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Sample records for bove samuel benrejeb

  1. Samuel Goudsmit - Early Influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudsmit, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Samuel Goudsmit, born in 1902 in The Hague, Netherlands, earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden in 1926 with Paul Ehrenfest. The present talk will describe some aspects of his background and early formative years in order to provide context for the broad range of his professional life. Sam belonged to a large tribe of paternal and maternal uncles, aunts and first cousins; including his parents, grandparents and sister Ro, they numbered forty. Sam was the first of the tribe to be educated beyond high school. Early interests as a child and later as a university student in the Netherlands prefigured his significant and diverse contributions in several realms including not only physics but also teaching, Egyptology and scientific Intelligence. Bibliographic sources will include: The American Institute of Physics' Oral History Transcripts and photographs from the Emilio Segre visual archives, memoirs and conversations of those who knew Sam and also letters to his daughter, Esther.

  2. 77 FR 40608 - Nunn, Samuel A; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Nunn, Samuel A; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 29, 2012, Samuel A... to become a party must file a notice of intervention or motion to intervene, as appropriate. Such... notification when a document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online...

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Samuel Wilson, Jr., Photographer, November ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Samuel Wilson, Jr., Photographer, November 30, 1934 VIEW OF TOWER ACROSS BLIND BAY MARSH - Frank's Island Lighthouse, North East Pass, Mississippi River, Boothville, Plaquemines Parish, LA

  4. Stratigraphy and composition of volcanic rocks cropping out along the northern walls of the Valle del Bove, Mount Etna, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, R.; de Rosa, R.; Ferlito, C.; Niceforo, G. A. M.

    2003-04-01

    The Valle del Bove cuts the eastern sector of Mount Etna and represents a key area for understanding of the most recent history of this complex volcano. Lava flows and tuffs related to the volcanic activity preceding the building of the most recent center (Recent Mongibello) outcrop along its sheer slopes. In this work 14 stratigraphic sections, comprising products of the Ellittico center at elevations between 1300 and 2400 m a.s.l., have been examined. In each section lava flows alternate with volcaniclastic deposits, with their thickness varying from less than 1 to 30 m. The matrix ash in thin tephra levels is commonly deeply weathered. Some of these layers show graded bedding and some others plane-parallel and cross-laminated structures, whereas thicker deposits do not show any clear internal structures and are poorly sorted.. The lithic component is always igneous in origin and is represented by dark or reddish, massive lava fragments either rounded or angular in shape, with their size attaining up to 1 m across in the massive beds. The juvenile fraction is represented by dark, vesiculated scoria. Isolated crystals of pyroxene are also present. The limited lateral distribution of the thick massive beds and their textural and compositional characters suggests their emplacement as Lahar-type highly concentrated flows, probably of secondary origin. A primary fall-out pyroclastic origin is inferred for the thin laminated and graded beds . Lavas, light to dark grey in colour, are commonly massive, and only rarely slightly vesicular; their massive portion is 0.5 to 5 m. thick. Plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts may be recognised by naked eye; smaller crystals of olivine are present too. Whole rock compositions, obtained by XRF analysis, vary from hawaiites to mugeariites, and. are consistent with those of the Ellittico products. Lateral and vertical variations of some chemical characters of lavas in different stratigraphic sections suggest slight changes of the

  5. Dr. Samuel Ting, nobel laureate, visits SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Nobel laureate Professor Samuel C. C. Ting of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pauses for a photo in the Space Station Processing Facility. Dr. Ting is directing an experiment, an international collaboration of some 37 universities and laboratories, using a state-of-the-art particle physics detector called the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), which will fly on a future launch to the International Space Station. Using the unique environment of space, the AMS will study the properties and origin of cosmic particles and nuclei including antimatter and dark matter. AMS flew initially as a Space Shuttle payload on the June 1998 mission STS-91 that provided the investigating team with data on background sources and verified the detector's performance under actual space flight conditions. The detector's second space flight is scheduled to be launched on mission UF-4 October 2003 for installation on the Space Station as an attached payload. Current plans call for operating the detector for three years before it is returned to Earth on the Shuttle. Using the Space Station offers the science team the opportunity to conduct the long-duration research above the Earth's atmosphere necessary to collect sufficient data required to accomplish the science objectives.

  6. Pioneers of Elementary School Science: 1. Wilbur Samuel Jackman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Audrey B.; Klopfer, Leopold E.

    1979-01-01

    This essay is the first of a series of papers about historically important innovators in elementary school science. It presents a brief survey of Wilbur Samuel Jackman's life and describes his ideas about elementary school science and how he put them into practice. (HM)

  7. Jackson's Parrot: Samuel Beckett, Aphasic Speech Automatisms, and Psychosomatic Language.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Laura; Code, Chris

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationship between automatic and involuntary language in the work of Samuel Beckett and late nineteenth-century neurological conceptions of language that emerged from aphasiology. Using the work of John Hughlings Jackson alongside contemporary neuroscientific research, we explore the significance of the lexical and affective symmetries between Beckett's compulsive and profoundly embodied language and aphasic speech automatisms. The interdisciplinary work in this article explores the paradox of how and why Beckett was able to search out a longed-for language of feeling that might disarticulate the classical bond between the language, intention, rationality and the human, in forms of expression that seem automatic and "readymade". PMID:26922435

  8. Carving for the Soul: Life Lessons from Self-Taught Artist O. L. Samuels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickler-Voigt, Debrah C.

    2006-01-01

    O. L. Samuels is a well-known folk artist who creates wooden animals, people, speeding cars, and mystical creatures to express stories about life, personal heritage, and social issues. An African American born on a plantation in Southern Georgia on November 18,1931, Samuels left his home at the age of 8 in search of work. Leaving his home at such…

  9. Samuel Smith, M.D.: first American professor of psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pinta, E R

    1994-04-01

    In 1847 Samuel M. Smith, M.D., was appointed professor of medical jurisprudence and insanity at the Willoughby Medical College of Columbus, Ohio, making him the first person to chair a department of psychiatry at an American medical school. Using materials from newspaper reports, records of the medical school and state medical society, and other sources, the author presents a biographical sketch of this pioneer educator. Dr. Smith received his first practical experience in psychiatry as an assistant to William M. Awl, M.D., one of the 13 founders of the American Psychiatric Association. Over the course of his career, he held many prominent positions, including lecturer and dean at the medical school, president of the Ohio State Medical Society, and surgeon general of Ohio during the Civil War.

  10. "Like a Prophetic Spirit": Samuel Davies, American Eulogists, and the Deification of George Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berens, John F.

    1977-01-01

    Recounts a seeming "prophecy" made during George Washington's youth by the Reverend Samuel Davies, the prominent Presbyterian proponent of the Great Awakening. Investigates how American eulogists drew upon this "prophecy" to give validity and vitality to George Washington's legend. (MH)

  11. 75 FR 7044 - Samuel Aaron, Inc., Long Island City, NY; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-16

    ... the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3932). Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c) reconsideration may... warehousing services of jewelry during the relevant period. Samuel Aaron, Inc., did not import these...

  12. Samuel Franklin Cody: aviation and aeromedical evacuation pioneer.

    PubMed

    Gibson, T M

    1999-06-01

    In the summer of 1913, Woodrow Wilson had just become the 28th President of the United States and King George V was on the throne of the United Kingdom. It was nearly 10 yr since the historical flight at Kitty Hawk and 3 yr since Blériot had first flown the English Channel. At Farnborough, "Colonel" Samuel F. Cody, originally a horseman, hunter, crack shot, showman and theatrical impresario from the USA, was preparing a new floatplane for a round Britain flying race. One of the features of the floatplane, a biplane with a four bladed pusher propeller, was that it had already demonstrated its ability to carry passengers. Cody calculated that it would allow him to carry five passengers for a 4-h flight and may even have medical uses. He arranged a demonstration of its potential as an air ambulance at Farnborough. This paper describes, with the use of photographs of the event, the airplane, the demonstration and the reasons why it would be left to others to carry out the first, real aeromedical evacuation 4 yr later.

  13. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  14. [Hermann Samuel Reimarus' theory of "modes of life" and "drives"].

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    This essay focuses on Hermann Samuel Reimarus' (1694-1768) theory of "modes of life" and natural "drives" or "tendencies" (Triebe) in Allgemeine Betrachtungen über die Triebe der Thiere, hauptsdchlich über ihre Kunsttriebe (1760). Reimarus combines the notion of a systemic, organized inner order of organs, in which "functions" and corporeal dispositions correspond to each other, with a system of regulated "actions" of individual organic bodies. These "actions" rely on a "basic drive" (Grundtrieb) of "self-preservation", that Reimarus differentiates into "mechanic drives" (mechanische Triebe), "imagination drives" (Vorstellungstriebe) und "voluntary drives" (willkiirliche Triebe). Voluntary drives are again divided into "affection-drives" (Affectentriebe) and "art-drives" (Kunsttriebe). Mechanic drives automatically initiate and sustain physiological processes of the system of organs, imagination drives establish transitions between sense perception, imagination, memory, and recognition, and art-drives regulate, as schemes or "m odels" which imply some degree of skill, "action" (Handlung)-based relations between individual organic bodies and their environments. Further on, humans possess a specific art-drive, based on "reason" (Vernunft), that is not naturally determined as a goal-directed "action": While the "modes of life" of animals are perfect in themselves in combining systems of drives and organic dispositions, humans are perfectible living beings with the faculty of "reflection". Plants are for Reimarus not living beings, because their existence relies only on "mechanical drives" without a central acting entity of perceptions.

  15. Samuel Preston Moore: Surgeon-General of the Confederacy.

    PubMed

    Purcell, P N; Hummel, R P

    1992-10-01

    Samuel Preston Moore was trained as a military surgeon in the US Army but resigned his commission and was appointed Surgeon-General of the Confederate States Army Medical Department at the beginning of the American Civil War. He reformed the mediocre medical corps by raising recruiting standards and improving treatment protocols and by placing the most capable surgeons in positions of authority. He improved the ambulance corps and directed the construction of many new hospitals for Confederate casualties. He was directly responsible for the barracks hospital design, which is still used today. He established the Confederate States Medical and Surgical Journal and directed a successful effort to develop substitutes for scarce pharmaceuticals from the indigenous flora of the South. He founded the Association of Army and Navy Surgeons of the Confederate States of America. With skill and dedication, Dr. Moore transformed the medical corps into one of the most effective departments of the Confederate military and was responsible for saving thousands of lives on the battlefield. PMID:1415944

  16. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson. Wilson's disease, Queen Square and neurology.

    PubMed

    Broussolle, E; Trocello, J-M; Woimant, F; Lachaux, A; Quinn, N

    2013-12-01

    This historical article describes the life and work of the British physician Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson (1878-1937), who was one of the world's greatest neurologists of the first half of the 20th century. Early in his career, Wilson spent one year in Paris in 1903 where he learned from Pierre-Marie at Bicêtre Hospital. He subsequently retained uninterrupted links with French neurology. He also visited in Leipzig the German anatomist Paul Flechsig. In 1904, Wilson returned to London, where he worked for the rest of his life at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (later the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, and today the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery) in Queen Square, and also at Kings' College Hospital. He wrote on 'the old motor system and the new', on disorders of motility and muscle tone, on the epilepsies, on aphasia, apraxia, tics, and pathologic laughing and crying, and most importantly on Wilson's disease. The other objective of our paper is to commemorate the centenary of Wilson's most important work published in 1912 in Brain, and also in Revue Neurologique, on an illness newly recognized and characterized by him entitled "Progressive lenticular degeneration, a familial nervous disease associated with liver cirrhosis". He analyzed 12 clinical cases, four of whom he followed himself, but also four cases previously published by others and a further two that he considered in retrospect had the same disease as he was describing. The pathological profile combined necrotic damage in the lenticular nuclei of the brain and hepatic cirrhosis. This major original work is summarized and discussed in the present paper. Wilson not only delineated what was later called hepato-lenticular degeneration and Wilson's disease, but also introduced for the first time the terms extrapyramidal syndrome and extrapyramidal system, stressing the role of the basal ganglia in motility. The present historical work emphasizes the special

  17. [Samuel Barnsley Pessoa and the social determinants of rural endemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Hochman, Gilberto

    2015-02-01

    This article analyzes the main aspects of the trajectory, the ideas and the academic and political activism of Samuel Barnsley Pessoa (1898-1976). It reveals that Samuel Pessoa's activism must also be understood in the context of his communist militancy and highlights the fact that one of the original contributions of his work was the establishment of the relationship between agrarian structure and rural endemic diseases, between large and unproductive estates and disease and adherence to a project of transformation of Brazilian society. PMID:25715136

  18. When an Eye is armed with a Telescope: The Dioptrics of William and Samuel Molyneux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Peter

    William and Samuel Molyneux of Dublin were father and son scientists who made significant contributions to the development of the telescope in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. William wrote the first English language book on technical optics, the Dioptrica Nova. Samuel wrote and edited the most extensive English language instructions on fabricating reflecting telescopes, consisting of three chapters in Robert Smith's Compleat System of Opticks. Their correspondence, travels, and influence make an interesting portrait of the instrumental astronomy of their time.

  19. A Dual Coding Theoretical Model of Decoding in Reading: Subsuming the LaBerge and Samuels Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; McTigue, Erin M.; Paivio, Allan

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a detailed Dual Coding Theory (DCT) model of decoding. The DCT model reinterprets and subsumes The LaBerge and Samuels (1974) model of the reading process which has served well to account for decoding behaviors and the processes that underlie them. However, the LaBerge and Samuels model has had little to say about…

  20. 3 CFR - Delegation Under Section 2(a) of the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum... Fallen Heroes Act Memorandum for the Administrator of General Services By the authority vested in me as... the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act (Public Law 111-178) to prescribe...

  1. 76 FR 57619 - Delegation Under Section 2(A) of the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act Presidential Determination No. 2011-15 of September 13, 2011-- Continuation of the Exercise of Certain Authorities Under the Trading With the Enemy... September 12, 2011 Delegation Under Section 2(A) of the Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen...

  2. The Eye in the Object: Identification and Surveillance in Samuel Beckett's Screen Dramas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Peter

    1998-01-01

    States that the twofold question for many film and video makers has been how to elicit the viewer's identification with the screen composition and what specific psychological, cultural, and political significance to give it. Finds that the playwright, Samuel Beckett, addressed this question in two films, "Film" and "Eh Joe." Discusses the films.…

  3. The Art of the Organiser: Raphael Samuel and the Origins of the History Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Brown, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The History Workshop movement took its stance on the democratisation of history making, becoming notorious for its exuberant gatherings and impassioned "histories from below". At the centre of the early Workshop was the British historian Raphael Samuel, who has been described as the personification of its intellectual and ethical…

  4. An Interview with Samuel T. Gladding: Thoughts on Becoming a Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haight, Marilyn G.; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    This interview highlights the career and rich professional influence of Samuel T. Gladding, a prolific writer and educator who was listed in the top 1% of contributors to the Journal of Counseling & Development between 1978 and 1993. This interview was conducted shortly after he began his 2004-2005 term as president of the American Counseling…

  5. Turning the Educability Narrative: Samuel A. Kirk at the Intersection of Learning Disability and "Mental Retardation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danforth, Scot; Slocum, Laura; Dunkle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that current disability constructs exist in conceptual isolation from one another. This article explores the tangled historical relationship between "mental retardation" and learning disability in the writings and speeches of special education pioneer Samuel A. Kirk. Beginning in the 1950s, Kirk repeatedly told an educability…

  6. Samuel Wilbert Tucker: The Unsung Hero of the School Desegregation Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the life and career story of Samuel Wilbert Tucker, a lawyer who was an unsung leader in the civil rights struggle. Tucker became Virginia's NAACP lead lawyer in the ongoing legal challenge to segregation, systematically attacking school segregation. He devoted his life to ensuring a good education for the next generation of black…

  7. Samuel Eliot Morison: The Man, the Historian, the Literary Artist and the Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Edward

    Seeking to augment previous accounts of Samuel Eliot Morison's life (1887-1976), the document considers Morison not only as historian and literary artist but also as educator. A prolific writer, Morison's main interest was naval history and his books, "Admiral of the Ocean Seas: A Life of Christopher Columbus" (1942) and "John Paul Jones: A…

  8. Reply to J. Samuels: Taxonomic notes on several wild relatives of Solanum melongena L.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rachel S; Knapp, Sandra; Karol, Kenneth G; Little, Damon P; Nee, Michael H; Litt, Amy

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study "Phylogeographic relationships among Asian eggplants and new perspectives on eggplant domestication" by Meyer et al. (2012) was to use new and expanded accession sets coupled with molecular data to evaluate possible scenarios of eggplant domestication with as little influence as possible from any previously published nomenclatural scheme, and taking into consideration multiple sources of evidence regarding the history of eggplant in Asia. Samuels (2013) disfavored this system and in his Letter to the Editor attempted to re-evaluate the results according to his system. However, Samuels appears to have misread Meyer et al. and also makes several claims without the support of evidence. We stand by the results of Meyer et al., which are in agreement with the recent and much needed new taxonomic treatment for wild relatives of eggplant.

  9. Understanding the Comorbidity of Dyslexia: Acceptance of the Samuel Torrey Orton Award November 15, 2002, Atlanta, Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2003-01-01

    This speech by a researcher into the genetic bases of dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their etiological overlap, first honors four pioneers in the field (Samuel Orton, Bertil Hallgren, Isabelle Liberman, and Norman Geschwind); then updates knowledge about the genetics of dyslexia and comorbidity with ADHD and certain…

  10. 75 FR 27286 - McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ..., 2010 (FR Vol. 75, No. 48, p. 11882) concerning the range allotment management planning on the McKelvie... Forest Service McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie... line: McKelvie Allotment Management Planning DEIS Comments. The public is not required to...

  11. The Connection of Samuel Chapman Armstrong as both Borrower and Architect of Education in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, C. Kalani

    2007-01-01

    Samuel Chapman Armstrong is well known for establishing Hampton Institute, the institution most involved with training black teachers in the South after the Civil War. It is less known that he was born in Hawai'i to the missionary couple Reverend Richard and Clarissa Chapman Armstrong. His parents were members of the Fifth Company of missionaries…

  12. Letters from George Washington and Samuel Cabble, and Speeches by Franklin D. Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author uses several primary sources to demonstrate that George Washington, Samuel Cabble, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and John F. Kennedy stated their awareness of contemporary challenges, but looked to the future with hope and optimism. When they envisioned the future, their words indicated that they did not just imagine it, but…

  13. Socialist Revolution: Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and the Emergence of Marxist Thought in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Upon its publication in 1976, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis' "Schooling in Capitalist America" was the most sophisticated and nuanced Marxian social and political analysis of schooling in the United States. Thirty-five years after its publication, "Schooling" continues to have a strong impact on thinking about education. Despite its…

  14. Samuel Gompers High School Bilingual Mini-School, 1983-84. O.E.A. Evaluation Section Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    In 1983-84, the Bilingual Mini-School at Samuel Gompers High School of New York City, was in its first year of a three-year funding cycle. An evaluation was conducted to determine how well it had met its aim of preparing students of limited English proficiency (LEP) for career opportunities through vocational, technical, and academic education.…

  15. The children's republic of science in the antebellum literature of Samuel Griswold Goodrich and Jacob Abbott.

    PubMed

    Pandora, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The antebellum years in the United States were marked by vigorous debates about national identity in which issues of hierarchy, authority, and democratic values came under intense scrutiny. During this period, a prime objective of indigenous authors writing for American children was educating the young so they would be ready to assume their republican responsibilities. The question of how depictions and discussions about nature and science were deployed toward this end is explored by examining key texts about nature and science from the era's two most prolific and popular children's authors--Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860) and Jacob Abbott (1803-79)--and highlighting assumptions within these works about what the proper relationship should be between the search for scientific knowledge and the larger polity.

  16. Tales of plagues and carnivals: Samuel R. Delany, AIDS, and the grammar of dissent.

    PubMed

    Long, Thomas Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While even today lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people might have cause to distrust the healthcare establishment, how much more fragile was the relationship between sexual minorities and health professionals in the first decade of the AIDS epidemic. Dissent from consensus healthcare and health research then was a question of survival in the face of political and medical intransigence. This article focuses on one version of AIDS dissent: The narrative representations of AIDS in fiction by the gay African-American fantasy writer Samuel R. Delany, which rejected the rigid binarism of "safe" and "unsafe" sex practices, Delany's evidence-based dissent. He also engaged in a related form of cultural dissent: speaking the unspeakably obscene, at a time when Silence = Death. Delany called into question both the inferential leaps based on limited epidemiological research that were represented in safer sex guidelines and the widespread public reticence about sexual behavior.

  17. 'A vehicle of symbols and nothing more'. George Romanes, theory of mind, information, and Samuel Butler.

    PubMed

    Forsdyke, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    Today's 'theory of mind' (ToM) concept is rooted in the distinction of nineteenth-century philosopher William Clifford between 'objects' that can be directly perceived and 'ejects', such as the mind of another person, which are inferred from one's subjective knowledge of one's own mind. George Romanes, a founder with Charles Darwin of the discipline of comparative psychology, considered the minds of animals as ejects, an idea that could be generalized to 'society as eject' and, ultimately, 'the world as an eject' - mind in the universe. Yet, Romanes and Clifford only vaguely connected mind with the abstraction we call 'information', which needs 'a vehicle of symbols' - a material transporting medium. However, Samuel Butler was able to address, in informational terms depleted of theological trappings, both organic evolution and mind in the universe. This view harmonizes with insights arising from modern DNA research, the relative immortality of 'selfish' genes, and some startling recent developments in brain research. PMID:26254127

  18. 'A vehicle of symbols and nothing more'. George Romanes, theory of mind, information, and Samuel Butler.

    PubMed

    Forsdyke, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    Today's 'theory of mind' (ToM) concept is rooted in the distinction of nineteenth-century philosopher William Clifford between 'objects' that can be directly perceived and 'ejects', such as the mind of another person, which are inferred from one's subjective knowledge of one's own mind. George Romanes, a founder with Charles Darwin of the discipline of comparative psychology, considered the minds of animals as ejects, an idea that could be generalized to 'society as eject' and, ultimately, 'the world as an eject' - mind in the universe. Yet, Romanes and Clifford only vaguely connected mind with the abstraction we call 'information', which needs 'a vehicle of symbols' - a material transporting medium. However, Samuel Butler was able to address, in informational terms depleted of theological trappings, both organic evolution and mind in the universe. This view harmonizes with insights arising from modern DNA research, the relative immortality of 'selfish' genes, and some startling recent developments in brain research.

  19. The children's republic of science in the antebellum literature of Samuel Griswold Goodrich and Jacob Abbott.

    PubMed

    Pandora, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The antebellum years in the United States were marked by vigorous debates about national identity in which issues of hierarchy, authority, and democratic values came under intense scrutiny. During this period, a prime objective of indigenous authors writing for American children was educating the young so they would be ready to assume their republican responsibilities. The question of how depictions and discussions about nature and science were deployed toward this end is explored by examining key texts about nature and science from the era's two most prolific and popular children's authors--Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860) and Jacob Abbott (1803-79)--and highlighting assumptions within these works about what the proper relationship should be between the search for scientific knowledge and the larger polity. PMID:20027770

  20. Famous people with Tourette's syndrome: Dr. Samuel Johnson (yes) & Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (may be): Victims of Tourette's syndrome?

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B; Rai, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome is a clinical condition characterized by multiple motor tics and vocal tics which occurs in the age range 5-25 years and the intensity of the symptoms changes with time. It is felt that at least two remarkable personalities namely, Dr. Samuel Johnson from England, a man of letters and the compiler of the first ever English dictionary, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart from Austria, one of the greatest musical genius of all time, possibly suffered from this condition. Tourette's syndrome is often described as the classical borderzone between neurology and psychiatry and every neurologist wonders at the curious and fascinating clinical features of this condition. It seems that at least two remarkable personalities, Dr. Samuel Johnson, a man of letters and the first person to compile an English dictionary, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, arguably the most creative musical composer of all time, were possibly afflicted with this condition.

  1. Famous people with Tourette's syndrome: Dr. Samuel Johnson (yes) & Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (may be): Victims of Tourette's syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.; Rai, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Tourette's syndrome is a clinical condition characterized by multiple motor tics and vocal tics which occurs in the age range 5-25 years and the intensity of the symptoms changes with time. It is felt that at least two remarkable personalities namely, Dr. Samuel Johnson from England, a man of letters and the compiler of the first ever English dictionary, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart from Austria, one of the greatest musical genius of all time, possibly suffered from this condition. Tourette's syndrome is often described as the classical borderzone between neurology and psychiatry and every neurologist wonders at the curious and fascinating clinical features of this condition. It seems that at least two remarkable personalities, Dr. Samuel Johnson, a man of letters and the first person to compile an English dictionary, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, arguably the most creative musical composer of all time, were possibly afflicted with this condition. PMID:26019411

  2. Opium as a Literary Stimulant: The Case of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In our era, the idea of a stimulant is synonymous with its biochemical properties. A stimulant, we think, is a substance that enhances the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. But in the eighteenth century, a new family of theories about the workings of stimulants took shape, based on exciting but erroneous assumptions. Proponents of these theories thought that many more diseases were "nervous" in origin than had previously been supposed. They hoped that the workings of the "nervous power" could be aided by the judicious use of stimulants and narcotics. Practitioners working within this broad "neuropathological" paradigm equated the workings of stimulation with those of gravity. Stimulation, they believed, was a kind of master principle in nature. Some hoped it would help refound medicine on Newtonian, mathematical lines. For patients, the most visible legacy of the neuropathological revolution was the abandonment of bloodletting or "cupping" and the increasingly widespread use of opium and alcohol in medical treatments. In this chapter, I explore the career of one of the most famous writers of the Romantic era, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) who had the misfortune to live through this therapeutic revolution. I describe the circumstances under which he came to take opiates and the development of his opinions about their effect on him.

  3. "May the force be with you": 14th Samuel Haughton lecture.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, P J

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the 14th Samuel Haughton lecture delivered on the 26th of January 2008. The lecture began by describing Haughton's research on animal mechanics. Haughton opposed Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection using the argument that the skeleton obeys the 'principle of least action' and therefore must have been designed with that principle in mind. In the course of his research he dissected many animals, including albatrosses, cassowaries, llamas, tigers, jackals and jaguars. He took anatomical measurements and did calculations to prove that muscle attachment sites were optimally located. The relationship between optimality and evolution continues to be studied. Computer simulations show optimality is difficult to achieve. This is because, even if optimality could be defined, the gene recombinations required to evolve an optimal phenotype may not exist. The drive towards optimality occurs under gravitational forces. Simulations to predict mechano-regulation of tissue differentiation and remodelling have been developed and tested. They have been used to design biomechanically optimized scaffolds for regenerative medicine and to identify the mechanoregularory mechanisms in osteoporosis. It is proposed that an important development in bioengineering will be the discovery of algorithms that can be used for the prediction of mechano-responsiveness in biological tissues. PMID:18641919

  4. Opium as a Literary Stimulant: The Case of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Neil

    2015-01-01

    In our era, the idea of a stimulant is synonymous with its biochemical properties. A stimulant, we think, is a substance that enhances the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. But in the eighteenth century, a new family of theories about the workings of stimulants took shape, based on exciting but erroneous assumptions. Proponents of these theories thought that many more diseases were "nervous" in origin than had previously been supposed. They hoped that the workings of the "nervous power" could be aided by the judicious use of stimulants and narcotics. Practitioners working within this broad "neuropathological" paradigm equated the workings of stimulation with those of gravity. Stimulation, they believed, was a kind of master principle in nature. Some hoped it would help refound medicine on Newtonian, mathematical lines. For patients, the most visible legacy of the neuropathological revolution was the abandonment of bloodletting or "cupping" and the increasingly widespread use of opium and alcohol in medical treatments. In this chapter, I explore the career of one of the most famous writers of the Romantic era, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) who had the misfortune to live through this therapeutic revolution. I describe the circumstances under which he came to take opiates and the development of his opinions about their effect on him. PMID:26070764

  5. [Dr. Samuel Serge Voronoff (1866-1951) or "the quest for eternal youth"].

    PubMed

    Augier, F; Salf, E; Nottet, J B

    1996-01-01

    Samuel Serge Voronoff, a French physician and surgeon of Russian origin was the Khédive's personal physician from 1896 to 1910 and the instigator of modern medicine in Egypt. He was later a student and friend of Alexis Carrel as soon as 1910 and directed a service of bone grafts during World War I. Between 1912 and 1949 he published the results of his experimental work at his Voronoff Foundation of the Collège de France and at Grimaldi where he performed homografts of endocrine glands of cattle and corresponding heterografts between great primates and man. Contested since 1922 by his colleagues for his results however histologically confirmed and improved durable, Voronoff who had an audience in the Académie des Sciences will proceed his research with success during the period preceding World War II. He grafted old people in senior homes and Government cattle in Algeria, training followers in Italy and California. In 1939 he gave all his research facilities at the Collège de France to René Leriche (1879-1955) and remained on the American continent until 1945. At that time his theories became obsolete in view of the progress in endocrinology and his laboratories were destroyed during the war. He died in Lausanne in 1951 at 85. The recent epidemics caused by HIV suggests to study the work he performed in the Collège de France. PMID:11624870

  6. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence In Environmental Disciplines: Hampton University 1994-2010 Year Report

    SciTech Connect

    Adeyiga, Adeyinka A.

    2014-12-17

    The establishment of the DOE-EM Dr. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence provides an excellent opportunity for Hampton University to be involved in key environmental issues in the 21st Century. The main areas of focus are on: 1. Coal gasification with respect to pollution prevention and reduction. 2. Solid waste treatment through bioremediation technology and 3. Industrial wastewater treatment Synthesizing ion catalysts suitable for use in slurry bubble column reaction was carried out. Construction of an autoclave continuous stirred tank reactor has been completed. At the initial stage of the development of this program, work was conducted in the area of formic acid recovery from waste streams, which yielded useful results. We also succeeded in the removal of priority metal ions such as cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, thallium, zinc, etc., from industrial and municipal wastewater by using natural wastes. The process uses tree leaves to adsorb the metal ions in the wastewater. The ultimate goal is to develop inexpensive, highly available, effective metal ion adsorbents from natural wastes as an alternative to existing commercial adsorbents, and also to explain the possible adsorption mechanism that is taking place. This technology uses natural wastes to eliminate other wastes. Obviously, there are several advantages: (1) the negative impact on environment is eliminated, (2) the complicated regeneration step is not needed, and (3) the procedure saves money and energy. Twelve different types of leaves have been tested with lead, zinc, and nickel. The study mechanism showed that the leaf tannin is an active ingredient in the adsorption of metal ions. The ion-exchange mechanism controlled the adsorption process.

  7. Challenging an authorial attribution: vocabulary and emotion in a translation of Goethe's Faust attributed to Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Whissell, Cynthia

    2011-04-01

    This article disputes the stylometric attribution of an anonymous English 1821 translation of Goethe's German verse drama Faust to the poet an critic Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The translation was compared to four known Coleridgean dramas, two of which were translations from German. Evidence challenging Coleridge's authorship came from words used proportionally more often by Coleridge, words used proportionally more often by the unknown translator, differential employment of parallel word forms ("O" and "hath" for Coleridge, "oh" and "has" for the translator), and differences in the undertones of the two vocabularies, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect in Language (Coleridge's undertones were less pleasant and more abstract). Some problems with the stylometry of the challenged attribution to Coleridge are noted. PMID:21675550

  8. From the archives of scientific diplomacy: science and the shared interests of Samuel Hartlib's London and Frederick Clodius's Gottorf.

    PubMed

    Keller, Vera; Penman, Leigh T I

    2015-03-01

    Many historians have traced the accumulation of scientific archives via communication networks. Engines for communication in early modernity have included trade, the extrapolitical Republic of Letters, religious enthusiasm, and the centralization of large emerging information states. The communication between Samuel Hartlib, John Dury, Duke Friedrich III of Gottorf-Holstein, and his key agent in England, Frederick Clodius, points to a less obvious but no less important impetus--the international negotiations of smaller states. Smaller states shaped communication networks in an international (albeit politically and religiously slanted) direction. Their networks of negotiation contributed to the internationalization of emerging science through a political and religious concept of shared interest. While interest has been central to social studies of science, interest itself has not often been historicized within the history of science. This case study demonstrates the co-production of science and society by tracing how period concepts of interest made science international. PMID:26027306

  9. From the archives of scientific diplomacy: science and the shared interests of Samuel Hartlib's London and Frederick Clodius's Gottorf.

    PubMed

    Keller, Vera; Penman, Leigh T I

    2015-03-01

    Many historians have traced the accumulation of scientific archives via communication networks. Engines for communication in early modernity have included trade, the extrapolitical Republic of Letters, religious enthusiasm, and the centralization of large emerging information states. The communication between Samuel Hartlib, John Dury, Duke Friedrich III of Gottorf-Holstein, and his key agent in England, Frederick Clodius, points to a less obvious but no less important impetus--the international negotiations of smaller states. Smaller states shaped communication networks in an international (albeit politically and religiously slanted) direction. Their networks of negotiation contributed to the internationalization of emerging science through a political and religious concept of shared interest. While interest has been central to social studies of science, interest itself has not often been historicized within the history of science. This case study demonstrates the co-production of science and society by tracing how period concepts of interest made science international.

  10. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

  11. Balancing between sensitization and repression: the role of opium in the life and art of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

    PubMed

    Iszáj, Fruzsina; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    The creative process contains both conscious and unconscious work. Therefore, artists have to face their unconscious processes and work with emotional material that is difficult to keep under control in the course of artistic creation. Bringing these contents of consciousness to the surface needs special sensitivity and special control functions while working with them. Considering these mechanisms, psychoactive substance can serve a double function in the case of artists. On the one hand, chemical substances may enhance the artists' sensitivity. On the other hand, they can help moderate the hypersensitivity and repress extreme emotions and burdensome contents of consciousness. The authors posit how the use of opiates could have influenced the life and creative work of Edgar Allan Poe and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. PMID:21859403

  12. Samuel Holden Parsons Lee (1772-1863): American physician, entrepreneur and selfless fighter of the 1798 Yellow Fever epidemic of New London, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Mattie, James K; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-02-01

    Samuel Holden Parsons Lee practised medicine at a time when the germ theory of disease had not yet been proposed and antibiotics remained undiscovered. In 1798 he served selflessly as the only physician in town who was willing to battle the Yellow Fever outbreak of New London, Connecticut. Because he practised at the dawn of the age of patent medicine, unfortunately his name also came to be associated with medical quackery. We argue that his contributions have been grossly underestimated. He compounded and vended medications - including bilious pills and bitters - that were gold standards of the day. Moreover, one preparation for treatment of kidney stones led to his sub-specialization in this field and was met with such success that its sale continued for nearly 100 years after his death. While a talented medical man, Lee also had a knack for business, finding success in trading, whaling and real estate. PMID:24585580

  13. Samuel Holden Parsons Lee (1772-1863): American physician, entrepreneur and selfless fighter of the 1798 Yellow Fever epidemic of New London, Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Mattie, James K; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-02-01

    Samuel Holden Parsons Lee practised medicine at a time when the germ theory of disease had not yet been proposed and antibiotics remained undiscovered. In 1798 he served selflessly as the only physician in town who was willing to battle the Yellow Fever outbreak of New London, Connecticut. Because he practised at the dawn of the age of patent medicine, unfortunately his name also came to be associated with medical quackery. We argue that his contributions have been grossly underestimated. He compounded and vended medications - including bilious pills and bitters - that were gold standards of the day. Moreover, one preparation for treatment of kidney stones led to his sub-specialization in this field and was met with such success that its sale continued for nearly 100 years after his death. While a talented medical man, Lee also had a knack for business, finding success in trading, whaling and real estate.

  14. Understanding the value of the arts in the education of mental health professionals: Georg Lukács, Samuel Beckett and the aesthetic category of specific particularity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M

    2013-04-01

    The manner in which the arts can enhance the practical, therapeutic concerns of mental health professionals is becoming well established in the health care literature. What gets discussed less frequently, however, are those aesthetic frameworks that propose to give an account of the possible 'meaning' and 'purpose' of art. In response, this paper will elucidate the aesthetic theory of the Hungarian philosopher Georg Lukács and will suggest that his concept of specific particularity enables an understanding of how art, and literature, poetry and drama in particular, can be employed as an educational resource that can contribute to the development of the 'emotional capabilities' of practitioners. However, insofar as Lukács' works are philosophically complex and challenging, his concept of specific particularity will be discussed within the context of Samuel Beckett's dramatic work Ohio Impromptu. In doing so, it will be suggested that Ohio Impromptu is not only productive for the elucidation of Lukács' aesthetics, but also illustrates how the arts provides practitioners with a valuable educative opportunity to engage with, and critically reflect upon, a multiplicity of affective dimensions, thereby enhancing the practitioner's ability to move towards achieving an empathic understanding of, and 'emotional resonance' with, those receiving mental health care.

  15. Framing Samuel See: the discursive detritus of the moral panic over the "double epidemic" of methamphetamines and HIV among gay men.

