Science.gov

Sample records for bounded expected delay

  1. Bounded Expectations for Discrepancy Detection in Goal-Driven Autonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    noise. We present PHOBOS , a Hierarchical Task Network planner with bounded expectations, which we apply with a GDA agent in an underwater vehicle...planning and execution monitoring may be problematic, due to the inefficiency of computing exact values or sensitivity to noise. We present PHOBOS , a... PHOBOS (Planner for HTN Objectives with Bounding OperatorS), a variant of SHOP (Nau et al. 1998) that abstracts state features during planning by

  2. Allowable delay bound for consensus of linear multi-agent systems with communication delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Tian, Yu-Ping

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies the consensus of a group of linear dynamic agents with a uniform communication delay and focuses on searching an allowable delay bound. As long as the delay is less than this bound, there exist linear feedback consensus protocols driving the multi-agent system to achieve consensus. Both fixed and switching topology cases are investigated. In both cases, the consensus problem is converted to the robust stability problem of corresponding uncertain state-delayed systems. By using Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional analysis, consensus conditions which contain the feedback gain conditions and delay conditions are proposed for systems over fixed and switching topologies, respectively. Furthermore, allowable delay bounds are obtained for both systems by solving the optimal robust stabilisation problems. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results.

  3. The Online Expectations of College-Bound Juniors and Seniors. E-Expectations Report, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Noel-Levitz, OmniUpdate, CollegeWeekLive, and NRCCUA[R] (National Research Center for College & University Admissions) conducted a survey of 2,000 college-bound juniors and seniors about their expectations for college Web sites, mobile usage, e-mail, and social media. Among the findings: (1) More than 50 percent of students said the Web played a…

  4. Estimating Bounds on Expected Plateau Size in MAXSAT Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Andrew M.; Howe, Adele E.; Whitley, L. Darrell

    Stochastic local search algorithms can now successfully solve MAXSAT problems with thousands of variables or more. A key to this success is how effectively the search can navigate and escape plateau regions. Furthermore, the solubility of a problem depends on the size and exit density of plateaus, especially those closest to the optimal solution. In this paper we model the plateau phenomenon as a percolation process on hypercube graphs. We develop two models for estimating bounds on the size of plateaus and prove that one is a lower bound and the other an upper bound on the expected size of plateaus at a given level. The models’ accuracy is demonstrated on controlled random hypercube landscapes. We apply the models to MAXSAT through analogy to hypercube graphs and by introducing an approach to estimating, through sampling, a key parameter of the models. Using this approach, we assess the accuracy of our bound estimations on uniform random and structured benchmarks. Surprisingly, we find similar trends in accuracy across random and structured problem instances. Less surprisingly, we find a high accuracy on smaller plateaus with systematic divergence as plateaus increase in size.

  5. Persistent bounded disturbance rejection for discrete-time delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Shi, Peng

    2011-06-01

    In this article, we provide a novel solution to the problem of persistent bounded disturbance rejection in linear discrete-time systems with time-varying delays. The solution is developed based on the tools of invariant set analysis and Lyapunov-function method. As an integral part of the solution, we derive less conservative sufficient conditions on robust attractor for discrete-time systems with delays in terms of strict linear matrix inequalities to guarantee the desired ℓ1-performance. A robust state-feedback controller is designed and the associated gain is determined using strict LMIs. The developed results are tested on a representative example.

  6. Bounded rational expectations and the stability of interest rate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Orlando; Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.

    2008-06-01

    The New Keynesian model has recently been subject to two serious criticisms: the model cannot produce plausible inflation and output dynamics following a monetary shock, and the stability of its dynamics suffers from indeterminacy. The procedures that have been proposed to eliminate these two shortcomings fall into two categories: the introduction of some sort of backward price indexation into the standard model and/or other forms of stickiness (like sticky information); and the adoption of some form of policy rule that completely offsets the effects of forward looking dynamics in the optimization process. In this paper we do not eradicate forward looking behavior from the dynamics of the New Keynesian model, neither do we impose some form of backward price indexation. We assume that private economic agents have forward looking behavior and that they do try to optimize with all available information; the only novelty is that they are allowed to make small mistakes near the rational expectations equilibrium, in a fully deterministic setup. These “near rational” or “bounded rational” expectations show that the dynamics of the model with active interest rate rules is much richer than the simple problem of local indeterminacy as is usually found in the literature.

  7. Minimum expected delay-based routing protocol (MEDR) for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin; Gong, Haigang

    2010-01-01

    It is a challenging work to develop efficient routing protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs), which have several unique characteristics such as sensor mobility, intermittent connectivity, energy limit, and delay tolerability. In this paper, we propose a new routing protocol called Minimum Expected Delay-based Routing (MEDR) tailored for DTMSNs. MEDR achieves a good routing performance by finding and using the connected paths formed dynamically by mobile sensors. In MEDR, each sensor maintains two important parameters: Minimum Expected Delay (MED) and its expiration time. According to MED, messages will be delivered to the sensor that has at least a connected path with their hosting nodes, and has the shortest expected delay to communication directly with the sink node. Because of the changing network topology, the path is fragile and volatile, so we use the expiration time of MED to indicate the valid time of the path, and avoid wrong transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed MEDR achieves a higher message delivery ratio with lower transmission overhead and data delivery delay than other DTMSN routing approaches.

  8. Focusing Your E-Recruitment Efforts to Meet the Expectations of College-Bound Students. E-Expectations 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early in 2010, the E-Expectations research group surveyed more than 1,000 college-bound high school students, polling them on their online behaviors and expectations, as well as other key enrollment-related topics. Highlights of the study include: (1) 1 in 4 students reported removing a school from their prospective list because of a bad…

  9. Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

  10. An Upper Bound for the Expected Range of a Random Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marengo, James; Lopez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    We consider the expected range of a random sample of points chosen from the interval [0, 1] according to some probability distribution. We then use the notion of convexity to derive an upper bound for this expected range which is valid for all possible choices of this distribution. Finally we show that there is only one distribution for which this…

  11. The hyperbolic step potential: Anti-bound states, SUSY partners and Wigner time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, M.; Kuru, Ş.; Negro, J.

    2017-04-01

    We study the scattering produced by a one dimensional hyperbolic step potential, which is exactly solvable and shows an unusual interest because of its asymmetric character. The analytic continuation of the scattering matrix in the momentum representation has a branch cut and an infinite number of simple poles on the negative imaginary axis which are related with the so called anti-bound states. This model does not show resonances. Using the wave functions of the anti-bound states, we obtain supersymmetric (SUSY) partners which are the series of Rosen-Morse II potentials. We have computed the Wigner reflection and transmission time delays for the hyperbolic step and such SUSY partners. Our results show that the more bound states a partner Hamiltonian has the smaller is the time delay. We also have evaluated time delays for the hyperbolic step potential in the classical case and have obtained striking similitudes with the quantum case.

  12. Interactive Relationships between Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Delay Discounting on Risky Sex

    PubMed Central

    Celio, Mark A.; MacKillop, James; Caswell, Amy J.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Operario, Don; Monti, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sex-related alcohol expectancies reflect the degree to which a person believes alcohol will affect her or his sexual behavior. Sex-related alcohol expectancies have been found to be predictors of drinking in sexual situations and engagement in risky sexual behavior after drinking. However, less is known about individual characteristics that may moderate these associations. Building upon recent evidence that steep delay discounting is associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the associations between sex-related alcohol expectancies and alcohol-related sexual risk taking would be stronger among individuals who discount delayed rewards more steeply. Methods The current sample comprised 126 Emergency Department patients (Mage=27.37; 55% male) who reported high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior during the past three months. Sex-related alcohol expectancies were assessed in three behavioral domains: increased riskiness, decreased nervousness, and enhanced sexuality. Results All three expectancy domains were associated with quantity and frequency of alcohol use, as well as percentage of alcohol-related condomless sex. Delay discounting moderated two of these relationships, such that the associations between expectancies for alcohol-induced sexual risk taking and the enhancement of sexuality and percentage of alcohol-related sexual risk-taking were significantly stronger in individuals who exhibited steeper delay discounting. Conclusions These findings suggest that individuals who both discount delayed rewards more steeply and hold strong sex-related alcohol expectancies are a particularly high-risk population. Such individuals may benefit from a combination of novel preventive strategies targeting sex-related alcohol expectancies and impulsive decision making. PMID:26891345

  13. Stochastic resonance in a tumor-immune system subject to bounded noises and time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most recent approaches in cancer therapy. A mathematical model of tumor-immune interaction, subject to a periodic immunotherapy treatment (imitated by a periodic signal), correlative and bounded stochastic fluctuations and time delays, is investigated by numerical simulations for its signal power amplification (SPA). Within the tailored parameter regime, the synchronous response of tumor growth to the immunotherapy, stochastic resonance (SR), versus both the noises and delays is obtained. The details are as follows (i) the peak values of SPA versus the noise intensity (A) in the proliferation term of tumor cells decrease as the frequency of periodic signal increases, i.e. an increase of the frequency restrains the SR; (ii) an increase of the amplitude of periodic signal restrains the SR versus A, but boosts up the SR versus the noise intensity B in the immune term; (iii) there is an optimum cross-correlated degree between the two bounded noises, at which the system exhibits the strongest SR versus the delay time τα(the reaction time of tumor cell population to their surrounding environment constraints); (iv) upon increasing the delay time τα, double SR versus the delay time τβ (the time taken by both the tumor antigen identification and tumor-stimulated proliferation of effectors) emerges. These results may be helpful for an immunotherapy treatment for the sufferer.

  14. Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech

    2010-08-15

    The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

  15. TTSA: An Effective Scheduling Approach for Delay Bounded Tasks in Hybrid Clouds.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haitao; Bi, Jing; Tan, Wei; Zhou, MengChu; Li, Bo Hu; Li, Jianqiang

    2016-07-09

    The economy of scale provided by cloud attracts a growing number of organizations and industrial companies to deploy their applications in cloud data centers (CDCs) and to provide services to users around the world. The uncertainty of arriving tasks makes it a big challenge for private CDC to cost-effectively schedule delay bounded tasks without exceeding their delay bounds. Unlike previous studies, this paper takes into account the cost minimization problem for private CDC in hybrid clouds, where the energy price of private CDC and execution price of public clouds both show the temporal diversity. Then, this paper proposes a temporal task scheduling algorithm (TTSA) to effectively dispatch all arriving tasks to private CDC and public clouds. In each iteration of TTSA, the cost minimization problem is modeled as a mixed integer linear program and solved by a hybrid simulated-annealing particle-swarm-optimization. The experimental results demonstrate that compared with the existing methods, the optimal or suboptimal scheduling strategy produced by TTSA can efficiently increase the throughput and reduce the cost of private CDC while meeting the delay bounds of all the tasks.

  16. Stability and Hopf bifurcation for a business cycle model with expectation and delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiangdong; Cai, Wenli; Lu, Jiajun; Wang, Yangyang

    2015-08-01

    According to rational expectation hypothesis, the government will take into account the future capital stock in the process of investment decision. By introducing anticipated capital stock into an economic model with investment delay, we construct a mixed functional differential system including delay and advanced variables. The system is converted to the one containing only delay by variable substitution. The equilibrium point of the system is obtained and its dynamical characteristics such as stability, Hopf bifurcation and its stability and direction are investigated by using the related theories of nonlinear dynamics. We carry out some numerical simulations to confirm these theoretical conclusions. The results indicate that both capital stock's anticipation and investment lag are the certain factors leading to the occurrence of cyclical fluctuations in the macroeconomic system. Moreover, the level of economic fluctuation can be dampened to some extent if investment decisions are made by the reasonable short-term forecast on capital stock.

  17. A multi-band fast-locking delay-locked loop with jitter-bounded feature.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lai, Hung-Jing; Lin, Meng-Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a fast-locking delay-locked loop (DLL) with jitter-bounded feature is presented. In the proposed fast-locking mechanism, a frequency estimator and a programmable voltage circuit are developed to rapidly switch the control node of voltage-controlled delay line to a voltage level near the final required value. After that, the DLL output will be quickly locked by the following charge pumping on the loop filter. In the jitter-bounded approach, two phase-frequency detectors and a tunable delay are employed to hold the output clock jitter between two reference inputs after the DLL is locked. Furthermore, to enhance the flexibility of the presented DLL, a frequency multiplier with fewer active devices is also developed to provide high-frequency clock output for wideband applications. The presented DLL is implemented in a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS technology. The active area without contact pads is 0.34 × 0.41 mm(2). A minimum lock time of six clock cycles is measured from no reference input to locked state. The output frequency ranges of the DLL and the frequency multiplier can be measured from 200 to 400 MHz and from 1 to 2 GHz, respectively. The power dissipation of the presented DLL is 31.5 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  18. The Mobile Browsing Behaviors and Expectations of College-Bound High School Students. An E-Expectations Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The last decade marked a dramatic change in the college search experience as students flocked to the Internet as their primary tool for researching colleges. Institutions had to transform their recruitment efforts to keep up with the online demands and expectations of prospective students. The proliferation of smartphones is transforming the…

  19. BCDP: Budget Constrained and Delay-Bounded Placement for Hybrid Roadside Units in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Huang, Chuanhe; Liu, Qin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks, roadside units (RSUs) placement has been proposed to improve the the overall network performance in many ITS applications. This paper addresses the budget constrained and delay-bounded placement problem (BCDP) for roadside units in vehicular ad hoc networks. There are two types of RSUs: cable connected RSU (c-RSU) and wireless RSU (w-RSU). c-RSUs are interconnected through wired lines, and they form the backbone of VANETs, while w-RSUs connect to other RSUs through wireless communication and serve as an economical extension of the coverage of c-RSUs. The delay-bounded coverage range and deployment cost of these two cases are totally different. We are given a budget constraint and a delay bound, the problem is how to find the optimal candidate sites with the maximal delay-bounded coverage to place RSUs such that a message from any c-RSU in the region can be disseminated to the more vehicles within the given budget constraint and delay bound. We first prove that the BCDP problem is NP-hard. Then we propose several algorithms to solve the BCDP problem. Simulation results show the heuristic algorithms can significantly improve the coverage range and reduce the total deployment cost, compared with other heuristic methods. PMID:25436656

  20. Global bounded consensus of multi-agent systems with non-identical nodes and communication time-delay topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei-Song; Liu, Guo-Ping; Rees, David

    2013-02-01

    This article investigates the global bounded consensus problem of networked multi-agent systems exhibiting nonlinear, non-identical node dynamics with communication time-delays. Globally bounded consensus conditions for both delay-independent and delay-dependent conditions based on the Lypunov-Krasovskii functional method are derived. The proposed consensus criteria ensures that all agents eventually move along the desired trajectories in the sense of boundedness. The proposed consensus criteria generalises the case of identical agent dynamics to the case of non-identical agent dynamics, and many related results in this area can be viewed as special cases of the above results. We finally demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results by means of a numerical simulation.

  1. Cosmological bounds to the variation of the Higgs vacuum expectation value: BBN constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, O.; Moliné, M. A.; Mosquera, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    We calculate the dependence of the deuterium binding energy upon the Higgs vacuum expectation value (v), by using different effective nucleon-nucleon potentials, and set constraints on the time variation of the Higgs vacuum expectation value from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The analysis is based on the calculation of the abundances of primordial D, 4He and 7Li. Results are consistent with variations of v/Λ in the early universe, within 6σ if all available data on primordial abundances are considered in the analysis.

  2. Delayed symptom onset and increased life expectancy in Sandhoff disease mice treated with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin

    PubMed Central

    Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Butters, Terry D.; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Hunnam, Victoria; Proia, Richard L.; Perry, V. Hugh; Dwek, Raymond A.; Platt, Frances M.

    1999-01-01

    Sandhoff disease is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the HEXB gene, which encodes the β-subunit of β-hexosaminidase. GM2 ganglioside fails to be degraded and accumulates within lysosomes in cells of the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). There are currently no therapies for the glycosphingolipid lysosomal storage diseases that involve CNS pathology, including the GM2 gangliosidoses. One strategy for treating this and related diseases is substrate deprivation. This would utilize an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis to balance synthesis with the impaired rate of catabolism, thus preventing storage. One such inhibitor is N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, which currently is in clinical trials for the potential treatment of type 1 Gaucher disease, a related disease that involves glycosphingolipid storage in peripheral tissues, but not in the CNS. In this study, we have evaluated whether this drug also could be applied to the treatment of diseases with CNS storage and pathology. We therefore have treated a mouse model of Sandhoff disease with the inhibitor N-butyldeoxynojirimycin. The treated mice have delayed symptom onset, reduced storage in the brain and peripheral tissues, and increased life expectancy. Substrate deprivation therefore offers a potentially general therapy for this family of lysosomal storage diseases, including those with CNS disease. PMID:10339597

  3. A new upper bound for the norm of interval matrices with application to robust stability analysis of delayed neural networks.

    PubMed

    Faydasicok, Ozlem; Arik, Sabri

    2013-08-01

    The main problem with the analysis of robust stability of neural networks is to find the upper bound norm for the intervalized interconnection matrices of neural networks. In the previous literature, the major three upper bound norms for the intervalized interconnection matrices have been reported and they have been successfully applied to derive new sufficient conditions for robust stability of delayed neural networks. One of the main contributions of this paper will be the derivation of a new upper bound for the norm of the intervalized interconnection matrices of neural networks. Then, by exploiting this new upper bound norm of interval matrices and using stability theory of Lyapunov functionals and the theory of homomorphic mapping, we will obtain new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of neural networks with discrete time delays under parameter uncertainties and with respect to continuous and slope-bounded activation functions. The results obtained in this paper will be shown to be new and they can be considered alternative results to previously published corresponding results. We also give some illustrative and comparative numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed robust stability condition.

  4. Factors Associated with Delayed Childbearing: From the Voices of Expectant Latina Adults and Teens in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, M. Antonia; Ralph, Lauren; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Arons, Abigail; Marchi, Kristen S.; Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Braveman, Paula A.; Brindis, Claire D.

    2010-01-01

    There has been limited research on the protective factors that help Latinas delay childbearing until adulthood. In-depth interviews were conducted with 65 pregnant Latina teenage and adult women in California who were about to have their first child. Lack of or inconsistent birth control use as teens was attributed to wanting or ambivalence toward…

  5. Seasonal life history trade-offs in two leafwing butterflies: Delaying reproductive development increases life expectancy.

    PubMed

    McElderry, Robert M

    2016-04-01

    Surviving inhospitable periods or seasons may greatly affect fitness. Evidence of this exists in the prevalence of dormant stages in the life cycles of most insects. Here I focused on butterflies with distinct seasonal morphological types (not a genetic polymorphism) in which one morphological type, or form, delays reproduction until favorable conditions return, while the other form develops in an environment that favors direct reproduction. For two butterflies, Anaea aidea and A. andria, I tested the hypothesis that the development of each seasonal form involves a differential allocation of resources to survival at eclosion. I assayed differences in adult longevity among summer and winter forms in either a warm, active environment or a cool, calm environment. Winter form adults lived 40 times longer than summer form but only in calm, cool conditions. The magnitude of this difference provided compelling evidence that the winter form body plan and metabolic strategy (i.e. resource conservatism) favor long term survival. This research suggests that winter form adults maintain lowered metabolic rate, a common feature of diapause, to conserve resources and delay senescence while overwintering.

  6. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Scottish Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the influence on Scottish preschool children's self-control of labels regarding patience given directly to the children themselves, and of the expectations regarding the children's patience provided to adult testers. Childrens self-control was assessed in a task in which each child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made…

  7. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    This study explored the hypotheses that (1) young children told (labeled) directly that they were "patient" by adults would demonstrate more subsequent self-control than children given an irrelevant label, and that (2) adult tester expectations regarding the children's self-control would influence only the subjects given the irrelevant…

  8. Expectant management with selective delayed intervention for favorable risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Laurence

    2002-01-01

    Management options for favorable risk prostate cancer are diverse, varying from a conservative approach (expectant management) to definitive treatment (radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy.) Several studies have suggested that expectant management provides similar 10-year survival rates and quality-adjusted life years compared with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Expectant management alone clearly deprives some patients with potentially curable life-threatening disease of the opportunity for curative therapy. However, every series of conservative management contains a substantial subset of long-term survivors, particularly in the group with favorable clinical parameters. We have conducted a clinical study to evaluate a novel approach in which the choice between a definitive therapy and conservative policy is determined by the rate of PSA increase or the development of early, rapid clinical and/or histologic progression. This strategy, which has never been previously evaluated, offers the powerful attraction of individualizing therapy according to the biological behavior of the cancer. This would mean that patients with slowly growing malignancy would be spared the side effects of radical treatment, while those with more rapidly progressive cancer would still benefit from curative therapy. Doubling time varied widely. In this series of 200 patients, neither grade, stage, nor baseline PSA predicted the PSA doubling time. Thirty-three percent of patients had a PSA doubling time (T(D)) > 10 years. Doubling time appears to be a useful tool to guide treatment intervention for patients managed initially with expectant management. A doubling time of less than 2 years appears to identify patients at high risk for local progression in spite of otherwise favorable prognostic factors. Fifteen to 20% of patients will fall into this category. The remainder have a high chance of remaining free of recurrence and progression for many years. Watchful waiting is clearly

  9. Analysis of a grid ionospheric vertical delay and its bounding errors over West African sub-Saharan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, O. E.; Otero Villamide, X.; Paparini, C.; Radicella, S. M.; Nava, B.

    2017-02-01

    Investigating the effects of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) ionosphere and space weather on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is very crucial, and a key to successful implementation of a GNSS augmentation system (SBAS) over the equatorial and low-latitude regions. A possible ionospheric vertical delay (GIVD, Grid Ionospheric Vertical Delay) broadcast at a Ionospheric Grid Point (IGP) and its confidence bounds errors (GIVE, Grid Ionospheric Vertical Error) are analyzed and compared with the ionospheric vertical delay estimated at a nearby user location over the West African Sub-Saharan region. Since African sub-Saharan ionosphere falls within the EIA region, which is always characterized by a disturbance in form of irregularities after sunset, and the disturbance is even more during the geomagnetically quiet conditions unlike middle latitudes, the need to have a reliable ionospheric threat model to cater for the nighttime ionospheric plasma irregularities for the future SBAS user is essential. The study was done during the most quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions on October 2013. A specific low latitude EGNOS-like algorithm, based on single thin layer model, was engaged to simulate SBAS message in the study. Our preliminary results indicate that, the estimated GIVE detects and protects a potential SBAS user against sampled ionospheric plasma irregularities over the region with a steep increment in GIVE to non-monitored after local sunset to post midnight. This corresponds to the onset of the usual ionospheric plasma irregularities in the region. The results further confirm that the effects of the geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere are not consistent in affecting GNSS applications over the region. Finally, this paper suggests further work to be investigated in order to improve the threat integrity model activity, and thereby enhance the availability of the future SBAS over African sub-Saharan region.

  10. Stochastic bounded consensus tracking of leader-follower multi-agent systems with measurement noises based on sampled-data with small sampling delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihai; Peng, Li; Xie, Linbo; Wen, Jiwei

    2013-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the stochastic bounded consensus tracking problems of leader-follower multi-agent systems, where the control input of an agent can only use the information measured at the sampling instants from its neighborhood agents or a virtual leader with a time-varying reference state, the measurements are corrupted by random noises, and the signal sampling process induces a small sampling delay. The augmented matrix method, probability limit theory and algebra graph theory are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing mean square bounded consensus tracking. It turns out that the convergence of the proposed protocol simultaneously depends on the constant feedback gains, the network topology, the sampling period and the sampling delay, and that the static consensus tracking error depends on not only the above-mentioned factors, but also the noise intensity, the number of agents and the upper bound of the changing rate of the virtual leader’s state. The obtained results cover no sampling delay as a special case. Simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  11. Adjustment of Adaptive Gain with Bounded Linear Stability Analysis to Improve Time-Delay Margin for Metrics-Driven Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinvas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of Bounded Linear Stability Analysis (BLSA) method for metrics driven adaptive control. The bounded linear stability analysis method is used for analyzing stability of adaptive control models, without linearizing the adaptive laws. Metrics-driven adaptive control introduces a notion that adaptation should be driven by some stability metrics to achieve robustness. By the application of bounded linear stability analysis method the adaptive gain is adjusted during the adaptation in order to meet certain phase margin requirements. Analysis of metrics-driven adaptive control is evaluated for a linear damaged twin-engine generic transport model of aircraft. The analysis shows that the system with the adjusted adaptive gain becomes more robust to unmodeled dynamics or time delay.

  12. What to Expect from the Virtual Seismologist: Delay Times and Uncertainties of Initial Earthquake Alerts in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Y.; Cua, G. B.; Clinton, J. F.; Racine, R.; Meier, M.; Cauzzi, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) method is a Bayesian approach to regional network-based earthquake early warning (EEW) originally formulated by Cua and Heaton (2007). Implementation of VS into real-time EEW codes has been an on-going effort of the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zürich since 2006, with support from ETH Zürich, various European projects, and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). VS is one of three EEW algorithms that form the basis of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a USGS-funded prototype end-to-end EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. In Europe, VS is currently operating as a real-time test system in Switzerland, western Greece and Istanbul. As part of the on-going EU project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real-Time Earthquake Risk Reduction), VS installations in southern Italy, Romania, and Iceland are planned or underway. The possible use cases for an EEW system will be determined by the speed and reliability of earthquake source parameter estimates. A thorough understanding of both is therefore essential to evaluate the usefulness of VS. For California, we present state-wide theoretical alert times for hypothetical earthquakes by analyzing time delays introduced by the different components in the VS EEW system. Taking advantage of the fully probabilistic formulation of the VS algorithm we further present an improved way to describe the uncertainties of every magnitude estimate by evaluating the width and shape of the probability density function that describes the relationship between waveform envelope amplitudes and magnitude. We evaluate these new uncertainty values for past seismicity in California through off-line playbacks and compare them to the previously defined static definitions of uncertainty based on real-time detections. Our results indicate where VS alerts are most useful in California and also suggest where most effective improvements to the VS EEW system

  13. UAVs and Control Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Transport Delay itI tl2 s2+(tl +t2tI2)s+ 1 Delay Figure 17 A Matlab Simulink model used to compare a simple delayed system , in this case an integrator...23 3 Control of tim e-delay system s...discuss the various sources of delays, leading to an assessment of typical delays to be expected in a few example systems . Sources of delay that will

  14. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  15. Sliding of a 43S ribosomal complex from the recognized AUG codon triggered by a delay in eIF2-bound GTP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Terenin, Ilya M.; Akulich, Kseniya A.; Andreev, Dmitry E.; Polyanskaya, Sofya A.; Shatsky, Ivan N.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.

    2016-01-01

    During eukaryotic translation initiation, 43S ribosomal complex scans mRNA leader unless an AUG codon in an appropriate context is found. Establishing the stable codon–anticodon base-pairing traps the ribosome on the initiator codon and triggers structural rearrangements, which lead to Pi release from the eIF2-bound GTP. It is generally accepted that AUG recognition by the scanning 43S complex sets the final point in the process of start codon selection, while latter stages do not contribute to this process. Here we use translation reconstitution approach and kinetic toe-printing assay to show that after the 48S complex is formed on an AUG codon, in case GTP hydrolysis is impaired, the ribosomal subunit is capable to resume scanning and slides downstream to the next AUG. In contrast to leaky scanning, this sliding is not limited to AUGs in poor nucleotide contexts and occurs after a relatively long pause at the recognized AUG. Thus, recognition of an AUG per se does not inevitably lead to this codon being selected for initiation of protein synthesis. Instead, it is eIF5-induced GTP hydrolysis and Pi release that irreversibly trap the 48S complex, and this complex is further stabilized by eIF5B and 60S joining. PMID:26717981

  16. Time Delay Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    investigate the possibility of exploiting the properties of a detected Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) signal waveform to estimate time delay, and by...ratios, namely 10 dB and less. We also examine the minimum time –delay estimate error – the Cramer–Rao bound. The results indicate that the method

  17. Bounds on Transmission Delays for the CCRA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    a large number of independent, packet transmitting , bursty users request access to a common channel. We consider "random-access" transmission...characteristics imply low-level synchronization among the users. In particular, each user is allowed to transmit at most one packet at the time, and he can...start transmission only at the beginning of some channel slot. Thus, some channel slot is empty if -2- no user transmitted a packet within it. Some

  18. Upward Bound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes an Upward Bound program at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University designed to assist disadvantaged high school juniors and seniors in overcoming academic deficiencies in order to enter and succeed in college. The Saturday program centered on various aspects of aviation, including career opportunities. (MLH)

  19. Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.

    The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound…

  20. Great Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1993-01-01

    Inside one Washington, DC, elementary school, Principal John Pannell has high hopes for his students and an expansive school vision. Malcolm X School compensates for disorder outside by clearly inculcating rules and behavior expectations. Children in school uniforms daily repeat a motto promoting Malcolm X as a school of love allowing no hitting,…

  1. Leadership Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ray C.

    A review of theories of expectation as related to behavior shows a high correlation between educational leaders' perceptions of their faculties and the climate and quality of instructional programs. Thus, effective faculties and high quality educational programs could be linked to a particular type of leadership. Leaders who hold high expectations…

  2. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions…

  3. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  4. Viva Delay.

    PubMed

    Yahaghi, Hossein; Sorooshian, Shahryar; Yahaghi, Javad

    2016-06-28

    The time delay between submission of a thesis and Viva Voce is intolerable for students. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the effect of choosing the right examiner, in order to reduce the Viva Voce delay.

  5. [Delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Edouard, T; Tauber, M

    2010-02-01

    Delayed puberty is defined in girls by the absence of breast development beyond 13 years old and in boys by the absence of testicular enlargement (< 4 ml) beyond 14 years old. Simple investigations lead to the diagnosis of central or peripheral hypogonadism and constitutional delay of puberty. In girls, delayed puberty is rare and often organic, and then Turner syndrome should be systematically suspected. In boys, delayed puberty is often constitutional and functional. Treatment is etiologic when possible, hormonal replacement therapy (oestrogen in girls and testosterone in boys) and psychological management.

  6. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  7. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Traggiai, Cristina; Stanhope, Richard

    2002-03-01

    Puberty is the acquisition of secondary sexual characteristics associated with a growth spurt and resulting in the attainment of reproductive function. Delayed puberty is diagnosed when there is no breast development by 13.4 years of age in a girl and no testicular enlargement by 14.0 years in a boy. The aetiologies are: (i) pubertal delay, either with constitutional delay of growth and puberty or secondary to chronic illness, and (ii) pubertal failure, with hypogonadotrophic (defect in the hypothalamo-pituitary region) or hypergonadotrophic (secondary to gonadal failure) hypogonadism, or both (secondary to radio/chemotherapy). The investigation includes: history, auxological data and pubertal development examination. Boys usually require treatment and, if they do not respond, investigation. In girls it is appropriate to measure the thyroid function and karyotype first and, if necessary, to offer treatment. If they present with dysmorphic features, or positive familial history, an assessment is required before treatment.

  8. Imitation dynamics with time delay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Chang; Yu, Jie-Ru; Kurokawa, Shun; Tao, Yi

    2017-02-28

    Based on the classic imitation dynamics (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998, Evolutionary Games and Population Dynamics, Cambridge University Press), the imitation dynamics with time delay is investigated, where the probability that an individual will imitate its opponent's own strategy is assumed to depend on the comparison between the past expected payoff of this individual's own strategy and the past expected payoff of its opponent's own strategy, i.e. there is a time delay effect. For the two-phenotype model, we show that if the system has an interior equilibrium and this interior equilibrium is stable when there is no time delay, then there must be a critical value of time delay such that the system tends to a stable periodic solution when the time delay is larger than the critical value. On the other hand, for three-phenotype (rock-scissors-paper) model, the numerical analysis shows that for the stable periodic solution induced by the time delay, the amplitude and the period will increase with the increase of the time delay. These results should help to understand the evolution of behavior based on the imitation dynamics with time delay.

  9. Culture-bound syndromes.

    PubMed

    Levine, R E; Gaw, A C

    1995-09-01

    Since its inception, scholars have struggled with the concept of CBSs. This struggle is reflected in the continuing use of a term that is confusing and inaccurate. Most authors would agree that the term "culture-bound syndrome" was intended to describe forms of otherwise common mental illness that are rendered unusual because of the pathoplastic influence of culture. It was intended not only to describe specific syndromes, but also meanings of illness and non-Western notions of disease causation. The term has become an anachronism, for the word, "syndrome," implies specific disease entities, not illnesses of attribution of idioms of distress. Furthermore, the word "bound" implies that the entities described are restricted to a single culture. Close examination reveals that many of the so-called "culture-bound" syndromes are found in multiple cultures that have in common only that they are "non-Western." It may be unreasonable to expect one term to describe these different concepts. The most accurate of the designations offered might be "folk diagnostic categories." Perhaps the most difficult question remaining is "How can we understand (and classify) these phenomena in such a way that highlights their uniqueness but does not dismiss them as too rare and exotic to warrant attention?" The first step is to recognize that the CBSs are a heterogeneous group of conditions. We must next acknowledge that the concepts represented may be difficult for the average Western clinician to recognize but, in their respective cultures, are neither rare nor unusual. With 80% of our increasingly shrinking world coming from "non-Western" cultures, a familiarity with non-Western notions of disease causation is particularly important for modern clinicians. Many authors have recommended that those CBSs that are "true" syndromes be classified together with their Western counterparts. In order to do this, the folk labels need to be put aside and the fundamental components of each disorder

  10. Planning for the Future: An Investigation of Work-Bound Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Bryan C.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the postsecondary educational and occupational expectations of work-bound rural youth. Three groups of work-bound youth were identified (work-bound, work-bound with future educational plans, and work-bound but unsure/undecided about postsecondary education), and each group was compared to college-bound…

  11. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Since puberty is a long ongoing developmental process with significant individual and population differences in timing, the definition of delayed puberty for a given individual needs to rest on simple, though arbitrary criteria based on epidemiological data. Although several genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal maturation cascade have been characterized recently from familial or sporadic cases of primitive isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, many genes regulating puberty onset remain undetermined. In case of delayed puberty and/or primary amenorrhea, a complete clinical examination including a detailed past history will evaluate the development of secondary sex characteristics, verify the association with a growth delay and look for specific indicative features pertaining to the etiological diagnosis. This clinical check-up completed if necessary with biological, ultrasonographic, radiological and genetic investigations will try to determine which girls will have a permanent sexual infantilism of gonadal, hypophyseal or hypothalamic origin, which girls will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty and which girls have primary amenorrhea with developed secondary sex characteristics. Therapeutic attitude will have to integrate etiological factors, statural prognosis, bone mass preservation and psychological factors.

