents</span> cause transverse variability of 10-15% for the streamwise velocities and 0.2 u*2-0.3 u* 2 for the bed shear stress. These variations are insufficient to provide the flow variability required in river restoration projects, but nevertheless must be accounted for in the design of stable channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMSA....9..156L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JMSA....9..156L"><span>Using a time-domain higher-order <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method to simulate wave and <span class="hlt">current</span> diffraction from a 3-D body</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhen; Teng, Bin; Ning, De-Zhi; Sun, Liang</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>To study wave-<span class="hlt">current</span> actions on 3-D bodies a time-domain numerical model was established using a higher-order <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method (HOBEM). By assuming small flow velocities, the velocity potential could be expressed for linear and higher order components by perturbation expansion. A 4th-order Runge-Kutta method was applied for time marching. An artificial damping layer was adopted at the outer zone of the free surface mesh to dissipate scattering waves. Validation of the numerical method was carried out on run-up, wave exciting forces, and mean drift forces for wave-<span class="hlt">currents</span> acting on a bottom-mounted vertical cylinder. The results were in close agreement with the results of a frequency-domain method and a published time-domain method. The model was then applied to compute wave-<span class="hlt">current</span> forces and run-up on a Seastar mini tension-leg platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PPCF...55l4028F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PPCF...55l4028F"><span>Novel free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> equilibrium and transport solver with theory-based models and its validation against ASDEX Upgrade <span class="hlt">current</span> ramp scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fable, E.; Angioni, C.; Casson, F. J.; Told, D.; Ivanov, A. A.; Jenko, F.; McDermott, R. M.; Medvedev, S. Yu; Pereverzev, G. V.; Ryter, F.; Treutterer, W.; Viezzer, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Tokamak scenario development requires an understanding of the properties that determine the kinetic profiles in non-steady plasma phases and of the self-consistent evolution of the magnetic equilibrium. <span class="hlt">Current</span> ramps are of particular interest since many transport-relevant parameters explore a large range of values and their impact on transport mechanisms has to be assessed. To this purpose, a novel full-discharge modelling tool has been developed, which couples the transport code ASTRA (Pereverzev et al 1991 IPP Report 5/42) and the free <span class="hlt">boundary</span> equilibrium code SPIDER (Ivanov et al 2005 32nd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics vol 29C (ECA) P-5.063 and http://epsppd.epfl.ch/Tarragona/pdf/P5_063.pdf), utilizing a specifically designed coupling scheme. The <span class="hlt">current</span> ramp-up phase can be accurately and reliably simulated using this scheme, where a plasma shape, position and <span class="hlt">current</span> controller is applied, which mimics the one of ASDEX Upgrade. Transport of energy is provided by theory-based models (e.g. TGLF (Staebler et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 055909)). A recipe based on edge-relevant parameters (Scott 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 1845) is proposed to resolve the low <span class="hlt">current</span> phase of the <span class="hlt">current</span> ramps, where the impact of the safety factor on micro-instabilities could make quasi-linear approaches questionable in the plasma outer region. <span class="hlt">Current</span> ramp scenarios, selected from ASDEX Upgrade discharges, are then simulated to validate both the coupling with the free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> evolution and the prediction of profiles. Analysis of the underlying transport mechanisms is presented, to clarify the possible physics origin of the observed L-mode empirical energy confinement scaling. The role of toroidal micro-instabilities (ITG, TEM) and of non-linear effects is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800004749','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800004749"><span>Investigation of blown <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers with an improved wall jet system. Ph.D. Thesis. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report, 1 Jul. 1978 - Dec. 1979; [to prevent turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saripalli, K. R.; Simpson, R. L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The behavior of two dimensional incompressible turbulent wall jets submerged in a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer when they are used to prevent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer separation on plane surfaces is investigated. The experimental set-up and instrumentation are described. Experimental results of zero pressure gradient flow and adverse pressure gradient flow are presented. Conclusions are given and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OcMod.114....1R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OcMod.114....1R"><span>A comparison of the structure, properties, and water mass composition of quasi-isotropic eddies in western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> in an eddy-resolving ocean model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rykova, Tatiana; Oke, Peter R.; Griffin, David A.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Using output from a near-global eddy-resolving ocean model, we analyse the properties and characteristics of quasi-isotropic eddies in five Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (WBC) regions, including the extensions of the Agulhas, East Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span> (EAC), Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC), Kuroshio and Gulf Stream regions. We assess the model eddies by comparing to satellite and in situ observations, and show that most aspects of the model's representation of eddies are realistic. We find that the mean eddies differ dramatically between these WBC regions - all with some unique and noteworthy characteristics. We find that the vertical displacement of isopycnals of Agulhas eddies is the greatest, averaging 350-450 m at depths of over 800-900 m. EAC (BMC) eddies are the least (most) barotropic, with only 50% (85-90%) of the velocity associated with the barotropic mode. Kuroshio eddies are the most stratified, resulting in small isopycnal displacement, even for strong eddies; and Gulf Stream eddies carry the most heat. Despite their differences, we explicitly show that the source waters for anticyclonic eddies are a mix of the WBC water (from the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> itself) and water that originates equatorward of the WBC eddy-field; and cyclonic eddies are a mix of WBC water and water that originates poleward of the WBC eddy-field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.7598O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoRL..44.7598O"><span>THEMIS multispacecraft observations of a reconnecting magnetosheath <span class="hlt">current</span> sheet with symmetric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions and a large guide field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Øieroset, M.; Phan, T. D.; Shay, M. A.; Haggerty, C. C.; Fujimoto, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Mozer, F. S.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We report three spacecraft observations of a reconnecting magnetosheath <span class="hlt">current</span> sheet with a guide field of unity, with THEMIS D (THD) and THEMIS E (THE)/THEMIS A (THA) observing oppositely directed reconnection exhausts, indicating the presence of an X line between the spacecraft. The near-constant convective speed of the magnetosheath <span class="hlt">current</span> sheet allowed the direct translation of the observed time series into spatial profiles. THD observed asymmetries in the plasma density and temperature profiles across the exhaust, characteristics of symmetric reconnection with a guide field. The exhausts at THE and THA, on the other hand, were not the expected mirror image of the THD exhaust in terms of the plasma and field profiles. They consisted of a main outflow at the center of the <span class="hlt">current</span> sheet, flanked by oppositely directed flows at the two edges of the <span class="hlt">current</span> sheet, suggesting the presence of a second X line, whose outflow wraps around the outflow from the first X line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1060184','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1060184"><span>A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> WATER POLICY <span class="hlt">BOUNDARY</span> AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-12-13</p> <p>In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy <span class="hlt">boundary</span> was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the <span class="hlt">current</span> Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO14D2827N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO14D2827N"><span>Eddies on the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> between the Kuroshio <span class="hlt">current</span> and coastal waters observed by HF ocean surface radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nadai, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The HF ocean surface radar (HFOSR) is one of the powerful tools to measure the ocean <span class="hlt">current</span> parameters like surface <span class="hlt">currents</span>. Three observations of the Kuroshio <span class="hlt">current</span> in the Tokara straight using HFOSR had done by the National Institute of Information and Comunications Technology (NICT: the former name is the Communications Research Laboratory). The first-order echoes on Doppler spectra of HFOSR shows broaden and splitting shape in the region of the border between the Kuroshio <span class="hlt">currents</span> and coastal waters. The surface velocity maps show the existence of eddy on the border. The investigation of the mechanism of broadening first order-echoes by Nadai (2006) revealed that the modulation of wave fields from surface <span class="hlt">currents</span> like eddy is the cause of broadening and the measured <span class="hlt">current</span> fields also influenced the modulated wave fields. Moreover, Nadai (2006) also suggested that the influence is able to reduce using the average of two radial velocities extracted by the first-order echoes. In this paper, the results of <span class="hlt">current</span> field observation around the border between the Kuroshio <span class="hlt">current</span> and coastal waters are presented. Many small scale eddies are observed at the border of the Kuroshio <span class="hlt">current</span> and coastal waters. The typical radius of the eddies is about 10km. Usury the observation of such a small scale eddy is difficult, but the eddies with same scale are observed by airborne synthetic aperture radar in the same area at different time. The eddies shows strong rotation as the typical tangential speed is about 1m/s. While the typical speed of the Kuroshio <span class="hlt">current</span> is about 1.5m/s, the typical speed of the eddy movements is about 0.7m/s. No eddies generated in the radar coverage, but one or two eddies entered in the radar coverage a day. Therefore the origin of these eddies will exist in the upstream area of the radar coverage. Using the compensation method for the influence of the modulated wave field suggested by Nadai (2006), the eddies shows weak divergence. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..158...31O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ECSS..158...31O"><span>Definition of sanitary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> to prevent ISAv spread between salmon farms in southern Chile based on numerical simulations of <span class="hlt">currents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olivares, Gonzalo; Sepúlveda, H. H.; Yannicelli, B.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The infectious Salmon Anemia virus (ISAv) is a pathogen that mainly affects the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). It was detected in Norway in 1984 and in June 2007 appeared in Chile, producing a drop of more than 30% in the country's production level. It is expected that with certain regularity, outbreaks will continue to appear in Chile without the need of reintroducing the virus from foreign countries. We present a numerical study of the influence of winds and tides in the dispersion of lagrangian particles to simulate the transport of ISAv in the Aysen region, in southern Chile. This study combines the use of numerical models of the ocean and atmosphere, lagrangian tracking and biological aspects of ISAv infections. As in previous results, a wider dispersion of ISAv was observed during spring tides. Temporal changes in wind significantly modified the transport of viral particles from an infected center. Under similar forcing conditions, the areas of risk associated to culture sites separated by a few kilometers could be very different. Our main results remark the importance of the use of a detailed knowledge of hydrographic and atmospheric circulation in the definition of <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> for sanitary management areas. We suggest that a methodology similar to the one presented in this study should be considered to define sanitary strategies to minimize the occurrence of native outbreaks of ISAv.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSMTE..04.3302M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSMTE..04.3302M"><span>Dissipative random quantum spin chain with <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-driving and bulk-dephasing: magnetization and <span class="hlt">current</span> statistics in the non-equilibrium-steady-state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monthus, Cécile</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Lindblad dynamics with dephasing in the bulk and magnetization-driving at the two <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> is studied for the quantum spin chain with random fields h j and couplings J j (that can be either uniform or random). In the regime of strong disorder in the random fields, or in the regime of strong bulk-dephasing, the effective dynamics can be mapped onto a classical simple symmetric exclusion process with quenched disorder in the diffusion coefficient associated to each bond. The properties of the corresponding non-equilibrium-steady-state in each disordered sample between the two reservoirs are studied in detail by extending the methods that have been previously developed for the symmetric exclusion process without disorder. Explicit results are given for the magnetization profile, for the two-point correlations, for the mean <span class="hlt">current</span> and for the <span class="hlt">current</span> fluctuations, in terms of the random fields and couplings defining the disordered sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MarGR..37..145H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MarGR..37..145H"><span>The spatial extent of the Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> into the Bounty Trough: new evidence from parasound sub-bottom profiling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horn, Michael; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Deep <span class="hlt">currents</span> such as the Pacific Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (DWBC) are strengthened periodically in Milankovitch cycles. We studied periodic fluctuations in seismic reflection pattern and reflection amplitude in order to detect cycles in the sedimentary layers of Bounty Trough and bounty fan, east of New Zealand. There, the occurrence of the obliquity frequency is caused only by the DWBC. Therefore, it provides direct evidence for the spatial extent of the DWBC. We can confirm the extent of the DWBC west of the outer sill, previously only inferred via erosional features at the outer sill. Further, our data allow an estimation of the extent of the DWBC into the Bounty Trough, limiting the DWBC presence to east of 178.15°E. Using the presented method a larger dataset will allow a chronological and areal mapping of sedimentation processes and hence provide information on glacial/interglacial cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712816A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712816A"><span>A description of eddy-mean flow feedbacks in equatorial and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> systems of the South Indian Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguiar-González, Borja; Ponsoni, Leandro; Maas, Leo R. M.; Ridderinkhof, Herman; van Aken, Hendrik</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>While many observational and modeling efforts have addressed eddy-mean flow interactions acting over nearly idealized zonal jets, little is know about whether findings in those studies can be extended to <span class="hlt">current</span> systems with different configurations in the real ocean. This topic is of special interest for ocean-climate models where eddy interactions with the mean flow may be unresolved, demanding further insight on the mechanism by which the eddy field and the mean circulation should feed back in a realistic representation of future climate change scenarios. Following this motivation, we investigate local exchange of momentum and kinetic energy operating in a variety of eddy-mean flow systems of the South Indian Ocean (SIO). To this aim we use 21 years (1993-2013) of newly processed satellite altimetry observations, and adopt a definition of the mean flow as a seasonally-dependent temporal mean where the eddy field encompasses the daily instantaneous deviation from the altimeter-derived velocities. This approach allows time-varying feedbacks to evolve throughout the year. We find that the eddy field feeds back on the mean circulation, contributing importantly to the overall seasonal strengthening and weakening of all <span class="hlt">current</span> systems involved in the tropical and subtropical gyre of the SIO. Although significant contributions to the momentum and energy balances were also obtained along the Agulhas (Return) <span class="hlt">Current</span> and the Antarctic Circumpolar <span class="hlt">Current</span> (ACC), they exhibit a weak/absent seasonal cycle, suggesting that the strength of these dynamical processes is mostly persistent throughout the year. Spatial distribution of the eddy kinetic energy conversion rates and the convergence of horizontal eddy momentum fluxes indicate that over regions where the eddy field draws energy from the mean flow through barotropic instabilities, the <span class="hlt">current</span> is importantly decelerated by alongstream eddy forces on its upstream side, while further downstream the situation reverses with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5156693','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5156693"><span>Crossing the <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span> of Our <span class="hlt">Current</span> Healthcare System by Integrating Ultra-Weak Photon Emissions with Metabolomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Burgos, Rosilene C. Rossetto; van Wijk, Eduard P. A.; van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; van der Greef, Jan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">current</span> healthcare system is hampered by a reductionist approach in which diagnostics and interventions focus on a specific target, resulting in medicines that center on generic, static phenomena while excluding inherent dynamic nature of biological processes, let alone psychosocial parameters. In this essay, we present some limitations of the <span class="hlt">current</span> healthcare system and introduce the novel and potential approach of combining ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with metabolomics technology in order to provide a dynamic readout of higher organizational systems. We argue that the combination of metabolomics and UPE can bring a new, broader, view of health state and can potentially help to shift healthcare toward more personalized approach that improves patient well-being. PMID:28018239</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28018239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28018239"><span>Crossing the <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span> of Our <span class="hlt">Current</span> Healthcare System by Integrating Ultra-Weak Photon Emissions with Metabolomics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burgos, Rosilene C Rossetto; van Wijk, Eduard P A; van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; van der Greef, Jan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">current</span> healthcare system is hampered by a reductionist approach in which diagnostics and interventions focus on a specific target, resulting in medicines that center on generic, static phenomena while excluding inherent dynamic nature of biological processes, let alone psychosocial parameters. In this essay, we present some limitations of the <span class="hlt">current</span> healthcare system and introduce the novel and potential approach of combining ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with metabolomics technology in order to provide a dynamic readout of higher organizational systems. We argue that the combination of metabolomics and UPE can bring a new, broader, view of health state and can potentially help to shift healthcare toward more personalized approach that improves patient well-being.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7.2831H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ResPh...7.2831H"><span>Hall <span class="hlt">current</span> and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a rotating channel with convective <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hayat, Tasawar; Zahir, Hina; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir</p> <p></p> <p>The present article has been arranged to study the Hall <span class="hlt">current</span> and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5104974','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5104974"><span>Enhanced critical-<span class="hlt">current</span> in P-doped BaFe2As2 thin films on metal substrates arising from poorly aligned grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sato, Hikaru; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Thin films of the iron-based superconductor BaFe2(As1−xPx)2 (Ba122:P) were fabricated on polycrystalline metal-tape substrates with two kinds of in-plane grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> alignments (well aligned (4°) and poorly aligned (8°)) by pulsed laser deposition. The poorly aligned substrate is not applicable to cuprate-coated conductors because the in-plane alignment >4° results in exponential decay of the critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density (Jc). The Ba122:P film exhibited higher Jc at 4 K when grown on the poorly aligned substrate than on the well-aligned substrate even though the crystallinity was poorer. It was revealed that the misorientation angles of the poorly aligned samples were less than 6°, which are less than the critical angle of an iron-based superconductor, cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (~9°), and the observed strong pinning in the Ba122:P is attributed to the high-density grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> with the misorientation angles smaller than the critical angle. This result reveals a distinct advantage over cuprate-coated conductors because well-aligned metal-tape substrates are not necessary for practical applications of the iron-based superconductors. PMID:27833118</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H33K1716S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H33K1716S"><span>The Importance and <span class="hlt">Current</span> Limitations of Planetary <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer (PBL) Retrieval from Space for Land-Atmosphere Coupling Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Schaefer, A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>There is an established need for improved PBL remote sounding over land for hydrology, land-atmosphere (L-A), PBL, cloud/convection, pollution/chemistry studies and associated model evaluation and development. Most notably, the connection of surface hydrology (through soil moisture) to clouds and precipitation relies on proper quantification of water's transport through the coupled system, which is modulated strongly by PBL structure, growth, and feedback processes such as entrainment. In-situ (ground-based or radiosonde) measurements will be spatially limited to small field campaigns for the foreseeable future, so satellite data is a must in order to understand these processes globally. The scales of these applications require diurnal resolution (e.g. 3-hourly or finer) at <100m vertical and 1-10km spatial resolutions in order to assess processes driving land-PBL coupling and water and energy cycles at their native scales. Today's satellite sensors (e.g. advanced IR, GEO, lidar, GPS-RO) do not reach close to these targets in terms of accuracy or resolution, and each of these sensors has some advantages but even more limitations that make them impractical for PBL and L-A studies. Unfortunately, there is very little attention or planning (short or long-term) in place for improving lower tropospheric sounding over land, and as a result PBL and L-A interactions have been identified as `gaps' in <span class="hlt">current</span> programmatic focal areas. It is therefore timely to assess how these technologies can be leveraged, combined, or evolved in order to form a dedicated mission or sub-mission to routinely monitor the PBL on diurnal timescales. In addition, improved PBL monitoring from space needs to be addressed in the next Decadal Survey. In this talk, the importance of PBL information (structure, evolution) for L-A coupling diagnostics and model development will be summarized. The <span class="hlt">current</span> array of PBL retrieval methods and products from space will then be assessed in terms of meeting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1238710','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1238710"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report of ASR project entitled “ARM Observations for the Development and Evaluation of Models and Parameterizations of Cloudy <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layers” (DE-SC0000825)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhu, Ping</p> <p>2016-02-22</p> <p>This project aims to elucidate the processes governing <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer clouds and improve the treatment of cloud processes in Global Climate Models (GCMs). Specifically, we have made research effort in following areas: (1) Developing novel numerical approach of using multiple scale Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model simulations for <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer cloud research; (2) Addressing issues of PDF schemes for parameterizing sub-grid scale cloud radiative properties; (3) Investigating the impact of mesoscale cloud organizations on the evolution of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer clouds; (4) Evaluating parameterizations of the cumulus induced vertical transport; (5) Limited area model (LAM) intercomparison study of TWP-ICE convective case; (6) Investigating convective invigoration processes at shallow cumulus cold poll <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>; and (7) Investigating vertical transport processes in moist convection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125642','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10125642"><span>Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> diffusion in oriented Ni{sub 3}Al bicrystals containing boron. <span class="hlt">Final</span> technical report, September 1, 1986--August 31, 1990</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chou, Y.T.</p> <p>1990-12-20</p> <p>The present research program entitled ``Grain <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Diffusion in Oriented Ni{sub 3}Al Bicrystals Containing Boron`` was granted to Lehigh University for a period of three years (September 1, 1986 to August 31, 1989). The work on grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> diffusion in Ni{sub 3}Al was partially completed. On the other hand, a number of new properties have been explored. Some additional efforts have been made on diffusion in newly discovered oxide superconductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.142..105G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PrOce.142..105G"><span>Spatial and seasonal patterns of fine-scale to mesoscale upper ocean dynamics in an Eastern <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grados, Daniel; Bertrand, Arnaud; Colas, François; Echevin, Vincent; Chaigneau, Alexis; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Vargas, Gary; Fablet, Ronan</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The physical forcing of the ocean surface includes a variety of energetic processes, ranging from internal wave (IW) to submesoscale and mesoscale, associated with characteristic horizontal scales. While the description of mesoscale ocean dynamics has greatly benefited from the availability of satellite data, observations of finer scale patterns remain scarce. Recent studies showed that the vertical displacements of the oxycline depth, which separates the well-mixed oxygenated surface layer from the less oxygenated deeper ocean, estimated by acoustics, provide a robust proxy of isopycnal displacements over a wide range of horizontal scales. Using a high-resolution and wide-range acoustic data set in the Northern Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (NHCS) off Peru, the spatial and temporal patterns of fine-scale-to-mesoscale upper ocean dynamics are investigated. The spectral content of oxycline/pycnocline profiles presents patterns characteristic of turbulent flows, from the mesoscale to the fine scale, and an energization at the IW scale (2 km-200 m). On the basis of a typology performed on 35,000 structures we characterized six classes of physical structures according to their shape and scale range. The analysis reveals the existence of distinct features for the fine-scale range below ∼2-3 km, and clearly indicates the existence of intense IW and submesoscale activity over the entire NHCS region. Structures at scales smaller than ∼2 km were more numerous and energetic in spring than in summer. Their spatiotemporal variability supports the interpretation that these processes likely relate to IW generation by interactions between tidal flows, stratification and the continental slope. Given the impact of the physical forcing on the biogeochemical and ecological dynamics in EBUS, these processes should be further considered in future ecosystem studies based on observations and models. The intensification of upper ocean stratification resulting from climate change makes such</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChJOL..28..364H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChJOL..28..364H"><span>Path transition of the western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> with a gap due to mesoscale eddies: a 1.5-layer, wind-driven experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Po; Hou, Yijun</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Using a 1.5 layer nonlinear shallow-water reduced-gravity model, we executed numerical simulations to investigate the possibility of a western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> (WBC) path transition due to mesoscale eddies based on the background of the Kuroshio intrusion into the South China Sea (SCS) from the Luzon Strait. Because the WBC existed different <span class="hlt">current</span> states with respect to different wind stress control parameters, we chose three steady WBC states (loop <span class="hlt">current</span>, eddy shedding and leaping) as the background flow field and simulated the path transition of the WBC due to mesoscale eddies. Our simulations indicated that either an anticyclonic or cyclonic eddy can lead to path transition of the WBC with different modes. The simulation results also show that the mesoscale eddies can lead to path transition of the WBC from loop and eddy shedding state to leaping state because of the hysteresis effect. The leaping state is relatively stable compared with the mesoscale eddies. Moreover, an anticyclonic eddy is more effective in producing the WBC path transition for the path transition than a cyclonic eddy. Our results may help to explain some phenomena observed regarding the path transition of the Kuroshio due to the mesoscale eddies at the Luzon Strait.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5305573','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5305573"><span>Fundamental studies of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> passivation in polycrystalline silicon with application to improved photovoltaic devices. A <span class="hlt">final</span> research report covering work completed from February-December 1979</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seager, C.H.; Ginley, D.S.</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>Several aspects of the electrical properties of silicon grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> have been studied. The temperature dependence of the zero-bias conductance and capacitance of single <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> has been measured and shown to be in good agreement with a simple double depletion layer/thermal emission (DDL/TE) model developed to predict the transport properties of such structures. In addition, it has been shown that deconvolution of the I-V properties of some <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> via a deconvolution scheme suggested by Pike and Seager yields effective one-electron densities of trapping states which are in good agreement with estimates obtained by low temperature electron emission measurements. Experiments have also been performed which indicate that diffusion of atomic hydrogen into silicon grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> greatly reduces this density of trapping states. In properly prepared, large grained polycrystalline samples all measurable traces of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> potential barriers can be removed to substantial penetration depths after several hours exposure to a hydrogen plasma at elevated temperatures. Initial experiments on prototype polysilicon solar cells have shown that this passivation process can improve AM1 efficiencies. In order to more fully understand and develop this process for improving practical multigrained cells, several device research efforts with other DOE/SERI funded contractors have been initiated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMOS23B..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMOS23B..01S"><span>The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System Mooring array: Monitoring the Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Currents</span> of the Coral Sea and Impacts on the Great Barrier Reef</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steinberg, C. R.; McAllister, F.; Brinkman, B. W.; Pitcher, C.; Luetchford, J.; Rigby, P.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Since 1987 Great Barrier Reef weather and water temperature observations have been transmitted in near real time using HF radio from pontoons or towers on coral reefs by AIMS. In contrast oceanographic measurements have however been restricted to loggers serviced at quarterly to half yearly downloads. The Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System (GBROOS) is a regional node of the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). IMOS is an Australian Government initiative established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy and has been supported by Queensland Government since 2006. GBROOS comprises real time observations from weather stations, oceanographic moorings, underway ship observations, ocean surface radar, satellite image reception and reef based sensor networks. This paper focuses on an array of in-line moorings that have been deployed along the outer Great Barrier Reef in order to monitor the Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> of the Coral Sea. The Westward flowing Southern Equatorial <span class="hlt">Current</span> bifurcates into the poleward flowing East Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span> and the equatorward North Queensland <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The 4 mooring pairs consist of a continental slope mooring, nominally in 200m of water and one on the outer continental shelf within the GBR matrix in depths of 30 to 70m. The array is designed to detect any changes in circulation, temperature response, mixed layer depth and ocean-shelf interactions. A review of likely impacts of climate change on the physical oceanography of the GBR is providing a basis upon which to explore what processes may be affected by climate change. Sample data and results from the initial year of observations will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..242E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..242E"><span>Diet of sardine ( Sardinops sagax) in the northern Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> system and comparison with the diets of clupeoids in this and other eastern <span class="hlt">boundary</span> upwelling systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Espinoza, Pepe; Bertrand, Arnaud; van der Lingen, Carl D.; Garrido, Susana; Rojas de Mendiola, Blanca</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Sardines are one of the main small pelagic fish resources in eastern <span class="hlt">boundary</span> upwelling systems (EBUS) where they play an important ecological role both as a predator of plankton and as prey of top predators. Sardine trophodynamics have been relatively well studied in three of the EBUS (the Benguela, California and Canary upwelling systems) but not in the Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> system. In this paper we describe the diet of sardine Sardinops sagax in the northern Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (NHCS) off Peru, using an analytical method which assesses relative dietary importance in terms of estimated prey carbon content. We assessed sardine diet by examining a total of 555 stomachs collected during six surveys conducted off Peru during the period 1996-1998, and compare our results with the diet of anchoveta Engraulis ringens off Peru and with the diets of sardines from the southern Benguela (also S. sagax) and the northern Canary ( Sardina pilchardus) upwelling systems. The diet of sardine off Peru is based primarily on zooplankton, similar to that observed for anchoveta but with several important differences. Firstly, sardine feed on smaller zooplankton than do anchoveta, with sardine diet consisting of smaller copepods and fewer euphausiids than anchoveta diet. Secondly, whilst phytoplankton represents <2% of sardine dietary carbon, this fraction is dominated by dinoflagellates, whereas diatoms are the dominant phytoplankton consumed by anchoveta. Hence, trophic competition between sardine and anchovy in the northern Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> system is minimized by their partitioning of the zooplankton food resource based on prey size, as has been reported in other systems. Whereas sardine in the NHCS feed on smaller zooplankton than do anchovy in that system, sardine in the NHCS forage on larger prey and obtain a substantial portion of their dietary carbon from euphausiids compared to sardine from the northern Canary and southern Benguela <span class="hlt">Current</span> systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.A34A2619T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOS.A34A2619T"><span>Low-frequency Variability of Upper Ocean Heat Content Associated with Meridional Shifts of Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Extensions in the North Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taguchi, B.; Schneider, N.; Nonaka, M.; Sasaki, H.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Generation and propagation processes of upper ocean heat content (OHC) are investigated using oceanic subsurface observations and an ocean general circulation model hindcast simulation. OHC anomalies are decomposed into two physically distinct components: (1) dynamical component (OHCρ) due to temperature anomalies that are associated with density anomalies and (2) spiciness component (OHCχ) due to temperature anomalies that are density-compensated with salinity. Analysis of the observational and the model data consistently shows that both dynamical and spiciness components contribute to interannual-to-decadal OHC variability with the latter component dominating in sub-polar regions in the North Pacific. OHCρ variability represents heaving of thermocline yielding westward propagation and intensification along the Kuroshio Extension as consistent with jet-trapped Rossby waves while OHCχ variability is eastward-propagating along subarctic frontal zone, suggesting advection by mean eastward <span class="hlt">currents</span>. OHCχ variability tightly corresponds in space to horizontal mean spiciness gradient, whereas area-averaged OHCχ anomalies in the western subarctic frontal zone closely corresponds in time to meridional shifting of the subarctic frontal zone, the latter known to possibly influence on the atmospheric storm track and basin-scale circulations. Regression coefficient of the OHCχ time series on the frontal displacement anomalies quantitatively agree with the area-averaged mean spiciness gradient in the region, which confirms a hypothesis previously proposed by the authors on OHC generation mechanism via anomalous spiciness advection. These results suggest a crucial role of Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Extensions for decadal variability of OHC and its interaction with the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME21B..05P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME21B..05P"><span>At the confluence of western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span>: A 3D Biophysical Nutrient-Zooplankton-Phytoplankton-Detritus (NPZD) Model for the Benham Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poral, M. D. R.; Yniguez, A. T.; Villanoy, C.; Abat, J. R. R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The Benham Rise, which is a 135,506 km2 underwater feature rising 2 km from the 5 km deep sea floor located 250 km east of Luzon (119°30'E - 132°E, 12°10'N - 20°30'N), is an extended continental shelf territory recently claimed by the Philippines through the approval of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. An exploratory oceanographic cruise was conducted for the first time on May 2014 to obtain baseline biogeochemical and hydrodynamic data in the area. The Benham Rise is influenced by major North Pacific western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> - the Kuroshio <span class="hlt">Current</span> and the bifurcating North Equatorial <span class="hlt">Current</span> (NEC) that can produce seasonally-propagating eddies in the vicinity of the rise. The eddy field is hypothesized to enhance biological productivity. To understand the lower trophic ecosystem dynamics in the Benham Rise, a size-structured (micro- and meso-zooplankton, diatom and small phytoplankton <5μm) and multi-nutrient (NO3, PO4 and SiO3) NPZD model is coupled to the three-dimensional Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Growth rates are light and temperature regulated and uptakes are generally represented by a Michaelis-Menten formulation. Preliminary model results show that nutrient vertical profiles reproduce the standard nutrient depletion trend near the water surface. Plankton accumulation is observed at eddy-like structures produced by the HYCOM velocity field. Spatial variations for the different plankton groups in relation to circulation patterns are explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6806124','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6806124"><span>Coastal flooding and storm protection program; field verification program. Mathematical modeling of three-dimensional coastal <span class="hlt">currents</span> and sediment dispersion: model development and application. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sheng, Y.P.</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>A comprehensive model of Coastal <span class="hlt">currents</span> and sediment dispersion has been formulated and applied to the Mississippi Sound and adjacent continental shelf waters. The study combines mathematical modeling of various hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes with laboratory and field experiments. Of primary importance is the development of an efficient and comprehensive three-dimensional, finite-difference model of coastal, estuarine, and lake <span class="hlt">currents</span> (CELC3D). The model resolves <span class="hlt">currents</span> driven by tide, wind, and density gradient. It has been applied to the Mississippi Sound, and results agree well with measured surface displacements and <span class="hlt">currents</span> during two episodes. Rates of entrainment and deposition of the Mississippi Sound sediments have been studied in a laboratory flume. Effects of (1) bottom shear stress, (2) bed properties, (3) salinity of water, and (4) sediment type on the erodability of sediments have been examined. Results of the laboratory study have been incorporated into the bottom <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions for a three-dimensional sediment dispersion model. Gravitational settling and particle size distribution of the Mississippi Sound sediments were also studied in laboratories. Bottom <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer dynamics and wave effect on sediment dispersion have been studied by means of a turbulent transport model and a wave model. Model simulations of sediment dispersion in the Mississippi Sound agree well available data from ship surveys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA522500','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA522500"><span>Effect of a Compressive Uniaxial Strain on the Critical <span class="hlt">Current</span> Density of Grain <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span> in Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta Films (POSTPRINT)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>composition by doping the grains [10] or the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> [11]. One of the most striking results is obtained by use of calcium doping in YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO... Doping affects both the charge carrier concentra- tion and the strain fields at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, which makes it hard to determine to what extent the...laser depo- sition onto single-crystal and bicrystalline SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The bicrystalline substrates had symmetric [001]-tilt grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6577071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6577071"><span>SAR-related stress variability in the marine atmospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, 1 June 1990-30 September 1992. [SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radars)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shier, H.N.; Young, G.S.</p> <p>1992-09-30</p> <p>Satellite- or aircraft-bourne synthetic aperture radars (SAR) have the potential to serve as a powerful and essential part of the global meteorological/oceanographic observation system. While the potential of SAR systems is enormous, quantitative interpretation of SAR signals has clearly been frustrated by our incomplete understanding of the relationships between the radar backscatter cross section and a complicated heterogeneous and constantly changing state of the sea surface. In the first phase of our High-Res ARI work summarized here, we began developing two new marine atmosphere <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer models of the surface stress caused by submesoscale <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer coherent structures and we finished obtaining plainview patterns of surface stress variability caused by MABL updrafts and downdrafts. We began turning our attention to such mesoscale atmospheric circulations as the solenoidal circulation over the sea surface temperature front, the coastal sea breeze circulation, and the flow between the Bermuda High and the diurnally varying pressure through on the coastal plain. In this report, we briefly review our progress on the work that will be continued and extended during the second phase of the project from October 1, 1992 to September 30, 1995. In Appendix A and Appendix B we give two manuscripts of journal articles summarizing our results. The first one by Sikora and Young (1993) discusses the plainview patterns of surface stress variability. The second one by Wells et al. (1993) discusses a new method for estimating the correlation dimension of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer turbulent time series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..369Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..369Z"><span>The eddy-mean flow interaction and the intrusion of western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> into the South China Sea type basin in an idealized model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhong, Linhao</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, an ideal model on the role of mesoscale eddies in the Kuroshio intruding into the South China Sea (SCS) is developed, which represents the northwestern Pacific and the SCS by two rectangle basins connected by a gap. In the case of only considering intrinsic ocean variability, a time-dependent western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> (WBC) driven by steady wind is modeled under both eddy-resolving and non-eddy-resolving resolutions. Almost all simulated WBC intrudes into the adjacent sea in the form of loop <span class="hlt">current</span> with multiple-state transitions and eddy-shedding process, which has aperiodic variations on intraseasonal or interannual scales, determined by the eddy-induced WBC variation. For the parameters considered in this paper, the WBC intrusion exhibits a 30~90-day cycle in the presence of the subgrid-scale eddy forcing (SSEF), but a 300~500-day cycle in the absence of SSEF. Moreover, the roles of the resolved (grid-scale) and unresolved (subgrid-scale) eddies in the WBC intrusion are studied. It is found that the unresolved eddy-flow interaction strongly regulates the WBC intrusion through the PV forcing induced by shear flows and baroclinic processes. But the resolved eddy forcing, which is dominated by the eddy-eddy interaction solely through baroclinic processes, shows weak correlation to the WBC intrusion. The associated eddy-induced PV exchange between the two basins is mainly accomplished by isopycnal-thickness eddy fluxes, particularly by the cross-front PV fluxes due to the unresolved eddy. And the unresolved eddy-flow interaction, as well as resolved and unresolved eddy-eddy interactions, mainly governs the PV transport for the WBC intrusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011DSRII..58.1768T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011DSRII..58.1768T"><span>Transport of the North Atlantic Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> about 39°N, 70°W: 2004-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toole, J. M.; Curry, R. G.; Joyce, T. M.; McCartney, M.; Peña-Molino, B.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Begun in spring 2004, a sustained measurement program - Line W - is returning high-resolution observations of the North Atlantic's Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (DWBC) southeast of New England. The study focuses on the cold limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation near the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> between the subpolar and subtropical gyres. The field study consists of a 6-element, continental-slope-spanning moored array on a line underlying an altimeter satellite ground track, and periodic reoccupations of a full-depth hydrographic section along the line extending from the continental shelf towards Bermuda. Here, data from the first 4 years of the array (May 10, 2004-April 9, 2008) are analyzed along with 9 realizations of the section. The array, a mix of Moored Profiler and discrete, fixed-depth instrument moorings, returned temperature, salinity and horizontal velocity data with various temporal and depth resolutions. After averaging to filter inertial, tidal and other high-frequency motions, the combined moored data set was binned to the lowest common temporal resolution of 5-days (the nominal burst sample interval of the Moored Profilers) and interpolated to 2-dbar vertical resolution. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, tracer chemical concentrations and direct velocity data were acquired on the hydrographic cruises. The present work focuses on the 4-year-mean and time-varying meridional transport in 4 layers bounded by neutral density surfaces: Upper and Classical Labrador Sea Waters, Iceland-Scotland Overflow Waters and Denmark Strait Overflow Waters. The 5-d, 4-layer-summed meridional transport estimates range between -3.5 and -79.9 Sv with a record mean average transport of -25.1 Sv and standard deviation of 12.5 Sv. Bias adjustment to account for the finite width of the moored array increases the 4-layer mean transport estimate to -28.7 Sv. At time scales longer than about 1 month, the variations in equatorward DWBC transport appear correlated with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PalOc..22.3209E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PalOc..22.3209E"><span>Intermediate water links to Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> variability in the subtropical NW Atlantic during marine isotope stages 5 and 4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, H. K.; Hall, I. R.; Bianchi, G. G.; Oppo, D. W.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Records from Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1057 and 1059 (2584 m and 2985 m water depth, respectively) have been used to reconstruct the behavior of the Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (DWBC) on the Blake Outer Ridge (BOR) from 130 to 60 kyr B.P. (marine isotope stage (MIS) 5 and the 5/4 transition). Site 1057 lies within Labrador Sea Water (LSW) but close to the present-day <span class="hlt">boundary</span> with Lower North Atlantic Deep Water (LNADW), while Site 1059 lies within LNADW. High-resolution sortable silt mean (?) grain size and benthic δ13C records were obtained, and changes in the DWBC intensity and spatial variability were inferred. Comparisons are made with similar proxy records generated for the Holocene from equivalent depth cores on the BOR. During MIS 5e, ? evidence at Site 1057 suggests slower relative flow speeds consistent with a weakening and a possible shoaling of the LSW-sourced shallower limb of the DWBC that occupies these depths today. In contrast, the paleocurrent record from the deeper site suggests that the fast flowing deep core of the DWBC was located close to its modern depth below 3500 m. During this interval the benthic δ13C suggests little chemical stratification of the water column and the presence of a near-uniform LNADW-dominated water mass. After ˜111 kyr B.P. the ? record at Site 1057 increases to reach values similar to Site 1059 for the rest of MIS 5. The strengthening of flow speeds at the shallow site may correspond to the initiation of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water formation also suggested by a divergence in the benthic δ13C records with Site 1057 values increasing to ˜1.2‰. Coupled suborbital oscillations in DWBC flow variability and paleohydrography persisted throughout MIS 5. Comparison of these data with planktonic δ18O records from the sites and alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) estimates from the nearby Bermuda Rise suggest a hitherto unrecognized degree of linkage between oscillations in subtropical North</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1013P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.1013P"><span>Biogeography of the Oceans: a Review of Development of Knowledge of <span class="hlt">Currents</span>, Fronts and Regional <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span> from Sailing Ships in the Sixteenth Century to Satellite Remote Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Priede, Imants G.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The development of knowledge of global biogeography of the oceans from sixteenthcentury European voyages of exploration to present-day use of satellite remote sensing is reviewed in three parts; the pre-satellite era (1513-1977), the satellite era leading to a first global synthesis (1978-1998), and more recent studies since 1998. The Gulf Stream was first identified as a strong open-ocean feature in 1513 and by the eighteenth century, regular transatlantic voyages by sailing ships had established the general patterns of winds and circulation, enabling optimisation of passage times. Differences in water temperature, water colour and species of animals were recognised as important cues for navigation. Systematic collection of information from ships' logs enabled Maury (The Physical Geography of the Sea Harper and Bros. New York <CitationRef CitationID="CR30">1855) to produce a chart of prevailing winds across the entire world's oceans, and by the early twentieth century the global surface ocean circulation that defines the major biogeographic regions was well-known. This information was further supplemented by data from large-scale plankton surveys. The launch of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, specifically designed to study living marine resources on board the Nimbus 7 polar orbiting satellite in 1978, marked the advent of the satellite era. Over subsequent decades, correlation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature and chlorophyll data with in situ measurements enabled Longhurst (Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press, New York <CitationRef CitationID="CR26">1998) to divide the global ocean into 51 ecological provinces with Polar, Westerly Wind, Trade Wind and Coastal Biomes clearly recognisable from earlier subdivisions of the oceans. Satellite imagery with semi-synoptic images of large areas of the oceans greatly aided definition of <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> between provinces. However, ocean <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are dynamic, varying from season to season and year to year</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED254160.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED254160.pdf"><span>Assessment of Alternative Student and Delivery Systems: Assessment of the <span class="hlt">Current</span> Delivery System. Supplement I to the <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.</p> <p></p> <p>The effects of the <span class="hlt">current</span> student financial aid delivery system on five major participant groups are examined: federal government, states/guarantee agencies, postsecondary institutions, lenders and secondary markets, and applicants and families. Attention is directed to effects of the <span class="hlt">current</span> system, including: administrative costs, fund…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED289935.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED289935.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Current</span> Operation of the Chapter 1 Program. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report from the National Assessment of Chapter 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Birman, Beatrice F.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">final</span> report is part of a national assessment on the Chapter 1 Compensatory education program. The assessment, which began in 1984, includes national data through 1987. The topics covered in the report are the following: (1) program framework; (2) findings and implications of the national assessment; (3) distribution, character, and selection…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940017363','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940017363"><span>Physics of magnetospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cairns, I. H.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The central ideas of this grant are that the magnetospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere together, and the global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding the linking mechanisms. Accordingly the present grant includes simultaneous research on the global, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers. These <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers include the bow shock, magnetosheath, the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical and simulation projects have been performed on these subjects, as well as comparison of theoretical results with observational data. Very good progress has been made, with four papers published or in press and two additional papers submitted for publication during the six month period 1 June - 30 November 1993. At least two projects are <span class="hlt">currently</span> being written up. In addition, members of the group have given papers at scientific meetings. The further structure of this report is as follows: section two contains brief accounts of research completed during the last six months, while section three describes the research projects intended for the grant's <span class="hlt">final</span> period.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920011436','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920011436"><span>Advanced development of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method for elastic and inelastic thermal stress analysis. Ph.D. Thesis, 1987 <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Henry, Donald P., Jr.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The focus of this dissertation is on advanced development of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method for elastic and inelastic thermal stress analysis. New formulations for the treatment of body forces and nonlinear effects are derived. These formulations, which are based on particular integral theory, eliminate the need for volume integrals or extra surface integrals to account for these effects. The formulations are presented for axisymmetric, two and three dimensional analysis. Also in this dissertation, two dimensional and axisymmetric formulations for elastic and inelastic, inhomogeneous stress analysis are introduced. The derivatives account for inhomogeneities due to spatially dependent material parameters, and thermally induced inhomogeneities. The nonlinear formulation of the present work are based on an incremental initial stress approach. Two inelastic solutions algorithms are implemented: an iterative; and a variable stiffness type approach. The Von Mises yield criterion with variable hardening and the associated flow rules are adopted in these algorithms. All formulations are implemented in a general purpose, multi-region computer code with the capability of local definition of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. Quadratic, isoparametric shape functions are used to model the geometry and field variables of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> (and domain) of the problem. The multi-region implementation permits a body to be modeled in substructured parts, thus dramatically reducing the cost of analysis. Furthermore, it allows a body consisting of regions of different (homogeneous) material to be studied. To test the program, results obtained for simple test cases are checked against their analytic solutions. Thereafter, a range of problems of practical interest are analyzed. In addition to displacement and traction loads, problems with body forces due to self-weight, centrifugal, and thermal loads are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026162','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026162"><span>Experimental and theoretical investigation of three-dimensional turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers and turbulence characteristics inside an axial flow inducer passage. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report. Ph.D. Thesis, Jun. 1971</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anand, A. K.; Lakshminarayana, B.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Analytical and experimental investigations of the characteristics of three dimensional turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers in a rotating helical passage of an inducer rotor are reported. Expressions are developed for the velocity profiles in the inner layer, where the viscous effects dominate, in the outer layer, where the viscous effects are small, and in the interference layer, where the end walls influence the flow. The prediction of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer growth is based on the momentum integral technique. The equations derived are general enough to be valid for all turbomachinery rotors with arbitrary pressure gradients. The experimental investigations are carried out in a flat plate inducer 3 feet in diameter. The mean velocity profiles, turbulence intensities and shear stresses, wall shear stress, and limiting streamline angles are measured at various radial and chordwise locations by using rotating probes. The measurements are in general agreement with the predictions. The radial flows are well represented by an expression which includes the effect of stagger angle and radial pressure gradient. The radial flows in the rotor channel are higher than those on a single blade. The collateral region exists only very near the blade surface. The radial component of turbulence intensity is higher than the streamwise component because of the effect of rotation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7165106','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7165106"><span>A 4000-A HVDC (high-voltage direct-<span class="hlt">current</span>) circuit breaker with fast fault-clearing capability: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>This project is a follow-up of the first development of a 500 kV HVDC airblast circuit breaker (EPRI project 1507-3). The objective was to increase the <span class="hlt">current</span> interrupting capability from 2200 A to 4000 A and shorten its fault clearing time. A high <span class="hlt">current</span> 500 kV HVDC circuit breaker has been built using the passive commutation circuit. The breaker is modular in construction and can be designed for a wide variety of system conditions. More than 400 <span class="hlt">current</span> interruptions were carried out successfully. Tests have shown that this circuit breaker is capable of interrupting more than 4000 A dc. Practical breakers with <span class="hlt">current</span> interrupting capability of even 5500 A dc could be built. The circuit breaker operation and the fault-clearing process can be materially speeded up if the trip signal is given as soon as the fault is detected and without waiting for the <span class="hlt">current</span> levels to come down in response to converter control action. The new dc breakers are shown to be capable of withstanding these transient arc <span class="hlt">currents</span> of 8000 A without affecting its ability to interrupt the direct <span class="hlt">current</span> that follows the transient. This transient <span class="hlt">current</span> withstand capability is greater than is likely to occur during dc faults. The fault clearing time of this HVDC circuit breaker is comparable to the fault clearing time of conventional ac breakers for ac faults. The developed HVDC circuit breaker is now commercially available and can be supplied for use in HVDC systems. Its use in such systems is expected to provide flexibility in system design and contribute to system stability. 38 refs., 52 figs., 9 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Metro..51.1002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Metro..51.1002S"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> report on SIM.EM-S5: Voltage, <span class="hlt">current</span> and resistance comparison, June 2007-October 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanchez, Harold; Cioffi, Jorge; Ventura, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Vitor; Ramos, Rodrigo; Martinez, Alexander; Montaluisa, Julio; Gonzalez, Julio; Postigo, Henry; Hamilton, Francis; Elmquist, Rand; Zhang, Nien Fan; Izquierdo, Daniel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This is a report of the results of the second Interamerican Metrology System (SIM) comparison on calibration of digital multimeters, performed for strengthening the interaction among National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and for establishing the degree of equivalence between those laboratories in accordance with the CIPM Mutual Recognition Agreement. From June 2007 to October 2009, four multimeters were used as traveling standards for measurements in eleven countries, with NIST (USA) acting as pilot laboratory. Results for nine measurement points are presented as errors relative to a comparison reference value together with their uncertainty. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The <span class="hlt">final</span> report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PalOc...6..165B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PalOc...6..165B"><span>An important <span class="hlt">current</span> reversal (influx) in the Rifian Corridor (Morocco) at the Tortonian-Messinian <span class="hlt">boundary</span>: The end of Tethys Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benson, Richard H.; Rakic-El Bied, Kruna; Bonaduce, Gioacchino</p> <p>1991-02-01</p> <p>Atlantic psychrospheric and temperate mesopelagic faunas found in the lower Messinian marls in Morocco indicate that a strong, eastward flowing, bottom <span class="hlt">current</span> was present in the Rifian Corridor before the Salinity Crisis. This influx began just before diatomite deposition in the Paleo-Mediterranean, continued during a decrease in species diversity in coral reef formation, and diminished with the initial stages of "brine" concentration in the deep-water phase of the Crisis. The influx is most readily studied in a condensed section of marl in the Bou Regreg valley near Rabat. The beginning of this "siphon event" coincides with the Tortonian/Messinian <span class="hlt">boundary</span> (6.4 Ma, subchron 6N1). It is identified by (1) a change in the planktonic foraminifera from dominance of warm, tropical, epipelagic Globorotalia menardii with Globigerinoides to the temperate, mesopelagic Gl. miotumida plexus with conomiozea; (2) the sudden appearance of an upper psychrospheric ostracode fauna with Agrenocythere pliocenica and Oblitacythereis ruggierii, (3) a change in nannoflora; and (4) beginning of the 6.3 Ma Global Carbon Shift. The initial strong influx stage of the siphon lasted at least 0.7 m.y., decreasing after the middle of Chron 5, ca. 5.7, to be lost ca. 5.3 Ma. Conditions for the siphon formed when the continental climate created a deficit in the water budget of the Paleo- Mediterranean Sea. The reversal took place when tectonic movement in the foredeeps of the Betic- Rif Orogene changed the thresholds of the twin straits, the Rifian Corridor and the Iberian Portal. Inflow increased rapidly in the southern Corridor to draw in waters from beneath the rising Atlantic pycnocline, while Paleo-Mediterranean Overflow Water (PMOW) continued out of the northern Iberian Portal. The invasion of "nappes" or olistoliths, first into the portal and then into the corridor, led to the end of the outflow of the PMOW terminating the need for the siphon, and then to the isolation of the Paleo-Mediterranean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ERL.....6a1001T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ERL.....6a1001T"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> issues</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>-centric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> (Filippelli 2008, Handoh and Lenton 2003). However, human alteration of the P cycle has multiple potential <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> (figure 1), including P-driven freshwater eutrophication (Smith and Schindler 2009), the potential for world P supply to place an ultimate limit on food production (Smil 2000, Childers et al 2011), and depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions (MacDonald et al 2011). Carpenter and Bennett revisit the P <span class="hlt">boundary</span> from the freshwater eutrophication perspective. Given the extraordinary variation in freshwater ecosystems across the globe, this is a challenging task, but the authors strengthen their analysis by using three different <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> with relevance to eutrophication, along with two water quality targets and a range of estimates of P flow to the sea. In doing so, they make a compelling case that if freshwater eutrophication is indeed a Rubicon, we have already crossed it. Importantly, Carpenter and Bennett go beyond the calculation of new <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> to make broader points about humanity's relationship with the P cycle. Disruptions of both the P and N cycles are mostly about our need for food (Galloway et al 2008, Cordell et al 2009), but unlike N, P supplies are finite and irreplaceable. Environmental concerns aside, we can fix all the N2 from the atmosphere we want—but deplete our economically viable P reserves and we're in trouble. Figure 1 Figure 1. Human alteration of the global P cycle has multiple possible <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. These include the environmental risks posed by freshwater eutrophication and marine anoxic events, and the food security risks that come from depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions, as well as finite global supplies of high-value mineral P reserves. Photo credits beyond authors: upper left, Shelby Riskin; upper right, Pedro Sanchez. In effect, Carpenter and Bennett argue that among P's multiple <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, the one for freshwaters is less forgiving of our <span class="hlt">current</span> activities (but no less important) than is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10108319','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10108319"><span>Studies of microstructure/critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density relationships for grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} bicrystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Babcock, S.E.; Cai, Xue-Yu; Larbalestier, D.C.; Shin, D.H.; Zhang, Na; Gao, Yufei; Merkle, K.L.; Kaiser, D.L.; Zhang, Hong</p> <p>1992-11-01</p> <p>Results of coupled electromagnetic and microstructural studies of bicrystalline YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} specimens are described from a microstructural perspective. High-spatial-resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques (imaging and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis) are used to probe the structure and composition of the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. All of the <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> studied possess microstructural features that are consistent with their specific electromagnetic character.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA506015','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA506015"><span>Effect of a Compressive Uniaxial Strain on the Critical <span class="hlt">Current</span> Density of Grain <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span> in Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta Films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-07-09</p> <p>the chemical composition by doping the grains [10] or the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> [11]. One of the most striking results is obtained by use of calcium doping ...increase in Jc;GB [12–14]. Doping affects both the charge carrier concentra- tion and the strain fields at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, which makes it hard to...deposited by pulsed-laser depo- sition onto single-crystal and bicrystalline SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. The bicrystalline substrates had symmetric [001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27168982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27168982"><span>Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doblin, Martina A; Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R; Messer, Lauren F; Brown, Mark V; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D; McInnes, Allison S; Ralph, Peter J; Thompson, Peter A; Hassler, Christel S</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The intensification of western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span> (EAC) region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core) eddy (CCE) and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2-10 times greater Shannon index) in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67%) by larger micro-plankton [Formula: see text], as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a 'greening' effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si) and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially mitigate the negative consequences of increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4860325','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4860325"><span>Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R.; Messer, Lauren F.; Brown, Mark V.; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D.; McInnes, Allison S.; Ralph, Peter J.; Thompson, Peter A.; Hassler, Christel S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The intensification of western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian <span class="hlt">Current</span> (EAC) region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core) eddy (CCE) and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index) in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67%) by larger micro-plankton \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m})$\\end{document}≥20μm, as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6851513','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6851513"><span>Corrosion protection of Arctic offshore structures: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report. [Effects of temperature and salinity on required cathodic protection <span class="hlt">current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sackinger, W.M.; Rogers, J.C.; Feyk, C.; Theuveny, B.</p> <p>1985-10-01</p> <p>Results are presented for a research program on corrosion prevention for Arctic offshore structures which are in contact with sea ice for a significant portion of the year. The electrical method most adaptable for structure protection involves the injection of impressed <span class="hlt">current</span> from several remote anodes buried just beneath the sea floor. The electrical resistivity of annual sea ice as a function of temperature and salinity is presented. Details of the interface layers formed between sea ice and steel in the presence of <span class="hlt">current</span> injection are shown. A computer program was developed to enable the calculation of protective <span class="hlt">current</span> density into the structure, in the presence of ice rubble and ridges around the structure. The program and the results of an example calculation are given for a caisson- retained island structure. 81 refs., 103 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1213202"><span>Testing an e2v CCD230-42 sensor for dark <span class="hlt">current</span> performance at ambient temperatures - <span class="hlt">Final</span> Paper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dungee, Ryan</p> <p>2015-08-20</p> <p>The design of the Guidance Focus and Alignment (GFA) system for the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) project calls for a set of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) which operate at ambient temperature. Here we assess the performance of these CCDs under such conditions. Data was collected from –21°C to 28°C and used to determine the effect of temperature on the effectiveness of dark <span class="hlt">current</span> subtraction. Comparing the dark <span class="hlt">current</span> uncertainty to our expected signal has shown that the DESI design specifications will be met without need for significant changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830023203','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830023203"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> collection from the space plasma through defects in high voltage solar array insulation. Ph.D. Thesis. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stillwell, R. P.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>For spacecraft operation in the near Earth environment, solar cell arrays constitute the major source of reliable long term power. Optimization of mass and power efficiency results in a general requirement for high voltage solar arrays. The space plasma environment, though, can result in large <span class="hlt">currents</span> being collected by exposed solar cells. The solution of a protective covering of transparent insulation is not a complete solution, inasmuch as defects in the insulation result in anomalously large <span class="hlt">currents</span> being collected through the defects. Tests simulating the electron collection from small defects in an insulation have shown that there are two major collection modes. The first mode involves <span class="hlt">current</span> enhancement by means of a surface phenomenon involving the surrounding insulator. In the second mode the <span class="hlt">current</span> collection is enhanced by vaporization and ionization of the insulators materials, in addition to the surface enhancement of the first mode. A model for the electron collection is the surface enhanced collection mode was developed. The model relates the secondary electron emission yield to the electron collection. It correctly predicts the qualitative effects of hole size, sample temperature and roughening of sample surface. The theory was also shown to predict electron collection within a factor of two for the polymers teflon and polyimide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020679','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15020679"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report Providing the Design for Low-Cost Wireless <span class="hlt">Current</span> Transducer and Electric Power Sensor Prototype</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Burghard, Brion J.; Reid, Larry D.</p> <p>2005-01-31</p> <p>This report describes the design and development of a wireless <span class="hlt">current</span> transducer and electric power sensor prototype. The report includes annotated schematics of the power sensor circuitry and the printed circuit board. The application program used to illustrate the functionality of the wireless sensors is described in this document as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED137600.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED137600.pdf"><span>Review and Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Current</span> Training Programs Found in Various Mining Environments. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report. Volume I, Summary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adkins, John; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A project was designed to produce a broad description of <span class="hlt">current</span> mining training programs and to evaluate their effectiveness with respect to reducing mine injuries. The research strategy was built on the ranking of mines according to the effectiveness of their training with an effective training effort being defined as that training which is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED137601.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED137601.pdf"><span>Review and Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Current</span> Training Programs Found in Various Mining Environments. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report. Volume II, Analysis and Recommendations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adkins, John; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A project was designed to produce a broad description of <span class="hlt">current</span> mining training programs and to evaluate their effectiveness with respect to reducing mine injuries. Aggregate training and injury data were used to evaluate the overall training effort at 300 mines as well as specific efforts in 12 categories of training course objectives. From such…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/538795','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/538795"><span>Advanced flux leakage and eddy <span class="hlt">current</span> signal analysis for casing and pipe inspection. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, September 1994-October 1996</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Merchant, G.A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the project was to develop signal analysis methods and algorithms which will extract from the magnetic flux leakage and eddy <span class="hlt">current</span> (FLEC) signals all the quantitative information they inherently contain and format that information in a manner which facilitates its interpretation in terms of casing condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED174264.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED174264.pdf"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">Current</span> and Potential Uses of International Standard Book Number in United States Libraries. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schmierer, Helen F.; Pasternack, Howard</p> <p></p> <p>Summarizing a literature review and three questionnaire surveys, this study reports on the amount and types of both <span class="hlt">current</span> and potential use of the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) by United States Libraries. It is divided into five parts: (1) literature survey and analysis, including the library use of ISBN in cataloging, circulation,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/132688','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/132688"><span>Burial, remineralization and utilization of organic matter at the sea floor under a strong western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jahnke, R.A.