    PubMed

    Gideonse, Theodore K

    2016-02-01

    After being arrested for violating a restraining order against his husband, on November 24, 2013, Yale professor Samuel See died while in lockup at the Union Avenue Detention Center in New Haven, Connecticut. The death received media attention around the world, with readers arguing online about whether See's death was caused by police misconduct, as his friends and colleagues charged in interviews and during a well-publicised march and protest. When an autopsy revealed that he had died from a methamphetamine-induced heart attack, online commentary changed dramatically, with See's many supporters rhetorically abandoning him and others describing him as a stereotype of the gay meth addict who deserved his fate. In this article, I argue that this shift in the interpretation and meaning of See's death can be traced to the discursive structures left by the moral panic about crystal meth in the United States (1996-2008), which comprised within it a secondary moral panic about crystal meth in the gay community and its connection to the spread of HIV and a possible super-strain (2005-2008).

  16. Framing Samuel See: the discursive detritus of the moral panic over the "double epidemic" of methamphetamines and HIV among gay men.

    PubMed

    Gideonse, Theodore K

    2016-02-01

    After being arrested for violating a restraining order against his husband, on November 24, 2013, Yale professor Samuel See died while in lockup at the Union Avenue Detention Center in New Haven, Connecticut. The death received media attention around the world, with readers arguing online about whether See's death was caused by police misconduct, as his friends and colleagues charged in interviews and during a well-publicised march and protest. When an autopsy revealed that he had died from a methamphetamine-induced heart attack, online commentary changed dramatically, with See's many supporters rhetorically abandoning him and others describing him as a stereotype of the gay meth addict who deserved his fate. In this article, I argue that this shift in the interpretation and meaning of See's death can be traced to the discursive structures left by the moral panic about crystal meth in the United States (1996-2008), which comprised within it a secondary moral panic about crystal meth in the gay community and its connection to the spread of HIV and a possible super-strain (2005-2008). PMID:26826730

  17. MINERAL WATERS ACROSS THE CHANNEL: MATTER THEORY AND NATURAL HISTORY FROM SAMUEL DUCLOS'S MINERALLOGENESIS TO MARTIN LISTER'S CHYMICAL MAGNETISM, CA. 1666-86.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie; Boantza, Victor D

    2015-12-20

    Our essay analyses a little-known book, Observations sur les eaux minerales des plusieurs provinces de France (1675), which is a study of French mineral waters, commissioned by and conducted at the French Royal Academy of Science (est. 1666). Its author, Samuel Cottereau Duclos (1598-1685), was a senior founding figure of the Academy, its chief chymist and one of its most influential members. We examine Observations with a focus on the changing attitudes towards chymical knowledge and practice in the French Academy and the Royal Society of London in the period 1666-84. Chymistry was a fundamental analytical tool for seventeenth-century natural historians, and, as the work of Lawrence Principe and William Newman has shown, it is central to understanding the 'long' Scientific Revolution. Much study has also been done on the developing norms of openness in the dissemination and presentation of scientific, and particularly chymical knowledge in the late seventeenth century, norms that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among individual chymists. Between these two standards a tension arose, evidenced by early modern 'vociferous criticisms' of chymical obscurity, with different strategies developed by individual philosophers for negotiating the emergent boundaries between secrecy and openness. Less well studied, however, are the strategies by which not just individuals but also scientific institutions negotiated these boundaries, particularly in the formative years of their public and political reputation in the late seventeenth century. Michael Hunter's recent and welcome study of the 'decline of magic' at the Royal Society has to some extent remedied these omissions. Hunter argues that the Society--as a corporate body--disregarded and avoided studies of magical and alchemical subjects in the late seventeenth century. Our examination problematizes these distinctions and presents a more complex picture. PMID:26665487

  18. MINERAL WATERS ACROSS THE CHANNEL: MATTER THEORY AND NATURAL HISTORY FROM SAMUEL DUCLOS'S MINERALLOGENESIS TO MARTIN LISTER'S CHYMICAL MAGNETISM, CA. 1666-86.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie; Boantza, Victor D

    2015-12-20

    Our essay analyses a little-known book, Observations sur les eaux minerales des plusieurs provinces de France (1675), which is a study of French mineral waters, commissioned by and conducted at the French Royal Academy of Science (est. 1666). Its author, Samuel Cottereau Duclos (1598-1685), was a senior founding figure of the Academy, its chief chymist and one of its most influential members. We examine Observations with a focus on the changing attitudes towards chymical knowledge and practice in the French Academy and the Royal Society of London in the period 1666-84. Chymistry was a fundamental analytical tool for seventeenth-century natural historians, and, as the work of Lawrence Principe and William Newman has shown, it is central to understanding the 'long' Scientific Revolution. Much study has also been done on the developing norms of openness in the dissemination and presentation of scientific, and particularly chymical knowledge in the late seventeenth century, norms that were at odds with traditions of secrecy among individual chymists. Between these two standards a tension arose, evidenced by early modern 'vociferous criticisms' of chymical obscurity, with different strategies developed by individual philosophers for negotiating the emergent boundaries between secrecy and openness. Less well studied, however, are the strategies by which not just individuals but also scientific institutions negotiated these boundaries, particularly in the formative years of their public and political reputation in the late seventeenth century. Michael Hunter's recent and welcome study of the 'decline of magic' at the Royal Society has to some extent remedied these omissions. Hunter argues that the Society--as a corporate body--disregarded and avoided studies of magical and alchemical subjects in the late seventeenth century. Our examination problematizes these distinctions and presents a more complex picture.

  19. Essay: Samuel Abraham Goudsmit (1902 1978)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bederson, Benjamin

    2008-07-01

    When Sam Goudsmit was 23, he and George Uhlenbeck hypothesized that the electron had spin. Sam was a well-known atomic physicist working at the University of Michigan when World War II began. During the war he first worked on radar at the MIT Radiation Lab, and then in the waning days of the war in Europe he led a mission to determine how far the Nazis had gotten in developing an atomic bomb. After chairing the Physics Department at Brookhaven, in 1950 APS named Goudsmit Managing Editor of Physical Review and Reviews of Modern Physics; in 1966 he was named Editor-in-Chief. He founded Physical Review Letters in 1958.

  20. Samuel P. Massie Chair of Excellence Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, James H.

    2014-12-01

    Abstract In 1994 the Department of Energy established the DOE Chair of Excellence Professorship in Environmental Disciplines Program. In 2004, the Massie Chair of Excellence Professor at Howard University transitioned from Dr. Edward Martin to Dr. James H. Johnson, Jr. At the time of his appointment Dr. Johnson served as professor of civil engineering and Dean of the College of Engineering, Architecture and Computer Sciences. Program activities under Dr. Johnson were in the following areas: • Increase the institution’s capacity to conduct scientific research and technical investigations at the cutting-edge. • Promote interactions, collaborations and partnerships between the private sector, Federal agencies, majority research institutes and other HBCUs. • Assist other HBCUs in reaching parity in engineering and related fields. • Mentor young investigators and be a role model for students.

  1. The Logic of Reflection: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "treatise on Logic"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Janet Sanders

    Though others discuss Coleridge's interest in science, light imagery, the phenomenon of reflection, and his references to Newton and Opticks,^1 this is the first study to examine Coleridge's art in terms of optics, its developing theories, and the nature-of-light debate. This study examines Coleridge's early predilection for visions, illusions, and the supernatural and demonstrates that he gradually shifts from the supernatural to the scientific aspects of "visions" and "illusions," concentrating on causes of illusions and the effects of their deceptive qualities rather than their mystical features. By the 1820's, his preoccupation with illusions had become an interest in optics, fueled, no doubt, by the increasing controversy of the nature-of-light debate and the number of advances in optics resulting from the efforts of its opponents to prove their theories. Tracing the development of the debate, its escalation in the early nineteenth century, and the formation of Coleridge's opinion concerning key issues of the debate, I outline the evolution of Coleridge's theory of reflection and examine the exposition of that theory in his treatise, Logic (1981). Finally, I analyze the relationship between the advances in optics and Coleridge's concepts of thought and knowledge and his notion of the mind as an instrument of knowledge. These ideas in turn, altered his opinions concerning the validity of knowledge resulting from philosophic debate, scientific experiment, and poetic exploration. ftn^1John Beer, "Coleridge and Wordsworth on Reflection," The Wordsworth Circle 20 (1989): 20-29; Coleridge the Visionary. London: Chatto and Windus, 1959; and Coleridge's Poetic Intelligence. London: Macmillan, 1977 and M. H. Abrams Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. New York: Norton, 1971; and "Coleridge's 'A Light in Sound': Science, Metascience, and Poetic Imagination." The Correspondent Breeze: Essays on English Romanticism. Eds. M. H. Abrams and Jack Stillinger. New York: Norton, 1984.

  2. Samuel Dyer and His Contributions to Chinese Typography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Ibrahim bin

    1984-01-01

    This history of a London Missionary Society member's contributions to typography development in China highlights selection of 3,000 Chinese characters needed for purpose of printing Christian books, production of temporary font from wooden blocks, and use of European methods of punches and matrices to produce permanent metal font. (Twenty-seven…

  3. Craniofacial dysmorphology: Studies in honor of Samuel Pruzansky

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.M.; Rollnick, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 31 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Regional Specification of Cell-Specific Gene Expression During Craniofacial Development; Timing Cleft Palate Closure - Age Should Not Be the Sole Determinant; Excess of Parental Non-Righthandedness in Children with Right-Sided Cleft Lip: A Preliminary Report; and The Application of Roentgencephalometry to the Study of Craniofacial Anomalies.

  4. Special Agent Samuel Hicks Families of Fallen Heroes Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2009-12-15

    12/15/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2711, which became Public Law 111-178 on 6/9/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Words and Pictures: A Test of Samuel's Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantare, Alberto; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Studies the graphemic-phonemic associations that are formed during the acquisition and subsequent retention of beginning reading responses and evaluates the heuristic value of viewing the formation of these associations as a classical conditioning response. (HOD)

  6. Words and Pictures: The Failure of the Samuels Design to Test for Distractability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montare, Alberto; And Others

    This paper represents an attempt to study the graphemic-phonemic associations that are formed during the acquisition and subsequent retention of beginning reading responses and to evaluate the heuristic value of viewing the formation of these associations as a classical conditioning process. Two experiments--one on first graders and one on first…

  7. Samuel Langhorne Clemens: A Centennial for Tom Sawyer; An Annotated, Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.; Coughlan, Margaret N., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography, prepared by the Children's Book Section of the Library of Congress to celebrate the centennial of "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer," lists editions of the Mark Twain classics most widely read by young people, biographical or autobiographical and travel works significant for relevent background, and miscellaneous items…

  8. Development and Implementation of a Metric Inservice Program for Teachers at Samuel Morse Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thelma R.

    A model for organizing an introductory in-service workshop for elementary school teachers in the basic fundamentals and contents of the metric system is presented. Data collected from various questionnaires and tests suggest that the program improved the teacher's performance in presenting the metric system and that this improvement had a positive…

  9. The curious death of Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1783-1840): the case for the maidenhair fern.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Charles T

    2010-08-01

    Constantine Rafinesque, a French émigré to America in the early 19th century, was a forerunner of Charles Darwin and a zealous field naturalist who identified thousands of new species of plants and animals. His career was controversial in part because of his unfocused ambition to gain scientific recognition. In his later years he published in many areas apart from biology. His polymathic life ended in 1840 with his death (aged 57) from stomach cancer. In 1826 he had developed an illness he thought was consumption and which he believed was cured by a herbal mixture he devised. It may have contained one or more species of ferns related to one now known to induce human gastric carcinoma. Rafinesque's self-medication may have led to his death years later.

  10. Acceptance of the Samuel Epstein Medal and Science Innovation Award by James Farquhar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquhar, James

    2015-06-01

    Thank you Mark for your kind introduction. I am deeply honored to receive this award and to be here to honor the memory of Sam Epstein. If I think back to my time as a graduate student, I remember reading many articles by Sam Epstein and those who worked with him. What I saw was an incredible breadth of applications and a willingness to let the science guide and to address all sorts of questions - questions that extend from understanding animals, plants, the oceans, partitioning at high temperature, fluids in the crust, nebular chemistry, the list goes on and on and on. As a graduate student I struggled and did my best to hang on, but I had dreams of being able to do science following a model specifically like the one he saw Sam had pursued. I had one time to meet Sam and speak with him, and I saw curiosity, decency, and an interested positive outlook that I imagine was part of what led to his enormous impact on the field.

  11. The Samuel K. Allison Lecture: B^2FH, The CMB & Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Geoffrey

    2007-04-01

    Some historical aspects of the development of the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis will be discussed. I shall then go on to describe the problems originally encountered by Gamow and his associates in trying to decide where the helium was made. This leads me to a modern discussion of the origin of ^2D, ^3He, ^4He and ^7Li, originally described by B^2FH as due to the x-process. While it is generally argued, following Gamow et al, that these isotopes were synthesized in a big bang I shall show that it is equally likely that they isotopes were made in active galactic nuclei, as was the CMB, in a cyclic universe model. The key piece of observational evidence is that the amount of energy released in the conversion of hydrogen to helium in the universe is very close to the energy carried by the CMB, namely about 4.5 x 10-13 erg cm-3.

  12. Let Me Show You How It’s Done! Desktop Sharing for Distance Learning from the D. Samuel Gottesman Library

    PubMed Central

    Glassman, Nancy R.; Habousha, Racheline G.; Minuti, Aurelia; Schwartz, Rachel; Sorensen, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of electronic resources, fewer users visit the library. Traditional classroom instruction and in-person consultations are no longer sufficient in assisting library users. Librarians are constantly seeking new ways to interact with patrons and facilitate efficient use of electronic resources. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a project in which desktop-sharing software was used to reach out to users at remote locations. Various ways of using this tool are described, and challenges and implications for future expansion are discussed. PMID:20183031

  13. New stability conditions for nonlinear time varying delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmadssia, S.; Saadaoui, K.; Benrejeb, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, new practical stability conditions for a class of nonlinear time varying delay systems are proposed. The study is based on the use of a specific state space description, known as the Benrejeb characteristic arrow form matrix, and aggregation techniques to obtain delay-dependent stability conditions. Application of this method to delayed Lurie-Postnikov nonlinear systems is given. Illustrative examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Development and Implementation of a Mini Gifted Program in Science for Academically Talented Children in Grades 3-5 at Samuel Morse Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Thelma R.

    This document describes a practicum effort which entailed development and implementation of a mini-science instructional program for nine gifted students in an elementary school pilot program. The new program included development of necessary instruments and inservice training and utilized feedback from students, parents, and staff. Developmental…

  15. Order reduction of complex systems described by TSK fuzzy models based on singular perturbations method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, Anouar; Sakly, Anis; Benrejeb, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    This article deals with the concept of order reduction of linear complex systems described by TSK fuzzy models. The use of singular perturbations technique for process modelling and the choice of Benrejeb arrow form characteristic matrix provide the decoupling of dynamics of linear systems in the continuous and discrete case. An original contribution is to apply nonconventional TSK fuzzy approach on a direct current motor in order, on one hand, to highlight the order reduction of this system presented locally in the form of linear models and, on the other hand, to show the efficiency of the proposed approaches.

  16. Exploring New Phenomena in Salty Water Under Planetary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. F.; Bove, L. E.; Klotz, S.; Gaal, R.; Saitta, A. M.; Gillet, P.

    2015-12-01

    Compressed water is overspread on Earth at depth and in the extra-terrestrial space, both interstellar and on outer planets and moons (ice bodies) [1]. Under the conditions experienced in these celestial bodies water displays an incredibly rich phase diagram, including sixteen known crystalline phases, three amorphous ones, and predicted exotic properties like plasticity [2], ionization [3], and superionicity [4]. In this talk I will review our recent experimental results on salty (LiCl, NaCl, MgCl2) water under extreme conditions including: plasticity [5], pressure-induced polyamorphism [6], salty ice crystallization under high pressure [7], and hydrogen bond symmetrisation at Mbar pressures [8]. [1] De Pater, I., and Lissauer, J.J. Planetary Sciences. Cambridge University Press (2004). [2] Wang, Y., Liu, H., et al. Nat. Comm. 563 1566 (2011).[3] Aragones, L., and Vega, C., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 244504 (2009).[4] Cavazzoni, C., et al., Science 283, 44-46 (1999).[5] Bove, L. E., Dreyfus, C. et al., JCP 139, 044501 (2013) ; Ruiz, G. N., Bove, L. E. et al., PCCP 16 18553-18562 (2014).[6] Bove, L. E., Klotz, S. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 125701 (2011); Ludl, A. A., Bove, L. E. et al., PCCP 17, 14054 (2015). [7] Klotz, S., Bove, L. E. t al., Nat. Mat. 8, 405 (2009) ; Ludl A. A., Bove, L. E., submitted (2015).[8] Bove L. E. , Gaal, R. et al., PNAS 112, 27 (2015).

  17. "Faces, Voices & Dreams: A Celebration of the Centennial of the Sheldon Jackson Museum, 1888-1988," Edited by Peter L. Corey. "The Raven's Tail," by Cheryl Samuel. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Aldona

    1987-01-01

    Reviews: a volume of 11 essays on the history of Sheldon Jackson Museum and its Eskimo, Aleut, Athabaskan, Tlingit, and Haida collections; and a book analyzing the geometric design, technique, and imagery of 15 "raven's tail robes," early Northwest Coast textiles predating the more familiar Chilkat blankets. (SV)

  18. 77 FR 17478 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ..., Samuel C. Johnson III, Odinn R. Johnson, Olivia S. Johnson, Conrad W. Leipold, Samuel C. Leipold, Michael D. Marquart, Samantha G. Marquart, and Isabelle C. Marquart, as trustee or shareholder for...

  19. The Use of Normal Colon Cell Culture to Assess Toxicities and Cancer Molecular Pathway Alterations Induced by Disinfection Byproducts.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of disinfected surface waters to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (Bove, GE, Jr et al., Int. J. Health Geogr., 6:18, 2007). Approximately 600 disinfection byproducts (DBP) have been identified. Because it would be...

  20. Pepy's diary: The astronomy in Pepys' Diary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David

    2000-08-01

    Samuel Pepys' Diary of the 1660s is a rich record of the science of the time. Pepys was a Fellow of the Royal Society and met or corresponded with many leading scientists and astronomers as David Wright explains.

  1. 1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MARSHALL'S COURT HOUSES (from right to left): No. 403 (Samuel Shinn House), No. 405, No. 407 (John Elliott House), No. 409, No. 411 (David Simpson House) - Marshall's Court Area Study, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE AND WELL AT REAR OF HOME - Samuel M. Peck House, Eighteenth Street & Thirtieth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  3. 48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, ENTRANCE HALL, DETAIL OF BUST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, ENTRANCE HALL, DETAIL OF BUST OF SAMUEL CLEMENTS AND WALL STENCILING - Mark Twain House, 351 Farmington Avenue (corrected from original address of 531 Farmington Avenue), Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  4. Studies in Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  5. 77 FR 26300 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... 20892, 301-435-0696, barnasg@csr.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience... Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20037. Contact Person: Samuel C Edwards, Ph.D., Chief, Brain...

  6. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Lester Jones, Photographer May 29, 1940. SUNDIAL With motto: 'Look to your laws rather than progenitors for inheritance.' - Samuel Taylor House, Chatham Pike, Harrodsburg, Mercer County, KY

  7. 17. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Samuel H. Kneass, architect, January 1834. PLAN OF THE BASEMENT STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 20. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Samuel H. Kneass, architect, January 1834. PINE STREET FRONT - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 18. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Samuel H. Kneass, architect, January 1834. PLAN OF THE PRINCIPAL STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. 19. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photograph of architectural competition drawing; original in the possession of the Pennsylvania Hospital. Samuel H. Kneass, architect, January 1834. PLAN OF THE THIRD STORY - Pennsylvania Hospital, Eighth & Ninth, Pine & Spruce Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Minimalist Theater and the Classroom: Some Experiments with Shakespeare and Beckett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Sidney

    1990-01-01

    Argues in favor of using minimalist theater when teaching literature. Describes how minimalist theater was used to teach works by William Shakespeare and Samuel Beckett to undergraduate students. (PRA)

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer October 20, 1936 12:55 P. M. VIEW OF BARN FROM SOUTHWEST - Samuel Gaither Barn, 3101 Mount Carmel Cemetery Road, Unity, Montgomery County, MD

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey John O. Brostrup, Photographer October 20, 1936 12:50 P. M. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST (front) - Samuel Gaither House, 3101 Mount Carmel Cemetery Road, Unity, Montgomery County, MD

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Taken from drawing sheet, SHEET #21, Showing the house as restored since Survey. (Dormer windows omitted as not authentic) - Samuel des Marest House, River Road, New Milford, Bergen County, NJ

  15. Latest Research: Genetic Links

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects. "These are heroic young people," says Samuel Jacobson, a University of Pennsylvania researcher involved with the ... notice." Although no one can predict the future, Jacobson's hope is that in three to five years ...

  16. 3. Photocopy of photograph (Original in collection of Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph (Original in collection of Historical Society of Montana) VIEW THROUGH LIBRARY TO HALL ON RIGHT AND PARLOR IN LEFT BACKGROUND - Samuel T. Hauser House, 720 Madison Avenue, Helena, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  17. 76 FR 24914 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ...Phillips Alaska Nikiski, AK Natural Gas Company, A Joint Venture with Marathon Oil; Kenai Plant. 75,312 R.J... Samuel Strapping Systems. 75,024 Havells USA, Inc., Mullins, SC Havells Netherlands, Havells India,...

  18. LMAL Accounting Office 1936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1936-01-01

    Accounting Office: The Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory's accounting office, 1936, with photographs of the Wright brothers on the wall. Although the Lab was named after Samuel P. Langley, most of the NACA staff held the Wrights as their heroes.

  19. 75 FR 36441 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Cove Springs, 10000442 KANSAS Brown County Bierer, Samuel, House, 410 N 7th St, Hiawatha, 10000450..., Belleville, 10000451 MISSISSIPPI Attala County Brett, George Washington, House, 3021 Attala Rd 3220,...

  20. New Drug Eases Huntington's Disease Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm," said Dr. Michael Geschwind. A professor of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco, he ... SOURCES: Samuel Frank, M.D., neurologist, and instructor, neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Michael Geschwind, M.D., ...

  1. Web surveys' hidden hazards.

    PubMed

    Morrel-Samuels, Palmer

    2003-07-01

    The same question posed on the Web and in print can yield very different answers, dramatically distorting survey results and misleading management. But, as psychologist Palmer Morrel-Samuels demonstrates, the problems are readily fixed. PMID:12858707

  2. Climate forcing of volcano lateral collapse: evidence from Mount Etna, Sicily.

    PubMed

    Deeming, K R; McGuire, B; Harrop, P

    2010-05-28

    In this study, we present evidence for early Holocene climatic conditions providing circumstances favourable to major lateral collapse at Mount Etna, Sicily. The volcano's most notable topographic feature is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 8 km cliff-bounded amphitheatre excavated from the eastern flank of the volcano. Its origin due to prehistoric lateral collapse is corroborated by stürtzstrom deposits adjacent to the amphitheatre's downslope outlet, but the age, nature and cause of amphitheatre excavation remain matters for debate. Cosmogenic (3)He exposure ages determined for eroded surfaces within an abandoned watershed flanking the Valle del Bove support channel abandonment ca 7.5 ka BP, as a consequence of its excavation in a catastrophic collapse event. Watershed development was largely dictated by pluvial conditions during the early Holocene, which are also implicated in slope failure. A viable trigger is magma emplacement into rift zones in the eastern flank of a water-saturated edifice, leading to the development of excess pore pressures, consequent reduction in sliding resistance, detachment and collapse. Such a mechanism is presented as one potential driver of future lateral collapse in volcanic landscapes forecast to experience increased precipitation or melting of ice cover as a consequence of anthropogenic warming.

  3. Functionalism, Ideology, and the Theory of Schooling: A Review of Studies in the History of American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, H. Svi

    1982-01-01

    Provides a sociological analysis of the works of Bernard Bailyn, Lawrence Cremin, Joel Spring, Samuel Bowles, and Herbert Gintis. Maintains that even though there are ideological differences among these authors, their themes are all informed by a functionalist perspective. Argues that their works lead to a deterministic, fatalistic, and…

  4. 77 FR 61789 - Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ....gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-28/pdf/2012-7377.pdf ). The announcement included a reassignment of the...; Telephone: 202-693-2870; Fax: 202-693-3015 (these are not toll-free numbers); Email address: wright.samuel.e@dol.gov . Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access the telephone number above...

  5. Seeing the Light: Religious Colleges in Twenty-First-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Samuel Schuman examines the place of religious colleges and universities, particularly evangelical Protestant institutions, in contemporary American higher education. Many faith-based schools are flourishing. They have rigorous academic standards, impressive student recruitment, ambitious philanthropic goals, and well-maintained campuses and…

  6. 78 FR 26368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... 64198-0001: 1. Aaron W. Anderson, Topeka, Kansas; Angela Anderson Swift, Overland Park, Kansas; Emery... trusts: Aaron W. Anderson Trust; Angela Anderson Swift Trust; Emery Kent Fager Trust; John Fontron Fager... Ellen Anderson Trust; Andrew Timothy Swift Trust; Sarah Ann Swift Trust; Samuel James Swift...

  7. Drug-Free Schools: A National Challenge. Drug Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The ERIC Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    "The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This inaugural issue contains two principal articles: "Drug-Free Schools: A National Challenge," by Samuel Y. Fustukjian, and "Drug Testing," by Amy Klauke and Margaret Hadderman. In addition, the following major features concerned…

  8. Highlights in Pioneering the Understanding of Language Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Lauretta

    1987-01-01

    Described are the history of the study of language disabilities, briefly outlining the work of Samuel Orton, Judson Herrick, Adolph Meyer, and Paul Schilder; Lauretta Bender's development of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test; and the basic principles of language disorders, including familial patterns, maturation lag, plasticity, and nonfixated…

  9. Creating Conversations: Finding Ways to Promote Humanities in Large Medical School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Warren

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of Samuel Shem's "House of God," medical students and residents have been famous for their cynical conversations about patients and life on the wards. This image is largely a caricature, yet peer pressure, medical machismo, stressful working conditions, and house staff subculture do foster negative attitudes and…

  10. IQism as Ideology and the Political Economy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaine, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Examines conceptions of political influences on education in "Schooling in Capitalist America" (Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, 1976) and "Deschooling Society" (Ivan Illich, 1971). Reviews also Bowles and Gintis' treatment of the social function of intelligence, social change, and genetic versus environmental determinants of IQ. (DB)

  11. 76 FR 22716 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Pathogens and Drug Discovery. Date: May 11-12, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and...-402- 5671, zhengli@csr.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Brain Disorders and Clinical Neuroscience... Street, NW., Washington, DC 20036. Contact Person: Samuel C Edwards, PhD, Chief, Brain Disorders...

  12. Mexican Americans and the American Nation: A Response to Professor Huntington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telles, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This essay is based on a talk I delivered at Texas A&M University on December 10, 2005, in response to an earlier lecture at the university by Professor Samuel P. Huntington. It relies on social science evidence to first address Huntington's contention that Mexicans are overwhelming American borders. It then turns to evidence that Mexican…

  13. Toward a Field of Interfaith Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Eboo

    2013-01-01

    Scholars from a range of fields have long taken an interest in how people who orient around religion differently interact with one another. Indeed, this phenomenon has been the subject of important works in political science ("The Clash of Civilizations" by Samuel Huntington), sociology ("American Grace" by Robert Putnam and…

  14. Jewish Religious Education as Peace Education: From Crisis to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Samuel Huntington is famous for having used the phrase "clash of civilizations." Many other observers of the geopolitical scene have suggested that the reality is more like a clash "within civilizations," and that the response to this should lie in discovering the resources within each cultural tradition that could inform a more peaceful outlook.…

  15. Do Hispanics Fail to Assimilate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the content of an article by Samuel P. Huntington entitled "The Hispanic Challenge," which ignited a protest from the Hispanic community. Huntington posits in his article that the persistent flow of Hispanic immigrants threatens to divide the US into two peoples, two cultures, and two languages. He explains…

  16. Islamic Fatalism and the Clash of Civilizations: An Appraisal of a Contentious and Dubious Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acevedo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will address the question of Islamic fatalism. Survey data will be used to assess Samuel P. Huntington's controversial "Clash of Civilizations" thesis and its emphasis on fatalism as an inherent characteristic of Islamic religion. The concept of fatalism is expanded and theorized as a function of both structural and theological…

  17. Morton, Agassiz, and the Origins of Scientific Racism in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menand, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the racist academic consensus was established at Harvard University, focusing on two professors, Samuel George Morton and Louis Agassiz, who worked to convince U.S. scholars of the inherent inferiority and subhuman status of the black race. Morton published data on the inferiority of the black race based on analysis of his collection…

  18. The Forgotten Half Revisited. American Youth and Young Families, 1988-2008.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Samuel, Ed.

    The 10 papers in this report review what the United States has accomplished for late-adolescents and young adults in the past decade since publication of "The Forgotten Half." The consensus from the 15 authors is that many developments have not been encouraging. "Today's Forgotten Half: Still Losing Ground" (Samuel Halperin), a review of…

  19. The Education of Laura Bridgman and the Epistemological Debates of the 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeberg, Ernest

    2001-01-01

    Describes the education of Laura Bridgman, the first deaf and blind person to communicate through language, examining the work of Samuel Gridley Howe, Perkins Institute for the Blind director, as he tested his ideas on: human nature and cognition; the philosophical debates of antebellum U.S. culture; early attempts at empirical psychological…

  20. Enrollment Forecasting: A Report of the National Dissemination Project for the Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxie, Francoise

    A systems approach, a multiparameter stochastic model, that will project State vocational education needs is being developed in Washington State by cooperation of the Coordinating Council for Occupational Education with Dr. Samuel Cleff. The model has incorporated the Cleff Career Development Systems (CCDS), a job matching system used for…

  1. Attic still life southsoutheast looking northnorthwest. Shows an early toilet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Attic still life south-southeast looking north-northwest. Shows an early toilet, what is possibly the original front door, and a lead lined reservoir. Also shows the attic framing. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  2. Documents Related to the Disputed General Election of 1876. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann; Snodgrass, Katherine

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on the election of 1876 between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden and how it was disputed over electoral votes. Includes copies of the electoral ballot from Louisiana that was rejected and a letter from William Kellogg, the Republican governor of Louisiana. (CMK)

  3. One Vote for the Electoral College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John J., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    For students of history, the acrimonious and contentious 1876 presidential canvass came to mind during the 2000 election imbroglio. Democrat Samuel J. Tilden won the popular vote, but to the dismay of outraged Democrats, an electoral commission of eight Republicans and seven Democrats decided along strict party lines to give twenty disputed…

  4. Mark Twain's Nemesis: The Paige Compositor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Corban

    Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), who had set type by hand in his youth, had believed that a mechanical composer was beyond the realm of possibility. In 1880, however, he invested $2,000 in an early typesetter invented by James W. Paige. Both Clemens and Paige dreamed of immense wealth that would be generated by selling thousands of Paige Compositors.…

  5. "A Zone of Deep Shadow": Pedagogical and Familial Reflections on "The Clash of Civilizations"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, David W.; Naqvi, Rahat; Jardine, Eric; Zaidi, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the media coverage of the murder of a young Muslim girl in Mississauga, Ontario in December 2007. We examine how that coverage moved from concerns for a terrible family event to the use of the language of Samuel Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations." We explore the nature of this exaggeration that occurs in times of threat and…

  6. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation. PMID:26586561

  7. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  8. Rhetoric and Public Address: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 11 titles deal with the following topics: (1) the credibility of the sources of public information during the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant crisis; (2) the anticorporation rhetoric of New York reformer Samuel Seabury; (3)…

  9. 75 FR 55806 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, RO1 Epidemiology Applications. Date: September 29...: Samuel Rawlings, PhD, Chief, Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National...

  10. Reimagining Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" through Visual and Performing Arts Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Judy Rowe

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how students create their arts projects by responding to Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner." In creating their arts projects, students incorporate film, painting, performance, and other arts in their imaginative and innovative responses to Coleridge's classic work. The author discusses…

  11. The Influence of Phonological Similarity in Adults Learning Words in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamer, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood density refers to the number of similar sounding words to a target word (Luce & Pisoni, 1998) and influences first language word learning in adults learning English (Storkel, Armbruster, & Hogan, 2006). There are two processes in word learning: lexical configuration and lexical engagement (Leach & Samuel, 2007). Lexical configuration…

  12. The Mentor/Talented Students Honors Program at SUNY Rockland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Samuel; Hazelton, Nancy; McNamara, James; Kahn, Robert

    This paper consists of four sections by different authors. Section 1: History of Honors at SUNY Rockland. (by Samuel Draper, founder of Honor's Program). Discusses the development of the honors program at Rockland Community College from the late 1960's. Honors courses originated in the late 1960's and in 1977 the college founded the Mentor…

  13. Foreign Language Learning, Today and Tomorrow: Essays in Honor of Emma M. Birkmaier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendt, Jermaine D., Ed.; And Others

    The following essays are included: (1) "Futurism in Foreign Language Learning" by Frank M. Grittner and Percy B. Fearing; (2) "Humanism in Learning Foreign Languages" by Samuel L. Lieberman; (3) "Objectives for New Programs: A Thematic Approach in Second Language Learning" by Helen L. Jorstad; (4) "Individualization of Foreign Language Learning"…

  14. APOLLO PROGRAM - LEADERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Key members of the NASA management council were at space port today to participate in Flight Readiness Review for Apollo 9. Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program manager, NASA Headquarters, Dr. Kurt H. Debus, Director KSC, Dr. Robert Gilruth, Director, Manned Spacecraft Center and Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Director, Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. for Godot"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This article is both a personal response to Samuel Beckett's "Waiting for Godot" and an examination of the concept within literature of making the strange familiar and making the familiar strange. It discusses the educative force and potential of Beckett's strangers in a strange world by examining my own personal experiences…

  16. The Turn of the Century. Tenth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Dede

    In this 10th grade social studies and language arts interdisciplinary unit, students research and report on historical figures from the turn of the 20th century. Students are required to work in pairs to learn about famous and common individuals, including Andrew Carnegie, Samuel Gompers, Susan B. Anthony, Thomas Edison, Theodore Roosevelt, Booker…

  17. Literacy: Issues and Practices. 1992 Yearbook of the State of Maryland International Reading Association Council. Volume 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clewell, Suzanne F., Ed.; And Others

    After a foreword by Patricia McGrath Russavage, this yearbook contains the following eight articles: (1) "IRA Resolution on Literacy Assessment"; (2) "Historical Perspectives by Dale Johnson and S. Jay Samuels" (Shirley A. Wagoner and Janice Almasi); (3) "Report Cards in Literacy Evaluation: Teacher's Training, Practices, and Values" (Peter…

  18. Responding to Racism and Racial Trauma in Doctoral Study: An Inventory for Coping and Mediating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Kimberly A.; Museus, Samuel D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Kimberly A. Truong and Samuel D. Museus focus on understanding strategies doctoral students of color use to respond to racism. The authors conducted semi-structured individual interviews with twenty-six participants who self-reported experiencing racism and racial trauma during doctoral studies. Analysis of the data resulted in…

  19. 78 FR 62694 - Hoi Y. Kam, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... disjunctive.'' Robert A. Leslie, 68 FR 15227, 15230 (2003). I may rely on any one or a combination of factors..., 73 FR 364, 387 (2008) (quoting Samuel S. Jackson, 72 FR 23848, 23853 (2007) (quoting Leo R. Miller, 53 FR 21931, 21932 (1988))). ``Moreover, because `past performance is the best predictor of...

  20. 78 FR 36833 - Money Market Fund Reform; Amendments to Form PF

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...., Comment Letter of Harvard Business School Professors Samuel Hanson, David Scharfstein, & Adi Sunderam (Jan. 8, 2013) (available in File No. FSOC-2012-0003) (``Harvard Business School FSOC Comment Letter... satisfies purchase and redemption transactions. \\27\\ See, e.g., Harvard Business School FSOC Comment...

  1. Information Technology: Making It All Fit. Track II: Managing Technologies Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Nine papers from the 1988 CAUSE conference's Track II, Managing Technologies Integration, are presented. They include: "Computing in the '90s--Will We Be Ready for the Applications Needed?" (Stephen Patrick); "Glasnost, The Era of 'Openness'" (Bernard W. Gleason); "Academic and Administrative Computing: Are They Really Merging?" (Samuel J. Plice);…

  2. Using Document Reading Activity Packets (DRAP) in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomanis, James F.; Schulz, Constance

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a Document Reading Activity Packet (DRAP) revolving around the "Fort Washington Incident" of the War of 1812 and the resulting court martial of Captain Samuel T. Dyson. Explains this exercise is designed to stimulate students' interest in their own state histories as well as stimulate their curiosity for further research. (BSR)

  3. Coping with Trauma and Stressful Events As a Patient with an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... 29, 2013 Jessica Ford From the Departments of Psychology (J.F., S.F.S.) and Department of Cardiovascular Sciences (S. ... site Samuel F. Sears From the Departments of Psychology (J.F., S.F.S.) and Department of Cardiovascular Sciences (S. ...