  12. A lower bound for the QRQW PRAM

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, P.D.

    1995-05-02

    The queue-read, queue-write (QRQW) parallel random access machine (PRAM) model is a shared memory model which allows concurrent reading and writing with a time cost proportional to the contention. This is designed to model currently available parallel machines more accurately than either the CRCW PRAM or EREW PRAM models. Many algorithmic results have been developed for the QRQW PRAM. However, the only lower bound results have been fairly simple reductions from lower bounds for other models, such as the EREW PRAM or the ``few-write`` CREW PRAM. Here we present a lower bound specific to the QRQW PRAM. This lower bound is on the problem of Linear Approximate Compaction (LAC), whose input consists of at most m marked items in an array of size n, and whose output consists of the rn marked items in an array of size 0(m). There is an O({radical}log n), expected time randomized algorithm for LAC on the QRQW PRAM. We prove a lower bound of {Omega}(log log log n) expected time for any randomized algorithm for LAC. This bound applies regardless of the number of processors and memory cells of the QRQW PRAM. The previous best lower bound was {Omega}(log* n) time, taken from the known lower bound for LAC on the CRCW PRAM.

  13. Bound states and the Bekenstein bound

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2003-10-16

    We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

  14. Corrections of stratified tropospheric delays in SAR interferometry: Validation with global atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, Marie-Pierre; Lasserre, Cécile; Peltzer, Gilles; Cavalié, Olivier; Doubre, Cécile

    2010-05-01

    The main limiting factor on the accuracy of Interferometric SAR measurements (InSAR) comes from phase propagation delays through the troposphere. The delay can be divided into a stratified component, which correlates with the topography and often dominates the tropospheric signal, and a turbulent component. We use Global Atmospheric Models (GAM) to estimate the stratified phase delay and delay-elevation ratio at epochs of SAR acquisitions, and compare them to observed phase delay derived from SAR interferograms. Three test areas are selected with different geographic and climatic environments and with large SAR archive available. The Lake Mead, Nevada, USA is covered by 79 ERS1/2 and ENVISAT acquisitions, the Haiyuan Fault area, Gansu, China, by 24 ERS1/2 acquisitions, and the Afar region, Republic of Djibouti, by 91 Radarsat acquisitions. The hydrostatic and wet stratified delays are computed from GAM as a function of atmospheric pressure P, temperature T, and water vapor partial pressure e vertical profiles. The hydrostatic delay, which depends on ratio P/T, varies significantly at low elevation and cannot be neglected. The wet component of the delay depends mostly on the near surface specific humidity. GAM predicted delay-elevation ratios are in good agreement with the ratios derived from InSAR data away from deforming zones. Both estimations of the delay-elevation ratio can thus be used to perform a first order correction of the observed interferometric phase to retrieve a ground motion signal of low amplitude. We also demonstrate that aliasing of daily and seasonal variations in the stratified delay due to uneven sampling of SAR data significantly bias InSAR data stacks or time series produced after temporal smoothing. In all three test cases, the InSAR data stacks or smoothed time series present a residual stratified delay of the order of the expected deformation signal. In all cases, correcting interferograms from the stratified delay removes all these

  15. Corrections of stratified tropospheric delays in SAR interferometry: Validation with global atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, M.-P.; Lasserre, C.; Peltzer, G.; Cavalié, O.; Doubre, C.

    2009-09-01

    The main limiting factor on the accuracy of Interferometric SAR measurements (InSAR) comes from phase propagation delays through the troposphere. The delay can be divided into a stratified component, which correlates with the topography and often dominates the tropospheric signal, and a turbulent component. We use Global Atmospheric Models (GAM) to estimate the stratified phase delay and delay-elevation ratio at epochs of SAR acquisitions, and compare them to observed phase delay derived from SAR interferograms. Three test areas are selected with different geographic and climatic environments and with large SAR archive available. The Lake Mead, Nevada, USA is covered by 79 ERS1/2 and ENVISAT acquisitions, the Haiyuan Fault area, Gansu, China, by 24 ERS1/2 acquisitions, and the Afar region, Republic of Djibouti, by 91 Radarsat acquisitions. The hydrostatic and wet stratified delays are computed from GAM as a function of atmospheric pressure P, temperature T, and water vapor partial pressure e vertical profiles. The hydrostatic delay, which depends on ratio P/ T, varies significantly at low elevation and cannot be neglected. The wet component of the delay depends mostly on the near surface specific humidity. GAM predicted delay-elevation ratios are in good agreement with the ratios derived from InSAR data away from deforming zones. Both estimations of the delay-elevation ratio can thus be used to perform a first order correction of the observed interferometric phase to retrieve a ground motion signal of low amplitude. We also demonstrate that aliasing of daily and seasonal variations in the stratified delay due to uneven sampling of SAR data significantly bias InSAR data stacks or time series produced after temporal smoothing. In all three test cases, the InSAR data stacks or smoothed time series present a residual stratified delay of the order of the expected deformation signal. In all cases, correcting interferograms from the stratified delay removes all these

  16. Stability analysis in a car-following model with reaction-time delay and delayed feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yanfei; Xu, Meng

    2016-10-01

    The delayed feedback control in terms of both headway and velocity differences has been proposed to guarantee the stability of a car-following model including the reaction-time delay of drivers. Using Laplace transformation and transfer function, the stable condition is derived and appropriate choices of time delay and feedback gains are designed to stabilize traffic flow. Meanwhile, an upper bound on explicit time delay is determined with respect to the response of desired acceleration. To ensure the string stability, the explicit time delay cannot over its upper bound. Numerical simulations indicate that the proposed control method can restraint traffic congestion and improve control performance.

  17. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Edward O; Lee, Peter A

    2002-02-01

    Normal puberty is a time of life and a process of development that results in full adult maturity of growth, sexual development, and psychosocial achievement. Delayed puberty describes the clinical condition in which the pubertal events start late (usually > +2.5 SD later than the mean) or are attenuated in progression. The differential diagnosis includes syndromes of low gonadotropin production, usually constitutional delay of growth and maturation associated with chronic disease, but also an array of gene-mediated disorders, and syndromes of primary gonadal dysfunction with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, including Turner and Klinefelter syndromes, and a group of acquired and genetic abnormalities. Diagnostic assessment and varied therapeutic modalities are discussed. The issues of androgen or estrogen therapy are important to assess, and growth hormone treatment remains a difficult dilemma.

  18. Convex Lower Bounds for Free Energy Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    We construct lower bounds on free energy with convex relaxations from the nonlinear minimization over probabilities to linear programs over expectation values. Finite-temperature expectation values are further resolved into distributions over energy. A superset of valid expectation values is delineated by an incomplete set of linear constraints. Free energy bounds can be improved systematically by adding constraints, which also increases their computational cost. We compute several free energy bounds of increasing accuracy for the triangular-lattice Ising model to assess the utility of this method. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  20. Stabilisation of second-order nonlinear equations with variable delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezansky, Leonid; Braverman, Elena; Idels, Lev

    2015-08-01

    For a wide class of second-order nonlinear non-autonomous models, we illustrate that combining proportional state control with the feedback that is proportional to the derivative of the chaotic signal allows to stabilise unstable motions of the system. The delays are variable, which leads to more flexible controls permitting delay perturbations; only delay bounds are significant for stabilisation by a delayed control. The results are applied to the sunflower equation which has an infinite number of equilibrium points.

  1. Expecting the Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaula, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational expectations are psychological constructs that change over time and can be altered or influenced by various factors. The concept of educational expectations refers to how much schooling students realistically believe that they will complete. These expectations are eventually raised or lowered as students see others like themselves…

  2. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  3. Causality and Tsirelson's bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buhrman, H.; Massar, S.

    2005-11-15

    We study the properties of no-signaling correlations that cannot be reproduced by local measurements on entangled quantum states. We say that such correlations violate Tsirelson bounds. We show that if these correlations are obtained by some reversible unitary quantum evolution U, then U cannot be written in the product form U{sub A}xU{sub B}. This implies that U can be used for signaling and for entanglement generation. This result is completely general and in fact can be viewed as a characterization of Tsirelson bounds. We then show how this result can be used as a tool to study Tsirelson bounds and we illustrate this by rederiving the Tsirelson bound of 2{radical}(2) for the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequality, and by deriving a new Tsirelson bound for qutrits.

  4. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  5. Colorado Outward Bound School River Rafters' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachman, Mark

    Instructional sequences, safety rules, duties of crew members, and procedures for Colorado Outward Bound School river rafting trips are summarized in this manual. Designed to acquaint instructors with the duties expected of them on the trips, the information in the manual is presented in outline form and is intended for those with prior river…

  6. Finite time stabilization of delayed neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Ding, Zhixia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the problem of finite time stabilization for a class of delayed neural networks (DNNs) is investigated. The general conditions on the feedback control law are provided to ensure the finite time stabilization of DNNs. Then some specific conditions are derived by designing two different controllers which include the delay-dependent and delay-independent ones. In addition, the upper bound of the settling time for stabilization is estimated. Under fixed control strength, discussions of the extremum of settling time functional are made and a switched controller is designed to optimize the settling time. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  7. Humans expect generosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-02-01

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  8. Humans expect generosity.

    PubMed

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-02-14

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people's expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior.

  9. Humans expect generosity

    PubMed Central

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Rodríguez-Lara, Ismael; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms supporting human ultra-cooperativeness are very much subject to debate. One psychological feature likely to be relevant is the formation of expectations, particularly about receiving cooperative or generous behavior from others. Without such expectations, social life will be seriously impeded and, in turn, expectations leading to satisfactory interactions can become norms and institutionalize cooperation. In this paper, we assess people’s expectations of generosity in a series of controlled experiments using the dictator game. Despite differences in respective roles, involvement in the game, degree of social distance or variation of stakes, the results are conclusive: subjects seldom predict that dictators will behave selfishly (by choosing the Nash equilibrium action, namely giving nothing). The majority of subjects expect that dictators will choose the equal split. This implies that generous behavior is not only observed in the lab, but also expected by subjects. In addition, expectations are accurate, matching closely the donations observed and showing that as a society we have a good grasp of how we interact. Finally, correlation between expectations and actual behavior suggests that expectations can be an important ingredient of generous or cooperative behavior. PMID:28195218

  10. Virial Expansion Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  11. Outside the Expected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dienstfrey, Harris

    1968-01-01

    In examining the findings of "Pygmalion in the Classroom," an experimental study of the positive effects of favorable teacher expectations on the intellectual development of disadvantaged elementary school students, this review speculates about why the experimental students, whom the teachers expected to improve, and the control…

  12. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  13. A Superintendent's High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article profiles Wanda Bamberg, superintendent of the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District. Bamberg is used to high expectations regardless of the circumstances. She is a firecracker of sorts who talks much and expects much from her staff members, teachers, and students, who are mostly at-risk, Black and Hispanic, and economically…

  14. An Unexpected Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the surprising result that the expected number of marbles of one color drawn from a set of marbles of two colors after two draws without replacement is the same as the expected number of that color marble after two draws with replacement. Presents mathematical models to help explain this phenomenon. (MDH)

  15. Acoustic time delay estimation and sensor network self-localization: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ash, Joshua N.; Moses, Randolph L.

    2005-08-01

    Experimental results are presented on propagation, coherence, and time-delay estimation (TDE) from a microphone array in an outdoor aeroacoustic environment. The primary goal is to understand the achievable accuracy of acoustic TDE using low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) speakers and microphones. In addition, through the use of modulated pseudo-noise sequences, the experiment seeks to provide an empirical understanding of the effects of center frequency, bandwidth, and signal duration on TDE effectiveness and compares this to the theoretical expectations established by the Weiss-Weinstein lower bound. Finally, sensor network self-localization is performed using a maximum likelihood estimator and the time-delay estimates. Experimental network localization error is presented as a function of the acoustic calibration signal parameters.

  16. Delayed childbearing.

    PubMed

    Francis, H H

    1985-06-01

    In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the

  17. Bound Anionic States of Aadenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-03-20

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation,wehave demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

  18. Bound Anionic States of Adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-03-20

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (it) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

  19. Validation of EMP bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  20. Reward expectations in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Gil, Mariana

    2010-03-01

    The study of expectations of reward helps to understand rules controlling goal-directed behavior as well as decision making and planning. I shall review a series of recent studies focusing on how the food gathering behavior of honeybees depends upon reward expectations. These studies document that free-flying honeybees develop long-term expectations of reward and use them to regulate their investment of energy/time during foraging. Also, they present a laboratory procedure suitable for analysis of neural substrates of reward expectations in the honeybee brain. I discuss these findings in the context of individual and collective foraging, on the one hand, and neurobiology of learning and memory of reward.

  1. Health expectancy indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Robine, J. M.; Romieu, I.; Cambois, E.

    1999-01-01

    An outline is presented of progress in the development of health expectancy indicators, which are growing in importance as a means of assessing the health status of populations and determining public health priorities. PMID:10083720

  2. Security Bounds for Continuous Variables Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navascués, Miguel; Acín, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Security bounds for key distribution protocols using coherent and squeezed states and homodyne measurements are presented. These bounds refer to (i)general attacks and (ii)collective attacks where Eve applies the optimal individual interaction to the sent states, but delays her measurement until the end of the reconciliation process. For the case of a lossy line and coherent states, it is first proven that a secure key distribution is possible up to 1.9dB of losses. For the second scenario, the security bounds are the same as for the completely incoherent attack.

  3. Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

  4. Narrow deeply bound K- atomic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    1999-07-01

    Using optical potentials fitted to a comprehensive set of strong interaction level shifts and widths in K- atoms, we predict that the K- atomic levels which are inaccessible in the atomic cascade process are generally narrow, spanning a range of widths about 50-1500 keV over the entire periodic table. The mechanism for this narrowing is different from the mechanism for narrowing of pionic atom levels. Examples of such `deeply bound' K- atomic states are given, showing that in many cases these states should be reasonably well resolved. Several reactions which could be used to form these `deeply bound' states are mentioned. Narrow deeply bound states are expected also in overlinep atoms.

  5. Behavior, Expectations and Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Jr, Murray; Rashotte, Lisa Slattery

    2010-01-01

    We predict effects of behavior patterns and status on performance expectations and group inequality using an integrated theory developed by Fisek, Berger and Norman (1991). We next test those predictions using new experimental techniques we developed to control behavior patterns as independent variables. In a 10-condition experiment, predictions…

  6. Addicted to Expectations? Conference!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Mary

    Whether teaching incoming students or training faculty in other disciplines, writing instructors often form unrealistic expectations about goals and skills of students and colleagues, which (like chemical addictions) predictably recur each semester as though they had never occurred before. For effective instruction, it is important that…

  7. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  8. Maintaining High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger; Williams, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    Author and husband, Roger Williams, is hearing and signs fluently, and author and wife, Sherry Williams, is deaf and uses both speech and signs, although she is most comfortable signing. As parents of six children--deaf and hearing--they are determined to encourage their children to do their best, and they always set their expectations high. They…

  9. Parenting with High Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timperlake, Benna Hull; Sanders, Genelle Timperlake

    2014-01-01

    In some ways raising deaf or hard of hearing children is no different than raising hearing children; expectations must be established and periodically tweaked. Benna Hull Timperlake, who with husband Roger, raised two hearing children in addition to their deaf daughter, Genelle Timperlake Sanders, and Genelle, now a deaf professional, share their…

  10. Thermalization Time Bounds for Pauli Stabilizer Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Kristan

    2017-03-01

    We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Hamiltonians that can be written as the sum of commuting Pauli operators. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of N-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as {λ ≥ O(N^{-1} exp(-2β overline{ɛ}))}, where {overline{ɛ}} is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of N -1. Furthermore, we discuss conditions and provide scenarios where this factor can be removed and a constant lower bound can be proven.

  11. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  12. Improved results for linear discrete-time systems with an interval time-varying input delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Peng, Chen; Zheng, Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of delay-dependent stability analysis and controller synthesis for a discrete-time system with an interval time-varying input delay. By dividing delay interval into multiple parts and constructing a novel piecewise Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, an improved delay-partitioning-dependent stability criterion and a stabilisation criterion are obtained in terms of matrix inequalities. Compared with some existing results, since a tighter bounding inequality is employed to deal with the integral items, our results depend on less number of linear matrix inequality scalar decision variables while obtaining same or better allowable upper delay bound. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Genetic enhancements and expectations.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, K

    2009-07-01

    Some argue that genetic enhancements and environmental enhancements are not importantly different: environmental enhancements such as private schools and chess lessons are simply the old-school way to have a designer baby. I argue that there is an important distinction between the two practices--a distinction that makes state restrictions on genetic enhancements more justifiable than state restrictions on environmental enhancements. The difference is that parents have no settled expectations about genetic enhancements.

  14. Universal bounds on current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2016-05-01

    For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.

  15. A delay-range-partition approach to analyse stability of linear systems with time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, Y. Y.; Shi, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the stability analysis of linear systems with an interval time-varying delay is investigated. First, augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals are constructed, which include more information of the delay's range and the delay's derivative. Second, two improved integral inequalities, which are less conservative than Jensen's integral inequalities, and delay-range-partition approach are utilised to estimate the upper bounds of the derivatives of the augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals. Then, less conservative stability criteria are proposed no matter whether the lower bound of delay is zero or not. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the stability criteria proposed in this paper, two numerical examples are given and their results are compared with the existing results.

  16. Blog life: Entropy Bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Who is the blog written by? Peter Steinberg is a nuclear physicist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, US. He is acting project manager of the PHOBOS experiment, which used Brookhaven's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to search for unusual events produced during collisions between gold nuclei. He is also involved with the PHENIX experiment, which seeks to discover a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma. In addition to his own blog Entropy Bound, Steinberg is currently blogging on a website that was set up last year to publicize the involvement of US scientists with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN.

  17. Classical subjective expected utility

    PubMed Central

    Cerreia-Vioglio, Simone; Maccheroni, Fabio; Marinacci, Massimo; Montrucchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    We consider decision makers who know that payoff-relevant observations are generated by a process that belongs to a given class M, as postulated in Wald [Wald A (1950) Statistical Decision Functions (Wiley, New York)]. We incorporate this Waldean piece of objective information within an otherwise subjective setting à la Savage [Savage LJ (1954) The Foundations of Statistics (Wiley, New York)] and show that this leads to a two-stage subjective expected utility model that accounts for both state and model uncertainty. PMID:23559375

  18. Multifunctions of bounded variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinter, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    Consider control systems described by a differential equation with a control term or, more generally, by a differential inclusion with velocity set F (t , x). Certain properties of state trajectories can be derived when it is assumed that F (t , x) is merely measurable w.r.t. the time variable t. But sometimes a refined analysis requires the imposition of stronger hypotheses regarding the time dependence. Stronger forms of necessary conditions for minimizing state trajectories can be derived, for example, when F (t , x) is Lipschitz continuous w.r.t. time. It has recently become apparent that significant addition properties of state trajectories can still be derived, when the Lipschitz continuity hypothesis is replaced by the weaker requirement that F (t , x) has bounded variation w.r.t. time. This paper introduces a new concept of multifunctions F (t , x) that have bounded variation w.r.t. time near a given state trajectory, of special relevance to control. We provide an application to sensitivity analysis.

  19. Beyond my wildest expectations.

    PubMed

    Nester, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    With support from my parents, I fulfilled their and my expectations of graduating from college and becoming a scientist. My scientific career has focused on two organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and two experimental systems, aromatic amino acid synthesis and DNA transfer in bacteria and plants. Studies on B. subtilis emphasized the genetics and biochemistry of aromatic amino acid synthesis and the characterization of competence in DNA transformation. I carried out both as a postdoc at Stanford with Josh Lederberg. At the University of Washington, I continued these studies and then investigated how Agrobacterium transforms plant cells. In collaboration, Milt Gordon, Mary-Dell Chilton, and I found that this bacterium could transfer a piece of its plasmid into plant cells and thereby modify their properties. This discovery opened up a host of intriguing questions that we have tried to answer over the last 35 years.

  20. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    PubMed

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  1. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  2. Person perception and the bounded rationality of social judgment.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Dawson, V L

    1988-11-01

    In this article, we develop a bounded rationality view of the relation between person perception and social behavior. Two theses of this approach are that behaviors vary in their significance to observers, and that observers pursue bounded rather than global utility in forming personality impressions. Observers are expected to be sensitive to targets' overall behavioral tendencies and to the variability of their behavior across situations, but both sensitivities are bounded, being greater for behaviors that directly affect observers' outcomes. In two investigations involving extensive hourly and 6-s observations, we examined the bounded utility of people's impressions of personality, demonstrating how impression accuracy is linked to the significance of behaviors. Observers were sensitive to the organization of aggressive behaviors, but less sensitive to the organization of withdrawn behaviors, even when the consistency of those behaviors was comparable. The results clarify the relation between people's inferential shortcomings in laboratory paradigms and the bounded utility of person perception in the natural environment.

  3. Is Fusion Inhibited for Weakly Bound Nuclei?

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, J.; Munhoz, M.; Szanto, E.M.; Carlin, N.; Added, N.; Suaide, A.A.; de Moura, M.M.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Canto, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Complete fusion of light radioactive nuclei is predicted to be hindered at near-barrier energies. This feature is investigated in the case of the least bound stable nuclei. Evaporation residues resulting from the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 9}Be and {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 12}C fusion reactions have been measured in order to study common features in reactions involving light weakly bound nuclei. The experimental excitation functions revealed that the fusion cross section is significantly smaller than the total reaction cross section and also smaller than the fusion cross section expected from the available systematics. A clear correlation between the fusion probability and nucleon (cluster) separation energy has been established.The results suggest that the breakup process has a strong influence on the hindrance of the fusion cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Transition delay using control theory.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, S; Henningson, D S

    2011-04-13

    This review gives an account of recent research efforts to use feedback control for the delay of laminar-turbulent transition in wall-bounded shear flows. The emphasis is on reducing the growth of small-amplitude disturbances in the boundary layer using numerical simulations and a linear control approach. Starting with the application of classical control theory to two-dimensional perturbations developing in spatially invariant flows, flow control based on control theory has progressed towards more realistic three-dimensional, spatially inhomogeneous flow configurations with localized sensing/actuation. The development of low-dimensional models of the Navier-Stokes equations has played a key role in this progress. Moreover, shortcomings and future challenges, as well as recent experimental advances in this multi-disciplinary field, are discussed.

  5. Bound anionic states of adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

    2007-03-20

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  6. Sociology of Low Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have drawn attention to the role of hype and optimistic visions of the future in providing momentum to biomedical innovation projects by encouraging innovation alliances. In this article, we show how less optimistic, uncertain, and modest visions of the future can also provide innovation projects with momentum. Scholars have highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully manage the expectations of their prospective patients. Using the example of a pioneering clinical team providing deep brain stimulation to children and young people with movement disorders, we show how clinicians confront this requirement by drawing on their professional knowledge and clinical expertise to construct visions of the future with their prospective patients; visions which are personalized, modest, and tainted with uncertainty. We refer to this vision-constructing work as recalibration, and we argue that recalibration enables clinicians to manage the tension between the highly optimistic and hyped visions of the future that surround novel biomedical interventions, and the exigencies of delivering those interventions in a clinical setting. Drawing on work from science and technology studies, we suggest that recalibration enrolls patients in an innovation alliance by creating a shared understanding of how the “effectiveness” of an innovation shall be judged. PMID:26527846

  7. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  8. Glioblastoma: changing expectations?

    PubMed

    Arribas Alpuente, Leoncio; Menéndez López, Antonio; Yayá Tur, Ricardo

    2011-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) represents the most aggressive glioma in the adult population. Despite recent research efforts, the prognosis of patients with GB has remained dismal. Lately, the knowledge of genetic information about gliomagenesis has increased; we even have a classification of the genetic expression of the tumour. The main problem is that at the moment we do not have any therapeutical resources to help us better treat these tumours, as we can do, with others tumours like breast, lung and colorectal cancer. We have also improved on diagnostic imaging, especially with the new MRI sequences; we can now better define the characteristics of the tumour area and the surrounding brain structures, allowing us to adjust resections. Thanks to the most advanced surgery techniques, such as neuronavigation, intraoperative control of the nervous function and the tumour volume, the neurosurgeon is able to complete tumour exeresis with less morbidity. These imaging techniques allow the radiation oncologist to better contour the irradiation target volume, the structures and the organs at risk, to diminish the irradiation of apparently healthy tissue. Nowadays, knowledge of brain stem cells provides new expectations for future treatments. Novel targeted agents such as bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, temsirolimus, immunotherapy, cilengitide, talampanel, etc. are helping classical chemotherapeutic agents, like temozolomide, to achieve an increase in overall survival. The main objective is to improve median overall survival, which is currently between 9 and 12 months, with a good quality of life, measured by the ability to carry out daily life activities.

  9. 78 FR 36820 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... days. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of 49 U.S.C. 5117(c), PHMSA is publishing the following list of special permit applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The reason(s) for delay and the expected completion date for action on each application is provided in...

  10. A microstrip detector with delay line readout

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, A.F. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble CNPq Riekel, C.; Wattecamps, P. , BP 220, 38043 Grenoble )

    1992-01-01

    Principal limitations of position sensitive gasfilled detectors for x-ray synchrotron radiation applications are the counting rate and the positional resolution. Improvements in both areas are expected with microstrip technology. First results of a linear position sensitive microstrip detector with delay line readout are shown, and the possibility to achieve two-dimensional localization is evaluated.

  11. Dynamical error bounds for continuum discretisation via Gauss quadrature rules—A Lieb-Robinson bound approach

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M. P.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-02-15

    Instances of discrete quantum systems coupled to a continuum of oscillators are ubiquitous in physics. Often the continua are approximated by a discrete set of modes. We derive error bounds on expectation values of system observables that have been time evolved under such discretised Hamiltonians. These bounds take on the form of a function of time and the number of discrete modes, where the discrete modes are chosen according to Gauss quadrature rules. The derivation makes use of tools from the field of Lieb-Robinson bounds and the theory of orthonormal polynomials.

  12. Stability of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic systems with time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Song

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the robust exponential stabilization of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic delayed systems is considered with parameters perturbation and delayed impulses. It is assumed that the considered complex-variable chaotic systems have bounded parametric uncertainties together with the state variables on the impulses related to the time-varying delays. Based on the theories of adaptive control and impulsive control, some less conservative and easily verified stability criteria are established for a class of complex-variable chaotic delayed systems with delayed impulses. Some numerical simulations are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria of impulsive stabilization for uncertain complex-variable chaotic delayed systems.

  13. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  14. Bound Rationality and Organizational Learning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-23

    8217 . 90 0 8 0.. O 4 BOUNDED RATIONALITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING Technical Report AlP - 107 Herbert A. Simon Department of Psychology Carnegie Mellon...ACCESSION No N/A N/A N/A N/A 1 1 TITLE (include Security Classificarnon) Bounded rationality and organizational learning 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) HretA io 13a...organizations organizational psychology organizational learning bounded rationality cognitive psychology 𔄃 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary

  15. Nuclear dynamics of K¯ bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareš, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2006-07-01

    K¯ nuclear bound states were generated dynamically within a relativistic mean field (RMF) model. Substantial polarization of the core nucleus was found for light nuclei. The behavior of the dynamically calculated width ΓK¯ as function of the K¯ binding energy was studied. A lower limit of ΓK¯ ˜ 35 - 45 MeV for 1s K¯ nuclear states in light nuclei such as 12C was placed on the width expected for deep binding in the range B K¯ ˜ 100 - 200 MeV.

  16. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-15

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  17. Environmentally Benign Pyrotechnic Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    jay.poret@us.army.mil † School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Pyrotechnic delays are used in...benign formulations are described. The delay time of the new system is easily tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum ...tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum housings which is generally difficult for delay compositions due to extreme thermal

  18. Delay-dependent finite-time boundedness of a class of Markovian switching neural networks with time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qishui; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Yuqing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a novel method is developed for delay-dependent finite-time boundedness of a class of Markovian switching neural networks with time-varying delays. New sufficient condition for stochastic boundness of Markovian jumping neural networks is presented and proved by an newly augmented stochastic Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and novel activation function conditions, the state trajectory remains in a bounded region of the state space over a given finite-time interval. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency and less conservative of the proposed method.

  19. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. PMID:26439762

  20. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up.

  1. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  2. Delayed puberty and amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Barbara; Bradshaw, Karen D

    2003-11-01

    The ability to diagnose and manage disorders that cause delayed puberty requires a thorough understanding of the physical and hormonal events of puberty. Wide variation exists within normal pubertal maturation, but most adolescent girls in the United States have begun to mature by the age of 13. Delayed puberty, a rare condition in girls, occurs in only approximately 2.5% of the population. Constitutional delay, genetic defects, or hypothalamic-pituitary disorders are common causes. Amenorrhea, often found as a symptom of delayed puberty, may be due to congenital genital tract anomalies, ovarian failure, or chronic anovulation with estrogen presence or with estrogen absence.

  3. Versatile Boron Carbide-Based Energetic Time Delay Compositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    potassium perchlorate and barium chromate, chemicals that are facing increasing regulatory scrutiny. Static tests in aluminum hand-held signal delay...stearate delay.10 Unlike perchlorate, periodate is not expected to compete with iodide in the thyroid gland due to its larger ionic radius.20 PTFE is

  4. Finite-time robust stabilization of uncertain delayed neural networks with discontinuous activations via delayed feedback control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leimin; Shen, Yi; Sheng, Yin

    2016-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the finite-time robust stabilization of delayed neural networks (DNNs) in the presence of discontinuous activations and parameter uncertainties. By using the nonsmooth analysis and control theory, a delayed controller is designed to realize the finite-time robust stabilization of DNNs with discontinuous activations and parameter uncertainties, and the upper bound of the settling time functional for stabilization is estimated. Finally, two examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  5. A new delay-independent condition for global robust stability of neural networks with time delays.

    PubMed

    Samli, Ruya

    2015-06-01

    This paper studies the problem of robust stability of dynamical neural networks with discrete time delays under the assumptions that the network parameters of the neural system are uncertain and norm-bounded, and the activation functions are slope-bounded. By employing the results of Lyapunov stability theory and matrix theory, new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for delayed neural networks are presented. The results reported in this paper can be easily tested by checking some special properties of symmetric matrices associated with the parameter uncertainties of neural networks. We also present a numerical example to show the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results.

  6. What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

  7. Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

    Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…

  8. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE PAGES

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; ...

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  9. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  10. Digital time delay

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  11. Metabolism of organically bound tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  13. Approximate controllability of a system of parabolic equations with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Alexander; Leiva, Hugo

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the approximate controllability of the following system of parabolic equations with delay: where [Omega] is a bounded domain in , D is an n×n nondiagonal matrix whose eigenvalues are semi-simple with nonnegative real part, the control and B[set membership, variant]L(U,Z) with , . The standard notation zt(x) defines a function from [-[tau],0] to (with x fixed) by zt(x)(s)=z(t+s,x), -[tau][less-than-or-equals, slant]s[less-than-or-equals, slant]0. Here [tau][greater-or-equal, slanted]0 is the maximum delay, which is supposed to be finite. We assume that the operator is linear and bounded, and [phi]0[set membership, variant]Z, [phi][set membership, variant]L2([-[tau],0];Z). To this end: First, we reformulate this system into a standard first-order delay equation. Secondly, the semigroup associated with the first-order delay equation on an appropriate product space is expressed as a series of strongly continuous semigroups and orthogonal projections related with the eigenvalues of the Laplacian operator (); this representation allows us to reduce the controllability of this partial differential equation with delay to a family of ordinary delay equations. Finally, we use the well-known result on the rank condition for the approximate controllability of delay system to derive our main result.

  14. Improvement of cosmological neutrino mass bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusarma, Elena; Gerbino, Martina; Mena, Olga; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Ho, Shirley; Freese, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    The most recent measurements of the temperature and low-multipole polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck satellite, when combined with galaxy clustering data from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey in the form of the full shape of the power spectrum, and with baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, provide a 95% confidence level (C.L.) upper bound on the sum of the three active neutrinos ∑mν<0.183 eV , among the tightest neutrino mass bounds in the literature, to date, when the same data sets are taken into account. This very same data combination is able to set, at ˜70 % C.L., an upper limit on ∑mν of 0.0968 eV, a value that approximately corresponds to the minimal mass expected in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy scenario. If high-multipole polarization data from Planck is also considered, the 95% C.L. upper bound is tightened to ∑mν<0.176 eV . Further improvements are obtained by considering recent measurements of the Hubble parameter. These limits are obtained assuming a specific nondegenerate neutrino mass spectrum; they slightly worsen when considering other degenerate neutrino mass schemes. Low-redshift quantities, such as the Hubble constant or the reionization optical depth, play a very important role when setting the neutrino mass constraints. We also comment on the eventual shifts in the cosmological bounds on ∑mν when possible variations in the former two quantities are addressed.

