Bounds for the cumulative conditional expectation function
Fernández, M.; González-López, V. A.
2015-03-10
We introduce the concept of cumulative conditional expectation function. This is a quantity that provides statistical support for making decisions in applied problems. The goal of this paper is to find an analytical expression for upper and lower bounds of this function, assuming stochastic dependence types as being the underlying random structure.
Exact synchronization bound for coupled time-delay systems.
Senthilkumar, D V; Pesquera, Luis; Banerjee, Santo; Ortín, Silvia; Kurths, J
2013-04-01
We obtain an exact bound for synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using the generalized Halanay inequality for the general case of time-dependent delay, coupling, and coefficients. Furthermore, we show that the same analysis is applicable to both uni- and bidirectionally coupled time-delay systems with an appropriate evolution equation for their synchronization manifold, which can also be defined for different types of synchronization. The exact synchronization bound assures an exponential stabilization of the synchronization manifold which is crucial for applications. The analytical synchronization bound is independent of the nature of the modulation and can be applied to any time-delay system satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The analytical results are corroborated numerically using the Ikeda system.
Exact synchronization bound for coupled time-delay systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Senthilkumar, D. V.; Pesquera, Luis; Banerjee, Santo; Ortín, Silvia; Kurths, J.
2013-04-01
We obtain an exact bound for synchronization in coupled time-delay systems using the generalized Halanay inequality for the general case of time-dependent delay, coupling, and coefficients. Furthermore, we show that the same analysis is applicable to both uni- and bidirectionally coupled time-delay systems with an appropriate evolution equation for their synchronization manifold, which can also be defined for different types of synchronization. The exact synchronization bound assures an exponential stabilization of the synchronization manifold which is crucial for applications. The analytical synchronization bound is independent of the nature of the modulation and can be applied to any time-delay system satisfying a Lipschitz condition. The analytical results are corroborated numerically using the Ikeda system.
The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012
2012-01-01
Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a…
ɛ-bounded state estimation for time-delay systems with bounded disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, P. T.; Pathirana, P. N.; Trinh, H.
2014-09-01
A new problem on ε-bounded functional state estimation for time-delay systems with unknown bounded disturbances is studied in this paper. In the presence of unknown bounded disturbances, the common assumption regarding the observer's matching condition is no longer required. In this regard, instead of achieving asymptotic convergence for the observer error, the error is now required to converge exponentially within a ball with a small radius ε > 0. This means that the estimate converges exponentially within an ε-bound of the true value. A general observer that utilises multiple-delayed output and input information is proposed. Sufficient conditions for the existence of the proposed observer are first given. We then employ an extended Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which combines the delay-decomposition technique with a triple-integral term to study the ε-convergence problem of the observer error system. Moreover, the obtained results are shown to be more effective than the existing results for the cases with no disturbances and/or no time delay. Three numerical examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.
Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.
2008-06-01
The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010
2010-01-01
Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…
Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam
2009-01-01
This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.
Dey, Rajeeb; Ghosh, Sandip; Ray, Goshaidas; Rakshit, Anjan; Balas, Valentina Emilia
2015-09-01
This paper presents improved robust delay-range-dependent stability analysis of an uncertain linear time-delay system following two different existing approaches - (i) non-delay partitioning (NDP) and (ii) delay partitioning (DP). The derived criterion (for both the approaches) proposes judicious use of integral inequality to approximate the uncertain limits of integration arising out of the time-derivative of Lyapunov-Krasovskii (LK) functionals to obtain less conservative results. Further, the present work compares both the approaches in terms of relative merits as well as highlights tradeoff for achieving higher delay bound and (or) reducing number of decision variables without losing conservatism in delay bound results. The analysis and discussion presented in the paper are validated by considering relevant numerical examples.
Learning monopolies with delayed feedback on price expectations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc
2015-11-01
We call the intercept of the price function with the vertical axis the maximum price and the slope of the price function the marginal price. In this paper it is assumed that a monopolistic firm has full information about the marginal price and its own cost function but is uncertain on the maximum price. However, by repeated interaction with the market, the obtained price observations give a basis for an adaptive learning process of the maximum price. It is also assumed that the price observations have fixed delays, so the learning process can be described by a delayed differential equation. In the cases of one or two delays, the asymptotic behavior of the resulting dynamic process is examined, stability conditions are derived. Three main results are demonstrated in the two delay learning processes. First, it is possible to stabilize the equilibrium which is unstable in the one delay model. Second, complex dynamics involving chaos, which is impossible in the one delay model, can emerge. Third, alternations of stability and instability (i.e., stability switches) occur repeatedly.
On ℓ∞ and L∞ gains for positive systems with bounded time-varying delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jun; Lam, James
2015-08-01
This paper is devoted to the analysis of the ℓ∞ and L∞ gains for positive linear systems with interval time-varying delays. Through exploiting the monotonicity of the state trajectory, we first prove that for positive systems with constant delays, the ℓ∞ and L∞ gains are fully governed by the system matrices but independent of the delay size. Moreover, for positive systems with bounded time-varying delays, by comparing with the nominal systems with constant delays, it turns out that the ℓ∞ and L∞ gains are exactly the same as that of the constant delay systems. The results in this paper reveal that the ℓ∞ and L∞ gains of positive linear systems are not sensitive to the magnitude of time delays and hence the computation of ℓ∞ and L∞ gains of positive systems with bounded time-varying delays can be reduced to computing the ℓ∞ and L∞ gains of the corresponding delay-free systems. Both continuous-time and discrete-time cases are considered in this paper.
Finding the exact delay bound for consensus of linear multi-agent systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cepeda-Gomez, Rudy
2016-08-01
This paper focuses on consensus problems for high-order, linear multi-agent systems. Undirected communication topologies along with a fixed and uniform communication time delay are taken into account. This class of problems has been widely studied in the literature, but there are still gaps concerning the exact stability bounds in the domain of the delays. The novelty of this paper lies in the determination of an exact and explicit delay bound for consensus. This is done in a very efficient manner by using the cluster treatment of characteristic roots (CTCR) paradigm. Before the stability analysis, a state transformation is performed to decouple the system and simplify the problem. CTCR is then deployed to the individual subsystems to obtain the stability margin in the domain of the delays without the conservatism introduced by other approaches more frequently found in the literature. Simulation results are presented to support the analytical claims.
Stochastic resonance in a tumor-immune system subject to bounded noises and time delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng
2014-12-01
Immunotherapy is one of the most recent approaches in cancer therapy. A mathematical model of tumor-immune interaction, subject to a periodic immunotherapy treatment (imitated by a periodic signal), correlative and bounded stochastic fluctuations and time delays, is investigated by numerical simulations for its signal power amplification (SPA). Within the tailored parameter regime, the synchronous response of tumor growth to the immunotherapy, stochastic resonance (SR), versus both the noises and delays is obtained. The details are as follows (i) the peak values of SPA versus the noise intensity (A) in the proliferation term of tumor cells decrease as the frequency of periodic signal increases, i.e. an increase of the frequency restrains the SR; (ii) an increase of the amplitude of periodic signal restrains the SR versus A, but boosts up the SR versus the noise intensity B in the immune term; (iii) there is an optimum cross-correlated degree between the two bounded noises, at which the system exhibits the strongest SR versus the delay time τα(the reaction time of tumor cell population to their surrounding environment constraints); (iv) upon increasing the delay time τα, double SR versus the delay time τβ (the time taken by both the tumor antigen identification and tumor-stimulated proliferation of effectors) emerges. These results may be helpful for an immunotherapy treatment for the sufferer.
Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states
Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech
2010-08-15
The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.
Both trace and delay conditioned eyeblink responding can be dissociated from outcome expectancy.
Weidemann, Gabrielle; Broderick, Joshua; Lovibond, Peter F; Mitchell, Christopher J
2012-01-01
Squire and colleagues have proposed that trace and delay eyeblink conditioning are fundamentally different kinds of learning: trace conditioning requires acquisition of a conscious declarative memory for the stimulus contingencies whereas delay conditioning does not. Declarative memory in trace conditioning is thought to generate conditioned responding through the activation of a conscious expectancy for when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is going to occur. Perruchet (1985) has previously shown that in a 50% partial reinforcement design it is possible to dissociate single cue delay eyeblink conditioning from conscious expectancy for the US by examining performance over runs of reinforced and nonreinforced trials. Clark, Manns, and Squire (2001) claim that this dissociation does not occur in trace eyeblink conditioning. In the present experiment we examined the Perruchet effect for short, moderate, and long trace intervals (600, 1000, and 1400 ms) and for the equivalent interstimulus intervals (ISIs) in a delay conditioning procedure. We found evidence for a dissociation of eyeblink CRs and US expectancy over runs regardless of whether there was a delay or a trace arrangement of cues. The reasons for the Perruchet effect are still unclear, but the present data suggest that it does not depend on a separate nondeclarative system of the type proposed by Squire and colleagues.
A multi-band fast-locking delay-locked loop with jitter-bounded feature.
Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lai, Hung-Jing; Lin, Meng-Feng
2011-01-01
In this paper, a fast-locking delay-locked loop (DLL) with jitter-bounded feature is presented. In the proposed fast-locking mechanism, a frequency estimator and a programmable voltage circuit are developed to rapidly switch the control node of voltage-controlled delay line to a voltage level near the final required value. After that, the DLL output will be quickly locked by the following charge pumping on the loop filter. In the jitter-bounded approach, two phase-frequency detectors and a tunable delay are employed to hold the output clock jitter between two reference inputs after the DLL is locked. Furthermore, to enhance the flexibility of the presented DLL, a frequency multiplier with fewer active devices is also developed to provide high-frequency clock output for wideband applications. The presented DLL is implemented in a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS technology. The active area without contact pads is 0.34 × 0.41 mm(2). A minimum lock time of six clock cycles is measured from no reference input to locked state. The output frequency ranges of the DLL and the frequency multiplier can be measured from 200 to 400 MHz and from 1 to 2 GHz, respectively. The power dissipation of the presented DLL is 31.5 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage.
Stability and Hopf bifurcation for a business cycle model with expectation and delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiangdong; Cai, Wenli; Lu, Jiajun; Wang, Yangyang
2015-08-01
According to rational expectation hypothesis, the government will take into account the future capital stock in the process of investment decision. By introducing anticipated capital stock into an economic model with investment delay, we construct a mixed functional differential system including delay and advanced variables. The system is converted to the one containing only delay by variable substitution. The equilibrium point of the system is obtained and its dynamical characteristics such as stability, Hopf bifurcation and its stability and direction are investigated by using the related theories of nonlinear dynamics. We carry out some numerical simulations to confirm these theoretical conclusions. The results indicate that both capital stock's anticipation and investment lag are the certain factors leading to the occurrence of cyclical fluctuations in the macroeconomic system. Moreover, the level of economic fluctuation can be dampened to some extent if investment decisions are made by the reasonable short-term forecast on capital stock.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2009
2009-01-01
Communicating with prospective students has undergone a profound transformation in the past ten years. Campus marketing--like marketing for any organization--had to adapt first to the Internet and e-mail and now to new social media formats like social networking and blogging. A recent survey of 1,000 college-bound seniors, however, shows that…
Leiberg, Susanne; Goschke, Thomas
2013-01-01
When choosing between immediate and temporally delayed goods, people sometimes decide disadvantageously. Here, we aim to provide process-level insight into differences between individually determined advantageous and disadvantageous choices. Participants played a computer game, deciding between two different rewards of varying size and distance by moving an agent towards the chosen reward. We calculated individual models of advantageous choices and characterized the decision process by analyzing mouse movements. The larger amount of participants’ choices was classified as advantageous and the disadvantageous choices were biased towards choosing sooner/smaller rewards. The deflection of mouse movements indicated more conflict in disadvantageous choices compared with advantageous choices when the utilities of the options differed clearly. Further process oriented analysis revealed that disadvantageous choices were biased by a tendency for choice-repetition and an undervaluation of the value information in favour of the delay information, making rather simple choices harder than could be expected from the properties of the decision situation. PMID:24260192
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012
2012-01-01
The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hansheng
2016-09-01
The problem of decentralised robust stabilisation is considered for a class of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected dynamical systems. In the paper, the upper bounds of delayed state perturbations, uncertainties, interconnection terms, and external disturbances are assumed to be completely unknown, and the delays are assumed to be any non-negative constants. For such a class of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of adaptation-free decentralised local robust state feedback controllers can be constructed. In addition, it is also shown that the solutions of uncertain large-scale time-delay interconnected systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, as an application to the practical mechanical systems, some simulations of a numerical example are provided to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.
Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin
2014-01-01
In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656
Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin
2014-01-01
In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656
Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin
2014-01-01
In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods.
Faydasicok, Ozlem; Arik, Sabri
2013-08-01
The main problem with the analysis of robust stability of neural networks is to find the upper bound norm for the intervalized interconnection matrices of neural networks. In the previous literature, the major three upper bound norms for the intervalized interconnection matrices have been reported and they have been successfully applied to derive new sufficient conditions for robust stability of delayed neural networks. One of the main contributions of this paper will be the derivation of a new upper bound for the norm of the intervalized interconnection matrices of neural networks. Then, by exploiting this new upper bound norm of interval matrices and using stability theory of Lyapunov functionals and the theory of homomorphic mapping, we will obtain new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of neural networks with discrete time delays under parameter uncertainties and with respect to continuous and slope-bounded activation functions. The results obtained in this paper will be shown to be new and they can be considered alternative results to previously published corresponding results. We also give some illustrative and comparative numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed robust stability condition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.
2010-01-01
There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…
McElderry, Robert M
2016-04-01
Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering.
Myosin Va bound to phagosomes binds to F-actin and delays microtubule-dependent motility.
Al-Haddad, A; Shonn, M A; Redlich, B; Blocker, A; Burkhardt, J K; Yu, H; Hammer, J A; Weiss, D G; Steffen, W; Griffiths, G; Kuznetsov, S A
2001-09-01
We established a light microscopy-based assay that reconstitutes the binding of phagosomes purified from mouse macrophages to preassembled F-actin in vitro. Both endogenous myosin Va from mouse macrophages and exogenous myosin Va from chicken brain stimulated the phagosome-F-actin interaction. Myosin Va association with phagosomes correlated with their ability to bind F-actin in an ATP-regulated manner and antibodies to myosin Va specifically blocked the ATP-sensitive phagosome binding to F-actin. The uptake and retrograde transport of phagosomes from the periphery to the center of cells in bone marrow macrophages was observed in both normal mice and mice homozygous for the dilute-lethal spontaneous mutation (myosin Va null). However, in dilute-lethal macrophages the accumulation of phagosomes in the perinuclear region occurred twofold faster than in normal macrophages. Motion analysis revealed saltatory phagosome movement with temporarily reversed direction in normal macrophages, whereas almost no reversals in direction were observed in dilute-lethal macrophages. These observations demonstrate that myosin Va mediates phagosome binding to F-actin, resulting in a delay in microtubule-dependent retrograde phagosome movement toward the cell center. We propose an "antagonistic/cooperative mechanism" to explain the saltatory phagosome movement toward the cell center in normal macrophages. PMID:11553713
Naftali, E; Makris, N C
2001-10-01
Analytic expressions for the first order bias and second order covariance of a general maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) are presented. These expressions are used to determine general analytic conditions on sample size, or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), that are necessary for a MLE to become asymptotically unbiased and attain minimum variance as expressed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The expressions are then evaluated for multivariate Gaussian data. The results can be used to determine asymptotic biases. variances, and conditions for estimator optimality in a wide range of inverse problems encountered in ocean acoustics and many other disciplines. The results are then applied to rigorously determine conditions on SNR necessary for the MLE to become unbiased and attain minimum variance in the classical active sonar and radar time-delay and Doppler-shift estimation problems. The time-delay MLE is the time lag at the peak value of a matched filter output. It is shown that the matched filter estimate attains the CRLB for the signal's position when the SNR is much larger than the kurtosis of the expected signal's energy spectrum. The Doppler-shift MLE exhibits dual behavior for narrow band analytic signals. In a companion paper, the general theory presented here is applied to the problem of estimating the range and depth of an acoustic source submerged in an ocean waveguide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…
Terenin, Ilya M.; Akulich, Kseniya A.; Andreev, Dmitry E.; Polyanskaya, Sofya A.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.
2016-01-01
During eukaryotic translation initiation, 43S ribosomal complex scans mRNA leader unless an AUG codon in an appropriate context is found. Establishing the stable codon–anticodon base-pairing traps the ribosome on the initiator codon and triggers structural rearrangements, which lead to Pi release from the eIF2-bound GTP. It is generally accepted that AUG recognition by the scanning 43S complex sets the final point in the process of start codon selection, while latter stages do not contribute to this process. Here we use translation reconstitution approach and kinetic toe-printing assay to show that after the 48S complex is formed on an AUG codon, in case GTP hydrolysis is impaired, the ribosomal subunit is capable to resume scanning and slides downstream to the next AUG. In contrast to leaky scanning, this sliding is not limited to AUGs in poor nucleotide contexts and occurs after a relatively long pause at the recognized AUG. Thus, recognition of an AUG per se does not inevitably lead to this codon being selected for initiation of protein synthesis. Instead, it is eIF5-induced GTP hydrolysis and Pi release that irreversibly trap the 48S complex, and this complex is further stabilized by eIF5B and 60S joining. PMID:26717981
Yang, Jun; Luo, Wen-Pin; Wang, Yong-Hu; Cheng, Jun
2015-11-01
This paper mainly focuses on the robust stability criteria for uncertain T-S fuzzy systems with time-varying delay by (m,N)-delay-partitioning approach. A modified augmented LKF is established by partitioning the delay in all integral terms. Via taking into account of (i) the relationship between each subinterval and time-varying delay and (ii) the independent upper bounds of the delay derivative in the various delay intervals, some new results on tighter bounding inequalities such as Peng-Park׳s integral inequality and Free-Matrix-based integral inequality are introduced to effectively reduce the enlargement in bounding the derivative of LKF as much as possible, therefore, significant less conservative results can be expected in terms of es and LMIs, which can be solved efficiently with the Matlab LMI toolbox. Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that, when the delay-partitioning number m is fixed, the conservatism is gradually reduced with the increase of another delay-partitioning number N, but without increasing any computing burden. Finally, two numerical examples are included to show that the proposed method is less conservative than existing ones. PMID:26365365
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Patricia
1999-01-01
Parents must learn to transmit a sense of high expectations to their children (related to behavior and accomplishments) without crushing them with too much pressure. This means setting realistic expectations based on their children's special abilities, listening to their children's feelings about the expectations, and understanding what…
-delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr
Pomorski, M.; Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, M. M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.
2011-01-01
The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cannon, John
2011-01-01
Awareness of expectations is so important in the facilities business. The author's experiences has taught him that it is essential to understand how expectations impact people's lives as well as those for whom they provide services for every day. This article presents examples and ideas that will provide insight and ideas to help educators…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.
The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound…
Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Jana J.
2000-01-01
Discusses how some universities are proactively looking to improve, enhance, and increase student housing on-campus through new and renovated residence halls that meet and exceed the expectations of today's students. Renovation improvements related to maximizing security, enhancing a homelike environment; developing a sense of community, and…
Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridley, Cheryl
Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions and ways to…
Zaheer, Muhammad Hamad; Rehan, Muhammad; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ashraf, Muhammad
2014-11-01
This paper proposes a novel state feedback delay-range-dependent control approach for chaos synchronization in coupled nonlinear time-delay systems. The coupling between two systems is esteemed to be nonlinear subject to time-lags. Time-varying nature of both the intrinsic and the coupling delays is incorporated to broad scope of the present study for a better-quality synchronization controller synthesis. Lyapunov-Krasovskii (LK) functional is employed to derive delay-range-dependent conditions that can be solved by means of the conventional linear matrix inequality (LMI)-tools. The resultant control approach for chaos synchronization of the master-slave time-delay systems considers non-zero lower bound of the intrinsic as well as the coupling time-delays. Further, the delay-dependent synchronization condition has been established as a special case of the proposed LK functional treatment. Furthermore, a delay-range-dependent condition, independent of the delay-rate, has been provided to address the situation when upper bound of the delay-derivative is unknown. A robust state feedback control methodology is formulated for synchronization of the time-delay chaotic networks against the L2 norm bounded perturbations by minimizing the L2 gain from the disturbance to the synchronization error. Numerical simulation results are provided for the time-delay chaotic networks to show effectiveness of the proposed delay-range-dependent chaos synchronization methodologies.
Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir
2014-05-28
Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William
2014-05-01
Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.
Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William
2014-05-28
Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.
Antoniazzi, F; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L
1996-01-01
Delayed puberty can be defined as the absence of any signs of puberty in subjects that have attained an age at the upper limit (+2DS) for the onset of puberty, that means 13 years in girls and 14 years in boys. The causes of delayed puberty can be classified into three groups, functional temporary impairment in gonadotropin and sex steroid secretion (most frequently constitutional delay of puberty), hypothalamo-pituitary failure with deficiency in gonadotropin secretion, primary gonadal failure with increased gonadotropin levels. The Authors discuss about etiology, diagnostic testing and therapeutic approach in these conditions. The majority of children with delayed puberty are males that have only a constitutional delay of growth and puberty. It is difficult, in teenage years, to distinguish this common and benign condition from true gonadotropin deficiency, in spite of the variety of endocrine tests developed for this purpose. Individuals with constitutional delayed puberty with a bone age greater than 11.5 years, show after triptorelin stimulation an increase in LH capable of distinguishing them from patients with gonadotropin deficiency. In our opinion this could be an important screening test to exclude gonadotropin deficiency in boys with delayed puberty.
Yang, Qiongfen; Ren, Quanhong; Xie, Xuemei
2014-07-01
This paper is concerned with the delay dependent stability criteria for a class of static recurrent neural networks with interval time-varying delay. By choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing a delay partitioning method, the less conservative condition is obtained. Furthermore, the LMIs-based condition depend on the lower and upper bounds of time delay. Finally, a numerical example is also designated to verify the reduced conservatism of developed criteria. PMID:24908560
Planning for the Future: An Investigation of Work-Bound Rural Youth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hutchins, Bryan C.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; Farmer, Thomas W.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the postsecondary educational and occupational expectations of work-bound rural youth. Three groups of work-bound youth were identified (work-bound, work-bound with future educational plans, and work-bound but unsure/undecided about postsecondary education), and each group was compared to college-bound…
The Communication Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012
2012-01-01
How do prospective college students want to communicate with campuses? When do they want to interact with their target colleges? Which communication methods make them feel most comfortable? Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of more than 1,300…
Stability analysis in a car-following model with reaction-time delay and delayed feedback control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yanfei; Xu, Meng
2016-10-01
The delayed feedback control in terms of both headway and velocity differences has been proposed to guarantee the stability of a car-following model including the reaction-time delay of drivers. Using Laplace transformation and transfer function, the stable condition is derived and appropriate choices of time delay and feedback gains are designed to stabilize traffic flow. Meanwhile, an upper bound on explicit time delay is determined with respect to the response of desired acceleration. To ensure the string stability, the explicit time delay cannot over its upper bound. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed control method can restraint traffic congestion and improve control performance.
Grcar, Joseph F.
2002-02-04
A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.
New spectral features from bound dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-07-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature that we predict can provide a complementary verification of dark matter discovery at experiments with positive signal but unclear background. The effect is generically expected, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section.
Convex Lower Bounds for Free Energy Minimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moussa, Jonathan
We construct lower bounds on free energy with convex relaxations from the nonlinear minimization over probabilities to linear programs over expectation values. Finite-temperature expectation values are further resolved into distributions over energy. A superset of valid expectation values is delineated by an incomplete set of linear constraints. Free energy bounds can be improved systematically by adding constraints, which also increases their computational cost. We compute several free energy bounds of increasing accuracy for the triangular-lattice Ising model to assess the utility of this method. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
Buell, W.F. ); Shadwick, B.A. )
1995-03-01
We discuss several quantum mechanical potential problems, focusing on those which highlight commonly held misconceptions about the existence of bound states. We present a proof, based on the variational principle, that certain one dimensional potentials always support at least one bound state, regardless of the potential's strength. We examine arguments concerning the existence of bound states based on the uncertainty principle and demonstrate, by explicit calculations, that such arguments must be viewed with skepticism.
Lawlor, Rob
2015-04-01
This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coster, Adelle C. F.; Alstrøm, Preben
2001-02-01
We present a dynamical model that embodies both classical and instrumental conditioning paradigms in the same framework. The model is based on the formation of expectations of stimuli and of rewards. The expectations of stimuli are formed in a recurrent process called expectation learning in which one activity pattern evokes another. The expectation of rewards or punishments (motivation) is modelled using reinforcement learning.
[Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].
Giustina, Andrea
2016-08-01
Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562
Bounding species distribution models
Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.
Bounding Species Distribution Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Yonggui; Wang, Changhong; Xie, Jing; Karimi, Hamid Reza
2016-08-01
This paper investigates the delay-dependent stability problem for neutral Markovian jump systems with generally unknown transition rates (GUTRs). In this neutral GUTR model, each transition rate is completely unknown or only its estimate value is known. Based on the study of expectations of the stochastic cross-terms containing the ? integral, a new stability criterion is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. In the mathematical derivation process, bounding stochastic cross-terms, model transformation and free-weighting matrix are not employed for less conservatism. Finally, an example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results.
Inverse momentum expectation values for hydrogenic systems
Delbourgo, R.; Elliott, D.
2009-06-15
By using the Fourier transforms of the general hydrogenic bound state wave functions (as ultraspherical polynomials), one may find expectation values of arbitrary functions of momentum p. In this manner the effect of a reciprocity perturbation b/p can be evaluated for all hydrogenic states.
Dendy, E B
2001-01-01
This paper raises a question about Freud's understanding of Hamlet and offers a fresh psychoanalytic perspective on the play, emphasizing the psychological use made of Hamlet by the audience. It suggests Hamlet and Claudius both serve as sacrificial objects, scapegoats, for the audience, embodying, through a mechanism of both identification and disidentification, the fulfillment, punishment, and renunciation of the audience's forbidden (i.e. Oedipal) wishes. The play is thus seen to represent unconsciously a rite of sacrifice in which both Claudius and Hamlet, both the father and the son, are led, albeit circuitously, to the slaughter. The need for delay on the part of Hamlet is thus seen to arise not merely from Hamlet's psychology, whatever the audience may project onto it, but ultimately from the function (both sadistic and defensive) that the sacrificial spectacle, the play as a whole, serves for the audience. The paper also speculates somewhat on the role of tragic heroes and heroines in general, and points to the unconscious collusion that permits author and audience to make use of them. Finally, in an addendum, the paper discusses the work of René Girard, a nonpsychoanalytic thinker whose ideas nonetheless are somewhat similar to those presented here. PMID:12102022
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okihiro, Michele; Guza, R. T.; Seymour, R. J.
1992-07-01
Model predictions of bound (i.e., nonlinearly forced by and coupled to wave groups) infragravity wave energy are compared with about 2 years of observations in 8- to 13-m depths at Imperial Beach, California, and Barbers Point, Hawaii. Frequency-directional spectra of free waves at sea and swell frequencies, estimated with a small array of four pressure sensors, are used to predict the bound wave spectra below 0.04 Hz. The predicted total bound wave energy is always less than the observed infragravity energy, and the underprediction increases with increasing water depth and especially with decreasing swell energy. At most half, and usually much less, of the observed infragravity energy is bound. Bound wave spectra are also predicted with data from a single wave gage in 183-m depth at Point Conception, California, and the assumption of unidirectional sea and swell. Even with energetic swell, less than 10% of the total observed infragravity energy in 183-m depth is bound. Free waves, either leaky or edge waves, are more energetic than bound waves at both the shallow and deep sites. The low level of infragravity energy observed in 183-m depth compared with 8- to 13-m depths, with similarly moderate sea and swell energy, suggests that leaky (and very high-mode edge) waves contribute less than 10% of the infragravity energy in 8-13 m. Most of the free infragravity energy in shallow water is refractively trapped and does not reach deep water.