  4. 75 FR 42059 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Giant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... that listing the GPE may be warranted (72 FR 57273). On January 24, 2008, the petitioners filed a... presented a threat (72 FR 57273). The 2009 petition includes a letter of support from Samuel W. James... educational purposes as a potential threat to the GPE. In our October 9, 2007, 90-day finding (72 FR 57273)...

  5. A HISTORY OF THE CARE AND STUDY OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KANNER, LEO

    THE HISTORY AND CARE OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS TRACED FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT. A REVIEW OF MEN WHO ORIGINATED EDUCATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WORK WITH THE FEEBLEMINDED INCLUDES JACOB PEREIRE, JEAN ITARD, JOHANN GUGGENBUEHL, EDOUARD SEGUIN, AND SAMUEL HOWE. PUBLICATIONS BY AND ABOUT THESE MEN ARE LISTED. THE DEVELOPMENT OF INSTITUTIONS IS…

  6. A Plea for a Fourth Tradition - and for Economics. Paper Number 352.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Robert V.

    This paper was written in response to an article entitled "Defining the Social Studies: An Explanation of the Three Traditions" by James L. Barth and S. Samuel Shermis. The three positions portray social studies as citizenship transmission; as social science; and as reflective inquiry. These authors favor the latter position, defined as a process…

  7. Neo-Taylorism in Educational Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter C.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews eight recent observational studies of school administrators and criticizes the studies' use of "time and motion" assumptions drawn from Frederick Winslow Taylor's ideas. Outlines an alternate approach based on "thick" description of administrators' work, including their talk, as exemplified in James Boswell's biography of Samuel Johnson.…

  8. Laterality and Reading Proficiency in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some current concepts of the laterality/reading relationship. An overview of Samuel T. Orton's hypotheses of cerebral dominance and "strephosymbolia" is provided, and both visual half-field and dichotic listening studies as direct, empirical tests of laterality are discussed. (MKM)

  9. Confessions of a Schoolman--On Dyslexia and Laterality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Che Kan

    1984-01-01

    The paper relates early work of Samuel Orton on cerebral dominance to current neuropsychological concepts of laterality as reciprocal functions of the two cerebral hemispheres. The genetic-cultural perspectives of laterality and functional asymmetry in relation to learning disorders are discussed. (Author/CL)

  10. Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume 50, Number 30, April 2, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Chronicle of Higher Education" presents an abundant source of news and information for college and university faculty members and administrators. This April 2, 2004 issue of "Chronicle for Higher Education" includes the following articles: (1) "Black Colleges and the Politics of Race" (Samuels, Albert L.); (2) "The First Step on a Long March"…

  11. That Deceptive Line: Plato, Linear Perspective, Visual Perception, and Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    In "The Renaissance Rediscovery of Linear Perspective," one of Samuel Edgerton's claims is that Filippo Brunelleschi and his contemporaries did not develop a three-dimensional style of representing the world in painting as much as they reappropriated a way to depict the natural world in painting that most mirrored the human perception of it.…

  12. The Roberts Court and Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahdert, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    Since President Bush named Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. and Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. to the Supreme Court, speculation has run high as to where the new court may be headed. Citing three recent cases ("Morse v. Frederick", "Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights, Inc." and "Garcetti v. Ceballos"), Rahdert expresses concern…

  13. Academic Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes the School of Music and Fine Arts at Palm Beach Atlantic University, Florida, which was built to be visually appealing and acoustically superb, and the Samuel H. Smith Center for Undergraduate Education at Washington State University, which was designed to reflect the latest teaching methods and features flexible spaces and a computer…

  14. The Federal Government's Relationship to the Nationally Recognized Accrediting Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Proceedings include: the keynote address (John Ellis); themes and questions on accreditation and institutional eligibility (David A. Trivett); the task force on futuristic Office of Education criteria for recognition (Samuel P. Martin); possible accreditation agency uses of the products of the Office of Education project on improving the consumer…

  15. Beyond the Social Imaginary of "Clash of Civilizations"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the notion of a "clash of civilizations", first put forward by Samuel Huntington (1996), has been widely used to explain the contemporary dynamics of geo-political conflict. It has been argued that the fundamental source of conflict is no longer primarily ideological, or even economic, but cultural. Despite many trenchant and…

  16. Family Matters: Father and Son Follow Same Career Path; Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Together, Samuel L. Myers Sr. and Jr. prove that the apple tree, when properly nurtured in the rich intellectual orchards of academia, will bear prime fruit that lands close to its roots. The Doctors Myers both earned bachelor's degrees from Morgan State University and then ventured to Boston for their Ph.D.s in economics. Though their specialties…

  17. 77 FR 64967 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ..., JEANNE M BEARD, SUSAN F BEAUSOLEIL, GEOFFREY L BEKKEDAHL, LARRY N BELL, MELODY C BIENIAWSKI, ANDREW J... BURROWS, CHARLES W BUTTRESS, LARRY D CADIEUX, GENA E CALBOS, PHILIP T CALLAHAN, SAMUEL N CAMPAGNONE, MARI..., DOUGLAS E KAPLAN, STAN M KAUFFMAN, RICHARD L KEARNEY, JAMES H KELLY, HENRY C KELLY, JOHN E KELLY, LARRY...

  18. Taken from ell into house, northeast looking southwest. Original back ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Taken from ell into house, northeast looking southwest. Original back stairs (now have a floor covering the opening at the top), board and batten door at base of old stairs, and closed off fireplaces behind radiators on both left and right. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  19. Communication and Stakeholder Engagement at Brighouse Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Samuel Brighouse Elementary School, located in Richmond, BC, a city adjacent to Vancouver on the west coast of Canada, is a five-hundred student elementary school. When completed in September 2011, it will replace an existing older school on the same site. This project was identified early on as an opportunity for the Richmond School Board to…

  20. Effects of Reading about a Crime Having Minor or Severe Consequences on Externality and Attributions of Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, William; And Others

    In an attempt to replicate an earlier study of attribution of responsibility (Experiment 2 of Samuel et. al, 1981), this research utilized a case study describing an 18-year-old named Johnny who tripped and fell while shoplifting a rifle from a sporting goods store; the gun fired, inflicting either minor or critical injuries on a nearby customer.…

  1. 78 FR 77711 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Howes', Mitchell P., Lime Kiln and Quarry, (Lime Manufacturing Resources of Utica, Indiana MPS) Address Restricted, Utica, 13001007 Starkweather's, Samuel, Lime Kiln and Quarry, (Lime Manufacturing Resources of Utica, Indiana MPS) Address Restricted, Utica, 13001008 Tyler, Moses H., Company Lime Kiln and Quarry...

  2. The Cherokee Syllabary: A Writing System in Its Own Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Informally recognized by the tribal council in 1821, the 86-character Cherokee writing system invented by Sequoyah was learned in manuscript form and became widely used by the Cherokee within the span of a few years. In 1827, Samuel Worcester standardized the arrangement of characters and print designs in ways that differed from Sequoyah's…

  3. Wither the Fruited Plain: The Long Expedition and the Description of the "Great American Desert"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Kevin Z.

    2005-01-01

    The view from Pikes Peak is breathtaking. In the summer of 1893, Katherine Lee Bates sat on the summit of Pikes Peak, inspired by the panorama to pen the words to "America the Beautiful." Her poem was set to the tune "Materna" by Samuel Augustus Ward two years later to become one of our nation's most beloved anthems. Many educated Americans in the…

  4. Perspectives on Investigating the Consequences of Experiential Education. Information Series 164.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Michael R.; Beckman, Carol A.

    This document contains the proceedings of a two-day symposium conducted to analyze four different perspectives (psychological, economic, anthropological, and sociological) on evaluating experiential education programs. The perspectives are represented in papers by Samuel H. Osipow, Psychology, Ohio State University; Nicholas M. Kiefer, Economics,…

  5. 78 FR 12092 - John V. Scalera; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    .... Finally, Dr. Baxter wrote that Respondent had yet to start therapy with a psychologist and that he was... safety. Id. `` hese factors are * * * considered in the disjunctive.'' Robert A. Leslie, 68 FR 15227.... Medicine Shoppe-Jonesborough, 73 FR 364, 387 (2008) (quoting Samuel S. Jackson, 72 FR 23848, 23853...

  6. VCCA Journal: Journal of the Virginia Community Colleges Association, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Darrell, Ed.; Jobin, Robert, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Volume 5 of the "VCCA Journal" contains the following articles: (1) "Outcomes Assessment Weather Forecast: A Cold Wind Blowing from the North," by David C. Hanson; (2) "The National Endowment for the Humanities Grant at Piedmont Virginia Community College," by Evelyn Edson, Jane Kingston, William Owen, and Samuel Westbrook; (3) "Spring Break in…

  7. Education as Mystery: The Enchanting Hope of Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Samuel D. Rocha uses Martin Heidegger's later writings to compose a philosophical meditation on the phenomenology of education. Three key distinctions emerge: the difference between philosophy and philosophers, being and meaning, and education and the Gospel of Schoolvation.

  8. Equating Test Scores (without IRT). Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    This booklet grew out of a half-day class on equating that author Samuel Livingston teaches for new statistical staff at Educational Testing Service (ETS). The class is a nonmathematical introduction to the topic, emphasizing conceptual understanding and practical applications. The class consists of illustrated lectures, interspersed with…

  9. Reading Interventions to Support English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corella, Jolene

    2012-01-01

    High stakes assessments conducted in the southwestern United States demonstrate that fewer than 50% of English language learners (ELLs) are achieving proficiency levels in reading fluency. The purpose of this study was to understand if reading interventions using the framework of Samuels's repeated reading (RR) strategy increased student…

  10. Irreconcilable Differences: The Education of Deaf Children in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDougall, James C.

    2004-01-01

    Samuel Johnson said it was the greatest human calamity, Helen Keller said she would rather be blind, and A.G. Bell feared that unless extraordinary measures were taken, a new and toxic variety of the human race would emerge. Deafness, the invisible disability, affects only one person in one thousand, but for as long as history has been recorded it…

  11. Reporting Casting Bronze Plaque Becomes Advisers Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Charlie

    1977-01-01

    Describes an advisers' class project (at the University of Oklahoma) which consisted of reporting on the casting of a bronze plaque bearing the names of the first school newspaper, "The Students Gazette," and its editor, Samuel M. Fox, for presentation in Philadelphia to commemorate scholastic journalism's Bicentennial. (MB)

  12. Morse's Miracle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Guy V.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanically-minded middle school students who have been studying electromagnetism can construct inexpensive telegraphs resembling Samuel Morse's 1844 invention. Instructions (with diagrams), list of materials needed, and suggestions are given for a simple telegraph and for a two-way system. (DH)

  13. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  14. A Return to Love in William James and Jean-Luc Marion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    In this essay Samuel Rocha primarily addresses, and challenges, the modern conception of reason and the lowly place of intuition, feeling, and love in what has become traditional philosophy and education. Drawing upon the rich thought of William James and Jean-Luc Marion, Rocha introduces the reader to a certain harmony between their ideas, most…

  15. Fuel Cell Car Design Project for Freshman Engineering Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Steve R.; Davis, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Samuel Ginn College of Engineering at Auburn University, we have integrated a semester long design project based on a toy fuel cell car into our freshman "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Class." The project provides the students a basic foundation in chemical reactions, energy, and dimensional analysis that facilitates…

  16. Biennial Survey of Education, 1916-18. Volume I. Bulletin, 1919, No. 88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1921

    1921-01-01

    Volume I of the 1916-18 Biennial Survey of Education includes the following chapters: (1) A survey of higher education (Samuel P. Capen and Walton C. John); (2) Medical education (N. P. Colwell); (3) Engineering education (F. L. Bishop); (4) Commercial education (Frank V. Thompson); (5) Public education in the cities of the United States: The…

  17. A Short History of Electrical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report presents a brief history of the development of telecommunication from Samuel Morse's invention of electromagnetic telegraph in 1838 to the present. Technological advancement is examined in the development of wire telegraph, ocean cable telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelegraph, radiotelephone, AM (amplitude modulation) and FM…

  18. A Short History of Electrical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Electrical communication progressed rapidly after Samuel Morse demonstrated the telegraph in 1838. Western Union completed the first transcontinental telegraph line in 1861. Five years later the first transoceanic cable was laid. In 1875 A.G. Bell transmitted the first complete sentence heard over wire, and the first Bell telephone company was…

  19. Pittsburgh Adapts to Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    States, Deidre

    1985-01-01

    The Samuel F. B. Morse School, built in 1874 and closed in 1980, is a historic landmark in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Now the building serves as low-income housing for 70 elderly tenants and is praised as being an imaginative and creative use of an old school structure. (MLF)

  20. Campus and Capitol: Higher Education and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, W. John, Ed.

    Seven papers and an extensive annotated bibliography deal with the relationship of State and Federal government to higher education. The authors and titles of the papers are (1) Samuel B. Gould, "The University and State Government: Fears and Realities," (2) Daniel G. Aldrich, Jr., "Maintaining Institutional Identity and Autonomy in Coordinated…

  1. From Edison to Enron

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Richard

    2005-11-01

    Kenneth Lay's secret partnerships and deceitful accounting certainly hurt Enron's investors, customers, and employees and tarnished his reputation, even if he's not found guilty of any crime when he goes to trial in January. Yet like Samuel Insull a century before him, Lay's trial probably won't stop the revolution he advanced within the power industry.

  2. Women in Portuguese Society. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium on the Portuguese Experience in the United States (Adelpi University).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Neil; And Others

    The following reports on women in Portuguese or Portuguese American society are included: (1) "The Story of Maria a.k.a. Mary" by Steven Samuel Ussach, (2) "Portuguese-American Women: Portraits in Fact and in Fiction" by Mary T. Vermette, (3) "A Different Vision of a New England Childhood: The Cape Verdean Experience on Cape Cod" by Maria Luisa…

  3. Right Parlor, west looking east. Shows closed off fireplace framed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Right Parlor, west looking east. Shows closed off fireplace framed by fluted pilasters with a plain frieze and simple shelf. Also the bay window seen in HABS ME-229-4 - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  4. 75 FR 5553 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues: Mr. Samuel... wheel cylinder cup into a test jar, immersed in water-wet brake fluid, capped and placed in an oven at..., the strips, SBR wheel cylinder cup and fluid are examined and tested. The performance results...

  5. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert B., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of reports on literacy and literacy issues includes a variety of perspectives and descriptions of diverse programs and is divided into three sections. The first examines broad questions of literacy: "On the Study of Literacy" (David Bendor-Samuel); "Linguistics and Literacy" (Gloria Kindell); and "Literacy in Monolingual Societies"…

  6. Passing Tradition: ACES Presidents, 1940-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Vernon Lee

    This booklet provides educational, professional, and biographical information on 52 presidents of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. A photo of each president is included. All presidents from 1940-1997 are covered. The presidents are: Samuel T. Gladding, Loretta J. Bradley, James V. Wigtil, Barbara Griffin, Joan T. England,…

  7. The Role of Innovation Regimes and Policy for Creating Radical Innovations: Comparing Some Aspects of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Technology Development with the Development of Internet and GSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godoe, Helge

    2006-01-01

    Telegraphy, the distant ancestor of Internet and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), was invented by Samuel Morse in 1838. One year later, William Grove invented the fuel cell. Although numerous highly successful innovations stemming from telegraphy may be observed, the development of fuel cells has been insignificant, slow, and erratic…

  8. The Green Graduate: Educating Every Student as a Sustainable Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The challenge: every student graduates able to think and act as a sustainable practitioner, whatever their field. This is the goal Otago Polytechnic set itself and, as one of the main proponents, Samuel Mann became the go-to guy. Here he takes the reader on that journey and in doing so provides the framework for making sustainability a core…

  9. From the house into the ell south looking north, first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the house into the ell south looking north, first room has tin ceiling and crown molding, the window still has a hood but no other detail, plain trim. Exposed beam and fireplace visible in ell. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  10. An Investigation of the Influence of the Theory of Automaticity and the Impact of Repeated Reading on the Fluency and Comprehension Skills of Eighth Grade Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Rodney Michael

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the use of repeated reading with eighteen, eighth grade special education and regular education students. The purpose was to study use of repeated reading's structured, systematic, oral reading intervention while also seeking to further analyze LaBerge and Samuels' "Theory of Automaticity"…

  11. Die Informationsgewinnung im Rahmen der "Bradford"schen Streuungsregel (Bradford's Law) (The Gathering of Information within the Framework of Bradford's Law).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner

    Designed to provide students of information science with an introduction to British librarian Samuel Clement Bradford's 1934 findings about the scattering of information, this reader on Bradford's Law begins by discussing its use in calculating search procedures in printed bibliographies as well as in databases. The following additional materials…

  12. The Problem of Agricultural and Industrial Education for African Americans: A Historical Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, Dan B.; Alston, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    The model of agricultural and industrial education for African Americans in the United States was created by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, founder of Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. Armstrong developed a paternal approach to educating African Americans and developed the Hampton Institute curriculum with moral education as its base. Booker…

  13. Career Education. Comments by Plato (And Others).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents a number of quotations showing that what is now called career education is an old idea, one that transcends time and today unites advocates of many creeds and cultures. Those quoted include Plato, Benjamin Franklin, Abraham Lincoln, Samuel Gompers Helen Keller, James B. Conant, Whitney Young, Jr., Margaret Mead, Shirley…

  14. Histories of Special Education: Stories from Our Past, Insights for Our Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of historical research to special education and describes the research by Margaret Mead, the views of Helen Keller, and Laura Bridgman, and the work of Samuel Gridley Howe. The importance of understanding aspects of people and events that have previously been overlooked is emphasized. (CR)

  15. Entry door with sidelights, southwest looking northeast. Reverse view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Entry door with sidelights, southwest looking northeast. Reverse view of HABS ME-229-6, more clarity to the newel post and balusters. The curve of the second floor landing is just visible at the top of the image. Note the six-panel entry door is taller than the interior doors. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  16. Teaching Shakespeare Today: Practical Approaches and Productive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James E., Ed.; Salomone, Ronald, E., Ed.

    This teaching guide for high school college instructors begins with an introduction on "Shakespeare and the American Landscape," by Samuel Crowl, and includes the following 32 essays: "Some 'Basics' in Shakespearean Study" (Gladys V. Veidemanis); "Teaching Shakespeare's Dramatic Dialogue" (Sharon A. Beehler); "Shakespearean Role Models" (Ruth Ann…

  17. The Church's Ministry in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerhoff, John H., Ed.

    Papers presented include: "Hope, History, and Higher Education in the South," (James H. Smylie, response by Samuel S. Hill, Jr.); "Current Strategies: An Exploration and Evaluation," (Robert L. Wilson, response by Clyde O. Robinson, Jr.); "Trends in Higher Education: A Look to the Future," (Anne Flowers, response by Shirley McCune); "Trends in the…

  18. PICNIC PAVILION JUST BEYOND THE WESTERN EDGE OF THE BOTANIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PICNIC PAVILION JUST BEYOND THE WESTERN EDGE OF THE BOTANIC GARDEN. THIS PAVILION IS ROUGHLY LOCATED ON THE SITE OF "BARTRAM HALL," ANDREW EASTLAKE'S ITALIANATE VILLA DESIGNED BY NOTED PHILADELPHIA ARCHITECT SAMUEL SLOAN AND CONSTRUCTED IN 1850-1851 - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Prosody's Contribution to Fluency: An Examination of the Theory of Automatic Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrauben, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    LaBerge and Samuels' (1974) theory of automatic information processing in reading offers a model that explains how and where the processing of information occurs and the degree to which processing of information occurs. These processes are dependent upon two criteria: accurate word decoding and automatic word recognition. However, LaBerge and…

  20. New Visions for the Developmental Assessment of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J., Ed.; Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    This collection of 18 papers on assessing infants and toddlers includes the views of parents, clinicians, researchers, and policymakers. The following papers are included: (1) "Toward a New Vision for the Developmental Assessment of Infants and Young Children" (Stanley I. Greenspan and Samuel J. Meisels); (2) "Charting the Continuum of Assessment…

  1. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer, March 28, 1940 EXTERIOR, SOUTH SIDE (WEST CORNER) OLD BASEMENT DOOR & STEEP ROOF PITCH OF EARLIEST STRUCTURE. - Samuel Phillips House, Tower Hill Road (U.S. Route 1), Belleville, Washington County, RI

  2. Mexican-American Cultural Assumptions and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, E. Lou

    The search for presuppositions of a people's thought is not new. Octavio Paz and Samuel Ramos have both attempted to describe the assumptions underlying the Mexican character. Paz described Mexicans as private, defensive, and stoic, characteristics taken to the extreme in the "pachuco." Ramos, on the other hand, described Mexicans as being…

  3. Hacia la creacion de una filosofia latinoamericana. Un ensayo nacionalista: El perfil del hombre y la cultura en Mexico (Toward the Creation of a Latin American Philosophy. An Essay on Nationalism: A Profile of the Mexicans and Their Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Manuel

    An analysis of a Mexican essay by Samuel Ramos attempts to resolve the issue of whether or not there is a common philosophy in Latin America today. Manuel Mendoza concludes that no such philosophy exists, because the area has not had time to develop an internal character, and as a result, the intellectual and and philosophical concepts are based…

  4. Language, Metaphor, and Creativity in Discursive Prose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, William T.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the denigration of discursive prose back through the "New Criticism" to Romanticism and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who saw poetry as special and separate from other rhetoric. Notes that discursive prose can be just as creative and interesting as poetry. Urges composition teachers to shift their point of view accordingly. (RL)

  5. In Response to "Looking at the Schools."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Samuel; Riddell, Janice B.; Mahlmann, John J.; Pankratz, David; Gee, Constance Bumgarner

    1999-01-01

    Provides comments by Samuel Hope, Janice B. Riddell, John J. Mahlmann, David Pankratz, and Constance Bumgarner Gee in response to the article in this issue of "Arts Education Policy Review" entitled "Looking at the Schools: Public Agenda Asks African-American and White Parents about Their Aspirations and Their Fears." (CMK)

  6. Usage in Contemporary American Dictionaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    An editorialized report of data accumulated in a study of current American practice in the treatment of problems of usage in general purpose dictionaries. Their descriptive objectivity is characterized as "that of the blind men examining the elephant." Such practices reveal little change from that of Samuel Johnson's 1755 English Dictionary. (AMH)

  7. Workshop Explores How to Evaluate the Impact of School Policies on Childhood Obesity: Workshop for Experts on Measuring School Policies to Prevent Childhood Obesity. Program Results Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisz, Mary B.

    2008-01-01

    Samuels & Associates, a research and evaluation firm based in Oakland, California, organized the National Evaluation and Measurement Meeting on School Nutrition and Physical Activity Policies, held on May 6 and 7, 2004 in San Francisco. The purpose of the meeting was to develop consensus regarding measures and tools to evaluate school-based…

  8. Origins of a Stereotype: Categorization of Facial Attractiveness by 6-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Langlois, Judith H.; Hoss, Rebecca A.; Rubenstein, Adam J.; Griffin, Angela M.

    2004-01-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois,…

  9. 78 FR 36582 - Belinda R. Mori, N.P.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ....'' Robert A. Leslie, M.D., 68 FR 15227, 15230 (2003). It is well settled that I ``may rely on any one or a... registrant's misconduct. Jayam Krishna-Iyer, 74 FR 459, 462 (2009). Accordingly, as the Tenth Circuit has... registration. Medicine Shoppe-Jonesborough, 73 FR 364, 387 (2008) (quoting Samuel S. Jackson, 72 FR...

  10. Students Preserve an Emancipation Site with Archaeological Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRue, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Samuel Gist was a wealthy British merchant who, toward the end of his life, lived in England, but owned a considerable amount of land with a large number of slaves in America. Upon his death in 1815, his will specified that within one year his slaves should be emancipated, and his estate was to provide them with a new beginning in the form of…

  11. Errors of Measurement, Theory, and Public Policy. William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The 12th annual William H. Angoff Memorial Lecture was presented by Dr. Michael T. Kane, ETS's (Educational Testing Service) Samuel J. Messick Chair in Test Validity and the former Director of Research at the National Conference of Bar Examiners. Dr. Kane argues that it is important for policymakers to recognize the impact of errors of measurement…

  12. A KOREAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.; AND OTHERS

    ALTHOUGH THE PURPOSE OF THIS DICTIONARY IS TO "GIVE A FULL AND ACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF THE BASIC NATIVE KOREAN VOCABULARY," SOME OF THE COMMON AND USEFUL CHINESE AND EUROPEAN LOANWORDS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AS WELL. THE AUTHORS (SAMUEL E. MARTIN, YANG HA LEE, AND SUNG-UN CHANG) HAVE FOLLOWED THE HANKUL SPELLING CONVENTIONS OF THE "UNIFIED SYSTEM" AND…

  13. Object and Method in Rhetorical Criticism: From Wichelns to Leff and McGee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaonkar, Dilip Parameshwar

    1990-01-01

    Examines the fluctuating dialectic between object and method in three parts: (1) detailed reading of Herbert Wichelns' founding essay; (2) discussion of three influential responses to this dialectic by Ernest Wrage, Samuel Becker, and Edwin Black; and (3) analysis of Michael Leff's and Michael McGee's attempt to reconnect object and method. (KEH)

  14. Fairness versus Justice in Language Testing: The Place of English Literacy in the Australian Citizenship Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim; Ryan, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a distinction between "fairness" and "justice" in relation to language tests. Basing its discussion on the validity theory of Samuel Messick, it discusses the way in which these terms have been used in the existing literature, and their relationship to the concept of validity. Fairness, broadly speaking, refers to the…

  15. Validity in Language Testing: The Challenge of Sam Messick's Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2006-01-01

    The thought of Samuel Messick has influenced language testing in 2 main ways: in proposing a new understanding of how inferences made based on tests must be challenged, and in drawing attention to the consequences of test use. The former has had a powerful impact on language-testing research, most notably in Bachman's work on validity and the…

  16. Seven Suggestions for Becoming a More Productive Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singham, Mano

    2008-01-01

    Samuel Johnson's oft-quoted saying that "no man but a blockhead ever wrote except for money" supports the widespread belief that writing is so intrinsically unrewarding that it requires a powerful external incentive to overcome one's reluctance to get on with it. Most academics do not face the strong and immediate pressure to write in order to get…

  17. Reading Research: Notable Findings and Urgent Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nila Banton

    This paper discusses some of the findings and needs of reading research. The areas of research study mentioned include word boundaries, letter names, preschool reading, teacher questioning, critical reading and Negro dialects. Researchers cited include Dolores Durkin, Frank Guszak, Jay Samuels, Guy Bond, A. Sterl Artley, Edward Fry, and Robert…

  18. Alteration Map Showing Major Faults and Veins and Associated Water-Quality Signatures of the Animas River Watershed Headwaters Near Silverton, Southwest Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mast, M. Alisa; Dalton, J. Brad

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced to provide hard-copy and digital data for alteration assemblages in the historical mining area centered on the Tertiary San Juan and Silverton calderas. The data have direct application to geoenvironmental and mineral exploration objectives. This dataset represents alteration mapping for the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The map is based on detailed 1:12,000-scale field mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, mineral mapping by remote sensing (AVIRIS) data, and 1:24,000-scale aerial photographic interpretation. Geologic structures were compiled and generalized from multiple published and unpublished sources (Burbank and Luedke, 1964; Steven and others, 1974; Luedke and Burbank 1975a, b; Lipman, 1976; Luedke and Burbank, 1987; Luedke, 1996) (see Index Map). Unpublished mapping of the Ironton quadrangle by D.J. Bove and J.P. Kurtz in 1997-1999 was included.

  19. The earliest open conduit eruptive center of the Etnean region: evidence from aeromagnetic, geophysical, and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolosi, Iacopo; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Branca, Stefano; Ferlito, Carmelo; Chiappini, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    At Mount Etna, the present-day active volcano is an open conduit structure characterized by continuous eruptive activity. Such conditions have been thought unique in the evolution of the Etnean volcano as well as in the Mediterranean region. However, a review study of available geophysical data and models, combined with geological records, petrographic and geochemical considerations, has led us to consider that a large area of about 28 km2 located in Val Calanna, on the eastern side of Valle del Bove, can be interpreted as the site of an old open conduit volcano. A dyke swarm outcrops in the area, whose deep alteration and fumarolization can be attributed to the sustained passage of volcanic gases over long periods. Radiometric dating yields an age of about 129 ka. This finding sheds new light on the evolution of Mount Etna volcano, indicating that the tectonic conditions leading to an open conduit volcano must also have been active in the past.

  20. Spatially resolved SO2 flux emissions from Mt Etna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aleo, R.; Bitetto, M.; Delle Donne, D.; Tamburello, G.; Battaglia, A.; Coltelli, M.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.; Sciotto, M.; Aiuppa, A.

    2016-07-01

    We report on a systematic record of SO2 flux emissions from individual vents of Etna volcano (Sicily), which we obtained using a permanent UV camera network. Observations were carried out in summer 2014, a period encompassing two eruptive episodes of the New South East Crater (NSEC) and a fissure-fed eruption in the upper Valle del Bove. We demonstrate that our vent-resolved SO2 flux time series allow capturing shifts in activity from one vent to another and contribute to our understanding of Etna's shallow plumbing system structure. We find that the fissure eruption contributed ~50,000 t of SO2 or ~30% of the SO2 emitted by the volcano during the 5 July to 10 August eruptive interval. Activity from this eruptive vent gradually vanished on 10 August, marking a switch of degassing toward the NSEC. Onset of degassing at the NSEC was a precursory to explosive paroxysmal activity on 11-15 August.

  1. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age of detrital muscovite within Lower Ordovician sandstone in the coastal plain basement of Florida: implications for west African terrane linkages

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1987-11-01

    Detrital muscovite was concentrated from a core of Lower Ordovician sandstone recovered from 1282 m in the Sun Oil Company, H.T. Parker No.1 well, Marion County, Florida. The concentrate records a /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar plateau age of 504.1 +/- 2.1 Ma. The Paleozoic sedimentary section penetrated in this well is part of an extensive subsurface Lower Ordovician-Middle Devonian sedimentary succession characterized by Gondwanan paleontological affinities. The succession has been correlated with sequences of similar age in the Bove Basin of west Africa which unconformably overlie metamorphic units of the Bassaride and Rokelide orogens in Senegal and Guinea. Muscovite within these metamorphic rocks records ca. 500-510 Ma postmetamorphic /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar cooling ages and was likely a proximal source for the lower Paleozoic clastic detritus represented in the pre-Mesozoic sedimentary sequences beneath the southeastern US coastal plain.

  2. Instream Flows Incremental Methodology :Kootenai River, Montana : Final Report 1990-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Greg; Skaar, Don; Dalbey, Steve

    2002-11-01

    Regulated rivers such as the Kootenai River below Libby Dam often exhibit hydrographs and water fluctuation levels that are atypical when compared to non-regulated rivers. These flow regimes are often different conditions than those which native fish species evolved with, and can be important limiting factors in some systems. Fluctuating discharge levels can change the quantity and quality of aquatic habitat for fish. The instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM) is a tool that can help water managers evaluate different discharges in terms of their effects on available habitat for a particular fish species. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service developed the IFIM (Bovee 1982) to quantify changes in aquatic habitat with changes in instream flow (Waite and Barnhart 1992; Baldridge and Amos 1981; Gore and Judy 1981; Irvine et al. 1987). IFIM modeling uses hydraulic computer models to relate changes in discharge to changes in the physical parameters such as water depth, current velocity and substrate particle size, within the aquatic environment. Habitat utilization curves are developed to describe the physical habitat most needed, preferred or tolerated for a selected species at various life stages (Bovee and Cochnauer 1977; Raleigh et al. 1984). Through the use of physical habitat simulation computer models, hydraulic and physical variables are simulated for differing flows, and the amount of usable habitat is predicted for the selected species and life stages. The Kootenai River IFIM project was first initiated in 1990, with the collection of habitat utilization and physical hydraulic data through 1996. The physical habitat simulation computer modeling was completed from 1996 through 2000 with the assistance from Thomas Payne and Associates. This report summarizes the results of these efforts.

  3. Sticking to the recipe. Develop one program with basic guidelines for improving care, effectiveness without overwhelming providers, the IOM says.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Rebecca

    2008-01-28

    The IOM's call for a national initiative to determine best medical practices has some wondering how such an effort would work. But most everyone agrees that providers and payers are overwhelmed by data about clinical effectiveness. "Once we get an innovation, let's study it right away so we can be sure every person who could benefit gets it, or if it doesn't work, let's do no harm," says WellPoint's Samuel Nussbaum, left.

  4. Mayo Clinic: An Institutional History of General Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillaspie, Erin A; Nichols, Francis C; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic was started in Rochester, MN after a 1883 tornado disaster. The Mayo brothers, William and Charles began thoracic surgical procedures early in their career. Dr. Samuel Robinson is recognized as the first thoracic surgeon at Mayo. He was followed by Drs. Harrington and Claret who became famous surgeons. Many other notable surgeons have help to build the thoracic surgical practice into what is today a world renown center of excellence in thoracic surgery. PMID:26811041

  5. The other Founding Physicks: the lives and times of the physician signers of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Bengt-Ola S

    2013-08-01

    The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the interim constitution of the United States of America between 1777 and 1789. The name the United States of America is encountered here for the first time. Three physicians were among the 48 signers - Josiah Bartlett, Samuel Holten and Nathaniel Scudder. All three men started out studying and practising medicine but their lives took very different turns as the new nation emerged. PMID:24585762

  6. Notes on flying and dying.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  7. STS-35 payload specialists perform balancing act on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Aided by the microgravity environment aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, STS-35 Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise balances Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance on his index finger in front of the middeck starboard wall. Durrance is wearing a blood pressure cuff and is holding a beverage container and food package during the microgravity performance. The waste management compartment (WMC), side hatch, and orbiter galley are seen behind the two crewmembers. Durrance's feet are at the forward lockers.

  8. KSC-04PD-0765

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore presents the new Florida quarter at its unveiling ceremony, held at the KSC Visitor Complex. Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman hold a framed representation of the quarter design. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  9. KSC-04PD-0748

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As master of ceremonies, Center Director Jim Kennedy opens the event at the KSC Visitor Complex launching the new Florida quarter. Participating were NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Florida Gov. Jeb Bush. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  10. KSC-04PD-0760

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman remarks on the design of the new Florida quarter at its launch ceremony. Sharing the stage with him at the KSC Visitor Complex are Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  11. KSC-04PD-0750

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As master of ceremonies, Center Director Jim Kennedy opens the event at the KSC Visitor Complex launching the new Florida quarter. Participating were (left to right) Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  12. KSC-04PD-0801

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (center) greets workers. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  13. KSC-04PD-0766

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore presents the new Florida quarter to Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (center) at its unveiling ceremony, held at the KSC Visitor Complex. Bush and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman hold a framed representation of the quarter design. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  14. KSC-04PD-0767

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (center) accepts a framed representation of the new Florida quarter design from U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman at the quarter's unveiling ceremony, held at the KSC Visitor Complex. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  15. From "No Place" to Home: The Quest for a Western Home in Brewster Higley's "Home on the Range"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 1934, New York attorney Samuel Moanfeldt set out on a trip that would take him through most of the states west of the Mississippi in search of the origins of the popular American folk song "Home on the Range." The reason for his trip was a $500,000 lawsuit filed by William and Mary Goodwin of Tempe, Arizona, who claimed that they…

  16. The West Family Chiropractic Dynasty: celebrating a century of accomplishment in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    This historical treatise documents the unbroken legacy of the West family of chiropractors which has flourished in Canada for over 100 years. Part I, unearths the origins, development and careers of Archibald West, the founder of this dynasty, his son Samuel and grandson Stephen. Part II, not yet ready for publication, will delve into the lives of Archibald’s brother Samson and his chiropractic progeny, as well as a nephew of Stephen and another relative of Frederick West. PMID:20808618

  17. STS-35 crewmembers watch a sphere of water float on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 crewmembers perform a microgravity experiment using their drinking water while on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) has released some water from a drinking container which he holds in his hand. MS John M. Lounge (wearing glasses, center) and Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance along with Hoffman study the changing shape and movement of the sphere of water.

  18. Dr. Wernher Von Braun at the launch of Apollo 11.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mission officials relax, all smiles, a few moments after the successful launch of the Apollo 11 spacecraft by Saturn V vehicle AS-506. Relieved of the tension of waiting through the countdown are (left to right) Charles W. Matthews, NASA deputy associate administrator for manned space flight; Dr. Wernher Von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center; Dr. George E. Meuller, NASA associate administrator for manned spaceflight, and Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, director of the Apollo program.