  15. Simple method of measuring delay time in manufacturing delay lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yukio; Mikoda, Masanari

    1982-07-01

    A simple method for measuring delay time in an operational frequency range is required in manufacturing delay lines used for video tape recorders and television receiver sets. This paper describes a simple method of measuring and adjusting the delay time of such delay lines. The delay time is obtained by measuring a phase difference ϑ between the signals at the input and output transducers of the delay line with frequencies under test. The delay time is more precisely obtained by measuring the ϑ at a constant frequency within the bandwidth of the delay line. A delay-time tolerance of a polished glass medium at 3.58 MHz was found to be within 100 ns. The delay time was found to be shortened by 30 ns by attaching the medium on polishing powder and oil. Also shown is a simple method for adjusting the delay time by polishing a delay medium while measuring the phase difference.

  16. Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?

    PubMed

    Sallin, Karl; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Evers, Kathinka; Engström, Ingemar; Hjern, Anders; Petrovic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family. Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognize RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis. Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution. Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioral systems in particularly vulnerable individuals.

  17. Resignation Syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-Bound?

    PubMed Central

    Sallin, Karl; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Evers, Kathinka; Engström, Ingemar; Hjern, Anders; Petrovic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Resignation syndrome (RS) designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatized children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterized by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family. Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognize RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis. Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution. Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioral systems in particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:26858615

  18. Bound states in string nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.

  19. Choice and reinforcement delay

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated that choice is not uniquely determined by the relative immediacy of reinforcement, but that absolute delays are also involved. Models for concurrent chained schedules appear to be more applicable to the present data than the matching relation; however, these too failed to predict choice for long delays.

  20. Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.

    PubMed

    Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.

  1. Time-Delayed Two-Step Selective Laser Photodamage of Dye-Biomolecule Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoni, A.; Cubeddu, R.; de Silvestri, S.; Laporta, P.; Svelto, O.

    1980-08-01

    A scheme is proposed for laser-selective photodamage of biological molecules, based on time-delayed two-step photoionization of a dye molecule bound to the biomolecule. The validity of the scheme is experimentally demonstrated in the case of the dye Proflavine, bound to synthetic polynucleotides.

  2. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  3. Bounds and invariant sets for a class of discrete-time switching systems with perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimovich, H.; Seron, M. M.

    2014-02-01

    We present a novel method to compute componentwise ultimate bounds and invariant regions for a class of switching discrete-time linear systems with perturbation bounds that may depend nonlinearly on a delayed state. The method has the important advantage that it allows each component of the perturbation vector to have an independent bound and that the bounds and sets obtained are also given componentwise. This componentwise method does not employ a standard norm for bounding either the perturbation or state vectors, and thus may avoid conservativeness due to different perturbation or state vector components having substantially different bounds. We also establish the relationship between the class of switching linear systems to which the proposed method can be applied and those that admit a common quadratic Lyapunov function. We illustrate the application of our method via numerical examples, including the fault tolerance analysis of the feedback control of a winding machine.

  4. Local Bifurcations and Optimal Theory in a Delayed Predator-Prey Model with Threshold Prey Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankam, Israel; Tchinda Mouofo, Plaire; Mendy, Abdoulaye; Lam, Mountaga; Tewa, Jean Jules; Bowong, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the effects of time delay and piecewise-linear threshold policy harvesting for a delayed predator-prey model. It is the first time that Holling response function of type III and the present threshold policy harvesting are associated with time delay. The trajectories of our delayed system are bounded; the stability of each equilibrium is analyzed with and without delay; there are local bifurcations as saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation; optimal harvesting is also investigated. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate each result.

  5. How magic changes our expectations about autism.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Gustav; Kourkoulou, Anastasia; Leekam, Susan R

    2010-10-01

    In the vanishing-ball illusion, the magician's social cues misdirect the audience's expectations and attention so that the audience "sees" a ball vanish in the air. Because individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less sensitive to social cues and have superior perception for nonsocial details compared with typically developing individuals, we predicted that they would be less susceptible to the illusion. Surprisingly, the opposite result was found, as individuals with ASD were more susceptible to the illusion than a comparison group. Eye-tracking data indicated that subtle temporal delays in allocating attention might explain their heightened susceptibility. Additionally, although individuals with ASD showed typical patterns of looking to the magician's face and eyes, they were slower to launch their first saccade to the face and had difficulty in fixating the fast-moving observable ball. Considered together, the results indicate that individuals with ASD have difficulties in rapidly allocating attention toward both people and moving objects.

  6. Multimessenger time delays from lensed gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Tessa; Trodden, Mark

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the potential of high-energy astrophysical events, from which both massless and massive signals are detected, to probe fundamental physics. In particular, we consider how strong gravitational lensing can induce time delays in multimessenger signals from the same source. Obvious messenger examples are massless photons and gravitational waves, and massive neutrinos, although more exotic applications can also be imagined, such as to massive gravitons or axions. The different propagation times of the massive and massless particles can, in principle, place bounds on the total neutrino mass and probe cosmological parameters. Whilst measuring such an effect may pose a significant experimental challenge, we believe that the "massive time delay" represents an unexplored fundamental physics phenomenon.

  7. On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

  8. An observer for a velocity-sensorless VTOL aircraft with time-varying measurement delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing; Liu, Jinkun

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a kind of state observer for a velocity-sensorless vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft with bounded time-varying delay in its measurement outputs. The proposed observer predicts current state variables based on the delayed outputs, and the estimated state variables can be considered as the actual state variables for feedback control scheme design. Since the delay is time-varying, compared to the constant delay case, different analysis theory must be employed. Under the assumption that the delays are identical for different outputs and bounded input, the asymptotic convergence property of the estimation error based on Lyapunov-Razumikhin theorem is proved. A relative large time delay for the VTOL aircraft in the outputs has been tested in the numerical simulation, and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed observer.

  9. On the stability of delayed feedback controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgül, Ömer

    2003-08-01

    We consider the stability of delayed feedback control (DFC) scheme for one-dimensional discrete time systems. We first construct a map whose fixed points correspond to the periodic orbits of the uncontrolled system. Then the stability of the DFC is analyzed as the stability of the corresponding equilibrium point of the constructed map. For each periodic orbit, we construct a characteristic polynomial whose Schur stability corresponds to the stability of DFC. By using Schur-Cohn criterion, we can find bounds on the gain of DFC to ensure stability.

  10. Bionic Control of Cheetah Bounding with a Segmented Spine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Shigang

    2016-01-01

    A cheetah model is built to mimic real cheetah and its mechanical and dimensional parameters are derived from the real cheetah. In particular, two joints in spine and four joints in a leg are used to realize the motion of segmented spine and segmented legs which are the key properties of the cheetah bounding. For actuating and stabilizing the bounding gait of cheetah, we present a bioinspired controller based on the state-machine. The controller mainly mimics the function of the cerebellum to plan the locomotion and keep the body balance. The haptic sensor and proprioception system are used to detect the trigger of the phase transition. Besides, the vestibular modulation could perceive the pitching angle of the trunk. At last, the cerebellum acts as the CPU to operate the information from the biological sensors. In addition, the calculated results are transmitted to the low-level controller to actuate and stabilize the cheetah bounding. Moreover, the delay feedback control method is employed to plan the motion of the leg joints to stabilize the pitching motion of trunk with the stability criterion. Finally, the cyclic cheetah bounding with biological properties is realized. Meanwhile, the stability and dynamic properties of the cheetah bounding gait are analyzed elaborately. PMID:27065749

  11. A numerical study of bench blast row delay timing and its influence on percent-cast

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.

    1993-11-01

    The computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code), which was developed for simulating the rock motion associated with blasting, has been used to study the influence of row delay timing on rock motion. The numerical simulations correspond with field observations in that very short delays (< 50ms) and very long delays (> 300ms) produce a lower percent-cast than a medium delay (100 to 200 ms). The DMC predicted relationship between row delay timing and percent-cast is more complex than expected with a dip in the curve where the optimum timing might be expected. More study is required to gain a full understanding of this phenomenon.

  12. Name Stereotypes and Teachers' Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harari, Herbert; McDavid, John W.

    1973-01-01

    The studies described here were executed to explore and verify the conjecture that teachers' expectations are likely to be systematically associated with implicit stereotyped perceptions of names, and these stereotypical expectations may in turn be reflected in teachers' subjective evaluation of student products and performance. (Author/RK)

  13. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  14. High Hopes and High Expectations!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilford, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The start of each new school year is an especially hopeful time, and this author has found that clearly communicating expectations for teachers and families can set the stage for a wonderful new school year. This article discusses the expectations of teachers, directors, and families as a new school year begins.

  15. Institutional Differences: Expectations and Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    1982-01-01

    The history of higher education has paid scant attention to the attitudes and expectations of its customers, students, and employers of graduates. Recent research on student and employer attitudes toward higher education sectors has not taken into account these expectations in the context of recent higher education history. (Author/MSE)

  16. Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan

    Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness…

  17. Sibling Status Effects: Adult Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskett, Linda Musun

    1985-01-01

    This study attempted to determine what expectations or beliefs adults might hold about a child based on his or her sibling status alone. Ratings on 50 adjective pairs for each of three sibling status types, only, oldest, and youngest child, were assessed in relation to adult expectations, birth order, and parental status of rater. (Author/DST)

  18. Stability of adaptive cruise control systems taking account of vehicle response time and delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2012-08-01

    The region of string stability of a platoon of adaptive cruise control vehicles, taking into account the delay and response of the vehicle powertrain, is found. An upper bound on the explicit delay time as a function the first-order powertrain response time constant is determined. The system is characterized by a headway time constant, a sensitivity parameter, relative (to the vehicle immediately in front) velocity control, and delayed-velocity feedback or acceleration feedback.

  19. New Stabilization for Dynamical System with Two Additive Time-Varying Delays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xiaozhou

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a new delay-dependent stabilization criterion for systems with two additive time-varying delays. The novel functional is constructed, a tighter upper bound of the derivative of the Lyapunov functional is obtained. These results have advantages over some existing ones because the combination of the delay decomposition technique and the reciprocally convex approach. Two examples are provided to demonstrate the less conservatism and effectiveness of the results in this paper. PMID:24701159

  20. TIME DELAY AND ACCRETION DISK SIZE MEASUREMENTS IN THE LENSED QUASAR SBS 0909+532 FROM MULTIWAVELENGTH MICROLENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.

    2013-09-01

    We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to {Delta}t{sub AB} = 50{sub -4}{sup +2} days, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1{sigma} confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {l_brace}(r{sub s,r}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 15.3 {+-} 0.3 and log {l_brace}(r{sub s,g}/cm)[cos i/0.5]{sup 1/2}{r_brace} = 14.8 {+-} 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

  1. Time Delay and Accretion Disk Size Measurements in the Lensed Quasar SBS 0909+532 from Multiwavelength Microlensing Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainline, Laura J.; Morgan, Christopher W.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Landaal, Zachary D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Harris, Hugh C.; Tilleman, Trudy; Goicoechea, L. J.; Shalyapin, V. N.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2013-09-01

    We present three complete seasons and two half-seasons of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasar SBS 0909+532 from the U.S. Naval Observatory, as well as two seasons each of SDSS g-band and r-band monitoring from the Liverpool Robotic Telescope. Using Monte Carlo simulations to simultaneously measure the system's time delay and model the r-band microlensing variability, we confirm and significantly refine the precision of the system's time delay to \\Delta t_{AB} = 50^{+2}_{-4}\\,{days}, where the stated uncertainties represent the bounds of the formal 1σ confidence interval. There may be a conflict between the time delay measurement and a lens consisting of a single galaxy. While models based on the Hubble Space Telescope astrometry and a relatively compact stellar distribution can reproduce the observed delay, the models have somewhat less dark matter than we would typically expect. We also carry out a joint analysis of the microlensing variability in the r and g bands to constrain the size of the quasar's continuum source at these wavelengths, obtaining log {(r s, r /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 15.3 ± 0.3 and log {(r s, g /cm)[cos i/0.5]1/2} = 14.8 ± 0.9, respectively. Our current results do not formally constrain the temperature profile of the accretion disk but are consistent with the expectations of standard thin disk theory.

  2. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  3. Stability of Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Time-varying Feedback Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunodkar, Apurva A.; Akella, Maruthi R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of stabilizing a class of nonlinear systems with unknown bounded delayed feedback wherein the time-varying delay is 1) piecewise constant 2) continuous with a bounded rate. We also consider application of these results to the stabilization of rigid-body attitude dynamics. In the first case, the time-delay in feedback is modeled specifically as a switch among an arbitrarily large set of unknown constant values with a known strict upper bound. The feedback is a linear function of the delayed states. In the case of linear systems with switched delay feedback, a new sufficiency condition for average dwell time result is presented using a complete type Lyapunov-Krasovskii (L-K) functional approach. Further, the corresponding switched system with nonlinear perturbations is proven to be exponentially stable inside a well characterized region of attraction for an appropriately chosen average dwell time. In the second case, the concept of the complete type L-K functional is extended to a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with unknown time-varying time-delay. This extension ensures stability robustness to time-delay in the control design for all values of time-delay less than the known upper bound. Model-transformation is used in order to partition the nonlinear system into a nominal linear part that is exponentially stable with a bounded perturbation. We obtain sufficient conditions which ensure exponential stability inside a region of attraction estimate. A constructive method to evaluate the sufficient conditions is presented together with comparison with the corresponding constant and piecewise constant delay. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the theoretical results of this paper.

  4. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2013-03-25

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB{approx}m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.02 GeV{sup 2} at the RHIC and eB{approx} 15m{sup 2}{sub {pi}}{approx} 0.3 GeV{sup 2} at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B{sup 0} and D{sup 0} mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  5. Upper bounds for flexoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, P. V.; Ahluwalia, R.; Tagantsev, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    Flexoelectric effect is the response of electric polarization to the mechanical strain gradient. At the nano-scale, where large strain gradients are expected, the flexoelectric effect becomes appreciable and may substitute piezoelectric effect in centrosymmetric materials. These features make flexoelectricity of growing interest during the last decade. At the same time, the available theoretical and experimental results are rather contradictory. In particular, experimentally measured flexoelectric coefficients in some ferroelectric materials largely exceed theoretically predicted values. Here, we determine the upper limits for the magnitude of the static bulk contribution to the flexoelectric effect in ferroelectrics, the contribution which was customarily considered as the dominating one. The magnitude of the upper bounds obtained suggests that the anomalously high flexoelectric coupling documented for perovskite ceramics can hardly be attributed to a manifestation of the static bulk effect.

  6. Nuclear internal conversion between bound atomic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, J. F.; Harston, M. R.; Karpeshin, F. F.; Carreyre, J.; Attallah, F.; Aleonard, M. M.; Scheurer, J. N.; Boggaert, G.; Grandin, J. R.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental and theoretical results for rate of decay of the (3/2)+ isomeric state in 125Te versus the ionic charge state. For charge state larger than 44 the nuclear transition lies below the threshold for emission of a K-shell electron into the continuum with the result that normal internal conversion is energetically forbiden. Rather surprisingly, for the charge 45 and 46 the lifetime of the level was found to have a value close to that in neutral atoms. We present direct evidence that the nuclear transition could still be converted but without the emission of the electron into the continuum, the electron being promoted from the K-shell to an other empty bound state lying close to the continuum. We called this process BIC. The experimental results agree whith theoretical calculations if BIC resonances are taken into account. This leads to a nuclear decay constant that is extremely sensitive to the precise initial state and simple specification of the charge state is no longer appropriate. The contribution to decay of the nucleus of BIC has recently been extended to the situation in which the electron is promoted to an intermediate filled bound state (PFBIC) with an apparent violation of the Pauli principle. Numerical results of the expected dependence of PFBIC on the charge state will be presented for the decay of the 77.351 keV level in 197Au.

  7. Maximum common subgraph: some upper bound and lower bound results

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiuzhen; Lai, Jing; Jennings, Steven F

    2006-01-01

    Background Structure matching plays an important part in understanding the functional role of biological structures. Bioinformatics assists in this effort by reformulating this process into a problem of finding a maximum common subgraph between graphical representations of these structures. Among the many different variants of the maximum common subgraph problem, the maximum common induced subgraph of two graphs is of special interest. Results Based on current research in the area of parameterized computation, we derive a new lower bound for the exact algorithms of the maximum common induced subgraph of two graphs which is the best currently known. Then we investigate the upper bound and design techniques for approaching this problem, specifically, reducing it to one of finding a maximum clique in the product graph of the two given graphs. Considering the upper bound result, the derived lower bound result is asymptotically tight. Conclusion Parameterized computation is a viable approach with great potential for investigating many applications within bioinformatics, such as the maximum common subgraph problem studied in this paper. With an improved hardness result and the proposed approaches in this paper, future research can be focused on further exploration of efficient approaches for different variants of this problem within the constraints imposed by real applications. PMID:17217524

  8. Uncertainty bounds using sector theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on sector-stability theory can furnish a description of the uncertainty associated with the frequency response of a model, given sector-bounds on the individual parameters of the model. The application of the sector-based approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant multivariable systems is presently explored, and the approach is applied to two generic forms of parameter uncertainty in order to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results obtained show that sector-uncertainty bounds can be used to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model.

  9. Direct measurement of the wigner delay associated with the goos-Hanchen effect

    PubMed

    Chauvat; Emile; Bretenaker; Le Floch A

    2000-01-03

    It is shown experimentally that the nonspecular reflection of light on an interface induces a time delay, as predicted by Wigner's scattering theory. A differential femtosecond technique is used to directly isolate this delay, associated with the Goos-Hanchen spatial shift produced by a grating near a resonant Wood anomaly. A delay of 4.4 fs is observed between TE and TM pulses, in agreement with the expected Wigner delay obtained from phase shift dispersion measurements.

  10. The effect of sine-Wiener noises on transition in a genotype selection model with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Ning, Li; Liu, Pei

    2016-09-01

    A genotype selection system interplay with sine-Wiener noises and time delays is investigated. Stationary probability distribution function is obtained by numerical simulations. Results show that the multiplicative bounded noise can facilitate the gene separation, while the additive bounded noise suppresses the gene separation. Besides, local time delays α and β, being in gene transformation and gene heredity progress respectively, play opposite roles in the gene selection process. What is more interesting is that there is no transition during the process of gene select when time delays α = β (i.e., the system is subjected to global time delay).

  11. Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals for indoor optical ranging.

    PubMed

    Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-12-05

    Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved.

  12. Delay Tracking of Spread-Spectrum Signals for Indoor Optical Ranging

    PubMed Central

    Salido-Monzú, David; Martín-Gorostiza, Ernesto; Lázaro-Galilea, José Luis; Martos-Naya, Eduardo; Wieser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Delay tracking of spread-spectrum signals is widely used for ranging in radio frequency based navigation. Its use in non-coherent optical ranging, however, has not been extensively studied since optical channels are less subject to narrowband interference situations where these techniques become more useful. In this work, an early-late delay-locked loop adapted to indoor optical ranging is presented and analyzed. The specific constraints of free-space infrared channels in this context substantially differ from those typically considered in radio frequency applications. The tracking stage is part of an infrared differential range measuring system with application to mobile target indoor localization. Spread-spectrum signals are used in this context to provide accurate ranging while reducing the effect of multipath interferences. The performance of the stage regarding noise and dynamic errors is analyzed and validated, providing expressions that allow an adequate selection of the design parameters depending on the expected input signal characteristics. The behavior of the stage in a general multipath scenario is also addressed to estimate the multipath error bounds. The results, evaluated under realistic conditions corresponding to an 870 nm link with 25 MHz chip-rate, built with low-cost up-to-date devices, show that an overall error below 6% of a chip time can be achieved. PMID:25490585

  13. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  14. Delay Analysis of Networked Control Systems Based on 100 M Switched Ethernet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For the delay may degrade the performance of networked control systems, networked control systems based on 100 M switched Ethernet are proposed in this paper. According to the working principle of Ethernet switch, the formulas of the upper bound delay of the single-level switched Ethernet and the multiple-level switched Ethernet are deduced by the timing diagram method, and the values of the upper bound delay are also given. The key factors that influence the upper bound delay of switched Ethernet are analyzed; then, the characteristics of the upper bound delay are presented, which show that the delay induced by the single-level 100 M switched Ethernet has little effect on the performance of control systems, while the delay induced by the multiple-level 100 M switched Ethernet may meet the time requirements of all classes of control systems if the numbers of levels and the numbers of nodes connecting to switches are set properly. Finally, the performance of networked control systems is simulated by TrueTime, and the results further show the feasibility and superiority of 100 M switched Ethernet based networked control systems without modification of the network protocols. PMID:25003152

  15. Optimal Perceived Timing: Integrating Sensory Information with Dynamically Updated Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Massimiliano; Rhodes, Darren

    2016-01-01

    The environment has a temporal structure, and knowing when a stimulus will appear translates into increased perceptual performance. Here we investigated how the human brain exploits temporal regularity in stimulus sequences for perception. We find that the timing of stimuli that occasionally deviate from a regularly paced sequence is perceptually distorted. Stimuli presented earlier than expected are perceptually delayed, whereas stimuli presented on time and later than expected are perceptually accelerated. This result suggests that the brain regularizes slightly deviant stimuli with an asymmetry that leads to the perceptual acceleration of expected stimuli. We present a Bayesian model for the combination of dynamically-updated expectations, in the form of a priori probability of encountering future stimuli, with incoming sensory information. The asymmetries in the results are accounted for by the asymmetries in the distributions involved in the computational process. PMID:27385184

  16. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  17. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts.

  18. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  19. Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)

  20. Variational Bounds for Creeping Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, Petr

    2010-05-01

    In the paper time dependent variational bounds are derived based on Extended Hashin-Shtrikman variational principles. Direct calculation leads to explicit formulas to be presented in the text. For various mechanical properties easy coding in Excel, say, can be used and verification of accuracy for numerical procedures is available using the derived formulas.

  1. Pieter Paul Rubens, "Prometheus Bound."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Marla K.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a full-color reproduction of Pieter Paul Rubens' painting, "Prometheus Bound," and a lesson plan for using it with students in grades 10 through 12. The goal of the lesson is to introduce students to the techniques of design and execution used by Rubens. (JDH)

  2. Teacher Education in Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Richard A.

    A series of Outward Bound programs and experiences was planned for El Paso County, Colorado, school teachers to increase their awareness of their personal characteristics, especially those that might enhance learning on the part of their students. Part of the planning for the program involved a survey of county high school teachers, counselors,…

  3. Wronskian Method for Bound States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

  4. Raising Expectations for Mathematics Instruction in California: Algebra and beyond. Policy and Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Catherine; O'Day, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    As expectations for students to meet high academic standards have risen over the past two decades, so have the expectations for students to complete, and excel in, more rigorous mathematics courses. Once a course reserved only for the college-bound, algebra is now a graduation requirement for all California students as well as an early…

  5. Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance—focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties. PMID:23606758

  6. Delayed enrollment and College Plans: is There a Postponement Penalty?

    PubMed

    Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance-focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties.

  7. AdS/CFT beyond the unitarity bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Scalars in AdS d+1 with squared masses in the Breitenlohner-Freedman window - {d^{{2}}}/{4} ≤slant {m^{{2}}} < - {d^{{2}}}/{4} + {1} (in units with the AdS scale ℓ set to 1) are known to enjoy a variety of boundary conditions. For larger masses {m^{{2}}} > - {d^{{2}}}/{4} + {1} , unitarity bounds in possible dual CFTs suggest that such general boundary conditions should lead to ghosts. We show that this is not always the case as, for conformally-invariant boundary conditions in Poincaré AdS that would naively violate unitarity bounds, the system is generically ghost-free. Conflicts with unitarity bounds are avoided due to the presence of unexpected pure gauge modes and an associated infrared divergence. The expected ghosts appear when the IR divergence is removed either by deforming these boundary conditions or considering global AdS.

  8. Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Dolinar, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed of computing bounds on the performance of a code comprised of two linear binary codes generated by two encoders serially concatenated through an interleaver. Originally intended for use in evaluating the performances of some codes proposed for deep-space communication links, the method can also be used in evaluating the performances of short-block-length codes in other applications. The method applies, more specifically, to a communication system in which following processes take place: At the transmitter, the original binary information that one seeks to transmit is first processed by an encoder into an outer code (Co) characterized by, among other things, a pair of numbers (n,k), where n (n > k)is the total number of code bits associated with k information bits and n k bits are used for correcting or at least detecting errors. Next, the outer code is processed through either a block or a convolutional interleaver. In the block interleaver, the words of the outer code are processed in blocks of I words. In the convolutional interleaver, the interleaving operation is performed bit-wise in N rows with delays that are multiples of B bits. The output of the interleaver is processed through a second encoder to obtain an inner code (Ci) characterized by (ni,ki). The output of the inner code is transmitted over an additive-white-Gaussian- noise channel characterized by a symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Es/No and a bit SNR Eb/No. At the receiver, an inner decoder generates estimates of bits. Depending on whether a block or a convolutional interleaver is used at the transmitter, the sequence of estimated bits is processed through a block or a convolutional de-interleaver, respectively, to obtain estimates of code words. Then the estimates of the code words are processed through an outer decoder, which generates estimates of the original information along with flags indicating which estimates are presumed to be correct and which are found to

  9. Hopf bifurcation control for a class of delay differential systems with discrete-time delayed feedback controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huan; Mao, Xuerong; Li, Wenxue

    2016-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the asymptotical stabilization for a class of unstable delay differential equations. Continuous-time delayed feedback controller (C-TDFC) and discrete-time delayed feedback controller (D-TDFC) are presented and studied, respectively. To our best knowledge, applying Hopf bifurcation theory to delay differential equations with D-TDFC is original and meaningful. The difficulty brought by the introduction of sampling period has been overcome. An effective control range which ensures the asymptotical stability of equilibrium for the system with C-TDFC is obtained. Sequently, another effective control range for the system with D-TDFC is gotten, which approximates the one of C-TDFCS provided that the sampling period is sufficiently small. Meanwhile, efforts are paid to estimate a bound on sampling period. Finally, the theoretical results are applied to a physiological system to illustrate the effectiveness of the two control ranges.

  10. Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger

    DOEpatents

    DeFilippi, Irene C. G.; Yates, Stephen Frederic; Shen, Jian-Kun; Gaita, Romulus; Sedath, Robert Henry; Seminara, Gary Joseph; Straszewski, Michael Peter; Anderson, David Joseph

    1999-03-23

    This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

  11. Delayed fluorescence in photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Goltsev, Vasilij; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Chernev, Petko; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a very efficient photochemical process. Nevertheless, plants emit some of the absorbed energy as light quanta. This luminescence is emitted, predominantly, by excited chlorophyll a molecules in the light-harvesting antenna, associated with Photosystem II (PS II) reaction centers. The emission that occurs before the utilization of the excitation energy in the primary photochemical reaction is called prompt fluorescence. Light emission can also be observed from repopulated excited chlorophylls as a result of recombination of the charge pairs. In this case, some time-dependent redox reactions occur before the excitation of the chlorophyll. This delays the light emission and provides the name for this phenomenon-delayed fluorescence (DF), or delayed light emission (DLE). The DF intensity is a decreasing polyphasic function of the time after illumination, which reflects the kinetics of electron transport reactions both on the (electron) donor and the (electron) acceptor sides of PS II. Two main experimental approaches are used for DF measurements: (a) recording of the DF decay in the dark after a single turnover flash or after continuous light excitation and (b) recording of the DF intensity during light adaptation of the photosynthesizing samples (induction curves), following a period of darkness. In this paper we review historical data on DF research and recent advances in the understanding of the relation between the delayed fluorescence and specific reactions in PS II. An experimental method for simultaneous recording of the induction transients of prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence and decay curves of DF in the millisecond time domain is discussed.

  12. Interferometric Propagation Delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Radar interferometry based on (near) exact repeat passes has lately been used by many groups of scientists, worldwide, to achieve state of the art measurements of topography, glacier and ice stream motion, earthquake displacements, oil field subsidence, lava flows, crop-induced surface decorrelation, and other effects. Variations of tropospheric and ionospheric propagation delays limit the accuracy of all such measurements. We are investigating the extent of this limitation, using data from the Shuttle radar flight, SIR-C, which is sensitive to the troposphere, and the Earth Resources Satellites, ERS-1/2, which are sensitive to both the troposphere and the ionosphere. We are presently gathering statistics of the delay variations over selected, diverse areas to determine the best accuracy possible for repeat track interferometry. The phases of an interferogram depend on both the topography of the scene and variations in propagation delay. The delay variations can be caused by movement of elements in the scene, by changes in tropospheric water vapor and by changes of the charge concentrations in the ionosphere. We plan to separate these causes by using the data from a third satellite visit (three-pass interferometry). The figure gives the geometry of the three-pass observations. The page of the figure is taken to be perpendicular to the spacecraft orbits. The three observational locations are marked on the figure, giving baselines B-12 and B-13, separated by the angle alpha. These parameters are almost constant over the whole scene. However, each pixel has an individual look angle, theta, which is related to the topography, rho is the slant range. A possible spurious time delay is shown. Additional information is contained in the original.

  13. Versatile Boron Carbide-Based Energetic Time Delay Compositions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-16

    potassium perchlorate and barium chromate, chemicals that are facing increasing regulatory scrutiny. Static tests in aluminum hand-held signal delay...stearate delay.10 Unlike perchlorate, periodate is not expected to compete with iodide in the thyroid gland due to its larger ionic radius.20 PTFE is...contains potassium perchlorate and barium chromate, chemicals that are facing increasing regulatory scrutiny. Static tests in aluminum hand-held signal

  14. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching.

  15. Transversely bounded DFB lasers. [bounded distributed-feedback lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Evans, G.; Yeh, C.

    1975-01-01

    Bounded distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers are studied in detail. Threshold gain and field distribution for a number of configurations are derived and analyzed. More specifically, the thin-film guide, fiber, diffusion guide, and hollow channel with inhomogeneous-cladding DFB lasers are considered. Optimum points exist and must be used in DFB laser design. Different-modes feedback and the effects of the transverse boundaries are included. A number of applications are also discussed.

  16. Design of delay-dependent state estimator for discrete-time recurrent neural networks with interval discrete and infinite-distributed time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chin-Wen; Lu, Chien-Yu

    2011-06-01

    The state estimation problem for discrete-time recurrent neural networks with both interval discrete and infinite-distributed time-varying delays is studied in this paper, where interval discrete time-varying delay is in a given range. The activation functions are assumed to be globally Lipschitz continuous. A delay-dependent condition for the existence of state estimators is proposed based on new bounding techniques. Via solutions to certain linear matrix inequalities, general full-order state estimators are designed that ensure globally asymptotic stability. The significant feature is that no inequality is needed for seeking upper bounds for the inner product between two vectors, which can reduce the conservatism of the criterion by employing the new bounding techniques. Two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  17. Robust Stochastic Stability of Discrete-Time Markovian Jump Neural Networks with Leakage Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidass, Mathiyalagan; Su, Hongye; Rathinasamy, Sakthivel

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a robust analysis approach to stochastic stability of the uncertain Markovian jumping discrete-time neural networks (MJDNNs) with time delay in the leakage term. By choosing an appropriate Lyapunov functional and using free weighting matrix technique, a set of delay dependent stability criteria are derived. The stability results are delay dependent, which depend on not only the upper bounds of time delays but also their lower bounds. The obtained stability criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be effectively solved by some standard numerical packages. Finally, some illustrative numerical examples with simulation results are provided to demonstrate applicability of the obtained results. It is shown that even if there is no leakage delay, the obtained results are less restrictive than in some recent works.

  18. Mean square delay dependent-probability-distribution stability analysis of neutral type stochastic neural networks.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, S; Manivannan, A; Balasubramaniam, P

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to investigate the mean square delay dependent-probability-distribution stability analysis of neutral type stochastic neural networks with time-delays. The time-delays are assumed to be interval time-varying and randomly occurring. Based on the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and stochastic analysis approach, a novel sufficient condition is obtained in the form of linear matrix inequality such that the delayed stochastic neural networks are globally robustly asymptotically stable in the mean-square sense for all admissible uncertainties. Finally, the derived theoretical results are validated through numerical examples in which maximum allowable upper bounds are calculated for different lower bounds of time-delay.

  19. Precise estimation of tropospheric path delays with GPS techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Tropospheric path delays are a major source of error in deep space tracking. However, the tropospheric-induced delay at tracking sites can be calibrated using measurements of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. A series of experiments has demonstrated the high sensitivity of GPS to tropospheric delays. A variety of tests and comparisons indicates that current accuracy of the GPS zenith tropospheric delay estimates is better than 1-cm root-mean-square over many hours, sampled continuously at intervals of six minutes. These results are consistent with expectations from covariance analyses. The covariance analyses also indicate that by the mid-1990s, when the GPS constellation is complete and the Deep Space Network is equipped with advanced GPS receivers, zenith tropospheric delay accuracy with GPS will improve further to 0.5 cm or better.