Unusually strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state
Delfino, A.; Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T. Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210 Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01405 Sao Paulo, SP School of Physical Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA 5042 Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, 12231 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP )
1992-11-01
The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle nonlocal potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unusually strong attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of {pi} as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states.
Colorado Outward Bound School River Rafters' Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leachman, Mark
Instructional sequences, safety rules, duties of crew members, and procedures for Colorado Outward Bound School river rafting trips are summarized in this manual. Designed to acquaint instructors with the duties expected of them on the trips, the information in the manual is presented in outline form and is intended for those with prior river…
Client Expectations for Counseling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Harris, Donna J.
1976-01-01
Undergraduate students (N=287) completed an 82-item questionnaire about their expectations of counseling. The respondents' strongest expectations were of seeing an experienced, genuine, expert, and accepting counselor they could trust. Expectancies that the counselor would be understanding and directive were lower. Significant sex differences were…
Marijuana: College Students' Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rumstein, Regina
College students' expectations regarding the physiological, psychological, and social effects of marijuana were investigated. A sample of 210 undergraduates stated their expectations about the effect of the drug by answering a series of structured-response type questions. Also, Ss provided background information related to their expectations about…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cross, Neal
2008-01-01
Principals want teachers to do more than profess high expectations for their students. Principals want teachers to have the knowledge and skills to realize their expectations for students by using strategies that increase students' attention to their achievement and responsibilities for learning. Current expectancy literature states that teachers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DiPaula, John
2010-01-01
Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…
Measuring Information-Transfer Delays
Wibral, Michael; Pampu, Nicolae; Priesemann, Viola; Siebenhühner, Felix; Seiwert, Hannes; Lindner, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T.; Vicente, Raul
2013-01-01
In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener’s principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics. PMID:23468850
The economics of time delayed salinity impact management in the River Murray
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connor, Jeff
2008-03-01
Drainage from irrigation along the River Murray causes rising levels of saline discharge to the river and floodplains with adverse impacts including crop, water infrastructure and floodplain ecological health damage. These salinity impacts of drainage are time delayed by up to several decades. Investment in engineering infrastructure to pump saline water away from the river to evaporation basins has been a significant feature of public policy to address the issue. This article evaluates the costs and benefits of further engineering investments to offset expected future salinity growth. The analysis involves an integer programming optimization model that explicitly accounts for salinity impact time delays in benefit, cost accounting considering a long term, 100 year time horizon. A lower bound salinity growth scenario is evaluated involving increasingly efficient irrigation and further new irrigation development at locations where salinity impacts are comparatively small. This is compared to an upper bound salinity growth scenario with static irrigation efficiency and new irrigation development in high salinity impact areas. It is concluded that if conditions leading to the upper bound salinity growth scenario can not be avoided in the near term, the marginal costs of offsetting future salinity growth with additional engineering investment will exceed the marginal benefits several decades hence.
Robust delay-dependent feedforward control of neutral time-delay systems via dynamic IQCs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ucun, L.; Küçükdemiral, I. B.
2014-05-01
This paper studies the design problem of delay-dependent ? based robust and optimal feedforward controller design for a class of time-delay control systems having state, control and neutral type delays which are subject to norm-bounded uncertainties and ? type measurable or observable disturbance signals. Two independent loops which include state-feedback and dynamic feedforward controller form the basis of the proposed control scheme in this study. State-feedback controller is generally used in stabilisation of the nominal delay-free system, whereas the feedforward controller is used for improving disturbance attenuation performance of the overall system. In order to obtain less conservative results, the delay and parametric uncertainty effects are treated in operator view point and represented by frequency-dependent (dynamic) integral quadratic constraints (IQCs). Moreover, sufficient delay-dependent criterion is developed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) such that the time-delay system having parametric uncertainties is guaranteed to be asymptotically stable with minimum achievable disturbance attenuation level. Plenty of numerical examples are provided at the end, in order to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed technique. The achieved results on minimum achievable disturbance attenuation level and maximum allowable delay bounds are exhibited to be less conservative in comparison to those of controllers having only feedback loop.
Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.
1996-07-01
Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.
User Expectations: Nurses' Perspective.
Gürsel, Güney
2016-01-01
Healthcare is a technology-intensive industry. Although all healthcare staff needs qualified computer support, physicians and nurses need more. As nursing practice is an information intensive issue, understanding nurses' expectations from healthcare information systems (HCIS) is a must issue to meet their needs and help them in a better way. In this study perceived importance of nurses' expectations from HCIS is investigated, and two HCIS is evaluated for meeting the expectations of nurses by using fuzzy logic methodologies. PMID:27332398
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwartzman, Steven
1993-01-01
Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)
Security Bounds for Continuous Variables Quantum Key Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navascués, Miguel; Acín, Antonio
2005-01-01
Security bounds for key distribution protocols using coherent and squeezed states and homodyne measurements are presented. These bounds refer to (i)general attacks and (ii)collective attacks where Eve applies the optimal individual interaction to the sent states, but delays her measurement until the end of the reconciliation process. For the case of a lossy line and coherent states, it is first proven that a secure key distribution is possible up to 1.9dB of losses. For the second scenario, the security bounds are the same as for the completely incoherent attack.
Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.
1999-01-01
An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720
Thermalization Time Bounds for Pauli Stabilizer Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temme, Kristan
2016-09-01
We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Hamiltonians that can be written as the sum of commuting Pauli operators. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of N-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as {λ ≥ O(N^{-1} exp(-2β overline{ɛ}))} , where {overline{ɛ}} is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of N -1. Furthermore, we discuss conditions and provide scenarios where this factor can be removed and a constant lower bound can be proven.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, B. K.
In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.
Universal bounds on current fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo
2016-05-01
For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.
Ray, P.E.
1998-09-04
This document outlines the significant accomplishments of fiscal year 1998 for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team. Opportunities for improvement to better meet some performance expectations have been identified. The PHMC has performed at an excellent level in administration of leadership, planning, and technical direction. The contractor has met and made notable improvement of attaining customer satisfaction in mission execution. This document includes the team`s recommendation that the PHMC TWRS Performance Expectation Plan evaluation rating for fiscal year 1998 be an Excellent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinberg, Peter
2008-06-01
Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maldacena, Juan; Shenker, Stephen H.; Stanford, Douglas
2016-08-01
We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent λ L ≤ 2π k B T/ℏ. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.
Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devine, Kelley
Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…
Behavior, Expectations and Status
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery
2010-01-01
We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry
2014-01-01
Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…
Parenting with High Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake
2014-01-01
In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…
MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...
Delay Discounting and Gambling
Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.
2011-01-01
Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902
The Asynchronous Bounded-Cycle model☆
Robinson, Peter; Schmid, Ulrich
2011-01-01
This paper shows how synchrony conditions can be added to the purely asynchronous model in a way that avoids any reference to message delays and computing step times, as well as system-wide constraints on execution patterns and network topology. Our Asynchronous Bounded-Cycle (ABC) model just bounds the ratio of the number of forward- and backward-oriented messages in certain (“relevant”) cycles in the space–time diagram of an asynchronous execution. We show that clock synchronization and lock-step rounds can be implemented and proved correct in the ABC model, even in the presence of Byzantine failures. Furthermore, we prove that any algorithm working correctly in the partially synchronous Θ-Model also works correctly in the ABC model. In our proof, we first apply a novel method for assigning certain message delays to asynchronous executions, which is based on a variant of Farkas’ theorem of linear inequalities and a non-standard cycle space of graphs. Using methods from point-set topology, we then prove that the existence of this delay assignment implies model indistinguishability for time-free safety and liveness properties. We also introduce several weaker variants of the ABC model, and relate our model to the existing partially synchronous system models, in particular, the classic models of Dwork, Lynch and Stockmayer and the query–response model by Mostefaoui, Mourgaya, and Raynal. Finally, we discuss some aspects of the ABC model’s applicability in real systems, in particular, in the context of VLSI Systems-on-Chip. PMID:22031790
Entropy bounds in terms of the w parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abreu, Gabriel; Barceló, Carlos; Visser, Matt
2011-12-01
In a pair of recent articles [PRL 105 (2010) 041302; JHEP 1103 (2011) 056] two of the current authors have developed an entropy bound for equilibrium uncollapsed matter using only classical general relativity, basic thermodynamics, and the Unruh effect. An odd feature of that bound, [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.], was that the proportionality constant, 1/2 , was weaker than that expected from black hole thermodynamics, 1/4 . In the current article we strengthen the previous results by obtaining a bound involving the (suitably averaged) w parameter. Simple causality arguments restrict this averaged < w> parameter to be ≤ 1. When equality holds, the entropy bound saturates at the value expected based on black hole thermodynamics. We also add some clarifying comments regarding the (net) positivity of the chemical potential. Overall, we find that even in the absence of any black hole region, we can nevertheless get arbitrarily close to the Bekenstein entropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowak, K.; Kästner, M.; Miltner, A.
2009-04-01
During degradation of organic pollutants in soil, metabolites, microbial biomass, CO2and "bound" residues ("non-extractable" residues in soil organic matter) are formed. Enhanced transformation of these contaminants into "bound" residues has been proposed as an alternative remediation method for polluted soils. However, this kind of residues may pose a potential risk for the environment due to their chemical structure and possible remobilization under different conditions. Therefore particular attention is given actually to "bound" residues. Part of these non-extractable residues may be "biogenic," because microorganisms use the carbon from the pollutant to form their biomass components (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars), which subsequently may be incorporated into soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CO2 originating from mineralization of xenobiotics, can be re-assimilated by microorganisms and also incorporated into "biogenic residue". The hazard posed by "bound" residues may be overestimated because they are "biogenic" (contain microbial fatty acids and amino acids). The knowledge about the pathways of "biogenic residue" formation is necessary for a proper assessment of the fate of tested pollutants and their turnover in the soil environment. Moreover, these data are needed to establish the realistic degradation rates of the contaminants in soil. The main objectives of this study are: to quantify the extent of "biogenic residue" (fatty acids, amino acids, amino sugars) formation during the degradation of a model pollutant (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid = 2,4-D) and during CO2 assimilation by microorganisms and to evaluate which components are mainly incorporated into "bound" residues. To investigate the extent of "biogenic residue" formation in soil during the degradation of 2,4-D, experiments with either 14C-U-ring and 13C6-2,4-D or carboxyl-14C 2,4-D were performed. The incubation experiments were performed according to OECD test guideline 307, in the
Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwynne, Peter
2008-01-01
A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.
Stability analysis of neural networks with interval time-varying delays.
Hou, Yi-You; Liao, Teh-Lu; Lien, Chang-Hua; Yan, Jun-Juh
2007-09-01
The global exponential stability is investigated for neural networks with interval time-varying delays. Based on the Leibniz-Newton formula and linear matrix inequality technique, delay-dependent stability criteria are proposed to guarantee the exponential stability of neural networks with interval time-varying delays. Some numerical examples and comparisons are provided to show that the proposed results significantly improve the allowable upper and lower bounds of delays over some existing ones in the literature.
Speech and language delay in children.
McLaughlin, Maura R
2011-05-15
Speech and language delay in children is associated with increased difficulty with reading, writing, attention, and socialization. Although physicians should be alert to parental concerns and to whether children are meeting expected developmental milestones, there currently is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine use of formal screening instruments in primary care to detect speech and language delay. In children not meeting the expected milestones for speech and language, a comprehensive developmental evaluation is essential, because atypical language development can be a secondary characteristic of other physical and developmental problems that may first manifest as language problems. Types of primary speech and language delay include developmental speech and language delay, expressive language disorder, and receptive language disorder. Secondary speech and language delays are attributable to another condition such as hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, physical speech problems, or selective mutism. When speech and language delay is suspected, the primary care physician should discuss this concern with the parents and recommend referral to a speech-language pathologist and an audiologist. There is good evidence that speech-language therapy is helpful, particularly for children with expressive language disorder. PMID:21568252
Consensus networks with time-delays over finite fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiuxian; Su, Housheng; Chen, Michael Z. Q.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the consensus problem in networks with time-delays over finite fields. The delays are categorised into three cases: single constant delay, multiple constant delays, and time-varying bounded delays. For all cases, some sufficient and necessary conditions for consensus are derived. Furthermore, assuming that the communication graph is strongly connected, some of the obtained necessary conditions reveal that the conditions for consensus with time-delays over finite fields depend not only on the diagonal entries but also on the off-diagonal entries, something that is intrinsically distinct from the case over real numbers (where having at least one nonzero diagonal entry is a sufficient and necessary condition to guarantee consensus). In addition, it is shown that delayed networks cannot achieve consensus when the interaction graph is a tree if the corresponding delay-free networks cannot reach consensus, which is consistent with the result over real numbers. As for average consensus, we show that it can never be achieved for delayed networks over finite fields, although it indeed can be reached under several conditions for delay-free networks over finite fields. Finally, networks with time-varying delays are discussed and one sufficient condition for consensus is presented by graph-theoretic method.
Person perception and the bounded rationality of social judgment.
Wright, J C; Dawson, V L
1988-11-01
In this article, we develop a bounded rationality view of the relation between person perception and social behavior. Two theses of this approach are that behaviors vary in their significance to observers, and that observers pursue bounded rather than global utility in forming personality impressions. Observers are expected to be sensitive to targets' overall behavioral tendencies and to the variability of their behavior across situations, but both sensitivities are bounded, being greater for behaviors that directly affect observers' outcomes. In two investigations involving extensive hourly and 6-s observations, we examined the bounded utility of people's impressions of personality, demonstrating how impression accuracy is linked to the significance of behaviors. Observers were sensitive to the organization of aggressive behaviors, but less sensitive to the organization of withdrawn behaviors, even when the consistency of those behaviors was comparable. The results clarify the relation between people's inferential shortcomings in laboratory paradigms and the bounded utility of person perception in the natural environment.
Person perception and the bounded rationality of social judgment.
Wright, J C; Dawson, V L
1988-11-01
In this article, we develop a bounded rationality view of the relation between person perception and social behavior. Two theses of this approach are that behaviors vary in their significance to observers, and that observers pursue bounded rather than global utility in forming personality impressions. Observers are expected to be sensitive to targets' overall behavioral tendencies and to the variability of their behavior across situations, but both sensitivities are bounded, being greater for behaviors that directly affect observers' outcomes. In two investigations involving extensive hourly and 6-s observations, we examined the bounded utility of people's impressions of personality, demonstrating how impression accuracy is linked to the significance of behaviors. Observers were sensitive to the organization of aggressive behaviors, but less sensitive to the organization of withdrawn behaviors, even when the consistency of those behaviors was comparable. The results clarify the relation between people's inferential shortcomings in laboratory paradigms and the bounded utility of person perception in the natural environment. PMID:3210145
Classical subjective expected utility.
Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi
2013-04-23
We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375
Is Fusion Inhibited for Weakly Bound Nuclei?
Takahashi, J.; Munhoz, M.; Szanto, E.M.; Carlin, N.; Added, N.; Suaide, A.A.; de Moura, M.M.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Canto, L.F.
1997-01-01
Complete fusion of light radioactive nuclei is predicted to be hindered at near-barrier energies. This feature is investigated in the case of the least bound stable nuclei. Evaporation residues resulting from the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 9}Be and {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 12}C fusion reactions have been measured in order to study common features in reactions involving light weakly bound nuclei. The experimental excitation functions revealed that the fusion cross section is significantly smaller than the total reaction cross section and also smaller than the fusion cross section expected from the available systematics. A clear correlation between the fusion probability and nucleon (cluster) separation energy has been established.The results suggest that the breakup process has a strong influence on the hindrance of the fusion cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}
Bound anionic states of adenine
Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H
2007-03-20
Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcfarland, Richard E.
1986-01-01
Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.
Stability of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic systems with time-varying delays.
Zheng, Song
2015-09-01
In this paper, the robust exponential stabilization of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic delayed systems is considered with parameters perturbation and delayed impulses. It is assumed that the considered complex-variable chaotic systems have bounded parametric uncertainties together with the state variables on the impulses related to the time-varying delays. Based on the theories of adaptive control and impulsive control, some less conservative and easily verified stability criteria are established for a class of complex-variable chaotic delayed systems with delayed impulses. Some numerical simulations are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria of impulsive stabilization for uncertain complex-variable chaotic delayed systems.
Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters
Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph
2008-09-15
Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.
Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galli, Silvia; Bean, Rachel; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph
2008-09-01
Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, ns, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z*=1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: γα<0.39 and γi<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.
Further results on delay-range-dependent stability with additive time-varying delay systems.
Liu, Pin-Lin
2014-03-01
In this paper, new conditions for the delay-range-dependent stability analysis of time-varying delay systems are proposed in a Lyapunov-Krasovskii framework. Time delay is considered to be time-varying and has lower and upper bounds. A new method is first presented for a system with two time delays, integral inequality approach (IIA) used to express relationships among terms of Leibniz-Newton formula. Constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional includes information belonging to a given range; new delay-range-dependent criterion is established in term of linear matrix inequality (LMI). The advantage of that criterion lies in its simplicity and less conservative. This paper also presents a new result of stability analysis for continuous systems with two additive time-variant components representing a general class of delay with strong application background in network-based control systems. Resulting criteria are then expressed in terms of convex optimization with LMI constraints, allowing for use of efficient solvers. Finally, three numerical examples show these methods reducing conservatism and improving maximal allowable delay.
Bao, Haibo; Cao, Jinde
2011-01-01
This paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for a class of discrete-time stochastic neural networks (DSNNs) with random delays. The effect of both variation range and distribution probability of the time delay are taken into account in the proposed approach. The stochastic disturbances are described in terms of a Brownian motion and the time-varying delay is characterized by introducing a Bernoulli stochastic variable. By employing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, sufficient delay-distribution-dependent conditions are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that guarantee the existence of the state estimator which can be checked readily by the Matlab toolbox. The main feature of the results obtained in this paper is that they are dependent on not only the bound but also the distribution probability of the time delay, and we obtain a larger allowance variation range of the delay, hence our results are less conservative than the traditional delay-independent ones. One example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed result. PMID:20950998
Clemensen, R.E.
1959-11-01
An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.
Zhong, Qishui; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Yuqing
2015-07-01
In this paper, a novel method is developed for delay-dependent finite-time boundedness of a class of Markovian switching neural networks with time-varying delays. New sufficient condition for stochastic boundness of Markovian jumping neural networks is presented and proved by an newly augmented stochastic Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and novel activation function conditions, the state trajectory remains in a bounded region of the state space over a given finite-time interval. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency and less conservative of the proposed method.
Beyond my wildest expectations.
Nester, Eugene
2014-01-01
With support from my parents, I fulfilled their and my expectations of graduating from college and becoming a scientist. My scientific career has focused on two organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and two experimental systems, aromatic amino acid synthesis and DNA transfer in bacteria and plants. Studies on B. subtilis emphasized the genetics and biochemistry of aromatic amino acid synthesis and the characterization of competence in DNA transformation. I carried out both as a postdoc at Stanford with Josh Lederberg. At the University of Washington, I continued these studies and then investigated how Agrobacterium transforms plant cells. In collaboration, Milt Gordon, Mary-Dell Chilton, and I found that this bacterium could transfer a piece of its plasmid into plant cells and thereby modify their properties. This discovery opened up a host of intriguing questions that we have tried to answer over the last 35 years. PMID:25208299
Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Sheng, Yin
2016-04-01
This paper is concerned with the finite-time robust stabilization of delayed neural networks (DNNs) in the presence of discontinuous activations and parameter uncertainties. By using the nonsmooth analysis and control theory, a delayed controller is designed to realize the finite-time robust stabilization of DNNs with discontinuous activations and parameter uncertainties, and the upper bound of the settling time functional for stabilization is estimated. Finally, two examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Great expectations: what do patients expect and how can expectations be managed?
Newton, J T; Cunningham, S J
2013-06-01
Patients' expectations of their treatment are a key determinant in their satisfaction with treatment. Expectations may encompass not only notions of the outcome of treatment, but also the process of treatment. This article explores the processes by which expectations are formed, differences in expectations across patient groups, and the psychopathology of individuals with unrealistic expectations of treatment manifest in body dysmorphic disorder.
A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.
Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh
2004-09-01
The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.
A new delay-independent condition for global robust stability of neural networks with time delays.
Samli, Ruya
2015-06-01
This paper studies the problem of robust stability of dynamical neural networks with discrete time delays under the assumptions that the network parameters of the neural system are uncertain and norm-bounded, and the activation functions are slope-bounded. By employing the results of Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for delayed neural networks are presented. The results reported in this paper can be easily tested by checking some special properties of symmetric matrices associated with the parameter uncertainties of neural networks. We also present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.
Martin, A.D.
1986-05-09
Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.
Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare
2015-01-01
Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846
Expectations and speech intelligibility.
Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie
2015-05-01
Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.
Expectations and speech intelligibility.
Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie
2015-05-01
Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs. PMID:25994710
Fractional diffusion on bounded domains
Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2015-03-13
We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.
Error Bounds for Interpolative Approximations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gal-Ezer, J.; Zwas, G.
1990-01-01
Elementary error estimation in the approximation of functions by polynomials as a computational assignment, error-bounding functions and error bounds, and the choice of interpolation points are discussed. Precalculus and computer instruction are used on some of the calculations. (KR)
Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.
Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…
How prior expectations shape multisensory perception.
Gau, Remi; Noppeney, Uta
2016-01-01
The brain generates a representation of our environment by integrating signals from a common source, but segregating signals from different sources. This fMRI study investigated how the brain arbitrates between perceptual integration and segregation based on top-down congruency expectations and bottom-up stimulus-bound congruency cues. Participants were presented audiovisual movies of phonologically congruent, incongruent or McGurk syllables that can be integrated into an illusory percept (e.g. "ti" percept for visual «ki» with auditory /pi/). They reported the syllable they perceived. Critically, we manipulated participants' top-down congruency expectations by presenting McGurk stimuli embedded in blocks of congruent or incongruent syllables. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to fuse audiovisual signals into an illusory McGurk percept in congruent than incongruent contexts. At the neural level, the left inferior frontal sulcus (lIFS) showed increased activations for bottom-up incongruent relative to congruent inputs. Moreover, lIFS activations were increased for physically identical McGurk stimuli, when participants segregated the audiovisual signals and reported their auditory percept. Critically, this activation increase for perceptual segregation was amplified when participants expected audiovisually incongruent signals based on prior sensory experience. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the lIFS combines top-down prior (in)congruency expectations with bottom-up (in)congruency cues to arbitrate between multisensory integration and segregation.
The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.
2014-01-01
Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.
Saturating the holographic entropy bound
Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Leichenauer, Stefan
2010-10-15
The covariant entropy bound states that the entropy, S, of matter on a light sheet cannot exceed a quarter of its initial area, A, in Planck units. The gravitational entropy of black holes saturates this inequality. The entropy of matter systems, however, falls short of saturating the bound in known examples. This puzzling gap has led to speculation that a much stronger bound, S < or approx. A{sup 3/4}, may hold true. In this note, we exhibit light sheets whose entropy exceeds A{sup 3/4} by arbitrarily large factors. In open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, such light sheets contain the entropy visible in the sky; in the limit of early curvature domination, the covariant bound can be saturated but not violated. As a corollary, we find that the maximum observable matter and radiation entropy in universes with positive (negative) cosmological constant is of order {Lambda}{sup -1} ({Lambda}{sup -2}), and not |{Lambda}|{sup -3/4} as had hitherto been believed. Our results strengthen the evidence for the covariant entropy bound, while showing that the stronger bound S < or approx. A{sup 3/4} is not universally valid. We conjecture that the stronger bound does hold for static, weakly gravitating systems.
Great expectations: temporal expectation modulates perceptual processing speed.
Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T; Bundesen, Claus
2012-10-01
In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on perceptual speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus foreperiod were used to manipulate temporal expectations. By computational modeling we estimated two distinct components of visual attention: the temporal threshold of conscious perception (t₀ ms) and the speed of subsequent encoding into visual short-term memory (v items/s). Notably, these components were measured independently of any motor involvement. The threshold t₀ was unaffected by temporal expectation, but perceptual processing speed v increased with increasing expectation. By employing constant hazard rates to keep expectation constant over time, we further confirmed that the increase in perceptual speed was independent of the cue-stimulus duration. Thus, our results strongly suggest temporal expectations optimize perceptual performance by speeding information processing.
Great Expectations: Temporal Expectation Modulates Perceptual Processing Speed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vangkilde, Signe; Coull, Jennifer T.; Bundesen, Claus
2012-01-01
In a crowded dynamic world, temporal expectations guide our attention in time. Prior investigations have consistently demonstrated that temporal expectations speed motor behavior. We explore effects of temporal expectation on "perceptual" speed in three nonspeeded, cued recognition paradigms. Different hazard rate functions for the cue-stimulus…
Delayed emergence after anesthesia.
Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G
2015-06-01
In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up. PMID:25912729
Time delay spectrum conditioner
Greiner, Norman R.
1980-01-01
A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trowbridge, D. L. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
Direct recording of group delay measurements on a system under temperature and stress tests employs modulated carrier frequency sweep over an S or X band. Reference path and test paths to separate detectors utilize a power divider e.g., a directional coupler or a hybrid T junction. An initially balanced phase comparator is swept in frequency by modulated carrier over the band of interest for different conditions of temperature and/or mechanical stress to obtain characteristic group delay curves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.
2013-10-01
We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.
Bounding the elliptic Mahler measure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinner, Christopher
1998-11-01
We give a simple inequality relating the elliptic Mahler measure of a polynomial to the traditional Mahler measure (via the length of the polynomial). These bounds are essentially sharp. We also give the corresponding result for polynomials in several variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tankam, Israel; Tchinda Mouofo, Plaire; Mendy, Abdoulaye; Lam, Mountaga; Tewa, Jean Jules; Bowong, Samuel
2015-06-01
We investigate the effects of time delay and piecewise-linear threshold policy harvesting for a delayed predator-prey model. It is the first time that Holling response function of type III and the present threshold policy harvesting are associated with time delay. The trajectories of our delayed system are bounded; the stability of each equilibrium is analyzed with and without delay; there are local bifurcations as saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation; optimal harvesting is also investigated. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate each result.
Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?
Sallin, Karl; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Evers, Kathinka; Engström, Ingemar; Hjern, Anders; Petrovic, Predrag
2016-01-01
Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family. Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognize RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis. Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution. Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioral systems in particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:26858615
Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.
2006-01-01
Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…
Delayed flowering and global warming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.
2011-12-01
Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.
Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine.
Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang
2016-01-01
A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to plan the locomotion and keep the body balance. The haptic sensor and proprioception system are used to detect the trigger of the phase transition. Besides, the vestibular modulation could perceive the pitching angle of the trunk. At last, the cerebellum acts as the CPU to operate the information from the biological sensors. In addition, the calculated results are transmitted to the low-level controller to actuate and stabilize the cheetah bounding. Moreover, the delay feedback control method is employed to plan the motion of the leg joints to stabilize the pitching motion of trunk with the stability criterion. Finally, the cyclic cheetah bounding with biological properties is realized. Meanwhile, the stability and dynamic properties of the cheetah bounding gait are analyzed elaborately.
Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine
Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang
2016-01-01
A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to plan the locomotion and keep the body balance. The haptic sensor and proprioception system are used to detect the trigger of the phase transition. Besides, the vestibular modulation could perceive the pitching angle of the trunk. At last, the cerebellum acts as the CPU to operate the information from the biological sensors. In addition, the calculated results are transmitted to the low-level controller to actuate and stabilize the cheetah bounding. Moreover, the delay feedback control method is employed to plan the motion of the leg joints to stabilize the pitching motion of trunk with the stability criterion. Finally, the cyclic cheetah bounding with biological properties is realized. Meanwhile, the stability and dynamic properties of the cheetah bounding gait are analyzed elaborately. PMID:27065749
New Stabilization for Dynamical System with Two Additive Time-Varying Delays
Yang, Fan; Chen, Xiaozhou
2014-01-01
This paper provides a new delay-dependent stabilization criterion for systems with two additive time-varying delays. The novel functional is constructed, a tighter upper bound of the derivative of the Lyapunov functional is obtained. These results have advantages over some existing ones because the combination of the delay decomposition technique and the reciprocally convex approach. Two examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the results in this paper. PMID:24701159
Patient (customer) expectations in hospitals.