  19. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  20. 52. Photocopy of photograph (original negative is property of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of photograph (original negative is property of the Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority and preserved in their archives at 90 Sargent Drive, New Haven, Connecticut 06511-5966), photographer unknown, circa 1960. The Whitney Filtration Plant Laboratory with Dr. Samuel Jacobson at work. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  1. 51. Photocopy of photograph (original negative is property of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of photograph (original negative is property of the Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority and preserved in their archives at 90 Sargent Drive, New Haven, Connecticut 06511-5966), photographer unknown, circa 1960. Dr. Samuel Jacobson examining samples of water cultured on agar material. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  2. Mayo Clinic: An Institutional History of General Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillaspie, Erin A; Nichols, Francis C; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic was started in Rochester, MN after a 1883 tornado disaster. The Mayo brothers, William and Charles began thoracic surgical procedures early in their career. Dr. Samuel Robinson is recognized as the first thoracic surgeon at Mayo. He was followed by Drs. Harrington and Claret who became famous surgeons. Many other notable surgeons have help to build the thoracic surgical practice into what is today a world renown center of excellence in thoracic surgery.

  3. An unknown treasure in Brugge (Bruges): the oldest portrait of Andreas Vesallius on a stained glass window.

    PubMed

    Steeno, Omer P; Deruyttere, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Four iconographic pictures of Andreas Vesalius on glass painted windows, in Rochester, Minnesota, USA; Leuven (Louvain, Belgium); Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA; and Innsbruck (Austria), were made in the period between 1943 and 1956. Recently, we have found in Brugge (Bruges) a much older portrait of Vesalius, in the form of a medallion on glass. It was painted between 1860 and 1870 by Samuel Coucke who had been commissioned by Dr. François Vanden Abeele for the decoration of his medical office.

  4. Combining very-long-range terrestrial laser scanner data and thermal imagery for analysis of active lava flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Mike; Pinkerton, Harry; Applegarth, Jane

    2010-05-01

    In order to increase our understanding of the processes involved in the evolution of lava flow fields, detailed and frequent assessments of the activity and the topographic change involved are required. Although topographic data of sufficient accuracy and resolution can be acquired by airborne lidar, the cost and logistics generally prohibit repeats at the daily (or more frequent) intervals necessary to assess flow processes. More frequent surveys can be carried out using ground-based terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) but on volcanic terrain such instruments generally have ranges of only several hundreds of metres, with long range variants extending to ~1100 m. Here, we report preliminary results from the use of a new, ground-based Riegl LPM-321 instrument with a quoted maximum range of 6000 m. The LPM-321 was deployed at Mount Etna, Sicily during July 2009. At this time, active lava flows from the waning 2008-9 eruption were restricted to the upper region of a lava delta that had accumulated over the course of the eruption. Relatively small (a few hundreds of metres in length) and short lived (of order a few days) flows were being effused from a region of tumuli at the head of the delta. The instrument was used from three locations, Schiena dell' Àsino, the head of the Valle del Bove and Pizzi Deneri. From Schiena dell' Àsino, most of the 2008-9 lava flows could be observed, but, due to low reflectivities and viewing distances of ~4500 m, the active regions of the flows were out of range. The longest return was acquired from a range of 3978 m, but successful returns at this range were sparse; for dense topographic data, data were best acquired over distances of less than ~3500 m. The active flows were successfully imaged from the head of the Valle del Bove (9 and 12 July, 2009) and Pizzi Deneri (6 July, 2009). Despite low effusion rates (~1 m3s-1), topographic change associated with the emplacement and inflation of new flows and the inflation of a tumulus was

  5. Estimating rheological properties of lava flows using high-resolution time lapse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Applegarth, L. J.; Pinkerton, H.; Fryer, T.

    2011-12-01

    During effusive eruptions, property and infrastructure can be threatened by lava flow inundation. In order to maximise the effectiveness of the response to such an event, it is necessary to be able to reliably forecast the area that will be affected. One of the major controls on the advance of a lava flow is its rheology, which is spatially and temporally variable, and depends on many underlying factors. Estimating the rheological properties of a lava flow, and the change in these over space and time is therefore of the utmost importance. Here we report estimates of rheological properties made from geometric and velocity measurements on integrated topographic and image data using the method of Ellis et al. (2004) (Ellis B, Wilson L & Pinkerton H (2004) Estimating the rheology of basaltic lava flows. Lunar & Planetary Science XXXV Abst. 1550). These are then compared to the viscosity predicted from composition and temperature by the GRD model (Giordano D, Russell JK, & Dingwell DB (2008) Viscosity of Magmatic Liquids: A Model. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 271, 123-134). During the 13 May 2008 - 6 July 2009 eruption of Mt Etna, Sicily, lava flows were emplaced into the Valle del Bove, reaching a maximum length of >6 km. Towards the end of the eruption, multiple channelized aa flows were active simultaneously, reaching tens to hundreds of metres in length. Flow lifetimes were of the order hours to days. In the last month of the eruption, we installed a Canon EOS 450D camera at Pizzi Deneri, on the north side of the Valle del Bove, to collect visible images at 15-minute intervals. On one day, topographic data (using a Riegl LPM-321 terrestrial laser scanner) and thermal images (using a FLIR Thermacam S40) were also collected from this location. The fronts of some of the larger flows were tracked through the time lapse image sequence. Using knowledge of the camera imaging geometry, the pixel tracks were reprojected onto the topographic surface to determine flow

  6. Unravelling complex processes during effusive volcanic eruptions using high resolution time-lapse imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, H.; James, M. R.; Applegarth, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    While lava flow models are being used successfully to predict areas that are liable to be covered during effusive eruptions, lavas that erupt for more than a few weeks have the potential to develop lava tubes, ephemeral vents and accidental breaches leading to new lava flow pathways. The processes resulting in each of these are not fully understood. Some of these may be related to variations in effusion rate during the eruption; others may be topographically-controlled. There is a therefore a need for a detailed analysis of the development of flow fields to improve our understanding of the factors that control maximum flow length of individual flows, ephemeral vent formation, accidental breaches, and the transition from channelled flows to tube-fed flows. During the final month of the 13 May 2008 to 6 July 2009 eruption into the Valle del Bove on Etna, four Canon EOS 450D cameras (3 visible and one modified to collect infrared images) were installed at critical locations around the rim of the Valle del Bove (Schiena dell’ Àsino, Monte Zoccolaro and Pizzi Deneri) to record the emplacement and development of lava flows erupted during this period. Some of the cameras collected images every 5 minutes, while others collected images every 15 minutes. During this time, active lava flows were restricted to the upper part of a large delta, individual flows lasted between a few hours and a few days and they had lengths ranging from tens to hundreds of metres. The resulting time-lapse images reveal significant reduction in mean flow lengths towards the end of the observation period; this is compatible with a marked decrease in effusion rate. Superimposed on this reduction, there were marked variations in effusion rate on shorter time periods. These short-term changes played a significant role in the development of breakouts and ephemeral vent formation and reactivation. The images also place constraints on the relative importance of factors controlling the maximum flow

  7. User's manual for the upper Delaware River riverine environmental flow decision support system (REFDSS), Version 1.1.2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.; Holmquist-Johnson, Chris; Hanson, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2006, the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field surveys, organized workshops, and performed analysis of habitat for trout and shad in the Upper Delaware River Basin. This work culminated in the development of decision support system software (the Delaware River DSS–DRDSS, Bovee and others, 2007) that works in conjunction with the Delaware River Basin Commission’s reservoir operations model, OASIS, to facilitate comparison of the habitat and water-delivery effects of alternative operating scenarios for the Basin. This original DRDSS application was developed in Microsoft Excel and is available to all interested parties through the FORT web site (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Software/DRDSS/). Initial user feedback on the original Excel-based DSS highlighted the need for a more user-friendly and powerful interface to effectively deliver the complex data and analyses encapsulated in the DSS. In order to meet this need, the USGS FORT and Northern Appalachian Research Branch (NARB) developed an entirely new graphical user interface (GUI) application. Support for this research was through the DOI WaterSmart program (http://www.doi.gov/watersmart/html/index.php) of which the USGS component is the National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/WaterSMART.html). The content and methodology of the new GUI interface emulates those of the original DSS with a few exceptions listed below. Refer to Bovee and others (2007) for the original information. Significant alterations to the original DSS include: • We moved from Excel-based data storage and processing to a more powerful database back end powered by SQLite. The most notable effect of this is that the previous maximum temporal extent of 10 years has been replaced by a dynamic extent that can now cover the entire period of record for which we have data (1928–2000). • We incorporated interactive geographic information system (GIS

  8. The initial phases of the 2008-2009 Mount Etna eruption: A multidisciplinary approach for hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Bonforte, A.; Calvari, S.; Del Negro, C.; di Grazia, G.; Ganci, G.; Neri, M.; Vicari, A.; Boschi, E.

    2011-03-01

    Between 2007 and early 2008, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) monitoring networks on Etna volcano recorded a recharging phase that climaxed with a new effusive eruption on 13 May 2008 and lasted about 14 months. A dike-forming intrusion was accompanied by a violent seismic swarm, with more than 230 events recorded in the first 6 h, the largest being ML = 3.9. In the meanwhile, marked ground deformation was recorded by the permanent tilt and GPS networks, and sudden changes in the summit area were detected by five continuously recording magnetic stations. Poor weather conditions did not allow direct observation of the eruptive events, but important information was provided by infrared satellite images that detected the start of lava fountains from the eruptive fissure, feeding a lava flow. This flow spread within the Valle del Bove depression, covering 6.4 km on the southeastern flank of the volcano in a few hours. The seismicity and deformation pattern indicated that the dike-forming intrusion was propagating northward. It produced a dry fracture field, which generated concern for the possibility that the eruptive fissures could expand downslope toward populated areas. Monitoring and modeling of the multidisciplinary data, together with the simulations of ash dispersal and lava flows, allowed us both to infer the eruptive mechanisms and to provide correct interpretation of the ongoing phenomena, furnishing useful information for civil defense purposes. We describe how this approach of feedback between monitoring and research provides critical support to risk evaluation.

  9. Guidelines for using the Delphi Technique to develop habitat suitability index curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (SI) curves are one method of presenting species habitat suitability criteria. The curves are often used with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and are necessary components of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) (Armour et al. 1984). Bovee (1986) described three categories of SI curves or habitat suitability criteria based on the procedures and data used to develop the criteria. Category I curves are based on professional judgment, with 1ittle or no empirical data. Both Category II (utilization criteria) and Category III (preference criteria) curves have as their source data collected at locations where target species are observed or collected. Having Category II and Category III curves for all species of concern would be ideal. In reality, no SI curves are available for many species, and SI curves that require intensive field sampling often cannot be developed under prevailing constraints on time and costs. One alternative under these circumstances is the development and interim use of SI curves based on expert opinion. The Delphi technique (Pill 1971; Delbecq et al. 1975; Linstone and Turoff 1975) is one method used for combining the knowledge and opinions of a group of experts. The purpose of this report is to describe how the Delphi technique may be used to develop expert-opinion-based SI curves.

  10. Spatially resolved SO2 flux emissions from Mt Etna

    PubMed Central

    Bitetto, M.; Delle Donne, D.; Tamburello, G.; Battaglia, A.; Coltelli, M.; Patanè, D.; Prestifilippo, M.; Sciotto, M.; Aiuppa, A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report on a systematic record of SO2 flux emissions from individual vents of Etna volcano (Sicily), which we obtained using a permanent UV camera network. Observations were carried out in summer 2014, a period encompassing two eruptive episodes of the New South East Crater (NSEC) and a fissure‐fed eruption in the upper Valle del Bove. We demonstrate that our vent‐resolved SO2 flux time series allow capturing shifts in activity from one vent to another and contribute to our understanding of Etna's shallow plumbing system structure. We find that the fissure eruption contributed ~50,000 t of SO2 or ~30% of the SO2 emitted by the volcano during the 5 July to 10 August eruptive interval. Activity from this eruptive vent gradually vanished on 10 August, marking a switch of degassing toward the NSEC. Onset of degassing at the NSEC was a precursory to explosive paroxysmal activity on 11–15 August. PMID:27773952

  11. Elasticity of Hydrogen at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. F.; Decremps, F.; Gauthier, M.; Ayrinhac, S.; Antonangeli, D.; Freiman, Y. A.; Grechnev, A.; Tretyak, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    High-pressure elastic properties of hydrogen give insight into anisotropy, equation of state, thermodynamic properties, and intermolecular potentials of this material providing an important link to ultrahigh pressure behavior approaching transformation to metallic monatomic or molecular state. Here we present picosecond acoustics measurements of compressional sound velocities [1] combined with optical interferometry and Raman spectroscopy of H2 and D2 at 295 K up to 55 GPa. Using the equation of state determined previously [2], we deduced the transverse sound velocities and the Poisson's ratio up to 55 GPa. The latter shows a broad minimum near 45 GPa (c.f. Ref. [3]) providing a new experimentally proven insight into lattice dynamics of hydrogen at high pressure that can be compared to theoretical calculations of various levels [4]. [1] F. Decremps, M. Gauthier, S. Ayrinhac, L. Bove, L. Belliard, B. Perrin, M. Morand, G. Le Marchand, F. Bergame, J. Philippe, Ultrasonics, 56 (2015) 129-140. [2] P. Loubeyre, R. LeToullec, D. Hausermann, M. Hanfland, R.J. Hemley, H.K. Mao, L.W. Finger, Nature, 383 (1996) 702-704. [3] C.-s. Zha, T.S. Duffy, H.-k. Mao, R.J. Hemley, Phys. Rev. B, 48 (1993) 9246-9255. [4] Y.A. Freiman, A. Grechnev, S.M. Tretyak, A.F. Goncharov, E. Gregoryanz, Fizika Nizkikh Temperatur, 41 (2015) 571.

  12. Acoustic specifications for the design of jet engine test facilities on an airbase

    SciTech Connect

    Strumpf, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The use of engine run up test arrangements was common in Israeli air-bases since the forties, when engines for the Mustang, Mosquito, Harward and other propellor powered planes were used. The era of jet engine propulsion boosted the noise levels, and the use of fighters with afterburners in the new engines of the 80's brought it up to unbearable levels. Thus, the growth of the Israeli Air Force demanded the use of efficient noise suppression devices. These were divided into engine run-up noise suppressors, and aircraft noise suppessors (Hush Houses). For both of the bove ground arrangements, acoustic specifications had to be given. They were, as well as design goals for the manufacturers, also needed to restrict noise levels on the air-base as well as its surroundings. The acoustic specifications discussed are based on measured data, and permitted noise levels in the homes on the base being as far as 2500 meters from the engine exhaust silencer. For the special air-base discussed, various criteria were tested, including US Military Specifications, none of which were acceptable, and a special specification was therefore prepared.

  13. Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

  14. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    PubMed Central

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  15. Opponent-motion mechanisms are self-normalizing.

    PubMed

    Rainville, Stéphane J M; Makous, Walter L; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2005-04-01

    In the ultimate stage of the Adelson-Bergen motion energy model [Adelson, E. H., & Bergen, J. (1985). Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of motion. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 2, 284-299], motion is derived from the difference between directionally opponent energies E(L) and E(R). However, Georgeson and Scott-Samuel [Georgeson, M. A., & Scott-Samuel, N. E. (1999). Motion contrast: A new metric for direction discrimination. Vision Research, 39, 4393-4402] demonstrated that motion contrast-a metric that normalizes opponent motion energy (E(L)-E(R)) by flicker energy (E(L)+E(R))-is a better descriptor of human direction discrimination. In a previous study [Rainville, S. J. M., Makous, W. L., & Scott-Samuel, N. E. (2002). The spatial properties of opponent-motion normalization. Vision Research, 42, 1727-1738], we used a lateral masking paradigm to show that opponent-motion normalization is selective for flicker position, orientation, and spatial-frequency. In the present study, we used a superposition masking paradigm and compared results to lateral masking data, as the two masking types activate local and remote normalization mechanisms differentially. Although selectivity for flicker orientation and spatial frequency varied across observers, bandwidths were similar across lateral and superimposed masking conditions. Additional experiments demonstrated that normalization signals are pooled over a spatial region whose aspect ratio and size are consistent with those of local motion detectors. Together, results show no evidence of remote normalization signals predicted by broadband inhibitory models [(e.g.) Heeger, D. J. (1992). Normalization of cell responses in cat striate cortex. Visual Neuroscience, 9, 181-197; Foley, J. M. (1994). Human luminance pattern-vision mechanisms: Masking experiments require a new model. Journal of the Optical Society of America A-Optics and Image Science, 11, 1710-1719] but support a local normalization process

  16. KSC-04PD-0774

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Florida Gov. Jeb Bush thanks KSC Director James W. Kennedy (right) for hosting the ceremony to launch the new Florida quarter at the KSC Visitor Complex. The backdrop is a map of the United States, illustrating the state quarters issued to date. Also on stage are, from left, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman, and NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  17. Dawbeney Turbervile, MD (1612-1696).

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2012-03-01

    The year 2012 marks the quatercentenary of the birth of Dawbeney Turbervile,MD(1612-1696), one-time Royalist soldier and later ophthalmologist to England’s Princess Anne, the diarist Samuel Pepys, the natural philosopher Robert Boyle, and the astronomer Walter Pope. Turbervile is remarkable for many reasons: He specialized at a time when generalization was prized; though he was a qualified physician, he also practiced the trade of surgery. Furthermore, he provided in his communications with the Royal Society early descriptions of achromatopsia, ocular foreign body removal with a magnet, and tic doloreaux. He is a forebear worth remembering

  18. Hector Berlioz and other famous artists with opium abuse.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Paul L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of opium on the creativity and productivity of a famous composer of classical music, an essayist, and poets including Hector Berlioz, Thomas De Quincy, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, and Jean Cocteau, is described. Opium is a narcotic drug prepared from the juice of the unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy. It contains alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, and papaverine. Medically it is used to relieve pain and produce sleep. It is used as an intoxicant. Alcohol and opium were commonly relied on in the 19th century, especially by artists, to stimulate creativity and relieve stress. These artists described the effect of opium on their creativity and productivity.

  19. One Small Step for the Gram Stain, One Giant Leap for Clinical Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Richard B

    2016-06-01

    The Gram stain is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory, yet it is poorly controlled and lacks standardization. It was once the best rapid test in microbiology, but it is no longer trusted by many clinicians. The publication by Samuel et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 54:1442-1447, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03066-15) is a start for those who want to evaluate and improve Gram stain performance. In an age of emerging rapid molecular results, is the Gram stain still relevant? How should clinical microbiologists respond to the call to reduce Gram stain error rates? PMID:27008876

  20. KSC-04PD-0803

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Standing under the orbiter Atlantis, Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach (second from right) provides information about the tiles and Thermal Protection System for NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (second from left) and Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (far right). OKeefe and Bush toured the Orbiter Processing Facility following the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  1. KSC-04PD-0752

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As master of ceremonies, Center Director Jim Kennedy opens the event at the KSC Visitor Complex launching the new Florida quarter. On stage with him are (left to right) astronaut Scott Kelly, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  2. KSC-04PD-0762

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman remarks on the design of the new Florida quarter at its launch ceremony. Sharing the stage with him at the KSC Visitor Complex are, from left, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and KSC Director James W. Kennedy. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  3. KSC-04PD-0756

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- It is standing room only at the launching ceremony for the new Florida quarter held at the KSC Visitor Complex. Emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy, the event included comments by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The coin was presented by U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Florida Gov. Jeb Bush. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  4. KSC-04PD-0768

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore addresses the audience at a ceremony to launch the new Florida quarter, held at the KSC Visitor Complex, as Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman presents Florida Gov. Jeb Bush with a set of 'first-strike' quarters. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  5. KSC-04PD-0769

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- From left, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman, and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe participate in the launching ceremony for the new Florida quarter, held at the KSC Visitor Complex. In the background is a map of the United States illustrating the state quarters issued to date. The newly unveiled quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  6. KSC-04PD-0802

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (center) and his wife, Columba (left), listen to NASA Vehicle Manager Scott Thurston talk about the orbiter Atlantis overhead. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  7. KSC-04PD-0755

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe comments on the design of the new Florida quarter during the ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex that launched the coin. Sharing the stage with him are Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman and Center Director Jim Kennedy, who emceed. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  8. KSC-04PD-0751

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During opening ceremonies at the KSC Visitor Complex launching the new Florida quarter, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (left) and U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore (right) stand at attention while fourth grader Alexandra Schenck, from Merritt Island Christian School, sings the national anthem. Also participating in the event were NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. Center Director Jim Kennedy emceed the ceremonies. . The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  9. KSC-04PD-0759

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe yields the podium to Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman at a ceremony to launch the new Florida quarter. Sharing the stage with him at the KSC Visitor Complex are Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery - a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  10. KSC-04PD-0753

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe comments on the design of the new Florida quarter during the ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex that launched the coin. Sharing the stage with him are Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. Also participating were Center Director Jim Kennedy, who emceed, and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  11. KSC-04PD-0757

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- On the stage framed between the orbiter mockup and SRB-external tank exhibit at the KSC Visitor Complex, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe comments on the design of the new Florida quarter during the launch ceremony. Sharing the stage with him are Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman and Center Director Jim Kennedy, who emceed. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  12. KSC-04PD-0764

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- It is standing room only at the launching ceremony for the new Florida quarter held at the KSC Visitor Complex. Emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy, the event included comments by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The coin was presented by U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore to Florida Gov. Jeb Bush. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  13. KSC-04PD-0775

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- KSC Director James W. Kennedy thanks the standing-room-only crowd for attending the ceremony to launch the new Florida quarter at the KSC Visitor Complex. The backdrop is a map of the United States, illustrating the state quarters issued to date. Also on stage are, from left, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman, and NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  14. KSC-04PD-0804

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (left) listens to NASA Vehicle Manager Scott Thurston talk about the orbiter Atlantis overhead. At right is Center Director Jim Kennedy. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Kennedy and included remarks by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  15. KSC-04PD-0749

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As master of ceremonies, Center Director Jim Kennedy opens the event at the KSC Visitor Complex launching the new Florida quarter. He introduced Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (right) who helped present the new coin. Also participating were NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman and U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  16. KSC-04PD-0805

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- On a tour of the Orbiter Processing Facility, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush (back to camera in white shirt) learns about work being done on the orbiter Endeavour (background). Accompanying him is U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore (at right of Bush). The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  17. KSC-04PD-0754

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe comments on the design of the new Florida quarter during the ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex that launched the coin. Also participating were Center Director Jim Kennedy, who emceed, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The quarter celebrates Florida as a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for future explorers into space and an inviting place for visitors today.

  18. Thomsonian medical books and the culture of dissent in Upper Canada.

    PubMed

    Connor, J J

    1995-01-01

    Adherents to American lay healer Samuel Thomson's system of medicine have been viewed in Canada primarily as antagonists of mainstream medicine. Their publishing activities, however, reveal a wide reform impulse. As this discussion illustrates by considering publishers, printers, editors, and compilers of Thomsonian books in Upper Canada, most had links--real and temperamental--to Reform politics and to dissenting Protestant beliefs, especially Methodism. Their publications may thus be viewed as vehicles for social change in a British colony having a strong Tory alliance between church and state.

  19. From the Proton Synchroton to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The seminars will be held in the Main Auditorium with transmission to : Council Chamber, IT Auditorium, Prévessin BE Auditorium , Kjell Johnssen Auditorium in Building 30, Room 40-S2-A01, and via webcast. Confirmed Speakers include: Prof. Jack Steinberger, Dr. Guenther Plass, Prof. Emilio Picasso, Dr. Steve Myers, Prof. Carlo Rubbia, Prof. Burton Richter, Dr. Lyndon Evans, Prof. Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Prof. Leon Lederman, Prof. Jim Cronin, Prof. Sheldon Glashow, Prof. Jerome Friedman, Prof. Frank Wilczek, Prof. Martinus Veltman, Prof. Gerardus 't Hooft, Prof. David Gross, Prof. Samuel Ting, Prof. Steven Weinberg (via teleconference) --- Contact: Directorate.Office@cern.ch

  20. STS-35/Astro-1: Editors Work Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Live footage shows preparation for the Astro-1 mission. Scenes include Payload Bay door closing, Rollover to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) from OPF, the STS-35/Astro rollout to Pad-A, Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) Servicing, and crew arrival for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Tests (TCDT). The crewmembers of STS-35, Commander Vance D. Brand, Pilot Guy S. Gardner, and Mission Specialists Jeffrey A. Hoffman, John M. Lounge, Robert A. Parker, Samuel T. Durrance, and Ronald A. Parise, are shown participating in various training activities. Activities include driving the M113 vehicle, participating in emergency training, and addressing the press upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center.

  1. STS-35: Astronaut Departure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was the round-the-clock observations of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X ray astronomy with ASTRO-1. The mission was commanded by Vance D. Brand. The crew consisted of the pilot Guy S. Gardner, the mission Specialists Jeffery Hoffman, John Lounge, and Robert Parker, and the payload specialists Samuel Durrance, and Ronald Parise. This videotape shows the astronauts leaving the Kennedy Space Center after one of the attempts to launch the mission was scrubbed due to hydrogen leaks aboard the shuttle Columbia.

  2. The West family chiropractic dynasty: celebrating a century of accomplishment in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    This historical paper documents the unbroken legacy of the West family of chiropractors which has flourished in Canada for over 100 years. Part I, unearthed the origins, development and careers of Archibald West, the founder of this dynasty, his son Samuel and grandson Stephen. Part II, delves into the life of Archie’s brother Samson, and Samson’s chiropractic progeny: grandsons David and Neil, and great granddaughter Megan. Then it goes back to look at Stephen West’s nephew, R. Ian Buchanan and ends with a descendant of another branch of the family tree, James L. West. PMID:21629465

  3. An unknown treasure in Brugge (Bruges): the oldest portrait of Andreas Vesallius on a stained glass window.

    PubMed

    Steeno, Omer P; Deruyttere, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Four iconographic pictures of Andreas Vesalius on glass painted windows, in Rochester, Minnesota, USA; Leuven (Louvain, Belgium); Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA; and Innsbruck (Austria), were made in the period between 1943 and 1956. Recently, we have found in Brugge (Bruges) a much older portrait of Vesalius, in the form of a medallion on glass. It was painted between 1860 and 1870 by Samuel Coucke who had been commissioned by Dr. François Vanden Abeele for the decoration of his medical office. PMID:19579335

  4. Pufendorf on Passions and Sociability.

    PubMed

    Haara, Heikki

    2016-07-01

    Samuel Pufendorf is known for his normative natural law philosophy, and particularly for his theory of sociability. This article concentrates on a topic that has received very little attention - his theory of the motivating character of passions in social life. It will demonstrate that individually and politically governed passions play a central role in Pufendorf's description of the structure of human societies. I argue that for Pufendorf the norms of sociability are effective in social life because social interaction, guided by political governance, enables people to moderate their antisocial passions and habituate themselves to sociable passions. PMID:27477344

  5. [The problem of reforms in the European medicine between 16th and 19th century in the light of selected concepts of methodology of the history of science].

    PubMed

    Plonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    The article depicts major concepts present in the contemporary historiography of medicine (positivistic and social-cultural trends) and some of the concepts of modern methodology of the history of science, reviewing the possibilities of its use in the analysis of the process of modernizing the European medicine that was implemented between the 16th and the 19th century. The author advocates the social-cultural trend that dominates the contemporary historiography of medicine. She discusses and analyzes the concepts developed by Ludwik Fleck, Samuel Kuhn, Imre Lakatos, Kurt Godl, Stefan Amsterdamski in respect of their sue to a historian of modern medicine.

  6. Book Review: The Sun Kings: The Unexpected Tragedy of Richard Carrington and the Tale of How Modern Astronomy Began

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, Edward W.

    2008-11-01

    Stuart Clark's The Sun Kings, the story of the nineteenth-century astronomers, natural philosophers, and magneticians who established solar-terrestrial science, is a must read for members of the space weather community. Designated the Best Professional/Scholarly Book in Cosmology and Astronomy for 2007 by the Association of American Publishers and shortlisted for the Royal Society General Prize for Science Books for 2008, The Sun Kings recounts the heroic scientific advances-of Alexander von Humboldt, Samuel Schwabe, Edward Sabine, Richard Carrington, Edward Maunder, George Hale, and others-that showed that Earth's magnetic storms originate at the Sun.

  7. Lessey and Gambino nominations. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, April 16, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Samuel Kenric Lessey, Jr. and Robert W. Gambino, nominees for Inspector General and Deputy Inspector General, respectively, of the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC), made statements on the objectives of the SFC and their responsibilities if appointed. The principal role of the Inspectors General is to conduct audits, investigations, and inspections to prevent or detect fraud and wrongdoing. Also included are statements from Senators from New Mexico, New Hampshire, Hawaii, Idaho, and Virginia. Informational statements of the two nominees appear in the appendix. (DCK)

  8. Exxon Valdez oil spill. A report to the president

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    Prepared by the National Response Team, the report was requested by the President and undertaken by Secretary of Transportation Samuel K. Skinner and Environmental Protection Agency Administrator William K. Reilly. The report addresses the preparedness for, the response to, and early lessons learned from the Exxon Valdez incident. The President has also asked Secretary Skinner to coordinate the efforts of all federal agencies involved in the cleanup and Administrator Reilly to coordinate the long-term recovery of the affected areas of the Alaskan environment. The efforts are ongoing.

  9. John Twysden and John Palmer: 17th-century Northamptonshire astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    John Twysden (1607-1688) and John Palmer (1612-1679) were two astronomers in the circle of Samuel Foster (circa 1600-1652), the subject of a recent paper in this journal. John Twysden qualified in law and medicine and led a peripatetic life around England and Europe. John Palmer was Rector of Ecton, Northamptonshire and later Archdeacon of Northampton. The two astronomers catalogued observations made from Northamptonshire from the 1640s to the 1670s. In their later years Twysden and Palmer published works on a variety of topics, often astronomical. Palmer engaged in correspondence with Henry Oldenburg, the first secretary of the Royal Society, on topics in astronomy and mathematics.

  10. Cusp Dynamics-Particle Acceleration by Alfven Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ergun, Robert E.; Parker, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    Successful results were obtained from this research project. This investigation answered and/or made progresses on each of the four important questions that were proposed: (1) How do Alfven waves propagate on dayside open field lines? (2) How are precipitating electrons influenced by propagating Alfven waves? (3) How are various cusp electron distributions generated? (4) How are Alfven waves modified by electrons? During the first year of this investigation, the input parameters, such as density and temperature altitude profiles, of the gyrofluid code on the cusp field lines were constructed based on 3-point satellite observations. The initial gyrofluid result was presented at the GEM meeting by Dr. Samuel Jones.

  11. From the Proton Synchroton to the Large Hadron Collider - 50 Years of Nobel Memories in High-Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-07

    The seminars will be held in the Main Auditorium with transmission to : Council Chamber, IT Auditorium, Prévessin BE Auditorium , Kjell Johnssen Auditorium in Building 30, Room 40-S2-A01, and via webcast. Confirmed Speakers include: Prof. Jack Steinberger, Dr. Guenther Plass, Prof. Emilio Picasso, Dr. Steve Myers, Prof. Carlo Rubbia, Prof. Burton Richter, Dr. Lyndon Evans, Prof. Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Prof. Leon Lederman, Prof. Jim Cronin, Prof. Sheldon Glashow, Prof. Jerome Friedman, Prof. Frank Wilczek, Prof. Martinus Veltman, Prof. Gerardus 't Hooft, Prof. David Gross, Prof. Samuel Ting, Prof. Steven Weinberg (via teleconference) --- Contact: Directorate.Office@cern.ch

  12. Official STS-67 preflight crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Official STS-67 preflight crew portrait. In front are astronauts (left to right) Stephen S. Oswald, mission commander; Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander; and William G. Gregory, pilot. In the back are (left to right) Ronald A. Parise, payload specialist; astronauts Wendy B. Lawrence, and John Grunsfeld, both mission specialists; and Samuel T. Durrance, payload specialist. Dr. Durrance is a research scientist in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. Dr. Parise is a senior scientist in the Space Observatories Department, Computer Sciences Corporation, Silver Spring, Maryland. Both payload specialists flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia for STS-35/ASTRO-1 mission in December 1990.

  13. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  14. Thomsonian medical books and the culture of dissent in Upper Canada.

    PubMed

    Connor, J J

    1995-01-01

    Adherents to American lay healer Samuel Thomson's system of medicine have been viewed in Canada primarily as antagonists of mainstream medicine. Their publishing activities, however, reveal a wide reform impulse. As this discussion illustrates by considering publishers, printers, editors, and compilers of Thomsonian books in Upper Canada, most had links--real and temperamental--to Reform politics and to dissenting Protestant beliefs, especially Methodism. Their publications may thus be viewed as vehicles for social change in a British colony having a strong Tory alliance between church and state. PMID:11609081

  15. Dawbeney Turbervile, MD (1612-1696).

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2012-03-01

    The year 2012 marks the quatercentenary of the birth of Dawbeney Turbervile,MD(1612-1696), one-time Royalist soldier and later ophthalmologist to England’s Princess Anne, the diarist Samuel Pepys, the natural philosopher Robert Boyle, and the astronomer Walter Pope. Turbervile is remarkable for many reasons: He specialized at a time when generalization was prized; though he was a qualified physician, he also practiced the trade of surgery. Furthermore, he provided in his communications with the Royal Society early descriptions of achromatopsia, ocular foreign body removal with a magnet, and tic doloreaux. He is a forebear worth remembering PMID:22411681

  16. Fraud, misinformation and the open culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pointon, Tony

    2009-08-01

    Both Eugenie Samuel Reich's article on the Schön fraud (May pp24-29) and the letters you published in response (July p19) have treated the case as a matter affecting science. Yet it is much broader. False information is disseminated on a regular basis in the public media, less so in professional journals. Some people may be harmed by that misinformation; others may gain - for example by people spreading rumours that affect the stock market. It can happen with the auction of items based on false provenance. It can also happen by people claiming credit for something they have not done.

  17. Illnesses of the brain in John Quincy Adams.

    PubMed

    Paulson, George

    2004-12-01

    John Quincy Adams, the sixth and perhaps most scholarly American president, served courageously despite familial essential tremor, depression, and cerebrovascular disease. His cousin Samuel Adams and his father John Adams also had essential tremor, which the later called "quiveration". Alcoholism and depression affected several members of J.Q. Adams's family. Following his own time as president, J.Q. Adams returned to duty as the congressman who most assiduously fought slavery, a fight he continued even after he had suffered a major left hemispheric stroke. His fatal collapse in Congress, protesting the Mexican War, is legendary among the final illnesses of American statesmen. PMID:15545105

  18. The Ancient Mariner and the transit of Venus.

    PubMed

    Griffin-Short, Rita

    2003-12-01

    The achievements of William Wales FRS - astronomer, classical scholar, demographer, editor, mathematician, meteorologist and humane teacher - have been overshadowed by the fame of Cook's extraordinary voyages, and overlooked as a significant influence on Samuel Taylor Coleridge's early development. The Royal Society sent Wales to Hudson Bay, Canada, and James Cook to Tahiti, both to observe the 1769 transit of Venus as part of an international project to calculate solar parallax, and hence the distance to the Sun. Wales later taught mathematics and navigation science at Christ's Hospital School to a precocious Coleridge, whose creative mind translated tales of polar adventures into memorable poetry.

  19. Illnesses of the brain in John Quincy Adams.

    PubMed

    Paulson, George

    2004-12-01

    John Quincy Adams, the sixth and perhaps most scholarly American president, served courageously despite familial essential tremor, depression, and cerebrovascular disease. His cousin Samuel Adams and his father John Adams also had essential tremor, which the later called "quiveration". Alcoholism and depression affected several members of J.Q. Adams's family. Following his own time as president, J.Q. Adams returned to duty as the congressman who most assiduously fought slavery, a fight he continued even after he had suffered a major left hemispheric stroke. His fatal collapse in Congress, protesting the Mexican War, is legendary among the final illnesses of American statesmen.

  20. Transits of Venus, 1761 and 1769.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Transits of Venus of 1761 and 1769 were widely anticipated, due to the efforts of Edmond Halley and Joseph-Nicolas Delisle in promoting observations to determine solar parallax. Extensive planning resulted in widespread participation; with at least 110 different observing stations stations worldwide for one or both of the events. Results from the 1761 expeditions derived solar parallax measurements between 8.28 and 10.60 arc seconds. The 1769 results were much better, 8.43 to 8.80 arc seconds, as compared with the accurate value of 8.79 arc seconds. This presentation will note the efforts of Halley, Delisle, and James Ferguson in promoting scientific observation of the transit. The poster will include the observations of Thorbern Bergman at Uppsala, Sweden; Samuel Dunn at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich; Charles Green at King George's Island; Samuel Horsley at Oxford; and William Smith at Norriton. These observers are distinguished from their contemporaries by the interesting graphic aids they used to present their studies.

  1. Representation and transformation of Langley's map of the infrared solar spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loettgers, Andrea

    In 1900, after 18 years of research, the American astrophysicist Samuel Pierpont Langley published the final report of his investigations in the infrared region of the solar spectrum. (See Samuel P. Langley: Annals of the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution, Vol. 1, Washington: Goverment Printing Office, 1900.) In this report one finds three different types of maps of the infrared region, extending from 1.1 mu-m to 5.3 mu-m and showing the positions of 750 absorption lines: a bolograph, a line spectrum and a normal spectrum. (The bolograph, the line spectrum and the normal spectrum are accessible as pl. XX and XXIV at http://adsbit.harvard.edu/books/saoann/.) Looking at these three distinct forms of representation raises the questions: Why did Langley decide to use three representations for the visualization of his results? How are these distinct representations connected? An analysis of the first question will provide further insight into the ``connection between instruments, practices, and the visual'', into the recording, evaluation and processing of the data and, furthermore, into the historical and disciplinary contexts. The prevailing trend toward the automation of measuring and registration processes, and the associated claim of `mechanical objectivity', together with standards concerning precision and completeness set by Henry Rowland's photographic measurements in the visible part of the spectrum, turn out to be the strongest elements in the development of the different forms of representation and their respective transformations.