  20. Absolute exponential stability of recurrent neural networks with Lipschitz-continuous activation functions and time delays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinde; Wang, Jun

    2004-04-01

    This paper investigates the absolute exponential stability of a general class of delayed neural networks, which require the activation functions to be partially Lipschitz continuous and monotone nondecreasing only, but not necessarily differentiable or bounded. Three new sufficient conditions are derived to ascertain whether or not the equilibrium points of the delayed neural networks with additively diagonally stable interconnection matrices are absolutely exponentially stable by using delay Halanay-type inequality and Lyapunov function. The stability criteria are also suitable for delayed optimization neural networks and delayed cellular neural networks whose activation functions are often nondifferentiable or unbounded. The results herein answer a question: if a neural network without any delay is absolutely exponentially stable, then under what additional conditions, the neural networks with delay is also absolutely exponentially stable.

  1. Bounding the heat trace of a Calabi-Yau manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiset, Marc-Antoine; Walcher, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    The SCHOK bound states that the number of marginal deformations of certain two-dimensional conformal field theories is bounded linearly from above by the number of relevant operators. In conformal field theories defined via sigma models into Calabi-Yau manifolds, relevant operators can be estimated, in the point-particle approximation, by the low-lying spectrum of the scalar Laplacian on the manifold. In the strict large volume limit, the standard asymptotic expansion of Weyl and Minakshisundaram-Pleijel diverges with the higher-order curvature invariants. We propose that it would be sufficient to find an a priori uniform bound on the trace of the heat kernel for large but finite volume. As a first step in this direction, we then study the heat trace asymptotics, as well as the actual spectrum of the scalar Laplacian, in the vicinity of a conifold singularity. The eigenfunctions can be written in terms of confluent Heun functions, the analysis of which gives evidence that regions of large curvature will not prevent the existence of a bound of this type. This is also in line with general mathematical expectations about spectral continuity for manifolds with conical singularities. A sharper version of our results could, in combination with the SCHOK bound, provide a basis for a global restriction on the dimension of the moduli space of Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  2. [Diagnosis of delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Busiah, K; Belien, V; Dallot, N; Fila, M; Guilbert, J; Harroche, A; Leger, J

    2007-09-01

    Puberty is the phenomenon that conducts once to reproductive maturation. Delayed puberty (DP) is defined by the absence of testicular development in boys beyond 14 years old (or a testicular volume lower than 4 ml) and by the absence of breast development in girls beyond 13 years old. DP occurs in approximatively 3% of cases. Most cases are functional DP, with a large amount of constitutional delay of puberty. Others etiologies are hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism like Kallmann syndrome, or hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Turner syndrome is a diagnostic one should not forget by its frequency. Treatment is hormonal replacement therapy and of the etiology. During the last decade, many genes have been identified and elucidated the etiological diagnosis of some hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism syndrome. Further studies are required in collaboration with molecular biologists to better understand the mechanism of hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis abnormalities and of the neuroendocrine physiology of the onset of puberty.

  3. Secure Key from Bound Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2005-04-01

    We characterize the set of shared quantum states which contain a cryptographically private key. This allows us to recast the theory of privacy as a paradigm closely related to that used in entanglement manipulation. It is shown that one can distill an arbitrarily secure key from bound entangled states. There are also states that have less distillable private keys than the entanglement cost of the state. In general, the amount of distillable key is bounded from above by the relative entropy of entanglement. Relationships between distillability and distinguishability are found for a class of states which have Bell states correlated to separable hiding states. We also describe a technique for finding states exhibiting irreversibility in entanglement distillation.

  4. Delayed visual maturation.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, G F; Hungerford, J; Jones, R B

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen blind babies who were considered to be showing the characteristics of delayed visual maturation were studied prospectively. The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds, and the criteria for this are discussed. All of these infants developed visual responses between 4 and 6 months of age and had normal or near normal visual acuities by 1 year of age. Long term follow up, however, has shown neurological abnormalities in some of these children. PMID:6200080

  5. Theoretical Delay Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Bours, Madelon

    2013-01-01

    We briefly discuss the method of population synthesis to calculate theoretical delay time distributions of Type Ia supernova progenitors. We also compare the results of different research groups and conclude that, although one of the main differences in the results for single degenerate progenitors is the retention efficiency with which accreted hydrogen is added to the white dwarf core, this alone cannot explain all the differences.

  6. Lower Bounds on Paraclique Density.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Ronald D; Langston, Michael A; Wang, Kai

    2016-05-11

    The scientific literature teems with clique-centric clustering strategies. In this paper we analyze one such method, the paraclique algorithm. Paraclique has found practical utility in a variety of application domains, and has been successfully employed to reduce the effects of noise. Nevertheless, its formal analysis and worst-case guarantees have remained elusive. We address this issue by deriving a series of lower bounds on paraclique densities.

  7. Undergraduates' Perceptions of Employer Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Carrie; Williams, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Research conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) indicates that employers across industries seek similar skills in job applicants; yet employers often report finding these desired skills lacking in new hires. This study closes the gap in understanding between employer expectations and student perceptions regarding…

  8. Career Expectations of Accounting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, Dennis; Mendez, Francis

    2010-01-01

    The demographic make-up of accounting students is dramatically changing. This study sets out to measure how well the profession is ready to accommodate what may be very different needs and expectations of this new generation of students. Non-traditional students are becoming more and more of a tradition in the current college classroom.…

  9. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  10. Education: Expectation and the Unexpected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulford, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers concepts of expectation and responsibility, and how these drive dialogic interactions between tutor and student in an age of marketised Higher Education. In thinking about such interactions in terms of different forms of exchange, the paper considers the philosophy of Martin Buber and Emmanuel Levinas on dialogic…

  11. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  12. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant secondary metabolites (e.g., phenolics) are important for human health, in addition to the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic com...

  13. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  14. Primary expectations of secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    My program examines the plant secondary metabolites (i.e. phenolics) important for human health, and which impart the organoleptic properties that are quality indicators for fresh and processed foods. Consumer expectations such as appearance, taste, or texture influence their purchasing decisions; a...

  15. Labor Market Experiences and Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia

    This paper reports on a study which measured labor market experience and its possible effects on workers' psychological expectancies. Past efforts that employed black and white men and women had made to improve their market situations are described, as well as attributions they gave for their experiences. Work or educational changes attempted by…

  16. Reasonable Expectation of Adult Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todaro, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Discusses staff behavioral problems that prove difficult for successful library management. Suggests that reasonable expectations for behavior need to be established in such areas as common courtesies, environmental issues such as temperature and noise levels, work relationships and values, diverse work styles and ways of communicating, and…

  17. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  18. Expectation Effects in Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Albert S.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment reported here was conducted during a 12-month period at four plants owned by the same company. Managers were given artificial reports about previous findings obtained in implementing job enlargement and job rotation programs. Led to expect higher productivity as a result of these organizational innovations, the managers increased…

  19. Evaluation of Behavioral Expectation Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedeck, Sheldon; Baker, Henry T.

    Behavioral Expectation Scales developed by Smith and Kendall were evaluated. Results indicated slight interrater reliability between Head Nurses and Supervisors, moderate dependence among five performance dimensions, and correlation between two scales and tenure. Results are discussed in terms of procedural problems, critical incident problems,…

  20. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...

  1. Delayed coking process

    SciTech Connect

    Shigley, J.K.; Roussel, K.M.; Harris, S.D.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes improvement in a delayed premium coking process in which an aromatic mineral oil feedstock is heated to elevated temperature and introduced continuously to a coking drum under delayed coking conditions wherein the heated feedstock soaks in its contained heat to convert the feedstock to cracked vapors and premium coke at lower than normal coking temperatures in the range of about 780{degrees} F. to about 895{degrees} F. and in which the introduction of feedstock to the coking drum is discontinued after the coking drum is filled to a desired level. The improvement comprises: introducing additional aromatic mineral oil capable of forming coke admixed with a non-coking material to the coking drum under delayed coking conditions for a sufficient period of time to convert unconverted liquid material to coke wherein the concentration of aromatic mineral oil in the admixture is from 5 to 90 percent, and thereafter subjecting the contents of the coke drum to a heat soak at a temperature greater than the initial coking temperature whereby a premium coke having improved CTE and reduced fluff is obtained.

  2. Information bounds for Gaussian copulas

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Peter D.; Niu, Xiaoyue; Wellner, Jon A.

    2013-01-01

    Often of primary interest in the analysis of multivariate data are the copula parameters describing the dependence among the variables, rather than the univariate marginal distributions. Since the ranks of a multivariate dataset are invariant to changes in the univariate marginal distributions, rank-based estimators are natural candidates for semiparametric copula estimation. Asymptotic information bounds for such estimators can be obtained from an asymptotic analysis of the rank likelihood, i.e. the probability of the multivariate ranks. In this article, we obtain limiting normal distributions of the rank likelihood for Gaussian copula models. Our results cover models with structured correlation matrices, such as exchangeable or circular correlation models, as well as unstructured correlation matrices. For all Gaussian copula models, the limiting distribution of the rank likelihood ratio is shown to be equal to that of a parametric likelihood ratio for an appropriately chosen multivariate normal model. This implies that the semiparametric information bounds for rank-based estimators are the same as the information bounds for estimators based on the full data, and that the multivariate normal distributions are least favorable. PMID:25313292

  3. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOEpatents

    DeRyckere, John F.; Jenkins, Philip Nord; Cornett, Frank Nolan

    2002-07-09

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  4. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  5. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  6. Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, P.D.

    1995-05-02

    In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.

  7. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  8. Apparent enrichment of organically bound tritium in rivers explained by the heritage of our past.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Claval, David; Charmasson, Sabine; Cossonnet, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The global inventory of naturally produced tritium (3H) is estimated at 2.65 kg, whereas more than 600 kg have been released during atmospheric nuclear tests (NCRP, 1979; UNSCEAR, 2000) constituting the main source of artificial tritium throughout the Anthropocene. The behaviour of this radioactive isotope in the environment has been widely studied since the 1950s, both through laboratory experiments and, more recently, through field observations (e.g., Cline, 1953; Kirchmann et al., 1979; Daillant et al., 2004; McCubbin et al., 2001; Kim et al., 2012). In its "free" forms, [i.e. 3H gas or 3H hydride (HT); methyl 3H gas (CH3T); tritiated H2O or 3H-oxide (HTO); and Tissue Free Water 3H (TFWT)], tritium closely follows the water cycle. However, 3H bound with organic compounds, mainly during the basic stages of photosynthesis or through weak hydrogen links, is less exchangeable with water, which explains its persistence in the carbon cycle as re underlined recently by Baglan et al. (2013), Jean-Batiste and Fourré (2013), Kim et al. (2013a,b). In this paper, we demonstrate that terrestrial biomass pools, historically contaminated by global atmospheric fallout from nuclear testing, have constituted a significant delayed source of organically bound tritium (OBT) for aquatic systems, resulting in an apparent enrichment of OBT as compared to HTO. This finding helps to explain concentration factors (tritium concentration in biota/concentration in water) greater than 1 observed in areas that are not directly affected by industrial radioactive wastes, and thus sheds light on the controversies regarding tritium 'bioaccumulation'. Such apparent enrichment of OBT is expected to be more pronounced in the Northern Hemisphere where fallout was most significant, depending on the nature and biodegradability of terrestrial biomass at the regional scale. We further believe that OBT transfers from the continent to oceans have been sufficient to affect tritium concentrations in

  9. Adaptive Phase Delay Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

  10. Error bounds in cascading regressions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Troutman, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cascading regressions is a technique for predicting a value of a dependent variable when no paired measurements exist to perform a standard regression analysis. Biases in coefficients of a cascaded-regression line as well as error variance of points about the line are functions of the correlation coefficient between dependent and independent variables. Although this correlation cannot be computed because of the lack of paired data, bounds can be placed on errors through the required properties of the correlation coefficient. The potential meansquared error of a cascaded-regression prediction can be large, as illustrated through an example using geomorphologic data. ?? 1985 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  11. DELAYED REINFORCEMENT OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement, but, also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between responses and reinforcers can be isolated from other features of the environment that often accompany delays, such as stimuli or changes in the temporal distribution or rate of reinforcement. The second question is that of the effects of delays on operant behavior. Beyond the common denominator of a temporal separation between reinforcers and the responses that produce them, delay of reinforcement procedures differ from one another along several dimensions, making delay effects circumstance dependent. The final question is one of interpreting delay of reinforcement effects. It centers on the role of the response–reinforcer temporal relation in the context of other, concurrently operating behavioral processes. PMID:20676272

  12. Bounds on multipartite concurrence and tangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Ming; Li, Hongfang; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing

    2016-10-01

    We present an analytical lower bound of multipartite concurrence based on the generalized Bloch representations of density matrices. It is shown that the lower bound can be used as an effective entanglement witness of genuine multipartite entanglement. Tight lower and upper bounds for multipartite tangles are also derived. Since the lower bounds depend on just part of the correlation tensors, the result is experimentally feasible.

  13. Finite Element Output Bounds for Hyperbolic Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Machiels, L.

    2000-03-27

    We propose a Neumann-subproblem a posteriori finite element error bound technique for linear stationary scalar advection problems. The method is similar in many respects to the previous output bound technique developed for elliptic problems. In the new approach, however, the primal residual is enhanced with a streamline diffusion term. We first formulate the bound algorithm, with particular emphasis on the proof of the bounding properties; then, we provide numerical results for an illustrative example.

  14. Network delay predictive compensation based on time-delay modelling as disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin Caruntu, Constantin; Lazar, Corneliu

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a control design methodology that can assure the closed-loop performances of a physical plant, while compensating the network-induced time-varying delays, is proposed. First, the error caused by the time-varying delays is modelled as a disturbance and a novel method of bounding the disturbance is proposed. Second, a robust one step ahead predictive controller based on flexible control Lyapunov functions is designed, which explicitly takes into account the bounds of the disturbances and guarantees also the input-to-state stability of the system in a non-conservative way. The methodology was tested on a vehicle drivetrain controlled through controller area network, with the aim of damping driveline oscillations. The comparison with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller using TrueTime simulator shows that the proposed control scheme can outperform classical controllers and it can handle the performance/physical constraints. Moreover, the handling of the strict limitations on the computational complexity was tested using a real-time test-bench.

  15. The Acquisition of Bound and Free Anaphora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Jan; Koster, Charlotte

    Most linguists assume that bound anaphors such as "himself" are connected with their antecedents in a different way from free anaphors such as "him." Bound anaphora resolution is deterministic, based on Principle A of Chomsky's binding theory. Free anaphors, pronominals, cannot be bound in the domain of reflexives (principle…

  16. Some Educational Implications & Contributions of Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Outward Bound School, Sydney.

    The development of Outward Bound, from the early beginnings in Britain through expansion in over 30 locations throughout the world, is outlined, and Outward Bound educational aspects are analyzed in terms of the Australian Outward Bound School. The concepts of experiential education, lifelong education, and the broader Australian educational scene…

  17. Consistent Tolerance Bounds for Statistical Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Assumption that sample comes from population with particular distribution is made with confidence C if data lie between certain bounds. These "confidence bounds" depend on C and assumption about distribution of sampling errors around regression line. Graphical test criteria using tolerance bounds are applied in industry where statistical analysis influences product development and use. Applied to evaluate equipment life.

  18. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  19. H∞ control of switched delayed systems with average dwell time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhicheng; Gao, Huijun; Agarwal, Ramesh; Kaynak, Okyay

    2013-12-01

    This paper considers the problems of stability analysis and H∞ controller design of time-delay switched systems with average dwell time. In order to obtain less conservative results than what is seen in the literature, a tighter bound for the state delay term is estimated. Based on the scaled small gain theorem and the model transformation method, an improved exponential stability criterion for time-delay switched systems with average dwell time is formulated in the form of convex matrix inequalities. The aim of the proposed approach is to reduce the minimal average dwell time of the systems, which is made possible by a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with the scaled small gain theorem. It is shown that this approach is able to tolerate a smaller dwell time or a larger admissible delay bound for the given conditions than most of the approaches seen in the literature. Moreover, the exponential H∞ controller can be constructed by solving a set of conditions, which is developed on the basis of the exponential stability criterion. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Existence and uniqueness theorem for a class of delay differential equations with left and right Caputo fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraaba (Abdeljawad), Thabet; Baleanu, Dumitru; Jarad, Fahd

    2008-08-01

    The existence and uniqueness theorems for functional right-left delay and left-right advanced fractional functional differential equations with bounded delay and advance, respectively, are proved. The continuity with respect to the initial function for these equations is also proved under some Lipschitz kind conditions. The Q-operator is used to transform the delay-type equation to an advanced one and vice versa. An example is given to clarify the results.

  1. Asymmetric dark matter bound state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Zhaofeng; Ko, P.; Li, Jinmian; Li, Tianjun

    2017-02-01

    We propose an interesting framework for asymmetric scalar dark matter (ADM), which has novel collider phenomenology in terms of an unstable ADM bound state (ADMonium) produced via Higgs portals. ADMonium is a natural consequence of the basic features of ADM: the (complex scalar) ADM is charged under a dark local U (1 )d symmetry which is broken at a low scale and provides a light gauge boson X . The dark gauge coupling is strong and then ADM can annihilate away into X -pair effectively. Therefore, the ADM can form a bound state due to its large self-interaction via X mediation. To explore the collider signature of ADMonium, we propose that ADM has a two-Higgs doublet portal. The ADMonium can have a sizable mixing with the heavier Higgs boson, which admits a large cross section of ADMonium production associated with b b ¯. The resulting signature at the LHC depends on the decays of X . In this paper we consider a case of particular interest: p p →b b ¯ +ADMonium followed by ADMonium→2 X →2 e+e- where the electrons are identified as (un)converted photons. It may provide a competitive explanation to heavy di-photon resonance searches at the LHC.

  2. Quantum correlations beyond Tsirelson's bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Dominic; Ringbauer, Martin; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; White, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Violations of Bell inequalities show that there are correlations that cannot explained by any classical theory. Further violation, beyond Tsirelson's bound, shows that there are correlations that are not explained by quantum mechanics. Such super-quantum correlations would enable violation of information causality, where communication of one bit provides more than one bit of information [Nature 461, 1101 (2009)]. An unavoidable feature of all realistic Bell inequality experiments is loss. If one postselects on successful measurements, unentangled states can violate Bell inequalities. On the other hand, loss can be used to enhance the violation of Bell inequalities for entangled states. This can improve the ability to distinguish between entangled and unentangled states, despite loss. Here we report an optical experiment providing maximal violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality with entangled states. Due to loss and postselection, Tsirelson's bound is also violated. This enables us to more easily distinguish between entangled and unentangled states. In addition, it provides violation of information causality for the postselected data.

  3. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  4. Dynamical analysis of uncertain neural networks with multiple time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arik, Sabri

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the robust stability problem for dynamical neural networks in the presence of time delays and norm-bounded parameter uncertainties with respect to the class of non-decreasing, non-linear activation functions. By employing the Lyapunov stability and homeomorphism mapping theorems together, a new delay-independent sufficient condition is obtained for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the delayed uncertain neural networks. The condition obtained for robust stability establishes a matrix-norm relationship between the network parameters of the neural system, which can be easily verified by using properties of the class of the positive definite matrices. Some constructive numerical examples are presented to show the applicability of the obtained result and its advantages over the previously published corresponding literature results.

  5. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  6. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  7. New Stability Criteria for High-Order Neural Networks with Proportional Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chang-Jin; Li, Pei-Luan

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with high-order neural networks with proportional delays. The proportional delay is a time-varying unbounded delay which is different from the constant delay, bounded time-varying delay and distributed delay. By the nonlinear transformation {y}i(t)={u}i({{{e}}}t){{ }}(i=1,2,\\ldots ,n), we transform a class of high-order neural networks with proportional delays into a class of high-order neural networks with constant delays and time-varying coefficients. With the aid of Brouwer fixed point theorem and constructing the delay differential inequality, we obtain some delay-independent and delay-dependent sufficient conditions to ensure the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium of the network. Two examples with their simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical findings. Our results are new and complement previously known results. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61673008 and 11261010, and Project of High-level Innovative Talents of Guizhou Province ([2016]5651)

  8. RHESSI Timing Studies: Multithermal Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the energy-dependent timing of thermal emission in solar flares using high-resolution spectra and demodulated time profiles from the RHESSI instrument. We model for the first time the spectral-temporal hard X-ray flux f(ɛ,t) in terms of a multitemperature plasma governed by thermal conduction cooling. In this quantitative model we characterize the multitemperature differential emission measure distribution (DEM) and nonthermal spectra with power-law functions. We fit this model to the spectra and energy-dependent time delays of a representative data set of 89 solar flares observed with RHESSI during 2002-2005. Eliminating weak flares, we find 65 events suitable for fitting and obtain in 44 events (68%) a satisfactory fit that is consistent with the theoretical model. The best-fit results yield a thermal-nonthermal crossover energy of ɛth=18.0+/-3.4 keV, nonthermal spectral indices of γnth=3.5+/-1.1 (at ~30-50 keV), thermal multispectral indices of γth=6.9+/-0.9 (at ~10-20 keV), and thermal conduction cooling times of τc0=101.6+/-0.6 s at ɛth=1 keV (or T0=11.6 MK), which scale with temperature as τc(T)~T-β with β=2.7+/-1.2, consistent with the theoretically expected scaling of τc(T)~T-5/2 for thermal conduction cooling. The (empirical) Neupert effect is consistent with this theoretical model in the asymptotic limit of long cooling times. This study provides clear evidence that all analyzed flares are consistent with the model of a multitemperature plasma distribution and with thermal conduction as dominant cooling mechanism (at flare temperatures of T>~10 MK). Our modeling of energy-dependent time delays provides an alternative method for separating multithermal from nonthermal spectral components based on information in the time domain, in contrast to previous spectral fitting methods.

  9. Primary Care Clinician Expectations Regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melinda M.; Bond, Lynne A.; Howard, Alan; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Expectations regarding aging (ERA) in community-dwelling older adults are associated with personal health behaviors and health resource usage. Clinicians' age expectations likely influence patients' expectations and care delivery patterns; yet, limited research has explored clinicians' age expectations. The Expectations Regarding Aging…

  10. Delayed Enrollment and College Plans: Is There a Postponement Penalty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Sunny; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance--focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student…

  11. Creating multiphoton-polarization bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Lavoie, Jonathan; Kaltenbaek, Rainer

    2011-03-15

    Bound entangled states are the exotic objects in the entangled world. They require entanglement to create them, but once they are formed, it is not possible to locally distill any free entanglement from them. It is only until recently that a few bound entangled states were realized in the laboratory. Motivated by these experiments, we propose schemes for creating various classes of bound entangled states with photon polarization. These include Acin-Bruss-Lewenstein-Sanpara states, Duer's states, Lee-Lee-Kim bound entangled states, and an unextendible-product-basis bound entangled state.

  12. Higgs Mass Triviality Bounds on F(4) Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klomfass, Markus

    In order to accurately describe the cutoff dependence of the Higgs mass triviality bound, the varphi ^4 theory is formulated on an F_4 lattice which preserves Lorentz invariance to a higher degree than the commonly used hypercubic lattice. We solve this model non-perturbatively by evaluating the linked cluster expansion through 12th order following the approach of Luscher and Weisz. The results are continued across the transition line into the broken phase by integrating the perturbative renormalization group equations. In the Goldstone phase, the renormalized coupling never exceeds 2/3 of the tree level unitarity bound when Lambda /m_{R}>= 2. Our results confirm recent Monte Carlo data and we obtain as an upper bound for the Higgs mass m_{R }/f_pi=2.45(7) at Lambda/m_{R }=2. Attempting to produce a heavier Higgs on the lattice, additional four-derivative terms are introduced in the naive action which serve to parameterize the leading order cutoff effects. Using a cluster reflection algorithm of the Swendsen-Wang-Wolff type, we simulate this action on an F_4 lattice in a region where the region where the effects of the new terms are expected to be maximal. As an upper bound we now obtain M _sigma/f_pi~ 2.8, an increase of about 20% compared to the simplest non-linear action. Despite triviality, the scalar sector may thus not be weakly interacting.

  13. Efficient rejection-based simulation of biochemical reactions with stochastic noise and delays

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh, Vo Hong; Priami, Corrado; Zunino, Roberto

    2014-10-07

    We propose a new exact stochastic rejection-based simulation algorithm for biochemical reactions and extend it to systems with delays. Our algorithm accelerates the simulation by pre-computing reaction propensity bounds to select the next reaction to perform. Exploiting such bounds, we are able to avoid recomputing propensities every time a (delayed) reaction is initiated or finished, as is typically necessary in standard approaches. Propensity updates in our approach are still performed, but only infrequently and limited for a small number of reactions, saving computation time and without sacrificing exactness. We evaluate the performance improvement of our algorithm by experimenting with concrete biological models.

  14. Sex Steroid and Gonadotropin Treatment in Male Delayed Puberty.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sasha; Dunkel, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Male delayed puberty is common, affecting up to 3% of the population. Management of patients with pubertal delay is dependent on the underlying cause. The main differential diagnoses of delayed puberty in males include constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP), idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Treatment of isolated CDGP involves expectant observation or short courses of low-dose sex steroid supplementation. More complex and involved management is required in males with hypogonadism to achieve both development of secondary sexual characteristics and to maximise the potential for fertility. This review will cover the options for management involving androgen or gonadotropin therapy, with discussion of benefits, limitations and specific considerations of the different treatment options.

  15. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  16. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  17. Minimizing the total completion time in a two-machine flowshop problem with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kais Msakni, Mohamed; Khallouli, Wael; Al-Salem, Mohamed; Ladhari, Talel

    2016-07-01

    This article proposes to solve the problem of minimizing the total completion time in a two-machine permutation flowshop environment in which time delays between the machines are considered. For this purpose, an enumeration algorithm based on the branch-and-bound framework is developed, which includes new lower and upper bounds as well as dominance rules. The computational study shows that problems with up to 40 jobs can be solved in a reasonable amount of time.

  18. Analysis and Simulation of Time Delay Estimation with Compensation for Source/Receiver Relative Motion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-24

    34 are from the simulation with motion reported here. Note that the vertical axis is in log^Q StdvCd^-d^]. The confidence intevals , [20, pp. 113-115...LIST OF ACRONYMS ASSP Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing COV Covariance matrix CPE Correlation Performance Estimate CRLB Cramer-Rao Lower Bound ...delay estimate, Var[D] is equal to the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), and, as such, it is an optimum (minimum variance) estimator (see next section

  19. Great expectations: teaching ethics to medical students in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn

    2014-12-01

    Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves.

  20. A time delay controller for magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youcef-Toumi, K.; Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    The control of systems with unknown dynamics and unpredictable disturbances has raised some challenging problems. This is particularly important when high system performance needs to be guaranteed at all times. Recently, the Time Delay Control has been suggested as an alternative control scheme. The proposed control system does not require an explicit plant model nor does it depend on the estimation of specific plant parameters. Rather, it combines adaptation with past observations to directly estimate the effect of the plant dynamics. A control law is formulated for a class of dynamic systems and a sufficient condition is presented for control systems stability. The derivation is based on the bounded input-bounded output stability approach using L sub infinity function norms. The control scheme is implemented on a five degrees of freedom high speed and high precision magnetic bearing. The control performance is evaluated using step responses, frequency responses, and disturbance rejection properties. The experimental data show an excellent control performance despite the system complexity.

  1. A lower bound for routing on a completely connected optical communication parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Jerrum, M.; MacKenzie, P.D.

    1993-08-03

    The task of routing a 2-relation on an n-processor completely connected optical communication parallel computer (OCPC) is considered. A lower bound is presented that applies to any randomized distributed algorithm for this task: specifically, it is shown that the expected number of steps required to route a 2-relation is {Omega}({radical} log log n) in the worst case. For comparison, the best upper bound known is O(log log n).

  2. Memory effect in the upper bound of the heat flux induced by quantum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, T.

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamic behaviors in a quantum Brownian motion coupled to a classical heat bath is studied. We then define a heat operator by generalizing the stochastic energetics and show the energy balance (first law) and the upper bound of the expectation value of the heat operator (second law). We further find that this upper bound depends on the memory effect induced by quantum fluctuations and hence the maximum extractable work can be qualitatively modified in quantum thermodynamics.

  3. Memory effect in the upper bound of the heat flux induced by quantum fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Koide, T

    2016-10-01

    Thermodynamic behaviors in a quantum Brownian motion coupled to a classical heat bath is studied. We then define a heat operator by generalizing the stochastic energetics and show the energy balance (first law) and the upper bound of the expectation value of the heat operator (second law). We further find that this upper bound depends on the memory effect induced by quantum fluctuations and hence the maximum extractable work can be qualitatively modified in quantum thermodynamics.

  4. Bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Zhen, Bo; Stone, A. Douglas; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-09-01

    Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are waves that remain localized even though they coexist with a continuous spectrum of radiating waves that can carry energy away. Their very existence defies conventional wisdom. Although BICs were first proposed in quantum mechanics, they are a general wave phenomenon and have since been identified in electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves in air, water waves and elastic waves in solids. These states have been studied in a wide range of material systems, such as piezoelectric materials, dielectric photonic crystals, optical waveguides and fibres, quantum dots, graphene and topological insulators. In this Review, we describe recent developments in this field with an emphasis on the physical mechanisms that lead to BICs across seemingly very different materials and types of waves. We also discuss experimental realizations, existing applications and directions for future work.

  5. MATISSE: specifications and expected performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, A.; Lagarde, S.; Petrov, R. G.; Berio, P.; Robbe-Dubois, S.; Lopez, B.; Antonelli, P.; Allouche, F.; Cruzalebes, P.; Millour, F.; Bazin, G.; Bourgès, L.

    2016-08-01

    MATISSE (Multi AperTure mid-Infrared SpectroScopic Experiment) is the next generation spectro-interferometer at the European Southern Observatory VLTI operating in the spectral bands L, M and N, and combining four beams from the unit and auxiliary telescopes. MATISSE is now fully integrated at the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur in Nice (France), and has entered very recently its testing phase in laboratory. This paper summarizes the equations describing the MATISSE signal and the associated sources of noise. The specifications and the expected performances of the instrument are then evaluated taking into account the current characteristics of the instrument and the VLTI infrastructure, including transmission and contrast degradation budgets. In addition, we present the different MATISSE simulation tools that will be made available to the future users.

  6. Fuzzy robust H ∞ filter design for nonlinear discrete-time systems with interval time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ya-Kun; Chen, Bing; Zhou, Qi; Lin, Chong

    2012-08-01

    This article deals with the problem of H ∞ filter design for nonlinear discrete-time systems with norm-bounded parameter uncertainties and time-varying delays. A new Lyapunov function and free-weighting matrix method are used for filtering design, consequently, a delay-dependent design method is first proposed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which produces a less conservative result. Finally, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.

  7. Stability Analysis of Uncertain Switched Delay Systems: A Time-Varying Lyapunov Function Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ganji; Luo, Shixian; Chen, Wu-Hua

    Exponential stability for switched systems with uncertain parameters and time-varying delay is considered in this paper. The parametric uncertainties are assumed to be time-varying and norm-bounded. By introducing a novel piecewise time-varying Lyapunov function and using Razumikhin techniques, some linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) stability criteria are derived to guarantee the exponential stability of the switched delay systems. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  9. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  10. Effects of the gaseous and liquid water content of the atmosphere on range delay and Doppler frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flock, W. L.

    1981-01-01

    When high precision is required for range measurement on Earth space paths, it is necessary to correct as accurately as possible for excess range delays due to the dry air, water vapor, and liquid water content of the atmosphere. Calculations based on representative values of atmospheric parameters are useful for illustrating the order of magnitude of the expected delays. Range delay, time delay, and phase delay are simply and directly related. Doppler frequency variations or noise are proportional to the time rate of change of excess range delay. Tropospheric effects were examined as part of an overall consideration of the capability of precision two way ranging and Doppler systems.

  11. Temporally remote destabilization of prediction after rare breaches of expectancy.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Anne B; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2012-08-01

    While neural signatures of breaches of expectancy and their immediate effects have been investigated, thus far, temporally more remote effects have been neglected. The present fMRI study explored neural correlates of temporally remote destabilization of prediction following rare breaches of expectancy with a mean delay of 14 s. We hypothesized temporally remote destabilization to be reflected either in an attenuation of areas related to long-term memory or in an increase of lateral fronto-parietal loops related to the encoding of new stimuli. Monitoring a deterministic 24-digit sequence, subjects were asked to indicate occasional sequential omissions by key press. Temporally remote destabilization of prediction was expected to be revealed by contrasting sequential events whose equivalent was omitted in the preceding sequential run n-1 (destabilized events) with sequential events without such history (nondestabilized events). Temporally remote destabilization of prediction was reflected in an attenuation of activity in the dorsal frontomedian cortex (Brodmann Area (BA) 9) bilaterally. Moreover, activation of the left medial BA 9 was enhanced by contrasting nondestabilized events with breaches. The decrease of dorsal frontomedian activation in the case of destabilized events might be interpreted as a top-down modulation on perception causing a less expectation-restricted encoding of the current stimulus and hence enabling the adaptation of expectation and prediction in the long run.

  12. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  13. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  14. Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.

  15. Inoculation against Forgetting: Advantages of Immediate versus Delayed Initial Testing Due to Superior Verbatim Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pansky, Ainat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, potential benefits of early memory testing were examined in terms of "inoculating" eyewitness memory against forgetting. As predicted by fuzzy trace theory (e.g., Reyna & Titcomb, 1997), a larger testing advantage in the delayed recall of event details was expected after immediate testing than after delayed testing…

  16. 75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of... delayed update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines for the remainder of 2010, and until the 2011 poverty guidelines are published, which is expected to occur in...