Bostan, Sedat; Acuner, Taner; Yilmaz, Gökhan
2007-06-01
The expectations of patient are one of the determining factors of healthcare service. The purpose of this study is to measure the Patients' Expectations, based on Patient's Rights. This study was done with Likert-Survey in Trabzon population. The analyses showed that the level of the expectations of the patient was high on the factor of receiving information and at an acceptable level on the other factors. Statistical meaningfulness was determined between age, sex, education, health insurance, and the income of the family and the expectations of the patients (p<0.05). According to this study, the current legal regulations have higher standards than the expectations of the patients. The reason that the satisfaction of the patients high level is interpreted due to the fact that the level of the expectation is low. It is suggested that the educational and public awareness studies on the patients' rights must be done in order to increase the expectations of the patients. PMID:17028043
Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay
Ricketts, Thomas E.
1982-01-01
A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosaka, Tadaaki; Ohira, Toru; Lucian, Christian; Milton, John
2005-03-01
Time-delayed feedback control becomes problematic in situations in which the time constant of the system is fast compared to the feedback reaction time. In particular, when perturbations are unpredictable, traditional feedback or feed-forward control schemes can be insufficient. Nonethless a human can balance a stick at their fingertip in the presence of fluctuations that occur on time scales shorter than their neural reaction times. Here we study a simple model of a repulsive delayed random walk and demonstrate that the interplay between noise and delay can transiently stabilize an unstable fixed-point. This observation leads to the concept of ``delayed stochastic control,'' i.e. stabilization of tasks, such as stick balancing at the fingertip, by optimally tuning the noise level with respect to the feedback delay time. References:(1)J.L.Cabrera and J.G.Milton, PRL 89 158702 (2002);(2) T. Ohira and J.G.Milton, PRE 52 3277 (1995);(3)T.Hosaka, T.Ohira, C.Lucian, J.L.Cabrera, and J.G.Milton, Prog. Theor. Phys. (to appear).
Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.
2013-09-01
We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.
Stability of Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Time-varying Feedback Delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chunodkar, Apurva A.; Akella, Maruthi R.
2013-12-01
This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a class of nonlinear systems with unknown bounded delayed feedback wherein the time-varying delay is 1) piecewise constant 2) continuous with a bounded rate. We also consider application of these results to the stabilization of rigid-body attitude dynamics. In the first case, the time-delay in feedback is modeled specifically as a switch among an arbitrarily large set of unknown constant values with a known strict upper bound. The feedback is a linear function of the delayed states. In the case of linear systems with switched delay feedback, a new sufficiency condition for average dwell time result is presented using a complete type Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K) functional approach. Further, the corresponding switched system with nonlinear perturbations is proven to be exponentially stable inside a well characterized region of attraction for an appropriately chosen average dwell time. In the second case, the concept of the complete type L-K functional is extended to a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown time-varying time-delay. This extension ensures stability robustness to time-delay in the control design for all values of time-delay less than the known upper bound. Model-transformation is used in order to partition the nonlinear system into a nominal linear part that is exponentially stable with a bounded perturbation. We obtain sufficient conditions which ensure exponential stability inside a region of attraction estimate. A constructive method to evaluate the sufficient conditions is presented together with comparison with the corresponding constant and piecewise constant delay. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results of this paper.
Time Delay for the Dirac Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naumkin, Ivan; Weder, Ricardo
2016-10-01
We consider time delay for the Dirac equation. A new method to calculate the asymptotics of the expectation values of the operator {intlimits0 ^{∞}e^{iH0t}ζ(\\vert x\\vert /R) e^{-iH0t}dt}, as {R → ∞}, is presented. Here, H 0 is the free Dirac operator and {ζ(t)} is such that {ζ(t) = 1} for {0 ≤ t ≤ 1} and {ζ(t) = 0} for {t > 1}. This approach allows us to obtain the time delay operator {δ {T}(f)} for initial states f in {{H} 2^{3/2+ɛ}({R}3;{C}4)}, {ɛ > 0}, the Sobolev space of order {3/2+ɛ} and weight 2. The relation between the time delay operator {δ{T}(f)} and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is given. In addition, the relation between the averaged time delay and the spectral shift function is presented.
Time Delay for the Dirac Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naumkin, Ivan; Weder, Ricardo
2016-07-01
We consider time delay for the Dirac equation. A new method to calculate the asymptotics of the expectation values of the operator {intlimits0 ^{∞}e^{iH0t}ζ(\\vert x\\vert /R) e^{-iH0t}dt} , as {R → ∞} , is presented. Here, H 0 is the free Dirac operator and {ζ(t)} is such that {ζ(t) = 1} for {0 ≤ t ≤ 1} and {ζ(t) = 0} for {t > 1} . This approach allows us to obtain the time delay operator {δ {T}(f)} for initial states f in {{H} 2^{3/2+ɛ}({R}3;{C}4)} , {ɛ > 0} , the Sobolev space of order {3/2+ɛ} and weight 2. The relation between the time delay operator {δ{T}(f)} and the Eisenbud-Wigner time delay operator is given. In addition, the relation between the averaged time delay and the spectral shift function is presented.
Strong Expectations Cancel Locality Effects: Evidence from Hindi
Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan
2014-01-01
Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech “verb” is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge. PMID:25010700
How magic changes our expectations about autism.
Kuhn, Gustav; Kourkoulou, Anastasia; Leekam, Susan R
2010-10-01
In the vanishing-ball illusion, the magician's social cues misdirect the audience's expectations and attention so that the audience "sees" a ball vanish in the air. Because individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less sensitive to social cues and have superior perception for nonsocial details compared with typically developing individuals, we predicted that they would be less susceptible to the illusion. Surprisingly, the opposite result was found, as individuals with ASD were more susceptible to the illusion than a comparison group. Eye-tracking data indicated that subtle temporal delays in allocating attention might explain their heightened susceptibility. Additionally, although individuals with ASD showed typical patterns of looking to the magician's face and eyes, they were slower to launch their first saccade to the face and had difficulty in fixating the fast-moving observable ball. Considered together, the results indicate that individuals with ASD have difficulties in rapidly allocating attention toward both people and moving objects.
Experimental activation of bound entanglement.
Kaneda, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Kosaka, Hideo; Edamatsu, Keiichi
2012-07-27
Entanglement is one of the essential resources in quantum information and communication technology (QICT). The entanglement thus far explored and applied to QICT has been pure and distillable entanglement. Yet, there is another type of entanglement, called "bound entanglement," which is not distillable by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate the experimental "activation" of the bound entanglement held in the four-qubit Smolin state, unleashing its immanent entanglement in distillable form, with the help of auxiliary two-qubit entanglement and local operations and classical communication. We anticipate that it opens the way to a new class of QICT applications that utilize more general classes of entanglement than ever, including bound entanglement.
Bound states in a strong magnetic field
Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.
2013-03-25
We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.
The effect of sine-Wiener noises on transition in a genotype selection model with time delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juan Ning, Li; Liu, Pei
2016-09-01
A genotype selection system interplay with sine-Wiener noises and time delays is investigated. Stationary probability distribution function is obtained by numerical simulations. Results show that the multiplicative bounded noise can facilitate the gene separation, while the additive bounded noise suppresses the gene separation. Besides, local time delays α and β, being in gene transformation and gene heredity progress respectively, play opposite roles in the gene selection process. What is more interesting is that there is no transition during the process of gene select when time delays α = β (i.e., the system is subjected to global time delay).
Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols
Forster, Manuel
2011-06-15
Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.
Upper Bound for Induced Gravitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khuri, N. N.
1982-08-01
Given the assumption that Gind-1 given by the Adler-Zee formula is positive, an explicit and rigorous upper bound is derived for it. For pure SU(N) gauge theory, (16πG)-1<=(2512π2)(N2-1)ΛN2 is obtained where ΛN is the mass scale. In general the bound (16πG)-1<=25(π2144)CψΛ2 is obtained, where Cψ is the coefficient of the most singular anomaly contribution in x space, a constant easily determined by low-order perturbation theory for any gauge group.
On lower bounds for polarisability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montgomery, H. E.; Pupyshev, V. I.
2013-09-01
The response of molecular systems to external fields was one of the first areas studied after development of the new quantum mechanics. Early work by Kirkwood and Buckingham developed polarisability lower bounds that are still used today. This work uses an inequality proposed by Linderberg to develop a treatment of polarisability lower bounds that unifies the work of Kirkwood and Buckingham with Hylleraas' variational perturbation theory. In particular, the prehistory of the works of Kirkwood and Buckingham is described. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the convergence of approximate wavefunctions in the confined atom problem. The applicability of dimensional scaling and its utility in the analysis of confined systems are also discussed.
Rakkiyappan, Rajan; Chandrasekar, Arunachalam; Cao, Jinde
2015-09-01
This paper presents a new design scheme for the passivity and passification of a class of memristor-based recurrent neural networks (MRNNs) with additive time-varying delays. The predictable assumptions on the boundedness and Lipschitz continuity of activation functions are formulated. The systems considered here are based on a different time-delay model suggested recently, which includes additive time-varying delay components in the state. The connection between the time-varying delay and its upper bound is considered when estimating the upper bound of the derivative of Lyapunov functional. It is recognized that the passivity condition can be expressed in a linear matrix inequality (LMI) format and by using characteristic function method. For state feedback passification, it is verified that it is apathetic to use immediate or delayed state feedback. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen's inequality and reciprocal convex combination technique together with a tighter estimation of the upper bound of the cross-product terms derived from the derivatives of the Lyapunov functional, less conventional delay-dependent passivity criteria are established in terms of LMIs. Moreover, second-order reciprocally convex approach is employed for deriving the upper bound for terms with inverses of squared convex parameters. The model based on the memristor with additive time-varying delays widens the application scope for the design of neural networks. Finally, pertinent examples are given to show the advantages of the derived passivity criteria and the significant improvement of the theoretical approaches.
Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging
Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas
2014-01-01
Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585
Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals for indoor optical ranging.
Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas
2014-01-01
Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved.
Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia
Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin
2016-01-01
Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848
Contingencies promote delay tolerance.
Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua
2016-09-01
The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401
High Hopes and High Expectations!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilford, Sara
2006-01-01
The start of each new school year is an especially hopeful time, and this author has found that clearly communicating expectations for teachers and families can set the stage for a wonderful new school year. This article discusses the expectations of teachers, directors, and families as a new school year begins.
Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baskett, Linda Musun
1985-01-01
This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)
Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silver, Harold
1982-01-01
The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)
Genomic medicine: too great expectations?
O'Rourke, P P
2013-08-01
As advances in genomic medicine have captured the interest and enthusiasm of the public, an unintended consequence has been the creation of unrealistic expectations. Because these expectations may have a negative impact on individuals as well as genomics in general, it is important that they be understood and confronted.
Making Your High Expectations Stick
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2007
2007-01-01
Every teacher starts the school year with great expectations for an orderly classroom. An experienced educator has probably tried various approaches to maintain order and create a classroom environment where every student feels comfortable contributing. To let the students know how much is really expected of them, teachers should not simply state…
Expectations of Garland [Junior College].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garland Junior Coll., Boston, MA.
A survey was conducted at Garland Junior College to determine the educational expectations of 69 new students, 122 parents, and 22 college faculty and administrators. Each group in this private women's college was asked to rank, in terms of expectations they held, the following items: learn job skills, mature in relations with others, become more…
Wronskian Method for Bound States
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, Francisco M.
2011-01-01
We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…
Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Balfour, W. J.
1979-01-01
Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)
Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shoemaker, Marla K.
1986-01-01
Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)
Delay-Throughput Performance the Deep-Space Ka-Band Link
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shambayati, Shervin
2008-01-01
In this paper, performance of a first-in, first-out (FIFO), selective retransmission scheme for the deep-space Ka-band link is presented and compared to the performance of a comparable X-band link. In this analysis, 16 months of water vapor radiometer (WVR) and advanced water vapor radiometer (AWVR) data from the three Deep Space Network (DSN) Communication Complexes (DSCC) were used to emulate weather effects on X-band and Ka-band links from Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) X-band and Ka-band telecommunications parameters were used for spacecraft telecommunications capabilities. One pass per week per complex was selected from MRO's Deep Space Network (DSN) schedule from April 1, 2006 to August 31, 2007 for a total of 207 passes (69 passes per complex) for this analysis. For each pass both X-band and Ka-band links were designed using at most two data rates so that the expected pass capacity would be maximized subject to a minimum availability requirement (MAR). In conjunction with the WVR/AWVR data, elevation profiles of the selected passes and models for the performance of the antennas in the DSN were used to emulate the performance of both links. It was assumed that the retransmission of the data takes place not on the same pass as the original transmission but during subsequent passes. The data collected before a pass was assumed to be a fraction of the expected capacity of the pass as calculated through the link design process. Infinite spacecraft storage was assumed to obtain an upper bound on the spacecraft storage requirement. The independent parameters of this analysis were MAR and the ratio of data collected before a pass to the expected pass capacity. Since the selected passes did not occur at regular intervals, the delay in this analysis was measured in terms of number of passes. The throughput was measured in terms of number of bits received successfully on the ground. The results indicate that reasonable delay performance could be achieved with
Delay-Throughput Performance of the Deep-Space Ka-band Link
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shambayati, Shervin
2008-01-01
In this paper, performance of a first-in, first-out (FIFO), selective retransmission scheme for the deep-space Ka-band link is presented and compared to the performance of a comparable X-band link. In this analysis, 16 months of water vapor radiometer (WVR) and advanced water vapor radiometer (AWVR) data from the three Deep Space Network (DSN) Communication Complexes (DSCC) were used to emulate weather effects on X-band and Ka-band links from Mars. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) X-band and Ka-band telecommunications parameters were used for spacecraft telecommunications capabilities. One pass per week per complex was selected from MRO's Deep Space Network (DSN) schedule from April 1, 2006 to August 31, 2007 for a total of 207 passes (69 passes per complex) for this analysis. For each pass both X-band and Ka-band links were designed using at most two data rates so that the expected pass capacity would be maximized subject to a minimum availability requirement (MAR). In conjunction with the WVR/AWVR data, elevation profiles of the selected passes and models for the performance of the antennas in the DSN were used to emulate the performance of both links. It was assumed that the retransmission of the data takes place not on the same pass as the original transmission but during subsequent passes. The data collected before a pass was assumed to be a fraction of the expected capacity of the pass as calculated through the link design process. Infinite spacecraft storage was assumed to obtain an upper bound on the spacecraft storage requirement. The independent parameters of this analysis were MAR and the ratio of data collected before a pass to the expected pass capacity. Since the selected passes did not occur at regular intervals, the delay in this analysis was measured in terms of number of passes. The throughput was measured in terms of number of bits received successfully on the ground. The results indicate that reasonable delay performance could be achieved with
Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel
2010-01-01
A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to
Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?
Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta
2012-01-01
Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance—focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758
Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger
DeFilippi, Irene C. G.; Yates, Stephen Frederic; Shen, Jian-Kun; Gaita, Romulus; Sedath, Robert Henry; Seminara, Gary Joseph; Straszewski, Michael Peter; Anderson, David Joseph
1999-03-23
This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.
Early developmental delays: neuropsychological sequelae and subsequent diagnoses.
Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee
2012-01-01
Developmental delay is a frequent diagnosis given to young children when developmental milestones are not met in an age-expected time frame. Research on early delays in speech and motor milestones is unclear regarding possible long-term cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of children who suffered early developmental delays in speech or motor function. Participants (N = 60) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test, Children's Memory Test (CMT), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and the Child Behavior Checklist/Youth Self-Report. The Delay group had a significantly lower Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), and when controlling for IQ (analysis of covariance), the Delay group had significantly lower scores on measures of immediate and delayed visual memory skills (CMT). Group scores were not significantly different for any other tests. Neither group had any test scores significantly below FSIQ, a finding suggesting developmental delays may subsequently lead to weaknesses but not impairments. Results appear to support the resiliency of the young brain. Chi-square analysis showed the Delay group was more likely to subsequently be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but not learning disorders. Data appear to suggest that early developmental delays may place children as risk for ADHD and perhaps visual memory weaknesses, though not clear impairments. PMID:23428279
Muralisankar, S; Manivannan, A; Balasubramaniam, P
2015-09-01
The aim of this manuscript is to investigate the mean square delay dependent-probability-distribution stability analysis of neutral type stochastic neural networks with time-delays. The time-delays are assumed to be interval time-varying and randomly occurring. Based on the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and stochastic analysis approach, a novel sufficient condition is obtained in the form of linear matrix inequality such that the delayed stochastic neural networks are globally robustly asymptotically stable in the mean-square sense for all admissible uncertainties. Finally, the derived theoretical results are validated through numerical examples in which maximum allowable upper bounds are calculated for different lower bounds of time-delay.
Chiba, Yasutaka; Sato, Tosiya; Greenland, Sander
2007-12-10
Nonparametric bounds on causal effects in observational studies are available under deterministic potential-outcome models. We derive narrower bounds by adding assumptions regarding bias due to confounding. This bias is defined as the difference between the expectation of potential outcomes for the exposed group and that for the unexposed group. We show that crude effect measures bound causal effects under the given assumptions. We then derive bounds for randomized studies with noncompliance, which are given by the per protocol effect. With perfect compliance in one treatment group, the direction of effect becomes identifiable under our assumptions. Although the assumptions are not themselves identifiable, they are nonetheless reasonable in some situations.
Modeling Ca2+-Bound Troponin in Excitation Contraction Coupling
Zot, Henry G.; Hasbun, Javier E.
2016-01-01
To explain disparate decay rates of cytosolic Ca2+ and structural changes in the thin filaments during a twitch, we model the time course of Ca2+-bound troponin (Tn) resulting from the free Ca2+ transient of fast skeletal muscle. In fibers stretched beyond overlap, the decay of Ca2+ as measured by a change in fluo-3 fluorescence is significantly slower than the intensity decay of the meridional 1/38.5 nm−1 reflection of Tn; this is not simply explained by considering only the Ca2+ binding properties of Tn alone (Matsuo et al., 2010). We apply a comprehensive model that includes the known Ca2+ binding properties of Tn in the context of the thin filament with and without cycling crossbridges. Calculations based on the model predict that the transient of Ca2+-bound Tn correlates with either the fluo-3 time course in muscle with overlapping thin and thick filaments or the intensity of the meridional 1/38.5 nm−1 reflection in overstretched muscle. Hence, cycling crossbridges delay the dissociation of Ca2+ from Tn. Correlation with the fluo-3 fluorescence change is not causal given that the transient of Ca2+-bound Tn depends on sarcomere length, whereas the fluo-3 fluorescence change does not. Transient positions of tropomyosin calculated from the time course of Ca2+-bound Tn are in reasonable agreement with the transient of measured perturbations of the Tn repeat in overlap and non-overlap muscle preparations. PMID:27708586
Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations
Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao
2015-01-01
We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250
Precise estimation of tropospheric path delays with GPS techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lichten, S. M.
1990-01-01
Tropospheric path delays are a major source of error in deep space tracking. However, the tropospheric-induced delay at tracking sites can be calibrated using measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. A series of experiments has demonstrated the high sensitivity of GPS to tropospheric delays. A variety of tests and comparisons indicates that current accuracy of the GPS zenith tropospheric delay estimates is better than 1-cm root-mean-square over many hours, sampled continuously at intervals of six minutes. These results are consistent with expectations from covariance analyses. The covariance analyses also indicate that by the mid-1990s, when the GPS constellation is complete and the Deep Space Network is equipped with advanced GPS receivers, zenith tropospheric delay accuracy with GPS will improve further to 0.5 cm or better.
[Diagnosis of delayed puberty].
Busiah, K; Belien, V; Dallot, N; Fila, M; Guilbert, J; Harroche, A; Leger, J
2007-09-01
Puberty is the phenomenon that conducts once to reproductive maturation. Delayed puberty (DP) is defined by the absence of testicular development in boys beyond 14 years old (or a testicular volume lower than 4 ml) and by the absence of breast development in girls beyond 13 years old. DP occurs in approximatively 3% of cases. Most cases are functional DP, with a large amount of constitutional delay of puberty. Others etiologies are hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism like Kallmann syndrome, or hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Turner syndrome is a diagnostic one should not forget by its frequency. Treatment is hormonal replacement therapy and of the etiology. During the last decade, many genes have been identified and elucidated the etiological diagnosis of some hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism syndrome. Further studies are required in collaboration with molecular biologists to better understand the mechanism of hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis abnormalities and of the neuroendocrine physiology of the onset of puberty.
Dabkowski, M.J.; Malladi, M.
1987-04-28
This patent describes a delayed cooking process in which a heavy oil coker feedstock is heated to an elevated coking temperature in a furnace and the heated feedstock is subsequently subjected to delayed coking in a coker drum under superatmospheric pressure and the vaporous coking products are removed from the drum and passed to a coker fractionator from which a bottoms fraction is removed. The improvement comprises coking a feed without the addition of the bottoms fraction from the fractionator and adding to the feed to the coker drum a lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent having an end boiling point of not more than 450/sup 0/C, the lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent being added to the heated feedstock after the feedstock has passed through the furnace.
Ceilley, R I; Bumsted, R M; Panje, W R
1983-04-01
The use of skin grafts on granulating wounds is an established practice. Delaying the application of a full- or split-thickness skin graft may be an advantageous alternative method of surgical reconstruction in selected cases. Partial healing by secondary intention is useful for filling in deeper defects and usually produces a wound that is much smaller and of more normal contour than the original defect. Contraction of the graft bed is markedly influenced by location, tissue laxity, surface tension lines, motion, and wound geometry. Proper wound care, correct surgical preparation of the defect, and timing of the graft procedure are all important considerations in maximizing the overall result. Through-and-through defects and wounds produced over areas with little underlying support (eyelids and lip) often need flap reconstruction or immediate grafting to prevent undesirable functional and cosmetic results. By combining delayed healing and conventional reconstructive techniques, major tissue loss can often be restored while minimizing patient morbidity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemos, José P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2015-07-01
Buchdahl, by imposing a few reasonable physical assumptions on matter, i.e., its density is a nonincreasing function of the radius and the fluid is a perfect fluid, and on the configuration, such as the exterior is the Schwarzschild solution, found that the radius r0 to mass m ratio of a star would obey the bound {{r}0}/m≥slant 9/4, the Buchdahl bound. He also noted that the bound was saturated by the Schwarzschild interior solution, i.e., the solution with {{ρ }m}(r)=constant, where {{ρ }m}(r) is the energy density of the matter at r, when the central central pressure blows to infinity. Generalizations of this bound in various forms have been studied. An important generalization was given by Andréasson, by including electrically charged matter and imposing a different set of conditions, namely, p+2{{p}T}≤slant {{ρ }m}, where p is the radial pressure and pT the tangential pressure. His bound is sharp and given by {{r}0}/m≥slant 9/{{(1+\\sqrt{1+3 {{q}2}/r02})}2}, the Buchdahl-Andréasson bound, with q being the total electric charge of the star. For q = 0 one recovers the Buchdahl bound. However, following Andréasson's proof, the configuration that saturates the Buchdahl bound is an uncharged shell, rather than the Schwarzschild interior solution. By extension, the configurations that saturate the electrically charged Buchdahl-Andréasson bound are charged shells. One could expect then, in turn, that there should exist an electrically charged equivalent to the interior Schwarzschild limit. We find here that this equivalent is provided by the equation {{ρ }m}(r)+{{Q}2}(r)/(8π {{r}4})=constant, where Q(r) is the electric charge at r. This equation was put forward by Cooperstock and de la Cruz, and Florides, and realized in Guilfoyle's stars. When the central pressure goes to infinity, Guilfoyle's stars are configurations that also saturate the Buchdahl-Andréasson bound. A proof in Buchdahl's manner, such that these configurations are the limiting
Optimal Perceived Timing: Integrating Sensory Information with Dynamically Updated Expectations
Di Luca, Massimiliano; Rhodes, Darren
2016-01-01
The environment has a temporal structure, and knowing when a stimulus will appear translates into increased perceptual performance. Here we investigated how the human brain exploits temporal regularity in stimulus sequences for perception. We find that the timing of stimuli that occasionally deviate from a regularly paced sequence is perceptually distorted. Stimuli presented earlier than expected are perceptually delayed, whereas stimuli presented on time and later than expected are perceptually accelerated. This result suggests that the brain regularizes slightly deviant stimuli with an asymmetry that leads to the perceptual acceleration of expected stimuli. We present a Bayesian model for the combination of dynamically-updated expectations, in the form of a priori probability of encountering future stimuli, with incoming sensory information. The asymmetries in the results are accounted for by the asymmetries in the distributions involved in the computational process. PMID:27385184
Physical activity extends life expectancy
Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.
Assessing delay discounting in mice
Mitchell, Suzanne H.
2014-01-01
Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are heritable, and data indicate that delay discounting also has a genetic component. To identify the genes underlying the delay discounting decision-making process and genetic correlates of heightened discounting, researchers have used mouse models. This unit describes a protocol for generating delay discounting behavior in mice and discusses analysis techniques for such behavior. PMID:24510779
Delayed Speech or Language Development
... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...
Tooth formation - delayed or absent
Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation ... The age at which a tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, but it may be earlier or later. ...
Bounding the heat trace of a Calabi-Yau manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiset, Marc-Antoine; Walcher, Johannes
2015-09-01
The SCHOK bound states that the number of marginal deformations of certain two-dimensional conformal field theories is bounded linearly from above by the number of relevant operators. In conformal field theories defined via sigma models into Calabi-Yau manifolds, relevant operators can be estimated, in the point-particle approximation, by the low-lying spectrum of the scalar Laplacian on the manifold. In the strict large volume limit, the standard asymptotic expansion of Weyl and Minakshisundaram-Pleijel diverges with the higher-order curvature invariants. We propose that it would be sufficient to find an a priori uniform bound on the trace of the heat kernel for large but finite volume. As a first step in this direction, we then study the heat trace asymptotics, as well as the actual spectrum of the scalar Laplacian, in the vicinity of a conifold singularity. The eigenfunctions can be written in terms of confluent Heun functions, the analysis of which gives evidence that regions of large curvature will not prevent the existence of a bound of this type. This is also in line with general mathematical expectations about spectral continuity for manifolds with conical singularities. A sharper version of our results could, in combination with the SCHOK bound, provide a basis for a global restriction on the dimension of the moduli space of Calabi-Yau manifolds.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-03-26
... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...
Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment
DeRyckere, John F.; Jenkins, Philip Nord; Cornett, Frank Nolan
2002-07-09
Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.
Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina
2013-01-01
Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770
Complex network synchronization of chaotic systems with delay coupling
Theesar, S. Jeeva Sathya Ratnavelu, K.
2014-03-05
The study of complex networks enables us to understand the collective behavior of the interconnected elements and provides vast real time applications from biology to laser dynamics. In this paper, synchronization of complex network of chaotic systems has been studied. Every identical node in the complex network is assumed to be in Lur’e system form. In particular, delayed coupling has been assumed along with identical sector bounded nonlinear systems which are interconnected over network topology.
The ethics of life expectancy.
Small, Robin
2002-08-01
Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive--our expectation of further life--and the other negative--the loss of potential life brought about by death. The most common method of determining this loss, by counting only the period of time between death and some particular age, implies that those who die at ages not far from that one are regarded as losing very little potential life, while those who die at greater ages are regarded as losing none at all. This approach has methodological advantages but ethical disadvantages, in that it fails to correspond to our strong belief that anyone who dies is losing some period of life that he or she would otherwise have had. The normative role of life expectancy expressed in the 'fair innings' attitude arises from a particular historical situation: not the increase of life expectancy in modern societies, but a related narrowing in the distribution of projected life spans. Since life expectancy is really a representation of existing patterns of mortality, which in turn are determined by many influences, including the present allocation of health resources, it should not be taken as a prediction, and still less as a statement of entitlement. PMID:12956176
Broken Expectations: Violation of Expectancies, Not Novelty, Captures Auditory Attention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vachon, Francois; Hughes, Robert W.; Jones, Dylan M.