  2. The origins of American physical anthropology in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Mann, Alan

    2009-01-01

    With its location on a river with easy access to the sea, its central placement between the English speaking colonies to the north and south and its trading connections with the western frontier, there were many reasons Philadelphia became one of the most important towns of prerevolutionary America. In the early 1770s, it was the site of the first meeting organized to deal with the perceived inequities of the British government toward the colonies. It was where Thomas Jefferson wrote much of the Declaration of Independence, whose soaring statements reflecting the Age of Enlightenment spoke of the equality of all men. It was to this debate, centered on just who was included in this declaration that the origins of physical anthropology in America can be traced. Notable men in the early phases of this disputation included Samuel Stanhope Smith and especially Samuel George Morton, considered the founder of American physical anthropology. The American School of Anthropology, which argued for the polygenic origins of human races was substantially founded on Morton's work. Recent accusations that Morton manipulated data to support his racist views would appear unfounded. The publication of The Origin of Species in 1859 and the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1862-63 effectively ended the earlier debates. By the time of the American Civil War, 1861-65, physical anthropology was beginning to explore other topics including growth and development and anthropometry. PMID:19890866

  3. Magma evolution in the Ellittico volcano sequence outcropping at Serra Giannicola Grande, Mt. Etna, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristofolini, R.; de Rosa, R.; Ferlito, C.; Tripodo, M.

    2003-04-01

    The volcanic sequence examined here outcrops at Serra Giannicola Grande, along the south-western wall of the Valle del Bove (Mt. Etna Volcano), at an elevation between 2230 and 2700 m (Cristofolini et al., 2002). It is referred to the activity of the Ellittico volcanic complex (Ferlito &Cristofolini, 1989), and unconformably lies over on an erosional surface of the Cuvigghiuni synthem (Calvari et al., 1994). Petrological and geochimical investigations on lava flows, showed that: -The analyzed rocks have a Na-alkaline affinity and cover a compositional range from hawaiites to benmoreites and trachytes. -The common mineral association (pl+cpx+ol+mt) of Etnean lavas is present, both as phenocrysts and in groundmass; kaersutite as phenocryst phase isalso present in some of the samples. -The least differentiated lava flows, interbedded with volcanoclastic deposits in the middle part of the sequence, exhibit the widest compositional heterogeneity; they are referable to the existence of distinct magma batches, characterized by differing ascent rates and/or other processes, such as crustal contamination, occurring at shallow levels. It is noteworthy that mafic lavas differ in their contents of K (and Rb) and follow distinct trends of evolution. This suggests that magmas from at least two different sources were feeding the activity of the volcano. -The presence of the most differentiated lavas in the upper part of the sequence, is consistent with the presence of shallow reservoirs during the last stages of the Ellittico activity, where magmas could evolve due to crystal fractionation. The MELTS petrological code (Ghiorso &Sack, 1995) was used in order to quantify the evolution of the different magmas; this program simulates fractionation and assimilation processes in silicate melts under various physical and compositional conditions, and gives as a result compositions of residual liquids and of fractionated solid phases and their amounts. References Calvari, S., Groppelli

  4. Classical and quantum theories of proton disorder in hexagonal water ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Owen; Sikora, Olga; Shannon, Nic

    2016-03-01

    It has been known since the pioneering work of Bernal, Fowler, and Pauling that common, hexagonal (Ih) water ice is the archetype of a frustrated material: a proton-bonded network in which protons satisfy strong local constraints (the "ice rules") but do not order. While this proton disorder is well established, there is now a growing body of evidence that quantum effects may also have a role to play in the physics of ice at low temperatures. In this paper, we use a combination of numerical and analytic techniques to explore the nature of proton correlations in both classical and quantum models of ice Ih. In the case of classical ice Ih, we find that the ice rules have two, distinct, consequences for scattering experiments: singular "pinch points," reflecting a zero-divergence condition on the uniform polarization of the crystal, and broad, asymmetric features, coming from its staggered polarization. In the case of the quantum model, we find that the collective quantum tunneling of groups of protons can convert states obeying the ice rules into a quantum liquid, whose excitations are birefringent, emergent photons. We make explicit predictions for scattering experiments on both classical and quantum ice Ih, and show how the quantum theory can explain the "wings" of incoherent inelastic scattering observed in recent neutron scattering experiments [Bove et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 165901 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.165901]. These results raise the intriguing possibility that the protons in ice Ih could form a quantum liquid at low temperatures, in which protons are not merely disordered, but continually fluctuate between different configurations obeying the ice rules.

  5. Role of the Westerlies in the Ocean's Overturning and Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toggweiler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Thirteen years ago, Bonnie Samuels and I proposed that the formation and overturning of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the ocean's quintessential "thermohaline" circulation, might in fact be a response to the westerly winds that overlie the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) in the Southern Hemisphere (Toggweiler, J. R. and B. Samuels, Deep-Sea Res. I, 42, 477-500, 1995). Our idea was based on an experiment carried out in an ocean model in which the wind stress on the ocean south of 30 deg. S was raised and lowered by 50 percent. Little did we know that Mother Nature was carrying out a similar experiment, as the strongest westerlies had been shifting poleward and are better aligned with the ACC now than they were 50 years ago. It may just be a matter of time before the effect that Samuels and I wrote about can be seen, or not seen, in observations. The upwelling forced by the southern westerlies also draws CO2-rich deep water up to the surface around Antarctica, such that a poleward shift of the westerlies also causes CO2 to be vented up to the atmosphere from the deep ocean. Because the poleward shift is thought to be caused in part by global warming and higher CO2, the CO2 coming out of the deep ocean could reinforce the upwelling via further changes in the westerlies. The amount of CO2 coming out of the ocean is small compared to anthropogenic emissions so this reinforcement is probably not important today. It could, however, have been hugely important as the climate warmed at the end of the last ice age, when the deep ocean was the main source of higher CO2 (Toggweiler. J. R., J. Russel, and S. Carson, Paleoceanography, 21, PA2005, doi:10.1029/2005PA001154, 2006). In this presentation I will discuss the latest thinking on the westerlies, ocean circulation, and atmospheric CO2 in relation to the following question: did higher CO2 feed back on the circulation and ventilation of the deep ocean via poleward-shifted westerlies at the end of the last ice age, or

  6. Newer insights to the neurological diseases among biblical characters of old testament.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Stephen K; Pandian, Jeyaraj D

    2010-07-01

    Many people over the years have studied the Bible from a medical point of view offering diagnoses for the symptoms and signs that appear to have afflicted numerous individuals in the Bible. We review the biblical characters in the Old Testament and offer newer insights to their neurological diseases. We first look at the battle between Goliath and David. Interestingly, Goliath probably suffered from acromegaly. We propose autism as a diagnosis for Samson which would precede the first known case of autism by centuries. Isaac was a diabetic, and he probably had autonomic neuropathy. Few verses from the books of I Samuel, Psalms, and Ezekiel reveal symptoms suggestive of stroke. Jacob suffered from sciatica, and the child of the Shunnamite woman in II Kings had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. These instances among others found in the Old Testament of the Bible offer newer insights on the history of current neurological diseases.

  7. Failure analysis of brass tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, S.J.; Bodnar, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    The 1996 Jacquet Lucas Award for Excellence in Metallography was won by Samuel J. Lawrence and Richard L. Bodnar for their analysis of cracks in Admiralty brass cooling tubes, which are part of a heat exchanger in a turbogenerator that provides electricity to a manufacturing plant. A mixture of non-recirculating city and spring pit water flows through bundles of tubes to cool the oil in which they are immersed. However, a problem developed when several of the brass tubes cracked transversely, allowing cooling water to mix with the oil. This award-winning entry in the ASM/IMS competition shows how the metallographers analyzed the cracks, and what the results were.

  8. The child is father of the man. Wordsworth's Ode: Intimations of immortality and his secret sharers.

    PubMed

    Glenn, J

    1995-01-01

    William Wordsworth's "Ode: Intimations of Immortality" is manifestly about both the poet's loss of inspirational perceptive powers and emotional intensity with age, and the compensations of maturity. It also refers to the poet's fear that he might lose his "secret sharers," real or fantasied, consciously or unconsciously conceived parent substitutes for whom and with whom one creates. Wordsworth anticipated that with his upcoming marriage he would lose his sister Dorothy and his close friend and collaborator Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who played important roles in his creativity. Optimism and relief replaced sadness when he realized that he was not deprived of his sharers. The concepts of "secret sharers" and "collective alternates" for whom one creates are intimately related.

  9. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keinonen, Junani

    Samuel Taylor Coleridge, British poet at the end of the 18th century, gave us a characterization of a scientist. “The first man of science was he who looked into a thing, not to learn whether it furnished him food, or shelter, or weapons, or tools, or armaments, or playwiths but who sought to know it for the gratification of knowing.” After those days the new generations of scientists have got different, less idealistic guidelines for their work. According to the Finnish science policy, Finland's economic, social and cultural development is based on knowledge and skills. It is generally accepted in our country that the consistent promotion of a national innovation system during the past ten years, has laid the foundation for the growth of knowledge and skills and their extensive utilization for the benefit of the individual and the community. The importance of benefits will be stated in the current change of the law about universities.

  10. PubMed Central

    Lépine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Interest in alternative medicine is increasing. Family physicians, frequently asked by patients about the merits of these practices, must increase their knowledge in order to develop an enlightened, scientific approach to the subject. Homeopathy is one such system of medicine; it was founded by Dr. Samuel Hahnemann nearly 200 years ago. Clinical research in homeopathy is in the very early stages. To date, clinical trials to determine the efficacy of individual homeopathic remedies and the validity of homeopathic theory generally have been inconclusive. It is to be hoped that clinical research in homeopathy will continue so that we can increase our knowledge and provide our patients with better answers to their questions. PMID:21249117

  11. A YANKEE AT OXFORD: JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER AT THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE AT OXFORD, 30 JUNE 1860.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, James C

    2016-06-20

    This paper contributes to the revisionist historiography on the legendary encounter between Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Henry Huxley at the 1860 meeting in Oxford of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. It discusses the contents of a series of letters written by John William Draper and his family reflecting on his experience at that meeting. The letters have recently been rediscovered and have been neither published nor examined at full length. After a preliminary discussion on the historiography of the Oxford debate, the paper discloses the contents of the letters and then assesses them in the light of other contemporary accounts. The letters offer a nuanced reinterpretation of the event that supports the growing move towards a revisionist account. PMID:27386714

  12. Coleridge's choleras: cholera morbus, Asiatic cholera, and dysentery in early nineteenth-century England.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, George S; Haycock, David Boyd

    2003-01-01

    Samuel Taylor Coleridge suffered from a variety of bowel disorders throughout his life; though a large part of his ailment was caused by his famous opium habit, he continuously sought an organic origin, and on at least two separate occasions, in 1804 and 1831-32, he ascribed his disorders to attacks of "cholera." With Asiatic cholera apparently first reaching England in late 1831, there was considerable argument among both physicians and the general public as to whether it was a distinctly new disease, or merely a severer variation of traditional English cholera, known as "cholera morbus." Coleridge took a particular interest in these discussions. In this paper, we attempt to establish the exact nature of his attacks of illness, and point to the complexities of describing and framing new diseases and bowel disorders in the early nineteenth century.

  13. [New documental evidence on the history of homeopathy in Latin America: a case study of links between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Tarcitano, Conrado Mariano; Waisse, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Homeopathy began to spread soon after it was formulated by Samuel Hahnemann in the early 1800s, reaching the Southern Cone in the 1830s. In processes of this kind, one figure is often cited as being responsible for introducing it, often attaining quasi-mythical status. Little is known, however, about how homeopathy reached Argentina at that time. Through archival research, we discovered that medical and lay homeopaths circulated between Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires. Given the well-known proselytizing of the circles gravitating around lay homeopaths B. Mure and J.V. Martins in Rio de Janeiro, the documents indicate that this movement actually went as far as Argentina, which had not been confirmed until now. PMID:27438734

  14. KSC-04PD-0786

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and his wife, Columba (right), wait outside the KSC Space Life Sciences (SLS) Lab for a tour. At left is Debra Holliday, director of Business Development and International Affairs, Florida Spaceport Authority. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Kennedy and included remarks by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. On the tour, Gov. Bush was accompanied by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and Center Director Jim Kennedy and their wives.

  15. KSC-04PD-0772

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Florida Gov. Jeb Bush addresses the audience at a ceremony to launch the new Florida quarter, held at the KSC Visitor Complex. The Solid Rocket Booster/External Tank exhibit towers over a map of the United States set up on stage, illustrating the state quarters issued to date. Sharing the stage with him are, from left, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman, NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, and KSC Director James W. Kennedy. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  16. KSC-04PD-0794

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A Dynamac worker (left) explains the function of the KSC Space Life Sciences (SLS) Lab to a prestigious tour group: in the center, Laura OKeefe and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe; at right, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush flanked by his wife, Columba on the left and Bernadette Kennedy, wife of Center Director Jim Kennedy. The new lab is a state-of- the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  17. KSC-04PD-0796

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the KSC Space Life Sciences Lab, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (far right) learns about some of the experiments being conducted. At far left is former astronaut Winston Scott; next to him is U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  18. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science. PMID:24761929

  19. STS-67 mission highlights resource tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Chuck

    1995-05-01

    The Space Shuttle Mission, STS-67, is highlighted in this video. Flight crew (Stephen S. Oswald (Commander), William G. Gregory (Pilot), Tamara E. Jernigan, Wendy B. Lawrence, John M. Grunfeld (Mission Specialists), Samuel T. Durrance, and Ronald A. Parise (Payload Specialists)) prelaunch and launch activities, EVA activities with payload deployment and retrieval (ASTRO-2 and WUPPE (Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo Polarimeter Experiment)), spaceborne experiments (astronomical observation and data collection, protein crystal growth, and human physiological processes), and pre-reentry activities are shown. There are astronomical telescopic observation from the two telescopes in the payload, the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope and the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, of Io and of globular clusters, and their emission spectra is collected via a spectrometer. Earth view film and photography is shown, which includes lightning on terrestrial surfaces, cyclone activity, and cloud cover.

  20. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science.

  1. Willie Hobbs Moore (1934-1994): The First Female African American Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickens, Ronald

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the life and career of Willie Hobbs Moore, the first African American woman to receive a doctorate degree in physics. This achievement occurred in June 1972 at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Her dissertation, directed by the renowned spectroscopist Samuel Krimm, was on the subject of ``A Vibrational Analysis of Secondary Chlorides," and focused on a theoretical analysis of the secondary chlorides for polyvinal-chlorine polymers. From 1972--1977, she, Krimm, and collaborators published more than thirty papers on this and related research issues. In addition to an overview of her family background, her careers as a research physicist and scientist working in various industrial laboratories, we discuss the obstacles and successes she encountered at various stages of her life.

  2. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  3. STS-35/ASTRO-1: Breakfast/Suit-up /Depart O & C / Ingress / Launch with Isolated Views

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was the round-the-clock observations of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X ray astronomy with ASTRO-1. The mission was commanded by Vance D. Brand. The crew consisted of the pilot Guy S. Gardner, mission Specialists Jeffery Hoffman, John Lounge, and Robert Parker, and payload specialists Samuel Durrance, and Ronald Parise. This videotape opens with a view of the shuttle on the pad at night in preparation for a night launch. The astronauts are introduced as they finish their pre-launch breakfast. The next shots are those of the astronauts getting into their spacesuits, and boarding the bus to be taken to the pad. The astronauts are next shown climbing into the shuttle. The launch of the shuttle is shown from 19 different camera angles.

  4. Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) ecology and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, Judd A.

    1997-01-01

    The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a petite member of the family Canidae in the order Carnivora with a long muzzle and pointed ears (Samuel and Nelson 1982). The coat of the gray fox is silver gray across the back with significant amounts of rufus along the sides. This characteristic is often confused by people who see the flash of red and assume that the fox is a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The gray fox has a black tipped tail with a dorsal black stripe that differentiates this species from the kit fox (Vulpes macrotis). The red fox has a white tipped tail. The gray fox weighs between 3-5 kg, occasionally to 7 kg. TL 800-1125, T 275-443, HF 100-150. (Jameson and Peeters 1988).

  5. [The natural dream: physiology of dreaming in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Tavera, M

    2000-01-01

    To give back dreaming to reason, to remove from it "that which is marvellous, supernatural and often terrible for the common man who studies it seriously", that is the intention of Jérôme Richard and Samuel Formey, who were both contemporaries of the philosophers of the Age of the Enlightenment. Relying on the medical theories of the time as well as on the explanatory models of physiology and psychology, they try to demonstrate "the true cause of dreaming" and the natural character of the oneiric phenomenon. The transmission of sensations, the working of memory and the association of ideas, the nature and power of imagination, the predetermined or random character of dreams constitute the framework of the questions from which the explanation of "all this apparent confusion" is developed. PMID:10986794

  6. Coal: America' energy future. Volume II. A technical overview

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the national Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume II are: Electricity Generation; Coal-to-Liquids; An Overview of the Natural Gas Situation; and Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments. 8 apps.

  7. Reflections on the Schön affair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, David; Santic, Branko

    2009-07-01

    In her feature article on the fraud perpetrated by Jan Hendrik Schön (May pp24-29), Eugenie Samuel Reich concludes that the fake data Schön generated at Bell Labs were designed primarily to meet the expectations of his peers. She is probably right, but the Schön case was by no means the first of its kind. A century ago the Piltdown fraud, in which medieval cranial fragments were matched with part of an orang-utan jaw bone, convinced British archaeologists and palaeontologists that early hominids developed on the South Downs. The scientific evidence was never fully accepted outside the British Empire, but it still took the UK's Natural History Museum 50 years to recognize the hoax. "Piltdown man" was created to meet the expectations of the British archaeological community, and hence the fraud succeeded.

  8. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  9. A Starry Diamond in a Veil of Light: Artistic and Literary Suggestions of a Comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, A.; Galli, D.

    2016-01-01

    Donati's Comet, discovered in Florence on June 2, 1858, was one of the most spectacular astronomical events of the nineteenth century. It could be seen with the naked eye during September and October 1858, when it reached its highest splendour. The sight of the comet, with its bright nucleus and its long, curved tail, inspired paintings, watercolors, engravings, and sketches by artists such as William Dyce, Samuel Palmer, and William Turner of Oxford. Donati's Comet is mentioned in the works of several contemporary writers and poets (Hawthorne, Dickens, Hardy, and Verne), and in the diaries of explorers and travelers all around the world. Long-lasting traces of the impression left by Donati's Comet are found in many forms of popular art and literature (ladies' magazines, children's books, collection cards, and advertisements) until the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper focuses on a few examples of this fascination, emphasizing the connections among the astronomical event and the artistic sensibility of the period.

  10. [Freud and the Hammerschlag family--a formative relationship].

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    From his obituary on Samuel Hammerschlag we know of Freud's great veneration for his teacher of Jewish religion. However, not only Hammerschlag himself but his whole family had a formative influence on young Freud who was deeply impressed by their humanity. This paper describes Freud's relationship to all family members. In particular it shows how warmly he felt towards the only daughter, Anna Hammerschlag, who was his patient for a while and whom he chose as a godmother of his youngest daughter Anna. By virtue of the crucial role she played in Freud's "specimen dream" of July 1895 ("Irma's injection"), she also became as it were the godmother of Freud's magnum opus, The Interpretation of Dreams.--All known surviving letters of Freud to members of the Hammerschlag family are published here for the first time.

  11. Freud and the Hammerschlag family: a formative relationship.

    PubMed

    Fichtner, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    From his obituary of Samuel Hammerschlag, we know of Freud's great veneration for his teacher of Jewish religion. However, not only Hammerschlag himself but his whole family had a formative influence on young Freud, who was deeply impressed by their humanity. This paper describes Freud's relationships with all the family members. In particular, it shows how warmly he felt towards the only daughter, Anna Hammerschlag, who was his patient for a while and whom he chose as a godmother for his youngest daughter Anna. By virtue of the crucial role she played in Freud's 'specimen dream' of July 1895 ('Irma's injection'), she also became as it were the godmother of Freud's magnum opus, The Interpretation of Dreams. All the known extant letters from Freud to members of the Hammerschlag family are published here for the first time in English translation.

  12. From Hahnemann's hand to your computer screen: building a digital homeopathy collection.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lisa A; Cameron, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), Library holds the unique manuscript of the sixth edition of Samuel Hahnemann's Organon der Heilkunst, the primary text of homeopathy. The manuscript volume is Hahnemann's own copy of the fifth edition of the Organon with his notes for the sixth edition, handwritten throughout the volume. There is a high level of interest in the Organon manuscript, particularly among homeopaths. This led to the decision to present a digital surrogate on the web to make it accessible to a wider audience. Digitizing Hahnemann's manuscript and determining the best method of presentation on the web posed several challenges. Lessons learned in the course of this project will inform future digital projects. This article discusses the historical significance of the sixth edition of Hahnemann's Organon, its context in UCSF's homeopathy collections, and the specifics of developing the online homeopathy collection.

  13. 200 years Organon of Medicine - A comparative review of its six editions (1810-1842).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2010-10-01

    In 2010 the 200th anniversary of the Organon is celebrated by the homeopathic community. Samuel Hahnemann's Organon of Rational Therapeutics, published in 1810, however, marks neither the beginning of homeopathy nor the endpoint of its development. On the one hand, its contents are based on terms and concepts developed and published by Hahnemann during the preceding two decades. On the other hand, the five revised editions of the Organon that followed in the next three decades contain major changes of theory and conceptions. Hahnemann's basic idea, running through all the stages of the foundation, elaboration, and defence of his doctrine, may be detected by a comparative review of his works from a historical and philosophical perspective.

  14. Hahnemann's legacy in a new light--a systematic approach to the Organon of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J M

    2005-07-01

    The sixth edition of Samuel Hahnemann's Organon of Medicine is an obligatory work of reference for homeopathy. Nevertheless, its philosophy can be questioned with constructivistic and historistic objections. Three levels of content may be distinguished: (1) practical directions and maxims, (2) theoretical explanations and hypotheses, (3) conceptual foundations and premises. Ideally, these levels should be considered, studied, and taught separately and gradually. My new German edition of the Organon, published in 2003, tries to meet these demands. It contains: (A) a complete version of Hahnemann's original text, in the original order of paragraphs, but in modern German with section headings, summary boxes, etc added, (B) another full version of its content, organized in three levels, as indicated above, (C) a glossary of about 400 problematic terms.

  15. KSC-04PD-0771

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- A large crowd attends the launching ceremony for the new Florida quarter, held at the KSC Visitor Complex. Emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy, the event included comments by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The coin was also officially presented by U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore to Florida Gov. Jeb Bush. On the stage, a map of the United States, illustrating the state quarters issued to date, is framed between the orbiter mockup and SRB-external tank exhibit. The quarter celebrates Florida as the gateway to discovery -- a destination for explorers in the past, a launch site for space explorers of the future, and an inviting place for visitors today.

  16. The era of optimism, 1850-1870: a preliminary reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J F

    1993-04-01

    Hervey B. Wilbur founded the Barre School, the first private residential school in the United States, in 1848. Samuel G. Howe began the Massachusetts School for Idiotic and Feeble Minded Youth, the first residential public school in the United States, in 1850. Correspondence of the period indicates educational results were less than expected and that strains of pessimism surfaced quite early. By the late 1850s, both Howe and Wilbur raised the possibility of custodial care. The primary source material suggests that the disillusionment with the residential facility as a vehicle for reform and habilitation reflected the decreased faith in moral education and remediation of problems associated with insanity, criminal behavior, and the poverty in the pre-Civil War period.

  17. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  18. The Clergy and the Mental Health Professions

    PubMed Central

    Chalke, F. C. R.

    1965-01-01

    In this lecture, as a tribute to the late Samuel Prince, founder of the mental hygiene movement in the Maritime Provinces, the rapprochement between the clergy and mental health profession is discussed. A brief survey of the historical background of the churches' approaches to mental disorder leads to consideration of subjects of present mutual concern. Spiritual and emotional development, responsibility and guilt, law and freedom, psychic structure and sanctity, sexuality, and symbolic representation are among the areas which demand intellectual exploration in depth, jointly, by theologians and social scientists. The need is outlined for training parish clergy to carry out their role in ameliorating emotionally damaging social conditions and of educating and counselling parishioners. PMID:5320919

  19. The aesthetic values of silence and its impacts on romanticism and contemporary artists.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Niloufar

    2016-01-01

    In our modern world, where people suffer from self-alienation and are after the meaning of existence in their mechanical and flamboyant outside world, finding a discernible language is very important. People's dejected minds are the products of miserable modern societies that have changed them into taciturn and uncommunicative creatures in search of meaning. The significance of language, specifically poetic or living language, is undeniable in different eras. Therefore, it would be easier for artists to communicate with people by letting them get the maximum meaning with the least amount of words. This is something that happens in the discourse of modern people. This article shows the aesthetic values of silence and its impacts on romantic and contemporary artists, who for us here will be represented by Samuel Taylor Coleridge as a romantic artist versus Harold Pinter as a contemporary dramatist. PMID:27386328

  20. Newer insights to the neurological diseases among biblical characters of old testament

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Stephen K.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.

    2010-01-01

    Many people over the years have studied the Bible from a medical point of view offering diagnoses for the symptoms and signs that appear to have afflicted numerous individuals in the Bible. We review the biblical characters in the Old Testament and offer newer insights to their neurological diseases. We first look at the battle between Goliath and David. Interestingly, Goliath probably suffered from acromegaly. We propose autism as a diagnosis for Samson which would precede the first known case of autism by centuries. Isaac was a diabetic, and he probably had autonomic neuropathy. Few verses from the books of I Samuel, Psalms, and Ezekiel reveal symptoms suggestive of stroke. Jacob suffered from sciatica, and the child of the Shunnamite woman in II Kings had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. These instances among others found in the Old Testament of the Bible offer newer insights on the history of current neurological diseases. PMID:21085524

  1. Henry More and the development of absolute time.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emily

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the nature, development and influence of the first English account of absolute time, put forward in the mid-seventeenth century by the 'Cambridge Platonist' Henry More. Against claims in the literature that More does not have an account of time, this paper sets out More's evolving account and shows that it reveals the lasting influence of Plotinus. Further, this paper argues that More developed his views on time in response to his adoption of Descartes' vortex cosmology and cosmogony, providing new evidence of More's wider project to absorb Cartesian natural philosophy into his Platonic metaphysics. Finally, this paper argues that More should be added to the list of sources that later English thinkers - including Newton and Samuel Clarke - drew on in constructing their absolute accounts of time. PMID:26568082

  2. Parkinsonism in poets and writers.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Paciaroni, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a severe degenerative disease, which is bewildering for its array of clinical features. Writers for the past five centuries have described the associated symptoms. Before the nineteenth century, Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha and William Shakespeare wrote several tragedies dealing with neurological manifestations that are characteristic of Parkinson disease. From the nineteenth century onward, writers including Charles Dickens, Samuel Beckett, Galway Kinnell, and Harold Pinter among others have showcased in their works classic manifestations of Parkinson disease. This literary attention has led to a greater awareness on the part of the general public regarding this disease and, in turn, has opened the doors to a better understanding of and a better respect for the patients affected by this disease. PMID:24290476

  3. [Head injuries in the Bible].

    PubMed

    Feinsod, M

    1995-12-15

    3 cases of head injury are described in the Bible: the death of Sisera by the hand of Jael (Judges 4: 21; 5: 25); the skull fractures of Avimelech incurred at the tower of Tevetz, (Judges, 9: 53, 54); and the slaying of Goliath by David, (Samuel I 17: 49-51). The various attempts to understand the mechanisms of these head injuries using philology, knowledge of the art of biblical warfare and modern medical considerations are reviewed. We try to identify the site of the mortal blow to Sisera's head, to understand why Avimelech asked to be killed, and to decide whether the giant from Gath was a rugged warrior or just an endocrinological cripple.

  4. Technical Reports: Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwan, Rafaela (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program was established by Dr. Samuel E. Massenberg in 1986. The program has increased from 20 participants in 1986 to 114 participants in 1995. The program is LaRC-unique and is administered by Hampton University. The program was established for the benefit of undergraduate juniors and seniors and first-year graduate students who are pursuing degrees in aeronautical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, material science, computer science, atmospheric science, astrophysics, physics, and chemistry. Two primary elements of the LARSS Program are: (1) a research project to be completed by each participant under the supervision of a researcher who will assume the role of a mentor for the summer, and (2) technical lectures by prominent engineers and scientists. Additional elements of this program include tours of LARC wind tunnels, computational facilities, and laboratories. Library and computer facilities will be available for use by the participants.

  5. Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwan, Rafaela (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program was established by Dr. Samuel E. Massenberg in 1986. The program has increased from 20 participants in 1986 to 114 participants in 1995. The program is LaRC-unique and is administered by Hampton University. The program was established for the benefit of undergraduate juniors and seniors and first-year graduate students who are pursuing degrees in aeronautical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, material science, computer science, atmospheric science, astrophysics, physics, and chemistry. Two primary elements of the LARSS Program are: (1) a research project to be completed by each participant under the supervision of a researcher who will assume the role of a mentor for the summer, and (2) technical lectures by prominent engineers and scientists. Additional elements of this program include tours of LARC wind tunnels, computational facilities, and laboratories. Library and computer facilities will be available for use by the participants.

  6. STS-67 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Chuck (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Mission, STS-67, is highlighted in this video. Flight crew (Stephen S. Oswald (Commander), William G. Gregory (Pilot), Tamara E. Jernigan, Wendy B. Lawrence, John M. Grunfeld (Mission Specialists), Samuel T. Durrance, and Ronald A. Parise (Payload Specialists)) prelaunch and launch activities, EVA activities with payload deployment and retrieval (ASTRO-2 and WUPPE (Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo Polarimeter Experiment)), spaceborne experiments (astronomical observation and data collection, protein crystal growth, and human physiological processes), and pre-reentry activities are shown. There are astronomical telescopic observation from the two telescopes in the payload, the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope and the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, of Io and of globular clusters, and their emission spectra is collected via a spectrometer. Earth view film and photography is shown, which includes lightning on terrestrial surfaces, cyclone activity, and cloud cover.

  7. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.

    2002-04-08

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed.

  8. The Transits of Venus and New Technologies: A Time to Reflect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the recent history of astronomy there have been occasions where `New Astronomies' have been introduced. In the spirit of the recent excitement of the 2004 transit of Venus, I have used the periods around the historical transits to reflect on the `New Astronomies' of those eras. Johannes Kepler's Astronomia Nova is a fine representation of the New Astronomy of the 1631-1639 transit pair and Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace's Traité de Mécanique Céleste reflects the New Astronomy of the 1761-1769 transit pair. A combination of Samuel P. Langley's The New Astronomy and James E. Keeler's 1897 paper on astrophysics have been chosen as the exemplars of the New Astronomy of the 1874-1882 transit pair. I am open to suggestions for the works that best represent the 2004-2012 transit pairs.

  9. Paul Revere Osler: the other child

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sir William Osler (1849–1919) is among the most honored and esteemed physicians of our time. His life, and that of his wife Grace Revere Osler (1854–1928), has been examined in great detail by historians and biographers and continues to be the subject of intensive scrutiny. Their son “Revere” (Edward Revere Osler) (1895–1917), who died in the Great War, is often mistakenly referred to as their only child. Grace had two previous pregnancies, having given birth to Paul Revere Osler, who lived but a week, early in their marriage in 1893 and to a stillborn infant during her first marriage to Dr. Samuel W. Gross in 1877. Information regarding these two events is often ill defined, cursory, or incorrect. New research provides further knowledge of these events and their impact, giving a fuller understanding and a more lucid historiography of the Oslers. PMID:25552789

  10. CO2 Laser Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  11. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges addresses the audience at the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center that will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile- long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS.

  12. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jerry Jorgensen welcomes the audience to the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center. Jorgensen, with Space Gateway Support (SGS), is the pipeline project manager. To the right is Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO. Others at the ceremony were Center Director Roy Bridges; Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  13. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO , presents a plaque to Center Director Roy Bridges. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad.

  14. Coal: the cornerstone of America's energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    In April 2005, US Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman asked the National Coal Council to develop a 'report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring our domestic coal resources to meet the nation's future energy needs'. The Council has responded with eight specific recommendations for developing and implementing advanced coal processing and combustion technologies to satisfy our unquenchable thirst for energy. These are: Use coal-to-liquids technologies to produce 2.6 million barrels/day; Use coal-to-natural gas technologies to produce 4 trillion ft{sup 3}/yr; Build 100 GW of clean coal plants by 2025; Produce ethanol from coal; Develop coal-to-hydrogen technologies; Use CO{sub 2} to enhance recovery of oil and coal-bed methane; Increase the capacity of US coal mines and railroads; and Invest in technology development and implementation. 1 ref.; 4 figs.; 1 tab.

  15. Langley Medal awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Robert Thomas Jones, senior scientist at the Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., was awarded the distinguished Langley Medal by the Smithsonian Institution for his ‘extensive contributions in theoretical aerodynamics, particularly with regard to development of the swept wing, supersonic area rule and, more recently, the oblique wing.’ Jones is an internationally acclaimed expert on aerodynamics, optics, and biomechanics as well as an applied mathematician, astronomer, inventor, author, and violin maker.The Langley award has been given to just 16 recipients since it was established 73 years ago. Past recipients include Wilbur and Orville Wright, Charles Lindbergh, and Richard Byrd. Named for Samuel Pierpont Langley, aeronautical pioneer and third secretary of the Smithsonian, the medal honors ‘especially meritorious investigations in the field of aerospace science.’

  16. Mozart in the neurological department - who has the tic?

    PubMed

    Kammer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's medical history quite an impressive list of possible diseases has been collected. In the 1980s the diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome was added to the list. Evidence of vocal tics was derived from the scatological expressions found in the letters of Mozart. In addition there are a few contemporary reports on striking motor behavior suggesting the existence of motor tics. However, in a critical light the arguments for the diagnosis are quite weak. Most problematic is the concept that involuntary vocal utterances are transferred to the written form. One would expect to find similar written manifestations of vocal tics in the work of authors suffering from Tourette's syndrome. This is neither the case in the work of Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) nor in that of André Malraux (1901-1976). In conclusion, Tourette's syndrome is an inventive but implausible diagnosis in the medical history of Mozart.

  17. New approaches within the history and theory of medicine and their relevance for homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2014-04-01

    Conventional sciences have brought forth a wealth of knowledge and benefits, but they have not always been clear and precise about their legitimate scope and methodological limitations. In contrast, new and critical approaches in modern sciences question and reflect their own presuppositions, dependencies, and constraints. Examples are quantum physics, theory and history of science, as well as theory and history of medicine, sociology, and economics. In this way, deprecative dogmatism and animosity amongst sciences ought to be lessened, while the field opens up for each science to redefine its appropriate place in society. This would appear to be a chance for homeopathy, as new approaches, especially within the social and economic sciences, suggest that being a follower of Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) may have advantages and privileges that conventional medicine seems to be lacking and whose relevance was overlooked during the rise of economic thinking in the last two centuries.

  18. KSC-04PD-0791

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Neil Yorio, a Dynamac scientist(left), explains the function of the KSC Space Life Sciences (SLS) Lab to a prestigious tour group: Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, left of center, and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, and his wife, Laura, at right. Others in the group included former astronaut Winston Scott, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore, and Center Director Jim Kennedy. The new lab is a state-of- the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  19. KSC-04PD-0788

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Following the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (far left), Gov. Jeb Bush (center), U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore (center right) and Center Director Jim Kennedy (in front of Neil Yorio, a Dynamac scientist, at right) tour the KSC Space Life Sciences (SLS) Lab. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. Next to OKeefe is Bernadette Kennedy, wife of the Center Director. The launching ceremony was emceed by Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  20. KSC-04PD-0799

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An aerial photo of the recently completed Space Life Sciences Lab at KSC. The new lab is a state- of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The Lab was the site of a tour by Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Center Director Jim Kennedy, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Bodman.

  1. KSC-04PD-0800

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Center Director Jim Kennedy presents a Florida flag to Florida Gov. Jeb Bush. The flag was flown during construction of the Space Life Sciences Lab through dedication of the Lab. The presentation was during a tour of the Lab following the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida.

  2. KSC-04PD-0798

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Former astronaut Winston Scott (left) presents a NASA flag flown at the KSC Space Life Sciences Lab to NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe. The flag was flown during construction through the dedication of the Lab. The presentation was during a tour of the Lab following the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida.