  17. Using tolerance bounds in scientific investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    Assessment of the variability in population values plays an important role in the analysis of scientific data. Analysis of scientific data often involves developing a bound on a proportion of a population. Sometimes simple probability bounds are obtained using formulas involving known mean and variance parameters and replacing the parameters by sample estimates. The resulting bounds are only approximate and fail to account for the variability in the estimated parameters. Tolerance bounds provide bounds on population proportions which account for the variation resulting from the estimated mean and variance parameters. A beta content, gamma confidence tolerance interval is constructed so that a proportion beta of the population lies within the region bounded by the interval with confidence gamma. An application involving corrosion measurements is used to illustrate the use of tolerance bounds for different situations. Extensions of standard tolerance intervals are applied to generate regression tolerance bounds, tolerance bounds for more general models of measurements collected over time, and tolerance intervals for varying precision data. Tolerance bounds also provide useful information for designing the collection of future data.

  18. Expectation-based syntactic comprehension.

    PubMed

    Levy, Roger

    2008-03-01

    This paper investigates the role of resource allocation as a source of processing difficulty in human sentence comprehension. The paper proposes a simple information-theoretic characterization of processing difficulty as the work incurred by resource reallocation during parallel, incremental, probabilistic disambiguation in sentence comprehension, and demonstrates its equivalence to the theory of Hale [Hale, J. (2001). A probabilistic Earley parser as a psycholinguistic model. In Proceedings of NAACL (Vol. 2, pp. 159-166)], in which the difficulty of a word is proportional to its surprisal (its negative log-probability) in the context within which it appears. This proposal subsumes and clarifies findings that high-constraint contexts can facilitate lexical processing, and connects these findings to well-known models of parallel constraint-based comprehension. In addition, the theory leads to a number of specific predictions about the role of expectation in syntactic comprehension, including the reversal of locality-based difficulty patterns in syntactically constrained contexts, and conditions under which increased ambiguity facilitates processing. The paper examines a range of established results bearing on these predictions, and shows that they are largely consistent with the surprisal theory.

  19. A Search for Gravitationally Bound Cloud Cores within the CMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehret, Elizabeth; Battersby, Cara

    2016-01-01

    In general, current star formation theories successfully model the rate at which stars are forming throughout our Galaxy as well as others, with the star formation rate (SFR) in a given region being proportional to the amount of gas above a threshold density. The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) of our Galaxy is an excellent place to test these models. It is home to the highest amount of dense, molecular gas within our Galaxy-and yet, the SFR within this region is an order of magnitude lower than would be expected using current star formation models. This project utilizes data taken from the SMA Legacy Survey of the CMZ, in a search for gravitationally bound structures within three small gas clouds near the Galactic Center, as well as the 1.6 degree cloud. Dense gas structures are detected using H2CO-a dense gas tracer, and 1.3mm cold, dust continuum. These regions are catalogued using dendrograms to identify which structures have continuous and significant H2CO emission. Gravitationally bound candidates were identified by deriving each structure's virial ratio. Within the three clouds near the GC, 40 structures were catalogued, with one structure that was found to be gravitationally bound. Very large virial ratios are the result of large H2CO line widths, possibly due to a high degree of tidal compression. This analysis is also performed on the 1.6 degree cloud, in a region with two suspected bound cores. One of these two cores is close to virial equilibrium and likely gravitationally bound, thus providing support for the use of this method on other clouds within the CMZ. This work supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  20. Smoking Outcome Expectancies among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Baker, Timothy B.

    Alcohol expectancies have been found to predict later onset of drinking among adolescents. This study examined whether the relationship between level of alcohol use and expectancies is paralleled with cigarette smoking, and attempted to identify the content of smoking expectancies. An instrument to measure the subjective expected utility of…

  1. 10 CFR 63.304 - Reasonable expectation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable expectation. 63.304 Section 63.304 Energy... Reasonable expectation. Reasonable expectation means that the Commission is satisfied that compliance will be achieved based upon the full record before it. Characteristics of reasonable expectation include that...

  2. Delayed unlatching mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2015-05-19

    In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.

  3. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  4. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  5. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  6. Calibrating for Ionospheric Phase Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1985-01-01

    Technique determines ionospheric phase delay on real-time universally applicable basis in terms of electrons per meter squared by coherently modulating two L-band carrier frequencies received from two Global Positioning System satelites. Two pseudorandom number sequences cross-correlated to derive delay time.

  7. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  8. The effect of distributed time-delays on the synchronization of neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhvah, Ajay Deep

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate the synchronization of networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons coupled in scale-free, small-world and random topologies, in the presence of distributed time delays in the coupling of neurons. We explore how the synchronization transition is affected when the time delays in the interactions between pairs of interacting neurons are non-uniform. We find that the presence of distributed time-delays does not change the behavior of the synchronization transition significantly, vis-a-vis networks with constant time-delay, where the value of the constant time-delay is the mean of the distributed delays. We also notice that a normal distribution of delays gives rise to a transition at marginally lower coupling strengths, vis-a-vis uniformly distributed delays. These trends hold across classes of networks and for varying standard deviations of the delay distribution, indicating the generality of these results. So we conclude that distributed delays, which may be typically expected in real-world situations, do not have a notable effect on synchronization. This allows results obtained with constant delays to remain relevant even in the case of randomly distributed delays.

  9. Acoustic trapping in bubble-bounded micro-cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahoney, P.; McDougall, C.; Glynne-Jones, P.; MacDonald, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    We present a method for controllably producing longitudinal acoustic trapping sites inside microfluidic channels. Air bubbles are injected into a micro-capillary to create bubble-bounded `micro-cavities'. A cavity mode is formed that shows controlled longitudinal acoustic trapping between the two air/water interfaces along with the levitation to the centre of the channel that one would expect from a lower order lateral mode. 7 μm and 10 μm microspheres are trapped at the discrete acoustic trapping sites in these micro-cavities.We show this for several lengths of micro-cavity.

  10. Expected geoneutrino signal at JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strati, Virginia; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Mantovani, Fabio; McDonough, William F.; Ricci, Barbara; Xhixha, Gerti

    2015-12-01

    Constraints on the Earth's composition and on its radiogenic energy budget come from the detection of geoneutrinos. The Kamioka Liquid scintillator Antineutrino Detector (KamLAND) and Borexino experiments recently reported the geoneutrino flux, which reflects the amount and distribution of U and Th inside the Earth. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) neutrino experiment, designed as a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector, will be built in an underground laboratory in South China about 53 km from the Yangjiang and Taishan nuclear power plants, each one having a planned thermal power of approximately 18 GW. Given the large detector mass and the intense reactor antineutrino flux, JUNO aims not only to collect high statistics antineutrino signals from reactors but also to address the challenge of discriminating the geoneutrino signal from the reactor background. The predicted geoneutrino signal at JUNO is terrestrial neutrino unit (TNU), based on the existing reference Earth model, with the dominant source of uncertainty coming from the modeling of the compositional variability in the local upper crust that surrounds (out to approximately 500 km) the detector. A special focus is dedicated to the 6° × 4° local crust surrounding the detector which is estimated to contribute for the 44% of the signal. On the basis of a worldwide reference model for reactor antineutrinos, the ratio between reactor antineutrino and geoneutrino signals in the geoneutrino energy window is estimated to be 0.7 considering reactors operating in year 2013 and reaches a value of 8.9 by adding the contribution of the future nuclear power plants. In order to extract useful information about the mantle's composition, a refinement of the abundance and distribution of U and Th in the local crust is required, with particular attention to the geochemical characterization of the accessible upper crust where 47% of the expected geoneutrino signal originates and this region contributes

  11. Conical-Domain Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Lawrence; Komjathy, Attila; Mannucci, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The conical-domain model is a computational model, now undergoing development, for estimating ionospheric delays of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Relative to the standard ionospheric delay model described below, the conical-domain model offers improved accuracy. In the absence of selective availability, the ionosphere is the largest source of error for single-frequency users of GPS. Because ionospheric signal delays contribute to errors in GPS position and time measurements, satellite-based augmentation systems (SBASs) have been designed to estimate these delays and broadcast corrections. Several national and international SBASs are currently in various stages of development to enhance the integrity and accuracy of GPS measurements for airline navigation. In the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) of the United States, slant ionospheric delay errors and confidence bounds are derived from estimates of vertical ionospheric delay modeled on a grid at regularly spaced intervals of latitude and longitude. The estimate of vertical delay at each ionospheric grid point (IGP) is calculated from a planar fit of neighboring slant delay measurements, projected to vertical using a standard, thin-shell model of the ionosphere. Interpolation on the WAAS grid enables estimation of the vertical delay at the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) corresponding to any arbitrary measurement of a user. (The IPP of a given user s measurement is the point where the GPS signal ray path intersects a reference ionospheric height.) The product of the interpolated value and the user s thin-shell obliquity factor provides an estimate of the user s ionospheric slant delay. Two types of error that restrict the accuracy of the thin-shell model are absent in the conical domain model: (1) error due to the implicit assumption that the electron density is independent of the azimuthal angle at the IPP and (2) error arising from the slant-to-vertical conversion. At low latitudes or at mid

  12. Delayed Geodynamo in Hadean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2014-12-01

    Paleointensity measurements of Archean rocks reveal a strong geodynamo at ~3.45 Ga, while excess nitrogen content of lunar soil samples implies no geodynamo at ~3.9 Ga. Here I propose that initiation of a strong geodynamo is delayed due to accretion style of Earth, involving collision and merging of a few dozen Moon to Mars size planetary embryos. Two accretion scenarios consisting of 25 and 50 embryos are investigated. The collision of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's core differentially and the rotating low-viscosity core stably stratifies, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution. Convection starts in the outer core after each impact but is destroyed by the next impact. The iron core of an impacting embryo descends in the mantle and merges to the proto-Earth's core. Both adiabatic and non-adiabatic merging cases are studied. A major part of the gravitational energy released due to core merging is used to lift up the upper portion of the core to emplace the impactor core material at the neutrally buoyant level in the proto-Earth's core. The remaining energy is converted to heat. In the adiabatic case the merging embryo's core retains all of the remaining energy, while in the non-adiabatic merging 50% of the remaining energy is shared with the outer part of the proto-Earth's core where the embryo's core descends. The two merging models result in significantly different temperature distributions in the core at the end of accretion. After the accretion, the convecting shell in the outer core grows monotonically and generates geodynamo gradually. It takes about 50-100 Myr for the convecting shell to generate a strong dipole field at the surface, 50,000 to 100,000 nT, in the presence of a large stably stratified liquid inner core when the convecting outer core thickness exceeds about one half the radius of the Earth's core.

  13. Bounded global Hopf branches for stage-structured differential equations with unimodal feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hongying; Wang, Lin; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-03-01

    We consider a class of stage-structured differential equations with unimodal feedback. By using the time delay as a bifurcation parameter, we show that the number of local Hopf bifurcation values is finite. Furthermore, we analytically prove that these local Hopf bifurcation values are neatly paired, and each pair is jointed by a bounded global Hopf branch. We use the well-known Mackey-Glass equation with a stage structure as an illustrative example to demonstrate that bounded global Hopf branches can induce interesting and rich dynamics. As the delay increases over a finite interval, the stage-structured Mackey-Glass equation exhibits certain symmetric dynamic patterns: the solutions evolve from a stable equilibrium to sustained stable periodic oscillations, to chaotic-like aperiodic oscillations and back to sustained stable periodic oscillations, to a stable equilibrium.

  14. Should a High School Adopt Advanced Placement or a Concurrent Enrollment Program? An Expected Benefit Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkowsky, Donald H.; Evensky, Jerry M.; Edmonds, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an explicit framework for evaluating the expected benefit to college-bound students of courses offered by Advanced Placement (AP) versus concurrent enrollment programs (CEP). District personnel can use it to assess the relative merits of these programs, given the characteristics of their students, in deciding which model to…

  15. Stabilisation and consensus of linear systems with multiple input delays by truncated pseudo-predictor feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bin; Cong, Shen

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a new approach referred to as pseudo-predictor feedback (PPF) for stabilisation of linear systems with multiple input delays. Differently from the traditional predictor feedback which is from the model reduction appoint of view, the proposed PPF utilises the idea of prediction by generalising the corresponding results for linear systems with a single input delay to the case of multiple input delays. Since the PPF will generally lead to distributed controllers, a truncated pseudo-predictor feedback (TPPF) approach is established instead, which gives finite dimensional controllers. It is shown that the TPPF can compensate arbitrarily large yet bounded delays as long as the open-loop system is only polynomially unstable. The proposed TPPF approach is then used to solve the consensus problems for multi-agent systems characterised by linear systems with multiple input delays. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food–rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout) between the two response alternatives in an experiment with three phases: In Phase 1, the delay on one alternative was 0 s, and the other was varied between 0 and 8 s; in Phase 2, both delays were equal and were varied from 0 to 4 s; in Phase 3, the two delays summed to 8 s, and each was varied from 1 to 7 s. The results showed that increasing delay affected local choice, measured by a pulse in preference, in the same way as decreasing magnitude, but we found also that increasing the delay at the other alternative increased local preference. This result casts doubt on the traditional view that a reinforcer strengthens a response depending only on the reinforcer's value discounted by any response–reinforcer delay. The results suggest that food guides, rather than strengthens, behavior. PMID:17465314

  17. Least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying transportation networks

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Hooks, E.D.; Mahmassani, H.S.

    1999-06-01

    The authors consider stochastic, time-varying transportation networks, where the arc weights (arc travel times) are random variables with probability distribution functions that vary with time. Efficient procedures are widely available for determining least time paths in deterministic networks. In stochastic but time-invariant networks, least expected time paths can be determined by setting each random arc weight to its expected value and solving an equivalent deterministic problem. This paper addresses the problem of determining least expected time paths in stochastic, time-varying networks. Two procedures are presented. The first procedure determines the a priori least expected time paths from all origins to a single destination for each departure time in the peak period. The second procedure determines lower bounds on the expected times of these a priori least expected time paths. This procedure determines an exact solution for the problem where the driver is permitted to react to revealed travel times on traveled links en route, i.e. in a time-adaptive route choice framework. Modifications to each of these procedures for determining least expected cost (where cost is not necessarily travel time) paths and lower bounds on the expected costs of these paths are given. Extensive numerical tests are conducted to illustrate the algorithms` computational performance as well as the properties of the solution.

  18. Multicultural Differences in Women's Expectations of Birth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marianne F

    2016-01-01

    This review surveyed qualitative and quantitative studies to explore the expectations around birth that are held by women from different cultures. These studies are grouped according to expectations of personal control expectations of support from partner/others/family; expectations of carel behavior from providers such as nurses, doctors, and/or midwives; expectations about the health of the baby; and expectations about pain in childbirth. Discussed are the findings and the role that Western culture in medicine, power and privilege are noted in providing care to these women.

  19. Dynamic Properties of the Solow Model with Bounded Technological Progress and Time-to-Build Technology

    PubMed Central

    Sodini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a time-to-build technology in a Solow model with bounded technological progress. Our analysis shows that the system may be asymptotically stable, or it can produce stability switches and Hopf bifurcations when time delay varies. The direction and the stability criteria of the bifurcating periodic solutions are obtained by the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical simulations confirms the theoretical results. PMID:24782674

  20. Delayed Recovery from Anaesthesia in a Patient with Optimised Hypothyroidism and Incidental Hypokalemia

    PubMed Central

    Laheri, Vandana V; Waigankar, Tejasi; Wagh, Charchill

    2015-01-01

    Delayed recovery/awakening/ emergence can occur under anaesthesia and is multifactorial, could be drug or non drug related. Similarly, we report a case of delayed recovery in a 68-year-old patient, for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a known case of hypertension, bronchial asthma and hypothyroidism. Preoperatively, she was optimised for her medical disorders; however, she had delayed recovery from general anaesthesia. The delayed recovery, often, would be expected in a case of hypothyroidism, however in our patient it was found to be associated with inadvertent hypokalemia PMID:25738065

  1. Outward Bound: An Innovative Patient Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Thomas F.; Gaylor, Michael S.

    A 1975 Dartmouth Outward Bound Mental Health Project, begun with a pilot project for disturbed adolescents, has evolved into an ongoing treatment option in three separate clinical settings for psychiatric patients and recovering alcoholics. Outward Bound consists of a series of prescribed physical and social tasks where the presence of stress,…

  2. Generalized upper bound for inelastic diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    For inelastic diffraction, we obtain an upper bound valid for the whole range of the elastic scattering amplitude variation allowed by unitarity. We discuss the energy dependence of the inelastic diffractive cross-section on the base of this bound and recent Large Hadron Collider (LHC) data.

  3. THE HOPF BIFURCATION WITH BOUNDED NOISE

    PubMed Central

    Botts, Ryan T.; Homburg, Ale Jan; Young, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    We study Hopf-Andronov bifurcations in a class of random differential equations (RDEs) with bounded noise. We observe that when an ordinary differential equation that undergoes a Hopf bifurcation is subjected to bounded noise then the bifurcation that occurs involves a discontinuous change in the Minimal Forward Invariant set. PMID:24748762

  4. Outward Bound: an Experience in Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danenburg, William; Gaggi, Silvio

    1974-01-01

    Two authors describe how their participation in an outward bound program has helped them develop a greater degree of general self confidence, greater ease in dealing with complex and frustrating problems, and a greater appreciation of man's place in the natural environment. They also describe Outward Bound courses that have been especially…

  5. Tank 41H bounding uranium enrichment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, W.S.

    1994-09-30

    The intent of this document is to combine data from salt samples and historical process information to bound the uranium (U-235) enrichment which could be expected in the upper portion of the salt in Tank 41H. This bounding enrichment will be used in another document to establish a nuclear safety basis for initial salt removal operations. Any number of mixing scenarios could have been examined for the components which fed the evaporator during the formation of the last five feet of salt. The scenario presented was designed to be conservative, while still incorporating process knowledge and available data where possible. In the scenario, the lowest enrichment seen in any feed material was for the L4 feed which was evaporated to form the top part of the salt in Tank 41H. The lowest enrichment of 17% is still higher than the 16% (95% confidence) maximum enrichment actually found at the salt surface (from sample results). This leads to the conclusion that the uranium enrichment of the material (L1) which was being fed to the evaporate when the last five feet began to form, was lower than 22%. The conservatism used in this analysis, combined with the available sample data are believed to provide a defensible basis for establishing an upper bounding enrichment of 22% for the top five feet of salt.

  6. Chemical Properties of Dipole-Bound Negative Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.

    2005-05-01

    In dipole bound negative ions the extra electron is weakly bound by the dipole potential of the neutral molecule in a diffuse orbital localized near the positive end of the dipole. In consequence, it is reasonable to expect that such species will be highly reactive and possess chemical properties similar to those of Rydberg atoms, which also contain a weakly-bound electron in a diffuse orbital. These properties are being examined using a negative ion Penning trap. Data for electron transfer in collisions with attaching targets such as SF6 show that the rate constants for this process are large, ˜ 10-7 cm^3 s-1, and similar to those for free electron attachment. This suggests that collisions can be described in terms of an essentially-free electron model. This is further reinforced by the observation that rotational energy transfer in collisions with polar molecules can lead to rapid electron detachment, again with large rate constants of ˜ 10 -7 cm^3 s-1. Results for several target species will be presented and discussed in light of a free electron model.

  7. Rigorous bounds for optimal dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, Goetz S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-07-15

    We present rigorous performance bounds for the optimal dynamical decoupling pulse sequence protecting a quantum bit (qubit) against pure dephasing. Our bounds apply under the assumption of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We show that if the total sequence time is fixed the optimal sequence can be used to make the distance between the protected and unperturbed qubit states arbitrarily small in the number of applied pulses. If, on the other hand, the minimum pulse interval is fixed and the total sequence time is allowed to scale with the number of pulses, then longer sequences need not always be advantageous. The rigorous bound may serve as a testbed for approximate treatments of optimal decoupling in bounded models of decoherence.

  8. The Effects of Instructor Expectation and Performance on Child Comprehension and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Hagan, Margaret S.

    To investigate the influence of instructional behaviors and adult expectations on children's task performance, 48 boys either 5 to 6 or 8 to 9 years of age individually viewed instructional videotapes and participated in a delay of gratification task. In the first phase of the study, videotapes were produced in which instructors were told to…

  9. Bound-free Spectra for Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenke, David W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now recognized that prediction of radiative heating of entering space craft requires explicit treatment of the radiation field from the infrared (IR) to the vacuum ultra violet (VUV). While at low temperatures and longer wavelengths, molecular radiation is well described by bound-bound transitions, in the short wavelength, high temperature regime, bound-free transitions can play an important role. In this work we describe first principles calculations we have carried out for bound-bound and bound-free transitions in N2, O2, C2, CO, CN, NO, and N2+. Compared to bound ]bound transitions, bound-free transitions have several particularities that make them different to deal with. These include more complicated line shapes and a dependence of emission intensity on both bound state diatomic and atomic concentrations. These will be discussed in detail below. The general procedure we used was the same for all species. The first step is to generate potential energy curves, transition moments, and coupling matrix elements by carrying out ab initio electronic structure calculations. These calculations are expensive, and thus approximations need to be made in order to make the calculations tractable. The only practical method we have to carry out these calculations is the internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction (icMRCI) method as implemented in the program suite Molpro. This is a widely used method for these kinds of calculations, and is capable of generating very accurate results. With this method, we must first of choose which electrons to correlate, the one-electron basis to use, and then how to generate the molecular orbitals.

  10. Locating Bound Structures in the Accelerating Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, David; Batuski, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the overwhelming evidence of the universe’s accelerating expansion, the question of what structures are gravitationally bound becomes one of utmost interest. Dunner et al. 2006 (D06) and Busha et al. 2003 (B03) set out to answer this question analytically, and they arrived at fairly different answers owing to the differences in their assumptions of velocities at the present epoch. Applying their criteria to different superclusters, it’s possible to make predictions about what structures may be bound. We apply the criteria of D06 and B03 to the Aquarius, Microscopium, Corona Borealis, and Shapley superclusters to make predictions about what structures might be bound and compare with the results of simple N-body simulations to determine which method is a better predictor and to determine the likelihood that parts or all of the superclusters listed above are bound. We find that D06 tend to predict more structure to be bound than B03, and the results of the N-body simulations usually lie somewhere in between the two sets of predictions. Observational evidence, and simulation data suggests that pairs of clusters in Aquarius and Microscopium are gravitationally bound, and that Shapley contains a large complex of clusters that are bound, along with some additional bound pairs. The likelihood that any of the clusters in Corona Borealis are bound to one another is very small, contrary to the claims of Small et al. 1998, who claimed that the entire supercluster is likely gravitationally bound. Busha M. T., Adams F. C., Wechsler R. H., Evrard A. E., 2003, ApJ, 596, 713 Dunner R., Araya P. A., Meza A., Reisenegger A., 2006, MNRAS, 306, 803 Small T. A., Ma C., Sargent W. L. W., Hamilton D., 1998, ApJ, 492, 45

  11. Nursing students' expectations of the college experience.

    PubMed

    Zysberg, Leehu; Zisberg, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Nursing students' expectations of college have not received much attention in the empirical literature. These expectations may be important in better understanding nurses' motivations, role acquisition, and academic and professional success. The first study discussed in this article examined the reliability and construct validity of an instrument designed to assess students' (N = 95) expectations of their college experience. The results indicate good reliability and validity. The second study discussed in this article examined differences in expectations, comparing nursing and non-nursing students (N = 160) in an urban college setting. The results suggest expectations emphasizing practical and professional aspects (i.e., acquiring a profession, earning more money), followed by self-betterment and social life expectations. Nursing students differed from non-nursing students by reporting higher self-betterment and professional expectations but lower academic expectations. Implications for application and further research are discussed.

  12. [Normal puberty and delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, C

    2011-09-01

    Puberty includes important physical and growth changes, and takes place at a certain age range, leading to sexual maturation. Delayed puberty is defined clinically by the absence of breast development after the age of 13,5 in girls, or the absence of increase in testicular size after the age of 14 years in boys. Particularly in boys, delayed puberty, presented as short stature, is a frequent motivation for medical appointment. Constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) is the most frequent diagnosis ; however, the other etiologies have to be considered. Family history, physical examination including secondary sex characteristics, analysis of growth curve will help to clarify the diagnosis, and may permit avoidance of otherwise evaluations, Adequate work up is important, delayed puberty might lead to psychological difficulties in this context of peer's differences. Even in CDGP, symptomatic treatment with sex steroids might be considered.

  13. 78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  14. Delay in cutaneous melanoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Marcus H.S.B.; Drummond-Lage, Ana P.; Baeta, Cyntia; Rocha, Lorena; Almeida, Alessandra M.; Wainstein, Alberto J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Advanced melanoma is an incurable disease with complex and expensive treatments. The best approach to prevent melanoma at advanced stages is an early diagnosis. A knowledge of factors associated with the process of detecting cutaneous melanomas and the reasons for delays in diagnosis is essential for the improvement of the secondary prevention of the disease. Identify sociodemographic, individual, and medical aspects related to cutaneous melanoma diagnosis delay. Interviews evaluated the knowledge of melanoma, signals, symptoms, persons who were suspected, delays in seeking medical attention, physician's deferrals, and related factors of 211 patients. Melanomas were self-discovered in 41.7% of the patients; healthcare providers detected 29.9% of patients and others detected 27%. The main component in delay was patient-related. Only 31.3% of the patients knew that melanoma was a serious skin cancer, and most thought that the pigmented lesion was not important, causing a delay in seeking medical assistance. Patients (36.4%) reported a wait interval of more than 6 months from the onset of an observed change in a pigmented lesion to the first visit to a physician. The delay interval from the first physician visit to a histopathological diagnosis was shorter (<1 month) in 55.5% of patients. Improper treatments without a histopathological confirmation occurred in 14.7% of patients. A professional delay was related to both inappropriate treatments performed without histopathological confirmation (P = 0.003) and long requirements for medical referrals (P < 0.001). A deficient knowledge in the population regarding melanoma and physicians’ misdiagnoses regarding suspicious lesions contributed to delays in diagnosis. PMID:27495055

  15. Conditioning with delayed vitamin injections.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J; Ervin, F R; Yorke, C H; Koelling, R A

    1967-02-10

    Rats deficient in thiamine were allowed to drink saccharin-fla vored water. They were then given an injection of thiamine which caused their intake of the nonnutritive fluid to increase. Delay of the intramuscular injection up to 30 minutes had no effect upon the acquisition of this condi tioning. Presumably, this delay reflects specialization in the central integrative mechanisms which serve these afferent modalities.

  16. Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Robert

    Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in…

  17. Brain mechanisms supporting violated expectations of pain.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V; Kraft, Robert A; Coghill, Robert C

    2015-09-01

    The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between experiences, future predictions, and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain, whereas expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. This investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, 10 incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine whether expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between prestimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum, and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations in which patients' unrealistic expectations of pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management.

  18. Are Grade Expectations Rational? A Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Belayet; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' expectations about their final grade. An attempt is made to determine whether students form expectations rationally. Expectations in economics, rational or otherwise, carry valuable information and have important implications in terms of both teaching effectiveness and the role of grades as an incentive structure for…

  19. Community Expectations of College Completion and Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derden, Michael Wade

    2011-01-01

    Communities relay expectations of behavior that influence residents' decision making processes. The study's purpose was to define and identify social, cultural, and human capital variables relevant to understanding community expectations of postsecondary attainment. The study sought an operational model of community expectancy that would allow…

  20. Bounds on invisible Higgs boson decays extracted from LHC ttH production data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ning; Khechadoorian, Zepyoor; Whiteson, Daniel; Tait, Tim M P

    2014-10-10

    We present an upper bound on the branching fraction of the Higgs boson to invisible particles by recasting a CMS Collaboration search for stop quarks decaying to tt + E(T)(miss). The observed (expected) bound, BF(H → inv.) < 0.40(0.65) at 95% C.L., is the strongest direct limit to date, benefiting from a downward fluctuation in the CMS data in that channel. In addition, we combine this new constraint with existing published constraints to give an observed (expected) bound of BF(H → inv.) < 0.40(0.40) at 95% C.L., and we show some of the implications for theories of dark matter which communicate through the Higgs portal.

  1. Delayed puberty in chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Jesús; Argente, Jesús

    2002-03-01

    Delayed puberty can be defined as the lack of pubertal development at an age of 2 SD above the mean, which corresponds to an age of approximately 14 years for males and 13 years for females, taking both sex and ethnic origin into consideration. Its incidence associated with chronic illnesses is unknown; however, its clinical importance is relevant due to the larger percentage of patients with chronic disorders surviving until the age of puberty. Virtually every child with any chronic disease could present with delayed puberty (due to recurrent infections, immunodeficiency, gastrointestinal disease, renal disturbances, respiratory illnesses, chronic anaemia, endocrine disease, eating disorders, exercise and a number of miscellaneous abnormalities). Pubertal delay associated with chronic illness is accompanied by a delay in growth and the pubertal growth spurt. The degree to which growth and pubertal development are affected in chronic illness depends upon the type of disease and individual factors, as well as on the age at illness onset, its duration and severity. The earlier its onset and the longer and more severe the illness, the greater the repercussions on growth and pubertal development. The mechanism that trigger the start of physiological puberty remain unknown. Although malnutrition is probably the most important mechanism responsible for delayed puberty, emotional deprivation, toxic substances, stress and the side effects of chronic therapy, among others, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of delayed puberty. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential and appropriate and specific therapy fundamental.

  2. Search for eta '(958)-nucleus Bound States by (p,d) Reaction at GSI and FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Friedrich, S.; Geissel, H.; Gellanki, J.; Guo, C.; Gutz, E.; Haettner, E.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Higashi, Y.; Hirenzaki, S.; Hornung, C.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeno, N.; Itahashi, K.; Iwasaki, M.; Jido, D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kanungo, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurz, N.; Metag, V.; Mukha, I.; Nagae, T.; Nagahiro, H.; Nanova, M.; Nishi, T.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rappold, C.; Reiter, M. P.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Scheidenberger, C.; Simon, H.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Sun, B.; Suzuki, K.; Szarka, I.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Watanabe, Y. N.; Weick, H.; Widmann, E.; Winfield, J. S.; Xu, X.; Yamakami, H.; Zhao, J.

    The mass of the {\\eta}' meson is theoretically expected to be reduced at finite density, which indicates the existence of {\\eta}'-nucleus bound states. To investigate these states, we perform missing-mass spectroscopy for the (p, d) reaction near the {\\eta}' production threshold. The overview of the experimental situation is given and the current status is discussed.

  3. Global asymptotic stability of Hopfield neural network involving distributed delays.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyong

    2004-01-01

    In the paper, we study dynamical behaviors of Hopfield neural networks system with distributed delays. Some new criteria ensuring the existence and uniqueness, and the global asymptotic stability (GAS) of equilibrium point are derived. In the results, we do not assume that the signal propagation functions satisfy the Lipschitz condition and do not require them to be bounded, differentiable or strictly increasing. Moreover, the symmetry of the connection matrix is not also necessary. Thus, we improve some previous works of other researchers. These conditions are presented in terms of system parameters and have importance leading significance in designs and applications of the GAS for Hopfield neural networks system with distributed delays. Two examples are also worked out to demonstrate the advantages of our results.

  4. Semilocal density functional obeying a strongly tightened bound for exchange

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianwei; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2015-01-01

    Because of its useful accuracy and efficiency, density functional theory (DFT) is one of the most widely used electronic structure theories in physics, materials science, and chemistry. Only the exchange-correlation energy is unknown, and needs to be approximated in practice. Exact constraints provide useful information about this functional. The local spin-density approximation (LSDA) was the first constraint-based density functional. The Lieb–Oxford lower bound on the exchange-correlation energy for any density is another constraint that plays an important role in the development of generalized gradient approximations (GGAs) and meta-GGAs. Recently, a strongly and optimally tightened lower bound on the exchange energy was proved for one- and two-electron densities, and conjectured for all densities. In this article, we present a realistic “meta-GGA made very simple” (MGGA-MVS) for exchange that respects this optimal bound, which no previous beyond-LSDA approximation satisfies. This constraint might have been expected to worsen predicted thermochemical properties, but in fact they are improved over those of the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof GGA, which has nearly the same correlation part. MVS exchange is however radically different from that of other GGAs and meta-GGAs. Its exchange enhancement factor has a very strong dependence upon the orbital kinetic energy density, which permits accurate energies even with the drastically tightened bound. When this nonempirical MVS meta-GGA is hybridized with 25% of exact exchange, the resulting global hybrid gives excellent predictions for atomization energies, reaction barriers, and weak interactions of molecules. PMID:25561554

  5. Delays in Human-Computer Interaction and Their Effects on Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kohrs, Christin; Angenstein, Nicole; Brechmann, André

    2016-01-01

    The temporal contingency of feedback is an essential requirement of successful human-computer interactions. The timing of feedback not only affects the behavior of a user but is also accompanied by changes in psychophysiology and neural activity. In three fMRI experiments we systematically studied the impact of delayed feedback on brain activity while subjects performed an auditory categorization task. In the first fMRI experiment, we analyzed the effects of rare and thus unexpected delays of different delay duration on brain activity. In the second experiment, we investigated if users can adapt to frequent delays. Therefore, delays were presented as often as immediate feedback. In a third experiment, the influence of interaction outage was analyzed by measuring the effect of infrequent omissions of feedback on brain activity. The results show that unexpected delays in feedback presentation compared to immediate feedback stronger activate inter alia bilateral the anterior insular cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right inferior frontal junction. The strength of this activation increases with the duration of the delay. Thus, delays interrupt the course of an interaction and trigger an orienting response that in turn activates brain regions of action control. If delays occur frequently, users can adapt, delays become expectable, and the brain activity in the observed network diminishes over the course of the interaction. However, introducing rare omissions of expected feedback reduces the system’s trustworthiness which leads to an increase in brain activity not only in response to such omissions but also following frequently occurring and thus expected delays. PMID:26745874

  6. A Discounting Framework for Choice With Delayed and Probabilistic Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2005-01-01

    When choosing between delayed or uncertain outcomes, individuals discount the value of such outcomes on the basis of the expected time to or the likelihood of their occurrence. In an integrative review of the expanding experimental literature on discounting, the authors show that although the same form of hyperbola-like function describes discounting of both delayed and probabilistic outcomes, a variety of recent findings are inconsistent with a single-process account. The authors also review studies that compare discounting in different populations and discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings. The present effort illustrates the value of studying choice involving both delayed and probabilistic outcomes within a general discounting framework that uses similar experimental procedures and a common analytical approach. PMID:15367080

  7. Distributed Load Shedding over Directed Communication Networks with Time Delays

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di

    2016-07-25

    When generation is insufficient to support all loads under emergencies, effective and efficient load shedding needs to be deployed in order to maintain the supply-demand balance. This paper presents a distributed load shedding algorithm, which makes efficient decision based on the discovered global information. In the global information discovery process, each load only communicates with its neighboring load via directed communication links possibly with arbitrarily large but bounded time varying communication delays. We propose a novel distributed information discovery algorithm based on ratio consensus. Simulation results are used to validate the proposed method.