2012-01-01
The role of memory in behavioral distraction by auditory attentional capture was investigated: We examined whether capture is a product of the novelty of the capturing event (i.e., the absence of a recent memory for the event) or its violation of learned expectancies on the basis of a memory for an event structure. Attentional capture--indicated…
Adaptive Phase Delay Generator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greer, Lawrence
2013-01-01
There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.
Vehicle barrier with access delay
Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason
2013-09-03
An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.
Delay reduction: current status.
Fantino, E; Preston, R A; Dunn, R
1993-07-01
Delay-reduction theory states that the effectiveness of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer may be predicted most accurately by the reduction in time to primary reinforcement correlated with its onset. We review support for the theory and then discuss two new types of experiments that assess it. One compares models of choice in situations wherein the less preferred outcome is made more accessible; the other investigates whether frequency of conditioned reinforcement affects choice beyond the effect exerted by frequency of primary reinforcement.
Adaptive robust stabilisation for a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hansheng
2013-02-01
The problem of adaptive robust stabilisation is considered for a class of uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems with multiple time-varying delays. It is assumed that the upper bounds of the nonlinear delayed state perturbations are unknown and that the time-varying delays are any non-negative continuous and bounded functions which do not require that their derivatives have to be less than one. In particular, it is only required that the nonlinear uncertainties, which can also include time-varying delays, are bounded in any non-negative nonlinear functions which are not required to be known for the system designer. For such a class of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems, a new method is presented whereby a class of continuous memoryless adaptive robust state feedback controllers with a rather simpler structure is proposed. It is also shown that the solutions of uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems can be guaranteed to be uniformly exponentially convergent towards a ball which can be as small as desired. Finally, as an application, an uncertain nonlinear time-delay ecosystem with two competing species is given to demonstrate the validity of the results.
Global stability and local stability of Hopfield neural networks with delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Hui; Michel, Anthony N.; Wang, Kaining
1994-11-01
It is well known that Hopfield neural networks without delays exhibit no oscillations and possess global stability (i.e., all trajectories tend to some equilibrium). In the present paper we show that if the bound τβ∥T2∥<1 is satisfied, then a corresponding Hopfield neural network with delays τ>0, interconnection matrix T2 associated with delays, and gain of the neurons given by β, will exhibit similar qualitative properties as the original Hopfield neural network without delays (∥T2∥ denotes the matrix norm induced by the Euclidean vector norm). Specifically, we show that if the above bound is satisfied, then a Hopfield neural network without delays and a corresponding Hopfield neural network with delays will have identical asymptotically stable equilibria, and both networks are globally stable. In addition to the above, we provide in the present paper an effective method of determining the asymptotic stability of an equilibrium of a Hopfield neural network with delays, assuming that the above bound is satisfied. Our results are consistent with the results reported by Marcus and Westervelt [Phys. Rev. A 39, 347 (1989)]. Specifically, the present results, all of which are obtained by rigorous proof, give support to these results, which are based on linearization arguments, numerical simulations, and experimental results.
Hummel, Z
1980-01-01
Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511
Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sang, E. T. K.
2015-10-01
We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).
Entropy bounds and dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Stephen D. H.
2004-07-01
Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant Λ finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of Λ is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w≡p/ρ=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, Λ in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.
Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation
Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea
2016-01-01
A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226
Schmitt, David R.
2001-01-01
Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects. PMID:22478363
Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation
Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea
2016-01-01
A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.
Bound Polaron Pair Formation in Poly (phenylenevinylenes)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rothberg, Lewis
The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PHOTOGENERATED YIELD OF SINGLET EXCITONS * AGGREGRATION EFFECTS ON EXCITED STATE PHOTO-GENERATION * ASSIGNMENT TO BOUND POLARON PAIRS AND DISCUSSION * PROBLEMS WITH THE BOUND POLARON PAIR PICTURE AND CONCLUSION * REFERENCES
Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.
Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine
2014-10-01
The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65 kg, whereas more than 600 kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann et al., 1979; Daillant et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan et al. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourré (2013), Kim et al. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in
Robust passivity analysis for discrete-time recurrent neural networks with mixed delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chuan-Kuei; Shu, Yu-Jeng; Chang, Koan-Yuh; Shou, Ho-Nien; Lu, Chien-Yu
2015-02-01
This article considers the robust passivity analysis for a class of discrete-time recurrent neural networks (DRNNs) with mixed time-delays and uncertain parameters. The mixed time-delays that consist of both the discrete time-varying and distributed time-delays in a given range are presented, and the uncertain parameters are norm-bounded. The activation functions are assumed to be globally Lipschitz continuous. Based on new bounding technique and appropriate type of Lyapunov functional, a sufficient condition is investigated to guarantee the existence of the desired robust passivity condition for the DRNNs, which can be derived in terms of a family of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Some free-weighting matrices are introduced to reduce the conservatism of the criterion by using the bounding technique. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability.
Bounds on multipartite concurrence and tangle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jing; Li, Ming; Li, Hongfang; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing
2016-10-01
We present an analytical lower bound of multipartite concurrence based on the generalized Bloch representations of density matrices. It is shown that the lower bound can be used as an effective entanglement witness of genuine multipartite entanglement. Tight lower and upper bounds for multipartite tangles are also derived. Since the lower bounds depend on just part of the correlation tensors, the result is experimentally feasible.
H∞ control of switched delayed systems with average dwell time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhicheng; Gao, Huijun; Agarwal, Ramesh; Kaynak, Okyay
2013-12-01
This paper considers the problems of stability analysis and H∞ controller design of time-delay switched systems with average dwell time. In order to obtain less conservative results than what is seen in the literature, a tighter bound for the state delay term is estimated. Based on the scaled small gain theorem and the model transformation method, an improved exponential stability criterion for time-delay switched systems with average dwell time is formulated in the form of convex matrix inequalities. The aim of the proposed approach is to reduce the minimal average dwell time of the systems, which is made possible by a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with the scaled small gain theorem. It is shown that this approach is able to tolerate a smaller dwell time or a larger admissible delay bound for the given conditions than most of the approaches seen in the literature. Moreover, the exponential H∞ controller can be constructed by solving a set of conditions, which is developed on the basis of the exponential stability criterion. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross
1996-01-01
Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…
Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Todaro, Julie
1999-01-01
Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…
Children's Judgments of Expected Value.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.
1994-01-01
Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…
Supervising Prerelease Offenders: Clarifying Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benekos, Peter J.
1986-01-01
Presents and discusses a conceptual model of the concerns of prerelease offenders and community supervisors. The conceptualization suggests that "perceptual differences" of the concerns of prerelease status is one alternative for examining the supervisorial relationship. Attempts to identify and confront the different expectations of supervisors…
Career Expectations of Accounting Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis
2010-01-01
The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…
Primary expectations of secondary metabolites
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...
Training Focuses on Teachers' Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gewertz, Catherine
2005-01-01
This article discusses a training program that aims to raise teachers' awareness of how they treat their students. The Teacher Expectations & Student Achievement, or TESA, program--which delves into whether teachers deal with their lower-achieving and higher-achieving students equitably--has been used nationally for more than 30 years. But its…
Great Expectations and New Beginnings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Frances A.
2009-01-01
Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…
Corporate diversification: expectations and outcomes.
Clement, J P
1988-01-01
A review of the research concerning the diversification experience of firms in other industries shows that expectations of higher profit rates and lower risk are not entirely realistic. However, there are many ways in which the probability of financially successful diversification may be increased.
Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.
Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…
Education: Expectation and the Unexpected
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fulford, Amanda
2016-01-01
This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…
... years of age by sex, race and Hispanic origin Health, United States 2015, table 15 [PDF - 9.8 MB] Life expectancy at birth and at 65 years of age, by sex: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries Health, United States 2015, table 14 [PDF - 9. ...
Double-Entry Expectancy Tables.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wesman, Alexander G.
1966-01-01
Double-entry expectancy tables are used to make admissions, guidance, or employment decisions based on two predictors. Examples of their use in showing relationships between high school and college performance are explained. The advantages of double-entry expectacy tables given are: (1) relative simplicity of preparation requiring no formal…
Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pure, Rebekah Abigail
2013-01-01
Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…
Modelling population growth with delayed nonlocal reaction in 2-dimensions.
Liang, Dong; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Fan
2005-01-01
In this paper, we consider the population growth of a single species living in a two-dimensional spatial domain. New reaction-difusion equation models with delayed nonlocal reaction are developed in two-dimensional bounded domains combining diferent boundary conditions. The important feature of the models is the reflection of the joint efect of the difusion dynamics and the nonlocal maturation delayed efect. We consider and ana- lyze numerical solutions of the mature population dynamics with some wellknown birth functions. In particular, we observe and study the occurrences of asymptotically stable steady state solutions and periodic waves for the two-dimensional problems with nonlocal delayed reaction. We also investigate numerically the efects of various parameters on the period, the peak and the shape of the periodic wave as well as the shape of the asymptotically stable steady state solution.
Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.
Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua
2016-08-01
This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.
Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua
2016-08-01
This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.
Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.
Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua
2016-08-01
This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity. PMID:27586618
Stable bound orbits around black rings
Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Takamori, Yohsuke
2010-11-15
We examine bound orbits of particles around singly rotating black rings. We show that there exist stable bound orbits in toroidal spiral shape near the 'axis' of the ring, and also stable circular orbits on the axis as special cases. The stable bound orbits can have arbitrary large size if the thickness of the ring is less than a critical value.
Counting Young Tableaux of Bounded Height
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Francois; Gascon, Francis
2000-03-01
We show that formulas of Gessel, for the generating functions for Young standard tableaux of height bounded by k (see [2]), satisfy linear differential equations, with polynomial coefficients, equivalent to P-recurrences conjectured by Favreau, Krob and the first author (see [1]) for the number of bounded height tableaux and pairs of bounded height tableaux.
Do the adjusting-delay and increasing-delay tasks measure the same construct: delay discounting?
Craig, Andrew R; Maxfield, Adam D; Stein, Jeffrey S; Renda, C Renee; Madden, Gregory J
2014-08-01
Delay discounting describes the subjective devaluation of a reward when it is delayed. In animals, the adjusting-delay (AD) and increasing-delay (ID) tasks often are used to assess individual differences in, and drug effects on, delay discounting. No study to date, however, has compared systematically the measures of discounting produced in these tasks. The current study examined the correlation between measures of delay discounting derived from AD and ID procedures. Twenty rats completed 30 sessions under each task (order counterbalanced across rats). Quantitative measures of delay discounting produced by the two tasks were positively correlated, suggesting that the AD and ID tasks measure the same underlying facet of impulsive choice (i.e. individual or conjoint sensitivities to reward delay and magnitude). The measures derived from either task, however, depended on the sequences in which the tasks were experienced. That is, pre-exposure to one task decreased discounting of delayed rewards in the second task. Consistent with other published findings, exposure to delayed consequences during the initial discounting assessment might explain this effect. Despite the observed correlation between ID and AD indifference delays, we suggest that the ID procedure might be a more appropriate procedure for pharmacological studies.
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver
2003-09-26
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver
2004-09-26
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world
Quantum correlations beyond Tsirelson's bound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, Dominic; Ringbauer, Martin; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; White, Andrew
2014-03-01
Violations of Bell inequalities show that there are correlations that cannot explained by any classical theory. Further violation, beyond Tsirelson's bound, shows that there are correlations that are not explained by quantum mechanics. Such super-quantum correlations would enable violation of information causality, where communication of one bit provides more than one bit of information [Nature 461, 1101 (2009)]. An unavoidable feature of all realistic Bell inequality experiments is loss. If one postselects on successful measurements, unentangled states can violate Bell inequalities. On the other hand, loss can be used to enhance the violation of Bell inequalities for entangled states. This can improve the ability to distinguish between entangled and unentangled states, despite loss. Here we report an optical experiment providing maximal violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality with entangled states. Due to loss and postselection, Tsirelson's bound is also violated. This enables us to more easily distinguish between entangled and unentangled states. In addition, it provides violation of information causality for the postselected data.
Young, I.
1992-01-15
The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.
Delayed cure bismaleimide resins
Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.
1984-08-07
Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Faber, Melissa M.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether context facilitated memory and whether this facilitation was still evident after a delay. Infants were expected to recognize pictures significantly longer when they were tested with the same context cues. This context effect was expected to be even after a 5-minute delay. The subjects were 64…
Using kriging to bound satellite ranging errors due to the ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanch, Juan
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has the potential to become the primary navigational aid for civilian aircraft, thanks to satellite based augmentation systems (SBAS). SBAS systems, including the United State's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), provide corrections and hard bounds on the user errors. The ionosphere is the largest and least predictable source of error. The only ionospheric information available to WAAS is a set of range delay measurements taken at reference stations. From this data, the master station must compute a real time estimate of the ionospheric delay and a hard error bound valid for any user. The variability of the ionospheric behavior has caused the confidence bounds corresponding to the ionosphere to be very large in WAAS. These ranging bounds translate into conservative bounds on user position error. These position error bounds (called protection levels) have values of 30 to 50 meters. Since these values fluctuate near the maximum tolerable limit, WAAS is not always available. In order to increase the availability of WAAS, we must decrease the confidence bounds corresponding to ionospheric uncertainty while maintaining integrity. In this work, I present an ionospheric estimation algorithm based on kriging. I first introduce a simple model of the Vertical Ionospheric Delay that captures both the deterministic behavior and the random behavior of the ionosphere. Under this model, the kriging method is optimal. More importantly kriging provides an estimation variance that can be translated into an error bound. However, this method must be modified for three reasons; first, the state of the ionosphere is unknown and can only be estimated through real time measurements; second, because of bandwidth constraints, the user cannot receive all the measurements and third there is noise in the measurements. I will show how these three obstacles can be overcome. The algorithm presented here provides a reduction in the error bound corresponding
Efficient rejection-based simulation of biochemical reactions with stochastic noise and delays
Thanh, Vo Hong; Priami, Corrado; Zunino, Roberto
2014-10-07
We propose a new exact stochastic rejection-based simulation algorithm for biochemical reactions and extend it to systems with delays. Our algorithm accelerates the simulation by pre-computing reaction propensity bounds to select the next reaction to perform. Exploiting such bounds, we are able to avoid recomputing propensities every time a (delayed) reaction is initiated or finished, as is typically necessary in standard approaches. Propensity updates in our approach are still performed, but only infrequently and limited for a small number of reactions, saving computation time and without sacrificing exactness. We evaluate the performance improvement of our algorithm by experimenting with concrete biological models.
A time delay controller for magnetic bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.
1991-01-01
The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.
Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, Aaron C.; Fernández Martínez, Enrique; Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga; Lattanzi, Massimiliano
2015-04-01
We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter RCMB and the sound horizon rs from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin2θ lesssim 0.026 (ms/eV)-2.
Minimizing the total completion time in a two-machine flowshop problem with time delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kais Msakni, Mohamed; Khallouli, Wael; Al-Salem, Mohamed; Ladhari, Talel
2016-07-01
This article proposes to solve the problem of minimizing the total completion time in a two-machine permutation flowshop environment in which time delays between the machines are considered. For this purpose, an enumeration algorithm based on the branch-and-bound framework is developed, which includes new lower and upper bounds as well as dominance rules. The computational study shows that problems with up to 40 jobs can be solved in a reasonable amount of time.
Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.
Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B
1989-01-01
This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small.
Expected endings and judged duration.
Jones, M R; Boltz, M G; Klein, J M
1993-09-01
In four experiments, the predictions of an expectancy/contrast model (Jones & Boltz, 1989) for judged duration were evaluated. In Experiments 1 and 2, listeners estimated the relative durations of auditory pattern pairs that varied in contextual phrasing and temporal contrast. The results showed that when the second pattern of a pair either seems to (Experiments 1 and 2) or actually does (Experiment 2) end earlier (later) than the first, subjects judge it as being relatively shorter (longer). In Experiment 3, listeners heard single patterns in which notes immediately preceding the final one were omitted. Timing of the final (target) tone was varied such that it was one beat early, on time, or one beat late. Listeners' ratings of target tones revealed systematic effects of phrasing and target timing. In Experiment 4, listeners temporally completed (extrapolated) sequences of Experiment 3 that were modified to exclude the target tone. The results again showed that phrase context systematically influenced expectancies about "when" sequences should end. As a set, these studies demonstrate the effects of event structure and anticipatory attending upon experienced duration and are discussed in terms of the expectancy/contrast model.
Deformation invariant bounding spheres for dynamic active constraints in surgery.
Bowyer, Stuart A; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando
2014-04-01
Active constraints are collaborative robot control strategies, which can be used to guide a surgeon or protect delicate tissue structures during robot-assisted surgery. Tissue structures of interest often move and deform throughout a surgical intervention, and therefore, dynamic active constraints, which adapt and conform to these changes, are required. A fundamental element of an active constraint controller is the computation of the geometric relationship between the constraint geometry and the surgical instrument. For a static active constraint, there are a variety of computationally efficient methods for computing this relative configuration; however, for a dynamic active constraint, it becomes significantly more challenging. Deformation invariant bounding spheres are a novel bounding volume formulation, which can be used within a hierarchy to allow efficient proximity queries within dynamic active constraints. These bounding spheres are constructed in such a way that as the surface deforms, they do not require time-consuming rebuilds or updates, rather they are implicitly updated and continue to represent the underlying geometry as it changes. Experimental results show that performing proximity queries with deformation invariant bounding sphere hierarchies is faster than common methods from the literature when the deformation rate is within the range expected from conventional imaging systems. PMID:24622983
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin
2016-09-01
Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.
Performance Bounds of Quaternion Estimators.
Xia, Yili; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Nitta, Tohru; Mandic, Danilo P
2015-12-01
The quaternion widely linear (WL) estimator has been recently introduced for optimal second-order modeling of the generality of quaternion data, both second-order circular (proper) and second-order noncircular (improper). Experimental evidence exists of its performance advantage over the conventional strictly linear (SL) as well as the semi-WL (SWL) estimators for improper data. However, rigorous theoretical and practical performance bounds are still missing in the literature, yet this is crucial for the development of quaternion valued learning systems for 3-D and 4-D data. To this end, based on the orthogonality principle, we introduce a rigorous closed-form solution to quantify the degree of performance benefits, in terms of the mean square error, obtained when using the WL models. The cases when the optimal WL estimation can simplify into the SWL or the SL estimation are also discussed. PMID:25643416
Creveling, R.
1959-03-17
A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.
Schiano, J L; Trahiotis, C
1987-01-01
A relatively simple circuit is described which delays audio signals in 5 microseconds steps from 0 microsecond to 4000 microseconds. Delays are programmed via twelve TTL-level data lines. The magnitude response is flat and the phase response is linear from DC to 5 kHz. The gain of the circuit is fixed and independent of the selected delay. Delays are accurate to within 1 microsecond of the programmed value. The device is a nice alternative to other methods which have diverse shortcomings.
Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi
2015-01-01
Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773
Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays
Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.
1997-11-01
Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flock, W. L.
1981-01-01
When high precision is required for range measurement on Earth space paths, it is necessary to correct as accurately as possible for excess range delays due to the dry air, water vapor, and liquid water content of the atmosphere. Calculations based on representative values of atmospheric parameters are useful for illustrating the order of magnitude of the expected delays. Range delay, time delay, and phase delay are simply and directly related. Doppler frequency variations or noise are proportional to the time rate of change of excess range delay. Tropospheric effects were examined as part of an overall consideration of the capability of precision two way ranging and Doppler systems.
A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer
Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; MacKenzie, P.D.
1993-08-03
The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).
Parameter identification in periodic delay differential equations with distributed delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torkamani, Shahab; Butcher, Eric A.; Khasawneh, Firas A.
2013-04-01
In this study, a parameter identification approach for identifying the parameters of a periodic delayed system with distributed delay is introduced based on time series analysis and spectral element analysis. Using this approach the parameters of the distributed delayed system can be identified from the time series of the response of the system. The experimental or numerical data of the response is examined with Floquet theory and time series analysis techniques to estimate a reduced order dynamics, or truncated state space to identify the Floquet multipliers. Parameter identification is then completed using a dynamic map developed for the assumed model of the system which can relate the Floquet multipliers to the unknown parameters in the model. The parameter identification technique is validated numerically for first and second order delay differential equations with distributed delay.
Amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators.
Höfener, Johannes M; Sethia, Gautam C; Gross, Thilo
2013-09-28
Amplitude death is a dynamical phenomenon in which a network of oscillators settles to a stable state as a result of coupling. Here, we study amplitude death in a generalized model of delay-coupled delay oscillators. We derive analytical results for degree homogeneous networks which show that amplitude death is governed by certain eigenvalues of the network's adjacency matrix. In particular, these results demonstrate that in delay-coupled delay oscillators amplitude death can occur for arbitrarily large coupling strength k. In this limit, we find a region of amplitude death which already occurs at small coupling delays that scale with 1/k. We show numerically that these results remain valid in random networks with heterogeneous degree distribution.
Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.
75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-08-03
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of... delayed update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines for the remainder of 2010, and until the 2011 poverty guidelines are published, which is expected to occur in...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pansky, Ainat
2012-01-01
In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing because of the…
[Manufactured baby food: safety expectations].
Davin, L; Van Egroo, L-D; Galesne, N
2010-12-01
Food safety is a concern for parents of infants, and healthcare professionals are often questioned by them about this topic. Baby food European regulation ensures high levels of safety and is more rigorous than common food regulation. Maximal limit for pesticides in baby food demonstrates the high level of requirements. This limit must be below the 10 ppb detection threshold, whatever the chemical used. Other contaminants such as nitrates are also the subject of greater expectations in baby food. Food safety risks control needs a specific know-how that baby food manufacturers have acquired and experienced, more particularly by working with producers of high quality raw material.
Geometric time delay interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallisneri, Michele
2005-08-01
The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using time delay interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the interspacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new and intuitive approach to extend this interpretation to all TDI observables. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of second-generation TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent arm lengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have improved high-frequency gravitational-wave sensitivity in realistic noise conditions (because they have fewer nulls in the gravitational-wave and noise response functions), and are less susceptible to instrumental gaps and glitches (because their component phase measurements span shorter time periods).
Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage
Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.
1972-01-01
Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138
Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic
This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.
Bzorgi, Fariborz M.
2015-05-19
In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.
High resolution digital delay timer
Martin, Albert D.
1988-01-01
Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).
Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone
2011-01-01
It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…
Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lattal, Kennon A.
2010-01-01
The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…
Space expectations: Latest survey results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raitt, David; Swan, Cathy; Swan, Peter; Woods, Arthur
2010-11-01
At the 59th IAC in Glasgow, a paper was presented describing two studies being carried out by Commission VI of the International Academy of Astronautics on the impact of space activities upon society. One of these studies sought to discover the hopes, aspirations and expectations of those outside the space field - the person in the street - regarding space activities. The paper reviewed the thought processes and decisions leading up to the commencement of the survey, documented the reasoning behind the questions which the public were; described the efforts to translate the questionnaire into the six Unesco languages to achieve wider participation, and provided an overview of results to date. This present paper provides an update on this Space Expectations survey as the study comes to a close. The paper briefly discusses the addition of new languages for the questionnaire and the drive to make the survey better known and encourage participation worldwide, before going on to provide a detailed analysis of the latest results of opinions. Insights include respondent's thoughts regarding the visions and costs of space activities, how much people feel part of them and whether and how they would like to be more involved.
Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.
2011-01-01
Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…
Bounds on double-diffusive convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balmforth, Neil J.; Ghadge, Shilpa A.; Kettapun, Atichart; Mandre, Shreyas D.
2006-12-01
We consider double-diffusive convection between two parallel plates and compute bounds on the flux of the unstably stratified species using the background method. The bound on the heat flux for Rayleigh Bénard convection also serves as a bound on the double-diffusive problem (with the thermal Rayleigh number equal to that of the unstably stratified component). In order to incorporate a dependence of the bound on the stably stratified component, an additional constraint must be included, like that used by Joseph (Stability of Fluid Motion, 1976, Springer) to improve the energy stability analysis of this system. Our bound extends Joseph's result beyond his energy stability boundary. At large Rayleigh number, the bound is found to behave like R_T(1/2) for fixed ratio R_S/R_T, where R_T and R_S are the Rayleigh numbers of the unstably and stably stratified components, respectively.
A Search for Gravitationally Bound Cloud Cores within the CMZ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gehret, Elizabeth; Battersby, Cara
2016-01-01
In general, current star formation theories successfully model the rate at which stars are forming throughout our Galaxy as well as others, with the star formation rate (SFR) in a given region being proportional to the amount of gas above a threshold density. The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy is an excellent place to test these models. It is home to the highest amount of dense, molecular gas within our Galaxy-and yet, the SFR within this region is an order of magnitude lower than would be expected using current star formation models. This project utilizes data taken from the SMA Legacy Survey of the CMZ, in a search for gravitationally bound structures within three small gas clouds near the Galactic Center, as well as the 1.6 degree cloud. Dense gas structures are detected using H2CO-a dense gas tracer, and 1.3mm cold, dust continuum. These regions are catalogued using dendrograms to identify which structures have continuous and significant H2CO emission. Gravitationally bound candidates were identified by deriving each structure's virial ratio. Within the three clouds near the GC, 40 structures were catalogued, with one structure that was found to be gravitationally bound. Very large virial ratios are the result of large H2CO line widths, possibly due to a high degree of tidal compression. This analysis is also performed on the 1.6 degree cloud, in a region with two suspected bound cores. One of these two cores is close to virial equilibrium and likely gravitationally bound, thus providing support for the use of this method on other clouds within the CMZ. This work supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.
Great expectations: teaching ethics to medical students in South Africa.
Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn
2014-12-01
Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves.
Conical-Domain Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sparks, Lawrence; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony
2009-01-01
The conical-domain model is a computational model, now undergoing development, for estimating ionospheric delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Relative to the standard ionospheric delay model described below, the conical-domain model offers improved accuracy. In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere is the largest source of error for single-frequency users of GPS. Because ionospheric signal delays contribute to errors in GPS position and time measurements, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) have been designed to estimate these delays and broadcast corrections. Several national and international SBASs are currently in various stages of development to enhance the integrity and accuracy of GPS measurements for airline navigation. In the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) of the United States, slant ionospheric delay errors and confidence bounds are derived from estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled on a grid at regularly spaced intervals of latitude and longitude. The estimate of vertical delay at each ionospheric grid point (IGP) is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using a standard, thin-shell model of the ionosphere. Interpolation on the WAAS grid enables estimation of the vertical delay at the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) corresponding to any arbitrary measurement of a user. (The IPP of a given user s measurement is the point where the GPS signal ray path intersects a reference ionospheric height.) The product of the interpolated value and the user s thin-shell obliquity factor provides an estimate of the user s ionospheric slant delay. Two types of error that restrict the accuracy of the thin-shell model are absent in the conical domain model: (1) error due to the implicit assumption that the electron density is independent of the azimuthal angle at the IPP and (2) error arising from the slant-to-vertical conversion. At low latitudes or at mid
Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs.
Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude
2010-10-20
Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkani-Hamed, J.
2014-12-01
Paleointensity measurements of Archean rocks reveal a strong geodynamo at ~3.45 Ga, while excess nitrogen content of lunar soil samples implies no geodynamo at ~3.9 Ga. Here I propose that initiation of a strong geodynamo is delayed due to accretion style of Earth, involving collision and merging of a few dozen Moon to Mars size planetary embryos. Two accretion scenarios consisting of 25 and 50 embryos are investigated. The collision of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's core differentially and the rotating low-viscosity core stably stratifies, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution. Convection starts in the outer core after each impact but is destroyed by the next impact. The iron core of an impacting embryo descends in the mantle and merges to the proto-Earth's core. Both adiabatic and non-adiabatic merging cases are studied. A major part of the gravitational energy released due to core merging is used to lift up the upper portion of the core to emplace the impactor core material at the neutrally buoyant level in the proto-Earth's core. The remaining energy is converted to heat. In the adiabatic case the merging embryo's core retains all of the remaining energy, while in the non-adiabatic merging 50% of the remaining energy is shared with the outer part of the proto-Earth's core where the embryo's core descends. The two merging models result in significantly different temperature distributions in the core at the end of accretion. After the accretion, the convecting shell in the outer core grows monotonically and generates geodynamo gradually. It takes about 50-100 Myr for the convecting shell to generate a strong dipole field at the surface, 50,000 to 100,000 nT, in the presence of a large stably stratified liquid inner core when the convecting outer core thickness exceeds about one half the radius of the Earth's core.
Delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions.
Pichler, Werner J
2003-10-21
Immune reactions to small molecular compounds, such as drugs, can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, and lungs. In many drug hypersensitivity reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognize drugs through their alphabeta T-cell receptors in an MHC-dependent way. Drugs stimulate T cells if they act as haptens and bind covalently to peptides or if they have structural features that allow them to interact with certain T-cell receptors directly. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-reactive T cells in patients with distinct forms of exanthema reveal that distinct T-cell functions lead to different clinical phenotypes. In maculopapular exanthema, perforin-positive and granzyme B-positive CD4+ T cells kill activated keratinocytes, while a large number of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in the epidermis is associated with formation of vesicles and bullae. Drug-specific T cells also orchestrate inflammatory skin reactions through the release of various cytokines (for example, interleukin-5, interferon) and chemokines (such as interleukin-8). Activation of T cells with a particular function seems to lead to a specific clinical picture (for example, bullous or pustular exanthema). Taken together, these data allow delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) to be further subclassified into T-cell reactions, which through the release of certain cytokines and chemokines preferentially activate and recruit monocytes (type IVa), eosinophils (type IVb), or neutrophils (type IVd). Moreover, cytotoxic functions by either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells (type IVc) seem to participate in all type IV reactions.
Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohmann, Martin
2016-06-01
We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reynolds, Brady; Schiffbauer, Ryan
2005-01-01
Delay of Gratification (DG) and Delay Discounting (DD) represent two indices of impulsive behavior often treated as though they represent equivalent or the same underlying processes. However, there are key differences between DG and DD procedures, and between certain research findings with each procedure, that suggest they are not equivalent. In…
Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.
Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813
Motor activity improves temporal expectancy.
Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments.
Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy
Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth
2015-01-01
Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813
Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2016-08-01
We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N2O and H2O . The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N2O , whereas the delays in H2O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N2O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ˜110 as. The unstructured continua of H2O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.
Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.
Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2016-08-26
We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible. PMID:27610849
New results on stability analysis for time-varying delay systems with non-linear perturbations.
Liu, Pin-Lin
2013-05-01
The problem of stability for linear time-varying delay systems under nonlinear perturbation is discussed, with delay assumed as time-varying. Delay decomposition approach allows information of the delayed plant states to be fully considered. A less conservative delay-dependent robust stability condition is derived, using integral inequality approach to express the relationship of Leibniz-Newton formula terms in the within the framework of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Merits of the proposed results lie in lesser conservatism, which are realized by choosing different Lyapunov matrices in the decomposed integral intervals and estimating the upper bound of some cross term more exactly. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and lesser conservatism of the proposed method.
A theoretical account of cognitive effects in delay discounting.
Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Bickel, Warren; Redish, A David
2012-04-01
Although delay discounting, the attenuation of the value of future rewards, is a robust finding, the mechanism of discounting is not known. We propose a potential mechanism for delay discounting such that discounting emerges from a search process that is trying to determine what rewards will be available in the future. In this theory, the delay dependence of the discounting of future expected rewards arises from three assumptions. First, that the evaluation of outcomes involves a search process. Second, that the value is assigned to an outcome proportionally to how easy it is to find. Third, that outcomes that are less delayed are typically easier for the search process to find. By relaxing this third assumption (e.g. by assuming that episodically-cued outcomes are easier to find), our model suggests that it is possible to dissociate discounting from delay. Our theory thereby explains the empirical result that discounting is slower to episodically-imagined outcomes, because these outcomes are easier for the search process to find. Additionally, the theory explains why improving cognitive resources such as working memory slows discounting, by improving searches and thereby making rewards easier to find. The three assumptions outlined here are likely to be instantiated during deliberative decision-making, but are unlikely in habitual decision-making. We model two simple implementations of this theory and show that they unify empirical results about the role of cognitive function in delay discounting, and make new neural, behavioral, and pharmacological predictions.
Quasar optical variability: searching for interband time delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachev, R. S.
2009-01-01
Aims: The main purpose of this paper is to study time delays between the light variations in different wavebands for a sample of quasars. Measuring a reliable time delay for a large number of quasars may help constraint the models of their central engines. The standard accretion disk irradiation model predicts a delay of the longer wavelengths behind the shorter ones, a delay that depends on the fundamental quasar parameters. Since the black hole masses and the accretion rates are approximately known for the sample we use, one can compare the observed time delays with the expected ones. Methods: We applied the interpolation cross-correlation function (ICCF) method to the Giveon et al. sample of 42 quasars, monitored in two (B and R) colors, to find the time lags represented by the ICCF peaks. Different tests were performed to assess the influence of photometric errors, sampling, etc., on the final result. Results: We found that most of the objects show a delay in the red light curve behind the blue one (a positive lag), which on average for the sample is about +4 days (+3 for the median), although the scatter is significant. These results are broadly consistent with the reprocessing model, especially for the well-sampled objects. The normalized time-lag deviations do not seem to correlate significantly with other quasar properties, including optical, radio, or X-ray measurables. On the other hand, many objects show a clear negative lag, which, if real, may have important consequences for the variability models.
A theoretical account of cognitive effects in delay discounting
Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Bickel, Warren; Redish, A. David
2012-01-01
Although delay discounting, the attenuation of the value of future rewards, is a robust finding, the mechanism of discounting is not known. We propose a potential mechanism for delay discounting such that discounting emerges from a search process trying to determine what rewards will be available in the future. In this theory, the delay dependence of the discounting of future expected rewards arises from three assumptions. First, that evaluation of outcomes involves a search process. Second, that value is assigned to an outcome proportionally to how easy it is to find. Third, that outcomes that are less delayed are typically easier for the search process to find. By relaxing this third assumption (for example, by assuming that episodically cued outcomes are easier to find), our model suggests that it is possible to dissociate discounting from delay. Our theory thereby explains the empirical result that discounting is slower to episodically-imagined outcomes, because these outcomes are easier for the search process to find. Additionally, the theory explains why improving cognitive resources such as working memory slows discounting, by improving searches and thereby making rewards easier to find. The three assumptions outlined here are likely to be instantiated during deliberative decision-making, but unlikely in habitual decision-making. We model two simple implementations of this theory and show that they unify empirical results about the role of cognitive function in delay discounting, and make new neural, behavioral, and pharmacological predictions. PMID:22487035
Family context and adolescents' fertility expectations.
Trent, K
1994-09-01
Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Youth are used to examine and contrast the effects of family context and individual characteristics on adolescents' expectations about adolescent fertility, nonmarital childbearing, family size, and childlessness. The findings indicate that family structure has modest but specific effects on adolescents' fertility expectations. Living with mothers only increases expectations for nonmarital childbearing, and living with fathers (without biological mother) lowers the total number of children expected. Larger subsize raises expectations for nonmarital childbearing and family size. Poverty raises expectations for adolescent childbearing but does not affect other fertility expectations. Adolescent women are less likely than men to expect nonmarital childbearing, and overall, expect fewer children. Blacks are more likely than Whites to expect adolescent and nonmarital fertility and Hispanics are significantly less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to expect childlessness.
Neural differentiation of expected reward and risk in human subcortical structures.
Preuschoff, Kerstin; Bossaerts, Peter; Quartz, Steven R
2006-08-01
In decision-making under uncertainty, economic studies emphasize the importance of risk in addition to expected reward. Studies in neuroscience focus on expected reward and learning rather than risk. We combined functional imaging with a simple gambling task to vary expected reward and risk simultaneously and in an uncorrelated manner. Drawing on financial decision theory, we modeled expected reward as mathematical expectation of reward, and risk as reward variance. Activations in dopaminoceptive structures correlated with both mathematical parameters. These activations differentiated spatially and temporally. Temporally, the activation related to expected reward was immediate, while the activation related to risk was delayed. Analyses confirmed that our paradigm minimized confounds from learning, motivation, and salience. These results suggest that the primary task of the dopaminergic system is to convey signals of upcoming stochastic rewards, such as expected reward and risk, beyond its role in learning, motivation, and salience.
Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro
2014-01-01
We introduce a time-to-build technology in a Solow model with bounded technological progress. Our analysis shows that the system may be asymptotically stable, or it can produce stability switches and Hopf bifurcations when time delay varies. The direction and the stability criteria of the bifurcating periodic solutions are obtained by the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations confirms the theoretical results.
The bound β-decay of the free neutron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schön, J.; Paul, S.; Emmerich, R.; Engels, R.; Faestermann, T.; Fierlinger, P.; Gabriel, M.; Gutsmied, E.; Hartmann, F. J.; Hertenberger, R.; McAndrew, J.; Röhrmoser, A.; Ruschel, S.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A.; Udem, T.; Ulrich, A.
2012-09-01
An experiment to measure the bound β-decay of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. Observation of such a decay would open an alternative pathway to physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular right-handed current admixtures in the weak interaction as well as the handedness of the neutrino. The experiment is planned at the through-going beam tube SR6 at the FRM2 high-flux reactor in Garching. Although the branching ratio of this decay is expected to be only 4 . 10-6 of the normal neutron β-decay [1], a sufficient decay rate due to the high flux of neutrons available for the experiment is expected. Simulations have shown that the measurement is feasible, with proper shielding being the critical factor. The experimental setup is currently being studied, testing different detection techniques for H(2s) at the TUM.
THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE
Botts, Ryan T.; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R.
2012-01-01
We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set. PMID:24748762
THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE.
Botts, Ryan T; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R
2012-08-01
We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set.
THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE.
Botts, Ryan T; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R
2012-08-01
We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set. PMID:24748762
Outward Bound: An Innovative Patient Education Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stich, Thomas F.; Gaylor, Michael S.
A 1975 Dartmouth Outward Bound Mental Health Project, begun with a pilot project for disturbed adolescents, has evolved into an ongoing treatment option in three separate clinical settings for psychiatric patients and recovering alcoholics. Outward Bound consists of a series of prescribed physical and social tasks where the presence of stress,…
Constrained bounds on measures of entanglement
Datta, Animesh; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M.
2007-06-15
Entanglement measures constructed from two positive, but not completely positive, maps on density operators are used as constraints in placing bounds on the entanglement of formation, the tangle, and the concurrence of 4N mixed states. The maps are the partial transpose map and the phi map introduced by Breuer [H.-P. Breuer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 080501 (2006)]. The norm-based entanglement measures constructed from these two maps, called negativity and phi negativity, respectively, lead to two sets of bounds on the entanglement of formation, the tangle, and the concurrence. We compare these bounds and identify the sets of 4N density operators for which the bounds from one constraint are better than the bounds from the other. In the process, we present a derivation of the already known bound on the concurrence based on the negativity. We compute bounds on the three measures of entanglement using both the constraints simultaneously. We demonstrate how such doubly constrained bounds can be constructed. We discuss extensions of our results to bipartite states of higher dimensions and with more than two constraints.
More, Preeti; Laheri, Vandana V; Waigankar, Tejasi; Wagh, Charchill
2015-01-01
Delayed recovery/awakening/ emergence can occur under anaesthesia and is multifactorial, could be drug or non drug related. Similarly, we report a case of delayed recovery in a 68-year-old patient, for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a known case of hypertension, bronchial asthma and hypothyroidism. Preoperatively, she was optimised for her medical disorders; however, she had delayed recovery from general anaesthesia. The delayed recovery, often, would be expected in a case of hypothyroidism, however in our patient it was found to be associated with inadvertent hypokalemia. PMID:25738065
WHO expectation and industry goals.
Vandersmissen, W
2001-02-01
It is expected the world's vaccine market will show a robust growth over the next few years, yet this growth will predominantly come from introduction of new vaccines in industrialised countries. Economic market forces will increasingly direct vaccine sales and vaccine development towards the needs of markets with effective purchasing power. Yet the scientific and technological progress that drives the development of such innovative vaccines holds the promise of applicability for vaccines that are highly desirable for developing countries. Corrective measures that take into account economic and industrial reality must be considered to span the widening gap between richer and poorer countries in terms of availability and general use of current and recent vaccines. Such measures must help developing countries to get access to future vaccines for diseases that predominantly or exclusively affect them, but for which the poor economic prospects do not provide a basis for the vaccine industry to undertake costly research and development programmes. Recent initiatives such as GAVI, including the establishment of a reliable, guaranteed purchase fund, could provide a solution to the problem. PMID:11166883
Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project
Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver
2005-10-01
Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world
Behavioral reactions reflecting differential reward expectations in monkeys.
Watanabe, M; Cromwell, H C; Tremblay, L; Hollerman, J R; Hikosaka, K; Schultz, W
2001-10-01
Learning theory emphasizes the importance of expectations in the control of instrumental action. This study investigated the variation of behavioral reactions toward different rewards as an expression of differential expectations of outcomes in primates. We employed several versions of two basic behavioral paradigms, the spatial delayed response task and the delayed reaction task. These tasks are commonly used in neurobiological studies of working memory, movement preparation, and event expectation involving the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. An initial visual instruction stimulus indicated to the animal which one of several food or liquid rewards would be delivered after each correct behavioral response, or whether or not a reward could be obtained. We measured the reaction times of the operantly conditioned arm movement necessary for obtaining the reward, and the durations of anticipatory licking prior to liquid reward delivery as a Pavlovian conditioned response. The results showed that both measures varied depending on the reward predicted by the initial instruction. Arm movements were performed with significantly shorter reaction times for foods or liquids that were more preferred by the animal than for less preferred ones. Still larger differences were observed between rewarded and unrewarded trials. An interesting effect was found in unrewarded trials, in which reaction times were significantly shorter when a highly preferred reward was delivered in the alternative rewarded trials of the same trial block as compared to a less preferred reward. Anticipatory licks preceding the reward were significantly longer when highly preferred rather than less preferred rewards, or no rewards, were predicted. These results demonstrate that behavioral reactions preceding rewards may vary depending on the predicted future reward and suggest that monkeys differentially expect particular outcomes in the presently investigated tasks.
78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-09-26
... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...
SHARP ENTRYWISE PERTURBATION BOUNDS FOR MARKOV CHAINS
THIEDE, ERIK; VAN KOTEN, BRIAN; WEARE, JONATHAN
2015-01-01
For many Markov chains of practical interest, the invariant distribution is extremely sensitive to perturbations of some entries of the transition matrix, but insensitive to others; we give an example of such a chain, motivated by a problem in computational statistical physics. We have derived perturbation bounds on the relative error of the invariant distribution that reveal these variations in sensitivity. Our bounds are sharp, we do not impose any structural assumptions on the transition matrix or on the perturbation, and computing the bounds has the same complexity as computing the invariant distribution or computing other bounds in the literature. Moreover, our bounds have a simple interpretation in terms of hitting times, which can be used to draw intuitive but rigorous conclusions about the sensitivity of a chain to various types of perturbations. PMID:26491218
Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2008-09-15
We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.
Rigorous bounds for optimal dynamical decoupling
Uhrig, Goetz S.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2010-07-15
We present rigorous performance bounds for the optimal dynamical decoupling pulse sequence protecting a quantum bit (qubit) against pure dephasing. Our bounds apply under the assumption of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We show that if the total sequence time is fixed the optimal sequence can be used to make the distance between the protected and unperturbed qubit states arbitrarily small in the number of applied pulses. If, on the other hand, the minimum pulse interval is fixed and the total sequence time is allowed to scale with the number of pulses, then longer sequences need not always be advantageous. The rigorous bound may serve as a testbed for approximate treatments of optimal decoupling in bounded models of decoherence.
Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang
2014-04-01
In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.
Entropy Bounds for Hierarchical Molecular Networks
Dehmer, Matthias; Borgert, Stephan; Emmert-Streib, Frank
2008-01-01
In this paper we derive entropy bounds for hierarchical networks. More precisely, starting from a recently introduced measure to determine the topological entropy of non-hierarchical networks, we provide bounds for estimating the entropy of hierarchical graphs. Apart from bounds to estimate the entropy of a single hierarchical graph, we see that the derived bounds can also be used for characterizing graph classes. Our contribution is an important extension to previous results about the entropy of non-hierarchical networks because for practical applications hierarchical networks are playing an important role in chemistry and biology. In addition to the derivation of the entropy bounds, we provide a numerical analysis for two special graph classes, rooted trees and generalized trees, and demonstrate hereby not only the computational feasibility of our method but also learn about its characteristics and interpretability with respect to data analysis. PMID:18769487
Upper bounds on sequential decoding performance parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jelinek, F.
1974-01-01
This paper presents the best obtainable random coding and expurgated upper bounds on the probabilities of undetectable error, of t-order failure (advance to depth t into an incorrect subset), and of likelihood rise in the incorrect subset, applicable to sequential decoding when the metric bias G is arbitrary. Upper bounds on the Pareto exponent are also presented. The G-values optimizing each of the parameters of interest are determined, and are shown to lie in intervals that in general have nonzero widths. The G-optimal expurgated bound on undetectable error is shown to agree with that for maximum likelihood decoding of convolutional codes, and that on failure agrees with the block code expurgated bound. Included are curves evaluating the bounds for interesting choices of G and SNR for a binary-input quantized-output Gaussian additive noise channel.
Chen, Hao; Zhong, Shouming; Li, Min; Liu, Xingwen; Adu-Gyamfi, Fehrs
2016-07-01
In this paper, a novel delay partitioning method is proposed by introducing the theory of geometric progression for the stability analysis of T-S fuzzy systems with interval time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Based on the common ratio α, the delay interval is unequally separated into multiple subintervals. A newly modified Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is established which includes triple-integral terms and augmented factors with respect to the length of every related proportional subintervals. In addition, a recently developed free-matrix-based integral inequality is employed to avoid the overabundance of the enlargement when dealing with the derivative of the LKF. This innovative development can dramatically enhance the efficiency of obtaining the maximum upper bound of the time delay. Finally, much less conservative stability criteria are presented. Numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the significant improvements of this proposed approach. PMID:27138648
Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.
Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…
Changing expectancies: cognitive mechanisms and context effects.
Wiers, Reinout W; Wood, Mark D; Darkes, Jack; Corbin, William R; Jones, Barry T; Sher, Kenneth J
2003-02-01
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA Meeting in San Francisco, organized by Reinout W. Wiers and Mark D. Wood. The symposium combined two topics of recent interest in studies of alcohol expectancies: cognitive mechanisms in expectancy challenge studies, and context-related changes of expectancies. With increasing recognition of the substantial role played by alcohol expectancies in drinking, investigators have begun to develop and evaluate expectancy challenge procedures as a potentially promising new prevention strategy. The two major issues addressed in the symposium were whether expectancy challenges result in changes in expectancies that mediate intervention (outcome relations), and the influence of simulated bar environments ("bar labs," in which challenges are usually done) on expectancies. The presentations were (1) An introduction, by Jack Darkes; (2) Investigating the utility of alcohol expectancy challenge with heavy drinking college students, by Mark D. Wood; (3) Effects of an expectancy challenge on implicit and explicit expectancies and drinking, by Reinout W. Wiers; (4) Effects of graphic feedback and simulated bar assessments on alcohol expectancies and consumption, by William R. Corbin; (5) Implicit alcohol associations and context, by Barry T Jones; and (6) A discussion by Kenneth J. Sher, who pointed out that it is important not only to study changes of expectancies in the paradigm of an expectancy challenge but also to consider the role of changing expectancies in natural development and in treatments not explicitly aimed at changing expectancies.
Achtnich, C.; Pfortner, P.; Weller, M.G.; Niessner, R.; Lenke, H.; Knackmuss, H.J.
1999-10-01
To follow the fate of bound metabolites of TNT in soil, a synthetic trinitrophenyl residue covalently linked to humic acids was used as model compound. A selective monoclonal antibody was able to detect chemical changes of the nitro groups of the bound residues. The general possibility of reductive transformations of nitro groups of bound molecules and the reduction rates should be determined. In comparison to the reduction of free TNT and its metabolites, the reductive transformation of the bound trinitrophenyl residue was delayed, and the transformation rate was considerably slower. Trinitrophenyl residues also could be detected by the immunoassay in humic acids extracted from TNT contaminated soil. The reductive transformation of these trinitrophenyl residues started after the reduction of free TNT. At the end of the treatment, small amounts of these residues were still detectable indicating that some of these structures were not completely reduced during the process. From present results one can conclude that the further reduction of nitro groups of bound metabolites requires a prolonged anaerobic treatment. Not only the monitoring of free nitroaromatic compounds is recommended during the bioremediation process but also the measurement of bound residues to determine the optimal conditions and duration of the treatment.
Time delays in gated radiotherapy.
Smith, Wendy L; Becker, Nathan
2009-07-28
In gated radiotherapy, the accuracy of treatment delivery is determined by the accuracy with which both the imaging and treatment beams are gated. If the time delays (the time between the target entering/leaving the gated region and the first/last image acquired or treatment beam on/off) for the imaging and treatment systems are in the opposite directions, they may increase the required internal target volume (ITV) margin, above that indicated by the tolerance for either system measured individually. We measured a gating system's time delay on 3 fluoroscopy systems, and 3 linear accelerator treatment beams, using a motion phantom of known geometry, varying gating type (amplitude vs. phase), beam energy, dose rate, and period. The average beam on imaging time delays were -0.04 +/- 0.05 s (amplitude, 1 SD), -0.11 +/- 0.04 s (phase); while the average beam off imaging time delays were -0.18 +/- 0.08 s (amplitude) and -0.15 +/- 0.04 s (phase). The average beam on treatment time delays were 0.09 +/- 0.02 s (amplitude, 1 SD), 0.10 +/- 0.03 s (phase); while the average beam off time delays for treatment beams were 0.08 +/- 0.02 s (amplitude) and 0.07 +/- 0.02 s (phase). The negative value indicates the images were acquired early, and the positive values show the treatment beam was triggered late. We present a technique for calculating the margin necessary to account for time delays and found that the difference between the imaging and treatment time delays required a significant increase in the ITV margin in the direction of tumor motion at the gated level.
Delay in cutaneous melanoma diagnosis
Xavier, Marcus H.S.B.; Drummond-Lage, Ana P.; Baeta, Cyntia; Rocha, Lorena; Almeida, Alessandra M.; Wainstein, Alberto J.A.
2016-01-01
Abstract Advanced melanoma is an incurable disease with complex and expensive treatments. The best approach to prevent melanoma at advanced stages is an early diagnosis. A knowledge of factors associated with the process of detecting cutaneous melanomas and the reasons for delays in diagnosis is essential for the improvement of the secondary prevention of the disease. Identify sociodemographic, individual, and medical aspects related to cutaneous melanoma diagnosis delay. Interviews evaluated the knowledge of melanoma, signals, symptoms, persons who were suspected, delays in seeking medical attention, physician's deferrals, and related factors of 211 patients. Melanomas were self-discovered in 41.7% of the patients; healthcare providers detected 29.9% of patients and others detected 27%. The main component in delay was patient-related. Only 31.3% of the patients knew that melanoma was a serious skin cancer, and most thought that the pigmented lesion was not important, causing a delay in seeking medical assistance. Patients (36.4%) reported a wait interval of more than 6 months from the onset of an observed change in a pigmented lesion to the first visit to a physician. The delay interval from the first physician visit to a histopathological diagnosis was shorter (<1 month) in 55.5% of patients. Improper treatments without a histopathological confirmation occurred in 14.7% of patients. A professional delay was related to both inappropriate treatments performed without histopathological confirmation (P = 0.003) and long requirements for medical referrals (P < 0.001). A deficient knowledge in the population regarding melanoma and physicians’ misdiagnoses regarding suspicious lesions contributed to delays in diagnosis. PMID:27495055
Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwenke, David W.
2012-01-01
It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.
Tank 41H bounding uranium enrichment. Revision 1
Cavin, W.S.
1994-09-30
The intent of this document is to combine data from salt samples and historical process information to bound the uranium (U-235) enrichment which could be expected in the upper portion of the salt in Tank 41H. This bounding enrichment will be used in another document to establish a nuclear safety basis for initial salt removal operations. Any number of mixing scenarios could have been examined for the components which fed the evaporator during the formation of the last five feet of salt. The scenario presented was designed to be conservative, while still incorporating process knowledge and available data where possible. In the scenario, the lowest enrichment seen in any feed material was for the L4 feed which was evaporated to form the top part of the salt in Tank 41H. The lowest enrichment of 17% is still higher than the 16% (95% confidence) maximum enrichment actually found at the salt surface (from sample results). This leads to the conclusion that the uranium enrichment of the material (L1) which was being fed to the evaporate when the last five feet began to form, was lower than 22%. The conservatism used in this analysis, combined with the available sample data are believed to provide a defensible basis for establishing an upper bounding enrichment of 22% for the top five feet of salt.
Takahashi, Keitaro; Mori, Masaki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Inoue, Susumu; Takami, Hajime
2013-07-10
Lower bounds are derived on the amplitude B of intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) in the region between Galaxy and the blazar Mrk 421, from constraints on the delayed GeV pair-echo flux that are emitted by secondary e {sup -} e {sup +} produced in {gamma}{gamma} interactions between primary TeV gamma rays and the cosmic infrared background. The distribution of galaxies mapped by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that this region is dominated by a large intergalactic void. We utilize data from long-term, simultaneous GeV-TeV observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the ARGO-YBJ experiment extending over 850 days. For an assumed value of B, we evaluate the daily GeV pair-echo flux expected from the TeV data, select the dates where this exceeds the Fermi 2{sigma} sensitivity, compute the probability that this flux is excluded by the Fermi data for each date, and then combine the probabilities using the inverse normal method. Consequently, we exclude B < 10{sup -20.5} G for a field coherence length of 1 kpc at {approx}4{sigma} level, as long as plasma instabilities are unimportant for cooling of the pair beam. This is much more significant than the 2{sigma} bounds we obtained previously from observations of Mrk 501, by virtue of more extensive data from the ARGO-YBJ, as well as improved statistical analysis. Compared with most other studies of IGMF bounds, the evidence we present here for a non-zero IGMF is more robust as it does not rely on unproven assumptions on the primary TeV emission during unobserved periods.
Basin stability in delayed dynamics
Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-01-01
Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568
Basin stability in delayed dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-02-01
Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.
Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti
2015-12-01
Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes
Prediction of Weather Related Center Delays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deepak, Kulkarni; Banavar, Sridhar
2008-01-01
This paper presents results of an initial study of relations between national delay, center level delays and weather. The results presented in the paper indicate: (a) the methodology used for estimating the delay at the national level can be extended to estimate delays caused by a center and delays experienced by a center, (b)delays caused by a center can be predicted using that center's Weather Impacted Traffic Index (WITI) whereas delays experienced by a center are best predicted using WITI of that center and that of a few prominent centers (c) there is differential impact of weather of different centers on center delays.
Dynamic Scheduling of Pigeons for Delay Constrained Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Burge, Legand
Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks - a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTN). The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient dynamic scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of the pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.
Short day lengths delay reproductive aging.