  3. KSC-04PD-0790

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Neil Yorio, a Dynamac scientist(left), explains the function of the KSC Space Life Sciences (SLS) Lab to a prestigious tour group. In the background at left is former astronaut Winston Scott; at center is Bernadette Kennedy, wife of the Center Director (CD); next to her are Columba and Florida Gov. Jeb Bush; third from right is NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, next to his wife, Laura; and on the far right is U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by CD Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  4. KSC-04PD-0792

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Neil Yorio, a Dynamac scientist(left), explains the function of the KSC Space Life Sciences (SLS) Lab to a prestigious tour group: (from left) Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and his wife, Columba; NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and his wife, Laura; and U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  5. KSC-04PD-0787

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Center Director Jim Kennedy (center left) and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (center right) wait with their wives, Bernadette and Laura, respectively, for the start of a tour of KSC facilities. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Kennedy and included remarks by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. Kennedy and OKeefe accompanied by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and Center Director Jim Kennedy and their wives.

  6. KSC-04PD-0789

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Neil Yorio, a Dynamac scientist (right), explains the function of the KSC Space Life Sciences (SLS) Lab to a prestigious tour group. From left are NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and his wife, Laura; Florida Gov. Jeb Bush; Bernadette Kennedy, wife of the Center Director (CD); Columba Bush, wife of the governor; behind Mrs. Bush, former astronaut Winston Scott; and third from right, CD Jim Kennedy. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  7. KSC-04PD-0797

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Former astronaut Winston Scott (left) presents a NASA flag flown at the KSC Space Life Sciences Lab to NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe. The flag was flown during construction through the dedication of the Lab. The presentation was during a tour of the Lab following the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman. The new lab is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida.

  8. KSC-04PD-0793

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Neil Yorio, a Dynamac scientist (left) in the KSC Space Life Sciences (SLS) Lab, explains the function of the facility to Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and his wife, Columba. Bush and others were touring the Lab following the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. . The new lab is a state-of-the- art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The launching ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe, Bush, U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  9. KSC-04PD-0795

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- On a tour of the KSC Space Life Sciences Lab, Florida Gov. Jeb Bush and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (at left) listen to Rob Ferl (right), assistant director of the Bio Technology Program, University of Florida (one of the five partners in the SLS Lab). Second from right is U.S. Mint Director Henrietta Holsman Fore. The new lab is a state-of-the- art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. It was developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida. The tour followed the launching ceremony at the KSC Visitor Complex for the new Florida quarter issued by the U.S. Mint. The ceremony was emceed by Center Director Jim Kennedy and included remarks by OKeefe, Bush, Fore and Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Samuel W. Bodman.

  10. Colorado geology then and now: following the route of the Colorado Scientific Society's 1901 trip through central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 1901, Charles Van Hise asked Samuel Emmons and Whitman Cross to organize a grand excursion across Colorado as part of the combined meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, GSA, and the Colorado Scientific Society (CSS). This trip replays part of that 10-day excursion across Colorado. Shortened to three days, this trip takes in some of the same sites as the 1901 trip, plus adds others of interest along the route where CSS members are reinventing geological interpretations. The trip will follow the precedent set in 1901; CSS members will serve as “site or stop hosts” in addition to the trip leader and drivers. While walking in the steps of the most famous of our profession we will also see some of the most magnificent scenery of Colorado.

  11. The naming of the cranial nerves: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew C; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Bosmia, Anand N; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2014-01-01

    The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid-20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist, classified the 12 cranial nerves as we recognize them today. This review expands on the excellent investigations of Flamm, Shaw, and Simon et al., with discussion of the historical identification as well as the process of naming the human cranial nerves.

  12. Immediate lexical integration of novel word forms

    PubMed Central

    Kapnoula, Efthymia C.; McMurray, Bob

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that familiar words inhibit each other during spoken word recognition. However, we do not know how and under what circumstances newly learned words become integrated with the lexicon in order to engage in this competition. Previous work on word learning has highlighted the importance of offline consolidation (Gaskell & Dumay, 2003) and meaning (Leach & Samuel, 2007) to establish this integration. In two experiments we test the necessity of these factors by examining the inhibition between newly learned items and familiar words immediately after learning. Participants learned a set of nonwords without meanings in active (Exp 1) or passive (Exp 2) exposure paradigms. After training, participants performed a visual world paradigm task to assess inhibition from these newly learned items. An analysis of participants’ fixations suggested that the newly learned words were able to engage in competition with known words without any consolidation. PMID:25460382

  13. Observations on the effects of odours on the homeopathic response.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Moira

    2014-07-01

    Samuel Hahnemann described incidences where the homeopathic response was disrupted by noxious smells in the environment. An earlier paper proposed that homeopathic medicines may be sensed by vomeronasal cells (VNCs) i.e. microvillus or brush cells in the vomeronasal organ (VNO), the taste buds and associated with the trigeminal nerve and nervus terminalis. This paper proposes an extension to the theory and suggests that a subset of solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) in the diffuse chemosensory system (DCS) that is morphologically similar to VNCs might also be receptive to homeopathic medicines. The types of odours that may interfere with this process are described. Two clinical cases of disruption of the homeopathic response are given as examples, showing that successful re-establishment of remedy action can be produced by timely repetition of the medicine. The ramifications on clinical homeopathic practice are discussed.

  14. Compilation of giant electric dipole resonances built on excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, A. . E-mail: schiller@nscl.msu.edu; Thoennessen, M.

    2007-07-15

    Giant Electric Dipole Resonance (GDR) parameters for {gamma} decay to excited states with finite spin and temperature are compiled. Over 100 original works have been reviewed and from some 70 of them, about 350 sets of hot GDR parameters for different isotopes, excitation energies, and spin regions have been extracted. All parameter sets have been brought onto a common footing by calculating the equivalent Lorentzian parameters. The current compilation is complementary to an earlier compilation by Samuel S. Dietrich and Barry L. Berman (At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 38 (1988) 199-338) on ground-state photo-neutron and photo-absorption cross sections and their Lorentzian parameters. A comparison of the two may help shed light on the evolution of GDR parameters with temperature and spin. The present compilation is current as of July 2006.

  15. The House of God : another look.

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese

    2002-06-01

    Since its publication in 1978, Samuel Shem's The House of God has sold over two million copies in over 50 countries. While it has remained popular among medical students, its value as a literary text to promote critical reflection on self and profession continues to be unrecognized in professional spheres. In spite of the ongoing conditions in medical training that prompted Shem's satirical novel, The House of God continues to evoke negative responses from academic medicine and has even been dismissed as "dated." This article examines the novel, its reception by academic medicine, and the relevance of its satire through an analyses of articles, reviews, and letters, along with Shem's observations on the novel and its controversies. Finally, the future of The House of God is proposed.

  16. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-09

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  17. Physics in Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Physics offers a cross-discipline perspective to understanding other subjects. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of physics in literature that physics and astronomy teachers can use to give students an indication of the relevance of science as depicted in the humanities. It is not possible to cite the thousands of examples available. I have tried to select authors whom students would be reading in high school and in college undergraduate English classes: in particular Joseph Conrad, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Shakespeare, H. G. Wells, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Norman Mailer, and an author currently in vogue, Dan Brown. I am sure many reading this article will come up with their own examples.

  18. The clotting action of Russell viper venom. 1954.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Samuel I. Rapaport made seminal contributions to our basic understanding of blood coagulation. This paper beautifully illustrates his scientific approach through characterization of the clotting activity of venom from Daboia russelii, distinguishing it from the brain “thromboplastic” activity used in the prothrombin time. Using plasma from patients with deficiencies of proconvertin (factor VII), proaccelerin (factor V), antihemophilic globulin (factor VIII), or Christmas factor (factor IX), Rapaport and colleagues demonstrated that the venom's clotting activity does not require factor VII, but does require factor V and lipid. Thus, by combining the venom clotting test with the quick clotting time (prothrombin time), it was possible to diagnose factor VII deficiency. The venom is now known to act by directly activating factor X, and a form of the clotting test is used in the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulants.

  19. [Protestant clergymen among Hahnemann's clientele. Patient histories in letters].

    PubMed

    Kreher, Simone; Schlott, Melanie; Schlott, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    As part of the research project, developments in the history of science and in the regional and ecclesiastic history of the late feudal petty state of Köthen-Anhalt have been assessed and numerous documents of the Nagel and Mühlenbein family histories examined that place the transcribed patient letters of the two Protestant clergymen within the context of the Hahnemann Archives. These findings complement and extend previous insights into Hahnemann's Köthen clientele, especially when it comes to the structure and milieu of the local clerical elite. Inspired by the interpretive methods of sequential textual analysis, form and content of the letters of the two clergymen and their relatives were also investigated as methodically structured lines of communication. The body of sources published here presents--embedded in the body-image (of sickness and health) prevalent at the time--the medical cultures of educated patients as well as the increasingly professionalized medical practices of Samuel Hahnemann in a flourishing urban doctor's surgery. The correspondence between the pastors Albert Wilhelm Gotthilf Nagel (1796-1835) and August Carl Ludwig Georg Mühlenbein (1797-1866), presented here in a standard edition, has been investigated at Fulda University as part of the project 'Homöopathisches Medicinieren zwischen alltäglicher Lebensführung und professioneller Praxis' ('Homeopathic medicine between everyday use and professional practice'). Of the altogether 78 transcribed documents, 53 are letters written by either of the two pastors, 16 are patient journals by Samuel Hahnemann, 9 letters by the pastors' wives and Mühlenbein's mother. The two series of letters, originally composed between 1831 and 1833 in old German cursive script, can now be used as sources for research into the history of homeopathy.

  20. Peter Holland: a pioneer of occupational medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, R

    1992-01-01

    The earliest recorded occupational health service in this country was that established in a cotton spinning factory at Quarry Bank Mill in Cheshire. The mill was built in 1784 by Samuel Greg and his partners. They employed local labour and also some parish apprentices. Happily, Samuel Greg was a good christian and, having created a modern factory and a model village with a church and a school, he was equally concerned for the physical welfare of his employees. Accordingly, he appointed a doctor to make pre-employment examinations of the apprentices and to visit regularly to deal with the health problems of a community of some 400 people. The man he chose was Peter Holland of Sandlebridge, who had served his medical apprenticeship under Dr Charles White of Manchester. The first record of the employment of a doctor was in 1796, but from 1804 to 1845 (doubtless in response to the early factory legislation) each visit of the doctor was entered in a day book with either an indication of fitness to work or details of the treatment required. The complete record consists of two hardback foolscap notebooks that provide a fascinating insight into the medical practice of the times when the industrial revolution was just getting under way. One of the more interesting features is the preservation of medical secrecy. Dr Holland made his comments on the case in shorthand and his instructions in longhand. By a fortunate coincidence the key to the shorthand was discovered and this has now been largely transcribed. Although much of the content of the diaries is the day by day practice of medicine at the time, there are many illuminating glimpses of the early practice of occupational medicine. Images PMID:1606023

  1. Vertical variations in the influence of the amount effect: South American Summer Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels-Crow, K. E.; Galewsky, J.; Worden, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that convective recycling of atmospheric water vapor gives rise to the isotope "amount effect" in which d values are lower than predicted by simple Rayleigh distillation processes (i.e. (DdD = dDvapor ­- dDRayleigh < 0‰). Several studies have linked isotopes in precipitation [e.g. Vimeux et al., 2009] and atmospheric water vapor [e.g. Samuels-Crow et al., 2014] in the tropical Andes to upwind convection associated with the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). The vertical structure of this convective influence, however, remains unknown. Understanding the vertical structure of the amount effect over South America is essential for improving theoretical constraints and developing better models of the influence of the SASM on southern hemisphere humidity. Additionally, evaluating the vertical and lateral extent of the SASM's convective influence can provide important constraints for interpreting paleoclimate proxies in the region. We use data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to examine the vertical structure of the amount effect associated with the SASM and relate these results to regional convective precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential temperature. Preliminary results show that DdD is below 0‰ from the boundary layer through the mid-troposphere over tropical South America during austral summer, and meridional averages show that convective precipitation is highest over these areas where DdD < 0‰ extends higher in the atmosphere. We hypothesize that the depth of convection in the monsoon region controls the vertical structure of DdD, which should also be coherently linked to local equivalent potential temperature. References Vimeux et al. (2009), Palaeogeogr Palaeocl, 281(3-4), 229-241, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.03.054. Samuels-Crow et al. (2014), J Geophys Res-Atmos, doi:10.1002/(ISSN)2169-8996.

  2. Evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.

    PubMed

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-08-01

    Delia radicum L. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for Brassicaceous crops. There are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in Slovenia. Fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. In the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage maggot eggs. The soil tests mimicked pathways of natural exposure of various insect life stages to the fungal strains. Conidial concentrations used in soil tests were comparable to economic rates for in-furrow application. The following fungi were tested: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst. (2 isolates), Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans (1), Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin. (3), Beauveria brongniartii (Saccardo) Petch (1), Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (2), Metarhizium robertsii J.F. Bisch., Rehner & Humber (1), Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) Sorokin (4), Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel-Jones & Samson (2), and Clonostachys solani f. nigrovirens (J.F.H. Beyma) Schroers (2). Abbott's corrected mortality in the in vitro tests ranged from 0.0 +/- 18.9 to 47.6 +/- 9.0% and in the soil test from 2.4 +/- 13.0 to 68.2 +/- 21.5%. Seven isolates (B. bassiana [isolate 1174], C. solani [1828], M. anisopliae [1154 and 1868], T. atroviride [1872], T. koningiopsis [1874], and T. gamsii [1876]) caused significant cabbage maggot mortality in either in vitro or soil tests. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion during the screening of potential biological control agents is discussed. PMID:25195421

  3. [Protestant clergymen among Hahnemann's clientele. Patient histories in letters].

    PubMed

    Kreher, Simone; Schlott, Melanie; Schlott, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    As part of the research project, developments in the history of science and in the regional and ecclesiastic history of the late feudal petty state of Köthen-Anhalt have been assessed and numerous documents of the Nagel and Mühlenbein family histories examined that place the transcribed patient letters of the two Protestant clergymen within the context of the Hahnemann Archives. These findings complement and extend previous insights into Hahnemann's Köthen clientele, especially when it comes to the structure and milieu of the local clerical elite. Inspired by the interpretive methods of sequential textual analysis, form and content of the letters of the two clergymen and their relatives were also investigated as methodically structured lines of communication. The body of sources published here presents--embedded in the body-image (of sickness and health) prevalent at the time--the medical cultures of educated patients as well as the increasingly professionalized medical practices of Samuel Hahnemann in a flourishing urban doctor's surgery. The correspondence between the pastors Albert Wilhelm Gotthilf Nagel (1796-1835) and August Carl Ludwig Georg Mühlenbein (1797-1866), presented here in a standard edition, has been investigated at Fulda University as part of the project 'Homöopathisches Medicinieren zwischen alltäglicher Lebensführung und professioneller Praxis' ('Homeopathic medicine between everyday use and professional practice'). Of the altogether 78 transcribed documents, 53 are letters written by either of the two pastors, 16 are patient journals by Samuel Hahnemann, 9 letters by the pastors' wives and Mühlenbein's mother. The two series of letters, originally composed between 1831 and 1833 in old German cursive script, can now be used as sources for research into the history of homeopathy. PMID:27263219

  4. Large Deflections of Elastic Rectangular Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razdolsky, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    It is known that elastic large deflections of thin plates are governed by von Karman nonlinear equations. The analytical solution of these equations in the general case is unfeasible. Samuel Levy, in 1942, showed that large deflections of the rectangular plate can be expressed as a double series of sine-shaped harmonics (deflection harmonics). However, this method gave no way of creating the computer algorithm of solving the problem. The stress function expression taken in the Levy's method must be revised to find the approach that takes into account of all possible products of deflection coefficients. The algorithm of solving the problem for the rectangular plate with an arbitrary aspect ratio under the action of the lateral distributed load is reported in this paper. The approximation of the plate deflection is taken in the form of double series proposed by Samuel Levy. However, the expression for the stress function is presented in the form that incorporates products of deflection coefficients in the explicit form in distinction to the Levy's expression. The number of harmonics in the deflection expression may be arbitrary. The algorithm provides composing the system of governing cubic equations, which includes the deflection coefficients in the explicit form. Solving the equation system is based on using the principle of minimum potential energy. A method of the gradient descent is applied to find the equilibrium state of the plate as the minimum point of the potential energy. A computer program is developed on the basis of the present algorithm. Numerical examples carried out for the plate model with 16 deflection harmonics illustrate the potentialities of the program. The results of solving the examples are presented in the graphical form for the plates with a different aspect ratio and may be used under designing thin-walled elements of airplane and ship structures.

  5. Analogue modelling of flank dynamics at Mount Etna, Italy: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norini, G.; Acocella, V.; Neri, M.

    2009-04-01

    Mount Etna shows one of the most relevant case of active flank dynamics along its East and South-East sectors, with some well-known tectonic structures, such as the Pernicana fault, and evident morphologies, such as the Valle del Bove depression. Factors governing this flank dynamics are still matter of debate. Among these, the most important recognized by previous Authors are the topography, intrusion of a plutonic complex in the basement, rising of magma in the volcanic edifice, regional tectonics, low cohesion layers in the volcano basement, and pore pressure. In this study, a first set of analogue models of the complex flank dynamics of Mount Etna was conducted, and the experiments were analyzed for deformation characteristics. Several experiments were run to account for the role of each factor or combination of factors on the flank dynamics of the volcano. The modeling apparatus consisted of a sand cone on a sand base simulating the volcanic edifice and its basement. Sand used for the experiments was a mixture of high cohesion crushed silica sand and low cohesion glass microspheres. Alternated layers with different cohesion were used to account for the crustal structure of the basement. Geometry of the experiments was designated to simulate the topographic gradient at the eastern base of the volcano. Injections of high viscosity silly putty and low viscosity vegetable oil were used to model respectively the growth of an intrusive complex below the volcano and the rising of magma inside the deformed volcanic edifice. Some experiments were conducted on a sheared basal layer to reproduce the effect of the regional tectonics on the volcano flank dynamics. Finally, injection of compressed air in the model allows to simulate the pore pressure and its capability to reduce shear strength of the analogue granular materials. We used a high resolution laser scanner to trace surface deformation as function of the physical conditions of the models. The three

  6. Physical habitat simulation system reference manual: version II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.; Updike, Marlys A.; Schneider, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    There are four major components of a stream system that determine the productivity of the fishery (Karr and Dudley 1978). These are: (1) flow regime, (2) physical habitat structure (channel form, substrate distribution, and riparian vegetation), (3) water quality (including temperature), and (4) energy inputs from the watershed (sediments, nutrients, and organic matter). The complex interaction of these components determines the primary production, secondary production, and fish population of the stream reach. The basic components and interactions needed to simulate fish populations as a function of management alternatives are illustrated in Figure I.1. The assessment process utilizes a hierarchical and modular approach combined with computer simulation techniques. The modular components represent the "building blocks" for the simulation. The quality of the physical habitat is a function of flow and, therefore, varies in quality and quantity over the range of the flow regime. The conceptual framework of the Incremental Methodology and guidelines for its application are described in "A Guide to Stream Habitat Analysis Using the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology" (Bovee 1982). Simulation of physical habitat is accomplished using the physical structure of the stream and streamflow. The modification of physical habitat by temperature and water quality is analyzed separately from physical habitat simulation. Temperature in a stream varies with the seasons, local meteorological conditions, stream network configuration, and the flow regime; thus, the temperature influences on habitat must be analysed on a stream system basis. Water quality under natural conditions is strongly influenced by climate and the geological materials, with the result that there is considerable natural variation in water quality. When we add the activities of man, the possible range of water quality possibilities becomes rather large. Consequently, water quality must also be analysed on a

  7. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    anticipate enjoying another successful FLUIDOS meeting to be held in one of the main cultural centres of the continent. Italo Bove, Cecilia Cabeza, Arturo C Martí, and Gustavo SarasúaEditors

  8. The spatial properties of opponent-motion normalization.

    PubMed

    Rainville, Stéphane J M; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Makous, Walter L

    2002-06-01

    The final stage of the Adelson-Bergen model [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2 (1985) 284] computes net motion as the difference between directionally opposite energies E(L) and E(R). However, Georgeson and Scott-Samuel [Vis. Res. 39 (1999) 4393] found that human direction discrimination is better described by motion contrast (C(m))--a metric where opponent energy (E(L)-E(R)) is divided by flicker energy (E(L)+E(R)). In the present paper, we used a lateral masking paradigm to investigate the spatial properties of flicker energy involved in the normalization of opponent energy. Observers discriminated between left and right motion while viewing a checkerboard in which half of the checks contained a drifting sinusoid and the other half contained flicker (i.e. a counterphasing sinusoid). The relative luminance contrasts of flicker and motion checks determined the checkerboard's overall motion contrast C(m). We obtained selectivity functions for opponent-motion normalization by measuring C(m) thresholds whilst varying the orientation, spatial frequency, or size of flicker checks. In all conditions, performance (percent correct) decayed lawfully as we decreased motion contrast, validating the C(m) metric for our stimuli. Thresholds decreased with check size and also improved as we increased either the orientation or spatial-frequency difference between motion and flicker checks. Our data are inconsistent with Heeger-type normalization models [Vis. Neurosci. 9 (1992) 181] in which excitatory inputs are normalized by a non-selective pooling of inhibitory inputs, but data are consistent with the implicit assumption in Georgeson and Scott-Samuel's model that flicker normalization is localized in orientation, scale, and space. However, our lateral masking paradigm leaves open the possibility that the spatial properties of flicker normalization would be different if opponent and flicker energies spatially overlapped. Further characterization of motion contrast will require models of the

  9. [Ulcerative colitis? Guidelines 2004].

    PubMed

    Siegmund, B; Zeitz, M

    2005-10-12

    Ulcerative colitis was first described in 1859 from Samuel Wilks, a physician at Guy's hospital in London. The prevalence in the high incidence areas ranges from 80 to 120/100.000/year. Ulcerative colitis is a chronic relapsing or chronic active disease which starts at the rectum and presents with a continuous inflammation. Primarily young adults are affected (20 to 40 years of age) but the disease may present at all ages, from younger than 1 year of life to the 80s. Many series show a secondary peak in incidence in the elderly. In the present review we will focus on the basic principles of the therapy with regard to the variety of disease manifestations. The therapeutic algorithms will be described separately for the induction of remission and the maintenance of remission. The localization of inflammation and disease activity represent crucial factors which have to be considered. With regard to these factors, the therapeutic regimens range from simple local therapy with aminosalicylates to systemic immunosuppressive therapy, which will in extreme cases require the administration of ciclosporin. Since ulcerative colitis is associated with an increased risk in developing colon carcinoma, medical therapy as well as endoscopic surveillance are fundamental in the prevention of carcinoma. In the end an outlook to future therapeutic targets and strategies will be provided. PMID:16245638

  10. Humphry Davy, nitrous oxide, the Pneumatic Institution, and the Royal Institution.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-11-01

    Humphry Davy (1778-1829) has an interesting place in the history of respiratory gases because the Pneumatic Institution in which he did much of his early work signaled the end of an era of discovery. The previous 40 years had seen essentially all of the important respiratory gases described, and the Institution was formed to exploit their possible value in medical treatment. Davy himself is well known for producing nitrous oxide and demonstrating that its inhalation could cause euphoria and heightened imagination. His thinking influenced the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, and perhaps we can claim that our discipline colored the poetry of the Romantic Movement. Davy was also the first person to measure the residual volume of the lung. The Pneumatic Institution was the brainchild of Thomas Beddoes, who had trained in Edinburgh under Joseph Black, who discovered carbon dioxide. Later Davy moved to the Royal Institution in London formed, in part, to diffuse the knowledge of scientific discoveries to the general public. Davy was a brilliant lecturer and developed an enthusiastic following. In addition he exploited the newly described electric battery to discover several new elements. He also invented the safety lamp in response to a series of devastating explosions in coal mines. Ultimately Davy became president of the Royal Society, a remarkable honor for somebody with such humble origins. Another of his important contributions was to introduce Michael Faraday (1791-1867) to science. Faraday became one of the most illustrious British scientists of all time. PMID:25172910

  11. The plague of the Philistines and other pestilences in the Ancient World: exploring relations between the religious-literary tradition, artistic evidence and scientific proof.

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2010-09-01

    In ancient times the term pestilence referred not only to infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, but also to several different epidemics. We explore the relations between references in the Bible and recent scientific evidence concerning some infectious diseases, especially the so-called Plague of the Philistines and leprosy. In addition, some considerations regarding possible connections among likely infectious epidemic diseases and the Ten Plagues of Egypt are reported. Evidence suggesting the presence of the rat in the Nile Valley in the II millennium BC is shown; a possible role of the rat in the plague spreading already in this historical period should be confirmed by these data. While the biblical tale in the Book of Samuel may well report an epidemic event resembling the plague, as to date this infectious disease remains unknown, it is not conceivable to confirm the presence of leprosy in the same age, because the little palaeopathologic evidence of the latter disease, in the geographic area corresponding to Egypt and Palestine, is late, dating back only to the II century AD.

  12. "Physicians are not bootleggers": the short, peculiar life of the Medicinal Alcohol Movement.

    PubMed

    Appel, Jacob M

    2008-01-01

    This essay seeks to chronicle the effort of physicians to secure the right to prescribe beer, liquor, and other alcoholic beverages to their patients for medicinal uses during the Prohibition era. A review of the medical literature and popular press from the period 1920-26 reveals that the physicians who lobbied for the right to prescribe alcohol and, ultimately, took their claim to the United States Supreme Court, were not uniformly antiprohibitionists attempting to circumvent the Eighteenth Amendment. Instead, this coalition of physician activists, led by John P. Davin and Samuel W. Lambert, included both supporters and opponents of prohibition. Their attitudes on the therapeutic value of beer and liquor also varied widely. Yet what united these men and women-and what defined their movement-was opposition to state interference with the practice of medicine and an increasing concern with the federal government's role in the regulation of their profession. The defeat of their efforts, presaging the passage of the Sheppard Towner Act in 1921 and the extension of veterans' health benefits in 1924, marked an important step in the development of antagonism between the medical community and the federal government during the mid-twentieth century.

  13. Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine 100th anniversary. Introduction. From hygiene and tropical medicine to global health.

    PubMed

    Buekens, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    The author reviews the history of the Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. In 1912, Dr. Creighton Wellman published a groundbreaking paper entitled "The New Orleans School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene," outlining a clear plan for a new independent school of public health. He became the founding dean of the Tulane School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Dr. Wellman had spent 9 years practicing medicine in Angola and graduated from the London School of Tropical Medicine before launching a career in tropical medicine in the United States. Tulane already had a formal course of hygiene established as early as 1881. The founding of Tulane School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine was made possible by a gift from Samuel Zemurray, who would become the president of the United Fruit Company. In January of 1914, Dr. Wellman abruptly left New Orleans to live in Brazil. The school lost its independence in 1919 and again became part of the School of Medicine until 1967. The school initiated by Dr. Wellman is the foundation on which today's Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine is built.

  14. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and Ross's geese as carriers of avian cholera in the Playa Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000a??01 and 2001a??02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (<5%) were carriers of pathogenic P. multocida. On the basis of serology, an additional group of these birds (<10%) were survivors of recent avian cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Rossa??s geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection.

  15. II Spatial metaphors and somatic communication: the embodiment of multigenerational experiences of helplessness and futility in an obese patient.

    PubMed

    2013-06-01

    This paper explores the analysis of an obese woman who came to experience her flesh as a bodying forth of personal and multigenerational family and cultural experiences of helplessness. The paper discusses the ideas and images that formed the basis of how I engaged with these themes as they presented countertransferentially. My thesis is that clinical approaches which draw on spatial metaphors for the psyche offer valuable tools for working with people whose inner world expresses itself somatically because such metaphors can be used to engage simultaneously with the personal, cultural, and ancestral dimensions of these unconscious communications. The paper builds on Jung's view of the psyche as comprised of pockets of inner otherness (complexes), on Redfearn's image of psyche as landscape-like and on Samuels' thinking on embodied countertransference and on the political psyche. It also draws on Butler's work on the body as a social phenomenon and on the theme of being a helpless non-person or nobody as explored in Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead which retells Shakespeare's Hamlet from the perspective of two of the play's 'bit' characters.

  16. William Brouncker MD Viscount Castlelyons (c 1620-84) First President of the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S

    2006-11-01

    William Brouncker was the grandson of Sir Henry Brouncker, President of Munster during the Elizabethan Plantation of Ireland in the 16th century. William's date and place of birth are uncertain; he was born about 1620, most probably at Castlelyons, County Cork, and educated at Oxford where he shone in mathematics and languages. Until his death in 1684 he served the Stuarts as a senior member of the Navy Board from which sprang the Admiralty, and we owe much of what we know about his life to the warts-and-all diary of his younger naval colleague, Samuel Pepys (1633-1703). Although William was granted a doctorate in medicine by Oxford in 1646, music and mathematics were his major interests. He was the first President of the Royal Society and he held that position from 1662 to 1677, when his tenure was brought to a reluctant close by an election, sardonically recorded in the diary of the curator of experiments, Robert Hooke (1635-1703). If Brouncker did not add any empirical facts, he certainly contributed to the promotion and dissemination of natural knowledge.

  17. A Shining Galaxy of Intellect Unrivaled in the Annals of Shadow-Seeking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, T.; Riggsbee, G.

    2005-12-01

    Wadesboro, North Carolina was the site of choice for observing the total solar eclipse of 1900 May 28. According to a regional newspaper, "the town was full of professional and amateur observers and telescopes of all sorts and sizes." And indeed it was. Four major expeditions (Yerkes, Smithsonian, Princeton, and the BAA) were dispatched to Wadesboro, and at least a dozen other institutions were represented there. The giants of American astrophysics - three generations of them - were on site, including Charles A. Young, Samuel P. Langley, George Ellery Hale, and Henry Norris Russell. But the observing grounds were thick with other notables, including several future college presidents and deans, government and public officials, and important contributors to a variety of fields of research and technology. In compiling a "who's who of Wadesboro," we have collected scientific and biographical information about almost all of the observers noted in popular and technical published accounts of the eclipse at Wadesboro, and have identified several unknowns in noted Wadesboro expedition photographs. We have also clarified the identity and pedigree of Nevil Maskelyne, a member of the British expedition who took the first successful moving pictures of an eclipse in Wadesboro, and who claimed relation to the fifth Astronomer Royal. The poster title is from an account by Gertrude Bacon, an aviation pioneer and author, and a member of the British Wadesboro expedition. This research was supported in part by the Herbert C. Pollock Award of the Dudley Observatory.

  18. The Medicago Genome Initiative: a model legume database

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Callum J.; Dixon, Richard A.; Farmer, Andrew D.; Flores, Raul; Inman, Jeff; Gonzales, Robert A.; Harrison, Maria J.; Paiva, Nancy L.; Scott, Angela D.; Weller, Jennifer W.; May, Gregory D.

    2001-01-01

    The Medicago Genome Initiative (MGI) is a database of EST sequences of the model legume Medicago truncatula. The database is available to the public and has resulted from a collaborative research effort between the Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation and the National Center for Genome Resources to investigate the genome of M.truncatula. MGI is part of the greater integrated Medicago functional genomics program at the Noble Foundation (http://www.noble .org), which is taking a global approach in studying the genetic and biochemical events associated with the growth, development and environmental interactions of this model legume. Our approach will include: large-scale EST sequencing, gene expression profiling, the generation of M.truncatula activation-tagged and promoter trap insertion mutants, high-throughput metabolic profiling, and proteome studies. These multidisciplinary information pools will be interfaced with one another to provide scientists with an integrated, holistic set of tools to address fundamental questions pertaining to legume biology. The public interface to the MGI database can be accessed at http://www.ncgr.org/research/mgi. PMID:11125064

  19. Darwin's historical sketch - an American predecessor: C.S. Rafinesque.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, C T

    2010-01-01

    When early reviewers of Darwin's "On the origin of species" chided him for neglecting to mention predecessors to his theory of evolution, he added an "historical sketch" in later editions. Among the predecessors he cited was a French émigré to American named Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, who in the mid-1830s had written about the emergence of new species at a time when most naturalists (including Darwin initially) accepted the biblical story of creation and assumed the immutability of species. Rafinesque discovered and named thousands of new plants and animals in his American travels and flooded the taxonomic literature with reports, which seemed incomplete, confusing, and excessive to other naturalists. He alienated many who later dismissed his findings and excluded them from the biological literature. Soon after Rafinesque's death in 1840, Asa Gray, the young American botanist, wrote a damning critique of his work and suggested it be ignored. How Darwin learned of Rafinesque and his views on species is the focus of this essay, which also mentions briefly the two other American naturalists cited by Darwin in his sketch. Gray seems the likely informant through his correspondence with Darwin or his close associates.

  20. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new. PMID:22702172

  1. Comparing premodern melancholy/mania and modern trauma: an argument in favor of historical experiences of trauma.

    PubMed

    Trembinski, Donna

    2011-02-01

    Historians and psychiatrists have repeatedly looked to both real and imagined individuals of the past, like Achilles and Samuel Pepys, and found evidence that they were suffering from symptoms of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The assumptions that allow such historical "diagnoses" have, however, recently been called into question by philosophers such as lan Hacking, anthropologists like Allan Young and psychiatrists such as Patrick Bracken. These scholars have all suggested in various ways that experiences of trauma could not have occurred until the diagnosis of trauma and its symptoms had been formalized and the language of trauma had been developed in the late 19th century. This article attempts to resolve this bifurcation of opinion on the universality of the mind and historical experiences of trauma in two ways. First, it argues for the necessity of applying modern categories of analysis to further present understandings of the past. Second, it considers discussions of"melancholia" and "mania" in premodern medical literature and argues that there are enough similarities between the causes and symptoms of these premodern disorders and modern trauma to suggest that experiences of trauma may not be wholly culturally bound to the modern world, as the above scholars have suggested. While melancholy or mania cannot simply be understood as premodern names for trauma, and it is not always correct to "diagnose" a premodern person who exhibits symptoms of these illnesses with trauma, such an assumption is not always ahistorical or incorrect either. PMID:21688753

  2. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  3. Assembling a bi-coordinated Cr complex for ferromagnetic nanorings: insight from first-principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guizhi; Liu, Junyi; Sun, Qiang; Jena, Puru

    2016-07-21

    Motivated by the recent synthesis of bi-coordinated transition metal-organic complexes [Samuel, et al., Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 3148], we have studied the structure and magnetic properties of a series of bi-coordinated transition metal based nanorings by folding quasi-1D chains. Among the cyclic alkyl(amino)carbine (CAAC) based quasi-1D chains (TM-CAAC, TM = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni), only Cr-CAAC is found to be ferromagnetic. First-principles calculations combined with Heisenberg-Dirac-van Vleck models were performed to understand the onset of robust ferromagnetism in Cr-based systems. With increasing size, the infrared intensity increases and the exchange energy oscillates. In particular, when the number, n, of TM-CAAC units is even and larger than 3, the magnetic coupling in nanorings is stronger than that in quasi-1D chains. The band gap changes very slowly with size. More importantly, compared with the highly coordinated Cr single molecular magnets, the low coordination of Cr ions enhances magnetic moment and stabilizes ferromagnetic coupling. PMID:27315141

  4. The mesh of civilizations in the global network of digital communication.

    PubMed

    State, Bogdan; Park, Patrick; Weber, Ingmar; Macy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts fueled by popular religious mobilization have rekindled the controversy surrounding Samuel Huntington's theory of changing international alignments in the Post-Cold War era. In The Clash of Civilizations, Huntington challenged Fukuyama's "end of history" thesis that liberal democracy had emerged victorious out of Post-war ideological and economic rivalries. Based on a top-down analysis of the alignments of nation states, Huntington famously concluded that the axes of international geo-political conflicts had reverted to the ancient cultural divisions that had characterized most of human history. Until recently, however, the debate has had to rely more on polemics than empirical evidence. Moreover, Huntington made this prediction in 1993, before social media connected the world's population. Do digital communications attenuate or echo the cultural, religious, and ethnic "fault lines" posited by Huntington prior to the global diffusion of social media? We revisit Huntington's thesis using hundreds of millions of anonymized email and Twitter communications among tens of millions of worldwide users to map the global alignment of interpersonal relations. Contrary to the supposedly borderless world of cyberspace, a bottom-up analysis confirms the persistence of the eight culturally differentiated civilizations posited by Huntington, with the divisions corresponding to differences in language, religion, economic development, and spatial distance.

  5. Electron spin or "classically non-describable two-valuedness"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulini, Domenico

    In December 1924 Wolfgang Pauli proposed the idea of an inner degree of freedom of the electron, which he insisted should be thought of as genuinely quantum mechanical in nature. Shortly thereafter Ralph Kronig and a little later Samuel Goudsmit and George Uhlenbeck took up a less radical stance by suggesting that this degree of freedom somehow corresponded to an inner rotational motion, though it was unclear from the very beginning how literal one was actually supposed to take this picture, since it was immediately recognised (already by Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck) that it would very likely lead to serious problems with Special Relativity if the model were to reproduce the electron's values for mass, charge, angular momentum, and magnetic moment. However, probably due to the then overwhelming impression that classical concepts were generally insufficient for the proper description of microscopic phenomena, a more detailed reasoning was never given. In this contribution I shall investigate in some detail what the restrictions on the physical quantities just mentioned are, if they are to be reproduced by rather simple classical models of the electron within the framework of Special Relativity. It turns out that surface stresses play a decisive role and that the question of whether a classical model for the electron does indeed contradict Special Relativity can only be answered on the basis of an exact solution, which has hitherto not been given.