  8. Stochastic quasi-synchronization for uncertain chaotic delayed neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Yu, Yongguang; Wen, Guoguang; Rahmani, Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    The stochastic quasi-synchronization issue for uncertain chaotic delayed neural networks (DNNs) is investigated. Stochastic perturbation and three uncertain elements, including the discontinuous activation functions, mismatched connection weight parameters and unknown connection weight parameters, are considered in the chaotic DNNs. According to the Ito formula and the inequality techniques, the parameters update laws and the control laws are given to realize the synchronization. And a stochastic quasi-synchronization criterion is established. Furthermore, sufficient conditions are proposed for the control of the synchronization error bound by choosing appropriate control laws. Some numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  9. Dynamic Scheduling of Pigeons for Delay Constrained Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiazhen; Li, Jiang; Burge, Legand

    Information collection in the disaster area is an important application of pigeon networks - a special type of delay tolerant networks (DTN). The aim of this paper is to explore highly efficient dynamic scheduling strategies of pigeons for such applications. The upper bound of traffic that can be supported under the deadline constraints for the basic on-demand strategy is given through the analysis. Based on the analysis, a waiting based packing strategy is introduced. Although the latter strategy could not change the maximum traffic rate that a pigeon can support, it improves the efficiency of the pigeon largely. The analytical results are verified by the simulations.

  10. Match-bounded String Rewriting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geser, Alfons; Hofbauer, Dieter; Waldmann, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new class of automated proof methods for the termination of rewriting systems on strings. The basis of all these methods is to show that rewriting preserves regular languages. To this end, letters are annotated with natural numbers, called match heights. If the minimal height of all positions in a redex is h+1 then every position in the reduct will get height h+1. In a match-bounded system, match heights are globally bounded. Using recent results on deleting systems, we prove that rewriting by a match-bounded system preserves regular languages. Hence it is decidable whether a given rewriting system has a given match bound. We also provide a sufficient criterion for the abence of a match-bound. The problem of existence of a match-bound is still open. Match-boundedness for all strings can be used as an automated criterion for termination, for match-bounded systems are terminating. This criterion can be strengthened by requiring match-boundedness only for a restricted set of strings, for instance the set of right hand sides of forward closures.

  11. Delayed standard neural network models for control systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiqin

    2007-09-01

    In order to conveniently analyze the stability of recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and successfully synthesize the controllers for nonlinear systems, similar to the nominal model in linear robust control theory, the novel neural network model, named delayed standard neural network model (DSNNM) is presented, which is the interconnection of a linear dynamic system and a bounded static delayed (or nondelayed) nonlinear operator. By combining a number of different Lyapunov functionals with S-procedure, some useful criteria of global asymptotic stability and global exponential stability for the continuous-time DSNNMs (CDSNNMs) and discrete-time DSNNMs (DDSNNMs) are derived, whose conditions are formulated as linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the stability analysis, some state-feedback control laws for the DSNNM with input and output are designed to stabilize the closed-loop systems. Most RNNs and neurocontrol nonlinear systems with (or without) time delays can be transformed into the DSNNMs to be stability-analyzed or stabilization-synthesized in a unified way. In this paper, the DSNNMs are applied to analyzing the stability of the continuous-time and discrete-time RNNs with or without time delays, and synthesizing the state-feedback controllers for the chaotic neural-network-system and discrete-time nonlinear system. It turns out that the DSNNM makes the stability conditions of the RNNs easily verified, and provides a new idea for the synthesis of the controllers for the nonlinear systems.

  12. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  13. New bounding and decomposition approaches for MILP investment problems: Multi-area transmission and generation planning under policy constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, F. D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Watson, J. -P.

    2016-02-01

    A novel two-phase bounding and decomposition approach to compute optimal and near-optimal solutions to large-scale mixed-integer investment planning problems is proposed and it considers a large number of operating subproblems, each of which is a convex optimization. Our motivating application is the planning of power transmission and generation in which policy constraints are designed to incentivize high amounts of intermittent generation in electric power systems. The bounding phase exploits Jensen’s inequality to define a lower bound, which we extend to stochastic programs that use expected-value constraints to enforce policy objectives. The decomposition phase, in which the bounds are tightened, improves upon the standard Benders’ algorithm by accelerating the convergence of the bounds. The lower bound is tightened by using a Jensen’s inequality-based approach to introduce an auxiliary lower bound into the Benders master problem. Upper bounds for both phases are computed using a sub-sampling approach executed on a parallel computer system. Numerical results show that only the bounding phase is necessary if loose optimality gaps are acceptable. But, the decomposition phase is required to attain optimality gaps. Moreover, use of both phases performs better, in terms of convergence speed, than attempting to solve the problem using just the bounding phase or regular Benders decomposition separately.

  14. New bounding and decomposition approaches for MILP investment problems: Multi-area transmission and generation planning under policy constraints

    DOE PAGES

    Munoz, F. D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Watson, J. -P.

    2016-02-01

    A novel two-phase bounding and decomposition approach to compute optimal and near-optimal solutions to large-scale mixed-integer investment planning problems is proposed and it considers a large number of operating subproblems, each of which is a convex optimization. Our motivating application is the planning of power transmission and generation in which policy constraints are designed to incentivize high amounts of intermittent generation in electric power systems. The bounding phase exploits Jensen’s inequality to define a lower bound, which we extend to stochastic programs that use expected-value constraints to enforce policy objectives. The decomposition phase, in which the bounds are tightened, improvesmore » upon the standard Benders’ algorithm by accelerating the convergence of the bounds. The lower bound is tightened by using a Jensen’s inequality-based approach to introduce an auxiliary lower bound into the Benders master problem. Upper bounds for both phases are computed using a sub-sampling approach executed on a parallel computer system. Numerical results show that only the bounding phase is necessary if loose optimality gaps are acceptable. But, the decomposition phase is required to attain optimality gaps. Moreover, use of both phases performs better, in terms of convergence speed, than attempting to solve the problem using just the bounding phase or regular Benders decomposition separately.« less

  15. Bounds on dark matter in solar orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.D.; Lau, E.L.; Taylor, A.H.; Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, D.C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Maryland Univ., College Park )

    1989-07-01

    The possibility is considered that a spherical distribution of dark matter (DM), matter not visible with current instruments, is trapped in the sun's gravitational field. Bounds are placed from the motion of Uranus and Neptune, on the amount of DM that could be so trapped within the radius of those planets' orbits, as follows: from the Voyager 2, Uranus-flyby data new, more accurate ephemeris values are generated. Trapped DM mass is bounded by noting that such a distribution would increase the effective mass of the sun as seen by the outer planets and by using the new ephemeris values to bound such an increase. 34 refs.

  16. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  17. Pattern Search Algorithms for Bound Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    We present a convergence theory for pattern search methods for solving bound constrained nonlinear programs. The analysis relies on the abstract structure of pattern search methods and an understanding of how the pattern interacts with the bound constraints. This analysis makes it possible to develop pattern search methods for bound constrained problems while only slightly restricting the flexibility present in pattern search methods for unconstrained problems. We prove global convergence despite the fact that pattern search methods do not have explicit information concerning the gradient and its projection onto the feasible region and consequently are unable to enforce explicitly a notion of sufficient feasible decrease.

  18. Sound Velocity Bound and Neutron Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Bedaque, Paulo; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2015-01-21

    A conjecture that the velocity of sound in any medium is smaller than the velocity of light in vacuum divided by sqrt(3). Simple arguments support this bound in nonrelativistic and/or weakly coupled theories. Moreover, the bound has been demonstrated in several classes of strongly coupled theories with gravity duals and is saturated only in conformal theories. Here, we point out that the existence of neutron stars with masses around two solar masses combined with the knowledge of the equation of state of hadronic matter at low densities is in strong tension with this bound.

  19. Analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuming; Wang, Bo; Watada, Junzo

    2014-01-01

    The expectation function of fuzzy variable is an important and widely used criterion in fuzzy optimization, and sound properties on the expectation function may help in model analysis and solution algorithm design for the fuzzy optimization problems. The present paper deals with some analytical properties of credibilistic expectation functions of fuzzy variables that lie in three aspects. First, some continuity theorems on the continuity and semicontinuity conditions are proved for the expectation functions. Second, a differentiation formula of the expectation function is derived which tells that, under certain conditions, the derivative of the fuzzy expectation function with respect to the parameter equals the expectation of the derivative of the fuzzy function with respect to the parameter. Finally, a law of large numbers for fuzzy variable sequences is obtained leveraging on the Chebyshev Inequality of fuzzy variables. Some examples are provided to verify the results obtained.

  20. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition.

  1. Does explicit expectation really affect preparation?

    PubMed

    Umbach, Valentin J; Schwager, Sabine; Frensch, Peter A; Gaschler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Expectation enables preparation for an upcoming event and supports performance if the anticipated situation occurs, as manifested in behavioral effects (e.g., decreased RT). However, demonstrating coincidence between expectation and preparation is not sufficient for attributing a causal role to the former. The content of explicit expectation may simply reflect the present preparation state. We targeted this issue by experimentally teasing apart demands for preparation and explicit expectations. Expectations often originate from our experience: we expect that events occurring with a high frequency in the past are more likely to occur again. In addition to expectation, other task demands can feed into action preparation. In four experiments, frequency-based expectation was pitted against a selective response deadline. In a three-choice reaction time task, participants responded to stimuli that appeared with varying frequency (60, 30, 10%). Trial-by-trial stimulus expectations were either captured via verbal predictions or induced by visual cues. Predictions as well as response times quickly conformed to the variation in stimulus frequency. After two (of five) experimental blocks we forced participants by selective time pressure to respond faster to a less frequent stimulus. Therefore, participants had to prepare for one stimulus (medium frequency) while often explicitly expecting a different one (high frequency). Response times for the less frequent stimulus decreased immediately, while explicit expectations continued to indicate the (unchanged) presentation frequencies. Explicit expectations were thus not just reflecting preparation. In fact, participants responded faster when the stimulus matched the trial-wise expectations, even when task demands discouraged their use. In conclusion, we argue that explicit expectation feeds into preparatory processes instead of being a mere by-product.

  2. Alpha Oscillatory Dynamics Index Temporal Expectation Benefits in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Wilsch, Anna; Henry, Molly J; Herrmann, Björn; Maess, Burkhard; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-07-01

    Enhanced alpha power compared with a baseline can reflect states of increased cognitive load, for example, when listening to speech in noise. Can knowledge about "when" to listen (temporal expectations) potentially counteract cognitive load and concomitantly reduce alpha? The current magnetoencephalography (MEG) experiment induced cognitive load using an auditory delayed-matching-to-sample task with 2 syllables S1 and S2 presented in speech-shaped noise. Temporal expectation about the occurrence of S1 was manipulated in 3 different cue conditions: "Neutral" (uninformative about foreperiod), "early-cued" (short foreperiod), and "late-cued" (long foreperiod). Alpha power throughout the trial was highest when the cue was uninformative about the onset time of S1 (neutral) and lowest for the late-cued condition. This alpha-reducing effect of late compared with neutral cues was most evident during memory retention in noise and originated primarily in the right insula. Moreover, individual alpha effects during retention accounted best for observed individual performance differences between late-cued and neutral conditions, indicating a tradeoff between allocation of neural resources and the benefits drawn from temporal cues. Overall, the results indicate that temporal expectations can facilitate the encoding of speech in noise, and concomitantly reduce neural markers of cognitive load.

  3. Robust asymptotic stability of fuzzy Markovian jumping genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays by delay decomposition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, P.; Sathy, R.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, the robust asymptotic stability problem is considered for a class of fuzzy Markovian jumping genetic regulatory networks with uncertain parameters and switching probabilities by delay decomposition approach. The purpose of the addressed stability analysis problem is to establish an easy-to-verify condition under which the dynamics of the true concentrations of the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein is asymptotically stable irrespective of the norm-bounded modeling errors. A new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is constructed by nonuniformly dividing the delay interval into multiple subinterval, and choosing proper functionals with different weighting matrices corresponding to different subintervals in the LKFs. Employing these new LKFs for the time-varying delays, a new delay-dependent stability criterion is established with Markovian jumping parameters by T-S fuzzy model. Note that the obtained results are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) that can efficiently solved by the LMI toolbox in Matlab. Numerical examples are exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures.

  4. Stability Analysis of Discrete-Time Neural Networks With Time-Varying Delay via an Extended Reciprocally Convex Matrix Inequality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Ke; He, Yong; Jiang, Lin; Wang, Qing-Guo; Wu, Min

    2017-02-17

    This paper is concerned with the stability analysis of discrete-time neural networks with a time-varying delay. Assessment of the effect of time delays on system stability requires suitable delay-dependent stability criteria. This paper aims to develop new stability criteria for reduction of conservatism without much increase of computational burden. An extended reciprocally convex matrix inequality is developed to replace the popular reciprocally convex combination lemma (RCCL). It has potential to reduce the conservatism of the RCCL-based criteria without introducing any extra decision variable due to its advantage of reduced estimation gap using the same decision variables. Moreover, a delay-product-type term is introduced for the first time into the Lyapunov function candidate such that a delay-variation-dependent stability criterion with the bounds of delay change rate is established. Finally, the advantages of the proposed criteria are demonstrated through two numerical examples.

  5. Analysis of Aggregation Delay for Multisource Sensor Data with On-Off Traffic Pattern in Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Un-Ha; Kong, Eutteum; Choi, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2016-01-01

    Data aggregation plays an important role to improve the transmission efficiency in wireless body area networks (WBANs); however, it inherently induces additional aggregation delay. Therefore, the effect of packet aggregation on WBAN applications, which are vulnerable to delay, must be analyzed rigorously. In this paper, we analyze the packet aggregation delay for multisource sensor data with an on-off traffic pattern in WBANs. Considering two operational parameters of the aggregation threshold and aggregation timer, we calculate the probability that a packet aggregation occurs during a unit time and then derive the average aggregation delay in closed-form. The analysis results show that the aggregation delay increases as the aggregation timer or aggregation threshold increases, but is bounded below a certain level according to the number of active sensors and their on-off traffic attribute. This implies that the data aggregation technique can maximize the transmission efficiency while satisfying a given delay requirement in the WBAN system. PMID:27706029

  6. Coulomb Bound States of Strongly Interacting Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, M. F.; Gullans, M. J.; Bienias, P.; Choi, S.; Martin, I.; Firstenberg, O.; Lukin, M. D.; Büchler, H. P.; Gorshkov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    We show that two photons coupled to Rydberg states via electromagnetically induced transparency can interact via an effective Coulomb potential. This interaction gives rise to a continuum of two-body bound states. Within the continuum, metastable bound states are distinguished in analogy with quasibound states tunneling through a potential barrier. We find multiple branches of metastable bound states whose energy spectrum is governed by the Coulomb potential, thus obtaining a photonic analogue of the hydrogen atom. Under certain conditions, the wave function resembles that of a diatomic molecule in which the two polaritons are separated by a finite "bond length." These states propagate with a negative group velocity in the medium, allowing for a simple preparation and detection scheme, before they slowly decay to pairs of bound Rydberg atoms.

  7. A neural network for bounded linear programming

    SciTech Connect

    Culioli, J.C.; Protopopescu, V.; Britton, C.; Ericson, N. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a neural network implementation of an algorithm recently designed at ORNL to solve the Transportation and the Assignment Problems, and, more generally, any explicitly bounded linear program. 9 refs.

  8. Family of nonlocal bound entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.

    2017-03-01

    Bound entanglement, being entangled yet not distillable, is essential to our understanding of the relations between nonlocality and entanglement besides its applications in certain quantum information tasks. Recently, bound entangled states that violate a Bell inequality have been constructed for a two-qutrit system, disproving a conjecture by Peres that bound entanglement is local. Here we construct this kind of nonlocal bound entangled state for all finite dimensions larger than two, making possible their experimental demonstration in most general systems. We propose a Bell inequality, based on a Hardy-type argument for nonlocality, and a steering inequality to identify their nonlocality. We also provide a family of entanglement witnesses to detect their entanglement beyond the Bell inequality and the steering inequality.

  9. Premenstrual symptoms and smoking-related expectancies.

    PubMed

    Pang, Raina D; Bello, Mariel S; Stone, Matthew D; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Haselton, Martie G; Fales, Melissa R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-06-01

    Given that prior research implicates smoking abstinence in increased premenstrual symptoms, tobacco withdrawal, and smoking behaviors, it is possible that women with more severe premenstrual symptoms have stronger expectancies about the effects of smoking and abstaining from smoking on mood and withdrawal. However, such relations have not been previously explored. This study examined relations between premenstrual symptoms experienced in the last month and expectancies that abstaining from smoking results in withdrawal (i.e., smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies), that smoking is pleasurable (i.e., positive reinforcement smoking expectancies), and smoking relieves negative mood (i.e., negative reinforcement smoking expectancies). In a cross-sectional design, 97 non-treatment seeking women daily smokers completed self-report measures of smoking reinforcement expectancies, smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, premenstrual symptoms, mood symptoms, and nicotine dependence. Affect premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, but not over and above covariates. Affect and pain premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased positive reinforcement smoking expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Affect, pain, and water retention premenstrual symptoms were associated with increased smoking abstinence withdrawal expectancies, but only affect premenstrual symptoms remained significant in adjusted models. Findings from this study suggest that addressing concerns about withdrawal and alternatives to smoking may be particularly important in women who experience more severe premenstrual symptoms, especially affect-related changes.

  10. Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

    2013-01-01

    When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

  11. Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning. PMID:19176483

  12. Early identification of motor delay

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388

  13. Bound states in the Higgs model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Leo, Leo; Darewych, Jurij W.

    1994-02-01

    We derive relativistic wave equations for the bound states of two Higgs bosons within the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model. The variational method and the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT are used to obtain the equations using a simple ||hh>+||hhh> Fock-space ansatz. We present approximate solutions of these equations for a range of Higgs boson masses, and explore the parameter space which corresponds to the existence of two-Higgs-boson bound states.

  14. Hamiltonian anomalies of bound states in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Shilin, V. I.; Pervushin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The Bound State in QED is described in systematic way by means of nonlocal irreducible representations of the nonhomogeneous Poincare group and Dirac's method of quantization. As an example of application of this method we calculate triangle diagram Para-Positronium {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. We show that the Hamiltonian approach to Bound State in QED leads to anomaly-type contribution to creation of pair of parapositronium by two photon.

  15. Performance bound for real OTEC heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.

    1987-01-01

    Maximum power and efficiency at the maximum power of an irreversible OTEC heat engine are treated. When time is explicitly considered in the energy exchanges between the heat engine and its surroundings, it is found that there is a bound on the efficiency of the real OTEC heat engine at the maximum power condition. This bound can guide the evaluation of existing OTEC systems or influence design of future OTEC heat engines.

  16. Elastic scattering with weakly bound projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Figueira, J. M.; Abriola, D.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Marti, G. V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Pacheco, A. J.; Testoni, J. E.; Barbara, E. de; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.

    2007-02-12

    Possible effects of the break-up channel on the elastic scattering threshold anomaly has been investigated. We used the weakly bound 6,7Li nuclei, which is known to undergo break-up, as projectiles in order to study the elastic scattering on a 27Al target. In this contribution we present preliminary results of these experiments, which were analyzed in terms of the Optical Model and compared with other elastic scattering data using weakly bound nuclei as projectile.

  17. Induced earthquake magnitudes are as large as (statistically) expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Nicholas J.; Page, Morgan T.; Weiser, Deborah A.; Goebel, Thomas H. W.; Hosseini, S. Mehran

    2016-06-01

    A major question for the hazard posed by injection-induced seismicity is how large induced earthquakes can be. Are their maximum magnitudes determined by injection parameters or by tectonics? Deterministic limits on induced earthquake magnitudes have been proposed based on the size of the reservoir or the volume of fluid injected. However, if induced earthquakes occur on tectonic faults oriented favorably with respect to the tectonic stress field, then they may be limited only by the regional tectonics and connectivity of the fault network. In this study, we show that the largest magnitudes observed at fluid injection sites are consistent with the sampling statistics of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution for tectonic earthquakes, assuming no upper magnitude bound. The data pass three specific tests: (1) the largest observed earthquake at each site scales with the log of the total number of induced earthquakes, (2) the order of occurrence of the largest event is random within the induced sequence, and (3) the injected volume controls the total number of earthquakes rather than the total seismic moment. All three tests point to an injection control on earthquake nucleation but a tectonic control on earthquake magnitude. Given that the largest observed earthquakes are exactly as large as expected from the sampling statistics, we should not conclude that these are the largest earthquakes possible. Instead, the results imply that induced earthquake magnitudes should be treated with the same maximum magnitude bound that is currently used to treat seismic hazard from tectonic earthquakes.

  18. Delayed childbearing in the U.S.: facts and fictions.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, W H; Nord, C W

    1984-11-01

    Between 1970-82, the proportion of 1st births in the US to women 25 and older rose from 19-36% and the proportion of women still childless at ages 25-34 increased by 56% at about the same time. Although a sharp contrast with the baby boom era of the 1950s and 1960s, todays's epidemic of delayed childbearing is similar to patterns earlier in the 20th century. As then, much is due to delayed age at marriage, but baby boomers now in the their late 20s and early 30s are also delaying childbirth after marriage. The trend stems in part from their economic difficulties as they compete in a tight job market caused both by their large numbers and a turbulent economy. But it is also related to women's increasing education and, in turn, increasing opportunities in and commitment to the labor force, which can be expected to encourage a delayed childbearing even after prospects brighten for young people. Although a diverse group, most of today's delayed childbearers are white, highly educated, 2-career couples. Adequate daytime care for preschool children is a prime concern. Although more employers now offer childcare assistance and flexible work schedules to working parents, the juggle between jobs and childraising can be a strain. On the plus side are delayed childbearers' greater maturity and generally higher incomes, which can ease potential problems created by parent-child age differences as their children grow up. Businesses have been quick to respond to the new market of older, affluent, 1st-time mothers. New methods of treating of circumventing infertility and prenatal detection of chromosomal birth defects can now help overcome potential biological problems that may concern women who choose to delay childbearing past age 30.

  19. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households’ expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households’ stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses. PMID:23997423

  20. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  1. Optimistic Expectancies and Cell-Mediated Immunity: The Role of Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Optimistic expectancies affect many psychosocial outcomes and may also predict immune system changes and health, but the nature and mechanisms of any such physiological effects have not been identified. The present study related law-school expectancies to cell-mediated immunity (CMI), examining the within- and between-person components of this relationship and affective mediators. First-year law students (N = 124) completed questionnaire measures of expectancies and affect and received delayed-type hypersensitivity skin tests at five time points. A positive relationship between optimistic expectancies and CMI occurred, in which that changes in optimism correlated with changes in CMI. Likewise, changes in optimism predicted changes in positive and, to a lesser degree, negative affect, but the relationship between optimism and immunity was partially accounted for only by positive affect. This dynamic relationship between expectancies and immunity has positive implications for psychological interventions to improve health, particularly those that increase positive affect. PMID:20424083

  2. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  3. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  4. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  5. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  6. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  7. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  8. Brain Mechanisms Supporting Violated Expectations of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V.; Kraft, Robert A.; Coghill, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The subjective experience of pain is influenced by interactions between prior experiences, future predictions and incoming afferent information. Expectations of high pain can exacerbate pain while expectations of low pain during a consistently noxious stimulus can produce significant reductions in pain. However, the brain mechanisms associated with processing mismatches between expected and experienced pain are poorly understood, but are important for imparting salience to a sensory event in order to override erroneous top-down expectancy-mediated information. The present investigation examined pain-related brain activation when expectations of pain were abruptly violated. After conditioning participants to cues predicting low or high pain, ten incorrectly cued stimuli were administered across 56 stimulus trials to determine if expectations would be less influential on pain when there is a high discordance between pre-stimulus cues and corresponding thermal stimulation. Incorrectly cued stimuli produced pain ratings and pain-related brain activation consistent with placebo analgesia, nocebo hyperalgesia, and violated expectations. Violated expectations of pain were associated with activation in distinct regions of the inferior parietal lobe, including the supramarginal and angular gyrus, and intraparietal sulcus, the superior parietal lobe, cerebellum and occipital lobe. Thus, violated expectations of pain engage mechanisms supporting salience-driven sensory discrimination, working memory, and associative learning processes. By overriding the influence of expectations on pain, these brain mechanisms are likely engaged in clinical situations where patients’ unrealistic expectations for pain relief diminish the efficacy of pain treatments. Accordingly, these findings underscore the importance of maintaining realistic expectations to augment the effectiveness of pain management. PMID:26083664

  9. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  10. Increasing hope by addressing clients' outcome expectations.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua K; Derthick, Annie O

    2013-09-01

    Addressing clients' outcome expectations is an important clinical process that can lead to a strong therapeutic alliance, more positive treatment outcomes, and decreased rates of premature termination from psychotherapy. Five interventions designed to foster appropriate outcome expectations are discussed, including presenting a convincing treatment rationale, increasing clients' faith in their therapists, expressing faith in clients, providing outcome education, and comparing progress with expectations. Clinical examples and research support are provided for each.

  11. Affect-regulation expectancies among Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Will Shead, N; Hodgins, David C

    2009-09-01

    Factor scores on a gambling expectancy questionnaire (GEQ) were used to subtype 132 university students who gamble regularly (37.9% male; M age = 22.6 years, SD = 6.04) as: Reward Expectancy Gamblers (Reward EGs)-have strong expectations that gambling augments positive mood, Relief Expectancy Gamblers (Relief EGs)-have strong expectations that gambling relieves negative affect, and Non-Expectancy Gamblers (Non-EGs)-have neither strong expectation. Gambling on a high-low card game was compared across subtypes following priming for either "relief" or "reward" affect-regulation expectancies with the Scrambled Sentence Test (SST). The hypothesized Prime type x GEQ subtype interaction was not significant. When a more stringent set of criteria for GEQ subtyping was imposed, the "purified" sub-sample (n = 54) resulted in the hypothesized statistically significant Prime type x GEQ subtype interaction. Relief EGs gambled more after being primed with the construct "relief of negative emotions" compared to after being primed with the construct "augmentation of positive emotion." Planned orthogonal contrasts showed a significant linear increase in number of bets made across GEQ subtypes when prime type corresponded to GEQ subtype. The results suggest a need for components in gambling treatment programs that address clients' expectancies that gambling can provide a specific desirable emotional outcome.

  12. Affirmative Action and the Issue of Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Faye; Clayton, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact of affirmative action policies on expectancies and interpersonal relations. Concludes that affirmative action policies offer clear advantages to the members of target groups. (DM)

  13. Fusion of Time Delayed Measurements With Uncertain Time Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    appear out of order. Nettleton derived an elegant implementation of this scheme using the inverse covariance (or information) form of the Kalman filter...measurement problems,” Informa- tion Fusion, vol. 4, pp. 185–199, 2003. [2] E. W. Nettleton and H. F. Durrant-Whyte, “Delayed and asequent data in

  14. Delay equations and radiation damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicone, C.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Mashhoon, B.; Retzloff, D. G.

    2001-06-01

    Starting from delay equations that model field retardation effects, we study the origin of runaway modes that appear in the solutions of the classical equations of motion involving the radiation reaction force. When retardation effects are small, we argue that the physically significant solutions belong to the so-called slow manifold of the system and we identify this invariant manifold with the attractor in the state space of the delay equation. We demonstrate via an example that when retardation effects are no longer small, the motion could exhibit bifurcation phenomena that are not contained in the local equations of motion.

  15. Variable Delay Testing Using ONE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.

  16. Low versus High Expectations: A Review of Teacher Expectations Effects on Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Theresa E.; Noriega, Tino

    1986-01-01

    The article describes different types of teacher expectations and expectation effects, particularly on minority students. Evidence for the existence of expectation effects is reviewed. Descriptions of behaviors associated with teacher expectations are summarized and recommendations are made for enhancing the learning environment for all students.…

  17. Temporal expectation and spectral expectation operate in distinct fashion on neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Fang; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Waszak, Florian

    2013-11-01

    The formation of temporal expectation (i.e., the prediction of "when") is of prime importance to sensory processing. It can modulate sensory processing at early processing stages probably via the entrainment of low-frequency neuronal oscillations in the brain. However, sensory predictions involve not only temporal expectation but also spectral expectation (i.e., the prediction of "what"). Here we investigated how temporal expectation may interrelate with spectral expectation by explicitly setting up temporal expectation and spectral expectation in a target detection task. We found that reaction time (RT) was shorter when targets were temporally expected than when they were temporally unexpected. The temporal expectation effect was larger with than without spectral expectation. However, this interaction in the behavioural data did not result from an interaction in the electroencephalography (EEG), where we observed independent main effects of temporal expectation and spectral expectation. More precisely, we found that the N1 and P2 event-related potential (ERP) components and the entrainment of low-frequency neuronal oscillations were exclusively modulated by temporal expectation, whilst only the P3 ERP component was modulated by spectral expectation. Our results, thus, support the idea that temporal expectation and spectral expectation operate in distinct fashion on neuronal populations.

  18. The effects of caffeine and expectancy on attention and memory.

    PubMed

    Oei, Adam; Hartley, Laurence R

    2005-04-01

    The present study contrasted caffeine's effects on individuals who expect caffeine to stimulate them and those who do not. Secondly, whether a message that caffeine rather than placebo was administered would also affect these two groups of subjects differently was investigated. The study was conducted single-blind in a 2x2x2 mixed design. The between subjects factor was whether they expected caffeine to stimulate them (E+) or not (E-) according to their self reports obtained before the experiment began. The within subjects factors were message (told caffeine vs told placebo) and beverage type (given caffeine vs placebo). Sixteen subjects in each group (n=32) performed on signal detection, memory scanning and delayed free recall tasks following ingestion of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee on two sessions each, a total of four experimental sessions. On each session, subjects were given a message regarding their drink (told caffeine vs told placebo). However, on two sessions there was a mismatch between the message and drink given. For signal detection, performance under caffeine was better than placebo in the E+ but not the E- group. However, subjects in the E+ group did not benefit more than the E- group in either message condition. On memory scanning, detections and false alarms did not differ for either beverage, nor was there a differential finding in the E+ and E- groups. However, reaction time under caffeine condition was shorter. No effects of message were found. Caffeine and message also did not have any effect on performance on the delayed free recall task. The hypothesis that caffeine and message would affect E+ and E- subjects differentially was partly supported.

  19. Can distributed delays perfectly stabilize dynamical networks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omi, Takahiro; Shinomoto, Shigeru

    2008-04-01

    Signal transmission delays tend to destabilize dynamical networks leading to oscillation, but their dispersion contributes oppositely toward stabilization. We analyze an integrodifferential equation that describes the collective dynamics of a neural network with distributed signal delays. With the Γ distributed delays less dispersed than exponential distribution, the system exhibits reentrant phenomena, in which the stability is once lost but then recovered as the mean delay is increased. With delays dispersed more highly than exponential, the system never destabilizes.

  20. Global asymptotic stability analysis for delayed neural networks using a matrix-based quadratic convex approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Ming; Han, Qing-Long

    2014-06-01

    This paper is concerned with global asymptotic stability for a class of generalized neural networks with interval time-varying delays by constructing a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which includes some integral terms in the form of ∫(t-h)(t)(h-t-s)(j)ẋ(T)(s)Rjẋ(s)ds(j=1,2,3). Some useful integral inequalities are established for the derivatives of those integral terms introduced in the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. A matrix-based quadratic convex approach is introduced to prove not only the negative definiteness of the derivative of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, but also the positive definiteness of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Some novel stability criteria are formulated in two cases, respectively, where the time-varying delay is continuous uniformly bounded and where the time-varying delay is differentiable uniformly bounded with its time-derivative bounded by constant lower and upper bounds. These criteria are applicable to both static neural networks and local field neural networks. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by two numerical examples.