Place, Ned J; Tuthill, Christiana R; Schoomer, Elanor E; Tramontin, Anthony D; Zucker, Irving
2004-09-01
Caloric restriction and hormone treatment delay reproductive senescence in female mammals, but a natural model of decelerated reproductive aging does not presently exist. In addition to describing such a model, this study shows that an abiotic signal (photoperiod) can induce physiological changes that slow senescence. Relative to animals born in April, rodents born in September delay their first reproductive effort by up to 7 mo, at which age reduced fertility is expected. We tested the hypothesis that the shorter day lengths experienced by late-born Siberian hamsters ameliorate the reproductive decline associated with advancing age. Short-day females (10L:14D) achieved puberty at a much later age than long-day animals (14L:10D) and had twice as many ovarian primordial follicles. At 10 mo of age, 86% of females previously maintained in short day lengths produced litters, compared with 58% of their long day counterparts. Changes in pineal gland production of melatonin appear to mediate the effects of day length on reproductive aging; only 30% of pinealectomized females housed in short days produced litters. Exposure to short days induces substantial decreases in voluntary food intake and body mass, reduced ovarian estradiol secretion, and enhanced production of melatonin. One or more of these changes may account for the protective effect of short day lengths on female reproduction. In delaying reproductive senescence, the decrease in day length after the summer solstice is of presumed adaptive significance for offspring born late in the breeding season that first breed at an advanced chronological age.
A Discounting Framework for Choice With Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards
Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel
2005-01-01
When choosing between delayed or uncertain outcomes, individuals discount the value of such outcomes on the basis of the expected time to or the likelihood of their occurrence. In an integrative review of the expanding experimental literature on discounting, the authors show that although the same form of hyperbola-like function describes discounting of both delayed and probabilistic outcomes, a variety of recent findings are inconsistent with a single-process account. The authors also review studies that compare discounting in different populations and discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. The present effort illustrates the value of studying choice involving both delayed and probabilistic outcomes within a general discounting framework that uses similar experimental procedures and a common analytical approach. PMID:15367080
Delayed marriages in Pakistan.
Sathar, Z A; Kiani, M F
1986-01-01
Data from the Migration Module of the Population, Labor Force, and Migration (PLM) Survey of 1979 and from the population censuses of 1961, 1972, and 1981 were examined to explore the impact of modernization, particularly of expansion of education and modern sector employment, urbanization, and migration on proportions never married in various age groups in Pakistan. Table 1 shows a noticeable and substantial increase in proportions never married between 1961 and 1975 and subsequently until 1981. The increase in proportions never married was more pronounced for young females aged 15-29 years than for males in the same age group. The figures for 1972 and 1981 were similar, indicating that increases in the proportions never married occurred more in the 1960s. The singulate mean age at marriage for females was computed to be 18.1 years in 1961, 19.8 years in 1972, and 20.7 years in 1981. Over the 1961-81 period, marital postponement for males was considerably less pronounced. In the age groups above age 30, the proportions never married were lower in 1981 than in 1961 for both males and females. Overall increases in the proportions never married were not as marked in the case of Pakistani males, which may be attributed to the fact that beginning in 1961 male marriage age was already considerably higher than female marriage age -- 23.6 years. Patterns of marriage behavior were expected to vary in the 4 provinces -- Punjab, Sind, NWFP, and Baluchistan -- because of differences in cultural patterns, levels of development, and urbanization. Punjab, the most developed province, contained the bulk of the proportion never married in the 15-19 age group, both in urban and in rural areas. The provincial differential in proportions never married was much greater for females than for males. Punjab had the highest proportions of never married females, followed by the NWFP and Sind, in both urban and rural areas. Urban Punjab had the least differences in average ages at marriage
Delays in Human-Computer Interaction and Their Effects on Brain Activity.
Kohrs, Christin; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André
2016-01-01
The temporal contingency of feedback is an essential requirement of successful human-computer interactions. The timing of feedback not only affects the behavior of a user but is also accompanied by changes in psychophysiology and neural activity. In three fMRI experiments we systematically studied the impact of delayed feedback on brain activity while subjects performed an auditory categorization task. In the first fMRI experiment, we analyzed the effects of rare and thus unexpected delays of different delay duration on brain activity. In the second experiment, we investigated if users can adapt to frequent delays. Therefore, delays were presented as often as immediate feedback. In a third experiment, the influence of interaction outage was analyzed by measuring the effect of infrequent omissions of feedback on brain activity. The results show that unexpected delays in feedback presentation compared to immediate feedback stronger activate inter alia bilateral the anterior insular cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right inferior frontal junction. The strength of this activation increases with the duration of the delay. Thus, delays interrupt the course of an interaction and trigger an orienting response that in turn activates brain regions of action control. If delays occur frequently, users can adapt, delays become expectable, and the brain activity in the observed network diminishes over the course of the interaction. However, introducing rare omissions of expected feedback reduces the system's trustworthiness which leads to an increase in brain activity not only in response to such omissions but also following frequently occurring and thus expected delays. PMID:26745874
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bembenutty, Hefer
2009-01-01
Academic delay of gratification is a significant and positive predictor of students' final course grades, even after controlling for the effect of their rating of the course, expected grade, and degree of interest, importance, and utility of the academic task. Students' expected course grades are by far the strongest predictor of their final…
Match-bounded String Rewriting Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geser, Alfons; Hofbauer, Dieter; Waldmann, Johannes
2003-01-01
We introduce a new class of automated proof methods for the termination of rewriting systems on strings. The basis of all these methods is to show that rewriting preserves regular languages. To this end, letters are annotated with natural numbers, called match heights. If the minimal height of all positions in a redex is h+1 then every position in the reduct will get height h+1. In a match-bounded system, match heights are globally bounded. Using recent results on deleting systems, we prove that rewriting by a match-bounded system preserves regular languages. Hence it is decidable whether a given rewriting system has a given match bound. We also provide a sufficient criterion for the abence of a match-bound. The problem of existence of a match-bound is still open. Match-boundedness for all strings can be used as an automated criterion for termination, for match-bounded systems are terminating. This criterion can be strengthened by requiring match-boundedness only for a restricted set of strings, for instance the set of right hand sides of forward closures.
Bounds on invisible Higgs boson decays extracted from LHC ttH production data.
Zhou, Ning; Khechadoorian, Zepyoor; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M P
2014-10-10
We present an upper bound on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to invisible particles by recasting a CMS Collaboration search for stop quarks decaying to tt + E(T)(miss). The observed (expected) bound, BF(H → inv.) < 0.40(0.65) at 95% C.L., is the strongest direct limit to date, benefiting from a downward fluctuation in the CMS data in that channel. In addition, we combine this new constraint with existing published constraints to give an observed (expected) bound of BF(H → inv.) < 0.40(0.40) at 95% C.L., and we show some of the implications for theories of dark matter which communicate through the Higgs portal.
Least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying transportation networks
Miller-Hooks, E.D.; Mahmassani, H.S.
1999-06-01
The authors consider stochastic, time-varying transportation networks, where the arc weights (arc travel times) are random variables with probability distribution functions that vary with time. Efficient procedures are widely available for determining least time paths in deterministic networks. In stochastic but time-invariant networks, least expected time paths can be determined by setting each random arc weight to its expected value and solving an equivalent deterministic problem. This paper addresses the problem of determining least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying networks. Two procedures are presented. The first procedure determines the a priori least expected time paths from all origins to a single destination for each departure time in the peak period. The second procedure determines lower bounds on the expected times of these a priori least expected time paths. This procedure determines an exact solution for the problem where the driver is permitted to react to revealed travel times on traveled links en route, i.e. in a time-adaptive route choice framework. Modifications to each of these procedures for determining least expected cost (where cost is not necessarily travel time) paths and lower bounds on the expected costs of these paths are given. Extensive numerical tests are conducted to illustrate the algorithms` computational performance as well as the properties of the solution.
Search for eta '(958)-nucleus Bound States by (p,d) Reaction at GSI and FAIR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujioka, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Friedrich, S.; Geissel, H.; Gellanki, J.; Guo, C.; Gutz, E.; Haettner, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Higashi, Y.; Hirenzaki, S.; Hornung, C.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeno, N.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Jido, D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurz, N.; Metag, V.; Mukha, I.; Nagae, T.; Nagahiro, H.; Nanova, M.; Nishi, T.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rappold, C.; Reiter, M. P.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Suzuki, K.; Szarka, I.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Weick, H.; Widmann, E.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.; Yamakami, H.; Zhao, J.
The mass of the {\\eta}' meson is theoretically expected to be reduced at finite density, which indicates the existence of {\\eta}'-nucleus bound states. To investigate these states, we perform missing-mass spectroscopy for the (p, d) reaction near the {\\eta}' production threshold. The overview of the experimental situation is given and the current status is discussed.
The Delay Phenomenon: A Compilation of Knowledge across Specialties
Hamilton, Kristy; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Weathers, William M.; Xue, Amy S.; Hatef, Daniel A.; Izaddoost, Shayan; Hollier, Larry H.
2014-01-01
Objective The purpose of this article is to review and integrate the available literature in different fields to gain a better understanding of the basic physiology and optimize vascular delay as a reconstructive surgery technique. Methods A broad search of the literature was performed using the Medline database. Two queries were performed using “vascular delay,” a search expected to yield perspectives from the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery, and “ischemic preconditioning,” (IPC) which was expected to yield research on the same topic in other fields. Results The combined searches yielded a total of 1824 abstracts. The “vascular delay” query yielded 76 articles from 1984 to 2011. The “ischemic preconditioning” query yielded 6534 articles, ranging from 1980 to 2012. The abstracts were screened for those from other specialties in addition to reconstructive surgery, analyzed potential or current uses of vascular delay in practice, or provided developments in understanding the pathophysiology of vascular delay. 70 articles were identified that met inclusion criteria and were applicable to vascular delay or ischemic preconditioning. Conclusion An understanding of IPC's implementation and mechanisms in other fields has beneficial implications for the field of reconstructive surgery in the context of the delay phenomenon. Despite an incomplete model of IPC's pathways, the anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory benefits of IPC are well recognized. The activation of angiogenic genes through IPC could allow for complex flap design, even in poorly vascularized regions. IPC's promotion of angiogenesis and reduction of endothelial dysfunction remain most applicable to reconstructive surgery in reducing graft-related complications and flap failure. PMID:25071876
Majorana bound states in magnetic skyrmions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Guang; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel
2016-06-01
Magnetic skyrmions are highly mobile nanoscale topological spin textures. We show, both analytically and numerically, that a magnetic skyrmion of an even azimuthal winding number placed in proximity to an s -wave superconductor hosts a zero-energy Majorana bound state in its core, when the exchange coupling between the itinerant electrons and the skyrmion is strong. This Majorana bound state is stabilized by the presence of a spin-orbit interaction. We propose the use of a superconducting trijunction to realize non-Abelian statistics of such Majorana bound states.
Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong
Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.
Bounds on dark matter in solar orbit
Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Taylor, A.H.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, D.C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Maryland Univ., College Park )
1989-07-01
The possibility is considered that a spherical distribution of dark matter (DM), matter not visible with current instruments, is trapped in the sun's gravitational field. Bounds are placed from the motion of Uranus and Neptune, on the amount of DM that could be so trapped within the radius of those planets' orbits, as follows: from the Voyager 2, Uranus-flyby data new, more accurate ephemeris values are generated. Trapped DM mass is bounded by noting that such a distribution would increase the effective mass of the sun as seen by the outer planets and by using the new ephemeris values to bound such an increase. 34 refs.
Pattern Search Algorithms for Bound Constrained Minimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia
1996-01-01
We present a convergence theory for pattern search methods for solving bound constrained nonlinear programs. The analysis relies on the abstract structure of pattern search methods and an understanding of how the pattern interacts with the bound constraints. This analysis makes it possible to develop pattern search methods for bound constrained problems while only slightly restricting the flexibility present in pattern search methods for unconstrained problems. We prove global convergence despite the fact that pattern search methods do not have explicit information concerning the gradient and its projection onto the feasible region and consequently are unable to enforce explicitly a notion of sufficient feasible decrease.
Munoz, F. D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Watson, J. -P.
2016-02-01
A novel two-phase bounding and decomposition approach to compute optimal and near-optimal solutions to large-scale mixed-integer investment planning problems is proposed and it considers a large number of operating subproblems, each of which is a convex optimization. Our motivating application is the planning of power transmission and generation in which policy constraints are designed to incentivize high amounts of intermittent generation in electric power systems. The bounding phase exploits Jensen’s inequality to define a lower bound, which we extend to stochastic programs that use expected-value constraints to enforce policy objectives. The decomposition phase, in which the bounds are tightened, improvesmore » upon the standard Benders’ algorithm by accelerating the convergence of the bounds. The lower bound is tightened by using a Jensen’s inequality-based approach to introduce an auxiliary lower bound into the Benders master problem. Upper bounds for both phases are computed using a sub-sampling approach executed on a parallel computer system. Numerical results show that only the bounding phase is necessary if loose optimality gaps are acceptable. But, the decomposition phase is required to attain optimality gaps. Moreover, use of both phases performs better, in terms of convergence speed, than attempting to solve the problem using just the bounding phase or regular Benders decomposition separately.« less
Multicultural Differences in Women's Expectations of Birth.
Moore, Marianne F
2016-01-01
This review surveyed qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the expectations around birth that are held by women from different cultures. These studies are grouped according to expectations of personal control expectations of support from partner/others/family; expectations of carel behavior from providers such as nurses, doctors, and/or midwives; expectations about the health of the baby; and expectations about pain in childbirth. Discussed are the findings and the role that Western culture in medicine, power and privilege are noted in providing care to these women. PMID:27263233
Early identification of motor delay
Harris, Susan R.
2016-01-01
Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388
Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.
2015-09-01
We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.
Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin.
Stocker, R; Glazer, A N; Ames, B N
1987-01-01
Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl radicals but is less efficient in scavenging these radicals than vitamin C. These results show that 1 mol of Alb-BR can scavenge 2 mol of peroxyl radicals and that small amounts of plasma bilirubin are sufficient to prevent oxidation of albumin-bound fatty acids as well as of the protein itself. The data indicate a role for Alb-BR as a physiological antioxidant in plasma and the extravascular space. PMID:3475708
Slot antenna as a bound charge oscillator.
Choe, Jong-Ho; Kang, Ji-Hun; Kim, Dai-Sik; Park, Q-Han
2012-03-12
We study the scattering properties of an optical slot antenna formed from a narrow rectangular hole in a metal film. We show that slot antennas can be modeled as bound charge oscillators mediating resonant light scattering. A simple closed-form expression for the scattering spectrum of a slot antenna is obtained that reveals the nature of a bound charge oscillator and also the effect of a substrate. We find that the spectral width of scattering resonance is dominated by a radiative damping caused by the Abraham-Lorentz force acting on a bound charge. The bound charge oscillator model provides not only an intuitive physical picture for the scattering of an optical slot antenna but also reasonable numerical agreements with rigorous calculations using the finite-difference time-domain method. PMID:22418535
Bound phenolics in foods, a review.
Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O
2014-01-01
Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry.
Performance bound for real OTEC heat engines
Wu, C.
1987-01-01
Maximum power and efficiency at the maximum power of an irreversible OTEC heat engine are treated. When time is explicitly considered in the energy exchanges between the heat engine and its surroundings, it is found that there is a bound on the efficiency of the real OTEC heat engine at the maximum power condition. This bound can guide the evaluation of existing OTEC systems or influence design of future OTEC heat engines.
An upper bound on quantum entropy.
Zachos, C. K.; High Energy Physics
2008-01-01
Following ref [1], a classical upper bound for quantum entropy is identified and illustrated, 0 {le} S{sub q} {le} ln (e{sigma}{sup 2}/2{h_bar}), involving the variance {sigma}{sup 2} in phase space of the classical limit distribution of a given system. A fortiori, this further bounds the corresponding information-theoretical generalizations of the quantum entropy proposed by Renyi.
Bound states in the Higgs model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Leo, Leo; Darewych, Jurij W.
1994-02-01
We derive relativistic wave equations for the bound states of two Higgs bosons within the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model. The variational method and the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT are used to obtain the equations using a simple ||hh>+||hhh> Fock-space ansatz. We present approximate solutions of these equations for a range of Higgs boson masses, and explore the parameter space which corresponds to the existence of two-Higgs-boson bound states.
Hamiltonian anomalies of bound states in QED
Shilin, V. I.; Pervushin, V. N.
2013-10-15
The Bound State in QED is described in systematic way by means of nonlocal irreducible representations of the nonhomogeneous Poincare group and Dirac's method of quantization. As an example of application of this method we calculate triangle diagram Para-Positronium {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. We show that the Hamiltonian approach to Bound State in QED leads to anomaly-type contribution to creation of pair of parapositronium by two photon.
UWB delay and multiply receiver
Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.
2013-09-10
An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.
Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.
1977-01-01
Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.
Time-delay cosmography: increased leverage with angular diameter distances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jee, I.; Komatsu, E.; Suyu, S. H.; Huterer, D.
2016-04-01
Strong lensing time-delay systems constrain cosmological parameters via the so-called time-delay distance and the angular diameter distance to the lens. In previous studies, only the former information was used in forecasting cosmographic constraints. In this paper, we show that the cosmological constraints improve significantly when the latter information is also included. Specifically, the angular diameter distance plays a crucial role in breaking the degeneracy between the curvature of the Universe and the time-varying equation of state of dark energy. Using a mock sample of 55 bright quadruple lens systems based on expectations for ongoing/future imaging surveys, we find that adding the angular diameter distance information to the time-delay distance information and the Planck's measurements of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies improves the constraint on the constant equation of state by 30%, on the time variation in the equation of state by a factor of two, and on the Hubble constant in the flat ΛCDM model by a factor of two. Therefore, previous forecasts for the statistical power of time-delay systems were overly pessimistic, i.e., time-delay systems are more powerful than previously appreciated.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....
Delayed childbearing in the U.S.: facts and fictions.
Baldwin, W H; Nord, C W
1984-11-01
Between 1970-82, the proportion of 1st births in the US to women 25 and older rose from 19-36% and the proportion of women still childless at ages 25-34 increased by 56% at about the same time. Although a sharp contrast with the baby boom era of the 1950s and 1960s, todays's epidemic of delayed childbearing is similar to patterns earlier in the 20th century. As then, much is due to delayed age at marriage, but baby boomers now in the their late 20s and early 30s are also delaying childbirth after marriage. The trend stems in part from their economic difficulties as they compete in a tight job market caused both by their large numbers and a turbulent economy. But it is also related to women's increasing education and, in turn, increasing opportunities in and commitment to the labor force, which can be expected to encourage a delayed childbearing even after prospects brighten for young people. Although a diverse group, most of today's delayed childbearers are white, highly educated, 2-career couples. Adequate daytime care for preschool children is a prime concern. Although more employers now offer childcare assistance and flexible work schedules to working parents, the juggle between jobs and childraising can be a strain. On the plus side are delayed childbearers' greater maturity and generally higher incomes, which can ease potential problems created by parent-child age differences as their children grow up. Businesses have been quick to respond to the new market of older, affluent, 1st-time mothers. New methods of treating of circumventing infertility and prenatal detection of chromosomal birth defects can now help overcome potential biological problems that may concern women who choose to delay childbearing past age 30.
Delayed childbearing in the U.S.: facts and fictions.
Baldwin, W H; Nord, C W
1984-11-01
Between 1970-82, the proportion of 1st births in the US to women 25 and older rose from 19-36% and the proportion of women still childless at ages 25-34 increased by 56% at about the same time. Although a sharp contrast with the baby boom era of the 1950s and 1960s, todays's epidemic of delayed childbearing is similar to patterns earlier in the 20th century. As then, much is due to delayed age at marriage, but baby boomers now in the their late 20s and early 30s are also delaying childbirth after marriage. The trend stems in part from their economic difficulties as they compete in a tight job market caused both by their large numbers and a turbulent economy. But it is also related to women's increasing education and, in turn, increasing opportunities in and commitment to the labor force, which can be expected to encourage a delayed childbearing even after prospects brighten for young people. Although a diverse group, most of today's delayed childbearers are white, highly educated, 2-career couples. Adequate daytime care for preschool children is a prime concern. Although more employers now offer childcare assistance and flexible work schedules to working parents, the juggle between jobs and childraising can be a strain. On the plus side are delayed childbearers' greater maturity and generally higher incomes, which can ease potential problems created by parent-child age differences as their children grow up. Businesses have been quick to respond to the new market of older, affluent, 1st-time mothers. New methods of treating of circumventing infertility and prenatal detection of chromosomal birth defects can now help overcome potential biological problems that may concern women who choose to delay childbearing past age 30. PMID:12313332
Delaying vortex breakdown by waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, M. F.; Jiang, L. B.; Wu, J. Z.; Ma, H. Y.; Pan, J. Y.
1989-03-01
The effect of spiral waves on delaying vortex breakdown in a tube is studied experimentally and theoretically. When a harmonic oscillation was imposed on one of guiding vanes in the tube, the breakdown was observed to be postponed appreciately. According to the generalized Lagrangian mean theory, proper forcing spiral waves may produce an additional streaming momentum, of which the effect is favorable and similar to an axial suction at downstream end. The delayed breakdown position is further predicted by using nonlinear wave theory. Qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, and experimental comparison of the effects due to forcing spiral wave and axial suction is made.
Variable Delay Testing Using ONE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ishac, Joseph
2002-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.
Salience of Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Outcomes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reese, Finetta L.
1997-01-01
Investigated whether the prediction of drinking might be enhanced by considering salience of alcohol expectancies rather than mere endorsement. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that expectancy salience significantly improved the prediction of total alcohol consumption above and beyond the effects of expectancy endorsement. Expectancy…
International and American Students' Expectancies about Counseling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yuen, Rhoda Ka-Wai; Tinsley, Howard E.A.
1981-01-01
American students expect the counselor to be less directive and protective and they themselves expect to be more responsible for improvement. In contrast, the Chinese, Iranian, and African students expect to assume a more passive role and that the counselor will be a more directive and nurturing authority figure. (Author)
7 CFR 760.636 - Expected revenue.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expected revenue. 760.636 Section 760.636 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program § 760.636 Expected revenue. The expected revenue for each crop on a farm is: (a) For each insurable crop,...
Brain mechanisms supporting violated expectations of pain.
Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V; Kraft, Robert A; Coghill, Robert C
2015-09-01
The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between experiences, future predictions, and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain, whereas expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. This investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, 10 incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine whether expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between prestimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum, and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations in which patients' unrealistic expectations of pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management.
Measuring Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Mearns, Jack
Research has suggested the utility of studying individual differences in the regulation of negative mood states. Generalized response expectancies for negative mood regulation were defined as expectancies that some overt behavior or cognition would alleviate negative mood states as they occur across situations. The Generalized Expectancy for…
Zhang, Xian-Ming; Han, Qing-Long
2014-06-01
This paper is concerned with global asymptotic stability for a class of generalized neural networks with interval time-varying delays by constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which includes some integral terms in the form of ∫(t-h)(t)(h-t-s)(j)ẋ(T)(s)Rjẋ(s)ds(j=1,2,3). Some useful integral inequalities are established for the derivatives of those integral terms introduced in the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. A matrix-based quadratic convex approach is introduced to prove not only the negative definiteness of the derivative of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, but also the positive definiteness of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Some novel stability criteria are formulated in two cases, respectively, where the time-varying delay is continuous uniformly bounded and where the time-varying delay is differentiable uniformly bounded with its time-derivative bounded by constant lower and upper bounds. These criteria are applicable to both static neural networks and local field neural networks. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by two numerical examples.
Temporal memory averaging and post-encoding alterations in temporal expectation.
Matell, Matthew S; Henning, Alexandra M
2013-05-01
Recent work in our lab has demonstrated that rats trained to associate two different reinforcement delays with two different cues will generate a scalar temporal expectation at a time between these delays when presented with the cue compound. This work demonstrates that rats will integrate distinct temporal memories at retrieval, revealing that temporal expectation need not be a veridical representation of experience. Following from this recognition that processes occurring at or after memory retrieval may transform or bias temporal expectations, we suggest that previous pharmacological work that had been interpreted as resulting from sensorial, or clock-speed, changes, may be alternatively interpreted as resulting from mnemonic alterations. We end with a brief review of the impact of post-encoding alterations of memory on behavior other than timing. PMID:23454594
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Feisheng; Zhang, Huaguang; Liu, Zhenwei; Li, Ranran
2014-03-01
This work is concerned with the robust resilient control problem for uncertain networked control systems (NCSs) with variable sampling intervals, variant-induced delays and possible data dropouts, which is seldom considered in current literature. It is mainly based on the continuous time-varying-delay system approach. Followed by the nominal case, delay-dependent resilient robust stabilising conditions for the closed-loop NCS against controller gain variations are derived by employing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which makes good use of the information of both lower and upper bounds on the varying input delay, and the upper bound on the variable sampling interval as well. A feasible solution of the obtained criterion formulated as linear matrix inequalities can be gotten. A tighter bounding technique is presented for acquiring the time derivative of the functional so as to utilise many more useful elements, meanwhile neither slack variable nor correlated augmented item is introduced to reduce overall computational burden. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement
Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason
2005-02-07
We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.
Expectancy effects in memory for melodies.
Schmuckler, M A
1997-12-01
Two experiments explored the relation between melodic expectancy and melodic memory. In Experiment 1, listeners rated the degree to which different endings confirmed their expectations for a set of melodies. After providing these expectancy ratings, listeners received a recognition memory test in which they discriminated previously heard melodies from new melodies. Recognition memory in this task positively correlated with perceived expectancy, and was related to the estimated tonal coherence of these melodies. Experiment 2 extended these results, demonstrating better recognition memory for high expectancy melodies, relative to medium and low expectancy melodies. This experiment also observed asymmetrical memory confusions as a function of perceived expectancy. These findings fit with a model of musical memory in which schematically central events are better remembered than schematically peripheral events. PMID:9606947
Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.
Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R
2015-09-01
The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition.
Delayed School Entry in Uganda
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moyi, Peter
2011-01-01
Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…
Attosecond Delays in Resonant Photoionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maquet, Alfred
2015-05-01
Attosecond delays in the photoionization of atomic states have been evidenced in recent experiments performed in the 2010's. The delays were associated to the emission of photoelectron wave packets ejected from different atomic states, in the combined presence of attosecond pulses of XUV radiation and of a synchronized IR laser pulse, the latter being used as a reference ``clock''. These experiments were performed at XUV frequencies connecting the ground state to a ``flat'' continuum. Theoretical treatments were able to relate the measured delays to Wigner's definition of time delays in terms of the energy derivative of the phase-shift attached to the continuum wave functions of the photoelectrons. Attention has recently shifted towards the case of resonant photoionization in the course of which the XUV frequency is tuned close to a resonance of the target system. The case of a transition towards an autoionizing states of the target is particularly interesting as it makes evident the role of electronic correlations. Here, we shall present recent advances realized in the theoretical interpretation of this new class of experiments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.
2007-01-01
Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…
Bounds Estimation Via Regression with Asymmetric Cost Functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeCoste, D.
1997-01-01
This paper addresses a significant but mostly-neglected class of problems that we call bounds estimation. This includes learning empirical best-case and worst-case algorithmic complexity bounds and red-line bounds on sensor data.
Dynamic pricing of network goods with boundedly rational consumers
Radner, Roy; Radunskaya, Ami; Sundararajan, Arun
2014-01-01
We present a model of dynamic monopoly pricing for a good that displays network effects. In contrast with the standard notion of a rational-expectations equilibrium, we model consumers as boundedly rational and unable either to pay immediate attention to each price change or to make accurate forecasts of the adoption of the network good. Our analysis shows that the seller’s optimal price trajectory has the following structure: The price is low when the user base is below a target level, is high when the user base is above the target, and is set to keep the user base stationary once the target level has been attained. We show that this pricing policy is robust to a number of extensions, which include the product’s user base evolving over time and consumers basing their choices on a mixture of a myopic and a “stubborn” expectation of adoption. Our results differ significantly from those that would be predicted by a model based on rational-expectations equilibrium and are more consistent with the pricing of network goods observed in practice. PMID:24367101
Conformational phases of membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quint, David A.; Grason, Gregory; Gopinathan, Ajay
2013-03-01
Membrane bound cytoskeletal filaments found in living cells are employed to carry out many types of activities including cellular division, rigidity and transport. When these biopolymers are bound to a membrane surface they may take on highly non-trivial conformations as compared to when they are not bound. This leads to the natural question; What are the important interactions which drive these polymers to particular conformations when they are bound to a surface? Assuming that there are binding domains along the polymer which follow a periodic helical structure set by the natural monomeric handedness, these bound conformations must arise from the interplay of the intrinsic monomeric helicity and membrane binding. To probe this question, we study a continuous model of an elastic filament with intrinsic helicity and map out the conformational phases of this filament for various mechanical and structural parameters in our model, such as elastic stiffness and intrinsic twist of the filament. Our model allows us to gain insight into the possible mechanisms which drive real biopolymers such as actin and tubulin in eukaryotes and their prokaryotic cousins MreB and FtsZ to take on their functional conformations within living cells.