  6. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  7. Simple Rules for Solid-state Design: From Bulk to Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Keith; Walsh, Aron; Jackson, Adam; Davies, Dan; Oba, Fumiyasu; Kumagai, Yu; Walsh Materials Design Team; JSPS Collaboration

    High-throughput screening enterprises such as Materials Project and the OQMD are well suited to the application of density functional theory for assessing the merits of known bulk materials. The blind exploration of the new combinations and permutations of the periodic table is a daunting task, to paraphrase Samuel Beckett we feel lost before the confusion of innumerable prospects. Centuries of research have provided us with myriad rules for assessing the feasibility of a given stoichiometry and the likelihood of particular crystal arrangements. We explore the ways in which chemical knowledge and state-of-the-art computational physics can be combined to accelerate materials design. We present the SMACT (Semiconducting Materials by Analogy and Chemical Theory) package, which combines these rules with searching of chemical space to predict plausible and heretofore unknown compounds. I will then provide some illustrative examples of materials' design focusing on several important issues: (i) designing new photovoltaic materials, (ii) the role of surfaces and polymorphism in controlling electronic properties, and (iii) the design of porous materials.

  8. Generalization to unfamiliar talkers in artificial language learning

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Sara

    2013-01-01

    While there is evidence that talker-specific details are encoded in the phonetics of the lexicon (Kraljic, Samuel, & Brennan, 2008; Logan, Lively, & Pisoni, 1991) and in sentence processing (Nygaard & Pisoni, 1998), it is unclear whether categorical linguistic patterns are also represented in terms of talker-specific details. The present study provides evidence that adult learners form talker-independent representations for productive linguistic patterns. Participants were able to generalize a novel linguistic pattern to unfamiliar talkers. Learners were exposed to spoken words that conformed to a pattern in which vowels of a word agreed in place of articulation, referred to as vowel harmony. All items were presented in the voice of one single talker. Participants were tested on items that included both the familiar talker and an unfamiliar talker. Participants generalized the pattern to novel talkers when the talkers spoke with a familiar accent (Experiment 1), as well as with an unfamiliar accent (Experiment 2). Learners showed a small advantage for talker familiarity when the words were familiar, but not when the words were novel. These results are consistent with a theory of language processing in which the lexicon stores fine-grained, talker specific phonetic details, but productive linguistic processes are subject to abstract, talker-independent representations. PMID:23456327

  9. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-three AGU members are among the newly elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, announced on 25 November 2013. They are Lance F. Bosart, University at Albany, State University of New York; William Henry Brune III, Pennsylvania State University; Robert H. Byrne, University of South Florida; Walter K. Dodds, Kansas State University; Sherilyn Claire Fritz, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Kevin P. Furlong, Pennsylvania State University; Arnold L. Gordon, Columbia University; Thomas A. Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Malcolm Hughes, University of Arizona; Thomas C. Johnson, University of Minnesota Duluth; Jack A. Kaye, NASA; Samuel P. Kounaves, Tufts University; Klaus S. Lackner, Columbia University; Yiqi Luo, University of Oklahoma; Jean-Bernard Minster, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD); Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California; Walter Clarkson Pitman III, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; James E. Quick, Southern Methodist University; Ross J. Salawitch, University of Maryland, College Park; Didier Sornette, ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology); Michael Stein, University of Chicago; Bradley M. Tebo, Oregon Health and Science University; and Mark H. Thiemens, UCSD.

  10. Literature and disability: the medical interface in Borges and Beckett.

    PubMed

    Novillo-Corvalán, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    Samuel Beckett and Jorge Luis Borges have presented 20th century literature with a distinctive gallery of solitary figures who suffer from a series of physiological ailments: invalidism, decrepitude, infirmity and blindness, as well as neurological conditions such as amnesia and autism spectrum disorders. Beckett and Borges were concerned with the dynamics between illness and creativity, the literary representation of physical and mental disabilities, the processes of remembering and forgetting, and the inevitability of death. This article explores the depiction of physically and mentally disabled characters in Borges' Funes the Memorious (1942)--a story about an Uruguayan gaucho who has been left paralysed after a fall from a horse which simultaneously endowed him with an infallible memory and perception--and Beckett's Trilogy: Molloy (1951), Malone Dies (1951) and The Unnamable (1953). It examines the prodigious memory of Funes and the forgetful minds of Molloy and Malone with reference to influential neuropsychological studies such as Alexander Luria's twofold exploration of memory and forgetfulness in The Mind of a Mnemonist (1968) and The Man with a Shattered World (1972). The article demonstrates that in contrast to Beckett's amnesiacs and Luria's brain-damaged patient, who are able to transcend their circumstances through cathartic writing, Borges' and Luria's mnemonic prodigies fail to achieve anything significant with their unlimited memories and remain imprisoned within their cognitive disabilities. It reveals that medical discourses can provide invaluable insights and lead to a deeper understanding of the minds and bodily afflictions of literary characters.

  11. Humphry Davy, nitrous oxide, the Pneumatic Institution, and the Royal Institution.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-11-01

    Humphry Davy (1778-1829) has an interesting place in the history of respiratory gases because the Pneumatic Institution in which he did much of his early work signaled the end of an era of discovery. The previous 40 years had seen essentially all of the important respiratory gases described, and the Institution was formed to exploit their possible value in medical treatment. Davy himself is well known for producing nitrous oxide and demonstrating that its inhalation could cause euphoria and heightened imagination. His thinking influenced the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, and perhaps we can claim that our discipline colored the poetry of the Romantic Movement. Davy was also the first person to measure the residual volume of the lung. The Pneumatic Institution was the brainchild of Thomas Beddoes, who had trained in Edinburgh under Joseph Black, who discovered carbon dioxide. Later Davy moved to the Royal Institution in London formed, in part, to diffuse the knowledge of scientific discoveries to the general public. Davy was a brilliant lecturer and developed an enthusiastic following. In addition he exploited the newly described electric battery to discover several new elements. He also invented the safety lamp in response to a series of devastating explosions in coal mines. Ultimately Davy became president of the Royal Society, a remarkable honor for somebody with such humble origins. Another of his important contributions was to introduce Michael Faraday (1791-1867) to science. Faraday became one of the most illustrious British scientists of all time.

  12. The Mesh of Civilizations in the Global Network of Digital Communication

    PubMed Central

    State, Bogdan; Park, Patrick; Weber, Ingmar; Macy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts fueled by popular religious mobilization have rekindled the controversy surrounding Samuel Huntington’s theory of changing international alignments in the Post-Cold War era. In The Clash of Civilizations, Huntington challenged Fukuyama’s “end of history” thesis that liberal democracy had emerged victorious out of Post-war ideological and economic rivalries. Based on a top-down analysis of the alignments of nation states, Huntington famously concluded that the axes of international geo-political conflicts had reverted to the ancient cultural divisions that had characterized most of human history. Until recently, however, the debate has had to rely more on polemics than empirical evidence. Moreover, Huntington made this prediction in 1993, before social media connected the world’s population. Do digital communications attenuate or echo the cultural, religious, and ethnic “fault lines” posited by Huntington prior to the global diffusion of social media? We revisit Huntington's thesis using hundreds of millions of anonymized email and Twitter communications among tens of millions of worldwide users to map the global alignment of interpersonal relations. Contrary to the supposedly borderless world of cyberspace, a bottom-up analysis confirms the persistence of the eight culturally differentiated civilizations posited by Huntington, with the divisions corresponding to differences in language, religion, economic development, and spatial distance. PMID:26024487

  13. Data-driven information retrieval in heterogeneous collections of transcriptomics data links SIM2s to malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Caldas, José; Gehlenborg, Nils; Kettunen, Eeva; Faisal, Ali; Rönty, Mikko; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Knuutila, Sakari; Brazma, Alvis; Kaski, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Genome-wide measurement of transcript levels is an ubiquitous tool in biomedical research. As experimental data continues to be deposited in public databases, it is becoming important to develop search engines that enable the retrieval of relevant studies given a query study. While retrieval systems based on meta-data already exist, data-driven approaches that retrieve studies based on similarities in the expression data itself have a greater potential of uncovering novel biological insights. Results: We propose an information retrieval method based on differential expression. Our method deals with arbitrary experimental designs and performs competitively with alternative approaches, while making the search results interpretable in terms of differential expression patterns. We show that our model yields meaningful connections between biological conditions from different studies. Finally, we validate a previously unknown connection between malignant pleural mesothelioma and SIM2s suggested by our method, via real-time polymerase chain reaction in an independent set of mesothelioma samples. Availability: Supplementary data and source code are available from http://www.ebi.ac.uk/fg/research/rex. Contact: samuel.kaski@aalto.fi Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22106335

  14. Expression of chicken vinculin complements the adhesion-defective phenotype of a mutant mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cell

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A mutant cell line, derived from the mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line F9, is defective in cell-cell adhesion (compaction) and in cell- substrate adhesion. We have previously shown that neither uvomorulin (E- cadherin) nor integrins are responsible for the mutant phenotype (Calogero, A., M. Samuels, T. Darland, S. A. Edwards, R. Kemler, and E. D. Adamson. 1991. Dev. Biol. 146:499-508). Several cytoskeleton proteins were assayed and only vinculin was found to be absent in mutant (5.51) cells. A chicken vinculin expression vector was transfected into the 5.51 cells together with a neomycin-resistance vector. Clones that were adherent to the substrate were selected in medium containing G418. Two clones, 5.51Vin3 and Vin4, were analyzed by Nomarski differential interference contrast and laser confocal microscopy as well as by biochemical and molecular biological techniques. Both clones adhered well to substrates and both exhibited F- actin stress fibers with vinculin localized at stress fiber tips in focal contacts. This was in marked contrast to 5.51 parental cells, which had no stress fibers and no vinculin. The mutant and complemented F9 cell lines will be useful models for examining the complex interactions between cytoskeletal and cell adhesion proteins. PMID:8491782

  15. Transfection efficiency and structural studies on nonviral gene carriers containing cholesterol and other sterols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Heather

    2005-03-01

    Lipid based nonviral gene delivery currently focuses on cationic liposomes, which typically consist of a mixture of cationic and neutral (helper) lipids. Motivated by the plasma membrane composition of mammalian cells, which contain large amounts of cholesterol, this molecule is often used as a helper lipid. The presented work investigates the effect of cholesterol and structurally related molecules on the transfection efficiency (TE) of cationic lipid-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes in mammalian cells. Previous studies have identified the membrane charge density as a universal parameter, predicting TE for CL-DNA complexes in the lamellar Lα^C phase [1,2]. Addition of cholesterol to low transfecting CL-DNA complexes results in dramatic improvements in TE that significantly deviate from the TE model for lamellar complexes. A model system using negatively charged giant vesicles has been developed to mimic the cell membrane and understand the behavior pattern of CL-DNA complexes containing cholesterol. Funding provided by NIH GM-59288. [1] Lin AJ, Slack NL, Ahmad A, George CX, Samuel CE, Safinya CR, Biophys. J., 2003, V84:3307 [2] Ahmad A, Evans HM, Ewert K, and Safinya CR, J. Gene Med., accepted

  16. William Brouncker MD Viscount Castlelyons (c 1620-84) First President of the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Caoimhghín S

    2006-11-01

    William Brouncker was the grandson of Sir Henry Brouncker, President of Munster during the Elizabethan Plantation of Ireland in the 16th century. William's date and place of birth are uncertain; he was born about 1620, most probably at Castlelyons, County Cork, and educated at Oxford where he shone in mathematics and languages. Until his death in 1684 he served the Stuarts as a senior member of the Navy Board from which sprang the Admiralty, and we owe much of what we know about his life to the warts-and-all diary of his younger naval colleague, Samuel Pepys (1633-1703). Although William was granted a doctorate in medicine by Oxford in 1646, music and mathematics were his major interests. He was the first President of the Royal Society and he held that position from 1662 to 1677, when his tenure was brought to a reluctant close by an election, sardonically recorded in the diary of the curator of experiments, Robert Hooke (1635-1703). If Brouncker did not add any empirical facts, he certainly contributed to the promotion and dissemination of natural knowledge. PMID:19817061

  17. Who's afraid of noncommunicable diseases? Raising awareness of the effects of noncommunicable diseases on global health.

    PubMed

    Alleyne, George; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2011-08-01

    Public-health priorities are in part driven by fear, yet fear has long been recognized as posing a threat to effective public health interventions. In this article, the authors review the role of fear in global health by focusing on the leading global cause of death and disability: noncommunicable diseases. Taking an historical perspective, first the authors review Samuel Adams' 1911 analysis of the role of fear in generating public health priority and his recommendations about mass educating the public. Next, they show that Adams' analysis still applies today, drawing on contemporary responses to H1N1 and HIV, while illustrating the ongoing neglect of long-term threats such as noncommunicable diseases. Then, they pose the question, "Is it possible, necessary, or useful to create a fear factor for noncommunicable diseases?" After reviewing mixed evidence about the effects of fear on social change (on individual behaviors and on building a mass movement to achieve collective action), the authors conclude by setting out an evidence-based, marketing strategy to generate a sustained, rational response to the noncommunicable disease epidemic. PMID:21916716

  18. KSC-03PD-3142

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Representatives of the NASA-Kennedy Space Center and the state of Florida prepare to cut the ribbon officially opening the Space Life Sciences Lab at a ceremony at the new lab. In the front row, from left, are Dr. Samuel Durrance, executive director of the Florida Space Research Institute; Jim Kennedy, director of the Kennedy Space Center; Frank T. Brogan, president of the Florida Atlantic University; The Honorable Toni Jennings, lieutenant governor of the state of Florida; and Catherine and Grier Kirkpatrick, children of the late Sen. George Kirkpatrick. In the back row, from left, are Debra Holliday, director for Facilities and Construction, Florida Space Authority; Dan LeBlanc, president and chief operating officer of Delaware North Companies Parks and Resorts at KSC, Inc.; Jose Perez-Morales, NASA Project Manager for the Space Life Sciences Lab; and Capt. Winston E. Scott, executive director of the Florida Space Authority. Completed in August, the facility encompasses more than 100,000 square feet and was formerly known as the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory or SERPL. The state, through the Florida Space Authority, built the research lab which is host to NASA, NASAs Life Sciences Services contractor Dynamac Corp., Bionetics Corp., and researchers from the University of Florida. Dynamac Corp. leases the facility. The Florida Space Research Institute is responsible for gaining additional tenants from outside the NASA community.

  19. Cold-induced responses in annual bluegrass genotypes with differential resistance to pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale).

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Annick; Castonguay, Yves; Azaiez, Aïda; Hsiang, Tom; Dionne, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Greens-type annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is susceptible to winter stresses including subfreezing temperatures and pink snow mold (SM). To better understand the mechanisms of SM resistance in annual bluegrass, four SM-resistant and four SM-sensitive genotypes were incubated at low temperature with Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett, the causal agent of pink snow mold. We assessed the impact of a 6-week incubation period with SM at 2 °C under high humidity (≥ 98%) on the accumulation of cold-induced metabolites and on freezing tolerance. Incubation of annual bluegrass inoculated with SM lead to a major decrease in concentration of cryoprotective sugars such as sucrose and HDP (high degree of polymerization) fructans. Conversely, major amino acids linked to stress resistance such as glutamine and arginine increased in crowns of annual bluegrass in response to SM inoculation. One of the major differences between resistant and sensitive genotypes was found in the concentration of HDP fructans, which remained higher in SM-resistant genotypes throughout the incubation period. HDP fructans were also more abundant in freeze-tolerant genotypes, reinforcing their positive impact on winter survival of annual bluegrass. The identification of genotypes that are resistant to both SM and freezing shows the possibility of being able to improve both traits concomitantly.

  20. History of the Department of Neurosurgery at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Osterholm, Jewell; Jabbour, Pascal; Dumont, Aaron S; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Harrop, James; Sharan, Ashwini; Rosenwasser, Robert; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula

    2013-10-01

    The neurosurgical tradition at Jefferson Medical College began in the 19th century with Samuel Gross. In his textbook entitled A System of Surgery, Gross revealed his knowledge of the disorders of the nervous system at a time when innovations were practically inexistent. Gross' work paved the way for William Williams Keen, "America's first brain surgeon." In 1887, Keen became the first surgeon in the nation to successfully remove a primary brain tumor. In 1893, Keen operated secretly on President Grover Cleveland for removal of an intraoral sarcoma and later served as a consultant to Franklin Roosevelt after he contracted poliomyelitis. The neurosurgery division was established in 1943 by J. Rudolph Jaeger. It was Philip Gordy who created a distinct Department of Neurosurgery in 1969. Jewell L. Osterholm became chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery in 1974. Since 2004, Robert Rosenwasser has served as chairman, and the Department of Neurosurgery at Jefferson has grown to include 26 faculty members. The residency has expanded to include 3 residents per academic year since 2007.

  1. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  2. Exploring the Optical Transient Sky with the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Arne; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Ciardi, David; Djorgovski, George S.; Fox, Derek B.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Grillmair, Carl C.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Ofek, Eran O.; Quimby, Robert M.; Reach, William T.; Shara, Michael; Bildsten, Lars; Cenko, S. Bradley; Drake, Andrew J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Helfand, David J.; Helou, George; Howell, D. Andrew; Poznanski, Dovi; Sullivan, Mark

    2009-12-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is a wide-field experiment designed to investigate the optical transient and variable sky on time scales from minutes to years. PTF uses the CFH12k mosaic camera, with a field of view of 7.9 deg2 and a plate scale of 1'' pixel-1, mounted on the Palomar Observatory 48 inch Samuel Oschin Telescope. The PTF operation strategy is devised to probe the existing gaps in the transient phase space and to search for theoretically predicted, but not yet detected, phenomena, such as fallback supernovae, macronovae, .Ia supernovae, and the orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. PTF will also discover many new members of known source classes, from cataclysmic variables in their various avatars to supernovae and active galactic nuclei, and will provide important insights into understanding galactic dynamics (through RR Lyrae stars) and the solar system (asteroids and near-Earth objects). The lessons that can be learned from PTF will be essential for the preparation of future large synoptic sky surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In this article we present the scientific motivation for PTF and describe in detail the goals and expectations for this experiment.

  3. Uses of the Word “Macula” in Written English, 1400-Present

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Stephen G.; Leffler, Christopher T.

    2014-01-01

    We compiled uses of the word “macula” in written English by searching multiple databases, including the Early English Books Online Text Creation Partnership, America’s Historical Newspapers, the Gale Cengage Collections, and others. “Macula” has been used: as a non-medical “spot” or “stain”, literal or figurative, including in astronomy and in Shakespeare; as a medical skin lesion, occasionally with a following descriptive adjective, such as a color (macula alba); as a corneal lesion, including the earliest identified use in English, circa 1400; and to describe the center of the retina. Francesco Buzzi described a yellow color in the posterior pole (“retina tinta di un color giallo”) in 1782, but did not use the word “macula”. “Macula lutea” was published by Samuel Thomas von Sömmering by 1799, and subsequently used in 1818 by James Wardrop, which appears to be the first known use in English. The Google n-gram database shows a marked increase in the frequencies of both “macula” and “macula lutea” following the introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850. “Macula” has been used in multiple contexts in written English. Modern databases provide powerful tools to explore historical uses of this word, which may be underappreciated by contemporary ophthalmologists. PMID:24913329

  4. Operation Deep Sweep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Fifty scientists and a crew of 18 have embarked on a 64,000 km odyssey to explore the Pacific from pole to pole—the most ambitious program in the history of the marine geology branch of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Called Operation Deep Sweep, the 1-year cruise will search areas above the Arctic Circle, off of Alaska, to McMurdo Sound in Antarctica. The 63-m, 1,300-tonne research vessel Samuel P. Lee sailed from its home port of Redwood City, Calif., to San Francisco to begin the first leg of the lengthy journey.According to USGS officials and the cosponsoring Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the cruise will ultimately involve 150 scientists, some of them representing Germany, France, Australia, and New Zealand. David Howell, branch chief of Pacific Marine Geology for the USGS, said the voyage of the Lee was “the most far reaching and of the longest duration” ever attempted by his unit. He said the cruise would string together a large number of scientific experiments spanning the Pacific. Howell likened the voyage to the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803-1806 (which explored Louisiana and the western United States) because “we're going into unknown territory and into regions not studied except in the most cursory manner.”

  5. Aliens and time in the machine age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, Mark; Hook, Neil

    2006-12-01

    The 19th century saw sweeping changes for the development of astrobiology, both in the constituency of empirical science encroaching upon all aspects of life and in the evolution of ideas, with Lyell's Principles of Geology radically raising expectation of the true age of the Earth and the drama of Darwinism questioning biblically literalist accounts of natural history. This paper considers the popular culture spun on the crackling loom of the emergent aspects of astrobiology of the day: Edward Bulwer-Lytton's The Coming Race (1871), which foretold the race of the future, and satirist Samuel Butler's anticipation of machine intelligence, `Darwin Among the Machines', in his Erewhon (1872). Finally, we look at the way Darwin, Huxley and natural selection travelled into space with French astronomer Camille Flammarion's immensely popular Récits de l'infini (Stories of Infinity, 1872), and the social Darwinism of H.G. Wells' The Time Machine (1895) and The War of the Worlds (1898). These works of popular culture presented an effective and inspiring communication of science; their crucial discourse was the reducible gap between the new worlds uncovered by science and exploration and the fantastic strange worlds of the imagination. As such they exemplify a way in which the culture and science of popular astrobiology can be fused.

  6. George Ellery Hale's Early Solar Research at Chicago, Kenwood, Harvard, and Yerkes Observatories, 1882-1904

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1999-05-01

    Growing up in Chicago, George Ellery Hale, later the prime spirit in founding the AAS, was a precocious boy scientist. He was deeply interested in spectroscopy and astrophysics from an early age. His wealthy parents encouraged Hale's aspirations with magazines, books, and instruments, and he acquired his first telescope when he was 14. He knew as mentors classical astronomers S. W. Burnham and George W. Hough, but he preferred astrophysics and designed his own Kenwood Physical Obseervatory around a grating in a Rowland circle mounting, fed by a heliostat, both built for him by instrument-maker John A. Brashear. For his undergraduate thesis at MIT, Hale invented and (at Harvard College Observatory) demonstrated the spectroheliograph. With it, and a high-quality 12-in refractor at his later Kenwood Astrophysical Observatory (at the same site, the Hale family home, 4 miles from the present Hilton Hotel where the SPD, HAD and AAS are meeting) Hale did excellent solar research, especially on promineneces, flocculi, and the near-ultraviolet spectrum of the chromosphere. As a teen-ager and a young adult Hale traveled widely, and met several important piuoneer solar physicists, including Charles A. Young, Jules Janssen, Samuel P. Langley, and Henry Rowland. Hale designed Yerkes Observatory for solar and stellar research, and headed the solar work himself. One of his aims always was to compare other stars with the sun. Hale's telescopes, instruments, methods, and resulting papers will be described and illustrated by numerous slides.

  7. Did the Allies Know in 1942 About Nazi Germany's Poor Prospects for an Atomic Bomb?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2008-04-01

    According to official accounts, the U.S. knew nothing about Nazi Germany's efforts to get an atomic bomb until the end of the World War II, but had feared the worst. As it turned out, the Germans had made little progress. But did someone in the Allied camp know in 1942? In his 1986 book, The Griffin, Arnold Kramish relates how Paul Rosbaud, a spy for MI6, the British secret intelligence service, kept his handlers informed during the War about the German atomic project and reported the decision to give up on a bomb. Kramish's revelations are, understandably, thinly documented and Rosbaud's name can hardly be found independenly anywhere else. But as Samuel Goudsmit's papers in the Bohr Library show, he knew and communicated with Rosbaud from August 1945 on. In 1986, 15 letters exchanged by Goudsmit and Rosbaud were removed by the Government from the Library and eventually placed in the National Archives under classification review. Renewed interest in the Rosbaud story was engendered last year when his family sued MI6 in an English court for the release of the Rosbaud file. So far the spy agency has refused to reveal even that there is such a file. Discovering authoritatively what Rosbaud told the British and what they did with the information is clearly of historical interest.

  8. Orthodoxy and reform: differing medical practices in a Glasgow Jewish Victorian family.

    PubMed

    Collins, K

    1995-01-01

    Medical botanists formed a major and growing element in the delivery of medical care in Victorian Britain, supplementing the provision made by qualified physicians. Medical reform, introduced into Britain from the United States in the middle of the nineteenth century, combined botanical treatment, including a strong emphasis on the use of lobelia, with physiotherapy. The Levenston family in Glasgow was represented among both qualified orthodox medical practitioners and unqualified practitioners of medical botany. Samuel Levenston graduated M.D. at the University of Glasgow in 1859 and had a long career in medical practice in Glasgow after years of work as an unqualified practitioner. His father and brothers were active in medical botany in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dublin, often posing as doctors but without appropriate qualifications. This paper examines the history of the Levenstons and contrasts the practices of the different members of the family, showing the relationships between a university-trained physician and medical chemists. The surviving Glasgow pharmacopeia of Solomon (Alexander) Levenston illustrates the style of his medical treatments, setting the practice of his medical botany into context.

  9. First Meeting of the NACA 1915

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1915-01-01

    The first meeting of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA.) in the Office of The Secretary Of War April 23, 1915. Brig. Gen. George P. Scriven was elected as the temporary Chairman of the NACA and Dr. Charles D. Walcott (not pictured), Secretary of the Smithsonian, was elected Chairman of the NACA Executive Committee. After the Wright Brothers historic first flight in 1903, the United States began to fall behind in aeronautical research. With the beginning of World War I the nation realized it needed a center for aeronautical research as a means of catching up technologically with Europe. On March 3, 1915 the legislation creating the NACA passed and the NACA was born. For 43 years the NACA worked to advance aviation research until it was eventually absorbed into the new space agency, NASA, in 1958. Seated from Left to Right: Dr. William Durand, Stanford University, California. Dr. S.W. Stratton, Director, Bureau of Standards. Brig.Gen. George P. Scriven, Chief Signal Officer, War Dept. Dr. C.F. Marvin, Chief, United States Weather Bureau Dr. Michael I Pupin, Columbia University, New York. Standing: Holden C. Richardson, Naval Instructor. Dr. John F. Hayford, Northwestern University, Illinois. Capt. Mark L. Bristol, Director of Naval Aeronautics. Lt. Col. Samuel Reber, Signal Corps. Charge, Aviation Section Also present at the First Meeting: Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. Hon. B. R. Newton, Asst. Secretary of Treasury.

  10. INTERACTION OF VISCID MATERIAL OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS WITH SPECIFIC IMMUNE SERUM.

    PubMed

    MUDD, S; DECOURCY, S J

    1965-03-01

    Mudd, Stuart (U.S. Veterans Administration Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa.), and Samuel J. DeCourcy, Jr. Interaction of viscid material of Staphylococcus aureus with specific immune serum. J. Bacteriol. 89:874-879. 1965.-Re-examination of the phenomenon of Price and Kneeland and of Wiley revealed the following. (i) The prototype "wound strain" of Wiley, and viscid-colony strains obtained by aging and selection of laboratory or field strains, differed in growth characteristics in liquid and solid media from the Smith encapsulated strain and from ordinary, unselected laboratory and field strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci. (ii) The wound strain and ordinary unselected strains, unlike the Smith encapsulated strain, did not exhibit capsules when examined in thin films of Pelikan Waterproof Drawing Ink. (iii) The phenomenon of Price and Kneeland and of Wiley is exhibited when the wound strain and other viscid-colony strains interact with anti-Wiley immune sera or various human sera. In our experience, this phenomenon was not exhibited by the Smith or by ordinary, unselected strains. (iv) The staphylococcal polysaccharide antigen previously characterized as the capsular substance of a Smith-like strain was completely different chemically and serologically from extracellular material prepared from the Wiley wound strain. We conclude that the viscid-colony strains are not, in fact, encapsulated, and that the phenomenon in question is a precipitation of extracellular material about the periphery of the cells. PMID:14273673

  11. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity: genealogy of a debate in genetics.

    PubMed

    Nicoglou, Antonine

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes the context and the origin of a particular debate that concerns the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. In 1965, British biologist A. D. Bradshaw proposed a widely cited model intended to explain the evolution of norms of reaction, based on his studies of plant populations. Bradshaw's model went beyond the notion of the "adaptive norm of reaction" discussed before him by Dobzhansky and Schmalhausen by suggesting that "plasticity"--the ability of a phenotype to be modified by the environment--should be genetically determined. To prove Bradshaw's hypothesis, it became necessary for some authors to identify the pressures exerted by natural selection on phenotypic plasticity in particular traits, and thus to model its evolution. In this paper, I contrast two different views, based on quantitative genetic models, proposed in the mid-1980s: Russell Lande and Sara Via's conception of phenotypic plasticity, which assumes that the evolution of plasticity is linked to the evolution of the plastic trait itself, and Samuel Scheiner and Richard Lyman's view, which assumes that the evolution of plasticity is independent from the evolution of the trait. I show how the origin of this specific debate, and different assumptions about the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, depended on Bradshaw's definition of plasticity and the context of quantitative genetics.

  12. The inner witness.

    PubMed

    Amir, Dana

    2012-08-01

    The inner witness is a mechanism that develops in response to a reasonable experience of infantile helplessness, the resulting maternal impingement and the presence of a sufficient experience of a third. Being crucial to the subject's capacity to shift between the first person and the third person of experience, it also has an essential role in coping with trauma. Three types of testimonial narrative are differentiated in terms of the presence of the inner witness in their syntax. The first mode is one in which the inner witness is accessible, enabling the imaginary shift between the voice of the victim and the voice of the witness. The second mode, which remains a 'first-person' mode of report, preserves and enacts the traumatic memories and the traumatic features. The third, psychotic mode attacks both the first and the third person, separating the subject from both his memories and his sense of selfhood. This mode can evolve as a reaction to an adult massive trauma, but is more likely to emerge as a result of early traumatization. The above ideas and their implications for recovery are illustrated by a case study and through a reading of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot.

  13. estMOI: estimating multiplicity of infection using parasite deep sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Samuel A.; Preston, Mark D.; Campino, Susana; Ocholla, Harold; Sutherland, Colin J.; Clark, Taane G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Individuals living in endemic areas generally harbour multiple parasite strains. Multiplicity of infection (MOI) can be an indicator of immune status and transmission intensity. It has a potentially confounding effect on a number of population genetic analyses, which often assume isolates are clonal. Polymerase chain reaction-based approaches to estimate MOI can lack sensitivity. For example, in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, genotyping of the merozoite surface protein (MSP1/2) genes is a standard method for assessing MOI, despite the apparent problem of underestimation. The availability of deep coverage data from massively parallizable sequencing technologies means that MOI can be detected genome wide by considering the abundance of heterozygous genotypes. Here, we present a method to estimate MOI, which considers unique combinations of polymorphisms from sequence reads. The method is implemented within the estMOI software. When applied to clinical P.falciparum isolates from three continents, we find that multiple infections are common, especially in regions with high transmission. Availability and implementation: estMOI is freely available from http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk. Contact: samuel.assefa@lshtm.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24443379

  14. Cold-induced responses in annual bluegrass genotypes with differential resistance to pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale).

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Annick; Castonguay, Yves; Azaiez, Aïda; Hsiang, Tom; Dionne, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Greens-type annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is susceptible to winter stresses including subfreezing temperatures and pink snow mold (SM). To better understand the mechanisms of SM resistance in annual bluegrass, four SM-resistant and four SM-sensitive genotypes were incubated at low temperature with Microdochium nivale (Fries) Samuels & Hallett, the causal agent of pink snow mold. We assessed the impact of a 6-week incubation period with SM at 2 °C under high humidity (≥ 98%) on the accumulation of cold-induced metabolites and on freezing tolerance. Incubation of annual bluegrass inoculated with SM lead to a major decrease in concentration of cryoprotective sugars such as sucrose and HDP (high degree of polymerization) fructans. Conversely, major amino acids linked to stress resistance such as glutamine and arginine increased in crowns of annual bluegrass in response to SM inoculation. One of the major differences between resistant and sensitive genotypes was found in the concentration of HDP fructans, which remained higher in SM-resistant genotypes throughout the incubation period. HDP fructans were also more abundant in freeze-tolerant genotypes, reinforcing their positive impact on winter survival of annual bluegrass. The identification of genotypes that are resistant to both SM and freezing shows the possibility of being able to improve both traits concomitantly. PMID:21421353

  15. The early botanical medical movement as a reflection of life, liberty, and literacy in Jacksonian America*

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a popular, grassroots health crusade initiated by Samuel Thomson (1769–1843) in the early decades of the nineteenth century and the ways the Thomsonians exemplified the inherent contradictions within the larger context of their own sociopolitical environment. Premised upon a unique brand of frontier egalitarianism exemplified in the Tennessee war-hero Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), the age that bore Jackson's name was ostensibly anti-intellectual, venerating “intuitive wisdom” and “common sense” over book learning and formal education. Likewise, the Thomsonian movement eschewed schooling and science for an empirical embrace of nature's apothecary, a populist rhetoric that belied its own complex and extensive infrastructure of polemical literature. Thus, Thomsonians, in fact, relied upon a literate public to explain and disseminate their system of healing. This paper contributes to the historiography of literacy in the United States that goes beyond typical census-data, probate-record, or will-signature analyses to look at how a popular medical cult was both heir to and promoter of a functionally literate populace. PMID:12398251

  16. Testing the rebound peer review concept.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kenneth R

    2013-07-01

    This invited Editorial addresses the rescue of the article by Xue et al. "Hydrogen sulfide treatment promotes glucose uptake by increasing insulin receptor sensitivity and ameliorates kidney lesions in type 2 diabetes." The work was rejected by the standard peer review system and subsequently rescued via the Rebound Peer Review mechanism offered by Antioxidants and Redox Signaling (Antoxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012). The open reviewers rescuing the work were Jin-Song Bian, Samuel Dudley, Hideo Kimura, and Xian Wang. The initial article was reviewed by six reviewers who had valid concerns; they recommended extensive revision and additional experiments. In the subsequent two iterations, the authors nearly doubled the number of experiments and made substantial revisions. However, several reviewers were still not satisfied, and the authors requested the rebound pathway. The open reviewers, selected by the authors and experts in hydrogen sulfide biology, diabetes, and cardiovascular physiology, added a broad perspective to the review process. They acknowledged the anonymous reviewer's concerns, but felt that the merits of the study were sufficient to recommend acceptance. The open reviewers also identified several situations where the recommendations of the anonymous reviewers and the author's attempts to rectify them were moot, given the available methodology and present state of the field. From this perspective, the rebound track was a success; it rescued an article that otherwise would have been rejected and will stimulate further discussion and research in this area. Whether or not there are more efficient ways to accomplish, this remains to be determined. PMID:23425024

  17. [About the origin, evolution and irradiation of Mexican cardiology].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican cardioangiology started in the nineteen century thanks to first endeavors of surgeons and physicians related to local academies and to School of Medicine, established in 1833 by Dr. Valentin Gómez Farías. Dr. Manuel Carpio, the future first head of department of physiology in this school, translated to Spanish language and published, in 1823, the article On pectoriloquo of the French physician Marat and later performed some experiments on the heart' motion. During the Secont Empire (1864-1867), the physician Samuel von Basch performed studies to define the arterial hypertension, called by him "latent atherosclerosis", i.e. the "essential hypertension". Once he had returned to his country, he invented in 1880, a sphygmomanometer of mercury column, that was the model for the instrument constructed by the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci and presented in 1896. In our time, Dr. Demetrio Sodi Pallares systematized a metabolic therapy called "polarizing therapy", i.e. capable of repolarizing the heart's cells partly depolarized due to hypoxia or direct aggressions. These were the first steps in Mexico on the way to a promising medicine starting and the great adventure of Mexican cardiology. PMID:25260577

  18. COMMUNITY CAPACITY BUILDING FOR REVITALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE REDEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Melinda; Rosenthall, John; Hudson, Michelle

    2003-02-27

    Capacity building programs help poor and disadvantaged communities to improve their ability to participate in the environmental decision-making processes. They encourage citizen involvement, and provide the tools that enable them to do so. Capacity building enables communities that would otherwise be excluded to participate in the process, leading to better, and more just decisions. The Department of Energy (DOE) continues to be committed to promoting environmental justice and involving its stakeholders more directly in the planning and decision-making process for environmental cleanup. DOE's Environmental Management Program (EM) is in full support of this commitment. Through its environmental justice project, EM provides communities with the capacity to effectively contribute to a complex technical decision-making process by furnishing access to computers, the Internet, training and technical assistance. DOE's Dr. Samuel P. Massie Chairs of Excellence Program (Massie Chairs) function as technical advisors to many of these community projects. The Massie Chairs consist of nationally and internationally recognized engineers and scientists from nine Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and one Hispanic Serving Institution (HIS). This paper will discuss capacity building initiatives in various jurisdictions.