  1. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  2. Stability Analysis of Networked Control Systems With Aperiodic Sampling and Time-Varying Delay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Meng, Su; Sun, Jian

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses the stability of networked control systems with aperiodic sampling and time-varying network-induced delay. The sampling intervals are assumed to vary within a known interval. The transmission delay is assumed to belong to a given interval. The closed-loop system is first converted to a discrete-time system with multiple time-varying delays and norm-bounded uncertainties resulting from the variation of the sampling intervals. And then, it is transformed into a delay-free system being form of an interconnection of two subsystems. By utilizing scaled small gain theorem, an asymptotic stability criterion for the closed-loop system is proposed in terms of linear matrix inequality. Finally, numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and its advantages over existing methods.

  3. Containment consensus with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zheng-Jie; Fan, Ning-Jun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the containment consensus control problem for multi-agent systems with measurement noises and time-varying communication delays under directed networks. By using stochastic analysis tools and algebraic graph theory, we prove that the followers can converge to the convex hull spanned by the leaders in the sense of mean square if the allowed upper bound of the time-varying delays satisfies a certain sufficient condition. Moreover, the time-varying delays are asymmetric for each follower agent, and the time-delay-dependent consensus condition is derived. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11102019), the Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2013ZC72006), and the Research Foundation of Beijing Institute of Technology, China.

  4. Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

    2012-01-13

    The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)  GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.

  5. Delay-dependent resilient-robust stabilisation of uncertain networked control systems with variable sampling intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feisheng; Zhang, Huaguang; Liu, Zhenwei; Li, Ranran

    2014-03-01

    This work is concerned with the robust resilient control problem for uncertain networked control systems (NCSs) with variable sampling intervals, variant-induced delays and possible data dropouts, which is seldom considered in current literature. It is mainly based on the continuous time-varying-delay system approach. Followed by the nominal case, delay-dependent resilient robust stabilising conditions for the closed-loop NCS against controller gain variations are derived by employing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional which makes good use of the information of both lower and upper bounds on the varying input delay, and the upper bound on the variable sampling interval as well. A feasible solution of the obtained criterion formulated as linear matrix inequalities can be gotten. A tighter bounding technique is presented for acquiring the time derivative of the functional so as to utilise many more useful elements, meanwhile neither slack variable nor correlated augmented item is introduced to reduce overall computational burden. Two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Home Visitation Assessing Progress, Managing Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Early intervention efforts to promote healthy child development have long been a central feature of social service and public health reforms. Today, prenatal care, well-baby visits, and assessments to detect possible developmental delays are commonplace in most communities. Recently, child abuse prevention advocates have applied a developmental…

  7. Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

  8. The Expectant Reader in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Lois Josephs; McCormick, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    Offers a method of using reader response theory that emphasizes the expectations about a text and how those expectations are fulfilled or deflated. Specifically, students read traditional fables, fairy tales, and parables, and compare them to contemporary works such as Kafka's "Metamorphosis" and Marquez's "The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."…

  9. Cognitive Processing and Expectancy Behavior in Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Robyn M.; Sheehan, Peter W.

    1977-01-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to examine the expectancy behavior of unselected hypnotic, task-motivated, and control-imagination subjects on a slide task requiring response to ambiguous visual information. Results showed that hypnotic subjects consistently demonstrated expectancy behavior, whereas nonhypnotic subjects did not. (Editor/RK)

  10. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  11. Expectancy violations promote learning in young children.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa

    2017-02-27

    Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning.

  12. Course Expectations and Career Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Marnie L.; Haines, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Course completion and student satisfaction is likely to be influenced by how realistic the expectations of students are when they enroll. This report explores the idea that students' expectations would be more realistic if students have well developed career management competencies. Recent research argues that lack of information is not the…

  13. International Variations in Measuring Customer Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of customer expectations of library service quality and SERVQUAL as a measurement tool focuses on two studies: one that compared a survey of Chinese university students' expectations of service quality to New Zealand students; and one that investigated national culture as a source of attitudes to customer service. (Author/LRW)

  14. Expectancy and Phobic Level: Effects on Desensitization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Bernard J.; Denney, Douglas R.

    1977-01-01

    Expectancy instructions were introduced six times during the four-week treatment, and effectiveness of these instructions was demonstrated with independent nonreactive measures of subjects' expectancies. An analysis of self-report, behavioral, and unobtrusive measures of snake anxiety revealed significant main effects for instructions, with…

  15. Parents' Role in Adolescents' Educational Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…

  16. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  17. Teacher Expectations and the Able Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Corbin, Hilary

    1994-01-01

    Two middle school teachers and two students in each of the teacher's classes were assessed for field dependence-independence (FDI). The teachers were interviewed about their students. Found that one teacher had higher expectations and one had lower expectations for the student who had the same FDI orientation as the teacher than for the student…

  18. What Respondents Really Expect from Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Tomaz; Kolar, Iztok

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of falling response rates in telephone surveys. To better understand and maintain respondent goodwill, concepts of psychological contract and respondent expectations are introduced and explored. Results of the qualitative study show that respondent expectations are not only socially contingent but also…

  19. Reward expectancy-related prefrontal neuronal activities: are they neural substrates of "affective" working memory?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masataka; Hikosaka, Kazuo; Sakagami, Masamichi; Shirakawa, Shu-ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Primate prefrontal delay neurons are involved in retaining task-relevant cognitive information in working memory (WM). Recent studies have also revealed primate prefrontal delay neurons that are related to reward/omission-of-reward expectancy. Such reward-related delay activities might constitute "affective WM" (Davidson, 2002). "Affective" and "cognitive" WM are both concerned with representing not what is currently being presented, but rather what was presented previously or might be presented in the future. However, according to the original and widely accepted definition, WM is the "temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex cognitive tasks". Reward/omission-of-reward expectancy-related neuronal activity is neither prerequisite nor essential for accurate task performance; thus, such activity is not considered to comprise the neural substrates of WM. Also, "affective WM" might not be an appropriate usage of the term "WM". We propose that WM- and reward/omission-of-reward expectancy-related neuronal activity are concerned with representing which response should be performed in order to attain a goal (reward) and the goal of the response, respectively. We further suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in the integration of cognitive (for example, WM-related) and motivational (for example, reward expectancy-related) operations for goal-directed behaviour. The PFC could then send this integrated information to other brain areas to control the behaviour.

  20. Prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during reaction time performance

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Krystal L.; Alberico, Stephanie L.; Miller, Adam D.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Responses during a simple reaction time task are influenced by temporal expectation, or the ability to anticipate when a stimulus occurs in time. Here, we test the hypothesis that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during simple reaction time task performance. We depleted dopamine projections to the medial prefrontal circuits by infusing 6-hydroxidopamine, a selective neurotoxin, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, and studied their performance on a simple reaction time task with two delays. VTA dopamine depletion did not change movements or learning of the reaction time task. However, VTA dopamine-depleted animals did not develop delay-dependent speeding of reaction times, suggesting that mesocortical dopamine signaling is required for temporal expectation. Next, we manipulated dopamine signaling within the medial prefrontal cortex using local pharmacology. We found that SCH23390, a D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist, specifically attenuated delay-dependent speeding, while sulpiride, a D2-type receptor antagonist, did not. These data suggest that prefrontal D1 dopamine signaling is necessary for temporal expectation during performance of a simple reaction time task. Our findings provide insight into temporal processing of the prefrontal cortex, and how dopamine signaling influences prefrontal circuits that guide goal-directed behavior. PMID:24120554

  1. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…

  2. A search for unexpected bound states in 15B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Calem R.

    2014-09-01

    Bound states in 15B are to be populated through the one proton removal reaction from a 16C beam produced at the RCNP EN Course through 18O fragmentation. γ-decays from these states will be identified by an array of Compton-suppressed HPGe Clover detectors (CAGRA). The goals consist of i) identifying any previously unobserved and unexpected bound states in 15B and ii) to assign total angular momenta to known excited states for the first time. At present only two bound states have been observed in 15B, neither with firm spin or parity assignments. The present work to be discussed is aimed at determining whether an excited 3 /2- state, a state with identical spin-parity as the ground state, resides below the neutron separation energy in 15B. Such an excited 3 /2- state is not predicted to appear below the 15B Sn by shell-model calculations using various p- sd interactions. However, a robust systematic, probably related to the s-wave trends found in the single-neutron states in this region, has been observed for neutron-rich N=10 nuclei and it suggests that the state may appear lower in excitation energy than expected. Providing some measure of validation for the N=10 prediction is a similar trend noticed in the energy differences between ground (p)2 neutron states and excited (sd)2 neutron states in the N=8 neutron-rich isotones. In addition to a search for this unexpected state, additional spectroscopic information on 15B will better aid in the understanding of the N=10 isotones when transitioning from 16C into sparsely probed 14Be. Details of the experimental procedures and motivation will be presented and discussed. Bound states in 15B are to be populated through the one proton removal reaction from a 16C beam produced at the RCNP EN Course through 18O fragmentation. γ-decays from these states will be identified by an array of Compton-suppressed HPGe Clover detectors (CAGRA). The goals consist of i) identifying any previously unobserved and unexpected bound

  3. How expectation works: psychologic and physiologic pathways.

    PubMed

    Brown, Walter A

    2015-05-01

    Although expectation has been the most widely studied of the mechanisms that drive the placebo effect, we still don't know how it works. We don't know how the thought that one will respond to a substance in a certain way is converted to symptom relief, intoxication, or airway resistance; the pathway between expectation of a response and the response itself remains uncharted. Nonetheless, in the last decade, brain-imaging studies have begun to uncover this pathway. This paper reviews both long-standing psychologic concepts about the underpinnings of expectation and some of the contemporary brain imaging research, which shows that when expectation alleviates depression, produces pain relief or improves parkinsonian symptoms, these effects come with relevant changes in brain activity and chemistry. These findings oblige us to reevaluate some of the traditional common sense notions of how expectation brings about its effects and how placebos work.

  4. Preliminary Results on the Experimental Investigation of the Structure Functions of Bound Nucleons

    SciTech Connect

    Bodek, Arie

    2016-08-01

    We present preliminary results on an experimental study of the nuclear modification of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_L$) and transverse ($\\sigma_T$) structure functions of nucleons bound in nuclear targets. The origin of these modifications (commonly referred as as the EMC effect) is not fully understood. Our measurements of R= $\\sigma_L / \\sigma_T$ for nuclei ($R_A$) and for deuterium ($R_D$) indicate that nuclear modifications of the structure functions of bound nucleons are different for the longitudinal and transverse structure functions, and that contrary to expectation from several theoretical models, $R_A< R_D$.

  5. Parent Perceptions of the Anticipated Needs and Expectations for Support for Their College-Bound Students with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.; Sansosti, Frank J.; Hadley, Wanda M.

    2009-01-01

    Many students with Asperger's Syndrome have the cognitive ability and specific interests to be successful academically at the college level. However, these students often have difficulties navigating social systems, and higher education presents great challenges. The purpose of this study was to explore parent perceptions regarding the: (a)…

  6. Challenges, expectations and limits for nanoparticles-based therapeutics in cancer: a focus on nano-albumin-bound drugs.

    PubMed

    Fanciullino, Raphaelle; Ciccolini, Joseph; Milano, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    Improving the efficacy-toxicity balance of anticancer agents remains an ongoing challenge in oncology. Beside the ever-growing development of innovative drugs addressing newly discovered molecular targets, nanotechnologies provide today a promising and exciting strategy to achieve this goal. The idea of carrying active compounds to their respective targets so as to improve their efficacy while sparing healthy tissue and reducing side-effects is not new. However, this area of research is in constant rise, and benefits from the latest advances in the field of biopharmaceutics, medicinal chemistry and nanomedicine. In addition to anthracyclines already widely present as liposomal drugs on the shelves, a variety of anticancer drugs can be now encapsulated into different chemical of structures so as to enhance their specificity toward malignant cells, mainly through improved pharmacokinetics profiles. Indeed, the recent advances in chemistry allow now a wide variety of scaffolds to be used as drug-carriers, so as optimize the delivery of cytotoxics. Even more recently, conjugated-drugs such as nanoalbumin (Nab) conjugates have emerged as a new promising alternative to improve both anticancer drugs distribution in the body and efficacy/toxicity balance eventually. This review covers the achievements and current limits of nanoparticles in oncology, with a special focus on nab-paclitaxel as a paradigmatic drug for this new generation of conjugated entities.

  7. Expectation mismatch: differences between self-generated and cue-induced expectations.

    PubMed

    Gaschler, R; Schwager, S; Umbach, V J; Frensch, P A; Schubert, T

    2014-10-01

    Expectation of upcoming stimuli and tasks can lead to improved performance, if the anticipated situation occurs, while expectation mismatch can lead to less efficient processing. Researchers have used methodological approaches that rely on either self-generated expectations (predictions) or cue-induced expectations to investigate expectation mismatch effects. Differentiating these two types of expectations for different contents of expectation such as stimuli, responses, task sets and conflict level, we review evidence suggesting that self-generated expectations lead to larger facilitating effects and conflict effects on the behavioral and neural level - as compared to cue-based expectations. On a methodological level, we suggest that self-generated as compared to cue-induced expectations allow for a higher amount of experimental control in many experimental designs on expectation effects. On a theoretical level, we argue for qualitative differences in how cues vs. self-generated expectations influence performance. While self-generated expectations might generally involve representing the expected event in the focus of attention in working memory, cues might only lead to such representations under supportive circumstances (i.e., cue of high validity and attended).

  8. Bounds on Neutrino Non-Standard Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2010-03-30

    We review the present model independent bounds on neutrino non-standard interactions both at neutrino production and detection and in its interactions with matter. For matter non-standard interactions the direct bounds are rather weak. However, matter non-standard interactions are related by gauge invariance to the production and detection ones as well as to flavour changing processes involving charged leptons. Taking into account these relations much stronger bounds of at least O(10{sup -2}) can be derived unless significant fine tunings are implemented. Testing non-standard interactions at this level at future neutrino oscillation facilities is challenging but still feasible at very ambitious proposals such as the Neutrino Factory.

  9. Bounded link prediction in very large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Xu, Zhongqi; Cai, Shimin; Yang, Jian; Michaelson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Evaluating link prediction methods is a hard task in very large complex networks due to the prohibitive computational cost. However, if we consider the lower bound of node pairs' similarity scores, this task can be greatly optimized. In this paper, we study CN index in the bounded link prediction framework, which is applicable to enormous heterogeneous networks. Specifically, we propose a fast algorithm based on the parallel computing scheme to obtain all node pairs with CN values larger than the lower bound. Furthermore, we propose a general measurement, called self-predictability, to quantify the performance of similarity indices in link prediction, which can also indicate the link predictability of networks with respect to given similarity indices.

  10. η-nuclear bound states revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2013-10-01

    The strong energy dependence of the s-wave ηN scattering amplitude at and below threshold, as evident in coupled-channels K-matrix fits and chiral models that incorporate the S11N* (1535) resonance, is included self-consistently in η-nuclear bound-state calculations. This approach, applied recently in calculations of kaonic atoms and Kbar-nuclear bound states, is found to impose stronger constraints than ever on the onset of η-nuclear binding, with a minimum value of ReaηN ≈ 0.9 fm required to accommodate an η-4He bound state. Binding energies and widths of η-nuclear states are calculated within several underlying ηN models for nuclei across the periodic table, including Mg25η for which some evidence was proposed in a recent COSY experiment.

  11. Bounds on tensor wave and twisted inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Sudhakar; Sami, M.; Ward, John

    2010-11-15

    We study the bounds on tensor wave in a class of twisted inflation models, where D(4+2k)-branes are wrapped on cycles in the compact manifold and wrap the Kaluza-Klein direction in the corresponding effective field theory. While the lower bound is found to be analogous to that in type IIB models of brane inflation, the upper bound turns out to be significantly different. This is argued for a range of values for the parameter g{sub s}M satisfying the self-consistency relation and the WMAP data. Further, we observe that the wrapped D8-brane appears to be the most attractive from a cosmological perspective.

  12. Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K

    1984-01-01

    Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, or folate deficiency. Defective absorption was also found in six patients with an adequate dietary intake of vitamin B12, normal Schilling test results, low serum vitamin concentrations, and tissue changes responding to treatment with vitamin B12. Malabsorption of the vitamin from protein bound sources, which is not detected by the Schilling test, may produce vitamin B12 deficiency of clinical importance. PMID:6421428

  13. Mass dependence of quantum energy inequality bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Eveson, Simon P.; Fewster, Christopher J.

    2007-09-15

    In a recent paper [C. J. Fewster and M. J. Pfenning, J. Math. Phys. 47, 082303 (2006)], quantum energy inequalities were used to place simple geometrical bounds on the energy densities of quantum fields in Minkowskian space-time regions. Here, we refine this analysis for massive fields, obtaining more stringent bounds which decay exponentially in the mass. At the technical level, this involves the determination of the asymptotic behavior of the lowest eigenvalue of a family of polyharmonic differential equations, a result which may be of independent interest. We compare our resulting bounds with the known energy density of the ground state on a cylinder space-time. In addition, we generalize some of our technical results to general L{sup p} spaces and draw comparisons with a similar result in the literature.

  14. Bound water in Kevlar 49 fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, R.G.; Pruneda, C.O.; Morgan, R.J.

    1981-04-01

    From elemental analyses, thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy studies and re-evaluation of previous water diffusion studies in Kevlar 49 fibers it is concluded that these fibers can contain two types of sorbed moisture. The fibers can absorb up to approx. 6 wt % loosely bound water with an activation energy for outgassing by desorption of 6 kcal/mole. This loosely bound water is a direct result of the presence of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ impurities and the perturbations they induce on the packing of the rod-like poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) macromolecules. Kevlar 49 fibers also inherently contain up to 30 wt % additional water which is tightly bound within the crystal lattice. This water exhibits an activation energy for outgassing by diffusion of approx. 40 kcal/mole and is only evolved from the fiber in significant quantities at t > 350/sup 0/C over a period of hours.

  15. Predictability is necessary for closed-loop visual feedback delay adaptation.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Marieke; van Dam, Loes C J; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-03-05

    In case of delayed visual feedback during visuomotor tasks, like in some sluggish computer games, humans can modulate their behavior to compensate for the delay. However, opinions on the nature of this compensation diverge. Some studies suggest that humans adapt to feedback delays with lasting changes in motor behavior (aftereffects) and a recalibration of time perception. Other studies have shown little or no evidence for such semipermanent recalibration in the temporal domain. We hypothesize that predictability of the reference signal (target to be tracked) is necessary for semipermanent delay adaptation. To test this hypothesis, we trained participants with a 200 ms visual feedback delay in a visually guided manual tracking task, varying the predictability of the reference signal between conditions, but keeping reference motion and feedback delay constant. In Experiment 1, we focused on motor behavior. Only training in the predictable condition brings about all of the adaptive changes and aftereffects expected from delay adaptation. In Experiment 2, we used a synchronization task to investigate perceived simultaneity (perceptuomotor learning). Supporting the hypothesis, participants recalibrated subjective visuomotor simultaneity only when trained in the predictable condition. Such a shift in perceived simultaneity was also observed in Experiment 3, using an interval estimation task. These results show that delay adaptation in motor control can modulate the perceived temporal alignment of vision and kinesthetically sensed movement. The coadaptation of motor prediction and target prediction (reference extrapolation) seems necessary for such genuine delay adaptation. This offers an explanation for divergent results in the literature.

  16. Expectations predict chronic pain treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Stéphanie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Choinière, Manon; Rainville, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests an association between patient pretreatment expectations and numerous health outcomes. However, it remains unclear if and how expectations relate to outcomes after treatments in multidisciplinary pain programs. The present study aims at investigating the predictive association between expectations and clinical outcomes in a large database of chronic pain patients. In this observational cohort study, participants were 2272 patients treated in one of 3 university-affiliated multidisciplinary pain treatment centers. All patients received personalized care, including medical, psychological, and/or physical interventions. Patient expectations regarding pain relief and improvements in quality of life and functioning were measured before the first visit to the pain centers and served as predictor variables. Changes in pain intensity, depressive symptoms, pain interference, and tendency to catastrophize, as well as satisfaction with pain treatment and global impressions of change at 6-month follow-up, were considered as treatment outcomes. Structural equation modeling analyses showed significant positive relationships between expectations and most clinical outcomes, and this association was largely mediated by patients' global impressions of change. Similar patterns of relationships between variables were also observed in various subgroups of patients based on sex, age, pain duration, and pain classification. Such results emphasize the relevance of patient expectations as a determinant of outcomes in multimodal pain treatment programs. Furthermore, the results suggest that superior clinical outcomes are observed in individuals who expect high positive outcomes as a result of treatment.

  17. Expected and Experienced Pain Levels in Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    YALINAY DİKMEN, Pınar; ILGAZ AYDINLAR, Elif; KARLIKAYA, Geysu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to assess pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS) in patients awaiting an EMG procedure (i.e., expected VAS) and after an EMG procedure (i.e., experienced VAS). Methods Expected and experienced pain in response to nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle EMG were assessed in 108 patients (61 females, 47 males; mean age 43.2±11.6) using a VAS. Results No significant correlations were noted between the expected or the experienced VAS in response to EMG and demographic features of the patients. The expected VAS was significantly higher than the experienced VAS in response to needle EMG (p=0.005). The highest VAS level was noted in the expected VAS in response to needle EMG (4.7±2.2). The lowest VAS level was noted in the experienced VAS in response to NCS (3.6±2.5). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that neither the expected nor the experienced pain associated with EMG exceeded a moderate level. Interestingly, we found that expected pain levels in response to needle EMG were significantly higher than experienced pain levels. Therefore, it may be possible to increase compliance if patients are provided with this information before undergoing electrophysiological procedures.

  18. OUTWARD BOUND IN THE MAINSTREAM OF AMERICAN EDUCATION, A SYNOPSIS OF SIX OUTWARD BOUND MAINSTREAM PROJECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.

    A SYNOPSIS IS OFFERED OF SIX DIFFERENT OUTWARD-BOUND PROGRAMS, EACH OF WHICH IS AN ADAPTATION OF THE BASIC OUTWARD-BOUND PHILOSOPHY OF HAVING YOUNG PEOPLE RECOGNIZE FOR THEMSELVES THEIR PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, AND SPIRITUAL CAPABILITIES SO THAT THEY WILL DEVELOP A STRONG SENSE OF SELF-RELIANCE AND INNER STRENGTH. THE ADAMS COUNTY, COLORADO,…

  19. Bound states in the Higgs model

    SciTech Connect

    Di Leo, L.; Darewych, J.W. )

    1994-02-01

    We derive relativistic wave equations for the bound states of two Higgs bosons within the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model. The variational method and the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT are used to obtain the equations using a simple [vert bar][ital hh][r angle]+[vert bar][ital hhh][r angle] Fock-space ansatz. We present approximate solutions of these equations for a range of Higgs boson masses, and explore the parameter space which corresponds to the existence of two-Higgs-boson bound states.

  20. The Lovasz bound and some generalizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Rumsey, H. C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The zero error capacity of a discrete memoryless channel is defined as the largest rate at which information can be transmitted over the channel with zero error probability. One channel with five inputs and outputs whose zero capacity remained unsolved until very recently is considered. An extremely powerful and general technique phased in terms of graph theory, for studying combinatorial packing problems is presented. In particular, Delsarte's linear programming bound for cliques in association schemes appears as a special case of the Lovasz bound.

  1. Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Miyadera, Takayuki

    2011-04-15

    The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.

  2. Input-to-state stable nonlinear filtering for a class of continuous-time delayed nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Choon Ki

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the input-to-state stable (ISS) nonlinear filtering problem for a class of continuous-time delayed nonlinear systems with external disturbance. A new delay-dependent nonlinear ISS filter is established through available measurements to estimate the states of delayed nonlinear systems, such that the filtering error system is both exponentially and input-to-state stable for any bounded external disturbance. The design of the nonlinear ISS filter for these nonlinear systems is achieved by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which can be easily facilitated by using standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter.

  3. [Delay in childhood tuberculosis detection as a negative factor in the anti-tuberculosis struggle].

    PubMed

    Morales Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis González, A; Sanz Aliaga, S A; Otero, M C; Pérez-Tamarit, D; Asensi Botet, F

    1992-12-01

    Childhood morbidity due to tuberculosis infection in Spain is not diminishing at the expected rate in relation with available knowledge and facilities. An important factor is the delay in diagnosis, which evaluation constitutes the objective of this publication. Said delay is due to several causes, patient does not consult on time (mean value between onset of symptoms and consult is 34.3 days), or physician does not think in tuberculosis as first diagnosis, which meant an added mean delay of 7.6 days more. These delays mean an important detriment for the patient, and one of the objectives in the anti-tuberculosis struggle is to shorten delays through information to the lay public and health professionals on the highly important current issue of tuberculosis.

  4. Capacity-Delay Trade-Off in Collaborative Hybrid Ad-Hoc Networks with Coverage Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingyu; Luo, Wenbin; Liu, Chen; Hong, Xuemin; Shi, Jianghong

    2017-01-01

    The integration of ad hoc device-to-device (D2D) communications and open-access small cells can result in a networking paradigm called hybrid the ad hoc network, which is particularly promising in delivering delay-tolerant data. The capacity-delay performance of hybrid ad hoc networks has been studied extensively under a popular framework called scaling law analysis. These studies, however, do not take into account aspects of interference accumulation and queueing delay and, therefore, may lead to over-optimistic results. Moreover, focusing on the average measures, existing works fail to give finer-grained insights into the distribution of delays. This paper proposes an alternative analytical framework based on queueing theoretic models and physical interference models. We apply this framework to study the capacity-delay performance of a collaborative cellular D2D network with coverage sensing and two-hop relay. The new framework allows us to fully characterize the delay distribution in the transform domain and pinpoint the impacts of coverage sensing, user and base station densities, transmit power, user mobility and packet size on the capacity-delay trade-off. We show that under the condition of queueing equilibrium, the maximum throughput capacity per device saturates to an upper bound of 0.7239 λb/λu bits/s/Hz, where λb and λu are the densities of base stations and mobile users, respectively. PMID:28134769

  5. H∞ state estimation of generalised neural networks with interval time-varying delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanakumar, R.; Syed Ali, M.; Cao, Jinde; Huang, He

    2016-12-01

    This paper focuses on studying the H∞ state estimation of generalised neural networks with interval time-varying delays. The integral terms in the time derivative of the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional are handled by the Jensen's inequality, reciprocally convex combination approach and a new Wirtinger-based double integral inequality. A delay-dependent criterion is derived under which the estimation error system is globally asymptotically stable with H∞ performance. The proposed conditions are represented by linear matrix inequalities. Optimal H∞ norm bounds are obtained easily by solving convex problems in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The advantage of employing the proposed inequalities is illustrated by numerical examples.

  6. CAN LARGE TIME DELAYS OBSERVED IN LIGHT CURVES OF CORONAL LOOPS BE EXPLAINED IN IMPULSIVE HEATING?

    SciTech Connect

    Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R. E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com E-mail: caroline.e.alexander@nasa.gov

    2016-02-20

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored.

  7. What to Expect After Heart Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. What To Expect After Heart Surgery Recovery in the Hospital You may spend a day ... heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and incision site(s). Recovery at Home People respond differently to heart surgery. ...

  8. What to Expect After Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ... answer questions. Some of these tests, such as exercise tests, will be the same ones you had ...

  9. What to Expect Before Pulmonary Rehabilitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expect After Benefits & Risks Links Related Topics Bronchitis COPD Cystic Fibrosis Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Sarcoidosis Send a ... how well you're able to breathe and exercise. You'll have lung function tests to check ...

  10. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  11. Parental outcome expectations on children's TV viewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's TV viewing has been associated with increased sedentary behavior and poor eating habits. Positive intervention effects have been observed when addressing outcome expectations as a mediator in interventions targeting children's dietary behavior. Little is known about parental outcome expec...

  12. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  13. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  14. Time delay and distance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.

  15. Domain Parking: Not as Malicious as Expected

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Domain Parking: Not as Malicious as Expected Leigh Metcalf , Jonathan Spring netsa-contact@cert.org CERT® Coordination Center, Software Engineering...Parking: Not as Malicious as Expected 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Metcalf /Jonathan Spring Leigh 5d...Tech. Rep. RFC 3927, May 2005. [11] L. B. Metcalf and J. M. Spring, “Everything you wanted to know about black- lists but were afraid to ask

  16. Converting customer expectations into achievable results.

    PubMed

    Landis, G A

    1999-11-01

    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system.

  17. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  18. Delayed treatment of hemoglobin neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Raymond F; Rogers, Bret

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin is an oxidative neurotoxin that may contribute to cell injury after CNS trauma and hemorrhagic stroke. Prior studies have demonstrated that concomitant treatment with iron-chelating antioxidants prevents its neurotoxicity. However, the efficacy of these agents when applied hours after hemoglobin has not been determined, and is the subject of the present investigation. Consistent with prior observations, an increase in reactive oxygen species generation, detected by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin oxidation, was observed when mixed neuronal/astrocyte cultures prepared from mouse cortex were exposed to hemoglobin alone. However, this oxidative stress developed slowly. A significant increase in the dichlorofluorescein signal compared with control, untreated cultures was not observed until four hours after addition of hemoglobin, and was followed by loss of membrane integrity and propidium iodide staining. Treating cultures with the 21-aminosteroid U74500A or the ferric iron chelator deferoxamine four hours after initiating hemoglobin treatment markedly attenuated reactive oxygen species production within 2 h. Continuous exposure to 5 micro M hemoglobin for 24 h resulted in death of about three-quarters of neurons, without injuring astrocytes. Most neuronal loss was prevented by concomitant treatment with U74500A; its effect was not significantly attenuated if treatment was delayed for 2-4 h, and it still prevented over half of neuronal death if treatment was delayed for 8 h. Similar neuroprotection was produced by delayed treatment with deferoxamine or the lipid-soluble iron chelator phenanthroline. None of these agents had any effect on neuronal death when added to cultures 12 h after hemoglobin. These results suggest that hemoglobin is a potent but slowly-acting neurotoxin. The delayed onset of hemoglobin neurotoxicity may make it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  20. Outward Bound as an Adjunct to Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nelson K.

    The Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) provides successful adjunct programs for special populations undergoing therapy at the Adventure Home (Boulder, CO), the Juvenile Justice Program and the St. Luke's Hospital Alcoholism Recovery Unit (Denver, CO), and the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Department of Psychiatry (Hanover, NH). The goals of…

  1. Lifetime of a Chemically Bound Helium Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaban, Galina M.; Lundell, Jan; Gerber, R. Benny; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rare-gas atoms are chemically inert, to an extent unique among all elements. This is due to the stable electronic structure of the atoms. Stable molecules with chemically bound rare-gas atoms are, however, known. A first such compound, XePtF6, W2S prepared in 1962 and since then a range of molecules containing radon, xenon and krypton have been obtained. Most recently, a first stable chemically bound compound of argon was prepared, leaving neon and helium as the only elements for which stable chemically bound molecules are not yet known. Electronic structure calculations predict that a metastable species HHeF exists, but significance of the result depends on the unknown lifetime. Here we report quantum dynamics calculations of the lifetime of HHeF, using accurate interactions computed from electronic structure theory. HHeF is shown to disintegrate by tunneling through energy barriers into He + HF and H + He + F the first channel greatly dominating. The lifetime of HHeF is more than 120 picoseconds, that of DHeF is 14 nanoseconds. The relatively long lifetimes are encouraging for the preparation prospects of this first chemically bound helium compound.

  2. College Bound Seniors, 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    Some one million college bound students, who were high school seniors during 1974-75 previously participated in the College Board's Admissions Testing Program (ATP), which included the Scholarship Aptitude Test (SAT), the Test of Standard Written English, the Student Descriptive Questionnaire, and the ATP Achievement Tests. These tests created a…

  3. Mean shift is a bound optimization.

    PubMed

    Fashing, Mark; Tomasi, Carlo

    2005-03-01

    We build on the current understanding of mean shift as an optimization procedure. We demonstrate that, in the case of piecewise constant kernels, mean shift is equivalent to Newton's method. Further, we prove that, for all kernels, the mean shift procedure is a quadratic bound maximization.

  4. Bounds on transverse momentum dependent distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneman, A.

    2001-01-01

    When more than one hadron takes part in a hard process, an extended set of quark distribution and fragmentation functions becomes relevant. In this talk, the derivation of Soffer-like bounds for these functions, in the case of a spin-1/2 target [1], is sketched and some of their aspects are discussed.