</p> <p>1995-08-24</p> <p>The overall goals of this project were to quantify the rates of organic carbon export from the southern mid-Atlantic Bight and to quantify the rates at which carbon is exchanged between the inorganic and organic pools within the bottom sediments. This information is necessary to constrain the role of the oceans in the control of carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere in association with energy production. During this project, in situ benthic flux chamber incubations have been performed at six sites on the continental slope and rise adjacent to Cape Hatteras. Based on the analysis of the time-series samples recovered during each experiment, the sea floor exchange rates of the major biogenic elements, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon were calculated. From the estimated benthic flux rates and the ancillary pore water and sediment analyses, the deposition, remineralization and burial rates of organic carbon to the sea floor in this area was evaluated. This information has been incorporated into regional and global assessments of organic carbon fluxes to the deep sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22479732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22479732"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, processing, packing, or holding of drugs; revision of certain labeling controls. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-20</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the packaging and labeling control provisions of the <span class="hlt">current</span> good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for human and veterinary drug products by limiting the application of special control procedures for the use of cut labeling to immediate container labels, individual unit cartons, or multiunit cartons containing immediate containers that are not packaged in individual unit cartons. FDA is also permitting the use of any automated technique, including differentiation by labeling size and shape, that physically prevents incorrect labeling from being processed by labeling and packaging equipment when cut labeling is used. This action is intended to protect consumers from labeling errors more likely to cause adverse health consequences, while eliminating the regulatory burden of applying the rule to labeling unlikely to reach or adversely affect consumers. This action is also intended to permit manufacturers to use a broader range of error prevention and labeling control techniques than permitted by <span class="hlt">current</span> CGMPs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/143969','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/143969"><span>Ultrahigh-<span class="hlt">current</span>-density metal-ion implantation and diamondlike-hydrocarbon films for tribological applications; <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wilbur, P.J.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>The metal-ion-implantation system used to implant metals into substrates are described. The metal vapor required for operation is supplied by drawing sufficient electron <span class="hlt">current</span> from the plasma discharge to an anode-potential crucible so a solid, pure metal placed in the crucible will be heated to the point of vaporization. The ion-producing, plasma discharge is initiated within a graphite-ion-source body, which operates at high temperature, by using an argon flow that is turned off once the metal vapor is present. Extraction of ion beams several cm in diameter at <span class="hlt">current</span> densities ranging to several hundred {mu}A/cm{sup 2} on a target 50 cm downstream of the ion source have been demonstrated using Mg, Ag, Cr, Cu, Si, Ti, V, B and Zr. These metals were implanted into over 100 substrates (discs, pins, flats, wires). A model describing thermal stresses induced in materials (e.g. ceramic plates) during high-<span class="hlt">current</span>-density implantation is presented. Tribological and microstructural characteristics of iron and 304-stainless-steel samples implanted with Ti or B are examined. Diamondlike-hydrocarbon coatings were applied to steel surfaces and found to exhibit good tribological performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1003145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1003145"><span>Correlation Between Grain and Grain-<span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Critical <span class="hlt">Current</span> Densities in <i>ex situ</i> Coated Conductors with Variable YBa<sub>2</sub>Cu<sub>3</sub>O<sub>7- δ</sub> Layer Thickness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Palau, A.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Feenstra, Roeland; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The dependence of the percolative critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density at low magnetic fields on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) layer thickness is studied by comparing grain, J{sub c}{sup G}, and grain-<span class="hlt">boundary</span>, J{sub c}{sup GB}, critical <span class="hlt">current</span> densities for a series of ex situ processed YBCO films on a RABiTS template. Both critical <span class="hlt">current</span> densities decrease as a function of thickness and the values of J{sub c}{sup G} and J{sub c}{sup GB} show a clear correlation which suggests the existence of an interaction between Abrikosov-Josephson vortices on the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and Abrikosov vortices in the bulk of the grains. This opens the possibility to improve J{sub c}{sup GB} by optimizing the pinning capabilities of the grains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/70702','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/70702"><span>Development of a two-beam high-<span class="hlt">current</span> ion accelerator based on Doppler effect. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report (1994)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ivanov, B.I.; Yegorov, A.M.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report presents the results of work accomplished in accordance with the Scope of Work to the Purchase Order No 4596310. The amount of works includes the following items: 1. Start of the manufacture of the Experimental Accelerating Stand (EAS)-the section for proton acceleration from 5 MeV to 8 MeV, in which RF fields are excited by an electron beam at the anomalous Doppler effect. 2. Theoretical investigation and computer simulation of field excitation and ion acceleration in the EAS. Under item 1, the EAS manufacturing is begun. To present time, a pedestal for the EAS and a stainless steel vacuum chamber for RF resonator are made (length of the chamber is about 180 cm, diameter is about 40 cm). Besides, parts of the EAS resonator with the acceleration structure are manufactured, and its assembly is begun. Under item 2, it is realized three works: calculation of increment and frequency shift of the EAS resonator excited by electron beam, calculation of the solenoid for creation of magnetic field with required spatial distribution, and theoretical investigation and computer simulation of ion acceleration in the EAS. 14 figs., 16 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5913225','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5913225"><span>Effect of space charge on surface insulation of high-voltage direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> bushings: <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zaffanella, L.E.</p> <p>1987-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a method to improve the contamination flashover performance of bushings for HVDC (High Voltage Direct <span class="hlt">Current</span>) applications. Such a method, consisting of installing intense corona producing elements at the high voltage electrode of a bushing, had given some encouraging results in a laboratory application. A series of laboratory tests was performed to verify and quantify this improvement. It was found that intense corona caused some effect in the initial development of partial discharges on the bushing surface. Improvement in flashover voltage appears significant only when the bushing surface is relatively clean and moisture deposition occurs predominantly by impingement of water particles suspended in air. Thus, the technique of using intense corona at the high voltage electrode may be advantageous in laboratory applications in which the bushing surface can be maintained clean. In practical outdoor applications, however, where significant degrees of contamination and wetting of surfaces either by condensation or by rain or mist may occur, the effect of corona is likely to be negligible. The results of flashover tests performed during this project add to the knowledge of the behavior of HVDC insulation in contaminated conditions. The poor performance of wall bushing has been ascribed to their large diameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6944312','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6944312"><span>Superconductive microprobes for eddy-<span class="hlt">current</span> evaluation of materials. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, 1 August 1988-31 January 1989</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Podney, W.N.</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>Superconductive quantum interference devices (SQUIDS) offer new technology for locating materials flaws electromagnetically that promises to increase sensitivity, depth of magnetic flux enables use of microscopic pickup loops in a gradiometer configuration to give high resolution. A cryogenic umbilical connects pickup loops to a remote cryostat housing SQUID sensors to ease scanning. A pair of drive coils a few millimeters in radius that encircle pickup loops forming a coplanar gradiometer 1 mm or less in radius comprise a superconductive microprobe. It provides a depth of field of several millimeters to a 0.1 mm flaw in an aluminum plate, when operating with a drive <span class="hlt">current</span> a 1 A oscillating at a frequency of 1kHz. Its field of view ranges to several millimeters, for flaws a few millimeters deep, and its horizontal resolution is 1 mm or so, for flaw depths out to its depth of field. An array of microprobes form receptors much like rods in the retina of a magnetic eye. The eye leads to an electromagnetic microscope for imaging internal flaws in aluminum plates. It gives multiple images that enable resolving depth of a 0.1 mm flaw to a few tenths of a millimeter with a horizontal resolution of one millimeter or so.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26780472"><span>Event <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and memory improvement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> can both impair and enhance memory. The <span class="hlt">current</span> study explored whether the presence of event <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.8115S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.8115S"><span>Time series measurements of transient tracers and tracer-derived transport in the Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> between the Labrador Sea and the subtropical Atlantic Ocean at Line W</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, John N.; Smethie, William M.; Yashayev, Igor; Curry, Ruth; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Time series measurements of the nuclear fuel reprocessing tracer 129I and the gas ventilation tracer CFC-11 were undertaken on the AR7W section in the Labrador Sea (1997-2014) and on Line W (2004-2014), located over the US continental slope off Cape Cod, to determine advection and mixing time scales for the transport of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) within the Deep Western <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (DWBC). Tracer measurements were also conducted in 2010 over the continental rise southeast of Bermuda to intercept the equatorward flow of DSOW by interior pathways. The Labrador Sea tracer and hydrographic time series data were used as input functions in a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> model that employs transit time distributions to simulate the effects of mixing and advection on downstream tracer distributions. Model simulations of tracer levels in the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> core and adjacent interior (shoulder) region with which mixing occurs were compared with the Line W time series measurements to determine <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> model parameters. These results indicate that DSOW is transported from the Labrador Sea to Line W via the DWBC on a time scale of 5-6 years corresponding to a mean flow velocity of 2.7 cm/s while mixing between the core and interior regions occurs with a time constant of 2.6 years. A tracer section over the southern flank of the Bermuda rise indicates that the flow of DSOW that separated from the DWBC had undergone transport through interior pathways on a time scale of 9 years with a mixing time constant of 4 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/422725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/422725"><span>Effect of variations in grain size and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> barrier heights on the <span class="hlt">current</span>-voltage characteristics of ZnO varistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nan, C.W.; Clarke, D.R.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>Throughout the microstructure at every varistor, there exist variations of the grain size and the electrical properties of the individual grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. To calculate the effect of such microstructural variations on the overall electrical transport properties, the authors describe a multibond percolation approach utilizing effective medium theory. The model presented takes into account these variations as well as the electrical conductivity of the ZnO grains themselves. To illustrate the predictions of the model, both the effect of continuous distributions in the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> potential and the grain size are considered, as well as a bi-lognormal distribution in grain size to represent the effect of a population of anomalously large grains in a smaller grain size varistor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JDE...234..360C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JDE...234..360C"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> fluxes for nonlocal diffusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi</p> <p></p> <p>We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> data including blowing up ones. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we look at a nonlinear flux <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050028442','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050028442"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Loitsianskii. L. G.</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p>The fundamental, practically the most important branch of the modern mechanics of a viscous fluid or a gas, is that branch which concerns itself with the study of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. The presence of a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer accounts for the origin of the resistance and lift force, the breakdown of the smooth flow about bodies, and other phenomena that are associated with the motion of a body in a real fluid. The concept of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer was clearly formulated by the founder of aerodynamics, N. E. Joukowsky, in his well-known work "On the Form of Ships" published as early as 1890. In his book "Theoretical Foundations of Air Navigation," Joukowsky gave an account of the most important properties of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer and pointed out the part played by it in the production of the resistance of bodies to motion. The fundamental differential equations of the motion of a fluid in a laminar <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer were given by Prandtl in 1904; the first solutions of these equations date from 1907 to 1910. As regards the turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer, there does not exist even to this day any rigorous formulation of this problem because there is no closed system of equations for the turbulent motion of a fluid. Soviet scientists have done much toward developing a general theory of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer, and in that branch of the theory which is of greatest practical importance at the present time, namely the study of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer at large velocities of the body in a compressed gas, the efforts of the scientists of our country have borne fruit in the creation of a new theory which leaves far behind all that has been done previously in this direction. We shall herein enumerate the most important results by Soviet scientists in the development of the theory of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Metro..51.1004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Metro..51.1004B"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> report on RMO comparison SIM.EM-S10: High value resistance comparison with two-terminal cryogenic <span class="hlt">current</span> comparators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bierzychudek, Marcos E.; Elmquist, Randolph; Hernández, Felipe</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This work presents a supplementary comparison of high value resistance standards performed during 2012 and January 2013, following the guidelines presented in a document about measurement comparisons in the CIPM MRA. The purpose of this task was to compare the high resistance cryogenic <span class="hlt">current</span> comparator scaling of the participating institutes: National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST), Centro Nacional de Metrología, Mexico (CENAM) and Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial, Argentina (INTI), all of which are members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM) Regional Metrology Organization. All the measurements of this comparison were performed with two-terminal cryogenic <span class="hlt">current</span> comparators (CCC). Degrees of equivalence of the participating institutes relative to the comparison reference values are given in the report for the measured resistance values. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The <span class="hlt">final</span> report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16359482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16359482"><span>A survey of U.S. prosthodontists and dental schools on the <span class="hlt">current</span> materials and methods for <span class="hlt">final</span> impressions for complete denture prosthodontics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petrie, Cynthia S; Walker, Mary P; Williams, Karen</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to survey members of The American College of Prosthodontists (ACP) to evaluate <span class="hlt">current</span> materials and methods for <span class="hlt">final</span> impressions for complete denture prosthodontics in the United States. In addition, those methods were compared with methods and materials taught in U.S. dental schools via a second survey sent to the chairpersons of prosthodontic/restorative departments. An anonymous questionnaire was mailed to all 1762 active ACP members in the United States in 2003. A slightly modified questionnaire was also distributed to chairpersons of prosthodontic/restorative departments in the 54 U.S. dental schools. Data analysis was performed via frequency distribution and chi-square statistics. Nine hundred and forty-five questionnaires were returned by members of the ACP (54% return rate) and 42 questionnaires were returned by the U.S. dental schools (78% return rate). The majority of the reporting prosthodontists (88%) and dental schools (98%) use a border-molded custom tray for <span class="hlt">final</span> impressions for complete denture prosthodontics. The most popular material for border molding was plastic modeling compound (67% of reporting ACP members, and 95% of the responding dental schools). Variability of the materials used for <span class="hlt">final</span> impressions was observed, with the most popular materials being polyvinylsiloxane for the ACP members (36%) and polysulfide for the dental schools (64%). Statistically significant differences were found in the materials used for border molding by prosthodontists based on the time elapsed since completion of prosthodontic training. No differences were found in the materials used for impression of edentulous arches based on years of experience. Geographic location did not influence the materials and methods used by prosthodontists for complete denture <span class="hlt">final</span> impressions. There was variability of the materials and techniques used for <span class="hlt">final</span> impressions by ACP members and dental schools; however, overall there was an agreement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1167145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1167145"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gurney, Kevin R.</p> <p>2015-01-12</p> <p>This document constitutes the <span class="hlt">final</span> report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the <span class="hlt">current</span> draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This <span class="hlt">final</span> work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This <span class="hlt">final</span> workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the <span class="hlt">current</span> paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060038939&hterms=alkali&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dalkali','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060038939&hterms=alkali&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dalkali"><span>(abstract) Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Exchange <span class="hlt">Current</span> at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase <span class="hlt">Boundary</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The microscopic mechanism of the alkali ion-electron recombination reaction at the three phase <span class="hlt">boundary</span> zone formed by a porous metal electrode in the alkali vapor on the surface of an alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) ceramic has been studied by comparison of the expected rates for the three simplest reaction mechanisms with known temperature dependent rate data; and the physical parameters of typical porous metal electrode/BASE/alkali metal vapor reaction zones. The three simplest reactions are tunneling of electrons from the alkali coated electrode to a surface bound alkali metal ion; emission of an electron from the electrode with subsequent capture by a surface bound alkali metal ion; and thermal emission of an alkali cation from the BASE and its capture on the porous metal electrode surface where it may recombine with an electron. Only the first reaction adequately accounts for both the high observed rate and its temperature dependence. New results include crude modeling of simple, one step, three phase, solid/solid/gas electrochemical reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060038939&hterms=Alkali+metals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DAlkali%2Bmetals','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060038939&hterms=Alkali+metals&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DAlkali%2Bmetals"><span>(abstract) Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Exchange <span class="hlt">Current</span> at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase <span class="hlt">Boundary</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The microscopic mechanism of the alkali ion-electron recombination reaction at the three phase <span class="hlt">boundary</span> zone formed by a porous metal electrode in the alkali vapor on the surface of an alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) ceramic has been studied by comparison of the expected rates for the three simplest reaction mechanisms with known temperature dependent rate data; and the physical parameters of typical porous metal electrode/BASE/alkali metal vapor reaction zones. The three simplest reactions are tunneling of electrons from the alkali coated electrode to a surface bound alkali metal ion; emission of an electron from the electrode with subsequent capture by a surface bound alkali metal ion; and thermal emission of an alkali cation from the BASE and its capture on the porous metal electrode surface where it may recombine with an electron. Only the first reaction adequately accounts for both the high observed rate and its temperature dependence. New results include crude modeling of simple, one step, three phase, solid/solid/gas electrochemical reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/57368','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/57368"><span>Stratospheric volcanic aerosols and changes in air-earth <span class="hlt">current</span> density at solar wind magnetic sector <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> as conditions for the Wilcox tropospheric vorticity effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tinsley, B.A.; Hoeksema, J.T.; Baker, D.N. ||</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>A correlation between tropospheric dynamics and solar wind magnetic fields that disappeared in the early 1970s reappeared with a new injection of volcanic aerosols into the stratosphere. A similar pattern of correlation has been found for changes in <span class="hlt">current</span> density in the global electric circuit and for changes in relativistic electron precipitation. Several other weather and climate variations have been found to correlate with changes in air-earth <span class="hlt">current</span> density due to solar wind modulation of the global electric circuit. The accumulation of electrostatic charge on supercooled droplets at cloud tops responds to air-earth <span class="hlt">current</span> density changes. A mechanism linking the effects of charge accumulation to changes in ice nucleation, precipitation efficiency, latent heat retention and perturbations in atmospheric dynamics is thus as an explanation for this and other solar wind - atmospheric electricity - weather and climate correlations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........53T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT........53T"><span>Grain <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> (GB) Studies in Nano- and Micro- Crystalline Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tanju, Sohanazaman</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Polycrystalline materials are composed of grains and grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. The total volume of occupied grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in polycrystalline material depends on the grain size. When grain size decreases the volume fraction of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> increases. For example, when grain size is 10 nm grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> volume fraction is ˜ 25%. In polycrystalline materials, different properties (mechanical, electrical, optical, magnetic) are affected by the size of their grains and by the atomic structure of their grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Nanocrystalline materials have unique properties compared to coarse grain counterpart because of the presence of more grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Increased understanding of the role of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> play in nanocrystalline materials promotes the tunning of materials properties. In order to study the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in different materials, fully dense bulk materials are processed using <span class="hlt">Current</span> Activated Pressure Assisted Densification (CAPAD) technique. CAPAD is a unique technique for materials processing. It offers faster processing of nanoscale materials compared to traditional sintering technique. Joule heating and pressure are used to densify the materials in CAPAD system. X-ray analysis, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) are used to characterize the materials. There are three different parts in this dissertation: (1) Affect of grain size on grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> curvature on different materials; for example, nano and micro crystalline aluminum (metallic bond), silicon (covalent bond) and iron oxide (ionic bond); (2) Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> geometry analysis of nanocrystalline materials and (3) Grain size dependent electrical and optical property investigation. In the first part of the dissertation, the effect of grain size on the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> curvature is investigated. Several different types of materials were chosen, such as, micro and nano crystalline aluminum (Al), silicon (Si) and iron oxide (Fe2O3). It is found that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcDyn..66.1529D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcDyn..66.1529D"><span>Assessment of the coastal dynamics in a nested zoom and feedback on the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span>: the North-Western Mediterranean Sea case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Declerck, Amandine; Ourmières, Yann; Molcard, Anne</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The Northern <span class="hlt">Current</span> (hereafter NC), the major <span class="hlt">current</span> in the North-Western Mediterranean (hereafter NWM) basin, has been largely investigated in the litterature for its mesoscale features. Its behaviour in the Var region can strongly condition the downstream flow along the Gulf of Lions shelf and Spain coast, making this zone a key area. However, the sub-mesoscale dynamics of the area and its potential impacts on the rest of the flow are not well known. This work reveals the potential interest of better simulating high-resolution dynamics in a restricted area and how this could improve the circulation representation in a larger area. To address this question, a very high resolution configuration (1/192∘) nested in an already existing high-resolution configuration (1/64∘) has been developed, using the NEMO model. Comparisons with observations show that the very high-resolution changes only weakly the mean NC characteristics but can significantly modify individual mesoscale events such as eddies and meanders occurring in the zoomed area. Furthermore, the coastal dynamics and episodic intrusions of a NC secondary branch inside a semi-enclosed bay appear to be significantly enhanced. In a second stage, the assessment of the feedback of this improved dynamics on the regional mesoscale dynamics is shown, this being allowed by the two-way coupling option of the embedded configuration using AGRIF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11i4013P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11i4013P"><span>Projected changes to South Atlantic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> and confluence region in the CMIP5 models: the role of wind and deep ocean changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pontes, G. M.; Gupta, A. Sen; Taschetto, A. S.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The South Atlantic (SA) circulation plays an important role in the oceanic teleconnections from the Indian, Pacific and Southern oceans to the North Atlantic, with inter-hemispheric exchanges of heat and salt. Here, we show that the large-scale features of the SA circulation are projected to change significantly under ‘business as usual’ greenhouse gas increases. Based on 19 models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 there is a projected weakening in the upper ocean interior transport (<1000 m) between 15° and ˜32°S, largely related to a weakening of the wind stress curl over this region. The reduction in ocean interior circulation is largely compensated by a decrease in the net deep southward ocean transport (>1000 m), mainly related to a decrease in the North Atlantic deep water transport. Between 30° and 40°S, there is a consistent projected intensification in the Brazil <span class="hlt">current</span> strength of about 40% (30%-58% interquartile range) primarily compensated by an intensification of the upper interior circulation across the Indo-Atlantic basin. The Brazil-Malvinas confluence is projected to shift southwards, driven by a weakening of the Malvinas <span class="hlt">current</span>. Such a change could have important implications for the distribution of marine species in the southwestern SA in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6316089','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6316089"><span>The atmospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garratt, J.R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This book is aimed at researchers in the atmospheric and associated sciences who require a moderately advanced text on the Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer (ABL) in which the many links between turbulence, air-surface transfer, <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer structure and dynamics, and numerical modeling are discussed and elaborated upon. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, with Chapters 2 and 3 dealing with the development of mean and turbulence equations, and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modelling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions, and Chapters 4 and 5 deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL is treated in Chapter 6, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL and the internal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer at the coastline. Chapter 7 then extends the discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is seen as particularly relevant since the extensive stratocumulus regions over the sub-tropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic are now identified as key players in the climate system. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, Chapters 8 and 9 bring much of the book's material together in a discussion of appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes for the general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate simulation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/925916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/925916"><span>Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer over the California <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander</p> <p>2008-03-12</p> <p>Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California <span class="hlt">current</span> located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/985029','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/985029"><span>Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from the Marine <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Over the California <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hopkins, Rebecca J; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V; Zaveri, Rahul A; Berkowitz, Carl M; Tyliszczak, T; Gilles, Marry K; Laskin, Alexander</p> <p>2008-02-27</p> <p>Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a complementary combination of microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from an air mass that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California <span class="hlt">current</span> located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH<sub>3</sub>SO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>) in sea-salt particles with the characteristic ratios of CH<sub>3</sub>SO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>/nss-SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>> 0.6. Although this value seems too high for a mid-latitude site, our model calculations suggest that high CH<sub>3</sub>SO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>/nss-SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> ratios are expected during the early stages of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation when CH<sub>3</sub>SO<sub>3</sub>H forms more rapidly than H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22350967','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22350967"><span>Evidence for composition variations and impurity segregation at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in high <span class="hlt">current</span>-density polycrystalline K- and Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, Yoon-Jun; Weiss, Jeremy D.; Hellstrom, Eric E.; Larbalestier, David C.; Seidman, David N.</p> <p>2014-10-20</p> <p>Some polycrystalline forms of the K- and Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and SrFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} superconductors now have a critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density (J{sub c}) within a factor of ∼5 of that required for real applications, even though it is known that some grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> (GBs) block <span class="hlt">current</span>, thus, raising the question of whether this blocking is intrinsic or extrinsically limited by artefacts amenable to improvement by better processing. Herein, we utilize atom-probe tomography (APT) to study the grain and GB composition in high J{sub c} K- and Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} polycrystals. We find that all GBs studied show significant compositional variations on the scale of a few coherence lengths (ξ), as well as strong segregation of oxygen impurities, which we believe are largely introduced in the starting materials. Importantly, these findings demonstrate that APT enables quantitative analysis of the highest J{sub c} K-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} samples, where analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) fails because of the great reactivity of thin TEM samples. The observations of major chemical perturbations at GBs make us cautiously optimistic that there is a large extrinsic component to the GB <span class="hlt">current</span> blocking, which will be ameliorated by better processing, for which APT will likely be a crucial instrument.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18334378','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18334378"><span>Understanding perceptual <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in laparoscopic surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lamata, Pablo; Gomez, Enrique J; Hernández, Félix Lamata; Oltra Pastor, Alfonso; Sanchez-Margallo, Francisco Miquel; Del Pozo Guerrero, Francisco</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Human perceptual capabilities related to the laparoscopic interaction paradigm are not well known. Its study is important for the design of virtual reality simulators, and for the specification of augmented reality applications that overcome <span class="hlt">current</span> limitations and provide a supersensing to the surgeon. As part of this work, this article addresses the study of laparoscopic pulling forces. Two definitions are proposed to focalize the problem: the perceptual fidelity <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, limit of human perceptual capabilities, and the Utile fidelity <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, that encapsulates the perceived aspects actually used by surgeons to guide an operation. The study is then aimed to define the perceptual fidelity <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of laparoscopic pulling forces. This is approached with an experimental design in which surgeons assess the resistance against pulling of four different tissues, which are characterized with both in vivo interaction forces and ex vivo tissue biomechanical properties. A logarithmic law of tissue consistency perception is found comparing subjective valorizations with objective parameters. A model of this perception is developed identifying what the main parameters are: the grade of fixation of the organ, the tissue stiffness, the amount of tissue bitten, and the organ mass being pulled. These results are a clear requirement analysis for the force feedback algorithm of a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, some discussion is raised about the suitability of augmented reality applications around this surgical gesture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5088534','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5088534"><span>Dimension of fractal basin <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Park, B.S.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin <span class="hlt">boundary</span> can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin <span class="hlt">boundary</span> show <span class="hlt">final</span> state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin <span class="hlt">boundary</span> d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin <span class="hlt">boundary</span> (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin <span class="hlt">boundary</span> characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin <span class="hlt">boundary</span> jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2654825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2654825"><span>Crossing <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Miedema, Baukje; Easley, Julie; Fortin, Pierrette; Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To explore the tensions between professional and personal <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and how they affect the work and private lives of family physicians. DESIGN Qualitative case study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Forty-eight family physicians from across the province. METHODS A collective case-study approach was developed, with 24 cases of 2 individuals per case. Cases were selected based on sex, location (urban or rural), language (French or English), and number of years since medical school graduation (< 10 years, 10 to 20 years, or > 20 years). Physicians were interviewed in either French or English. Participants were recruited using the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick’s physician directory. Based on the rates of response and participation, some cases were overrepresented, while others were not completed. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically using a categorical aggregation approach. A coding scheme for the thematic analysis was developed by the research team before the interviews were transcribed. MAIN FINDINGS Almost all of the family physicians interviewed discussed how their profession negatively affected their personal lives. Many struggled with issues such as heavy workloads, the adverse effects of their profession on their family lives, and the trespassing of patients onto their personal lives in small towns and rural communities. Some physicians had developed strategies to balance their personal lives with their professional demands; however, this often meant reducing work hours or terminating certain shifts, such as those in the emergency department or after-hours clinics. CONCLUSION Family physicians struggle to keep their profession from intruding too much into their private lives. These struggles are important to acknowledge and address in order to avoid physician burnout and premature retirement from clinical practice. PMID:19282540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1018666','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1018666"><span>Towards Natural Transition in Compressible <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-06-29</p> <p>AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2016-0011 Towards natural transition in compressible <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers Marcello Faraco de Medeiros FUNDACAO PARA O INCREMENTO DA...to 29-03-2016 Towards natural transition in compressible <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers FA9550-11-1-0354 Marcello A. Faraco de Medeiros Germán Andrés Gaviria...unlimited. 