Revisiting cosmological bounds on radiative neutrino lifetime
Mirizzi, Alessandro; Montanino, Daniele; Serpico, Pasquale D.
2007-09-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments and direct bounds on absolute masses constrain neutrino mass differences to fall into the microwave energy range, for most of the allowed parameter space. As a consequence of these recent phenomenological advances, older constraints on radiative neutrino decays based on diffuse background radiations and assuming strongly hierarchical masses in the eV range are now outdated. We thus derive new bounds on the radiative neutrino lifetime using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board the Cosmic Background Explorer. The lower bound on the lifetime is between a fewx10{sup 19} s and {approx}5x10{sup 20} s, depending on the neutrino mass ordering and on the absolute mass scale. However, due to phase space limitations, the upper bound in terms of the effective magnetic moment mediating the decay is not better than {approx}10{sup -8} Bohr magnetons. We also comment about possible improvements of these limits, by means of recent diffuse infrared photon background data. We compare these bounds with preexisting limits coming from laboratory or astrophysical arguments. We emphasize the complementarity of our results with others available in the literature.
Computations of entropy bounds: Multidimensional geometric methods
Makaruk, H.E.
1998-02-01
The entropy bounds for constructive upper bound on the needed number-of-bits for solving a dichotomy is represented by the quotient of two multidimensional solid volumes. For minimization of this upper bound exact calculation of the volume of this quotient is needed. Three methods for exact computing of the volume of a given nD volume are presented: (1) general method for calculation any nD volume by slicing it into volumes of decreasing dimension is presented; (2) a method applying appropriate curvilinear coordinate system is described for volume bounded by symmetrical curvilinear hypersurfaces (spheres, cones, hyperboloids, ellipsoids, cylinders, etc.); and (3) an algorithm for dividing any nD complex into simplices and computing of the volume of the simplices is presented, supplemented by a general formula for calculation of volume of an nD simplex. These mathematical methods enable exact calculation of volume of any complicated multidimensional solids. The methods allow for the calculation of the minimal volume and lead to tighter bounds on the needed number-of-bits.
Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension
Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting
2013-01-01
When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909
Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.
Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M
2016-06-01
Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes. PMID:26869196
Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.
Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M
2016-06-01
Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.
Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elst, Nicholas J.; Page, Morgan T.; Weiser, Deborah A.; Goebel, Thomas H. W.; Hosseini, S. Mehran
2016-06-01
A major question for the hazard posed by injection-induced seismicity is how large induced earthquakes can be. Are their maximum magnitudes determined by injection parameters or by tectonics? Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution for tectonic earthquakes, assuming no upper magnitude bound. The data pass three specific tests: (1) the largest observed earthquake at each site scales with the log of the total number of induced earthquakes, (2) the order of occurrence of the largest event is random within the induced sequence, and (3) the injected volume controls the total number of earthquakes rather than the total seismic moment. All three tests point to an injection control on earthquake nucleation but a tectonic control on earthquake magnitude. Given that the largest observed earthquakes are exactly as large as expected from the sampling statistics, we should not conclude that these are the largest earthquakes possible. Instead, the results imply that induced earthquake magnitudes should be treated with the same maximum magnitude bound that is currently used to treat seismic hazard from tectonic earthquakes.
Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides
Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D.
2011-12-13
Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.
Delay discounting of cocaine by rhesus monkeys.
Woolverton, William L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard
2007-06-01
The present, subjective value of a reinforcer typically decreases as a function of the delay to its receipt, a phenomenon termed delay discounting. Delay discounting, which is assumed to reflect impulsivity, is hypothesized to play an important role in drug abuse. The present study examined delay discounting of cocaine injections by rhesus monkeys. Subjects were studied on a discrete-trials task in which they chose between 2 doses of cocaine: a smaller, immediate dose and a larger, delayed dose. The immediate dose varied between 0.012 and 0.4 mg/kg/injection, whereas the delayed dose was always 0.2 mg/kg/injection and was delivered after a delay that varied between 0 and 300 s in different conditions. At each delay, the point at which a monkey chose the immediate and delayed doses equally often (i.e., the ED50) provided a measure of the present, subjective value of the delayed dose. Dose-response functions for the immediate dose shifted to the left as delay increased. The amount of the immediate dose predicted to be equal in subjective value to the delayed dose decreased as a function of the delay, and hyperbolic discounting functions provided good fits to the data (median R(2)=.86). The current approach may provide the basis for an animal model of the effect of delay on the subjective value of drugs of abuse. PMID:17563210
Early LHC phenomenology of Yukawa-bound heavy QQ mesons
Enkhbat, Tsedenbaljir; Hou, Wei-Shu; Yokoya, Hiroshi
2011-11-01
Current limits from the LHC on fourth generation quarks are already at the unitarity bound of 500 GeV or so. If they exist, the strong Yukawa couplings are turning nonperturbative, and may form bound states. We study the domain of m{sub b'} and m{sub t'} in the range of 500 to 700 GeV, where we expect binding energies are mainly of Yukawa origin, with QCD subdominant. To be consistent with electroweak precision tests, the t' and b' quarks have to be nearly degenerate, exhibiting a new 'isospin'. Comparing relativistic expansion with a relativistic bound state approach, we find the most interesting is the production of a color octet, isosinglet vector meson (a 'gluon-prime') via qq-bar{yields}{omega}{sub 8}. Leading decay modes are {pi}{sub 8}{sup {+-}}W{sup {+-}}, {pi}{sub 8}{sup 0}Z{sup 0}, and constituent quark decay, with qq and tt-bar' and bb' subdominant. The color octet, isovector pseudoscalar {pi}{sub 8} meson decays via constituent quark decay, or to Wg. These decay rates are parameterized by the decay constant, the binding energy and mass differences, and V{sub tb'}. For small V{sub t'b}, one could have a spectacular signal of WWg, where a soft W accompanies a very massive Wg pair. In general, however, one has high multiplicity signals with b, W, and t jet substructures that are not so different from the t't-bar' and b'b-bar' search.
Bound water in Kevlar 49 fibers
Garza, R.G.; Pruneda, C.O.; Morgan, R.J.
1981-04-01
From elemental analyses, thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy studies and re-evaluation of previous water diffusion studies in Kevlar 49 fibers it is concluded that these fibers can contain two types of sorbed moisture. The fibers can absorb up to approx. 6 wt % loosely bound water with an activation energy for outgassing by desorption of 6 kcal/mole. This loosely bound water is a direct result of the presence of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ impurities and the perturbations they induce on the packing of the rod-like poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) macromolecules. Kevlar 49 fibers also inherently contain up to 30 wt % additional water which is tightly bound within the crystal lattice. This water exhibits an activation energy for outgassing by diffusion of approx. 40 kcal/mole and is only evolved from the fiber in significant quantities at t > 350/sup 0/C over a period of hours.
Bounds on Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions
Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique
2010-03-30
We review the present model independent bounds on neutrino non-standard interactions both at neutrino production and detection and in its interactions with matter. For matter non-standard interactions the direct bounds are rather weak. However, matter non-standard interactions are related by gauge invariance to the production and detection ones as well as to flavour changing processes involving charged leptons. Taking into account these relations much stronger bounds of at least O(10{sup -2}) can be derived unless significant fine tunings are implemented. Testing non-standard interactions at this level at future neutrino oscillation facilities is challenging but still feasible at very ambitious proposals such as the Neutrino Factory.
Weakly bound atomic trimers in ultracold traps
Yamashita, M. T.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, Lauro; Delfino, A.
2003-09-01
The experimental three-atom recombination coefficients of the atomic states {sup 23}Na|F=1,m{sub F}=-1>, {sup 87}Rb|F=1,m{sub F}=-1>, and {sup 85}Rb|F=2,m{sub F}=-2>, together with the corresponding two-body scattering lengths, allow predictions of the trimer bound-state energies for such systems in a trap. The recombination parameter is given as a function of the weakly bound trimer energies, which are in the interval 1
Experimental bound entanglement through a Pauli channel
Amselem, Elias; Sadiq, Muhammad; Bourennane, Mohamed
2013-01-01
Understanding the characteristics of a quantum systems when affected by noise is one of the biggest challenges for quantum technologies. The general Pauli error channel is an important lossless channel for quantum communication. In this work we consider the effects of a Pauli channel on a pure four-qubit state and simulate the Pauli channel experimentally by studying the action on polarization encoded entangled photons. When the noise channel acting on the photons is correlated, a set spanned by four orthogonal bound entangled states can be generated. We study this interesting case experimentally and demonstrate that products of Bell states can be brought into a bound entangled regime. We find states in the set of bound entangled states which experimentally violate the CHSH inequality while still possessing a positive partial transpose. PMID:23752651
Laboratory bounds on electron Lorentz violation
Altschul, Brett
2010-07-01
Violations of Lorentz boost symmetry in the electron and photon sectors can be constrained by studying several different high-energy phenomenon. Although they may not lead to the strongest bounds numerically, measurements made in terrestrial laboratories produce the most reliable results. Laboratory bounds can be based on observations of synchrotron radiation, as well as the observed absences of vacuum Cerenkov radiation (e{sup {+-}{yields}e{+-}+{gamma}}) and photon decay ({gamma}{yields}e{sup +}+e{sup -}). Using measurements of synchrotron energy losses at LEP and the survival of TeV photons, we place new bounds on the three electron Lorentz-violation coefficients c{sub (TJ)}, at the 3x10{sup -13} to 6x10{sup -15} levels.
Bound States in Boson Impurity Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Tao; Wu, Ying-Hai; González-Tudela, A.; Cirac, J. I.
2016-04-01
The formation of bound states involving multiple particles underlies many interesting quantum physical phenomena, such as Efimov physics or superconductivity. In this work, we show the existence of an infinite number of such states for some boson impurity models. They describe free bosons coupled to an impurity and include some of the most representative models in quantum optics. We also propose a family of wave functions to describe the bound states and verify that it accurately characterizes all parameter regimes by comparing its predictions with exact numerical calculations for a one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian. For that model, we also analyze the nature of the bound states by studying the scaling relations of physical quantities, such as the ground-state energy and localization length, and find a nonanalytical behavior as a function of the coupling strength. Finally, we discuss how to test our theoretical predictions in experimental platforms, such as photonic crystal structures and cold atoms in optical lattices.
Bounded link prediction in very large networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew
2016-09-01
Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.
Grief experiences and expectance of suicide.
Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos
2012-02-01
Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief Experience Questionnaire and additional measurements on expectance and understanding. Results supported the prediction of a link between expecting suicide and understanding the suicide. Higher expectance and understanding were related to less searching for explanation and preoccupation with the suicide. There was no direct association with other grief experiences. We conclude that more attention should be brought to the relation between expecting the suicide of a loved one and later grief responses in research and in clinical practice.
Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.
Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred
2012-06-01
Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.
Bounding burnout risk power limits for the K-14 cycle
Shadday, M.A. Jr.
1990-10-01
This document discusses burnout risk (BOR) power limits which are designed to protect the reactor from a significant release of fission products, due to critical heat flux (CHF) burnout of fuel and target assemblies. At expected operating power levels for the reactor restart, approximately 50% of historical full power, the risk of CHF and attendant burnout is negligible. Flow instability power limits will restrict reactor operation, and flow instability will always occur before CHF. BOR power limits must nevertheless be calculated because they are required by the reactor control computer, (2) Bounding BOR limits have been calculated for the K-14 cycle, to fulfill this requirement, and they are presented in this document. Two sets of BOR limits have been calculated: one applicable for the first subcycle, zero to 30% fuel burnup, and the other for the second subcycle, 30% to 55% fuel burnup.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Shi-Guo; Yu, Si-Min
2009-09-01
A control approach where the fuzzy logic methodology is combined with impulsive control is developed for controlling some time-delay chaotic systems in this paper. We first introduce impulses into each subsystem with delay of the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy IF-THEN rules and then present a unified TS impulsive fuzzy model with delay for chaos control. Based on the new model, a simple and unified set of conditions for controlling chaotic systems is derived by the Lyapunov-Razumikhin method, and a design procedure for estimating bounds on control matrices is also given. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method.
Model of bound interface dynamics for coupled magnetic domain walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Politi, P.; Metaxas, P. J.; Jamet, J.-P.; Stamps, R. L.; Ferré, J.
2011-08-01
A domain wall in a ferromagnetic system will move under the action of an external magnetic field. Ultrathin Co layers sandwiched between Pt have been shown to be a suitable experimental realization of a weakly disordered 2D medium in which to study the dynamics of 1D interfaces (magnetic domain walls). The behavior of these systems is encapsulated in the velocity-field response v(H) of the domain walls. In a recent paper [P. J. Metaxas , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.237206 104, 237206 (2010)] we studied the effect of ferromagnetic coupling between two such ultrathin layers, each exhibiting different v(H) characteristics. The main result was the existence of bound states over finite-width field ranges, wherein walls in the two layers moved together at the same speed. Here we discuss in detail the theory of domain wall dynamics in coupled systems. In particular, we show that a bound creep state is expected for vanishing H and we give the analytical, parameter free expression for its velocity which agrees well with experimental results.
77 FR 3751 - Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB))
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-01-25
... Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At this site you can view this... Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB)) notice on December 19, 2011 (76 FR 78621). DATES: Deadline for... notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 78621) inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle
2010-01-01
We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…
Brain Mechanisms Supporting Violated Expectations of Pain
Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V.; Kraft, Robert A.; Coghill, Robert C.
2015-01-01
The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between prior experiences, future predictions and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain while expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event in order to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. The present investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, ten incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine if expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between pre-stimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations where patients’ unrealistic expectations for pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management. PMID:26083664
Expectant fathers at risk for couvade.
Clinton, J F
1986-01-01
A repeated measures survey design was used to monitor the physical and emotional health of 81 expectant fathers at lunar month intervals throughout their partners' pregnancy and the early postpartum period. The data set consisted of 515 repeated measures. The backward elimination regression procedure was used to identify six factors that partially explained health events experienced by expectant fathers: affective involvement in pregnancy, number of previous children, income, ethnic identity, perceived stress, and recent health prior to expectant fatherhood.
Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.
Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O
2013-09-01
Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each. PMID:24000836
Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound
Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio
2014-12-04
We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.
Proof of a quantum Bousso bound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, Raphael; Casini, Horacio; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-08-01
We prove the generalized covariant entropy bound, ΔS≤(A-A')/4Gℏ, for light-sheets with initial area A and final area A'. The entropy ΔS is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Upper bounds on the photon mass
Accioly, Antonio; Helayeel-Neto, Jose; Scatena, Eslley
2010-09-15
The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism in a simple way using the Proca equations. In this vein, two interesting implications regarding the possible existence of a massive photon in nature, i.e., tiny alterations in the known values of both the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and the gravitational deflection of electromagnetic radiation, are utilized to set upper limits on its mass. The bounds obtained are not as stringent as those recently found; nonetheless, they are comparable to other existing bounds and bring new elements to the issue of restricting the photon mass.
Zhao Lu; Zou Bingsong; Shen Pengnian; Zhang Yingjie
2011-10-21
Inspired by a recent observation of a narrow resonance-like structure around 2360 MeV in the pn {yields} d{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} cross section, we investigate the possibility of forming NN*(1440) quasi-bound state by meson exchange potential. With parameters of the t-channel {pi}, {sigma}, {rho} and {omega} exchanges determined by relevant NN scattering and N*(1440) decay processes, it is found that a NN*(1440) quasi-bound state with the same quantum numbers as the deuteron can be formed with binding energy about 20 MeV.
Learning within bounds and dream sleep
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geszti, T.; Pazmandi, F.
1987-12-01
In a bounded-synapses version of Hopfield's model (1984) for neural networks the quasienergy of a given memory, which is approximately equal to the depth of the corresponding energy well is calculated exactly by treating the change of a synaptic strength on learning as a random walk within bounds. Attractors corresponding to stored memories are found to be considerably flattened before serious retrieval errors arise. This allows dream sleep to be interpreted as random recall and relearning of fresh strong memories, in order to stack them on top of weak incidental memory imprints of a day.
A note on BPS vortex bound states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso-Izquierdo, A.; Garcia Fuertes, W.; Mateos Guilarte, J.
2016-02-01
In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.
Tsushima, K.; Thomas, A. W.; Lu, D. H.; Krein, G.
2011-06-15
J/{Psi}-nuclear bound state energies are calculated for a range of nuclei by solving the Proca (Klein-Gordon) equation. Critical input for the calculations, namely the medium-modified D and D* meson masses, as well as the nucleon density distributions in nuclei, are obtained from the quark-meson coupling model. The attractive potential originates from the D and D* meson loops in the J/{Psi} self-energy in the nuclear medium. It appears that J/{Psi}-nuclear bound states should produce a clear experimental signature provided that the J/{Psi} meson is produced in recoilless kinematics.
Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory
Miyadera, Takayuki
2011-04-15
The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.
Stabilizability of linear quadratic state feedback for uncertain fuzzy time-delay systems.
Wang, Rong-Jyue; Lin, Wei-Wei; Wang, Wen-June
2004-04-01
This paper investigates the problem of designing a fuzzy state feedback controller to stabilize an uncertain fuzzy system with time-varying delay. Based on Lyapunov criterion and Razumikhin theorem, some sufficient conditions are derived under which the parallel-distributed fuzzy control can stabilize the whole uncertain fuzzy time-delay system asymptotically. By Schur complement, these sufficient conditions can be easily transformed into the problem of LMIs. Furthermore, the tolerable bound of the perturbation is also obtained. A practical example based on the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model is given to illustrate the control design and its effectiveness.
Persistence and Permanence for a Class of Functional Differential Equations with Infinite Delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faria, Teresa
2016-09-01
The paper deals with a class of cooperative functional differential equations (FDEs) with infinite delay, for which sufficient conditions for persistence and permanence are established. Here, the persistence refers to all solutions with initial conditions that are positive, continuous and bounded. The present method applies to a very broad class of abstract systems of FDEs with infinite delay, both autonomous and non-autonomous, which include many important models used in mathematical biology. Moreover, the hypotheses imposed are in general very easy to check. The results are illustrated with some selected examples.
Bounding the states of systems with unknown-but-bounded disturbances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsai, Wei K.; Parlos, Alexander G.; Verghese, George C.
1990-01-01
Control systems with hard constraints on certain variables are characterized, in an analytical review of recent investigations based on an unknown-but-bounded description of magnitude uncertainties. Hard-constraint problems typically arise in the design of controllers for potentially hazardous systems such as nuclear power plants. Consideration is given to norm bounds based on matrix measures, extensions of Schweppe's (1968) ellipsoid bounds, and set-theoretic regulator design. The performance of these approaches is evaluated by means of numerical simulations involving a third-order nonlinear steam-boiler model; the results are presented in graphs, and it is found that ellipsoid bounds are tightest in the general case, but that box bounds are even tighter for linear systems with Metzler system matrices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morrison, Julie Q.; Sansosti, Frank J.; Hadley, Wanda M.
2009-01-01
Many students with Asperger's Syndrome have the cognitive ability and specific interests to be successful academically at the college level. However, these students often have difficulties navigating social systems, and higher education presents great challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore parent perceptions regarding the: (a)…
Fanciullino, Raphaelle; Ciccolini, Joseph; Milano, Gérard
2013-12-01
Improving the efficacy-toxicity balance of anticancer agents remains an ongoing challenge in oncology. Beside the ever-growing development of innovative drugs addressing newly discovered molecular targets, nanotechnologies provide today a promising and exciting strategy to achieve this goal. The idea of carrying active compounds to their respective targets so as to improve their efficacy while sparing healthy tissue and reducing side-effects is not new. However, this area of research is in constant rise, and benefits from the latest advances in the field of biopharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry and nanomedicine. In addition to anthracyclines already widely present as liposomal drugs on the shelves, a variety of anticancer drugs can be now encapsulated into different chemical of structures so as to enhance their specificity toward malignant cells, mainly through improved pharmacokinetics profiles. Indeed, the recent advances in chemistry allow now a wide variety of scaffolds to be used as drug-carriers, so as optimize the delivery of cytotoxics. Even more recently, conjugated-drugs such as nanoalbumin (Nab) conjugates have emerged as a new promising alternative to improve both anticancer drugs distribution in the body and efficacy/toxicity balance eventually. This review covers the achievements and current limits of nanoparticles in oncology, with a special focus on nab-paclitaxel as a paradigmatic drug for this new generation of conjugated entities.
Synchronization by small time delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.
2015-02-01
Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.
Time delay and distance measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.
Delay locked loop integrated circuit.
Brocato, Robert Wesley
2007-10-01
This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.
Method for calcining delayed coke
Smith, J.H.
1981-02-17
Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.
Delayed recombination and standard rulers
De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia
2009-02-15
Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.
Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daro, Deborah
2006-01-01
Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…
Parker, K L; Alberico, S L; Miller, A D; Narayanan, N S
2013-01-01
Responses during a simple reaction time task are influenced by temporal expectation, or the ability to anticipate when a stimulus occurs in time. Here, we test the hypothesis that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during simple reaction time task performance. We depleted dopamine projections to the medial prefrontal circuits by infusing 6-hydroxidopamine, a selective neurotoxin, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, and studied their performance on a simple reaction time task with two delays. VTA dopamine depletion did not change movements or learning of the reaction time task. However, VTA dopamine-depleted animals did not develop delay-dependent speeding of reaction times, suggesting that mesocortical dopamine signaling is required for temporal expectation. Next, we manipulated dopamine signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex using local pharmacology. We found that SCH23390, a D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist, specifically attenuated delay-dependent speeding, while sulpiride, a D2-type receptor antagonist, did not. These data suggest that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during performance of a simple reaction time task. Our findings provide insight into temporal processing of the prefrontal cortex, and how dopamine signaling influences prefrontal circuits that guide goal-directed behavior. PMID:24120554
Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.
Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J
2004-01-01
Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Ticao; Xu, Shengyuan; Lu, Junwei; Wei, Yunliang; Zou, Yun
2016-01-01
This paper deals with the decentralised output feedback stabilisation problem for a class of large-scale stochastic time-delay nonlinear systems. A general theorem is firstly given to guarantee the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for stochastic time-delay systems. In addition, a stochastic version of the well-known LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem with time-varying delay is initially proposed for the controller design and stability analysis. Then, for a class of large-scale stochastic systems with time-varying delays, totally decentralised adaptive delay-dependent controllers are designed by using K-filter and backstepping approach. Via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem and constructing a general Lyapunov function, it is shown that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded almost surely and the solution is almost surely asymptotically stable. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results of this paper.
Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents
... Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Your baby ...
78 FR 43270 - List of Applications Delayed
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-07-19
... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... Hazardous Materials Special Permits ] and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...
College Bound? Make the Right Choices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Jenna Ashley
2009-01-01
"College Bound? Make the Right Choices" is the Pope Center's latest tool for improving colleges and universities "from the bottom up" through better choices. Its purpose is to help high school students and their parents become smarter purchasers of higher education. This booklet by Jenna Ashley Robinson helps young people think through what they…
Nondissipative decoherence bounds on quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Stefano; Bonifacio, Rodolfo
2001-03-01
We investigate the capabilities of a quantum computer based on cold trapped ions in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. The latter is accounted by using the evolution time as a random variable and then averaging on a properly defined probability distribution. Severe bounds on computational performances are found.
Interaction barriers for light, weakly bound projectiles
Kolata, J. J.; Aguilera, E. F.
2009-02-15
A parametrization of the interaction-barrier model of C. Y. Wong [Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 766 (1973)] is given for light, weakly bound projectiles and also for the exotic 'halo' nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}B. Comparisons are made with the original parametrization. The extremely anomalous behavior of the interaction radius and barrier curvature for halo nuclei is discussed.
Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.
Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M
2014-06-01
The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Opinion formation with upper and lower bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Ryosuke; Martin, Arnaud
2015-12-01
We investigate the opinion formation with upper and lower bounds. We formulate the binary exchange of opinions between two peoples under the second (or political) party using the relativistic inelastic-Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with randomly perturbed motion. In this paper, we discuss the relativistic effects on the opinion formation of peoples from the standpoint of the relativistic kinetic theory.
Mentoring College Bound High School Seniors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mowrer-Popiel, Elizabeth
This article examines causes of the high rate of attrition of college freshmen during the first few weeks of school and describes a plan for mentorships between successful college students and college-bound secondary seniors prior to entrance into college. In discussing the challenges facing freshmen, the article suggests that they suffer stress…
Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwartz, Charles A.
1989-01-01
Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…
Logistics Handbook, 1976. Colorado Outward Bound School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado Outward Bound School, Denver.
Logistics, a support mission, is vital to the successful operation of the Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) courses. Logistics is responsible for purchasing, maintaining, transporting, and replenishing a wide variety of items, i.e., food, mountaineering and camping equipment, medical and other supplies, and vehicles. The Logistics coordinator…
Ternary resin-bound Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry.
Gromova, Anna V; Ciszewski, Joseph M; Miller, Benjamin L
2012-02-18
The ability to carry out simultaneous orthogonal exchange chemistries has opened new opportunities for increasing the numerical and structural diversity accessible to Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. We present proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating this concept is transferrable to resin-bound DCC, facilitating the generation and analysis of libraries with greater structural diversity.
Bound Indoleacetic Acid in Avena Coleoptiles 1
Winter, Alan; Thimann, Kenneth V.
1966-01-01
When C14 carboxyl indoleacetic acid (IAA) is transported through Avena coleoptile sections a fraction of the activity becomes bound. The nature of this bound IAA has been investigated. Upon extraction with solvents and chromatography a substance having the RF of IAA in 4 solvents was detected. No evidence could be found for the formation of indoleacetyl conjugates. In pea stem sections subjected to a similar experimental regime good evidence was obtained for the occurrence of conjugates. When IAA was supplied exogenously to coleoptile sections floating in solutions the occurrence of conjugates was shown to be dependent on the presence of the primary leaf. In its absence no conjugates could be detected. On grinding coleoptile sections and subsequent centrifugation at 240 × g the radioactivity was found to be in the tissue fraction as opposed to the supernatant. The radioactivity cannot be removed from the tissue by extraction with water, buffer solution or treatment with ribonuclease. It is readily removed by 10% urea, crystalline trypsin and chymotrypsin. It is therefore concluded that IAA becomes bound to a protein. Bound IAA does not appear to be able to cause growth in Avena coleoptile sections. PMID:16656259
Outward Bound as an Adjunct to Therapy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chase, Nelson K.
The Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) provides successful adjunct programs for special populations undergoing therapy at the Adventure Home (Boulder, CO), the Juvenile Justice Program and the St. Luke's Hospital Alcoholism Recovery Unit (Denver, CO), and the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Department of Psychiatry (Hanover, NH). The goals of…
Theoretical Bounds of Direct Binary Search Halftoning.
Liao, Jan-Ray
2015-11-01
Direct binary search (DBS) produces the images of the best quality among half-toning algorithms. The reason is that it minimizes the total squared perceived error instead of using heuristic approaches. The search for the optimal solution involves two operations: (1) toggle and (2) swap. Both operations try to find the binary states for each pixel to minimize the total squared perceived error. This error energy minimization leads to a conjecture that the absolute value of the filtered error after DBS converges is bounded by half of the peak value of the autocorrelation filter. However, a proof of the bound's existence has not yet been found. In this paper, we present a proof that shows the bound existed as conjectured under the condition that at least one swap occurs after toggle converges. The theoretical analysis also indicates that a swap with a pixel further away from the center of the autocorrelation filter results in a tighter bound. Therefore, we propose a new DBS algorithm which considers toggle and swap separately, and the swap operations are considered in the order from the edge to the center of the filter. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is more efficient than the previous algorithm and can produce half-toned images of the same quality as the previous algorithm.