  5. Mentoring College Bound High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowrer-Popiel, Elizabeth

    This article examines causes of the high rate of attrition of college freshmen during the first few weeks of school and describes a plan for mentorships between successful college students and college-bound secondary seniors prior to entrance into college. In discussing the challenges facing freshmen, the article suggests that they suffer stress…

  6. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  7. Colorado Outward Bound School Rafting Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Al

    River rafting trips at the Colorado Outward Bound School (COBS) present participants with an opportunity for developing self-confidence, self-awareness, and concern for others through challenging and adventuresome group effort, combined with a program of instruction in rafting skills, safety consciousness, and awareness of the natural environment.…

  8. Bound Indoleacetic Acid in Avena Coleoptiles 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Alan; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1966-01-01

    When C14 carboxyl indoleacetic acid (IAA) is transported through Avena coleoptile sections a fraction of the activity becomes bound. The nature of this bound IAA has been investigated. Upon extraction with solvents and chromatography a substance having the RF of IAA in 4 solvents was detected. No evidence could be found for the formation of indoleacetyl conjugates. In pea stem sections subjected to a similar experimental regime good evidence was obtained for the occurrence of conjugates. When IAA was supplied exogenously to coleoptile sections floating in solutions the occurrence of conjugates was shown to be dependent on the presence of the primary leaf. In its absence no conjugates could be detected. On grinding coleoptile sections and subsequent centrifugation at 240 × g the radioactivity was found to be in the tissue fraction as opposed to the supernatant. The radioactivity cannot be removed from the tissue by extraction with water, buffer solution or treatment with ribonuclease. It is readily removed by 10% urea, crystalline trypsin and chymotrypsin. It is therefore concluded that IAA becomes bound to a protein. Bound IAA does not appear to be able to cause growth in Avena coleoptile sections. PMID:16656259

  9. Towards a New Generation of Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Outward Bound Czech Republic developed a course for international participants in which everybody is simultaneously an actor and viewer in a 2-week theater play. A five-stage process of developing "dramaturgy" allows instructors to adapt the scenario to participant needs and thus enhance the likelihood of challenge and transfer of…

  10. A multistate analysis of active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Rogers, A; Rogers, R G; Branch, L G

    1989-01-01

    With today's lower mortality rates, longer expectations of life, and new medical technologies, the nation's health policy focus has shifted from emphasis on individual survival to emphasis on personal health and independent living. Using longitudinal data sets and new methodological techniques, researchers have begun to assess active life expectancies, estimating not only how long a subpopulation can expect to live beyond each age, but what fractions of the expected remaining lifetime will be lived as independent, dependent, or institutionalized. New ideas are addressed, applying recently developed multistate life table methods to Waves One and Two of the Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study. Expectations of active life are presented for those 65 and older who initially are in one of two functional states of well-being. Included are expectations of life, for those, for example, who were independent and remained so, or those who were dependent and became independent. Although public health officials are concerned about the number of elderly who cease being independent, preliminary analysis shows that a significant number of the dependent elderly regain their independence, a situation which needs to be addressed in health care planning.

  11. Consumer expectations for future gasoline prices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    A key finding of this study is that consumer expectations respond to the volatility in retail gasoline prices. Historical price trends can be characterized as a series of rapid steps separated by varying periods of relative stability. The behavorial models investigated here imply that consumer response to downward steps is constrained by the effect of the longer-term (less volatile) trends. The response to upward steps is, however, essentially unconstrained in that it can be driven directly through the short-term price trend. The rough trajectory by which retail gasoline prices have climbed historically thus appears to sustain relatively high consumer expectations for future price levels. In a second point of divergence, analytical efforts also generally employ real price trends. While arguably the basis for decision-making by business planners and analysts, it does not necessarily hold that consumers discount nominal price trends for expected inflation rates in developing their year-ahead price forecasts. An initial review of the SRC data for expected real price increases (expected prices adjusted for the expected inflation rate) identified no consistent relationships, and generally lower correlations, with historical trends in real prices.

  12. Expectation and attention in hierarchical auditory prediction.

    PubMed

    Chennu, Srivas; Noreika, Valdas; Gueorguiev, David; Blenkmann, Alejandro; Kochen, Silvia; Ibáñez, Agustín; Owen, Adrian M; Bekinschtein, Tristan A

    2013-07-03

    Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early first-level processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of context-salient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding.

  13. Decentralised adaptive output feedback stabilisation for stochastic time-delay systems via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Ticao; Xu, Shengyuan; Lu, Junwei; Wei, Yunliang; Zou, Yun

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the decentralised output feedback stabilisation problem for a class of large-scale stochastic time-delay nonlinear systems. A general theorem is firstly given to guarantee the global existence and uniqueness of the solution for stochastic time-delay systems. In addition, a stochastic version of the well-known LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem with time-varying delay is initially proposed for the controller design and stability analysis. Then, for a class of large-scale stochastic systems with time-varying delays, totally decentralised adaptive delay-dependent controllers are designed by using K-filter and backstepping approach. Via LaSalle-Yoshizawa-type theorem and constructing a general Lyapunov function, it is shown that all signals in the closed-loop system are bounded almost surely and the solution is almost surely asymptotically stable. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results of this paper.

  14. Delayed recombination and standard rulers

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

  15. Ultrasonic measurements of velocity for modulus assessment of a material using a delay line approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, R. T.; Chen, M. Y.; Hoppe, W. C.; Blackshire, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to evaluate the modulus of materials at elevated temperatures, an ultrasonic delay line approach was developed. The setup was tested with a known material, an aluminum alloy, using delay lines at ambient temperature to examine the feasibility of this approach. Due to the low frequency used, interference occurred between multiple passes of the ultrasound through the material resulting a lower than expected measured velocity. Incorporation of a transmission coefficient in the model of the experiment corrected the expected timing of the ultrasonic signals, reconciling the model to measurements of velocity.

  16. Memory for Expectation-Violating Concepts: The Effects of Agents and Cultural Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Porubanova, Michaela; Shaw, Daniel Joel; McKay, Ryan; Xygalatas, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that ideas which violate our expectations, such as schema-inconsistent concepts, enjoy privileged status in terms of memorability. In our study, memory for concepts that violate cultural (cultural schema-level) expectations (e.g., “illiterate teacher”, “wooden bottle”, or “thorny grass”) versus domain-level (ontological) expectations (e.g., “speaking cat”, “jumping maple”, or “melting teacher”) was examined. Concepts that violate cultural expectations, or counter-schematic, were remembered to a greater extent compared with concepts that violate ontological expectations and with intuitive concepts (e.g., “galloping pony”, “drying orchid”, or “convertible car”), in both immediate recall, and delayed recognition tests. Importantly, concepts related to agents showed a memory advantage over concepts not pertaining to agents, but this was true only for expectation-violating concepts. Our results imply that intuitive, everyday concepts are equally attractive and memorable regardless of the presence or absence of agents. However, concepts that violate our expectations (cultural-schema or domain-level) are more memorable when pertaining to agents (humans and animals) than to non-agents (plants or objects/artifacts). We conclude that due to their evolutionary salience, cultural ideas which combine expectancy violations and the involvement of an agent are especially memorable and thus have an enhanced probability of being successfully propagated. PMID:24714568

  17. Sample Complexity Bounds for Differentially Private Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Hsu, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the problem of privacy-preserving classification – namely, learning a classifier from sensitive data while preserving the privacy of individuals in the training set. In particular, the learning algorithm is required in this problem to guarantee differential privacy, a very strong notion of privacy that has gained significant attention in recent years. A natural question to ask is: what is the sample requirement of a learning algorithm that guarantees a certain level of privacy and accuracy? We address this question in the context of learning with infinite hypothesis classes when the data is drawn from a continuous distribution. We first show that even for very simple hypothesis classes, any algorithm that uses a finite number of examples and guarantees differential privacy must fail to return an accurate classifier for at least some unlabeled data distributions. This result is unlike the case with either finite hypothesis classes or discrete data domains, in which distribution-free private learning is possible, as previously shown by Kasiviswanathan et al. (2008). We then consider two approaches to differentially private learning that get around this lower bound. The first approach is to use prior knowledge about the unlabeled data distribution in the form of a reference distribution chosen independently of the sensitive data. Given such a reference , we provide an upper bound on the sample requirement that depends (among other things) on a measure of closeness between and the unlabeled data distribution. Our upper bound applies to the non-realizable as well as the realizable case. The second approach is to relax the privacy requirement, by requiring only label-privacy – namely, that the only labels (and not the unlabeled parts of the examples) be considered sensitive information. An upper bound on the sample requirement of learning with label privacy was shown by Chaudhuri et al. (2006); in this work, we show a lower bound. PMID:25285183

  18. Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... the time. When milestones are delayed If your child's development seems delayed or shows any of the behaviors ... do additional evaluations and reassure you that your child's development is normal or tell you that your child ...

  19. Global exponential stability and dissipativity of generalized neural networks with time-varying delay signals.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, R; Samidurai, R; Cao, Jinde; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the problems of exponential stability and dissipativity of generalized neural networks (GNNs) with time-varying delay signals. By constructing a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs) with triple integral terms that contain more advantages of the state vectors of the neural networks, and the upper bound on the time-varying delay signals are formulated. We employ a new integral inequality technique (IIT), free-matrix-based (FMB) integral inequality approach, and Wirtinger double integral inequality (WDII) technique together with the reciprocally convex combination (RCC) approach to bound the time derivative of the LKFs. An improved exponential stability and strictly (Q,S,R)-γ-dissipative conditions of the addressed systems are represented by the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Finally, four interesting numerical examples are developed to verify the usefulness of the proposed method with a practical application to a biological network.

  20. Wada property in systems with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2017-02-01

    Delay differential equations take into account the transmission time of the information. These delayed signals may turn a predictable system into chaotic, with the usual fractalization of the phase space. In this work, we study the connection between delay and unpredictability, in particular we focus on the Wada property in systems with delay. This topological property gives rise to dramatic changes in the final state for small changes in the history functions.

  1. Evidence that a major portion of cellular potassium is bound

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, I.L.; Hardman, W.E.; Hunter, K.E.; Haskin, C.; Smith, N.K.; Fullerton, G.D. )

    1990-03-01

    In this report we briefly review recent evidence which shows that a substantial proportion of intracellular K+ is bound or perturbed from the physicochemical properties expected in dilute aqueous solutions. In addition, we present evidence from electron probe x-ray microanalysis of thin cryosections of cells which indicates that the binding of K+ to anionic groups either carboxyl groups (HCO{sub 2}) on proteins or to phosphate groups in creatine phosphate (CrP), in adenosine triphosphate, (ATP), in protein and in nucleic acids, are the main determinants of the maintenance of (as differentiated from the generated of) the well known intra- to extracellular K+ concentration difference. The collective evidence suggests that much of cellular K+ is reduced in its mobility and in its chemical activity due to association with negative charge groups (e.g. carboxyl and phosphates). This fact forces abandonment of the misleading assumption that the majority of intracellular K+ and other inorganic ions are as free as would be expected under ideal solution conditions. This realization should have far reaching consequences toward understanding transmembrane movement of water and solutes in cells. 41 references.

  2. Articulatory Preparation in the Delayed Naming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamoto, Alan H.; Liu, Qiang; Mura, Keith; Sanchez, Adrianna

    2008-01-01

    The assumptions that acoustic onset must follow articulatory onset by a fixed delay and that response execution level processes are always effectively isolated in the delayed naming task were investigated with respect to the issue of articulatory preparation in three experiments. The results of these experiments showed that for the delayed naming…

  3. Direct-reading group-delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.

  4. Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last…

  5. Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…

  6. Delayed reinforcement and fixed-ratio performance.

    PubMed

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2013-11-01

    Effects of delayed reinforcement on fixed-ratio (FR) maintained responding of pigeons were investigated. In Experiments 1-3, the delay of reinforcement was increased across successive sessions until pigeons paused for 300 s. Both signaled and unsignaled delays were studied across different conditions. Overall response rates and run rates (timed from the first to last response of a ratio) decreased and postreinforcement pauses increased as delays increased in each experiment. As delays increased, the likelihood of pausing during a ratio run also increased. When these measures were plotted as a function of obtained delays, signaled delays had less of an effect on the above measures than did unsignaled ones. In Experiment 2, delays had a greater effect on the above measures than did a control condition arranging equivalent interreinforcer intervals to those accompanying the delays. Experiments 3 and 4 examined the generality of the effects obtained in the first two experiments. In Experiment 3, delays imposed on FR or yoked-interval schedules had similar behavioral effects. In Experiment 4, effects similar to those found in Experiments 1-3 for 1, 10, and 20-s delays imposed on FR 50 schedules were found when the FR requirement increased across sessions. Despite the different contingencies relating response rate and reinforcement rates on interval and ratio schedules, delays of reinforcement generally affect performance on these schedules similarly.

  7. Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Dynamics in Cobweb Models with Time Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to study price dynamics in two different continuous time cobweb models with delays close to [Hommes, 1994]. In both cases, the stationary equilibrium may be not representative of the long-term dynamics of the model, since it is possible to observe endogenous and persistent fluctuations (supercritical Hopf bifurcations) even if a deterministic context without external shocks is considered. In the model in which markets are in equilibrium every time, we show that the existence of time delays in the expectations formation mechanism may cause chaotic dynamics similar to those obtained in [Hommes, 1994] in a discrete time context. From a mathematical point of view, we apply the Poincaré-Lindstedt perturbation method to study the local dynamic properties of the models. In addition, several numerical experiments are used to investigate global properties of the systems.

  8. A Stochastic Delay Differential Model of Cerebral Autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Panunzi, Simona; D’Orsi, Laura; Iacoviello, Daniela; De Gaetano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models of the cardiovascular system and of cerebral autoregulation (CAR) have been employed for several years in order to describe the time course of pressures and flows changes subsequent to postural changes. The assessment of the degree of efficiency of cerebral auto regulation has indeed importance in the prognosis of such conditions as cerebro-vascular accidents or Alzheimer. In the quest for a simple but realistic mathematical description of cardiovascular control, which may be fitted onto non-invasive experimental observations after postural changes, the present work proposes a first version of an empirical Stochastic Delay Differential Equations (SDDEs) model. The model consists of a total of four SDDEs and two ancillary algebraic equations, incorporates four distinct delayed controls from the brain onto different components of the circulation, and is able to accurately capture the time course of mean arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity signals, reproducing observed auto-correlated error around the expected drift. PMID:25830915

  9. Understanding Housing Delays and Relocations Within the Housing First Model.

    PubMed

    Zerger, Suzanne; Pridham, Katherine Francombe; Jeyaratnam, Jeyagobi; Hwang, Stephen W; O'Campo, Patricia; Kohli, Jaipreet; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This study explores factors contributing to delays and relocations during the implementation of the Housing First model in Toronto, Ontario. While interruptions in housing tenure are expected en route to recovery and housing stability, consumer and service provider views on finding and keeping housing remain largely unknown. In-person interviews and focus groups were conducted with 48 study participants, including 23 case managers or housing workers and 25 consumers. The following three factors contributed to housing delays and transfers: (1) the effectiveness of communication and collaboration among consumers and service providers, (2) consumer-driven preferences and ambivalence, and (3) provider prioritization of consumer choice over immediate housing access. Two strategies--targeted communications and consumer engagement in housing searches--supported the housing process. Several factors affect the timing and stability of housing. Communication between and among providers and consumers, and a shared understanding of consumer choice, can further support choice and recovery.

  10. Price regulation and relative delays in generic drug adoption.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; McGuire, Alistair; Varol, Nebibe

    2014-12-01

    Increasing the adoption of generic drugs has the potential to improve static efficiency in a health system without harming pharmaceutical innovation. However, very little is known about the timing of generic adoption and diffusion. No prior study has empirically examined the differential launch times of generics across a comprehensive set of markets, or more specifically the delays in country specific adoption of generics relative to the first country of (generic) adoption. Drawing on data containing significant country and product variation across a lengthy time period (1999-2008), we use duration analysis to examine relative delays, across countries, in the adoption of generic drugs. Our results suggest that price regulation has a significant effect on reducing the time to launch of generics, with faster adoption in higher priced markets. The latter result is dependent on the degree of competition and the expected market size.

  11. [The effects of teacher expectancy and self-expectancy on performance].

    PubMed

    Choi, K S

    1987-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect on performance of the relationship between teacher expectancy and self-expectancy. For the induced expectancy, a random half of 96 high school students enrolled in a four-week summer language course of a Christian association were described to the instructors as having high success potential. The remaining trainees served as controls. Correct scores on the learning task, instructor ratings of behavior and attitude of the instructors were measured on three sessions of the course. Ratings of teacher's behavior were factor-analyzed and four interpretable factors emerged: Support, Caring, Attention, and Tutoring. The induced expectancy and specific levels of self-expectancy had significant effects on the subjects' performance and ratings of the instructor. It was concluded that self-expectancy mediates the effects of teacher expectancy on learning performance. Implications of these results for the Pygmalion effect were discussed.

  12. 34 CFR 645.12 - What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? 645.12 Section 645.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? Any project...

  13. 34 CFR 645.12 - What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? 645.12 Section 645.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? Any project...

  14. 34 CFR 645.12 - What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? 645.12 Section 645.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? Any project...

  15. 34 CFR 645.12 - What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? 645.12 Section 645.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... services may regular Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math-Science projects provide? Any project...

  16. Components of attention modulated by temporal expectation.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    By varying the probabilities that a stimulus would appear at particular times after the presentation of a cue and modeling the data by the theory of visual attention (Bundesen, 1990), Vangkilde, Coull, and Bundesen (2012) provided evidence that the speed of encoding a singly presented stimulus letter into visual short-term memory (VSTM) is modulated by the observer's temporal expectations. We extended the investigation from single-stimulus recognition to whole report (Experiment 1) and partial report (Experiment 2). Cue-stimulus foreperiods were distributed geometrically using time steps of 500 ms. In high expectancy conditions, the probability that the stimulus would appear on the next time step, given that it had not yet appeared, was high, whereas in low expectancy conditions, the probability was low. The speed of encoding the stimuli into VSTM was higher in the high expectancy conditions. In line with the Easterbrook (1959) hypothesis, under high temporal expectancy, the processing was also more focused (selective). First, the storage capacity of VSTM was lower, so that fewer stimuli were encoded into VSTM. Second, the distribution of attentional weights across stimuli was less even: The efficiency of selecting targets rather than distractors for encoding into VSTM was higher, as was the spread of the attentional weights of the target letters.

  17. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  18. Effect of Maximum Momentum on Quantum Mechanical Scattering and Bound States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Chee-Leong; Parwani, Rajesh R.

    2013-05-01

    We construct the exact position representation for a deformed (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics which exhibits an intrinsic maximum momentum and use it to study problems such as a particle in a box and an asymmetric well. In particular, we show that unlike usual quantum mechanics, the present deformed case delays the formation of bound states in a finite potential well, a distinguishing feature that might be relevant for empirical investigations. We also contrast our results with the string-motivated type of deformed quantum mechanics which incorporates a minimum position uncertainty rather than a maximum momentum.

  19. On global exponential stability of positive neural networks with time-varying delay.

    PubMed

    Hien, Le Van

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a new result on the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of a positive equilibrium of positive neural networks in the presence of bounded time-varying delay. Based on some novel comparison techniques, a testable condition is derived to ensure that all the state trajectories of the system converge exponentially to a unique positive equilibrium. The effectiveness of the obtained results is illustrated by a numerical example.

  20. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s- 1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens (N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s- 1 and body angle from -15∘ to 50∘. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counterrotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag (L:D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10∘ to 30∘. Peak (L:D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15∘ or 20∘, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in CL and CD from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s- 1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s- 1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L:D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L:D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  1. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    2009-05-01

    Flap-bounding is a common flight style in small birds in which flapping phases alternate with flexed-wing bounds. Body lift is predicted to be essential to making this flight style an aerodynamically attractive flight strategy. To elucidate the contributions of the body and tail to lift and drag during the flexed-wing bound phase, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measured properties of the wake of zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata, N = 5), flying at 6-10 m s-1 in a variable speed wind tunnel as well as flow around taxidermically prepared specimens ( N = 4) mounted on a sting instrumented with force transducers. For the specimens, we varied air velocity from 2 to 12 m s-1 and body angle from -15° to 50°. The wake of bounding birds and mounted specimens consisted of a pair of counter-rotating vortices shed into the wake from the tail, with induced downwash in the sagittal plane and upwash in parasagittal planes lateral to the bird. This wake structure was present even when the tail was entirely removed. We observed good agreement between force measures derived from PIV and force transducers over the range of body angles typically used by zebra finch during forward flight. Body lift:drag ( L: D) ratios averaged 1.4 in live birds and varied between 1 and 1.5 in specimens at body angles from 10° to 30°. Peak ( L: D) ratio was the same in live birds and specimens (1.5) and was exhibited in specimens at body angles of 15° or 20°, consistent with the lower end of body angles utilized during bounds. Increasing flight velocity in live birds caused a decrease in C L and C D from maximum values of 1.19 and 0.95 during flight at 6 m s-1 to minimum values of 0.70 and 0.54 during flight at 10 m s-1. Consistent with delta-wing theory as applied to birds with a graduated-tail shape, trimming the tail to 0 and 50% of normal length reduced L: D ratios and extending tail length to 150% of normal increased L: D ratio. As downward induced velocity is present in the

  2. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2009-11-20

    Future large ensembles of time delay (TD) lenses have the potential to provide interesting cosmological constraints complementary to those of other methods. In a flat universe with constant w including a Planck prior, The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope TD measurements for approx4000 lenses should constrain the local Hubble constant h to approx0.007 (approx1%), OMEGA{sub de} to approx0.005, and w to approx0.026 (all 1sigma precisions). Similar constraints could be obtained by a dedicated gravitational lens observatory (OMEGA) which would obtain precise TD and mass model measurements for approx100 well-studied lenses. We compare these constraints (as well as those for a more general cosmology) to the 'optimistic Stage IV' constraints expected from weak lensing, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and cluster counts, as calculated by the Dark Energy Task Force. TDs yield a modest constraint on a time-varying w(z), with the best constraint on w(z) at the 'pivot redshift' of z approx 0.31. Our Fisher matrix calculation is provided to allow TD constraints to be easily compared to and combined with constraints from other experiments. We also show how cosmological constraining power varies as a function of numbers of lenses, lens model uncertainty, TD precision, redshift precision, and the ratio of four-image to two-image lenses.

  3. Delaying Orthostatic Syncope With Mental Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nandu; Roessler, Andreas; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    At orthostatic vasovagal syncope there appears to be a sudden withdrawl of sympathetic activity. As mental challenge activates the sympathetic system, we hypothesized that doing mental arithmetic in volunteers driven to the end point of their cardiovascular stability may delay the onset of orthostatic syncope. We investigated this in healthy male subjects. Each subject underwent a head up tilt (HUT) + graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) up to presyncope session (control) to determine the orthostatic tolerance time, OTT (Time from HUT commencement to development of presyncopal symptoms/signs). Once the tolerance time was known, a randomized crossover protocol was used: either 1) Repeat HUT + LBNP to ensure reproducibility of repeated run or 2) HUT + LBNP run but with added mental challenge (two min before the expected presyncope time). Test protocols were separated by two weeks. Our studies on five male test subjects indicate that mental challenge improves orthostatic tolerance significantly. Additional mental loading could be a useful countermeasure to alleviate the orthostatic responses of persons, particularly in those with histories of dizziness on standing up, or to alleviate hypotension that frequently occurs during hemodialysis or on return to earth from the spaceflight environment of microgravity.

  4. Cascading Delay Risk of Airline Workforce Deployments with Crew Pairing and Schedule Optimization.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sai Ho; Ma, Hoi Lam; Chan, Hing Kai

    2016-12-09

    This article concerns the assignment of buffer time between two connected flights and the number of reserve crews in crew pairing to mitigate flight disruption due to flight arrival delay. Insufficient crew members for a flight will lead to flight disruptions such as delays or cancellations. In reality, most of these disruption cases are due to arrival delays of the previous flights. To tackle this problem, many research studies have examined the assignment method based on the historical flight arrival delay data of the concerned flights. However, flight arrival delays can be triggered by numerous factors. Accordingly, this article proposes a new forecasting approach using a cascade neural network, which considers a massive amount of historical flight arrival and departure data. The approach also incorporates learning ability so that unknown relationships behind the data can be revealed. Based on the expected flight arrival delay, the buffer time can be determined and a new dynamic reserve crew strategy can then be used to determine the required number of reserve crews. Numerical experiments are carried out based on one year of flight data obtained from 112 airports around the world. The results demonstrate that by predicting the flight departure delay as the input for the prediction of the flight arrival delay, the prediction accuracy can be increased. Moreover, by using the new dynamic reserve crew strategy, the total crew cost can be reduced. This significantly benefits airlines in flight schedule stability and cost saving in the current big data era.

  5. BOLD delay times using group delay in sickle cell disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloigner, Julie; Vu, Chau; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that effects red blood cells, which can lead to vasoocclusion, ischemia and infarct. This disease often results in neurological damage and strokes, leading to morbidity and mortality. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique for measuring and mapping the brain activity. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals contain also information about the neurovascular coupling, vascular reactivity, oxygenation and blood propagation. Temporal relationship between BOLD fluctuations in different parts of the brain provides also a mean to investigate the blood delay information. We used the induced desaturation as a label to profile transit times through different brain areas, reflecting oxygen utilization of tissue. In this study, we aimed to compare blood flow propagation delay times between these patients and healthy subjects in areas vascularized by anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In a group comparison analysis with control subjects, BOLD changes in these areas were found to be almost simultaneous and shorter in the SCD patients, because of their increased brain blood flow. Secondly, the analysis of a patient with a stenosis on the anterior cerebral artery indicated that signal of the area vascularized by this artery lagged the MCA signal. These findings suggest that sickle cell disease causes blood propagation modifications, and that these changes could be used as a biomarker of vascular damage.

  6. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  7. Information structure expectations in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In English, new information typically appears late in the sentence, as does primary accent. Because of this tendency, perceivers might expect the final constituent or constituents of a sentence to contain informational focus. This expectation should in turn affect how they comprehend focus-sensitive constructions such as ellipsis sentences. Results from four experiments on sluicing sentences (e.g., The mobster implicated the thug, but we can’t find out who else) suggest that perceivers do prefer to place focus late in the sentence, though that preference can be mitigated by prosodic information (pitch accents, Experiment 2) or syntactic information (clefted sentences, Experiment 3) indicating that focus is located elsewhere. Furthermore, it is not necessarily the direct object, but the informationally-focused constituent that is the preferred antecedent (Experiment 4). Expectations regarding the information structure of a sentence, which are only partly cancelable by means of overt focus markers, may explain persistent biases in ellipsis resolution. PMID:18609404

  8. ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the…

  9. Stochastic Upper Bounds in the Lorenz Equations and Applications to Geophysical Flows and Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, S.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many geophysical systems are described by chaotic nonlinear systems of equations. A natural question arising is the relative roles of chaos and stochastic fluctuations. We calculate the stochastic upper bounds for the Lorenz equations using an extension of the background method. In analogy with Rayleigh-Bénard convection the upper bounds are for heat transport versus Rayleigh number. As might be expected the stochastic upper bounds are larger than the deterministic counterpart of Souza & Doering (2015). but their variation with noise amplitude exhibits interesting behavior. Below the transition to chaotic dynamics the upper bounds increase monotonically with noise amplitude. However, in the chaotic regime this monotonicity depends on the number of realizations in the ensemble; at a particular Rayleigh number the bound may increase or decrease with noise amplitude. The origin of this behavior is the coupling between the noise and unstable periodic orbits, the degree of which depends on the degree to which the ensemble represents the ergodic set. This is confirmed by examining the close returns plots of the full solutions to the stochastic equations. Finally, we note that these solutions demonstrate that the effect of noise is equivalent to the effect of chaos. Such results have a wide range of implications in geophysical fluid dynamics.

  10. Great expectations. Eating expectancies as mediators of reinforcement sensitivity and eating.

    PubMed

    Hennegan, Julie M; Loxton, Natalie J; Mattar, Ameerah

    2013-12-01

    Eating expectancies are proposed as cognitive pathways linking reinforcement (reward and punishment) sensitivities and the tendency to over-eat in response to appetitive and emotional cues. In Study One (N=243 university women) explicit eating expectancies were tested as potential mediators of reinforcement sensitivities and eating styles. Broadly, expectancies that eating alleviates negative affect/boredom mediated both reward and punishment sensitivity and emotional eating. The expectancy that eating is pleasurable and rewarding mediated reward sensitivity and external eating. In Study Two (N=109), using an implicit eating expectancy task, reward sensitivity and external eating was mediated via positive expectancy statements, notably, that eating is pleasurable and rewarding. Reward sensitivity and emotional eating was mediated specifically by expectancies that eating manages boredom. Punishment sensitivity was not associated with any implicit expectancies. Findings support the role of expectancies as cognitive mediators in the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and emotionally-driven versus externally-driven eating styles. However, the largely appetitive implicit expectancies task only supported an association with reward sensitivity.

  11. Scalable problems and memory bounded speedup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xian-He; Ni, Lionel M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper three models of parallel speedup are studied. They are fixed-size speedup, fixed-time speedup and memory-bounded speedup. The latter two consider the relationship between speedup and problem scalability. Two sets of speedup formulations are derived for these three models. One set considers uneven workload allocation and communication overhead and gives more accurate estimation. Another set considers a simplified case and provides a clear picture on the impact of the sequential portion of an application on the possible performance gain from parallel processing. The simplified fixed-size speedup is Amdahl's law. The simplified fixed-time speedup is Gustafson's scaled speedup. The simplified memory-bounded speedup contains both Amdahl's law and Gustafson's scaled speedup as special cases. This study leads to a better understanding of parallel processing.

  12. On generalized quasi-convex bounded sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakuş, Mahmut

    2016-08-01

    The space of all sequences a = (ak) for which ‖a ‖q= ∑k k |Δ2ak | +supk|ak | <∞ is denoted by q. Here, Δak = ak - ak+1 and Δmak = Δ(Δm-1ak) = Δm-1ak - Δm-1ak+1 with Δ0ak = ak, m ≥ 1. If a = (ak) ∈q then kΔak → 0 (k → ∞) and q ⊂ bv, the space of all sequences of bounded-variation, since ∑k | Δ ak | ≤ ∑k k | Δ2ak | In this study, we give a generalization of quasi-convex bounded sequences.

  13. Mutual Information Rate and Bounds for It

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Murilo S.; Rubinger, Rero M.; Viana, Emilson R.; Sartorelli, José C.; Parlitz, Ulrich; Grebogi, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The amount of information exchanged per unit of time between two nodes in a dynamical network or between two data sets is a powerful concept for analysing complex systems. This quantity, known as the mutual information rate (MIR), is calculated from the mutual information, which is rigorously defined only for random systems. Moreover, the definition of mutual information is based on probabilities of significant events. This work offers a simple alternative way to calculate the MIR in dynamical (deterministic) networks or between two time series (not fully deterministic), and to calculate its upper and lower bounds without having to calculate probabilities, but rather in terms of well known and well defined quantities in dynamical systems. As possible applications of our bounds, we study the relationship between synchronisation and the exchange of information in a system of two coupled maps and in experimental networks of coupled oscillators. PMID:23112809

  14. Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, P; Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong; Santos, N O E-mail: yasuda@on.br E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu

    2008-06-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.

  15. Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Adesso, Gerardo; Alonso, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modeling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

  16. Extremum seeking with bounded update rates

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinker, Alexander; Krstić, Miroslav

    2013-11-16

    In this work, we present a form of extremum seeking (ES) in which the unknown function being minimized enters the system’s dynamics as the argument of a cosine or sine term, thereby guaranteeing known bounds on update rates and control efforts. We present general n-dimensional optimization and stabilization results as well as 2D vehicle control, with bounded velocity and control efforts. For application to autonomous vehicles, tracking a source in a GPS denied environment with unknown orientation, this ES approach allows for smooth heading angle actuation, with constant velocity, and in application to a unicycle-type vehicle results in control ability as if the vehicle is fully actuated. Our stability analysis is made possible by the classic results of Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu, regarding systems with highly oscillatory terms. In our stability analysis, we combine the averaging results with a semi-global practical stability result under small parametric perturbations developed by Moreau and Aeyels.

  17. Tsirelson's bound and supersymmetric entangled states

    PubMed Central

    Borsten, L.; Brádler, K.; Duff, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    A superqubit, belonging to a (2|1)-dimensional super-Hilbert space, constitutes the minimal supersymmetric extension of the conventional qubit. In order to see whether superqubits are more non-local than ordinary qubits, we construct a class of two-superqubit entangled states as a non-local resource in the CHSH game. Since super Hilbert space amplitudes are Grassmann numbers, the result depends on how we extract real probabilities and we examine three choices of map: (1) DeWitt (2) Trigonometric and (3) Modified Rogers. In cases (1) and (2), the winning probability reaches the Tsirelson bound pwin=cos2π/8≃0.8536 of standard quantum mechanics. Case (3) crosses Tsirelson's bound with pwin≃0.9265. Although all states used in the game involve probabilities lying between 0 and 1, case (3) permits other changes of basis inducing negative transition probabilities. PMID:25294964

  18. Reinforcement Learning with Bounded Information Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Jan; Mülling, Katharina; Seldin, Yevgeny; Altun, Yasemin

    2011-03-01

    Policy search is a successful approach to reinforcement learning. However, policy improvements often result in the loss of information. Hence, it has been marred by premature convergence and implausible solutions. As first suggested in the context of covariant or natural policy gradients, many of these problems may be addressed by constraining the information loss. In this paper, we continue this path of reasoning and suggest two reinforcement learning methods, i.e., a model-based and a model free algorithm that bound the loss in relative entropy while maximizing their return. The resulting methods differ significantly from previous policy gradient approaches and yields an exact update step. It works well on typical reinforcement learning benchmark problems as well as novel evaluations in robotics. We also show a Bayesian bound motivation of this new approach [8].

  19. Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Tony J; Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-01-01

    Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues

  20. A bound particle coupled to two thermostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Imparato, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    We consider a harmonically bound Brownian particle coupled to two distinct heat reservoirs at different temperatures. We show that the presence of a harmonic trap does not change the large deviation function from the case of a free Brownian particle discussed by Derrida and Brunet and Visco. Likewise, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem related to the entropy production at the heat sources remains in force. We support the analytical results with numerical simulations.