109 <span class="hlt">Final</span> report Towards natural transition in compressible <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers Principal Investigator: Marcello Augusto Faraco de Medeiros</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSMTE..07..007V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JSMTE..07..007V"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> loops and fluctuations in the zero-range process on a diamond lattice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Villavicencio-Sanchez, R.; Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>We study the zero-range process on a simple diamond lattice with open <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions and determine the conditions for the existence of loops in the mean <span class="hlt">current</span>. We also perform a large deviation analysis for fluctuations of partial and total <span class="hlt">currents</span> and check the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation for these quantities. In this context, we show that the fluctuation relation is not satisfied for partial <span class="hlt">currents</span> between sites even if it is satisfied for the total <span class="hlt">current</span> flowing between the <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we extend our methods to study a chain of coupled diamonds and demonstrate co-existence of mean <span class="hlt">current</span> regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25019882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25019882"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> streaming with Navier <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Jin-Han; Vanneste, Jacques</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In microfluidic applications involving high-frequency acoustic waves over a solid <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, the Stokes <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer thickness δ is so small that some non-negligible slip may occur at the fluid-solid interface. This paper assesses the impact of this slip by revisiting the classical problem of steady acoustic streaming over a flat <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, replacing the no-slip <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition with the Navier condition u|_{y=0}=L_{s}∂_{y}u|_{y=0}, where u is the velocity tangent to the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> y=0, and the parameter L_{s} is the slip length. A general expression is obtained for the streaming velocity across the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer as a function of the dimensionless parameter L_{s}/δ. The limit outside the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer provides an effective slip velocity satisfied by the interior mean flow. Particularizing to traveling and standing waves shows that the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip respectively increases and decreases the streaming velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoPh.225..528G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JCoPh.225..528G"><span>A sharp interface immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> method for compressible viscous flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghias, R.; Mittal, R.; Dong, H.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>An immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> method for computing viscous, subsonic compressible flows with complex shaped stationary immersed <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> is presented. The method employs a ghost-cell technique for imposing the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions on the immersed <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. The <span class="hlt">current</span> approach leads to a sharp representation of the immersed <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, a property that is especially useful for flow simulations at high Reynolds numbers. Another unique feature of the method is that it can be applied on Cartesian as well as generalized body non-conformal curvilinear meshes. A mixed second-order central difference-QUICK scheme is used which allows a high degree of control over the numerical damping. A bilinear interpolation scheme used in conjunction with the ghost-cell approach results in second-order global as well as local spatial accuracy. The solver is parallelized for distributed memory platforms using domain decomposition and message passing interface (MPI) and salient features of the parallel algorithm are presented. The accuracy, fidelity and efficiency of the solver are examined by simulating flow past circular cylinders and airfoils and comparing against experimental data and other established results. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we present results from a simulation of wing-tip flow at a relatively high Reynolds number in order to demonstrate the ability of the solver to model complex, non-canonical three-dimensional flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5909044','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5909044"><span>Baseline and verification tests of the electric vehicle associates' <span class="hlt">current</span> fare station wagon. <span class="hlt">Final</span> test report, March 27, 1980-November 6, 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dowgiallo, E.J. Jr.; Chapman, R.D.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The EVA <span class="hlt">Current</span> Fare Wagon was manufactured by Electric Vehicle Associates, Incorporated (EVA) of Cleveland, Ohio. It is now available from Lectra Motors Corp. of Las Vegas, Nevada. The vehicle was tested under the direction of MERADCOM from 27 March 1980 to 6 November 1981. The tests are part of a Department of Energy project to assess advances in electric vehicle design. This report presents the performance test results on the EVA <span class="hlt">Current</span> Fare Wagon. The EVA <span class="hlt">Current</span> Fare Wagon is a 1980 Ford Fairmont station wagon which has been converted to an electric vehicle. The propulsion system is made up of a Cableform controller, a series-wound 30-hp Reliance Electric Motor, and 22 6-V lead-acid batteries. The <span class="hlt">Current</span> Fare Wagon is also equipped with regenerative braking. Further details of the vehicle are given in the Vehicle Summary Data Sheet, Appendix A. The results of this testing are given in Table 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1004893','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1004893"><span>A Self-Powered Thin-Film Radiation Detector Using Intrinsic High-Energy <span class="hlt">Current</span> (HEC) (Author’s <span class="hlt">Final</span> Version)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-09-08</p> <p>which induces conduction <span class="hlt">current</span> in an external readout circuit . Direct energy conversion of the incident radiation powers signal formation without...particles in the detector material, which induces conduction <span class="hlt">current</span> in an external readout circuit . Direct energy conversion of the incident...electric field (e.g., bias voltage), which transports the charges across the active medium to form a signal in an external circuit . Conversion of energy via</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10160337','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10160337"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> good manufacturing practices for blood and blood components: notification of consignees receiving blood and blood components at increased risk for transmitting HIV infection--FDA. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-09-09</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the biologics regulations to require that blood establishments (including plasma establishments) prepare and follow written procedures for appropriate action when it is determined that Whole Blood, blood components (including recovered plasma), Source Plasma and Source Leukocytes at increased risk for transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been collected. This <span class="hlt">final</span> rule requires that when a donor who previously donated blood is tested on a later donation in accordance with the regulations and tests repeatedly reactive for antibody to HIV, the blood establishment shall perform more specific testing using a licensed test, if available, and notify consignees who received Whole Blood, blood components, Source Plasma or Source Leukocytes from prior collections so that appropriate action is taken. Blood establishments and consignees are required to quarantine previously collected Whole Blood, blood components, Source Plasma and Source Leukocytes from such donors, and if appropriate, notify transfusion recipients. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) is also issuing a <span class="hlt">final</span> rule, published elsewhere in this Federal Register, which requires all transfusion services subject to HCFA's conditions of Medicare participation for hospitals to notify transfusion recipients who have received Whole Blood or blood components from a donor whose subsequent donation test results are positive for antibody to HIV (hereinafter referred to as HCFA's <span class="hlt">final</span> rule). FDA is requiring transfusion services that do not participate in Medicare and are, therefore, not subject to HCFA's <span class="hlt">final</span> rule, to take steps to notify transfusion recipients. FDA is taking this action to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply, and to help ensure that information is provided to consignees of Whole Blood, blood components, Source Plasma and Source Leukocytes and to recipients of Whole Blood and blood components from a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452376','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26452376"><span>Event <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and anaphoric reference.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Alexis N; Radvansky, Gabriel A</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">current</span> study explored the finding that parsing a narrative into separate events impairs anaphor resolution. According to the Event Horizon Model, when a narrative event <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is encountered, a new event model is created. Information associated with the prior event model is removed from working memory. So long as the event model containing the anaphor referent is <span class="hlt">currently</span> being processed, this information should still be available when there is no narrative event <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, even if reading has been disrupted by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. In those cases, readers may reactivate their prior event model, and anaphor resolution would not be affected. Alternatively, comprehension may not be as event oriented as this account suggests. Instead, any disruption of the contents of working memory during comprehension, event related or not, may be sufficient to disrupt anaphor resolution. In this case, reading comprehension would be more strongly guided by other, more basic language processing mechanisms and the event structure of the described events would play a more minor role. In the <span class="hlt">current</span> experiments, participants were given stories to read in which we included, between the anaphor and its referent, either the presence of a narrative event <span class="hlt">boundary</span> (Experiment 1) or a narrative event <span class="hlt">boundary</span> along with a working-memory-clearing distractor task (Experiment 2). The results showed that anaphor resolution was affected by narrative event <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> but not by a working-memory-clearing distractor task. This is interpreted as being consistent with the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010080472','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010080472"><span>Representation of Clear and Cloudy <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layers in Climate Models. Chapter 14</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Randall, D. A.; Shao, Q.; Branson, M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The atmospheric general circulation models which are being used as components of climate models rely on their <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer parameterizations to produce realistic simulations of the surface turbulent fluxes of sensible heat. moisture. and momentum: of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer depth over which these fluxes converge: of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer cloudiness: and of the interactions of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer with the deep convective clouds that grow upwards from it. Two <span class="hlt">current</span> atmospheric general circulation models are used as examples to show how these requirements are being addressed: these are version 3 of the Community Climate Model. which has been developed at the U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research. and the Colorado State University atmospheric general circulation model. The formulations and results of both models are discussed. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, areas for future research are suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890019363&hterms=ag&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dag','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890019363&hterms=ag&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dag"><span>A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fernholz, H. H.; Finley, P. J.; Dussauge, J. P.; Smits, A. J.; Reshotko, E. (Editor)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A wide range of recent work on compressible turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers is described. Special attention was paid to flows with rapid changes in pressure including flows with shock waves, curved walls, and expansions. The application of rapid distortion theory to flows transversing expansion and shock waves is reviewed. This is followed by an account of experiments aimed at elucidating the large scale structures present in supersonic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers. The <span class="hlt">current</span> status of laser-Doppler and hot-wire anemometry in supersonic flow is discussed, and a new interferometric technique for the determination of wall-stress is described. The use of small pressure transducers to deduce information about the structure of zero pressure-gradient and severely perturbed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers is investigated. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, there is an extension of the data presentation of AGARDographs 223, 253 and 263 to cover rapidly distorted <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890019363&hterms=techniques+keep+attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtechniques%2Bkeep%2Battention','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890019363&hterms=techniques+keep+attention&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dtechniques%2Bkeep%2Battention"><span>A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fernholz, H. H.; Finley, P. J.; Dussauge, J. P.; Smits, A. J.; Reshotko, E. (Editor)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A wide range of recent work on compressible turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers is described. Special attention was paid to flows with rapid changes in pressure including flows with shock waves, curved walls, and expansions. The application of rapid distortion theory to flows transversing expansion and shock waves is reviewed. This is followed by an account of experiments aimed at elucidating the large scale structures present in supersonic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers. The <span class="hlt">current</span> status of laser-Doppler and hot-wire anemometry in supersonic flow is discussed, and a new interferometric technique for the determination of wall-stress is described. The use of small pressure transducers to deduce information about the structure of zero pressure-gradient and severely perturbed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers is investigated. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, there is an extension of the data presentation of AGARDographs 223, 253 and 263 to cover rapidly distorted <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750025274','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750025274"><span>Measurement of density and temperature in a hypersonic turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer using the electron beam fluorescence technique. Ph.D. Thesis. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report, 1 Oct. 1969 - 1 Sep. 1972</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mcronald, A. D.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Mean density and temperature fluctuations were measured across the turbulent, cooled-wall <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer in a continuous hypersonic (Mach 9.4) wind tunnel in air, using the nitrogen fluorescence excited by a 50 kV electron beam. Data were taken at three values of the tunnel stagnation pressure, the corresponding free stream densities being equivalent to 1.2, 4.0, and 7.4 torr at room temperature, and the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer thicknesses about 4.0, 4.5, and 6.0 inches. The mean temperature and density profiles were similar to those previously determined in the same facility by conventional probes (static and pitot pressure, total temperature). A static pressure variation of about 50% across the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer was found, the shape of the variation changing somewhat for the three stagnation pressure levels. The quadrupole model for rotational temperature spectra gave closer agreement with the free stream isentropic level (approximately 44 K) than the dipole model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25480045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25480045"><span>Derivation and implementation of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> integral formula for the convective acoustic wave equation in time domain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Duck Joo</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Kirchhoff's formula for the convective wave equation is derived using the generalized function theory. The generalized convective wave equation for a stationary surface is obtained, and the integral formulation, the convective Kirchhoff's formula, is derived. The formula has a similar form to the classical Kirchhoff's formula, but an additional term appears due to a moving medium effect. For convenience, the additional term is manipulated to a <span class="hlt">final</span> form as the classical Kirchhoff's formula. The frequency domain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> integral can be obtained from the <span class="hlt">current</span> time domain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> integral form. The derived formula is verified by comparison with the analytic solution of source in the uniform flow. The formula is also utilized as a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> integral equation. Time domain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method (BEM) analysis using the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> integral equation is conducted, and the results show good agreement with the analytical solution. The formula derived here can be useful for sound radiation and scattering by arbitrary bodies in a moving medium in the time domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1008203','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1008203"><span>Preliminary Structural Design Conceptualization for Composite Rotor for Verdant Power Water <span class="hlt">Current</span>: Cooperative Research and Development <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-296</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, S.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The primary thrust of the CRADA will be to develop a new rotor design that will allow higher <span class="hlt">current</span> flows (>4m/s), greater swept area (6-11m), and in the process, will maximize performance and energy capture.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=current+AND+cost+AND+present+AND+value&pg=7&id=ED132160','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=current+AND+cost+AND+present+AND+value&pg=7&id=ED132160"><span>Future Performance Trend Indicators: A <span class="hlt">Current</span> Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report I. Internal Consistencies and Relationships to Performance By Site. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pecorella, Patricia A.; Bowers, David G.</p> <p></p> <p>Analyses preparatory to construction of a suitable file for generating a system of future performance trend indicators are described. Such a system falls into the category of a <span class="hlt">current</span> value approach to human resources accounting. It requires that there be a substantial body of data which: (1) uses the work group or unit, not the individual, as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1155872','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1155872"><span>A measurement of the muon neutrino charged <span class="hlt">current</span> quasielastic-like cross section on a hydrocarbon target and <span class="hlt">final</span> state interaction effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walton, Tammy</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Presented is the analysis of the μ charged-<span class="hlt">current</span> quasielastic-like interaction with a polystyrene (CH or hydrocarbon) target in the MINER A experiment, which was exposed to a neutrino beam that peaked at 3.5 GeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED034319.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED034319.pdf"><span>The Legal Status (Historical Development, <span class="hlt">Current</span> Statutes and Court Decisions) of Pupil Transportation in the Public Schools of the United States. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forsythe, Ralph A.</p> <p></p> <p>To determine the historical-legal development and <span class="hlt">current</span> legal status of pupil transportation as practiced in U.S. public schools, State constitutional provisions, State legislation, and court decisions related to pupil transportation are analyzed. Legal constraints affecting the following areas of pupil transportation programs are reviewed: (1)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=measure+AND+internal+AND+efficiency&pg=4&id=ED132160','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=measure+AND+internal+AND+efficiency&pg=4&id=ED132160"><span>Future Performance Trend Indicators: A <span class="hlt">Current</span> Value Approach to Human Resources Accounting. Report I. Internal Consistencies and Relationships to Performance By Site. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pecorella, Patricia A.; Bowers, David G.</p> <p></p> <p>Analyses preparatory to construction of a suitable file for generating a system of future performance trend indicators are described. Such a system falls into the category of a <span class="hlt">current</span> value approach to human resources accounting. It requires that there be a substantial body of data which: (1) uses the work group or unit, not the individual, as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950016851','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950016851"><span>Physics of magnetospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cairns, Iver H.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">final</span> report was concerned with the ideas that: (1) magnetospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers link disparate regions of the magnetosphere-solar wind system together; and (2) global behavior of the magnetosphere can be understood only by understanding its internal linking mechanisms and those with the solar wind. The research project involved simultaneous research on the global-, meso-, and micro-scale physics of the magnetosphere and its <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers, which included the bow shock, the magnetosheath, the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer, and the ionosphere. Analytic, numerical, and simulation projects were performed on these subjects, as well as comparisons of theoretical results with observational data. Other related activity included in the research included: (1) prediction of geomagnetic activity; (2) global MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) simulations; (3) Alfven resonance heating; and (4) Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) effect. In the appendixes are list of personnel involved, list of papers published; and reprints or photocopies of papers produced for this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1324669','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1324669"><span>Time Resolved Optical Studies on The Plasmonic Field Enhancement of Bacteriorhodopsin Proton Photo-<span class="hlt">current</span>: <span class="hlt">Final</span> Technical Report Covering Aug 31, 2015–Aug 31, 2016</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>El-Sayed, Mostafa A.</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>Our research continues to focus on the effects of plasmonic nanoparticles on organic and inorganic light-harvesting materials. Recent work has focused on the synthesis of stabilized gold nanoparticles to enhance the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Two major concerns in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are efficient light absorption and charge collection. Charge collection typically suffers because transport of electrons through the mesoporous TiO<sub>2</sub> substrate is slow. Thus, one obvious way to improve charge collection is to reduce the thickness of the TiO<sub>2</sub>. Alternatively, a form of TiO<sub>2</sub> with fewer grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, such as nanotubes, could be used in place of sintered nanospheres. Unfortunately, both of these solutions end up reducing the amount of surface area available to adsorb dye molecules. This directly reduces the percentage of photons absorbed. This problem could be avoided if dye molecules with larger absorption were designed; although synthetic chemists seem to be pushing the limits of what is achievable. Plasmonic nanoparticles offer an alternative way to boost light absorption. It is well known that plasmonic nanoparticles can enhance the local electric field of resonant frequencies of light. If this were in the same spectral region as the dye’s absorption band it would increase the percentage of absorbed photons. One concern is that if the nanoparticles are too close to the dye molecules they can quench the excited state. To avoid this problem, we prepared gold nanoparticles with a silica shell. This limited the amount of quenching while still permitting some enhancement of absorption. Unfortunately, we ran into some serious issues. The iodide based electrolyte etched the gold nanoparticles, completely dissolving them within a few hours. The silica shell should have provided protection but there were pinholes through which iodide could diffuse. Increasing the thickness of the silica to over 10 nm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21539283','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21539283"><span>Law of 22 April 2005 on patients' rights and the end of life in France: setting the <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of euthanasia, with regard to <span class="hlt">current</span> legislation in other European countries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clin, Bénédicte; Ophélie, Ferrant</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The term 'euthanasia' is not clearly defined. Euthanasia is evoked in many aspects of terminal care: interruption of curative treatment at the end of life, palliative care or the act of deliberately provoking death through compassion. A law on 'patients' rights and the end of life', promulgated in France on 22 April 2005, led to changes in the French Code of Public Health. In this work, we have first outlined the key provisions of this law and the changes it has brought, then we have compared <span class="hlt">current</span> legislation on the subject throughout Europe, where a rapid overview of <span class="hlt">current</span> practice in terminal patient care revealed four different types of legislation: the first authorizes euthanasia (in the sense of provoking death, if this choice is medically justified), the second legalizes 'assisted suicide', the third, which is sometimes referred to as 'passive euthanasia', consists of the non-administration of life-sustaining treatment and, <span class="hlt">finally</span>, the fourth prohibits euthanasia in any form whatsoever. In the last section, we have attempted to clarify the as yet indistinct notion of 'euthanasia' in order to determine whether the conception of terminal care in the Law of 22 April 2005 was consistent with that put forward by the philosopher Francis Bacon, who claimed that, 'The physician's role is to relieve pain, not only when such relief can lead to healing, but also when it can proffer a calm and trouble-free death, thus putting an end to the suffering and the agony of death' (modern adaptation of the original quote).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA541926','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA541926"><span>Unified Parameterization of the Marine <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-09-30</p> <p>information if it does not display a <span class="hlt">currently</span> valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2010 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010...<span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer closure for the convective <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer 2 . An EDMF approach to the vertical transport of TKE in convective <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers 3. EDMF in...4 implementation and extension to shallow cumulus parameterization is in progress. 2   An integrated TKE-based eddy-diffusivity/mass-flux</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT........72A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT........72A"><span>Eddies along western <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arruda, Wilton Zumpichiatti</p> <p></p> <p>The Ulleung eddy owes its existence to beta and nonlinearities . A nonlinear theory for the Ulleung Warm Eddy (UWE) in the Japan/East Sea is proposed. Using the nonlinear reduced gravity (shallow water) equations, it is shown analytically and numerically that the eddy is established in order to balance the northward momentum flux exerted by the separating western <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> (WBC). In this scenario the presence of beta produces a southward (eddy) force balancing the northward momentum flux of the separating East Korea Warm <span class="hlt">Current</span>. In contrast to the familiar idea attributing the formation of eddies to instabilities (i.e., the breakdown of a known steady solution), the UWE is an integral part of the steady stable solution. On an f-plane no eddy is produced. To balance the northward momentum force imparted by the nonlinear WBC the f-plane system moves offshore producing a southward Coriolis force. We also found that the observed UWE scale agrees with the analytical and numerical estimates. The Mindanao and Halmahera eddies are due to the bending of their parent <span class="hlt">currents</span>, nonlinearities and beta. Starting with the simple case of a northward (southward) WBC flowing along a concave solid <span class="hlt">boundary</span> with a sharp corner on an beta-plane, it is shown that an anticyclonic (cyclonic) eddy is established to balance the upstream momentum flux. (On an f-plane no eddy is established because a pressure force which balances the WBC momentum flux is generated.) With the aid of the above analysis we then examine the collision of two opposing WBCs on a beta-plane. It is shown that this problem can be conceptually reduced to the above problem of two WBCs turning in a solid corner on a beta-plane where the streamline separating the two colliding <span class="hlt">currents</span> acts like a "zonal wall." We show that an eddy is established (to balance the momentum flux of the respective WBC) on each side of the dividing streamline. Based on the collision problem, an explanation for the Mindanao and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA120452','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA120452"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING <span class="hlt">BOUNDARY</span> IN fcc STRUCTURE .......... 11 - 4 TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA AMONG GRAIN <span class="hlt">BOUNDARY</span> STRUCTURES...19 B THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING <span class="hlt">BOUNDARY</span> IN fcc STRUCTURE .......... 37 C TRANSITIONS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA AMONG GRAIN <span class="hlt">BOUNDARY</span>...layer structure. 10 SECTION 3 THEORY OF ABC-CBA STACKING <span class="hlt">BOUNDARY</span> IN fcc STRUCTURE The (111) planes of the fcc structure is stacked as ABCABC... as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1323555','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1323555"><span>The Role of Grain <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Energy on Grain <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Complexion Transitions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bojarski, Stephanie A.; Rohrer, Gregory S.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> complexions are distinct equilibrium structures and compositions of a grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and complexion transformations are transition from a metastable to an equilibrium complexion at a specific thermodynamic and geometric conditions. Previous work indicates that, in the case of doped alumina, a complexion transition that increased the mobility of transformed <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and resulted in abnormal grain growth also caused a decrease in the mean relative grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> energy as well as an increase in the anisotropy of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> character distribution (GBCD). The <span class="hlt">current</span> work will investigate the hypothesis that the rates of complexion transitions that result in abnormal grain growth (AGG) depend on grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> character and energy. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">current</span> work expands upon this understanding and tests the hypothesis that it is possible to control when and where a complexion transition occurs by controlling the local grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> energy distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2119L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.2119L"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> results on the Jurassic-Cretaceous <span class="hlt">boundary</span> in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Austria): Macro-, micro-, nannofossils, isotopes, geochemistry, susceptibility, gamma-log and palaeomagnetic data as environmental proxies of the early Penninic Ocean history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Kroh, A.; Mayrhofer, S.; Pruner, P.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, P.; Sprovieri, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments are well known to form a major element of the northernmost tectonic units of the Gresten Klippenbelt (Lower Austria). The Penninic Ocean was a side tract of the Central Atlantic Oceanic System intercalated between the European and the Austroalpine plates. Its opening started during the Mid Jurrasic, as rifting of the of the oceanic crust between the European and the Austroalpine plates. The turnover of the deposition on the European shelf (Helvetic Zone) from deep-water siliciclastics into pelagic carbonates is correlated with the deepening of this newly arising ocean. Within the Gresten Klippenbelt Unit, this transition is reflected by the lithostratigraphic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> between the Tithonian marl-limestone succession and the Berriasian limestones of the Blassenstein Formation. This <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is well exposed in a newly discovered site at Nutzhof, in the heart of Lower Austria (Kroh and Lukeneder 2009, Lukeneder 2009, Pruner, Schnabl, and Lukeneder 2009, Reháková, Halásová and Lukeneder 2009). Biostratigraphy. According to microfossil (calcareous dinoflagellates, calpionellids) and palaeomagnetic data, the association indicates that the cephalopod-bearing beds of the Nutzhof section belong to the Carpistomiosphaera tithonica-Zone of the Early Tithonian up to the Calpionella Zone of the Middle Berriasian. This interval corresponds to the ammonoid zones from the Early Tithonian Hybonoticeras hybonotum-Zone up to the Middle Berriasian Subthurmannia occitanica-Zone. Ammonoids. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ammonoids were collected at the Nutzhof locality in the eastern part of the Gresten Klippenbelt in Lower Austria. The cephalopod fauna from the Blassenstein Formation, correlated with micro- and nannofossil data from the marly unit and the limestone unit, indicates Early Tithonian to Middle Berriasian age (Hybonoticeras hybonotum Zone up to the Subthurmannia occitanica Zone). According to the correlation of the fossil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1172948','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1172948"><span>Discovering the Role of Grain <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Complexions in Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harmer, Martin P.</p> <p>2015-03-19</p> <p>Grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are inherently an area of disorder in polycrystalline materials which define the transport and various other material properties. The relationship between the interfacial chemistry, structure and the material properties is not well understood. Among the various taxonomies for grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, Grain <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Complexion is a relatively new conceptual scheme that relates the structure and kinetic properties of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. In this classification scheme, grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are considered to be distinct three dimensional (the thickness being considerably smaller as compared to the other two dimensions but nonetheless discernible) equilibrium thermodynamic phases abutted between two crystalline phases. The stability and structure of these interfacial phases are dictated by various thermodynamic variables such as temperature, stress (pressure), interfacial chemistry (chemical potential) and most importantly by the energies of the adjoining crystal surfaces. These phases are only stable within the constraint of the adjoining grains. Although these interfacial phases are not stable in bulk form, they can transform from one complexion to another as a function of various thermodynamic variables analogous to the behavior of bulk phases. Examples of different complexions have been reported in various publications. However, a systematic investigation exploring the existence of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> complexions in material systems other than alumina remains to be done. Although the role of interfacial chemistry on grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> complexions in alumina has been addressed, a clear understanding of the underlying thermodynamics governing complexion formation is lacking. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the effects of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> complexions in bulk material properties are widely unknown. Factors above urge a thorough exploration of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> complexions in a range of different materials systems The purpose of the <span class="hlt">current</span> program is to verify the existence of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> complexion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6790956','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6790956"><span>Thermal stress imposed by prototype bilayer and <span class="hlt">current</span> ground crew chemical defense ensembles: a limited laboratory comparison. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, 30 June 1986-1 January 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krock, L.P.; Navalta, R.; Myhre, L.G.</p> <p>1988-07-01</p> <p>An open bilayer ground-crew chemical defense ensemble (CDE) was proposed to reduce the thermal burden during vapor-only exposure periods. This study compared the thermal-stress profile of the proposed ensemble to that produced by the <span class="hlt">currently</span> employed closed CDE. Four subjects, alternating ensembles on separate days, walked on a treadmill in an environmental chamber at 5.3 km/h (3.3 mph) and 2% grade (an energy expenditure of 350 kcal/h) for alternating work/rest to achieve significant recovery. Mean total sweat production was lower (1.38 vs. 2.50 liters) and percent sweat evaporation greater (65.7% vs. 30.0%) in the prototype ensemble than in the CDE. The prototype ensemble provided greater heat dissipation and allowed more-efficient sweat evaporation which had the double benefit of reducing heat storage and limiting dehydration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93674','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/93674"><span>Non-invasive <span class="hlt">current</span> and voltage imaging techniques for integrated circuits using scanning probe microscopy. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report, LDRD Project FY93 and FY94</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Campbell, A.N.