Lifetime of a Chemically Bound Helium Compound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaban, Galina M.; Lundell, Jan; Gerber, R. Benny; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The rare-gas atoms are chemically inert, to an extent unique among all elements. This is due to the stable electronic structure of the atoms. Stable molecules with chemically bound rare-gas atoms are, however, known. A first such compound, XePtF6, W2S prepared in 1962 and since then a range of molecules containing radon, xenon and krypton have been obtained. Most recently, a first stable chemically bound compound of argon was prepared, leaving neon and helium as the only elements for which stable chemically bound molecules are not yet known. Electronic structure calculations predict that a metastable species HHeF exists, but significance of the result depends on the unknown lifetime. Here we report quantum dynamics calculations of the lifetime of HHeF, using accurate interactions computed from electronic structure theory. HHeF is shown to disintegrate by tunneling through energy barriers into He + HF and H + He + F the first channel greatly dominating. The lifetime of HHeF is more than 120 picoseconds, that of DHeF is 14 nanoseconds. The relatively long lifetimes are encouraging for the preparation prospects of this first chemically bound helium compound.
College Bound Seniors, 1974-75.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.
Some one million college bound students, who were high school seniors during 1974-75 previously participated in the College Board's Admissions Testing Program (ATP), which included the Scholarship Aptitude Test (SAT), the Test of Standard Written English, the Student Descriptive Questionnaire, and the ATP Achievement Tests. These tests created a…
Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos
2012-01-01
Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…
Intentions and Expectations in Differential Residential Selection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Michelson, William; And Others
1973-01-01
This paper summarizes intentions and expectations in differential residential selection among families who had chose to move. Wives appear at face value to assess alternatives in the selection process rationally, to be aware of limitations in housing and location they will experience, and to have expectations about behavioral changes consistant…
Framing expectations in early HIV cure research.
Dubé, Karine; Henderson, Gail E; Margolis, David M
2014-10-01
Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term 'experiment'. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit.
Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
2012-01-01
The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…
The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen
1986-01-01
Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…
Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark
2012-01-01
Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…
First Grade Teacher Expectations in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Funkhouser, Charles P.
The focus of this study was on the expectations that first-grade teachers have of the mathematics skills of their incoming first-grade students. At the end of one school year and at the beginning of the next school year, first-grade teachers (n=64) in rural and urban settings completed the Mathematics Skills Expectations Survey (MSES). The MSES…
Raising Expectations is Aim of New Effort
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparks, Sarah D.
2010-01-01
Researchers and policymakers agree that teachers' expectations of what their students can do can become self-fulfilling prophecies for children's academic performance. Yet while the "soft bigotry of low expectations" has become an education catchphrase, scholars and advocates are just beginning to explore whether it is possible to prevent such…
Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee-Corbin, Hilary
1994-01-01
Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…
What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok
2008-01-01
This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…
International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calvert, Philip J.
2001-01-01
Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)
Trends in Life Expectancy in Wellbeing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perenboom, R. J. M.; Van Herten, L. M.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Van Den Bos, G. A. M.
2004-01-01
Objectives: This paper describes and discusses trends in life expectancy in wellbeing between 1989 and 1998. Methods: Data on wellbeing by the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale is obtained from the Netherlands Continuous Health Interview Surveys for the calendar years from 1989 to 1998. Using Sullivan's method, life expectancy in wellbeing is…
Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.
2011-01-01
We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…
Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Leuven, Jim
1981-01-01
Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)
Course Expectations and Career Management Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben
2008-01-01
Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…
New HiggsBounds from LEP and the Tevatron
Bechtle, P.; Brein, O.; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, K.
2010-02-10
We review the program HiggsBounds that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. We explicitly list the bounds that have been added after the first release of HiggsBounds.
Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.
2012-01-01
This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958
Sample Complexity Bounds for Differentially Private Learning
Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Hsu, Daniel
2013-01-01
This work studies the problem of privacy-preserving classification – namely, learning a classifier from sensitive data while preserving the privacy of individuals in the training set. In particular, the learning algorithm is required in this problem to guarantee differential privacy, a very strong notion of privacy that has gained significant attention in recent years. A natural question to ask is: what is the sample requirement of a learning algorithm that guarantees a certain level of privacy and accuracy? We address this question in the context of learning with infinite hypothesis classes when the data is drawn from a continuous distribution. We first show that even for very simple hypothesis classes, any algorithm that uses a finite number of examples and guarantees differential privacy must fail to return an accurate classifier for at least some unlabeled data distributions. This result is unlike the case with either finite hypothesis classes or discrete data domains, in which distribution-free private learning is possible, as previously shown by Kasiviswanathan et al. (2008). We then consider two approaches to differentially private learning that get around this lower bound. The first approach is to use prior knowledge about the unlabeled data distribution in the form of a reference distribution chosen independently of the sensitive data. Given such a reference , we provide an upper bound on the sample requirement that depends (among other things) on a measure of closeness between and the unlabeled data distribution. Our upper bound applies to the non-realizable as well as the realizable case. The second approach is to relax the privacy requirement, by requiring only label-privacy – namely, that the only labels (and not the unlabeled parts of the examples) be considered sensitive information. An upper bound on the sample requirement of learning with label privacy was shown by Chaudhuri et al. (2006); in this work, we show a lower bound. PMID:25285183
Insoluble-Bound Phenolics in Food.
Shahidi, Fereidoon; Yeo, Ju-Dong
2016-01-01
This contribution provides a review of the topic of insoluble-bound phenolics, especially their localization, synthesis, transfer and formation in plant cells, as well as their metabolism in the human digestive system and corresponding bioactivities. In addition, their release from the food matrix during food processing and extraction methods are discussed. The synthesis of phenolics takes place mainly at the endoplasmic reticulum and they are then transferred to each organ through transport proteins such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) transporter at the organ's compartment membrane or via transport vesicles such as cytoplasmic and Golgi vesicles, leading to the formation of soluble and insoluble-bound phenolics at the vacuole and cell wall matrix, respectively. This part has not been adequately discussed in the food science literature, especially regarding the synthesis site and their transfer at the cellular level, thus this contribution provides valuable information to the involved scientists. The bound phenolics cannot be absorbed at the small intestine as the soluble phenolics do (5%-10%), thus passing into the large intestine and undergoing fermentation by a number of microorganisms, partially released from cell wall matrix of foods. Bound phenolics such as phenolic acids and flavonoids display strong bioactivities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation and cardiovascular disease ameliorating effects. They can be extracted by several methods such as acid, alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis to quantify their contents in foods. In addition, they can also be released from the cell wall matrix during food processing procedures such as fermentation, germination, roasting, extrusion cooking and boiling. This review provides critical information for better understanding the insoluble-bound phenolics in food and fills an existing gap in the literature. PMID:27626402
Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.
2007-01-01
Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last…
Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bembenutty, Hefer
2011-01-01
The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…
Direct-reading group-delay measurement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trowbridge, D. L.
1978-01-01
Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.
Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine
This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…
40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the NEPA process into early planning (§...
Nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra Systems with Delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teng, Zhidong
2002-03-01
The paper studies the general nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra multispecies systems with finite delays. The ultimate boundedness, permanence, global attractivity, and existence and uniqueness of strictly positive solutions, positive periodic solutions, and almost periodic solutions are obtained. These results are basically an extension of the known results for nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra multispecies systems without delay to systems with delay.
Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Dynamics in Cobweb Models with Time Delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro
2015-06-01
This paper aims to study price dynamics in two different continuous time cobweb models with delays close to [Hommes, 1994]. In both cases, the stationary equilibrium may be not representative of the long-term dynamics of the model, since it is possible to observe endogenous and persistent fluctuations (supercritical Hopf bifurcations) even if a deterministic context without external shocks is considered. In the model in which markets are in equilibrium every time, we show that the existence of time delays in the expectations formation mechanism may cause chaotic dynamics similar to those obtained in [Hommes, 1994] in a discrete time context. From a mathematical point of view, we apply the Poincaré-Lindstedt perturbation method to study the local dynamic properties of the models. In addition, several numerical experiments are used to investigate global properties of the systems.
Chaos in coherence modulation: bifurcations of an oscillator generating optical delay fluctuations
Larger, Laurent; Lee, Min Won; Goedgebuer, Jean-Pierre; Elflein, Wilhelm; Erneux, Thomas
2001-08-01
A new chaos generator is described that produces chaotic fluctuations of the optical-path difference in a coherence modulator driven electrically by a nonlinear delayed-feedback loop. Numerical simulations and experimental results are reported. A closed branch of periodic solutions bounded by a forward and a reverse Hopf bifurcation is observed for the first time, to our knowledge, for this type of nonlinear dynamical system. {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America
Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements
Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu
2011-10-15
An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.
Expectations predict chronic pain treatment outcomes.
Cormier, Stéphanie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Choinière, Manon; Rainville, Pierre
2016-02-01
Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment.
BOLD delay times using group delay in sickle cell disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coloigner, Julie; Vu, Chau; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John
2016-03-01
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that effects red blood cells, which can lead to vasoocclusion, ischemia and infarct. This disease often results in neurological damage and strokes, leading to morbidity and mortality. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique for measuring and mapping the brain activity. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals contain also information about the neurovascular coupling, vascular reactivity, oxygenation and blood propagation. Temporal relationship between BOLD fluctuations in different parts of the brain provides also a mean to investigate the blood delay information. We used the induced desaturation as a label to profile transit times through different brain areas, reflecting oxygen utilization of tissue. In this study, we aimed to compare blood flow propagation delay times between these patients and healthy subjects in areas vascularized by anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In a group comparison analysis with control subjects, BOLD changes in these areas were found to be almost simultaneous and shorter in the SCD patients, because of their increased brain blood flow. Secondly, the analysis of a patient with a stenosis on the anterior cerebral artery indicated that signal of the area vascularized by this artery lagged the MCA signal. These findings suggest that sickle cell disease causes blood propagation modifications, and that these changes could be used as a biomarker of vascular damage.
Evidence that a major portion of cellular potassium is bound
Cameron, I.L.; Hardman, W.E.; Hunter, K.E.; Haskin, C.; Smith, N.K.; Fullerton, G.D. )
1990-03-01
In this report we briefly review recent evidence which shows that a substantial proportion of intracellular K+ is bound or perturbed from the physicochemical properties expected in dilute aqueous solutions. In addition, we present evidence from electron probe x-ray microanalysis of thin cryosections of cells which indicates that the binding of K+ to anionic groups either carboxyl groups (HCO{sub 2}) on proteins or to phosphate groups in creatine phosphate (CrP), in adenosine triphosphate, (ATP), in protein and in nucleic acids, are the main determinants of the maintenance of (as differentiated from the generated of) the well known intra- to extracellular K+ concentration difference. The collective evidence suggests that much of cellular K+ is reduced in its mobility and in its chemical activity due to association with negative charge groups (e.g. carboxyl and phosphates). This fact forces abandonment of the misleading assumption that the majority of intracellular K+ and other inorganic ions are as free as would be expected under ideal solution conditions. This realization should have far reaching consequences toward understanding transmembrane movement of water and solutes in cells. 41 references.
Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew
2012-07-01
At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.
ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert
2006-01-01
Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the…
Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.
Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the
Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.
2009-05-01
Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s-1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens ( N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s-1 and body angle from -15° to 50°. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counter-rotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag ( L: D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10° to 30°. Peak ( L: D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15° or 20°, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in C L and C D from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s-1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s-1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L: D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L: D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the
Delayed onset arterial gas embolism.
Moloff, A L
1993-11-01
Numerous civilian and military personnel are involved in SCUBA diving activities. In this day of rapid air travel it is important that all physicians, not just those living near the coast or dive centers, be familiar with the basics of diagnosing and treating diving-related injuries. One of the more serious complications of dysbarism is Arterial Gas Embolism (AGE). This case history involves an atypical presentation of delayed onset AGE in a military diver trainee, and its treatment. This article then reviews the incidence, etiology, pathophysiology, "classic" presentation and current treatment of this disease. Systemic pathophysiology secondary to the effects of intravascular air of AGE is also discussed.
Delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome.
Smith, Natalie; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Karalliedde, Janaka
2016-01-01
We describe a case of a delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome. The patient had a history of hearing loss from childhood and presented to the endocrine clinic when aged 32 with an enlarging goitre. The characteristic Mondini deformity was noted on auditory canal MRI scan. Genetic tests confirmed the diagnosis. Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterised by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, goitre and impaired iodide organification and can present at any age. We highlight to the general physician the classical features of this syndrome that would aid early diagnosis. PMID:27620717
Conditioned response-contingent delays of the unconditioned stimulus in human aversive conditioning.
Prokasy, W F; Clark, C G; Williams, W C; Spurr, C W
1975-09-01
Four groups of subjects were given either 0. 100, 500, or 1,000 msec delays of the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) contingent upon the occurrence of a conditioned response (CR) and were given a UCS 515 msec after conditioned stimulus (CS) onset when a CR did not occur. A fifth group received standard classical conditioning trials with an interstimulus interval of 515 msec. Overall performance decreased as CR-contingent UCS delay increased, with the classical conditioning group approximating the performance of the group receiving the 100-msec delay. The data were analyzed with the two-phase model of conditioning and the following results were obtained: The duration of Phase 1 of the model increased with contingent delay; operator limits associated with CR trials or with combined CR-CR (CR absent) trials decreased as a function of delay; and operator limits associated exclusively with CR trials were unaffected by the delay. Subjects receiving a contingent delay of 0 msec gave the shortest latency responses and exhibited reliable latency decreases across trials, suggesting an attempt to "beat" the UCS. The results were interpreted as contrary to what would be expected from low-of-effect theories which postulate that reinforcement results from a CR-UCS interaction, although they could be subsumed under a drive or an associative strength theory in which the aversive, or CR-supportive, strength of the UCS is assumed to be negatively correlated with contingent UCS delay.
Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.
Health expectancy and the problem of substitute morbidity.
Van de Water, H P
1997-01-01
During the past century, the developed world has not only witnessed a dramatic increase in life expectancy (ageing), but also a concomitant rise in chronic disease and disability. Consequently, the tension between 'living longer' on the one hand and health-related 'quality of life' on the other has become an increasingly important health policy problem. The paper deals with two consequences of this so-called epidemiological transition in population health. The first one concerns the question of how--given the impressive changes--population health can be measured in an adequate and policy relevant present-day fashion. The second one is the so-called phenomenon of 'substitute morbidity and mortality': more and more acute fatal diseases are replaced by non-fatal delayed degenerative diseases like dementia and arthritis. How the phenomenon of substitute morbidity and mortality affects the development of population health is illustrated with the epidemiological transitions, worldwide shifts in the main causes of death, assumptions used in models, adverse consequences of medical technologies and some results from intervention trials. Substitute morbidity and mortality may thwart our disease-specific expectations of interventions and asks for a shift to a 'total population health' perspective when judging potential health gains of interventions. Better understanding of the dynamics that underly the changes in population health is necessary. Implications for data collections are more emphasis on morbidity data and their relation with mortality, more longitudinal studies, stricter requirements for intervention trials and more use of modelling as a tool. A final recommendation is the promotion of integrative measures of population health. For the latter several results are presented suggesting that, although the amount of morbidity and disability is growing with an increasing life expectancy, this is mild unhealthiness in particular. This finding supports the 'dynamic
What to Expect After Breast Reconstruction Surgery
... Topic References What to expect after breast reconstruction surgery It’s important to have an idea of what ... regular mammograms. Possible risks during and after reconstruction surgery There are certain risks from any type of ...
Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearl, Shela
1986-01-01
Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)
What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant
... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect Before a Lung Transplant If you get into a medical center's ... friends also can offer support. When a Donor Lung Becomes Available OPTN matches donor lungs to recipients ...
What to Expect During a Lung Transplant
... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Lung Transplant Just before lung transplant surgery, you will ... airway and its blood vessels to your heart. Lung Transplant The illustration shows the process of a ...
Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard
2000-01-01
This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chinh, Pham Duc
2000-01-01
Random polycrystalline aggregates of the grains of possibly irregular shapes, the crystalline and shape orientations of which are uncorrelated, are considered. From the standard variational principles and by different approaches, explicit bounds on the possible ranges for the transport properties, which are proportionality factors between solenoidal and irrotational vector fields, of the media are constructed and compared. They are expected to predict the macroscopic properties of the aggregates and their possible scatter intervals.
Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes
Rocha, P; Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong; Santos, N O E-mail: yasuda@on.br E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu
2008-06-15
Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.
An error bound for instantaneous coverage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Allan L.
1991-01-01
An error bound is derived for a reliability model approximation method. The approximation method is appropriate for the semi-Markov models of reconfigurable systems that are designed to achieve extremely high reliability. The semi-Markov models of these system are complex, and a significant amount of their complexity arises from the detailed descriptions of the reconfiguration processes. The reliability model approximation method consists of replacing a detailed description of a reconfiguration process with the probabilities of the possible outcomes of the reconfiguration process. These probabilities are included in the model as instantaneous jumps from the fault-occurrence state. Since little time is spent in the reconfiguration states, instantaneous jumps are a close approximation to the original model. This approximation procedure is shown to produce an overestimation for the probability of system failure, and an error bound is derived for this overestimation.
Horizon ratio bound for inflationary fluctuations.
Dodelson, Scott; Hui, Lam
2003-09-26
We demonstrate that the gravity wave background amplitude implies a robust upper bound on the wavelength-to-horizon ratio at the end of inflation: lambda/H(-1) less than or approximately equal e(60), as long as the cosmic energy density does not drop faster than radiation subsequent to inflation. This limit implies that N, the number of e-folds between horizon exit and the end of inflation for wave modes of interest, is less, similar 60 plus a model-dependent factor-for vast classes of slow-roll models, N less than or approximately equal 67. As an example, this bound solidifies the tension between observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and chaotic inflation with a phi(4) potential by closing the escape hatch of large N (<62). PMID:14525296
Extremum seeking with bounded update rates
Scheinker, Alexander; Krstić, Miroslav
2013-11-16
In this work, we present a form of extremum seeking (ES) in which the unknown function being minimized enters the system’s dynamics as the argument of a cosine or sine term, thereby guaranteeing known bounds on update rates and control efforts. We present general n-dimensional optimization and stabilization results as well as 2D vehicle control, with bounded velocity and control efforts. For application to autonomous vehicles, tracking a source in a GPS denied environment with unknown orientation, this ES approach allows for smooth heading angle actuation, with constant velocity, and in application to a unicycle-type vehicle results in control ability as if the vehicle is fully actuated. Our stability analysis is made possible by the classic results of Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu, regarding systems with highly oscillatory terms. In our stability analysis, we combine the averaging results with a semi-global practical stability result under small parametric perturbations developed by Moreau and Aeyels.
Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states
Borsten, L.; Brádler, K.; Duff, M. J.
2014-01-01
A superqubit, belonging to a (2|1)-dimensional super-Hilbert space, constitutes the minimal supersymmetric extension of the conventional qubit. In order to see whether superqubits are more non-local than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a non-local resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric and (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2), the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound pwin=cos2π/8≃0.8536 of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with pwin≃0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities. PMID:25294964
Floquet bound states in the continuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe
2013-07-01
Quantum mechanics predicts that certain stationary potentials can sustain bound states with an energy buried in the continuous spectrum of scattered states, the so-called bound states in the continuum (BIC). Originally regarded as mathematical curiosities, BIC have found an increasing interest in recent years, particularly in quantum and classical transport of matter and optical waves in mesoscopic and photonic systems where the underlying potential can be judiciously tailored. Most of our knowledge of BIC is so far restricted to static potentials. Here we introduce a new kind of BIC, referred to as Floquet BIC, which corresponds to a normalizable Floquet state of a time-periodic Hamiltonian with a quasienergy embedded into the spectrum of Floquet scattered states. We discuss the appearance of Floquet BIC states in a tight-binding lattice model driven by an ac field in the proximity of the dynamic localization regime.
Reinforcement Learning with Bounded Information Loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Jan; Mülling, Katharina; Seldin, Yevgeny; Altun, Yasemin
2011-03-01
Policy search is a successful approach to reinforcement learning. However, policy improvements often result in the loss of information. Hence, it has been marred by premature convergence and implausible solutions. As first suggested in the context of covariant or natural policy gradients, many of these problems may be addressed by constraining the information loss. In this paper, we continue this path of reasoning and suggest two reinforcement learning methods, i.e., a model-based and a model free algorithm that bound the loss in relative entropy while maximizing their return. The resulting methods differ significantly from previous policy gradient approaches and yields an exact update step. It works well on typical reinforcement learning benchmark problems as well as novel evaluations in robotics. We also show a Bayesian bound motivation of this new approach [8].
Floquet bound states in the continuum
Longhi, Stefano; Valle, Giuseppe Della
2013-01-01
Quantum mechanics predicts that certain stationary potentials can sustain bound states with an energy buried in the continuous spectrum of scattered states, the so-called bound states in the continuum (BIC). Originally regarded as mathematical curiosities, BIC have found an increasing interest in recent years, particularly in quantum and classical transport of matter and optical waves in mesoscopic and photonic systems where the underlying potential can be judiciously tailored. Most of our knowledge of BIC is so far restricted to static potentials. Here we introduce a new kind of BIC, referred to as Floquet BIC, which corresponds to a normalizable Floquet state of a time-periodic Hamiltonian with a quasienergy embedded into the spectrum of Floquet scattered states. We discuss the appearance of Floquet BIC states in a tight-binding lattice model driven by an ac field in the proximity of the dynamic localization regime. PMID:23860625
Mutual information rate and bounds for it.
Baptista, Murilo S; Rubinger, Rero M; Viana, Emilson R; Sartorelli, José C; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso
2012-01-01
The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809
Bounds for convection between rough boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goluskin, David; Doering, Charles R.
2016-10-01
We consider Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in a layer of fluid between rough no-slip boundaries where the top and bottom boundary heights are functions of the horizontal coordinates with square-integrable gradients. We use the background method to derive an upper bound on mean heat flux across the layer for all admissible boundary geometries. This flux, normalized by the temperature difference between the boundaries, can grow with the Rayleigh number ($Ra$) no faster than ${\\cal O}(Ra^{1/2})$ as $Ra \\rightarrow \\infty$. Our analysis yields a family of similar bounds, depending on how various estimates are tuned, but every version depends explicitly on the boundary geometry. In one version the coefficient of the ${\\cal O}(Ra^{1/2})$ leading term is $0.242 + 2.925\\Vert\
Horizon ratio bound for inflationary fluctuations.
Dodelson, Scott; Hui, Lam
2003-09-26
We demonstrate that the gravity wave background amplitude implies a robust upper bound on the wavelength-to-horizon ratio at the end of inflation: lambda/H(-1) less than or approximately equal e(60), as long as the cosmic energy density does not drop faster than radiation subsequent to inflation. This limit implies that N, the number of e-folds between horizon exit and the end of inflation for wave modes of interest, is less, similar 60 plus a model-dependent factor-for vast classes of slow-roll models, N less than or approximately equal 67. As an example, this bound solidifies the tension between observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and chaotic inflation with a phi(4) potential by closing the escape hatch of large N (<62).
Are Proxima and α Centauri Gravitationally Bound?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wertheimer, Jeremy G.; Laughlin, Gregory
2006-11-01
Using the most recent kinematic and radial velocity data in the literature, we calculate the binding energy of Proxima Centauri relative to the center of mass of the α Centauri system. When we adopt the centroids of the observed data, we find that the three stars constitute a bound system, albeit with a semimajor axis that is of order the same size as α Cen AB's Hill radius in the Galactic potential. We carry out a Monte Carlo simulation under the assumption that the errors in the observed quantities are uncorrelated. In this simulation, 44% of the trial systems are bound, and systems on the 1-3 σ tail of the radial velocity distribution can have Proxima currently located near the apastron position of its orbit. Our analysis shows that a further, very significant improvement in the characterization of the system can be gained by obtaining a more accurate measurement of the radial velocity of Proxima Cen.
Scalable problems and memory bounded speedup
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, Xian-He; Ni, Lionel M.
1992-01-01
In this paper three models of parallel speedup are studied. They are fixed-size speedup, fixed-time speedup and memory-bounded speedup. The latter two consider the relationship between speedup and problem scalability. Two sets of speedup formulations are derived for these three models. One set considers uneven workload allocation and communication overhead and gives more accurate estimation. Another set considers a simplified case and provides a clear picture on the impact of the sequential portion of an application on the possible performance gain from parallel processing. The simplified fixed-size speedup is Amdahl's law. The simplified fixed-time speedup is Gustafson's scaled speedup. The simplified memory-bounded speedup contains both Amdahl's law and Gustafson's scaled speedup as special cases. This study leads to a better understanding of parallel processing.
Comparison of evidenced and expected ADN competencies.
Burch, S; Joyce-Nagata, B; Reeb, R
1991-01-01
These study findings indicate that nursing service administrators in the State of Mississippi expect strong technical level skills from the ADN. Congruency between nursing education and nursing service was validated. The predominance of role competencies outlined by nurse educators were validated as both expected and evidenced for the ADN in the State of Mississippi. Competencies need to be continually evaluated to reflect changes in the health delivery system as related to the ADN.
Reductive mobilization of oxide-bound metals
Stone, A.T.
1991-01-01
We have completed a large number of experiments which examine the release of MnO{sub 2}-bound Co, Ni, and Cu. Our work has focused upon the following areas: (1) competitive adsorption among the three toxic metals and Mn(II); (2) toxic metal release upon addition of low MW organic reductants and complexants; and (3) toxic metal release upon addition of natural organic matter-rich surface waters and IHSS organic matter reference material.
Upper and lower bounds on quantum codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Graeme Stewart Baird
This thesis provides bounds on the performance of quantum error correcting codes when used for quantum communication and quantum key distribution. The first two chapters provide a bare-bones introduction to classical and quantum error correcting codes, respectively. The next four chapters present achievable rates for quantum codes in various scenarios. The final chapter is dedicated to an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity. Chapter 3 studies coding for adversarial noise using quantum list codes, showing there exist quantum codes with high rates and short lists. These can be used, together with a very short secret key, to communicate with high fidelity at noise levels for which perfect fidelity is, impossible. Chapter 4 explores the performance of a family of degenerate codes when used to communicate over Pauli channels, showing they can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code and that exceed those of previously known degenerate codes. By studying the scaling of the optimal block length as a function of the channel's parameters, we develop a heuristic for designing even better codes. Chapter 5 describes an equivalence between a family of noisy preprocessing protocols for quantum key distribution and entanglement distillation protocols whose target state belongs to a class of private states called "twisted states." In Chapter 6, the codes of Chapter 4 are combined with the protocols of Chapter 5 to provide higher key rates for one-way quantum key distribution than were previously thought possible. Finally, Chapter 7 presents a new upper bound on the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex, and which can be interpreted as the capacity of the channel for communication given access to side channels from a class of zero capacity "cloning" channels. This "clone assisted capacity" is equal to the unassisted capacity for channels that are degradable, which we use to find new upper
Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines
Mehta, Pankaj; Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2013-05-15
We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes.
Weakly bound states in heterogeneous waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Hofmann, Christoph P.
2016-07-01
We study the spectrum of the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide, containing a weak heterogeneity localized at an internal point, and obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions at its border. We use the variational theorem to derive the condition for which the lowest eigenvalue of the spectrum falls below the continuum threshold and a bound state appears, localized at the heterogeneity. We devise a rigorous perturbation scheme and derive the exact expression for the energy to third order in the heterogeneity.
Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement
Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel
2009-10-15
Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.
Detecting Lower Bounds to Quantum Channel Capacities.
Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F
2016-04-01
We propose a method to detect lower bounds to quantum capacities of a noisy quantum communication channel by means of a few measurements. The method is easily implementable and does not require any knowledge about the channel. We test its efficiency by studying its performance for most well-known single-qubit noisy channels and for the generalized Pauli channel in an arbitrary finite dimension.