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon</p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>This report describes the first practical, non-invasive technique for detecting and imaging <span class="hlt">currents</span> internal to operating integrated circuits (ICs). This technique is based on magnetic force microscopy and was developed under Sandia National Laboratories` LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) program during FY 93 and FY 94. LDRD funds were also used to explore a related technique, charge force microscopy, for voltage probing of ICs. This report describes the technical work performed under this LDRD as well as the outcomes of the project in terms of publications and awards, intellectual property and licensing, synergistic work, potential future work, hiring of additional permanent staff, and benefits to DOE`s defense programs (DP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15562555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15562555"><span><span class="hlt">Current</span> good tissue practice for human cell, tissue, and cellular and tissue-based product establishments; inspection and enforcement. <span class="hlt">Final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-11-24</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is requiring human cell, tissue, and cellular and tissue-based product (HCT/P) establishments to follow <span class="hlt">current</span> good tissue practice (CGTP), which governs the methods used in, and the facilities and controls used for, the manufacture of HCT/Ps; recordkeeping; and the establishment of a quality program. The agency is also issuing new regulations pertaining to labeling, reporting, inspections, and enforcement that will apply to manufacturers of those HCT/Ps regulated solely under the authority of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act), and not as drugs, devices, and/or biological products. The agency's actions are intended to improve protection of the public health while keeping regulatory burden to a minimum, which in turn would encourage significant innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1855c0023S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1855c0023S"><span>Material nonlinearity plate bending analysis with <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Supriyono, Effendy, Marwan; Wijianto</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>In this paper, material nonlinearity plate bending analysis with <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method is presented. The nonlinear term in the formula is analysed by considering that the material is assumed to undergo small strains. The von Mises criterion is used to evaluate the plastic zone and elastic perfectly plastic material behaviour is assumed. The domain integral due to material nonlinearity is evaluated using a cell discretization technique and a total incremental method is implemented to solve the nonlinear system of equation. The size of the increment, the number of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> elements and the number of domain cells are varied to study the convergence of the analysis. The size of load increment shows big influence on the results. The smaller the size the better results can be obtained, however 200 steps to reach the <span class="hlt">final</span> load is a reasonable size to get a good results. The number of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and domain cells has an influence on the accuracy of the results. The increased number of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> as well as domain cells gives better results, however a relative coarser mesh can be implemented to have a good results. The <span class="hlt">current</span> results have a good agreement with the previous results by other researchers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........92P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........92P"><span>Quantification of Grain <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Mediated Plasticity Mechanisms in Nanocrystalline Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Panzarino, Jason F.</p> <p></p> <p>Nanocrystalline metals have been a topic of great discussion over recent years due to their exceptional strengths and novel grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-mediated deformation mechanisms. Their microstructures are known to evolve through dynamic processes such as grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> migration and grain rotation, but how the collective interaction of these mechanisms alter the microstructure on a larger scale is not completely understood. In this thesis, we present coupled atomistic modeling and experimental tasks that aim to understand how the grain structure, grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, and associated grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> network change during nanocrystalline plasticity. Due to the complex three-dimensional nature of these mechanisms and the limited spatial and temporal resolution of <span class="hlt">current</span> in-situ experimental techniques, we turn to atomistic modeling to help understand the dynamics by which these mechanisms unfold. In order to provide a quantitative analysis of this behavior, we develop a tool which fully characterizes nanocrystalline microstructures in atomistic models and subsequently tracks their evolution during molecular dynamics simulations. We then use this algorithm to quantitatively track grain structure and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> network evolution in plastically deformed nanocrystalline Al, finding that higher testing temperature and smaller average grain size results in increased evolution of grain structure with evidence of larger scale changes to the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> network also taking place. This prompts us to extend our analysis technique to include full characterization of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> networks and rigorous topographical feature identification. We then employ this tool on simulations of Al subject to monotonic tension, cycling loading, and simple annealing, and find that each case results in different evolution of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> network. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, our computational work is complemented synergistically by experimental analyses which track surface microstructure evolution during sliding wear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6659475','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6659475"><span>Review of the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of reverse electrodialysis systems for salinity power systems using a stratified saturated solar pond. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report. Report No. 220280</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1980-02-22</p> <p>The overall objective of this study was to develop and place in operation a small salinity power heat engine of 100-watt capacity consisting of a saturated solar pond (SSP) coupled to a reverse electrodialysis (RED) membrane stack. The objectives of the contract were: (1) to demonstrate that a SSP can be used for unmixing of a mixed brine into a dilute and a concentrated brine stream, (2) to demonstrate that a RED stack can generate electrical power, and (3) to generate the necessary experimental data on the RED-SSP system which can be used to assess the potential of such a system for economical energy generation. The results of findings on the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of ion-exchange membranes and RED stacks is summarized. It is shown that the electrical resistance of the present-day membranes, which are produced for electrodialysis and not reverse electrodialysis, and the solution compartments are very high. This causes the power density of present-day RED stacks, in terms of watts per unit membrane area, to be very low. This factor combined with the high cost of present-day membranes results in very high costs for the RED stack. Furthermore, present-day membranes as well as adhesives for membrane assemblies cannot operate at about 80/sup 0/C for any reasonable length of time without severe deterioration in performance. The areas that require development work include: (1) development of cheap ion-exchange membranes with low electrical resistance and high permselectivity; (2) development of very thin solution compartments; (3) development of RED stacks which can operate at high temperatures; and (4) laboratory testing of small RED stacks to investigate the effect of temperature on stack performance and the fouling of RED membranes with time, have been identified. (WHK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17674485"><span>Petition to request an exemption from 100 percent identity testing of dietary ingredients: <span class="hlt">Current</span> Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for Dietary Supplements. Interim <span class="hlt">final</span> rule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-06-25</p> <p>The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing an interim <span class="hlt">final</span> rule (IFR) that sets forth a procedure for requesting an exemption from the requirement in the <span class="hlt">final</span> rule "<span class="hlt">Current</span> Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packaging, Labeling, or Holding Operations for Dietary Supplements," published elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, that the manufacturer conduct at least one appropriate test or examination to verify the identity of any component that is a dietary ingredient. This IFR allows for submission to, and review by, FDA of an alternative to the required 100 percent identity testing of components that are dietary ingredients, provided certain conditions are met and establishes a requirement for retention of records relating to the FDA's response to an exemption request.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Trials+AND+Sociology+AND+Education&pg=2&id=EJ163083','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Trials+AND+Sociology+AND+Education&pg=2&id=EJ163083"><span>The Case against <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Borck, Howard</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>In this tongue-in-cheek article, sociological <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are on trial in a simulated courtroom. It is argued that sociologists concerned with establishing <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are neglecting the significant issues facing social scientists whereas the defense contends that <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are essential to the discipline. (Author/JR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810025313"><span>Numerical <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Condition Procedures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical <span class="hlt">boundary</span> approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21335948','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21335948"><span>On <span class="hlt">boundary</span> superalgebras</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Doikou, Anastasia</p> <p>2010-04-15</p> <p>We examine the symmetry breaking of superalgebras due to the presence of appropriate integrable <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. We investigate the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> breaking symmetry associated with both reflection algebras and twisted super-Yangians. We extract the generators of the resulting <span class="hlt">boundary</span> symmetry as well as we provide explicit expressions of the associated Casimir operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17552725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17552725"><span>The effects of prosodic <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> on nasality in Taiwan Min.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pan, Ho-hsien</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>This study explores the effects of prosodic <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> on nasality at intonational phrase, word, and syllable <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. The subjects were recorded saying phrases that contained a syllable-<span class="hlt">final</span> nasal consonant followed by a syllable-initial stop. The timing, duration, and magnitude of the nasal airflows measured were used to determine the extent of nasality across <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Nasal amplitudes were found to vary in a speaker-dependent manner among <span class="hlt">boundary</span> types. However, the patterns of nasal contours and temporal aspects of the airflow parameters consistently varied with <span class="hlt">boundary</span> type across all the speakers. In general, the duration of nasal airflow and nasal plateau were the longest at the intonational phrase <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, followed by word <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and then syllable <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. In addition to the hierarchical influence of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> strength, there were unique phonetic markings associated with individual <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. In particular, two nasal rises interrupted by nasal inhalation occurred only across an intonation phrase <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. Also, unexpectedly, a word <span class="hlt">boundary</span> was marked by the longest postboundary vowel, whereas a syllable <span class="hlt">boundary</span> was marked with the shortest nasal duration. The results here support the hierarchical effect of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> on both domain-edge strengthening and cross-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> coarticulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117d5304N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117d5304N"><span>Carrier mobility of highly transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO polycrystalline films deposited by radio-frequency, direct-<span class="hlt">current</span>, and radio-frequency-superimposed direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> magnetron sputtering: Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> effect and scattering in the grain bulk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The effects of using radio-frequency (RF)-superimposed direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO)-based highly transparent conducting oxide films have been examined. AZO films were deposited on heated non-alkaline glass substrates (200 °C) using ZnO:Al2O3 (2 wt. % Al2O3) ceramic oxide targets with the total power varied from 150 to 300 W, and at various RF to DC power ratios, AZO films deposited by a mixed approach with the RF to the total power ratio of 0.14 showed the lowest resistivity of 2.47 × 10-4 Ω cm with the highest carrier concentration of 6.88 × 1020 cm-3 and the highest Hall mobility (μH) of 36.8 cm2/Vs together with the maximum value of an average transmittance in the visible spectral range from 400 to 700 nm. From the analysis of optical data based on the simple Drude model combined with the Tauc-Lorentz model and the results of Hall effect measurements, the optical mobility (μopt) was determined. A comparison of μopt with μH clarified the effects of the mixed approach not only on the reduction of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> contribution to the carrier transport but also on retaining high carrier mobility of in-grains for the AZO films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4357896','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4357896"><span>The relationship between grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> structure, defect mobility, and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> sink efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Vernon, Louis J.; Martinez, Enrique; Voter, Arthur F.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Nanocrystalline materials have received great attention due to their potential for improved functionality and have been proposed for extreme environments where the interfaces are expected to promote radiation tolerance. However, the precise role of the interfaces in modifying defect behavior is unclear. Using long-time simulations methods, we determine the mobility of defects and defect clusters at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in Cu. We find that mobilities vary significantly with <span class="hlt">boundary</span> structure and cluster size, with larger clusters exhibiting reduced mobility, and that interface sink efficiency depends on the kinetics of defects within the interface via the in-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> annihilation rate of defects. Thus, sink efficiency is a strong function of defect mobility, which depends on <span class="hlt">boundary</span> structure, a property that evolves with time. Further, defect mobility at <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> can be slower than in the bulk, which has general implications for the properties of polycrystalline materials. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we correlate defect energetics with the volumes of atomic sites at the <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. PMID:25766999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997CQGra..14.3109B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997CQGra..14.3109B"><span>Degenerate metric phase <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bengtsson, I.; Jacobson, T.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>The structure of <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> between degenerate and non-degenerate solutions of Ashtekar's canonical reformulation of Einstein's equations is studied. Several examples are given of such `phase <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>' in which the metric is degenerate on one side of a null hypersurface and non-degenerate on the other side. These include portions of flat space, Schwarzschild and plane-wave solutions joined to degenerate regions. In the last case, the wave collides with a planar phase <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and continues on with the same curvature but degenerate triad, while the phase <span class="hlt">boundary</span> continues in the opposite direction. We conjecture that degenerate phase <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are always null.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3980049','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3980049"><span>On <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Stimulation and Optimal <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Control of the Bidomain Equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nagaiah, Chamakuri; Kunisch, Karl; Plank, Gernot</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The bidomain equations with Neumann <span class="hlt">boundary</span> stimulation and optimal control of these stimuli are investigated. First an analytical framework for <span class="hlt">boundary</span> control is provided. Then a parallel finite element based algorithm is devised and its efficiency is demonstrated not only for the direct problem but also for the optimal control problem. The computations realize a model configuration corresponding to optimal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> defibrillation of a reentry phenomenon by applying <span class="hlt">current</span> density stimuli. PMID:23856647</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856647','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23856647"><span>On <span class="hlt">boundary</span> stimulation and optimal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> control of the bidomain equations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chamakuri, Nagaiah; Kunisch, Karl; Plank, Gernot</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The bidomain equations with Neumann <span class="hlt">boundary</span> stimulation and optimal control of these stimuli are investigated. First an analytical framework for <span class="hlt">boundary</span> control is provided. Then a parallel finite element based algorithm is devised and its efficiency is demonstrated not only for the direct problem but also for the optimal control problem. The computations realize a model configuration corresponding to optimal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> defibrillation of a reentry phenomenon by applying <span class="hlt">current</span> density stimuli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SIGMA..10..014C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SIGMA..10..014C"><span>Integrable <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> for Quad-Graph Systems: Three-Dimensional <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Consistency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caudrelier, Vincent; Crampé, Nicolas; Zhang, Qi Cheng</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>We propose the notion of integrable <span class="hlt">boundary</span> in the context of discrete integrable systems on quad-graphs. The equation characterizing the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> must satisfy a compatibility equation with the one characterizing the bulk that we called the three-dimensional (3D) <span class="hlt">boundary</span> consistency. In comparison to the usual 3D consistency condition which is linked to a cube, our 3D <span class="hlt">boundary</span> consistency condition lives on a half of a rhombic dodecahedron. The We provide a list of integrable <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> associated to each quad-graph equation of the classification obtained by Adler, Bobenko and Suris. Then, the use of the term ''integrable <span class="hlt">boundary</span>'' is justified by the facts that there are Bäcklund transformations and a zero curvature representation for systems with <span class="hlt">boundary</span> satisfying our condition. We discuss the three-leg form of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> equations, obtain associated discrete Toda-type models with <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and recover previous results as particular cases. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the connection between the 3D <span class="hlt">boundary</span> consistency and the set-theoretical reflection equation is established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8477628"><span>The significance of gender <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in preadolescence: contemporary correlates and antecedents of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> violation and maintenance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sroufe, L A; Bennett, C; Englund, M; Urban, J; Shulman, S</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>Previous research has established the importance of gender <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> as a normative aspect of development in middle childhood. Here, the nature and importance of gender <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> as an individual differences construct was explored. Ratings of gender <span class="hlt">boundary</span> violation and gender <span class="hlt">boundary</span> maintenance were made of 47 10-11-year-old children participating in a series of summer day camps. These ratings were supported by videotape-based behavior codings of gender <span class="hlt">boundary</span> violating behaviors and by live observations of sheer number of associations with members of the opposite gender. In addition, considerable external validation of these individual differences was obtained. Children low on gender <span class="hlt">boundary</span> violation and (especially) children high on <span class="hlt">boundary</span> maintenance were independently judged by camp counselors to be socially competent. They also were found to be higher on a friendship variable, based on observation. Those who violated <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> were especially unpopular with peers, based on a child interview. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, <span class="hlt">boundary</span> violation and maintenance were related to attachment history and to early measures of parent-child generational <span class="hlt">boundary</span> distortions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.693..165D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.693..165D"><span>Tectonics of oblique plate <span class="hlt">boundary</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Brune, Sascha; Leever, Karen A.; Fernández, Carlos; Czeck, Dyanna M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The relative displacement between lithospheric plates normally results in obliquely deforming plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. This is simply caused by the fact that, on plate tectonics basis, irregularly shaped plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are rarely perpendicular or parallel to small-circle rotation paths, which describe plate motion on a sphere (Fig. 1a). Global <span class="hlt">current</span> relative plate motions estimated from geological data (DeMets et al., 2010; Argus et al., 2011) and GPS measurements (e.g., Kreemer et al., 2003; Argus et al., 2010) provide insight to the prevalent degrees of obliquity on Earth's surface. Based on these global data sets, Philippon and Corti (2016), statistically show that <span class="hlt">current</span> orthogonal <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> (obliquity angle smaller than 10°) represent around 8% of the total <span class="hlt">boundary</span> length whereas strike-slip <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> (obliquity angle larger than 80°) are encountered in < 10% of the total <span class="hlt">boundary</span> length. Therefore, around 80% of active plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> present oblique relative motions. Furthermore, changes in plate kinematics leading to migration or jumps in the rotation poles necessarily cause obliquity along former pure strike-slip or convergent/divergent <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> (Fig. 1b).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33B0159D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A33B0159D"><span>Observing the Vertical Extent of the Urban <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Over Jersey City, NJ: A Diurnal and Seasonal Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dempsey, M. J.; Booth, J.; Arend, M.; Melecio-Vazquez, D.; Gonzalez, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The atmospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> remains one of the more difficult components of the climate system to classify. One of the most important characteristics is the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer height, especially in urban settings. The <span class="hlt">current</span> study examines the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer height using the the New York City Meteorological Network or NYCMetNet. NYCMetNet is a network of weather stations, which report meteorological conditions in and around New York City, as part of the Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory of The City College of New York (ORSL). Of interest to this study is the data obtained from wind profiler station LSC01. The 915 MHz wind profiler is located 30m above the ground on the roof of the Liberty Science Center in Jersey City, NJ. It is a Vaisala Wind Profiler LAP 3000 with a wavelength of ~34cm, which means that the instrument responds primarily to Bragg backscattering. Can a seasonal urban <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer climatology be extrapolated from the data obtained from the wind profiler? What is the timing of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer evolution and collapse over Jersey City? How effective is the profiler under cloudy skies and even in light rain or snow? This study examines the entire time period covered by the wind profile (2007 to present) and selects a series of clear days and a series of cloudy days. The top of the urban <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer is subjectively located from each half hour time stamp of signal to noise values. The urban <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer heights are recorded for clear and then cloudy days. Then the days are sorted seasonally (DJF, MAM, JJA, SON). A seasonal mean is calculated for every half hour time step. <span class="hlt">Finally</span> a time series of seasonal urban <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer heights is constructed, and the timing of the urban <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer height maximum and time evolution and collapse of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer are generalized. A comparison is made against urban <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer heights obtained from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis For Research And Applications (MERRA).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019915','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019915"><span>Incorporation of the planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer in atmospheric models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Moeng, Chin-Hoh; Wyngaard, John; Pielke, Roger; Krueger, Steve</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The topics discussed include the following: perspectives on planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer (PBL) measurements; <span class="hlt">current</span> problems of PBL parameterization in mesoscale models; and convective cloud-PBL interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CQGra..34r4001G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CQGra..34r4001G"><span>Most general flat space <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout; Riegler, Max</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We consider the most general asymptotically flat <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions in three-dimensional Einstein gravity in the sense that we allow for the maximal number of independent free functions in the metric, leading to six towers of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> charges and six associated chemical potentials. We find as associated asymptotic symmetry algebra an isl(2)k <span class="hlt">current</span> algebra. Restricting the charges and chemical potentials in various ways recovers previous cases, such as bms3 , Heisenberg or Detournay–Riegler, all of which can be obtained as contractions of corresponding AdS3 constructions. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we show that a flat space contraction can induce an additional Carrollian contraction. As examples we provide two novel sets of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions for Carroll gravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824331','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/824331"><span>Ocean <span class="hlt">Current</span> Power Generator. <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Sullivan, G. A.</p> <p>2002-07-26</p> <p>The Ocean Power Generator is both technically and economically suitable for deployment in the Gulf Stream from the US Navy facility in Dania, Florida. Yet to be completed is the calibration test in the Chesapeake Bay with the prototype dual hydroturbine Underwater Electric Kite. For the production units a revised design includes two ballast tanks mounted as pontoons to provide buoyancy and depth control. The power rating of the Ocean Power Generator has been doubled to 200 kW ready for insertion into the utility grid. The projected cost for a 10 MW installation is $3.38 per watt, a cost that is consistent with wind power pricing when it was in its deployment infancy, and a cost that is far better than photovoltaics after 25 years of research and development. The Gulf Stream flows 24 hours per day, and water flow is both environmentally and ecologically perfect as a renewable energy source. No real estate purchases are necessary, and you cannot see, hear, smell, or touch an Ocean Power Generator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/cgmp/ucm110863.htm','CFSAN'); return false;" href="https://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/cgmp/ucm110863.htm"><span>Backgrounder: <span class="hlt">Final</span> Rule for <span class="hlt">Current</span> Good Manufacturing ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://google2.fda.gov/search">Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... History. ... Tiếng Việt | 한국어 | Tagalog | Русский | العربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | فارسی | English. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033112&hterms=Edmonton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DEdmonton','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880033112&hterms=Edmonton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DEdmonton"><span>A <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer model for magnetospheric substorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rostoker, Gordon; Eastman, Tim</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An alternative framework for understanding magnetospheric substorm activity is presented. It is argued that observations of magnetic field and plasma flow variations in the magnetotail can be explained in terms of the passage of the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer over the satellite detecting the tail signatures. It is shown that field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> and particle acceleration processes on magnetic field lines threading the ionospheric Harang discontinuity lead to the distinctive particle and field signatures observed in the magnetotail during substorms. It is demonstrated that edge effects of field-aligned <span class="hlt">currents</span> associated with the westward traveling surge can lead to the negative B(z) perturbations observed in the tail that are presently attributed to observations made on the anti-earthward side of a near-earth neutral line. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, it is shown that the model can provide a physical explanation of both the driven system and the loading-unloading system whose combined effects provide the observed substorm perturbation pattern in the magnetosphere and ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.811C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.811C"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span>-Layer & health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Costigliola, V.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and <span class="hlt">currently</span> it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of <span class="hlt">current</span> projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936982','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936982"><span>Theory and Fluid Simulations of <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Plasma Fluctuations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cohen, R H; LaBombard, B; LoDestro, L L; Rognlien, T D; Ryutov, D D; Terry, J L; Umansky, M V; Xu, X Q; Zweben, S</p> <p>2007-01-09</p> <p>Theoretical and computational investigations are presented of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> plasma microturbulence that take into account important effects of the geometry of diverted tokamaks--in particular, the effect of x-point magnetic shear and the termination of field lines on divertor plates. We first generalize our previous 'heuristic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition' which describes, in a lumped model, the closure of <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the vicinity of the x-point region to encompass three <span class="hlt">current</span>-closure mechanisms. We then use this <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition to derive the dispersion relation for low-beta flute-like modes in the divertor-leg region under the combined drives of curvature, sheath impedance, and divertor tilt effects. The results indicate the possibility of strongly growing instabilities, driven by sheath <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions, and localized in either the private or common flux region of the divertor leg depending on the radial tilt of divertor plates. We re-visit the issue of x-point effects on blobs, examining the transition from blobs terminated by x-point shear to blobs that extend over both the main SOL and divertor legs. We find that, for a main-SOL blob, this transition occurs without a free-acceleration period as previously thought, with x-point termination conditions applying until the blob has expanded to reach the divertor plate. We also derive propagation speeds for divertor-leg blobs. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we present fluid simulations of the C-Mod tokamak from the BOUT edge fluid turbulence code, which show main-SOL blob structures with similar spatial characteristics to those observed in the experiment, and also simulations which illustrate the possibility of fluctuations confined to divertor legs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820021582','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820021582"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> lubrication: Revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jones, W. R., Jr.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A review of the various lubrication regimes, with particular, emphasis on <span class="hlt">boundary</span> lubrication, is presented. The types of wear debris and extent of surface damage is illustrated for each regime. The role of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> surface films along with their modes of formation and important physical properties are discussed. In addition, the effects of various operating parameters on friction and wear in the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> lubrication regime are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.258...58Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Litho.258...58Y"><span>Late Permian high-Mg andesite and basalt association from northern Liaoning, North China: Insights into the <span class="hlt">final</span> closure of the Paleo-Asian ocean and the orogen-craton <span class="hlt">boundary</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xue, Fuhong; Lu, Yinghuai; Zong, Keqing</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>High-Mg andesites (HMAs) and related basalts constitute a volumetrically minor, but genetically important occurrence along most convergent plate margins of various ages on Earth. The details of their petrogenesis can contain critical information for resolving essential geodynamic and crustal evolutionary issues. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents the late Permian metamorphosed high-Mg basaltic to andesitic suite from Kaiyuan of northern Liaoning, North China. These rocks feature SiO2 contents ranging from 48.7 to 63.2 wt.%, high Mg# values of 63-75, an enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). They possess whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70417-0.70457, εNd(t) values from - 0.4 to 5.0, and εHf(t) values from 5.1 to 11, as well as zircon εHf(t) values from - 9.4 to 0.4. These features indicate that their petrogenesis most likely involved precursory metasomatism of mantle peridotites by melts from subduction-related sediments, and subsequent partial melting. With a depleted mantle source and possible tectonic link to post-subduction slab break-off, the Kaiyuan suite could present a spatial reference not only for defining the demarcation line between the North China craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic belt (CAOB) in the region, but also for tracing the <span class="hlt">final</span> location of the cryptic suturing zone of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Synthesizing the suite with coeval igneous episodes as well as concomitant metamorphic events along the Solonker-Xra Moron-Changchun zone leads to the characterization of the eventual closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean within a double-sided subduction system during late Permian-Early Triassic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.G21B1264H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.G21B1264H"><span>Plate <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Observatory GPS Data Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herring, T. A.; King, R.; McClusky, S.; Murray, M.; Santillan, M.; Melbourne, T.; Anderson, G.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The Plate <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Observatory GPS data analysis centers (ACs) at the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) and Central Washington University (CWU), and the analysis center coordinator (ACC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology began establishing the GPS processing centers on April 1, 2005. The PBO GPS data analyses will be operational on October 1, 2005, with the regular delivery of daily SINEX solution files with full covariance and time series files designed for ease of analysis and plotting. The initial results for the PBO analyses will start with data from January 1, 2004 and contain position time series for 209 PBO Nucleus stations, 17 IGS reference frame stations, 9 CORS stations (to bridge Alaska to the continental United States), and all PBO stations as they come on line. The first PBO site was ready on January 11, 2004. The PBO ACs routinely generate rapid orbit analyses (1-day latency), primarily to check data quality, and initial <span class="hlt">final</span> orbit analyses with 6-13 day latency. The timing of the generation of these products is based on the availability of the International GNSS Service rapid and <span class="hlt">final</span> orbit products. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, between 280 and 300 stations are included in these rapid analyses and typically 310-315 stations are in the <span class="hlt">final</span> analyses. The initial testing of the analysis procedures shows median north and east daily root-mean-square (rms) scatters of 1.0-1.3 mm for horizontal positions for a network encompassing North America and Central Pacific. The median height rms scatter is 5 mm. This talk will show results and products being generated by the PBO ACs and ACC, and compare the results between the GIPSY (CWU) and GAMIT (BSL) processing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JChPh.11911035L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JChPh.11911035L"><span>A Poisson-Boltzmann dynamics method with nonperiodic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Qiang; Luo, Ray</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>We have developed a well-behaved and efficient finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann dynamics method with a nonperiodic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition. This is made possible, in part, by a rather fine grid spacing used for the finite difference treatment of the reaction field interaction. The stability is also made possible by a new dielectric model that is smooth both over time and over space, an important issue in the application of implicit solvents. In addition, the electrostatic focusing technique facilitates the use of an accurate yet efficient nonperiodic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition: <span class="hlt">boundary</span> grid potentials computed by the sum of potentials from individual grid charges. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the particle-particle particle-mesh technique is adopted in the computation of the Coulombic interaction to balance accuracy and efficiency in simulations of large biomolecules. Preliminary testing shows that the nonperiodic Poisson-Boltzmann dynamics method is numerically stable in trajectories at least 4 ns long. The new model is also fairly efficient: it is comparable to that of the pairwise generalized Born solvent model, making it a strong candidate for dynamics simulations of biomolecules in dilute aqueous solutions. Note that the <span class="hlt">current</span> treatment of total electrostatic interactions is with no cutoff, which is important for simulations of biomolecules. Rigorous treatment of the Debye-Hückel screening is also possible within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework: its importance is demonstrated by a simulation of a highly charged protein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93k2012A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..93k2012A"><span>Measurement of double-differential muon neutrino charged-<span class="hlt">current</span> interactions on C8 H8 without pions in the <span class="hlt">final</span> state using the T2K off-axis beam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abe, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Antonova, M.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Batkiewicz, M.; Berardi, V.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Calland, R. G.; Cao, S.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Collazuol, G.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Denner, P. F.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K. E.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, D.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S. G.; Giganti, C.; Gizzarelli, F.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Hogan, M.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Intonti, R. A.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kim, H.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Knight, A.; Knox, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Konaka, A.; Kondo, K.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Lasorak, P.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Liptak, Z. J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Li, X.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Lu, X.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Ma, W. Y.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, K. D.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Patel, N. D.; Pavin, M.; Payne, D.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pickering, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Shirahige, T.; Short, S.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Stewart, T.; Suda, Y.; Suvorov, S.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thakore, T.; Thompson, L. F.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vallari, Z.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We report the measurement of muon neutrino charged-<span class="hlt">current</span> interactions on carbon without pions in the <span class="hlt">final</span> state at the T2K beam energy using 5.734 ×1020 protons on target. For the first time the measurement is reported as a flux-integrated, double-differential cross section in muon kinematic variables (cos θμ, pμ), without correcting for events where a pion is produced and then absorbed by <span class="hlt">final</span> state interactions. Two analyses are performed with different selections, background evaluations and cross-section extraction methods to demonstrate the robustness of the results against biases due to model-dependent assumptions. The measurements compare favorably with recent models which include nucleon-nucleon correlations but, given the present precision, the measurement does not distinguish among the available models. The data also agree with Monte Carlo simulations which use effective parameters that are tuned to external data to describe the nuclear effects. The total cross section in the full phase space is σ =(0.417 ±0.047 (syst ) ±0.005 (stat ) )×10-38 cm2 nucleon-1 and the cross section integrated in the region of phase space with largest efficiency and best signal-over-background ratio (cos θμ>0.6 and pμ>200 MeV ) is σ =(0.202 ±0.036 (syst ) ±0.003 (stat ) )×10-38 cm2 nucleon-1 .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARB50003W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARB50003W"><span>Probing temperature chaos through thermal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Wenlong; Machta, Jonathan; Katzgraber, Helmut</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Using population annealing Monte Carlo, we numerically study temperature chaos in the three-dimensional Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glass using thermal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. In thermal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions all eight combinations of periodic vs antiperiodic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions in the three spatial directions appear in the ensemble with their respective Boltzmann weights, thus minimizing finite-size corrections due to domain walls. By studying salient features in the specific heat we show evidence of temperature chaos. Our results suggest that these bumps are mainly caused by system-size excitations where the free energy of two <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions cross. Furthermore, we study the scaling of both entropy and energy at <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition crossings and find that the scaling of the energy is very different from the scaling obtained by a simple change of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. We attribute this difference to the stronger finite-size effects induced via a simple change of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we show that temperature chaos occurs more frequently at higher temperatures within the spin-glass phase and for larger system sizes, while the normalized distribution function with respect to temperature is about the same for different system sizes. The work is supported from NSF (Grant No. DMR-1208046).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ERL.....6a4009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ERL.....6a4009C"><span>Reconsideration of the planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span> for phosphorus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carpenter, Stephen R.; Bennett, Elena M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Phosphorus (P) is a critical factor for food production, yet surface freshwaters and some coastal waters are highly sensitive to eutrophication by excess P. A planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, or upper tolerable limit, for P discharge to the oceans is thought to be ten times the pre-industrial rate, or more than three times the <span class="hlt">current</span> rate. However this <span class="hlt">boundary</span> does not take account of freshwater eutrophication. We analyzed the global P cycle to estimate planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> for freshwater eutrophication. Planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> were computed for the input of P to freshwaters, the input of P to terrestrial soil, and the mass of P in soil. Each <span class="hlt">boundary</span> was computed for two water quality targets, 24 mg P m - 3, a typical target for lakes and reservoirs, and 160 mg m - 3, the approximate pre-industrial P concentration in the world's rivers. Planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> were also computed using three published estimates of <span class="hlt">current</span> P flow to the sea. <span class="hlt">Current</span> conditions exceed all planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> for P. Substantial differences between <span class="hlt">current</span> conditions and planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> demonstrate the contrast between large amounts of P needed for food production and the high sensitivity of freshwaters to pollution by P runoff. At the same time, some regions of the world are P-deficient, and there are some indications that a global P shortage is possible in coming decades. More efficient recycling and retention of P within agricultural ecosystems could maintain or increase food production while reducing P pollution and improving water quality. Spatial heterogeneity in the global P cycle suggests that recycling of P in regions of excess and transfer of P to regions of deficiency could mitigate eutrophication, increase agricultural yield, and delay or avoid global P shortage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=meteorology&pg=6&id=EJ090212','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=meteorology&pg=6&id=EJ090212"><span>The Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tennekes, Hendrik</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Discusses some important parameters of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meteorology&pg=6&id=EJ090212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meteorology&pg=6&id=EJ090212"><span>The Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tennekes, Hendrik</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Discusses some important parameters of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17738074','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17738074"><span>Ocean floor <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hedberg, H D</p> <p>1979-04-13</p> <p>The base of the continental slope, combined with the concepts of a boudary zone, a technical advisory <span class="hlt">boundary</span> commission, and special treatment for restricted seas, offers a readily attainable, natural, practicable, and equitable <span class="hlt">boundary</span> between national and international jurisdiction over the ocean floor. There is no point in bringing into the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> formula the unnecessary added complication of thickness of sediments, as recently proposed. Review of the U.S. offshore brings out the critical importance with respect to energy resources of proper choice of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> principles and proper determination of the base-of-continent line about our shores. The advice of the pertinent science and technology community should urgently be sought and contributed to decisions on offshore <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4077611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4077611"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> and intimacy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paris, J</p> <p>1985-10-01</p> <p>Personal <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are essential for psychological stability. In psychopathology, they may be too porous, as in the case of borderline personalities, or too rigid, as in the case of narcissistic and paranoid personalities. A developmental model which could explain abnormal <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> would postulate neglect producing porous <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, and intrusiveness producing rigid <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Case material is presented in which patients with narcissistic personality traits had grown up with an intrusive, controlling mother, and without a father to provide a buffer. This led to an inability to tolerate intimacy in adult relationships. The transference of both patients reflected their extreme sensitivity to impingement on their <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Such patients suffer from inner emptiness because of their inability to incorporate positive experiences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813503R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813503R"><span>Sensitivity to volcanic field <span class="hlt">boundary</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Runge, Melody; Bebbington, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Lindsay, Jan; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Volcanic hazard analyses are desirable where there is potential for future volcanic activity to affect a proximal population. This is frequently the case for volcanic fields (regions of distributed volcanism) where low eruption rates, fertile soil, and attractive landscapes draw populations to live close by. Forecasting future activity in volcanic fields almost invariably uses spatial or spatio-temporal point processes with model selection and development based on exploratory analyses of previous eruption data. For identifiability reasons, spatio-temporal processes, and practically also spatial processes, the definition of a spatial region is required to which volcanism is confined. However, due to the complex and predominantly unknown sub-surface processes driving volcanic eruptions, definition of a region based solely on geological information is <span class="hlt">currently</span> impossible. Thus, the <span class="hlt">current</span> approach is to fit a shape to the known previous eruption sites. The class of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> shape is an unavoidable subjective decision taken by the forecaster that is often overlooked during subsequent analysis of results. This study shows the substantial effect that this choice may have on even the simplest exploratory methods for hazard forecasting, illustrated using four commonly used exploratory statistical methods and two very different regions: the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand, and Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. For Harrat Rahat, sensitivity of results to <span class="hlt">boundary</span> definition is substantial. For the Auckland Volcanic Field, the range of options resulted in similar shapes, nevertheless, some of the statistical tests still showed substantial variation in results. This work highlights the fact that when carrying out any hazard analysis on volcanic fields, it is vital to specify how the volcanic field <span class="hlt">boundary</span> has been defined, assess the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> choice, and to carry these assumptions and related uncertainties through to estimates of future activity and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1056875','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1056875"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeTar, Carleton</p> <p>2012-12-10</p> <p>This document constitutes the <span class="hlt">Final</span> Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23921509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23921509"><span>Seeking the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> extension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P; Brown, James M</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> extension (BE) is a remarkably consistent visual memory error in which participants remember seeing a more wide-angle image of a scene than was actually viewed (Intraub & Richardson, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:179-187, 1989). Multiple stimulus factors are thought to contribute to the occurrence of BE, including object recognition, conceptual knowledge of scenes, and amodal perception at the view <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> (Intraub, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 3:117-127, 2012). In the present study, we used abstract scenes instead of images of the real world, in order to remove expectations based on semantic associations with objects and the schematic context of the view. Close-angle and wide-angle scenes were created using irregular geometric shapes rated by independent observers as lacking any easily recognizable structure. The abstract objects were tested on either a random-dot or a blank background in order to assess the influence of implied continuation of the image beyond its <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. The random-dot background conditions had background occlusion cues either present or absent at the image border, in order to test their influence on BE in the absence of high-level information about the scenes. The results indicate that high-level information about objects and schematic context is unnecessary for BE to occur, and that occlusion information at the image <span class="hlt">boundary</span> also has little influence on BE. Contrary to previous studies, we also found clear BE for all conditions, despite using scenes depicting undetailed objects on a blank white background. The results highlighted the ubiquitous nature of BE and the adaptability of scene perception processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.693..171P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.693..171P"><span>Obliquity along plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Most of the plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4096911','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4096911"><span>How Listeners Weight Acoustic Cues to Intonational Phrase <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Xiaohong; Shen, Xiangrong; Li, Weijun; Yang, Yufang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The presence of an intonational phrase <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is often marked by three major acoustic cues: pause, <span class="hlt">final</span> lengthening, and pitch reset. The present study investigates how these three acoustic cues are weighted in the perception of intonational phrase <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in two experiments. Sentences that contained two intonational phrases with a critical <span class="hlt">boundary</span> between them were used as the experimental stimuli. The roles of the three acoustic cues at the critical <span class="hlt">boundary</span> were manipulated in five conditions. The first condition featured none of the acoustic cues. The following three conditions featured only one cue each: pause, <span class="hlt">final</span> lengthening, and pitch reset, respectively. The fifth condition featured both pause duration and pre-<span class="hlt">final</span> lengthening. A baseline condition was also included in which all three acoustic cues were preserved intact. Listeners were asked to detect the presence of the critical <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in Experiment 1 and judge the strength of the critical <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in Experiment 2. The results of both experiments showed that listeners used all three acoustic cues in the perception of prosodic <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. More importantly, these acoustic cues were weighted differently across the two experiments: Pause was a more powerful perceptual cue than both <span class="hlt">final</span> lengthening and pitch reset, with the latter two cues perceptually equivalent; the effect of pause and the effects of the other two acoustic cues were not additive. These results suggest that the weighting of acoustic cues contributes significantly to the perceptual differences of intonational phrase <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. PMID:25019156</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1123698','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1123698"><span><span class="hlt">FINAL</span> REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lettenmaier, Dennis</p> <p>2012-05-26</p> <p>We proposed to extend Maurer’s data sets through at least 2005 (to include extreme drought years in the Colorado basin). We updated and verified the forcings for tmin, tmax, and precipitation over the Colorado River basin at 1/8-deg spatial resolution through November 2008, with the potential to alter the resolution as needed (we subsequently extended the Maurer et al data set over the entire continental U.S. at 1/16 degree spatial resolution; see Livneh et al., 2013). We proposed to use either MODIS-based land cover data for recent years, or modification of the existing fixed seasonal cycle used in VIC (based on University of Maryland land cover data) to represent interannual variations in vegetation characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI) particularly in drought years. We assessed model performance with respect to evapotranspiration estimation through comparison of the model predictions with ground observations and in experiments that use time-varying and fixed seasonal LAI cycles (based on University of Maryland land cover data) in a test region of northwestern Mexico where the ground ET observations from eddy covariance tower sites are available for the period from 2001 to 2008 (Tang et al., 2011). We also proposed to implement statistical downscaling with an adjustment to constrain precipitation changes at the GCM level. These simulations were performed, using 20 IPCC AR4 GCMs over the Colorado River basin with two global emissions scenarios, and are reported in Vano et al., 2014. Task 2: Coupled model implementation We proposed to implement the “standard” climate version of WRF, as used by collaborator Ruby Leung in NARCCAP simulations (see Section 5.4), and perform tests to assure that model output for runs equivalent to NARCCAP Phase 1 (reanalysis <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions) are consistent. We proposed do test sensitivity to higher spatial resolution. We made a run of 11 years’ length with the “standard” version of WRF, forced by NCEP/DOE with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1097228','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1097228"><span>Immersed <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Boundary</span>-Layer Flow Over Complex Terrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lundquist, K A</p> <p>2010-05-12</p> <p>Mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are increasingly used for high resolution simulations, particularly in complex terrain, but errors associated with terrain-following coordinates degrade the accuracy of the solution. Use of an alternative Cartesian gridding technique, known as an immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> method (IBM), alleviates coordinate transformation errors and eliminates restrictions on terrain slope which <span class="hlt">currently</span> limit mesoscale models to slowly varying terrain. In this dissertation, an immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> method is developed for use in numerical weather prediction. Use of the method facilitates explicit resolution of complex terrain, even urban terrain, in the WRF mesoscale model. First, the errors that arise in the WRF model when complex terrain is present are presented. This is accomplished using a scalar advection test case, and comparing the numerical solution to the analytical solution. Results are presented for different orders of advection schemes, grid resolutions and aspect ratios, as well as various degrees of terrain slope. For comparison, results from the same simulation are presented using the IBM. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> methods are then described, along with details that are specific to the implementation of IBM in the WRF code. Our IBM is capable of imposing both Dirichlet and Neumann <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. Additionally, a method for coupling atmospheric physics parameterizations at the immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is presented, making IB methods much more functional in the context of numerical weather prediction models. The two-dimensional IB method is verified through comparisons of solutions for gentle terrain slopes when using IBM and terrain-following grids. The canonical case of flow over a Witch of Agnesi hill provides validation of the basic no-slip and zero gradient <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions. Specified diurnal heating in a valley, producing anabatic winds, is used to validate the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA266226','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA266226"><span>Ventilated Oscillatory <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>AD-A266 226IllII !i III ll11111 II •" Ventilated Oscillatory <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layers 0 Daniel -. Conley Douglas L. I nman C 0 UM U U U U till 1% w 1% W" Z t...A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF PAGES WHICH DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. VENlTILATiD SCIILLAORY <span class="hlt">BOUNDARY</span> LAYERS Daniel C. C7onley DoL’laN L. . ... La olDla...Wave Crest ........ 5. <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Development Under the Wave Trough W 6 . Laboratory Observations .................. ................ 7</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25181298','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25181298"><span>Identifying chemicals that are planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span> threats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>MacLeod, Matthew; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; Persson, Linn M; Rudén, Christina; McLachlan, Michael S</p> <p>2014-10-07</p> <p>Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> that delimit a "safe operating space for humanity". Many of the planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> likely exist, but are <span class="hlt">currently</span> unknown. A chemical poses an unknown planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span> threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions: (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemicals could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Prioritization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainties and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for their potential to have a <span class="hlt">currently</span> unknown effect on a vital Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy <span class="hlt">currently</span> available to identify chemicals that are planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span> threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical processes that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify <span class="hlt">currently</span> unknown disruptive effects.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835742','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835742"><span>Arc Flash <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Calculations Using Computer Software Tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gibbs, M.D.</p> <p>2005-01-07</p> <p>Arc Flash Protection <span class="hlt">boundary</span> calculations have become easier to perform with the availability of personal computer software. These programs incorporate arc flash protection <span class="hlt">boundary</span> formulas for different voltage and <span class="hlt">current</span> levels, calculate the bolted fault <span class="hlt">current</span> at each bus, and use built in time-<span class="hlt">current</span> coordination curves to determine the clearing time of protective devices in the system. Results of the arc flash protection <span class="hlt">boundary</span> calculations can be presented in several different forms--as an annotation to the one-line diagram, as a table of arc flash protection <span class="hlt">boundary</span> distances, and as printed placards to be attached to the appropriate equipment. Basic arc flash protection <span class="hlt">boundary</span> principles are presented in this paper along with several helpful suggestions for performing arc flash protection <span class="hlt">boundary</span> calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1808...33U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1808...33U"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> detection via dynamic programming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Udupa, Jayaram K.; Samarasekera, Supun; Barrett, William A.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>This paper reports a new method for detecting optimal <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in multidimensional scene data via dynamic programming (DP). In its <span class="hlt">current</span> form the algorithm detects 2-D contours on slices and differs from other reported DP-based algorithms in an essential way in that it allows freedom in 2-D for finding optimal contour paths (as opposed to a single degree of freedom in the published methods). The method is being successfully used in segmenting object <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in a variety of medical applications including orbital volume from CT images (for craniofacial surgical planning), segmenting bone in MR images for kinematic analysis of the joints of the foot, segmenting the surface of the brain from the inner surface of the cranial vault, segmenting pituitary gland tumor for following the effect of a drug on the tumor, segmenting the <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of the heart in MR images, and segmenting the olfactory bulb for verifying hypotheses related to the size of this bulb in certain disease states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........53D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........53D"><span>Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> engineering of powder-processed Ni-base superalloy RR1000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Detrois, Martin</p> <p></p> <p> formation of twin <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> from twin-reorientation and annihilation of pre-existing twins. While recrystallization was found to populate the microstructure with grains that contained very few twin <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, post-deformation texture was found to promote the formation of Sigma3 <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and triple junctions when Goss texture was present. A <span class="hlt">final</span> consideration of larger scale forgings was used to raise an outlook on the <span class="hlt">current</span> issues and the potential of high-temperature GBE for turbine engines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866438','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866438"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> coding in the rat subiculum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stewart, Sarah; Jeewajee, Ali; Wills, Thomas J.; Burgess, Neil; Lever, Colin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The spatial mapping function of the hippocampal formation is likely derived from two sets of information: one based on the external environment and the other based on self-motion. Here, we further characterize ‘<span class="hlt">boundary</span> vector cells’ (BVCs) in the rat subiculum, which code space relative to one type of cue in the external environment: <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. We find that the majority of cells with fields near the perimeter of a walled environment exhibit an additional firing field when an upright barrier is inserted into the walled environment in a manner predicted by the BVC model. We use this property of field repetition as a heuristic measure to define BVCs, and characterize their spatial and temporal properties. In further tests, we find that subicular BVCs typically treat drop edges similarly to walls, including exhibiting field repetition when additional drop-type <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are added to the testing environment. In other words, BVCs treat both kinds of edge as environmental <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, despite their dissimilar sensory properties. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we also report the existence of ‘<span class="hlt">boundary</span>-off cells’, a new class of <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-coding cells. These cells fire everywhere except where a given BVC might fire. PMID:24366128</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EnMan...7..443E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EnMan...7..443E"><span>Vegetative delineation of coastal salt marsh <span class="hlt">boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eilers, H. Peter; Taylor, Alan; Sanville, William</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>Legislation mandating the protection of wetlands, combined with <span class="hlt">current</span> pressures to convert them to other uses, emphasize the need to determine accurately a wetland-upland <span class="hlt">boundary</span> We investigated six methods designed to establish such a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> based on vegetation Each method was applied to a common data set obtained from 295 quadrats along 22 transects between marsh and upland areas in 13 intertidal saline wetlands in Oregon and Washington. The multiple occurrence, joint occurrence, and five percent methods required plant species to be classified as salt marsh, upland, and non-indicator, cluster and similarity methods required no initial classification Close agreement on wetland-upland <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> determined by the six methods suggests that preclassification of plants and collection of plant cover data may not be necessary to determine the <span class="hlt">boundary</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/666244','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/666244"><span>Carbon transport in the bottom <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. <span class="hlt">Final</span> report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walsh, I.D.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>The central goal of DOE`s Ocean Margin Program (OMP) has been to determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or exporting it to the open ocean. The purpose of this research was to recover and process samples from two sediment traps deployed on the continental slope in conjunction with the OMP physical oceanography mooring program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-12/pdf/2012-22406.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-12/pdf/2012-22406.pdf"><span>77 FR 56231 - Minor <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Revision at Virgin Islands National Park</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-09-12</p> <p>... National Park Service Minor <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Revision at Virgin Islands National Park AGENCY: National Park Service....S.C. 4601- 9(c)(1)(ii), the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the Virgin Islands National Park is modified to include an... adjacent to the <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the Virgin Islands National Park. The <span class="hlt">boundary</span> revision is depicted on...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSMSE..22c3001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MSMSE..22c3001H"><span>Atomistic simulations of grain and interphase <span class="hlt">boundary</span> mobility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoyt, J. J.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In recent years, atomistic simulations have provided valuable insights into the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of grain and interphase <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. In this work, we provide a brief overview of kinetic processes occurring at migrating interfaces and survey various molecular dynamics techniques for extracting grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> mobilities. The advantages and disadvantages of fluctuation and applied driving force methods will be discussed. In addition, we review recent examples of simulations that have identified structural phase transformations at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, simulations that have investigated the mobility and atomic mechanisms of growth of an fcc-bcc interphase <span class="hlt">boundary</span> are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12374056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12374056"><span>The dynamics of the tundra-taiga <span class="hlt">boundary</span>: an overview and suggested coordinated and integrated approach to research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Callaghan, Terry V; Crawford, Robert M M; Eronen, Matti; Hofgaard, Annika; Payette, Serge; Rees, W Gareth; Skre, Oddvar; Sveinbjörnsson, Bjartmar; Vlassova, Tatiana K; Werkman, Ben R</p> <p>2002-08-01</p> <p>The tundra-taiga <span class="hlt">boundary</span> stretches for more than 13,400 km around the Northern Hemisphere and is probably the Earth's greatest vegetation transition. The trees that define the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> have been sensitive to climate changes in the past and models of future vegetation distribution suggest a rapid and dramatic invasion of the tundra by the taiga. Such changes would generate both positive and negative feedbacks to the climate system and the balance could result in a net warming effect. However, the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is becoming increasingly affected by human activities that remove trees and degrade forest-tundra into tundra-like areas. Because of the vastness and remoteness of the tundra-taiga <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, and of methodological problems such as problematic definitions and lack of standardized methods to record the location and characteristics of the ecotone, a project group has been established under the auspices of the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC). This paper summarizes the initial output of the group and focuses on our uncertainties in understanding the <span class="hlt">current</span> processes at the tundra-taiga <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and the conflicts between model predictions of changes in the location of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and contrasting recently observed changes due to human activities. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we present recommendations for a coordinated international approach to the problem and invite the international community to join us in reducing the uncertainties about the dynamics of the ecotone and their consequences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1285324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1285324"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stinis, Panos</p> <p>2016-08-07</p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">final</span> report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1078147','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1078147"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marchant, Gary E.</p> <p>2013-04-23</p> <p>This is the <span class="hlt">final</span> report of a two year project entitled "Governing Nanotechnology Risks and Benefits in the Transition to Regulation: Innovative Public and Private Approaches." This project examined the role of new governance or "soft law" mechanisms such as codes of conduct, voluntary programs and partnership agreements to manage the risks of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. A series of published or in publication papers and book chapters are attached.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/798482','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/798482"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>R. Paul Drake</p> <p>2001-11-30</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">final</span> report describes work involving 22 investigators from 11 institutions to explore the dynamics present in supernova explosions by means of experiments on the Omega laser. The specific experiments emphasized involved the unstable expansion of a spherical capsule and the coupling of perturbations at a first interface to a second interface by means of a strong shock. Both effects are present in supernovae. The experiments were performed at Omega and the computer simulations were undertaken at several institutions. B139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53G0213K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53G0213K"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Heights from CALIOP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuehn, R.; Ackerman, S. A.; Holz, R.; Roubert, L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This work is focused on the development of a planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer (PBL) height retrieval algorithm for CALIOP and validation studies. Our <span class="hlt">current</span> approach uses a wavelet covariance transform analysis technique to find the top of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. We use the methodology similar to that found in Davis et. al. 2000, ours has been developed to work with the lower SNR data provided by CALIOP, and is intended to work autonomously. Concurrently developed with the CALIOP algorithm we will show results from a PBL height retrieval algorithm from profiles of potential temperature, these are derived from Aircraft Meteorological DAta Relay (AMDAR) observations. Results from 5 years of collocated AMDAR - CALIOP retrievals near O'Hare airport demonstrate good agreement between the CALIOP - AMDAR retrievals. In addition, because we are able to make daily retrievals from the AMDAR measurements, we are able to observe the seasonal and annual variation in the PBL height at airports that have sufficient instrumented-aircraft traffic. Also, a comparison has been done between the CALIOP retrievals and the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) PBL height retrievals acquired during the GoMACCS experiment. Results of this comparison, like the AMDAR comparison are favorable. Our <span class="hlt">current</span> work also involves the analysis and verification of the CALIOP PBL height retrieval from the 6 year CALIOP global data set. Results from this analysis will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26198113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26198113"><span>Tuberculosis: a disease without <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fogel, Nicole</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) that usually affects the lungs leading to severe coughing, fever, and chest pains. Although <span class="hlt">current</span> research in the past four years has provided valuable insight into TB transmission, diagnosis, and treatment, much remains to be discovered to effectively decrease the incidence of and eventually eradicate TB. The disease still puts a strain on public health, being only second to HIV/AIDS in causing high mortality rates. This review will highlight the history of TB as well as provide an overview of the <span class="hlt">current</span> literature on epidemiology, pathogenesis and the immune response, treatment, and control of TB. In this race to combat a disease that knows no <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, it is necessary to have a conceptual and clear understanding of TB overall with the hope of providing better treatment through novel and collaborative research and public health efforts. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3622688','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3622688"><span>A Broad Approach to Abrupt <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span>: Looking Beyond the <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> at Soil Attributes within and Across Tropical Vegetation Types</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Warman, Laura; Bradford, Matt G.; Moles, Angela T.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Most research on <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> between vegetation types emphasizes the contrasts and similarities between conditions on either side of a <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, but does not compare <span class="hlt">boundary</span> to non-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> vegetation. That is, most previous studies lack suitable controls, and may therefore overlook underlying aspects of landscape variability at a regional scale and underestimate the effects that the vegetation itself has on the soil. We compared 25 soil chemistry variables in rainforest, sclerophyll vegetation and across rainforest-sclerophyll <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in north-eastern Queensland, Australia. Like previous studies, we did find some contrasts in soil chemistry across vegetation <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. However we did not find greater variation in chemical parameters across <span class="hlt">boundary</span> transects than in transects set in either rainforest or woodland. We also found that soil on both sides of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is more similar to “rainforest soil” than to “woodland soil”. Transects in wet sclerophyll forests with increasing degrees of rainforest invasion showed that as rainforest invades wet sclerophyll forest, the soil beneath wet sclerophyll forest becomes increasingly similar to rainforest soil. Our results have implications for understanding regional vegetation dynamics. Considering soil-vegetation feedbacks and the differences between soil at <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and in non-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> sites may hold clues to some of the processes that occur across and between vegetation types in a wide range of ecosystems. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we suggest that including appropriate controls should become standard practice for studies of vegetation <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and edge effects worldwide. PMID:23593312</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/247940','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/247940"><span>An analysis of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> sliding and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> cavitation in discontinuously reinforced composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Biner, S.B.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>In this study, the creep cavitation and rupture characteristics of polycrystalline matrix material and discontinuously reinforced composites are investigated including grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> sliding behavior, reinforcement aspect ratio and interfacial behavior between the reinforcement and surrounding matrix grains. Free sliding of the grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, a continuous nucleation of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> cavities, their diffusional growth and coalescence to form grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> facet cracks are fully accounted for in the analyses. The results indicate that, with sliding grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, the stress enhancement factor for the composites is much higher than the one observed for the matrix material and its value increases with increasing reinforcement aspect ratio, reduction in the matrix grain size and sliding interfacial behavior between the reinforcement and the matrix. For the composites, the influence of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> sliding on the creep life is reduced by the stress concentration effect that is seen at the end of the reinforcements. In contrast with the behavior of polycrystalline matrix material in composites after the formation of the first facet crack, resulting from the coalescence of the cavities, a significant time is required for the formation of the other grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> facet cracks across the ligament to cause <span class="hlt">final</span> rupture. The results also show that experimentally observed higher creep exponents or stress dependent creep exponent values in discontinuously reinforced composites can occur as a result of creep damage evolution behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013427','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15013427"><span>Simulations of <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Turbulence in Tokamak Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nevins, W M; Xu, X Q; Carlstrom, T N; Cohen, R H; Groebner, R; Jennings, T; LaBombard, B; Maqueda, R A; Mazurenko, A; McKee, G R; Moyer, R; Mossessian, D; Porkolab, M; Porter, G D; Rensink, M E; Rhodes, T L; Rognlien, T D; Rost, C; Snipes, J; Stotler, D P; Terry, J; Zweben, S</p> <p>2002-10-11</p> <p>Comparisons between the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> plasma turbulence observed in the BOUT code and experiments on C-Mod, NSTX, and DIII-D are presented. BOUT is a 3D non-local electromagnetic turbulence simulation code which models <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using the modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density, the electron and ion temperatures and parallel momenta. Many features of the Quasi-Coherent (QC) mode, observed at high densities during enhanced D-alpha (EDA) H-Mode in Alcator C-Mod, are reproduced in BOUT simulations. The spatial structure of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> plasma turbulence as observed by gas puff imaging (GPI) from discharges on NSTX and C-Mod are in general (NSTX) to good (CMod) agreement with BOUT simulations. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, BOUT simulations of DIII-D L-mode experiments near the Hmode transition threshold are in broad agreement with the experimental results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5818619','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5818619"><span>Cavitation at migrating <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> during high temperature fatigue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raman, V.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>There is growing interest in the role of migrating <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> during high temperature deformation. One area of <span class="hlt">current</span> interest is the manner in which grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> migration can influence deformation and fracture at elevated temperatures. Much of the detailed treatments of intergranular cracking and cavitation during creep deformation have centered on effects occurring at stationary grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. The conventional idea represented in numerous publications is that grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> sliding plays an important role in intergranular fracture at elevated temperatures. The large stress concentrations developed at irregularities on grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> are frequently cited as the principal reason for the easy generation of cracks and cavities. This article concludes that high temperature fatigue can cause significant migration and sliding in Al-3% Mg and Pb-2% Sn solid solution alloys, and that microcavitation and cracking takes place at the migrating <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in specimens tested at large strain amplitudes and low test frequencies. Cavities may be isolated within grains due to <span class="hlt">boundary</span> migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5419391','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5419391"><span>Incorporation of a circular <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition into the program POISSON</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.</p> <p>1984-03-02</p> <p>Two-dimensional problems in electrostatics or magnetostatics frequently are solved numerically by means of relaxation techniques. In many such problems the ''sources'' (charges or <span class="hlt">currents</span>, and regions of permeable material) lie exclusively within a finite closed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> curve and the relaxation process in principle then could be confined to the region interior to such a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> - provided a suitable <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition is imposed onto the solution at that <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. The present notes discuss and illustrate the use of a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition of such a nature as to imply the absence of external sources, in order thereby to avoid the inaccuracies and more extensive meshes present when alternatively a simple Dirichlet or Neumann <span class="hlt">boundary</span> condition is specified on a somewhat more remote outer <span class="hlt">boundary</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019668','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940019668"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> layer receptivity and control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hill, D. C.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>-dimensional motions of a non-parallel <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer was developed. The method makes use of the same computationally efficient formulation that makes the PSE <span class="hlt">currently</span> so appealing. In the area of flow control, adjoint systems offer a powerful insight into the effect of control forces. One of the simplest control strategies for <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers involves the application of localized mean wall suction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015016','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910015016"><span>Probabilistic <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The <span class="hlt">boundary</span> element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900024674&hterms=road+detection&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Droad%2Bdetection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900024674&hterms=road+detection&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Droad%2Bdetection"><span>Road <span class="hlt">boundary</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A method for extracting road <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous <span class="hlt">boundary</span> information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located <span class="hlt">boundary</span> information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910014899','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910014899"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> layer simulator improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Praharaj, Sarat C.; Schmitz, Craig P.; Nouri, Joseph A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Integral Matrix Procedure (BLIMPJ) has been identified by the propulsion community as the rigorous <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer program in connection with the existing JANNAF reference programs. The improvements made to BLIMPJ and described herein have potential applications in the design of the future Orbit Transfer Vehicle engines. The turbulence model is validated to include the effects of wall roughness and a way is devised to treat multiple smooth-rough surfaces. A prediction of relaminarization regions is examined as is the combined effects of wall cooling and surface roughness on relaminarization. A turbulence model to represent the effects of constant condensed phase loading is given. A procedure is described for thrust decrement calculation in thick <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers by coupling the T-D Kinetics Program and BLIMPJ and a way is provided for thrust loss optimization. Potential experimental studies in rocket nozzles are identified along with the required instrumentation to provide accurate measurements in support of the presented new analytical models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...08..039K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHEP...08..039K"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> kinematic space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karch, Andreas; Sully, James; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Walker, Devin G. E.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We extend kinematic space to a simple scenario where the state is not fixed by conformal invariance: the vacuum of a conformal field theory with a <span class="hlt">boundary</span> (bCFT). We identify the kinematic space associated with the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> operator product expansion (bOPE) as a subspace of the full kinematic space. In addition, we establish representations of the corresponding bOPE blocks in a dual gravitational description. We show how the new kinematic dictionary and the dynamical data in bOPE allows one to reconstruct the bulk geometry. This is evidence that kinematic space may be a useful construction for understanding bulk physics beyond just kinematics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GReGr..49..100B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GReGr..49..100B"><span>The <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is mixed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bianchi, Eugenio; Haggard, Hal M.; Rovelli, Carlo</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>We show that in Oeckl's <span class="hlt">boundary</span> formalism the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> vectors that do not have a tensor form represent, in a precise sense, statistical states. Therefore the formalism incorporates quantum statistical mechanics naturally. We formulate general-covariant quantum statistical mechanics in this language. We illustrate the formalism by showing how it accounts for the Unruh effect. We observe that the distinction between pure and mixed states weakens in the general covariant context, suggesting that local gravitational processes are naturally statistical without a sharp quantal versus probabilistic distinction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA601364','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA601364"><span>Grain <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Complexions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>adsorption at Cu grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) [161] and diffusivity of Cu and Bi in Bi- doped Cu [162] as a P.R. Cantwell et al ...a nanolayer complexion at a grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> in Ni- doped W; reprinted from Ref. [32] with permission. 24 P.R. Cantwell et al . / Acta Materialia 62 (2014...et al . [48] (Fig. 10 and Fig. 19) and in Au- doped Si by Ma et al . [34] (Fig. 13). Dillon and Harmer could not readily distinguish between different</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890053079&hterms=road+detection&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Droad%2Bdetection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890053079&hterms=road+detection&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Droad%2Bdetection"><span>Detection of road <span class="hlt">boundary</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sowers, James P.; Mehrotra, Rajiv</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Several researchers have proposed and implemented various systems pertaining to the development of autonomous land vehicles (ALVs). One fundamental problem associated with the navigation of an ALV is the ability to efficiently extract the <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of the pathway that need to be navigated. In this paper a method is presented that will determine the road <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in one pass using a limited search area in the input image. The method employs the statistical information regarding the gray levels present in the images along with geometrical constraints concerning the road. Some examples are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/820683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/820683"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>R Paul Drake</p> <p>2004-01-12</p> <p>OAK-B135 This is the <span class="hlt">final</span> report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED341033.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED341033.pdf"><span>Extending the <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span> of College Reading Programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jeremiah, Milford A.</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">current</span> uniform content of college reading programs can be expanded to include insights from other disciplines, specifically those areas of instruction which pertain to the neuropsychological mechanisms governing behavior, especially language behavior. There are several reasons for expanding the <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of college reading programs to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4184048','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4184048"><span>Algorithms for Discovery of Multiple Markov <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Statnikov, Alexander; Lytkin, Nikita I.; Lemeire, Jan; Aliferis, Constantin F.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Algorithms for Markov <span class="hlt">boundary</span> discovery from data constitute an important recent development in machine learning, primarily because they offer a principled solution to the variable/feature selection problem and give insight on local causal structure. Over the last decade many sound algorithms have been proposed to identify a single Markov <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the response variable. Even though faithful distributions and, more broadly, distributions that satisfy the intersection property always have a single Markov <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, other distributions/data sets may have multiple Markov <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of the response variable. The latter distributions/data sets are common in practical data-analytic applications, and there are several reasons why it is important to induce multiple Markov <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> from such data. However, there are <span class="hlt">currently</span> no sound and efficient algorithms that can accomplish this task. This paper describes a family of algorithms TIE* that can discover all Markov <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in a distribution. The broad applicability as well as efficiency of the new algorithmic family is demonstrated in an extensive benchmarking study that involved comparison with 26 state-of-the-art algorithms/variants in 15 data sets from a diversity of application domains. PMID:25285052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184305','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1184305"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Project Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Small, R. Justin; Bryan, Frank; Tribbia, Joseph; Park, Sungsu; Dennis, John; Saravanan, R.; Schneider, Niklas; Kwon, Young-Oh</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Most climate models are <span class="hlt">currently</span> run with grid spacings of around 100km, which, with today’s computing power, allows for long (up to 1000 year) simulations, or ensembles of simulations to explore climate change and variability. However this grid spacing does not resolve important components of the weather/climate system such as atmospheric fronts and mesoscale systems, and ocean <span class="hlt">boundary</span> <span class="hlt">currents</span> and eddies. The overall aim of this project has been to look at the effect of these small-scale features on the weather/climate system using a suite of high and low resolution climate models, idealized models and observations. This project was only possible due to the highly scalable aspect of the CAM Spectral Element dynamical core, and the significant resources allocated at Yellowstone and NERSC for which we are grateful.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/812703','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/812703"><span><span class="hlt">FINAL</span> REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kanai S. Shah</p> <p>2003-08-07</p> <p><span class="hlt">Current</span> and next generation experiments in nuclear and particle physics require detectors with high spatial resolution, fast response, and accurate energy information. In many nuclear physics experiments, existing detector technology is the limiting factor. The proposed project aims to investigate a promising detector concept that will have wide applicability in particle physics and many other applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/830034','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/830034"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bruce Albrecht</p> <p>2004-09-15</p> <p>This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using <span class="hlt">current</span> and past MMCR data for <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the <span class="hlt">current</span> MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910017151','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910017151"><span>The Kinematics of Turbulent <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, Stephen Kern</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the <span class="hlt">current</span> state of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer structure. The results of the <span class="hlt">current</span> study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-17/pdf/2010-19802.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-08-17/pdf/2010-19802.pdf"><span>75 FR 50745 - <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Establishment for the Black National Wild and Scenic River; Ottawa National Forest...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-08-17</p> <p>... Forest Service <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Establishment for the Black National Wild and Scenic River; Ottawa National..., is transmitting the <span class="hlt">final</span> <span class="hlt">boundary</span> of the Black National Wild and Scenic River to Congress. ] FOR... INFORMATION: The Black Wild and Scenic River <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is available for review at the following offices: USDA...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhPl...18b2502S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhPl...18b2502S"><span>Free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmitt, R. F.; Guazzotto, L.; Strauss, H.; Park, G. Y.; Chang, C.-S.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>The finite-element M3D code [W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)] has been modified to include a free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> equilibrium solver with arbitrary toroidal and poloidal flows. With this modification, the M3D code now has the capability to self-consistently model two essential ingredients necessary for equilibrium calculations in the edge region, namely, free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> and arbitrary flow. As a free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> code, M3D includes the separatrix and scrape-off layer regions in the equilibrium calculation. Poloidal flows in the subsonic, supersonic, and transonic regimes can be calculated with the new version of the M3D code. Calculation results show that the presence of equilibrium flows, in particular those next to the plasma <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, can considerably influence the position of the X-point and magnetic separatrix shape/location and hence the position of the strike point on the divertor plates. Moreover, it is shown that poloidal flow is not a rigid-body rotation, with the fastest flows occurring on the inboard side of the plasma. A numerical confirmation of the "de Laval nozzle" model of Betti and Freidberg [R. Betti and J. P. Freidberg, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2439 (2000)] for free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> equilibrium calculations is obtained, with the formation of the predicted discontinuities between regions of subsonic and supersonic flows (with respect to the poloidal sound speed). <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, a detailed comparison between isentropic and isothermal equilibria is presented, showing qualitative analogies and quantitative differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21535163','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21535163"><span>Free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmitt, R. F.; Park, G. Y.; Guazzotto, L.; Strauss, H.; Chang, C.-S.</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>The finite-element M3D code [W. Park et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999)] has been modified to include a free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> equilibrium solver with arbitrary toroidal and poloidal flows. With this modification, the M3D code now has the capability to self-consistently model two essential ingredients necessary for equilibrium calculations in the edge region, namely, free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> and arbitrary flow. As a free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> code, M3D includes the separatrix and scrape-off layer regions in the equilibrium calculation. Poloidal flows in the subsonic, supersonic, and transonic regimes can be calculated with the new version of the M3D code. Calculation results show that the presence of equilibrium flows, in particular those next to the plasma <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, can considerably influence the position of the X-point and magnetic separatrix shape/location and hence the position of the strike point on the divertor plates. Moreover, it is shown that poloidal flow is not a rigid-body rotation, with the fastest flows occurring on the inboard side of the plasma. A numerical confirmation of the ''de Laval nozzle'' model of Betti and Freidberg [R. Betti and J. P. Freidberg, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2439 (2000)] for free-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> equilibrium calculations is obtained, with the formation of the predicted discontinuities between regions of subsonic and supersonic flows (with respect to the poloidal sound speed). <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, a detailed comparison between isentropic and isothermal equilibria is presented, showing qualitative analogies and quantitative differences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080037569','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080037569"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span>-Layer-Ingesting Inlet Flow Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Owens, Lewis R.; Allan, Brian G.; Gorton, Susan A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>An experimental study was conducted to provide the first demonstration of an active flow control system for a flush-mounted inlet with significant <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer-ingestion in transonic flow conditions. The effectiveness of the flow control in reducing the circumferential distortion at the engine fan-face location was assessed using a 2.5%-scale model of a <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer-ingesting offset diffusing inlet. The inlet was flush mounted to the tunnel wall and ingested a large <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer with a <span class="hlt">boundary</span>-layer-to-inlet height ratio of 35%. Different jet distribution patterns and jet mass flow rates were used in the inlet to control distortion. A vane configuration was also tested. <span class="hlt">Finally</span> a hybrid vane/jet configuration was tested leveraging strengths of both types of devices. Measurements were made of the onset <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer, the duct surface static pressures, and the mass flow rates through the duct and the flow control actuators. The distortion and pressure recovery were measured at the aerodynamic interface plane. The data show that control jets and vanes reduce circumferential distortion to acceptable levels. The point-design vane configuration produced higher distortion levels at off-design settings. The hybrid vane/jet flow control configuration reduced the off-design distortion levels to acceptable ones and used less than 0.5% of the inlet mass flow to supply the jets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001664','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1001664"><span>Edge Plasma <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>L.E. Zakharov</p> <p>2010-11-22</p> <p>This paper describes the structure of the electric <span class="hlt">current</span> generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge <span class="hlt">current</span> layer is created by both wall touching and free <span class="hlt">boundary</span> kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge <span class="hlt">current</span> has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the δ-functional surface <span class="hlt">current</span> by the bulk <span class="hlt">current</span> at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma <span class="hlt">boundary</span> in the presence of the surface <span class="hlt">currents</span> is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=referendums&pg=4&id=EJ914004','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=referendums&pg=4&id=EJ914004"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Changing without Acrimony</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gunnell, Thomas J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In December 2009, a rapid-growth school district on the Texas Gulf Coast shifted its paradigm of rezoning. Even though half of the Katy Independent School District (Katy ISD) was affected, it achieved a genuine ownership for <span class="hlt">boundary</span> changes that would affect more than 11,500 students at five schools. Katy ISD accomplished this by seeking…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dynamic+AND+websites&pg=6&id=EJ914004','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dynamic+AND+websites&pg=6&id=EJ914004"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Changing without Acrimony</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gunnell, Thomas J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In December 2009, a rapid-growth school district on the Texas Gulf Coast shifted its paradigm of rezoning. Even though half of the Katy Independent School District (Katy ISD) was affected, it achieved a genuine ownership for <span class="hlt">boundary</span> changes that would affect more than 11,500 students at five schools. Katy ISD accomplished this by seeking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=event+AND+design+AND+social+AND+perspective&pg=5&id=ED403565','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=event+AND+design+AND+social+AND+perspective&pg=5&id=ED403565"><span>Dialogic Bonds and <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Khawaja, Mabel</p> <p></p> <p>A study of literature cannot be divorced from cultural contexts, nor can it ignore the humanist vision in interpreting literary texts. To discover dialogic bonds and <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> between the reader and the text, or the writer and the audience, English classes should have two objectives: (1) to explore the diversity of perspectives, and (2) to relate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091096','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930091096"><span>On the theory of laminar <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers involving separation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Von Karman, TH; Millikan, C</p> <p>1934-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a mathematical discussion of the laminar <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer, which was developed with a view of facilitating the investigation of those <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers in particular for which the phenomenon of separation occurs. The treatment starts with a slight modification of the form of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer equation first published by Von Mises. Two approximate solutions of this equation are found, one of which is exact at the outer edge of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer while the other is exact at the wall. The <span class="hlt">final</span> solution is obtained by joining these two solutions at the inflection points of the velocity profiles. The <span class="hlt">final</span> solution is given in terms of a series of universal functions for a fairly broad class of potential velocity distributions outside of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. Detailed calculations of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer characteristics are worked out for the case in which the potential velocity is a linear function of the distance from the upstream stagnation point. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the complete separation point characteristics are determined for the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer associated with a potential velocity distribution made up of two linear functions of the distance from the stagnation point. It appears that extensions of the detailed calculations to more complex potential flows can be fairly easily carried out by using the explicit formulae given in the paper. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24985623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24985623"><span>Equilibrium limit of thermal conduction and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> scattering in nanostructures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haskins, Justin B; Kınacı, Alper; Sevik, Cem; Çağın, Tahir</p> <p>2014-06-28</p> <p>Determining the lattice thermal conductivity (κ) of nanostructures is especially challenging in that, aside from the phonon-phonon scattering present in large systems, the scattering of phonons from the system <span class="hlt">boundary</span> greatly influences heat transport, particularly when system length (L) is less than the average phonon mean free path (MFP). One possible route to modeling κ in these systems is through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, inherently including both phonon-phonon and phonon-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> scattering effects in the classical limit. Here, we compare <span class="hlt">current</span> MD methods for computing κ in nanostructures with both L ⩽ MFP and L ≫ MFP, referred to as mean free path constrained (cMFP) and unconstrained (uMFP), respectively. Using a (10,0) CNT (carbon nanotube) as a benchmark case, we find that while the uMFP limit of κ is well-defined through the use of equilibrium MD and the time-correlation formalism, the standard equilibrium procedure for κ is not appropriate for the treatment of the cMFP limit because of the large influence of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> scattering. To address this issue, we define an appropriate equilibrium procedure for cMFP systems that, through comparison to high-fidelity non-equilibrium methods, is shown to be the low thermal gradient limit to non-equilibrium results. Further, as a means of predicting κ in systems having L ≫ MFP from cMFP results, we employ an extrapolation procedure based on the phenomenological, <span class="hlt">boundary</span> scattering inclusive expression of Callaway [Phys. Rev. 113, 1046 (1959)]. Using κ from systems with L ⩽ 3 μm in the extrapolation, we find that the equilibrium uMFP κ of a (10,0) CNT can be predicted within 5%. The equilibrium procedure is then applied to a variety of carbon-based nanostructures, such as graphene flakes (GF), graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), CNTs, and icosahedral fullerenes, to determine the influence of size and environment (suspended versus supported) on κ. Concerning the GF and GNR systems, we find that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990036234&hterms=Guillermo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGuillermo','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990036234&hterms=Guillermo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DGuillermo"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bozzolo, Guillermo</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>As an ongoing project, the original proposal of implementing BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith methods) to the process of alloy design was satisfied beyond the original expectations, as the project evolved from the original goal of backing the experimental results with theoretical and computational evidence, to the point where theoretical predictions lead the way for further experimental studies. For the first time, computer simulations were used to predict the phase stability of many component systems (four and five elements), which are <span class="hlt">currently</span> being developed and analyzed experimentally. Similar progress was made in the area of surface structure analysis via computer simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..275..107N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..275..107N"><span>Uranus evolution models with simple thermal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nettelmann, N.; Wang, K.; Fortney, J. J.; Hamel, S.; Yellamilli, S.; Bethkenhagen, M.; Redmer, R.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The strikingly low luminosity of Uranus (Teff ≃ Teq) constitutes a long-standing challenge to our understanding of Ice Giant planets. Here we present the first Uranus structure and evolution models that are constructed to agree with both the observed low luminosity and the gravity field data. Our models make use of modern ab initio equations of state at high pressures for the icy components water, methane, and ammonia. Proceeding step by step, we confirm that adiabatic models yield cooling times that are too long, even when uncertainties in the ice:rock ratio (I:R) are taken into account. We then argue that the transition between the ice/rock-rich interior and the H/He-rich outer envelope should be stably stratified. Therefore, we introduce a simple thermal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and adjust it to reproduce the low luminosity. Due to this thermal <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, the deep interior of the Uranus models are up to 2-3 warmer than adiabatic models, necessitating the presence of rocks in the deep interior with a possible I:R of 1 × solar. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we allow for an equilibrium evolution (Teff ≃ Teq) that begun prior to the present day, which would therefore no longer require the <span class="hlt">current</span> era to be a "special time" in Uranus' evolution. In this scenario, the thermal <span class="hlt">boundary</span> leads to more rapid cooling of the outer envelope. When Teff ≃ Teq is reached, a shallow, subadiabatic zone in the atmosphere begins to develop. Its depth is adjusted to meet the luminosity constraint. This work provides a simple foundation for future Ice Giant structure and evolution models, that can be improved by properly treating the heat and particle fluxes in the diffusive zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080023461','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080023461"><span>Infrared Imaging of <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Transition Flight Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Anderson, Brian; Campbell, Charles H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM) project is presently focused on near term support to the Shuttle program through the development of an infrared imaging capability of sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to augment existing on-board Orbiter instrumentation. Significant progress has been made with the identification and inventory of relevant existing optical imaging assets and the development, maturation, and validation of simulation and modeling tools for assessment and mission planning purposes, which were intended to lead to the best strategies and assets for successful acquisition of quantitative global surface temperature data on the Shuttle during entry. However, there are longer-term goals of providing global infrared imaging support to other flight projects as well. A status of HYTHIRM from the perspective of how two NASA-sponsored <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer transition flight experiments could benefit by infrared measurements is provided. Those two flight projects are the Hypersonic <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> layer Transition (HyBoLT) flight experiment and the Shuttle <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLT FE), which are both intended for reducing uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of wind tunnel derived transition correlations for flight application. Thus, the criticality of obtaining high quality flight data along with the impact it would provide to the Shuttle program damage assessment process are discussed. Two recent wind tunnel efforts that were intended as risk mitigation in terms of quantifying the transition process and resulting turbulent wedge locations are briefly reviewed. Progress is being made towards <span class="hlt">finalizing</span> an imaging strategy in support of the Shuttle BLT FE, however there are no plans <span class="hlt">currently</span> to image HyBoLT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2834215','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2834215"><span>A VERSATILE SHARP INTERFACE IMMERSED <span class="hlt">BOUNDARY</span> METHOD FOR INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOWS WITH COMPLEX <span class="hlt">BOUNDARIES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mittal, R.; Dong, H.; Bozkurttas, M.; Najjar, F.M.; Vargas, A.; von Loebbecke, A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A sharp interface immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> method for simulating incompressible viscous flow past three-dimensional immersed bodies is described. The method employs a multi-dimensional ghost-cell methodology to satisfy the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions on the immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> and the method is designed to handle highly complex three-dimensional, stationary, moving and/or deforming bodies. The complex immersed surfaces are represented by grids consisting of unstructured triangular elements; while the flow is computed on non-uniform Cartesian grids. The paper describes the salient features of the methodology with special emphasis on the immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> treatment for stationary and moving <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. Simulations of a number of canonical two- and three-dimensional flows are used to verify the accuracy and fidelity of the solver over a range of Reynolds numbers. Flow past suddenly accelerated bodies are used to validate the solver for moving <span class="hlt">boundary</span> problems. <span class="hlt">Finally</span> two cases inspired from biology with highly complex three-dimensional bodies are simulated in order to demonstrate the versatility of the method. PMID:20216919</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1190482-relationship-between-grain-boundary-structure-defect-mobility-grain-boundary-sink-efficiency','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1190482-relationship-between-grain-boundary-structure-defect-mobility-grain-boundary-sink-efficiency"><span>The relationship between grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> structure, defect mobility, and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> sink efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Vernon, Louis J.; Martinez, Enrique; ...</p> <p>2015-03-13</p> <p>Nanocrystalline materials have received great attention due to their potential for improved functionality and have been proposed for extreme environments where the interfaces are expected to promote radiation tolerance. However, the precise role of the interfaces in modifying defect behavior is unclear. Using long-time simulations methods, we determine the mobility of defects and defect clusters at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in Cu. We find that mobilities vary significantly with <span class="hlt">boundary</span> structure and cluster size, with larger clusters exhibiting reduced mobility, and that interface sink efficiency depends on the kinetics of defects within the interface via the in-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> annihilation rate of defects. Thus,more » sink efficiency is a strong function of defect mobility, which depends on <span class="hlt">boundary</span> structure, a property that evolves with time. Further, defect mobility at <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> can be slower than in the bulk, which has general implications for the properties of polycrystalline materials. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we correlate defect energetics with the volumes of atomic sites at the <span class="hlt">boundary</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1105908','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1105908"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Webb, Robert C.; Kamon, Teruki; Toback, David; Safonov, Alexei; Dutta, Bhaskar; Dimitri, Nanopoulos; Pope, Christopher; White, James</p> <p>2013-11-18</p> <p>Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this <span class="hlt">final</span> report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479576','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479576"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> transfer matrices and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> quantum KZ equations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vlaar, Bart</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>A simple relation between inhomogeneous transfer matrices and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov (KZ) equations is exhibited for quantum integrable systems with reflecting <span class="hlt">boundary</span> conditions, analogous to an observation by Gaudin for periodic systems. Thus, the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> quantum KZ equations receive a new motivation. We also derive the commutativity of Sklyanin’s <span class="hlt">boundary</span> transfer matrices by merely imposing appropriate reflection equations, in particular without using the conditions of crossing symmetry and unitarity of the R-matrix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850005493','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850005493"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> layer simulator improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Praharaj, S. C.; Schmitz, C.; Frost, C.; Engel, C. D.; Fuller, C. E.; Bender, R. L.; Pond, J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>High chamber pressure expander cycles proposed for orbit transfer vehicles depend primarily on the heat energy transmitted from the combustion products through the thrust wall chamber wall. The heat transfer to the nozzle wall is affected by such variables as wall roughness, relamarization, and the presence of particles in the flow. Motor performance loss for these nozzles with thick <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layers is inaccurate using the existing procedure coded BLIMPJ. Modifications and innovations to the code are examined. Updated routines are listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA127799','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA127799"><span>The Effects of Free-Stream Turbulence on the Turbulence Structure and Heat Transfer in Zero Pressure Gradient <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-11-01</p> <p>detailed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer turbulence measurements were: (1) to provide data to which <span class="hlt">current</span> finite - difference <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer turbulence mcdels could be...capability of a finite difference <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer computer program, ABLE (Analysis of the <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Layer Equations) for predicting the effect of free...measurements were: (1) to provide data to which <span class="hlt">current</span> finite - difference <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer turbulence models could be compared, and (2) to generate a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1056532','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1056532"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ananth Devulapalli</p> <p>2009-06-30</p> <p>Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) is a junior partner in the project titled Common HEC I/O Forwarding Scalability Layer. The goal of this project is to design and implement an open platform for scalable I/O forwarding for the next generation leadership class machines. These machines are going to be made up of hundreds of thousands of nodes, and <span class="hlt">current</span> distributed file system architectures cannot scale to such large number of clients due to problems caused by large fan-in. One solution to that problem is to add another layer of machines between the file servers and the clients, which can intermediate the I/O requests. Not only does it reduce the fan-in problem at the file servers, but this additional layer of indirection also allows architectural flexibility, like the ability to support heterogeneous networks and file systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10718053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10718053"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> lubrication in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hills, B A</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Evidence is reviewed for the concept that the body employs essentially the same lubrication system in many sites in the body where tissues slide over each other with such ease. This system consists of fluid adjacent to surfaces coated with an oligolamellar lining of surface-active phospholipid (SAPL) acting as a back-up <span class="hlt">boundary</span> lubricant wherever the fluid film fails to support the load--a likely event at physiological velocities. Particular attention is paid to the load-bearing joints, where the issue of identifying the vital active ingredient in synovial fluid is reviewed, coming down--perhaps predictably--in favour of SAPL. It is also explained how Lubricin and hyaluronic acid (HA) could have 'carrier' functions for the highly insoluble SAPL, while HA has good wetting properties needed to promote hydrodynamic lubrication of a very hydrophobic articular surface by an aqueous fluid wherever the load permits. In addition to friction and wear, release is included as another major role of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> lubricants, especially relevant in environments where proteins are found, many having adhesive properties. The discussion is extended to a mention of the lubrication of prosthetic implants and to disease states where a deficiency of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> lubricant is implicated, particular attention being paid to osteoarthritis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1333902','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1333902"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Callis, Judy</p> <p>2016-11-30</p> <p>This report summarizes our research activities. In the award period, we have made significant progress on the first aim, with new discoveries reported in one published paper (1) and in one submitted manuscript (2) <span class="hlt">currently</span> under review. The published manuscript reports on our discovery of plant ribokinase and the metabolic pathway in which it functions; the submitted manuscript is identification and characterization of the plant fructokinase family of enzymes from expression studies, sequence comparisons, subcellular localizations and enzymatic activities of recombinant proteins. Our study of loss-of-function mutants in the fructokinase family members (2) revealed that there were no phenotypic differences observed for the five genes analyzed, so we have adopted the Crispr/Cas9 system to isolate mutants in the two genes for which there are no <span class="hlt">currently</span> available insertion mutants, and we are generating higher order mutants (double, triples, etc) to discern the relative roles and significance for each fructokinase. These mutants will be an important resource to understand regulation of carbohydrate movement and catabolism in plants. As studies from others indicate, alteration of fructokinases results in changes in cell walls and vasculatures, which have importance relative to biofuel yield and quality. In the second aim, we have characterized the protein-protein interactions for the pkfB proteins FLN1 and FLN2 that are localized to chloroplast transcriptional complexes and have proposed a new model for how chloroplast transcription is regulated. This work has been submitted for publication, been revised and will be re-submitted in December 2016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1055769"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taylor, Philip L.</p> <p>2012-11-11</p> <p> possible to produce fuel cells capable of delivering much higher <span class="hlt">currents</span> than those <span class="hlt">currently</span> available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1059128','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1059128"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kouvetakis, John</p> <p>2013-01-03</p> <p>The project addressed the need for improved multijunction solar cells as identified within the Solar America Initiative program. The basic Ge/InGaAs/InGaP triple-junction structure that has led to record commercial efficiencies remains unoptimized due to excess <span class="hlt">current</span> in the germanium component. Furthermore, its deployment cannot be scaled up to terawatt-level applications due to bottlenecks related to germanium's cost and abundance. The purpose of the program was to explore new strategies developed at Arizona State University to deposit germanium films on much cheaper silicon substrates, largely eliminating the germanium bottleneck, and at the same time to develop new materials that should lead to an improvement in multijunction efficiencies. This included the ternary alloy SiGeSn, which can be inserted as a fourth junction in a Ge/SiGeSn/InGaAs/InGaP structure to compensate for the excess <span class="hlt">current</span> in the bottom cell. Moreover, the possibility of depositing materials containing Sn on Si substrates created an opportunity for replacing the bottom Ge cell with a GeSn alloy, which, combined with new III-V alloys for the top cells, should enable 4-junction structures with perfectly optimized band gaps. The successes of the program, to be described below, has led to the developments of new strategies for the growth of high-quality germanium films on Si substrates and to a widespread recognition that SiGeSn is likely to play a significant role in future generations of high-efficiency devices, as demonstrated by new research and intellectual property efforts by major US industrial players.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5238705','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5238705"><span>A new approach to grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> engineering for nanocrystalline materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsurekawa, Sadahiro; Watanabe, Tadao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new approach to grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> engineering (GBE) for high performance nanocrystalline materials, especially those produced by electrodeposition and sputtering, is discussed on the basis of some important findings from recently available results on GBE for nanocrystalline materials. In order to optimize their utility, the beneficial effects of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> microstructures have been seriously considered according to the almost established approach to GBE. This approach has been increasingly recognized for the development of high performance nanocrystalline materials with an extremely high density of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and triple junctions. The effectiveness of precisely controlled grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> microstructures (quantitatively characterized by the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> character distribution (GBCD) and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> connectivity associated with triple junctions) has been revealed for recent achievements in the enhancement of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> strengthening, hardness, and the control of segregation-induced intergranular brittleness and intergranular fatigue fracture in electrodeposited nickel and nickel alloys with initial submicrometer-grained structure. A new approach to GBE based on fractal analysis of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> connectivity is proposed to produce high performance nanocrystalline or submicrometer-grained materials with desirable mechanical properties such as enhanced fracture resistance. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the potential power of GBE is demonstrated for high performance functional materials like gold thin films through precise control of electrical resistance based on the fractal analysis of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> microstructure. PMID:28144533</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28144533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28144533"><span>A new approach to grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> engineering for nanocrystalline materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Tsurekawa, Sadahiro; Watanabe, Tadao</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new approach to grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> engineering (GBE) for high performance nanocrystalline materials, especially those produced by electrodeposition and sputtering, is discussed on the basis of some important findings from recently available results on GBE for nanocrystalline materials. In order to optimize their utility, the beneficial effects of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> microstructures have been seriously considered according to the almost established approach to GBE. This approach has been increasingly recognized for the development of high performance nanocrystalline materials with an extremely high density of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and triple junctions. The effectiveness of precisely controlled grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> microstructures (quantitatively characterized by the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> character distribution (GBCD) and grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> connectivity associated with triple junctions) has been revealed for recent achievements in the enhancement of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> strengthening, hardness, and the control of segregation-induced intergranular brittleness and intergranular fatigue fracture in electrodeposited nickel and nickel alloys with initial submicrometer-grained structure. A new approach to GBE based on fractal analysis of grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> connectivity is proposed to produce high performance nanocrystalline or submicrometer-grained materials with desirable mechanical properties such as enhanced fracture resistance. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the potential power of GBE is demonstrated for high performance functional materials like gold thin films through precise control of electrical resistance based on the fractal analysis of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> microstructure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22400705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22400705"><span>Immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Jianhua; Han, Haifeng; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most <span class="hlt">current</span> versions of the immersed <span class="hlt">boundary</span> lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang. To reduce such a numerical <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip, an immerse <span class="hlt">boundary</span> lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single-relaxation-time-based model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15803043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15803043"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> issues and personality disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gutheil, Thomas G</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The author first presents an overview of the basic elements of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> theory and clarifies the distinction between <span class="hlt">boundary</span> crossings and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> violations. The concepts of context dependence, power asymmetry, and fiduciary duty as they relate to <span class="hlt">boundary</span> problems are also discussed. The intrinsic and extrinsic consequences of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> problems are reviewed. The extrinsic consequences fall into three major categories: civil lawsuits, complaints to the board of registration, and complaints to professional societies. The author then reviews types of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> issues that arise in relation to histrionic, dependent, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Countertransference issues that arise in working with patients with personality disorders are discussed, as well as cultural differences that may affect the perception of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> problems. The article ends with a list of risk management principles and recommendations for avoiding <span class="hlt">boundary</span> problems in the therapeutic relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/988391','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/988391"><span>Cell <span class="hlt">boundary</span> fault detection system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN</p> <p>2009-05-05</p> <p>A method determines a nodal fault along the <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/382483','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/382483"><span>Grain-<span class="hlt">boundary</span> plane crystallography and energy in austenitic steel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Caul, M.; Randle, V.; Fiedler, J.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The presence of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in polycrystalline materials affects the materials properties and performance. Recently it has been realized that <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> can be manipulated to give better properties, and the design and control of grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> is now an area of strong research interest in the search for high performance engineering materials. Grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> can be classified using the Coincident Site Lattice Model (CSL), which defines the periodicity, i.e., the degree of fit between the two lattices which constitute the <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. Using this model it is possible to divide <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> into categories: low angle (up to 15{degree} misorientation), CSL and random i.e., high angle non-CSL. Some CSL <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> have been shown to have special properties: an example from recent research in the same program as that <span class="hlt">currently</span> reported has shown that twin <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> ({Sigma} = 3 in CSL notation) in High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steels do not favor the formation of Cr{sub 2}N precipitates. The research presented here examines grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> inclinations of surface grains in austenitic steel specimens which have been isothermally aged at higher 700 C or 800 C. Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> plane crystallography has also been obtained for the 800 C aged sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EJASP2006..176W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006EJASP2006..176W"><span>Evaluating Edge Detection through <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Song; Ge, Feng; Liu, Tiecheng</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Edge detection has been widely used in computer vision and image processing. However, the performance evaluation of the edge-detection results is still a challenging problem. A major dilemma in edge-detection evaluation is the difficulty to balance the objectivity and generality: a general-purpose edge-detection evaluation independent of specific applications is usually not well defined, while an evaluation on a specific application has weak generality. Aiming at addressing this dilemma, this paper presents new evaluation methodology and a framework in which edge detection is evaluated through <span class="hlt">boundary</span> detection, that is, the likelihood of retrieving the full object <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> from this edge-detection output. Such a likelihood, we believe, reflects the performance of edge detection in many applications since <span class="hlt">boundary</span> detection is the direct and natural goal of edge detection. In this framework, we use the newly developed ratio-contour algorithm to group the detected edges into closed <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. We also collect a large data set ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]) of real images with unambiguous ground-truth <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> for evaluation. Five edge detectors (Sobel, LoG, Canny, Rothwell, and Edison) are evaluated in this paper and we find that the <span class="hlt">current</span> edge-detection performance still has scope for improvement by choosing appropriate detectors and detector parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1009133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1009133"><span><span class="hlt">FINAL</span> REPORT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Juergen Eckert; Anthony K. Cheetham</p> <p>2011-03-11</p> <p>Hydrogen storage systems based on the readily reversible adsorption of H{sub 2} in porous materials have a number of very attractive properties with the potential to provide superior performance among candidate materials <span class="hlt">currently</span> being investigated were it not for the fact that the interaction of H{sub 2} with the host material is too weak to permit viable operation at room temperature. Our study has delineated in quantitative detail the structural elements which we believe to be the essential ingredients for the future synthesis of porous materials, where guest-host interactions are intermediate between those found in the carbons and the metal hydrides, i.e. between physisorption and chemisorption, which will result in H{sub 2} binding energies required for room temperature operation. The ability to produce porous materials with much improved hydrogen binding energies depends critically on detailed molecular level analysis of hydrogen binding in such materials. However, characterization of H{sub 2} sorption is almost exclusively carried by thermodynamic measurements, which give average properties for all the sites occupied by H{sub 2} molecules at a particular loading. We have therefore extensively utilized the most powerful of the few molecular level experimental probes available to probe the interactions of hydrogen with porous materials, namely inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy of the hindered rotations of the hydrogen molecules adsorbed at various sites, which in turn can be interpreted in a very direct way in by computational studies. This technique can relate spectral signatures of various H{sub 2} molecules adsorbed at binding sites with different degrees of interaction. In the course of this project we have synthesized a rather large number of entirely new hybrid materials, which include structural modifications for improved interactions with adsorbed hydrogen. The results of our systematic studies on many porous materials provide detailed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CQGra..32t5004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CQGra..32t5004B"><span><span class="hlt">Boundary</span> terms for causal sets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buck, Michel; Dowker, Fay; Jubb, Ian; Surya, Sumati</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We propose a family of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> terms for the action of a causal set with a spacelike <span class="hlt">boundary</span>. We show that in the continuum limit one recovers the Gibbons-Hawking-York <span class="hlt">boundary</span> term in the mean. We also calculate the continuum limit of the mean causal set action for an Alexandrov interval in flat spacetime. We find that it is equal to the volume of the codimension-2 intersection of the two light-cone <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of the interval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860038155&hterms=streaming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dstreaming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860038155&hterms=streaming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dstreaming"><span>Destiny of earthward streaming plasma in the plasmasheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Green, J. L.; Horwitz, J. L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The dynamics of the earth's magnetotail have been investigated, and it has become clear that the plasmasheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer field lines map into the Region I Field-Aligned <span class="hlt">Currents</span> (FAC) of the auroral zone. It is pointed out that the role of earthward streaming ions in the plasmasheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer may be of fundamental importance in the understanding of magnetotail dynamics, auroral zone physics, and especially for ionospheric-magnetospheric interactions. The present paper has the objective to evaluate propagation characteristics for the earthward streaming ions observed in the plasmasheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer. An investigation is conducted of the propagation characteristics of protons in the plasmasheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer using independent single particle dynamics, and conclusions are discussed. The density of earthward streaming ions found in the plasmasheet <span class="hlt">boundary</span> layer should include the ring <span class="hlt">current</span> as well as the auroral zone precipitaiton and inner plasmasheet regions of the magnetosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836271','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/836271"><span><span class="hlt">Final</span> Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wessels, B. W.</p> <p>2002-08-02</p> <p><span class="hlt">Final</span> report for program on the study of structure and properties of epitaxial oxide films. The defect structure of epitaxial oxide thin films was investigated. Both binary and complex oxides were studied. Epitaxial oxides were synthesized by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD). This technique has been found to be highly versatile for the synthesis of a wide range of epitaxial oxide including dielectrics, ferroelectrics and high T{sub c} superconductors. Systems investigated include the binary oxides ZnO and TiO{sub 2} and ferroelectric oxides BaTiO{sub 3}, BaSrTiO{sub 3} and KNbO{sub 3}. Techniques used to evaluate the defect structure included deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photocapacitance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High purity, stoichiometric oxide films were deposited and their defect structure evaluated. Epitaxial ZnO was deposited at temperatures as low as 250 C. PL indicated only near band edge ultraviolet emission showing that both extrinsic and intrinsic point defects could be significantly lowered in OMCVD derived thin films compared to that of the bulk. This presumably was a result of low deposition temperatures and high purity starting materials. Ferroelectric oxides epitaxial thin films of BaTiO{sub 3} and the solid solution BaSrTiO{sub 3} were synthesized and the defect structure determined. Photocapacitance spectroscopy was developed to quantify electrically active defects in the oxides. Defects with concentrations as low as 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} were observed and their properties determined. A new model was developed for the electronic transport properties of intrinsic and extrinsic BaTiO{sub 3}. A transport model was proposed whereby conduction in La doped films occurs via hopping in localized states within a pseudogap formed between a lower Hubbard band and the conduction band edge. The influence of the size effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in the thin films was investigated. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4143124','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4143124"><span>The study of surface wetting, nanobubbles and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip with an applied voltage: A review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pan, Yunlu; Zhao, Xuezeng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary The drag of fluid flow at the solid–liquid interface in the micro/nanoscale is an important issue in micro/nanofluidic systems. Drag depends on the surface wetting, nanobubbles, surface charge and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip. Some researchers have focused on the relationship between these interface properties. In this review, the influence of an applied voltage on the surface wettability, nanobubbles, surface charge density and slip length are discussed. The contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of a droplet of deionized (DI) water on a hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) surface were measured with applied direct <span class="hlt">current</span> (DC) and alternating <span class="hlt">current</span> (AC) voltages. The nanobubbles in DI water and three kinds of saline solution on a PS surface were imaged when a voltage was applied. The influence of the surface charge density on the nanobubbles was analyzed. Then the slip length and the electrostatic force on the probe were measured on an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) surface with applied voltage. The influence of the surface charge on the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip and drag of fluid flow has been discussed. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the influence of the applied voltage on the surface wetting, nanobubbles, surface charge, <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip and the drag of liquid flow are summarized. With a smaller surface charge density which could be achieved by applying a voltage on the surface, larger and fewer nanobubbles, a larger slip length and a smaller drag of liquid flow could be found. PMID:25161839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25161839','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25161839"><span>The study of surface wetting, nanobubbles and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip with an applied voltage: A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pan, Yunlu; Bhushan, Bharat; Zhao, Xuezeng</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The drag of fluid flow at the solid-liquid interface in the micro/nanoscale is an important issue in micro/nanofluidic systems. Drag depends on the surface wetting, nanobubbles, surface charge and <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip. Some researchers have focused on the relationship between these interface properties. In this review, the influence of an applied voltage on the surface wettability, nanobubbles, surface charge density and slip length are discussed. The contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of a droplet of deionized (DI) water on a hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) surface were measured with applied direct <span class="hlt">current</span> (DC) and alternating <span class="hlt">current</span> (AC) voltages. The nanobubbles in DI water and three kinds of saline solution on a PS surface were imaged when a voltage was applied. The influence of the surface charge density on the nanobubbles was analyzed. Then the slip length and the electrostatic force on the probe were measured on an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) surface with applied voltage. The influence of the surface charge on the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip and drag of fluid flow has been discussed. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, the influence of the applied voltage on the surface wetting, nanobubbles, surface charge, <span class="hlt">boundary</span> slip and the drag of liquid flow are summarized. With a smaller surface charge density which could be achieved by applying a voltage on the surface, larger and fewer nanobubbles, a larger slip length and a smaller drag of liquid flow could be found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011utcs.book..153H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011utcs.book..153H"><span>Permeable <span class="hlt">Boundaries</span> in Organizational Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hazy, James K.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Schwandt, David R.</p> <p></p> <p>The nature of the organizational <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is investigated in the context of organizational learning. <span class="hlt">Boundary</span> permeability is defined and hypotheses relating it to performance are tested computationally using data from 5,500 artificial organizations. We find that matching <span class="hlt">boundary</span> permeability to the environment predicts both agent and organization survival.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.Y9008J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MAR.Y9008J"><span>Textured <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and their effects on ciliary locomotion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jana, Saikat; Yang, Sung; Jung, Sunghwan</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Many microorganisms in nature propel themselves by creating coordinated motion of the cilia and often interact with each other through hydrodynamic interactions. We study the behavior of these organisms near <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> of different topography and rationalize the hydrodynamic effects involved. Various geometries like wavy, rough or solid walls are simulated using micro fabrication and their effects on the locomotory traits are observed. <span class="hlt">Finally</span> a comprehensive discussion on the effect of different <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> on the swimming characteristics of the organism is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3265378','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3265378"><span>Advantageous grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> in iron pnictide superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Katase, Takayoshi; Ishimaru, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Tanabe, Keiichi; Hosono, Hideo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries—the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density. Here we report that high critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> junctions with various misorientation angles (θGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical <span class="hlt">current</span> density through bicrystal grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> (JcBGB) remained high (>1 MA cm−2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle θc of ∼9°, which is substantially larger than the θc of ∼5° for YBa2Cu3O7–δ. Even at θGB>θc, the decay of JcBGB was much slower than that of YBa2Cu3O7–δ. PMID:21811238</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........73Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........73Z"><span>Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> migration in metals: Molecular dynamics simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Hao</p> <p></p> <p>Grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> migration is key to materials microstructural processes such as grain growth and recrystallization. Quantitative <span class="hlt">boundary</span> dynamic data is difficult to obtain, yet important for quantitative prediction of microstructural evolution and understanding migration fundamentals. Our molecular dynamics simulations first focus on curvature driven grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> migration to extract the reduced mobility and activation energy for migration as a function of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> misorientation in aluminum. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observations except that the activation energy for migration found is much smaller than in experiment. This discrepancy led to a more systematic study of the absolute mobility and atomistic level mechanism for <span class="hlt">boundary</span> migration. To study the mobility of a flat, fully defined <span class="hlt">boundary</span>, we developed a strain-energy-anisotropy-driven migration simulation method. We applied this method to a series of Sigma5 [010] asymmetric tilt grain <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and extracted the absolute mobility as a function of temperature and inclination. Simulation results suggest that the mobility is a sensitive function of temperature and inclination. The <span class="hlt">boundary</span> mobility tends to be minimized when one of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> planes has low Miller indices. Meanwhile, the comparison between grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> mobility, grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> self-diffusivity and energy suggests strong correlation at special inclinations, when one of the <span class="hlt">boundary</span> planes is a high symmetry plane. In addition, we derive the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> stiffness and reduced mobility as a function of <span class="hlt">boundary</span> inclination. The grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> stiffness exhibits a large anisotropy, which is of the same order of magnitude as that of the grain <span class="hlt">boundary</span> mobility. However, these two anisotropies nearly cancel, leaving the reduced mobility nearly isotropic. <span class="hlt">Finally</span>, we identify the migration mechanism through frequent quenches and analysis of the atomic displacements, local and global excess volume</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10j4013K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10j4013K"><span>Local and social facets of planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>: right to nutrients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kahiluoto, Helena; Kuisma, Miia; Kuokkanen, Anna; Mikkilä, Mirja; Linnanen, Lassi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic nutrient flows exceed the planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span>. The <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> and the <span class="hlt">current</span> excesses vary spatially. Such variations have both an ecological and a social facet. We explored the spatial variation using a bottom-up approach. The local critical <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> were determined through the <span class="hlt">current</span> or accumulated flow of the preceding five years before the planetary <span class="hlt">boundary</span> criteria were met. Finland and Ethiopia served as cases with contrasting ecology and wealth. The variation in excess depends on historical global inequities in the access to nutrients. Globally, the accumulated use per capita is 2300 kg reactive nitrogen (Nr) and 200 kg phosphorus (P). For Finland, the accumulated use per capita is 3400 kg Nr and 690 kg P, whereas for Ethiopia, it is 26 kg Nr and 12 kg P. The critical N <span class="hlt">boundary</span> in Finland is <span class="hlt">currently</span> exceeded by 40 kg cap-1 a-1 and the accumulated excess is 65 kg cap-1 a-1, while the global <span class="hlt">current</span> excess is 24 kg cap-1 a-1 and there is space in Ethiopia to increase even the accumulated flow. The critical P <span class="hlt">boundary</span> is exceeded in Finland and (although less so) in Ethiopia, but for contrary reasons: (1) the excessive past inflow to the agrifood system in Finland and (2) the excessive outflow from the agrifood system triggered by deficits in inflow and waste management in Ethiopia. The critical <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> set by Finnish marine systems are lower and those set by freshwaters are higher than the planetary <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> downscaled per capita. The shift to dominance of internal loading in watercourses represents a tipping point. We conclude that food security within the safe <span class="hlt">boundaries</span> requires global redistribution of nutrients in residues, soils and sediments and of rights to use nutrients. Bottom-up assessments reveal local dynamics that shed new light on the relevant <span class="hlt">boundary</span> criteria and on estimates and remedies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91q4422L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91q4422L"><span>Open Heisenberg chain under <span class="hlt">boundary</span> fields: A magnonic logic gate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landi, Gabriel T.; Karevski, Dragi</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We study the spin transport in the quantum Heisenberg spin chain sub