  19. Toward a virtue-based normative ethics for the health professions.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1995-09-01

    Virtue is the most perdurable concept in the history of ethics, which is understandable given the ineradicability of the moral agent in the events of the moral life. Historically, virtue enjoyed normative force as long as the philosophical anthropology and the metaphysics of the good that grounded virtue were viable. That grounding has eroded in both general and medical ethics. If virtue is to be restored to a normative status, its philosophical underpinnings must be reconstructed. Such reconstruction seems unlikely in general ethics, where the possibility of agreement on the good for humans is remote. However, it is a realistic possibility in the professional ethics fo the health professions where agreement on the telos of the healing relationship is more likely to arise. Nevertheless, virtue-based ethics must be related conceptually and normatively to other ethical theories in a comprehensive moral philosophy of the health professions. If he really does think there is no distinction between virtue and vice, why, sir, when he leaves our house, let us count our spoons. Samuel Johnson

  20. [About the origin, evolution and irradiation of Mexican cardiology].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Mexican cardioangiology started in the nineteen century thanks to first endeavors of surgeons and physicians related to local academies and to School of Medicine, established in 1833 by Dr. Valentin Gómez Farías. Dr. Manuel Carpio, the future first head of department of physiology in this school, translated to Spanish language and published, in 1823, the article On pectoriloquo of the French physician Marat and later performed some experiments on the heart' motion. During the Secont Empire (1864-1867), the physician Samuel von Basch performed studies to define the arterial hypertension, called by him "latent atherosclerosis", i.e. the "essential hypertension". Once he had returned to his country, he invented in 1880, a sphygmomanometer of mercury column, that was the model for the instrument constructed by the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci and presented in 1896. In our time, Dr. Demetrio Sodi Pallares systematized a metabolic therapy called "polarizing therapy", i.e. capable of repolarizing the heart's cells partly depolarized due to hypoxia or direct aggressions. These were the first steps in Mexico on the way to a promising medicine starting and the great adventure of Mexican cardiology.

  1. Cosmic Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2000-07-01

    In this tour de force of the ultimate and extreme in astrophysics, renowned astrophysicist and author J. Craig Wheeler takes us on a breathtaking journey to supernovae, black holes, gamma-ray bursts and adventures in hyperspace. This is no far-fetched science fiction tale, but an enthusiastic exploration of ideas at the cutting edge of current astrophysics. Wheeler follows the tortuous life of a star from birth to evolution and death, and goes on to consider the complete collapse of a star into a black hole, worm-hole time machines, the possible birth of baby bubble universes, and the prospect of a revolutionary view of space and time in a ten-dimensional string theory. Along the way he offers evidence that suggests the Universe is accelerating and describes recent developments in understanding gamma-ray bursts--perhaps the most catastrophic cosmic events of all. With the use of lucid analogies, simple language and crystal-clear cartoons, Cosmic Catastrophes makes accessible some of the most exciting and mind-bending objects and ideas in the Universe. J. Craig Wheeler is currently Samuel T. and Fern Yanagisawa Regents Professor of Astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin and Vice President of the American Astronomical Society as of 1999.

  2. The Palomar Transient Factory: System Overview, Performance, and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Ofek, Eran O.; Quimby, Robert M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Surace, Jason; Grillmair, Carl C.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Bildsten, Lars; Brown, Tim; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ciardi, David; Croner, Ernest; Djorgovski, S. George; van Eyken, Julian; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Fox, Derek B.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hale, David; Hamam, Nouhad; Helou, George; Henning, John; Howell, D. Andrew; Jacobsen, Janet; Laher, Russ; Mattingly, Sean; McKenna, Dan; Pickles, Andrew; Poznanski, Dovi; Rahmer, Gustavo; Rau, Arne; Rosing, Wayne; Shara, Michael; Smith, Roger; Starr, Dan; Sullivan, Mark; Velur, Viswa; Walters, Richard; Zolkower, Jeff

    2009-12-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) is a fully-automated, wide-field survey aimed at a systematic exploration of the optical transient sky. The transient survey is performed using a new 8.1 square degree camera installed on the 48 inch Samuel Oschin telescope at Palomar Observatory; colors and light curves for detected transients are obtained with the automated Palomar 60 inch telescope. PTF uses 80% of the 1.2 m and 50% of the 1.5 m telescope time. With an exposure of 60 s the survey reaches a depth of mg' ≈ 21.3 and mR ≈ 20.6 (5σ, median seeing). Four major experiments are planned for the five-year project: (1) a 5 day cadence supernova search; (2) a rapid transient search with cadences between 90 s and 1 day (3) a search for eclipsing binaries and transiting planets in Orion; and (4) a 3π sr deep H-alpha survey. PTF provides automatic, real-time transient classification and follow-up, as well as a database including every source detected in each frame. This paper summarizes the PTF project, including several months of on-sky performance tests of the new survey camera, the observing plans, and the data reduction strategy. We conclude by detailing the first 51 PTF optical transient detections, found in commissioning data.

  3. Lexical support for phonetic perception during nonnative spoken word recognition.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Arthur G; Frost, Ram

    2015-12-01

    Second language comprehension is generally not as efficient and effective as native language comprehension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that lower-level processes such as lexical support for phonetic perception are a contributing factor to these differences. For native listeners, it has been shown that the perception of ambiguous acoustic–phonetic segments is driven by lexical factors (Samuel Psychological Science, 12, 348-351, 2001). Here, we tested whether nonnative listeners can use lexical context in the same way. Native Hebrew speakers living in Israel were tested with American English stimuli. When subtle acoustic cues in the stimuli worked against the lexical context, these nonnative speakers showed no evidence of lexical guidance of phonetic perception. This result conflicts with the performance of native speakers, who demonstrate lexical effects on phonetic perception even with conflicting acoustic cues. When stimuli without any conflicting cues were used, the native Hebrew subjects produced results similar to those of native English speakers, showing lexical support for phonetic perception in their second language. In contrast, native Arabic speakers, who were less proficient in English than the native Hebrew speakers, showed no ability to use lexical activation to support phonetic perception, even without any conflicting cues. These results reinforce previous demonstrations of lexical support of phonetic perception and demonstrate how proficiency modulates the use of lexical information in driving phonetic perception. PMID:26866066

  4. [The physician in the Talmudic period: between technie and halakhah].

    PubMed

    Kottek, S S

    1997-01-01

    The Talmud is a vast corpus in which medicine is no more than an artifact. We can nevertheless, in the light of the extant data, gain some idea of the status of physicians in biblical and talmudic times. After some brief considerations on the biblical period, particularly on the relationship of priests and prophets to medicine, we shall focus on the talmudic data. Several Sages of note were knoledgeable in medical lore, mostly of popular origin, but in some cases of scientific origin as well. The most impressive case is that of Mar Samuel. A report of an experimentation in the field of embryology allegedly performed in Alexandria will be described. In all these cases, data pertaining to the healing art (techne) are recorded with the only aim of establishing the law (halakkah). We shall then detail what is known of the medical profession then and there, i.e., licensing, liability and fees. Some data on ethics and etiquette will close this overview of the practice of medicine in ancient Jewish lore.

  5. How the Term "Shock Waves" Came Into Being

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper considers the history of works on shock waves beginning from S. D. Poisson's publication in 1808. It expounds on the establishment of the Polytechnic School in Paris and its fellows and teachers — Gaspard Monge, Lazare Carnot, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Simeon Denis Poisson, Henri Navier, Augustin Louis Cauchy, Joseph Liouville, Ademar de Saint-Venant, Henri Regnault, Pierre Dulong, Emile Jouguet, Pierre Duhem, and others. It also describes the participation in the development of the shock wave theory of young scientists from the universities of Cambridge, among which were George Airy, James Challis, Samuel Earnshaw, George Stokes, Lord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin, and James Maxwell, as well as of scientists from the Göttingen University, Germany — Bernhard Riemann and Ernst Heinrich Weber. The pioneer works on shock waves of the Scottish engineer William Renkin, the French artillerist Pierre-Henri Hugoniot, German scientists August Toepler and Ernst Mach, and a Hungarian scientist Gyözö Zemplén are also considered.

  6. Normalization and Implementation of Three Gravitational Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.; Gottlieb, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the consequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the asphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of an aspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities that must be removed to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Samuel Pines, Bill Lear, and Robert Gottlieb developed three unique algorithms to eliminate these singularities. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear and Gottlieb algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre polynomials and Associated Legendre Functions (ALFs) for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  7. Properties of sunspot cycles and hemispheric wings since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leussu, Raisa; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Arlt, Rainer; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-08-01

    Aims: The latitudinal evolution of sunspot emergence over the course of the solar cycle, the so-called butterfly diagram, is a fundamental property of the solar dynamo. Here we present a study of the butterfly diagram of sunspot group occurrence for cycles 7-10 and 11-23 using data from a recently digitized sunspot drawings by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe in 1825-1867, and from RGO/USAF/NOAA(SOON) compilation of sunspot groups in 1874-2015. Methods: We developed a new, robust method of hemispheric wing separation based on an analysis of long gaps in sunspot group occurrence in different latitude bands. The method makes it possible to ascribe each sunspot group to a certain wing (solar cycle and hemisphere), and separate the old and new cycle during their overlap. This allows for an improved study of solar cycles compared to the common way of separating the cycles. Results: We separated each hemispheric wing of the butterfly diagram and analysed them with respect to the number of groups appearing in each wing, their lengths, hemispheric differences, and overlaps. Conclusions: The overlaps of successive wings were found to be systematically longer in the northern hemisphere for cycles 7-10, but in the southern hemisphere for cycles 16-22. The occurrence of sunspot groups depicts a systematic long-term variation between the two hemispheres. During Schwabe time, the hemispheric asymmetry was north-dominated during cycle 9 and south-dominated during cycle 10.

  8. [Comprehensive health (care) services to women in gender violence situation: an alternative to primary health care].

    PubMed

    d'Oliveira, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hanada, Heloisa; Durand, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the possibilities of the health sector to approach violence against women in its practices as a gender issue. It is presented a conceptual and theoretical comprehension of gender violence linked to a care proposal, as the definition of the problem is essential to the intervention, answering to different social ends. To do that, is necessary to think what the objectives of the work in health are and where it is placed within the production and reproduction of the ways of living and falling ill. It is argued the possibility of full assistance, in order that violence itself, and not only its repercussions, are considered in the health work. The proposal of care for sexual violence in Brazil is recovered, and a model of primary health care implemented at Samuel B. Pessoa Health School Center is presented. This model is integrated in the Womens Integral Health Care Program (PAISM) and attends women in severe domestic conflicts (CONFAD) conceptualized as a specific technique of detection, listening and counseling, featuring a chat technique as a professional action. To conclude, aspects related to the connections of the health sector with the intersectorial network are discussed presenting its principal difficulties. PMID:19721945

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sunspot areas and tilt angles (Senthamizh Pavai+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthamizh Pavai, V.; Arlt, R.; Dasi-Espuig, M.; Krivova, N.; Solanki, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present sunspot positions and areas from historical observations of sunspots by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe from Dessau, Germany. He has recorded his observations of sunspots from 1825-1867 as drawings in small circles of about 5cm diameter (representing the solar disk). Even though he has used quite a number of telescopes for his observations, the majority of the full-disk drawings were made with a 3-1/2-foot telescope from Fraunhofer. His observing log books are stored in the library of the Royal Astronomical Society in London. Those drawings were digitized photographically with a resolution of 2912x4378 pixels per page. The sizes and positions of the sunspots were measured using a dozen of circular mouse cursor shapes with different diameters. The sunspot sizes in Schwabe's drawings are not to scale and need to be converted into physical sunspot areas. We employed a statistical approach assuming that the area distribution of sunspots was the same in the 19th century as it was in the 20th century. Umbral areas for about 130,000 sunspots observed by Schwabe were obtained, as well as the tilt angles of sunspot groups assuming them to be bipolar (two or more spots). There is, of course, no polarity information in the observations. Both an updated sunspot database and a tilt angle database are available at http://www.aip.de/Members/rarlt/ sunspots for further study. (2 data files).

  10. "Applied science": a phrase in search of a meaning.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2012-09-01

    The term "applied science," as it came to be popularly used in the 1870s, was a hybrid of three earlier concepts. The phrase "applied science" itself had been coined by Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1817, translating the German Kantian term "angewandte Wissenschaft." It was popularized through the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, which was structured on principles inherited from Coleridge and edited by men with sympathetic views. Their concept of empirical as opposed to a priori science was hybridized with an earlier English concept of "practical science" and with "science applied to the arts," adopted from the French. Charles Dupin had favored the latter concept and promoted it in the reconstruction of the Conservatoire Nationale des Arts et Métiers. The process of hybridization took place from the 1850s, in the wake of the Great Exhibition, as a new technocratic government favored scientific education. "Applied science" subsequently was used as the epistemic basis for technical education and the formation of new colleges in the 1870s.

  11. Wilson disease: pathogenesis and clinical considerations in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosencrantz, Richard; Schilsky, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Nearly a century after Dr. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson composed his doctoral thesis on the pathologic findings of "lenticular degeneration" in the brain associated with cirrhosis of the liver we know that the underlying molecular basis for this autosomal recessive inherited disorder that now bears his name is mutation of a copper transporting ATPase, ATP7B, an intracellular copper transporter mainly expressed in hepatocytes. Loss of ATP7B function is the basis for reduced hepatic biliary copper excretion and reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin. During the intervening years, there was recognition of the clinical signs, histologic, biochemical features, and mutation analysis of ATP7B that characterize and enable diagnosis of this disorder. These include the presence of signs of liver or neurologic disease and detection of Kayser-Fleischer rings, low ceruloplasmin, elevated urine and hepatic copper, and associated histologic changes in the liver. Medical therapies and liver transplantation can effectively treat patients with this once uniformly fatal disorder. The earlier detection of the disease led to the initiation of treatment to prevent disease progression and reverse pathologic findings if present, and family screening to detect the disorder in first-degree relatives is warranted. Gene therapy and hepatocyte cell transplantation for Wilson disease has only been tested in animal models but represent future areas for study. Despite all the advances we still have to consider the diagnosis of Wilson disease to test patients for this disorder and properly establish the diagnosis before committing to life-long treatment.

  12. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants cut the lines to helium-filled balloons. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  13. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS) presents an award of appreciation to H.T. Everett, KSC Propellants manager, at the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center. The pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Center Director Roy Bridges;); Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing; Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; and Michael Butchko, president, SGS.

  14. Commissioning of a new helium pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At the commissioning of a new high-pressure helium pipeline at Kennedy Space Center, participants watch as helium-filled balloons take to the sky after their lines were cut. From left, they are Center Director Roy Bridges; Michael Butchko, president, SGS; Pierre Dufour, president and CEO, Air Liquide America Corporation; David Herst, director, Delta IV Launch Sites; Pamela Gillespie, executive administrator, office of Congressman Dave Weldon; and Col. Samuel Dick, representative of the 45th Space Wing. The nine-mile-long buried pipeline will service launch needs at the new Delta IV Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It will also serve as a backup helium resource for Shuttle launches. Nearly one launch's worth of helium will be available in the pipeline to support a Shuttle pad in an emergency. The line originates at the Helium Facility on KSC and terminates in a meter station at the perimeter of the Delta IV launch pad. Others at the ceremony were Jerry Jorgensen, pipeline project manager, Space Gateway Support (SGS), and Ramon Lugo, acting executive director, JPMO.

  15. KSC-03PD-3145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Officials of the NASA-Kennedy Space Center and the state of Florida pose for a group portrait at a dedication and ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Space Life Sciences Lab at the new lab. From left are Capt. Winston Scott, executive director of the Florida Space Authority; Dr. Robert J. Ferl, director of Space Agriculture Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE), University of Florida; Charlie Quincy, chief of the Biological Sciences Office, Kennedy Space Center; Jose Perez-Morales, NASA Project Manager for the Space Life Sciences Lab; Jim Kennedy, director of the Kennedy Space Center; The Honorable Toni Jennings, lieutenant governor of the state of Florida; Frank T. Brogan, president of the Florida Atlantic University; and Dr. Samuel Durrance, executive director of the Florida Space Research Institute. Completed in August, the facility encompasses more than 100,000 square feet and was formerly known as the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory or SERPL. The state, through the Florida Space Authority, built the research lab which is host to NASA, NASAs Life Sciences Services contractor Dynamac Corp., Bionetics Corp., and researchers from the University of Florida. Dynamac Corp. leases the facility. The Florida Space Research Institute is responsible for gaining additional tenants from outside the NASA community.

  16. Coal: America's energy future. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman requested the National Coal Council in April 2005 a report identifying the challenges and opportunities of more fully exploring the USA's domestic coal resources to meet the nations' future energy needs. This resultant report addresses the Secretary's request in the context of the President's focus, with eight findings and recommendations that would use technology to leverage the USA's extensive coal assets and reduce dependence on imported energy. Volume I outlines these findings and recommendations. Volume II provides technical data and case histories to support the findings and recommendations. Chapter headings of Volume I are: Coal-to-Liquids to Produce 2.6 MMbbl/d; Coal-to-Natural Gas to Produce 4.0 Tcf Per Year; Coal-to-Clean Electricity; Coal to Produce Ethanol; Coal-to-Hydrogen; Enhanced Oil and Gas (Coalbed Methane); Recovery as Carbon Management Strategies; Delineate U.S. Coal Reserves and Transportation Constraints as Part of an Effort to Maximize U.S. Coal Production; and Penn State Study, 'Economic Benefits of Coal Conversion Investments'.

  17. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and ross's geese as disease carriers in the Playa Lakes Region.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Shadduck, Daniel J; Goldberg, Diana R; Johnson, William P

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000-01 and 2001-02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (<5%) were carriers of pathogenic P. multocida. On the basis of serology, an additional group of these birds (<10%) were survivors of recent avian cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Ross's geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection. PMID:15827210

  18. Surgical research IV.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2010-08-01

    Harvey W. Cushing (1869-1939) is the only surgeon represented in Surgical Research IV and one of the most accomplished American contributors to surgical research in general and to neurological and endocrine surgery research in particular. Other surgical research leaders of the 19th and 20th centuries who preceded Harvey Cushing have been introduced before. First, we highlighted the "importance of medical and surgical research" as the basic elements in the advancement of medicine and surgery could be considered as Surgical Research I. Second, in Surgical Research II, we presented William Beaumont, Samuel Gross, and William Halsted as the most important participants of the first wave of American surgical researchers. Next, in Surgical Research III, we considered surgeon researchers who moved ahead in the field of surgery with their research initiatives at the time, including John B. Murphy, the Mayo Brothers William J. and Charles H. Mayo, and George W. Crile. With Harvey Cushing, we enter an era of surgical research associated with neurosurgery and endocrine surgery as part of Surgical Research IV. PMID:20690841

  19. The inner witness.

    PubMed

    Amir, Dana

    2012-08-01

    The inner witness is a mechanism that develops in response to a reasonable experience of infantile helplessness, the resulting maternal impingement and the presence of a sufficient experience of a third. Being crucial to the subject's capacity to shift between the first person and the third person of experience, it also has an essential role in coping with trauma. Three types of testimonial narrative are differentiated in terms of the presence of the inner witness in their syntax. The first mode is one in which the inner witness is accessible, enabling the imaginary shift between the voice of the victim and the voice of the witness. The second mode, which remains a 'first-person' mode of report, preserves and enacts the traumatic memories and the traumatic features. The third, psychotic mode attacks both the first and the third person, separating the subject from both his memories and his sense of selfhood. This mode can evolve as a reaction to an adult massive trauma, but is more likely to emerge as a result of early traumatization. The above ideas and their implications for recovery are illustrated by a case study and through a reading of Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot. PMID:22900554

  20. The identity of the enigmatic "Black Shrew" (Sorex niger Ord, 1815)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The scientific name Sorex niger Ord, 1815 (Mammalia, Soricidae) was originally applied to a North American species that George Ord called the “Black Shrew.” The origin of the name “Black Shrew,” however, was obscure, and Samuel Rhoads subsequently wrote that the species represented by this name could not be determined. The names Sorex niger Ord and Black Shrew have since been mostly forgotten. Two of Ord's contemporaries, however, noted that Ord's use of these names probably alluded to Benjamin Smith Barton's Black Shrew, whose discovery near Philadelphia was announced by Barton in 1806. Examination of two unpublished illustrations of the Black Shrew made by Barton indicates that the animal depicted is Blarina brevicauda (Say, 1822). Had the connection between Ord's and Barton's names been made more clearly, one of the most common mammals in eastern North America would bear a different scientific name today. This connection also would have affected the validity of Sorex niger Horsfield, 1851. While Sorex niger Ord remains a nomen nudum, the animal it referenced can now be identified.

  1. Naming speed deficits in reading disability: multiple measures of a singular process.

    PubMed

    Bowers, P G; Swanson, L B

    1991-04-01

    Speed of word identification is important in the theories of reading proposed by La Berge and Samuels (1974) and Perfetti (1985), and is substantially correlated with reading skill. However, there is controversy about whether disabled readers have a speed deficit that is restricted to the identification of printed words, or if instead, they have a more general speed deficit in retrieving names of even single digits. To investigate this issue, poor and average readers (N = 43) in grade 2 were assessed on several indices of speed of digit and letter naming, using both continuous-list and discrete-trial methodologies. MANCOVA indicated clear effects of reader group on discrete-trial latencies, as well as an interaction between reader group and the speed with which to-be-named items were presented. A series of hierarchical regression analyses explored the amount of shared variance between various measures of digit naming speed and five indices of reading skill. Latency for word identification shares considerable variance with latency for digit naming, and, in general, accounts for the shared variance of naming speed and several other measures of reading skill. Naming speed contributed variance in reading skill. Naming speed contributed variance in reading skill independently of measures of phonological awareness.

  2. Legends about Legends: Abraham Eleazar's Adaptation of Nicolas Flamel.

    PubMed

    Priesner, Claus

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the relationship between three illustrated alchemical treatises, all of which are associated with Jewish adepts: the famous Le Livre des figures hieroglyphiques attributed to Nicolas Flamel, and two treatises published in 1735 in Erfurt-the Uraltes Chymisches Werckh and the Donum Dei. The Werckh is supposedly written by Rabbi Abraham Eleazar, while the Donum Dei is attributed to an ancient alchemist-cabalist, Rabbi Samuel Baruch. I argue that these authors are fictitious, and that both works were in fact written in the early eighteenth century by their supposed editor, the probably pseudonymous Julius Gervasius. Gervasius connects the Werckh with the legend of Nicolas Flamel by suggesting that it is based on the original, Jewish manuscript which helped Flamel to find the Stone of the Sages. Gervasius used various strategies to confer a sense of Jewish "authenticity" on these works, borrowing from contemporary (non-Jewish) perceptions of Jewish ritual, Hebrew language, and Christian Cabala. The Werckh also borrows and adapts a sequence of allegorical illustrations from those in pseudo-Flamel's Livre, and I compare the two sets of figures and, where possible, interpret them. I conclude that the later works in fact teach us far more about the state of alchemy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries than they do about either medieval alchemy or Judaism. PMID:27376176

  3. Suppression of Astronomical Sources Using Starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novicki, Megan; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Richards, Michael; Harness, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Tests of this approach have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field (Samuele et al., 2010, Glassman et al., 2014) using non-collimated light sources with a spherical wavefront. We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale (approximately 1/300th) starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We placed a starshade directly in the path of the beam from an astronomical object in front of the main heliostat. Using only flat mirrors, we then directed the light through the observatory path and reflected it off the West heliostat to an external telescope located approximately 270m away, for an effective baseline of 420m.This configuration allowed us to make measurements of flat wavefront sources with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in 2015.

  4. Hahnemann and placebo.

    PubMed

    Jütte, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) known today as the founder of homoeopathy, was - as far as we know - the first physician who administrated placebos to his patient on a systematic and regular basis. This study is based upon unpublished documents (e.g. patients' letters) in the Archives of the Institute for the History of Medicine of the Robert Bosch Foundation in Stuttgart. It also profited from the critical edition of Hahnemann's case journals and the editorial comments which have also been published in this series. Hahnemann differentiated clearly between homeopathic drugs and pharmaceutical substances which he considered as sham medicine (e.g. milk sugar). A close look at Hahnemann's case journals reveals that the percentage of placebo prescriptions was very high (between 54 and 85 percent). In most instances Hahnemann marked placebos with the paragraph symbol (§). The rationale behind this practice was that Hahnemann had encountered the well-known problem that patients were used to taking medicine on a daily basis as it was typical for the age of heroic medicine. The main reason for giving placebo was therefore to please the impatient patient who was used to frequent medications in allopathic medicine, not only every day but sometimes also hourly.

  5. "[G]azing into the synaptic chasm": the Brain in Beckett's Writing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Rina

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that Samuel Beckett's interest in functions of the brain is not only evidenced in his notebooks, taken from a number of psychology and psycho-physiognomy texts in the early 1930s, but is also explored and expanded in his fiction and drama. This paper investigates Beckett's fascination with the limits of "cerebral consciousness" and the brain's failure to consciously perceive certain bodily modifications especially when processing emotion. Like Antonio Damasio's definition of emotion as essentially the bodily modifications that include chemical changes, Beckett often exploits the idea of emotion as sorely a bodily phenomenon by creating characters who are unable to consciously perceive and process their emotion. For example, when talking about his own weeping, the narrator of The Unnamable attributes the tears to the malfunctioning of the brain, "liquefied brain", denying, displacing or making physical the feeling of sadness. By examining the ways in which Beckett emphasizes a somatic dimension of emotion and its relation to the brain function and perception in his writing, this paper reveals how he explores the idea of the self and extends the idea to what he calls the "impenetrable self" that cannot be consciously recognized. I argue that if, for Joseph LeDoux, the "notion of synapses as points of communication between cells is […] essential to our efforts to understand who we are in terms of brain mechanisms", for Beckett to expose such unconscious biological mechanisms and "gaps" becomes his own artistic challenge. PMID:26687208

  6. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:26379562

  7. [Expulsion from Leipzig? Hahnemann's medical praxis in Leipzig: reasons for transferring to Kothen in 1821 - frequency of patients and polemics].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, K

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has concurred that Samuel Hahnemann enjoyed a flourishing medical practice in Leipzig. However, a close look at the physician's years in Leipzig reveals that his patient list was not exactly growing. Rather, his medical practice followed a trajectory similar to that of a roller coaster: due to crucial events - successful treatment during the typhus epidemic, lecturing at the University of Leipzig, treating influential public figures - Hahnemann was able to restructure the composition of his clientele. More precisely, he was able to work his way into the upper classes, increase his recognition, and spread into other regions. Hahnemann's reputation attracted patients from all over Germany and even neighboring countries. The improvement in the social structure of Hahnemann's clientele also reflects important changes in the spread of homeopathy. Hahnemann's transfer to Kothen can be explained by a number of factors: his prohibition against dispensing medicines, declining personal prestige, decreasing number of patients and ensuing financial difficulties, fruitless university employment, continually increasing subjective and objective pressures and last but not least, the privileges of leadership. PMID:11624612

  8. The Martin Buber-Carl Jung disputations: protecting the sacred in the battle for the boundaries of analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Stephens, B D

    2001-07-01

    The Martin Buber-C.G. Jung disputations rather than the Freud-Jung split or Samuels's post-Jungian categories is considered the more significant paradigm for understanding the conflicts erupting within the Jungian community surrounding clinical practice and candidate training. Looking through the lens of the Freud-Jung split keeps the conflicts focused on the theoretical and technical differences concerning such concepts as object-relations, transference-countertransference, neutrality, clinical boundaries. The Buber-Jung disputations move the discussion into a different and more foundational arena, namely the vertical and horizontal psychological considerations of the experience of the Sacred and how that dimension is supported or thwarted in clinical practice and candidate training by the respective allegiances of the 'warriors' in the 'Holy Wars'. Experiencing the texture of the Buber-Jung disputations as well as grappling with their content suggests that a more dialogical approach to actual clinical material may be a more fruitful way to understand the work of analysis and the business of candidate training.

  9. Death by homeopathy: issues for civil, criminal and coronial law and for health service policy.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2012-03-01

    Homoeopathy has a significant clinical history, tracing its roots back to Hippocrates and more latterly to Dr Christian (Samuel) Hahnemann (1755-1843), a Saxon physician. In the last 30 years it has ridden a wave of resurgent interest and practice associated with disillusionment with orthodox medicine and the emergence of complementary therapies. However, recent years have seen a series of meta-analyses that have suggested that the therapeutic claims of homeopathy lack scientific justification. A 2010 report of the Science and Technology Committee of the United Kingdom House of Commons recommended that it cease to be a beneficiary of NHS funding because of its lack of scientific credibility. In Australia the National Health and Medical Research Council is expected to publish a statement on the ethics of health practitioners' use of homoeopathy in 2013. In India, England, New South Wales and Western Australia civil, criminal and coronial decisions have reached deeply troubling conclusions about homoeopaths and the risk that they pose for counter-therapeutic outcomes, including the causing of deaths. The legal decisions, in conjunction with the recent analyses of homoeopathy's claims, are such as to raise confronting health care and legal issues relating to matters as diverse as consumer protection and criminal liability. They suggest that the profession is not suitable for formal registration and regulation lest such a status lend to it a legitimacy that it does not warrant.

  10. [Epistemological focus on sphygmomanometry].

    PubMed

    Chávez Domínguez, Rafael; de Micheli, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    In the XVIII century, the English naturalist Stephen Hales started to apply blood sphygmomanometry in animals. Direct recording of the blood pressure was first applied, in the XIX century, by AE Chauveau and JLM Poiseuille. However, it was not until 1856 that it was possible to perform a direct determination of blood pressure in humans by means of a device designed by Faivre. The first sphygmomanometer appeared at the end of the XIX century. The physician Samuel K. von Basch, native of Prague and who lived a few years in Mexico, fabricated successively three models of sphygmomanometers. The first (1881), with a mercury column, proved to be the most practical and useful. This instrument inspired the sphygmomanometer of the Italian physician Scipione Riva-Rocci who presented it in 1896. His sphygmomanometer, supported on the Vierordt principle, could measure manometrically the force needed to stop the pulse wave. Thanks to the research of Russian physician N. Korotkoff, the auscultatory method was added to sphygmomanometry. During the XX century other instruments to measure blood pressure were fabricated: the Pachon's and Plesch's oscillometers, as well as the aneroid manometer. On the other side, the use of direct tensional recordings has subsisted which has allowed to document the wide oscillations of arterial pressure levels during the day. Anyway, the sphygmomanometer with a mercury column has persisted until the present and will still be used for a long time. A new evolving methodology is the continuous ambulatory sphygmomanometry. PMID:11995412

  11. [Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

  12. The motivational stories of how women become scientists: A hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Sandra White

    2002-01-01

    The under-representation of women in science careers is well documented (Astin, Green, Korn, & Riggs, 1991; Felder, Felder, Mauny, Hamrin, & Dietz, 1995; Green, 1989; National Science Foundation, 1996, 1998; Seymour & Hewitt, 1997; Strenta, Elliot, Adair, Scott, & Matier, 1994; Tobias, 1990, 1992). While important information has been published concerning various factors that influenced women to pursue science careers (American Association of University Women, 1992; Debacker & Nelson, 2000; Samuels, 1999), very few research projects have allowed women scientists to share their personal experiences of what motivated them to become scientists in their own voices. The purpose of this inquiry was to investigate the elicited stories of seven women research scientists so that their retrospective motivational experiences with science as girls and young women inside and outside the formal school setting might be better understood. This inquiry examined specific motivational factors and experiences that encouraged or discouraged these women to pursue careers in science. These factors included the motivational influences of gender perceptions, science experiences, and social interactions. From the collective experiences offered, emergent themes were identified and interpreted. These motivational themes were compared with motivational findings in the literature review. Educational implications of the identified themes for these and other women considering careers in science, women's parents, science educators and society, are discussed.

  13. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed.

  14. Educating the Emotions from Gradgrind to Goleman

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Charles Dickens famously satirised the rationalism and mechanism of utilitarian educational ideas through the figure of Mr Gradgrind in Hard Times. Even in the nineteenth century there were very few people, in reality, who would have agreed that the education of children should be a matter of purely intellectual, rather than emotional, instruction. The surge of interest in emotional intelligence and emotional literacy since the 1990s has given this topic new currency but, on all sides of the debate, it is mistakenly assumed that the idea of educating the emotions is something new. The present article retrieves one part of the forgotten history of emotional education by examining nineteenth-century British discussions about the proper places of passion, feeling and emotion in the classroom, in the context of debates about utilitarianism, religion and the role of the state. The views of educationalists and philosophers, including Samuel Wilderspin and John Stuart Mill, are considered and compared with more recent policy debates about ‘Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning’. The article concludes by asking: Who are the Gradgrinds today? PMID:27524849

  15. A newly identified apothecary in Boswell's Life of Johnson: Edward Ferrand (1691-1769).

    PubMed

    Caudle, James J; Bundock, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Ever since the publication of James Boswell's Life of Samuel Johnson (1791), it has been known that Johnson's young servant, the former slave Francis Barber 'ran away' at one point and worked for a London apothecary. But the apothecary was not named by Boswell and has not been identified by any of Johnson's numerous biographers nor in recent studies of Francis Barber. Research in surviving Boswell manuscripts, 18th-century London guides and the archives of the Society of Apothecaries prove the apothecary to have been Edward Ferrand. This article sets out the circumstances in which the reference to the anonymous apothecary came to appear in the Life of Johnson and reconstructs Ferrand's life and career. Examining Ferrand's origins, his social circumstances and his career, a case study is presented of a successful practitioner of the profession of apothecary in early Georgian Britain and a suggestion made as to why the distinguished apothecary came to provide a place of refuge for a teenaged runaway servant who had been a slave until he was about nine years old. PMID:24585592

  16. History of Rubber and Its Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ingo; Strehlow, Peter

    Despite its spectacular properties rubber was not much good for anything before the latter part of the 19th century. To be sure the Aztecs had used it to make balls for their ceremonial ball games - or so we are told. But those games died along with the Aztec culture in the 16th century and there is no record of other useful applications until the late 18th century. But then, after that, rubber took off in a small way. After the American inventor Samuel Peal had obtained a patent in 1791 for the production of rubber-coated watertight textiles, the Scottish chemist Charles Macintosh (1766-1843) used such textiles for making rain-coats, and Thomas Hancock (1786-1865) produced rubber boots. At that time it was not really appropriate to speak of a rubber industry. What little material the evil-smelling workshops in New York and London needed, could be satisfied with the import of 30 tons of Caoutchouc1 annually - extracted from the sap of the tree Hevea brasiliensis - and most of that went for making erasers. Indeed, it had been reported by the English minister and scientist Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) that pieces of rubber are well-suited to rub out (sic!) pencil marks. Even today there is nothing better for the purpose and rubber became the English word for Caoutchouc.

  17. Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.

  18. Nanoscale memory elements based on the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect and spin-transfer torque magnetization switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Burm

    Superconducting-ferromagnetic hybrid devices have potential for a practical memory technology compatible with superconducting logic circuits and may help realize energy-efficient, high-performance superconducting computers. We have developed Josephson junction devices with pseudo-spin-valve barriers. We observed changes in Josephson critical current depending on the magnetization state of the barrier (parallel or anti-parallel) through the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect. This effect persists to nanoscale devices in contrast to the remanent field effect. In nanopillar devices, the magnetization states of the pseudo-spin-valve barriers could also be switched with applied bias currents at 4 K, which is consistent with the spin-transfer torque effect in analogous room-temperature spin valve devices. These results demonstrate devices that combine major superconducting and spintronic effects for scalable read and write of memory states, respectively. Further challenges and proposals towards practical devices will also be discussed.In collaboration with: William Rippard, NIST - Boulder, Matthew Pufall, NIST - Boulder, Stephen Russek, NIST-Boulder, Michael Schneider, NIST - Boulder, Samuel Benz, NIST - Boulder, Horst Rogalla, NIST-Boulder, Paul Dresselhaus, NIST - Boulder

  19. Proc, Dr. Sam, Uncle Henry, and the "Little Green Book". Interview by Charles F. Wooley.

    PubMed

    Harvey, W Proctor

    2005-01-01

    During his house staff training before World War II, Dr. W. Proctor Harvey encountered Dr. Samuel A. Levine at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. Following military service, Harvey returned to Boston and became Levine's first cardiology fellow. The book Clinical Auscultation of the Heart--the Little Green Book by Levine and Harvey in 1949 combined Levine's clinical wisdom with Harvey's objective phonocardiographic methods and brought an important objective dimension to the art of cardiac auscultation. Both Levine and Harvey shared experiences and friendship with Henry Christian, the first Physician-in-Chief when the new Brigham Hospital Opened in 1913. Christian, appointed Dean of the Harvard Medical School in 1908 at the age of 32, was referred to as the "Boy Dean." He held the Hersey Chair of Theory and Practice of Physic from 1908 until 1939, was one of the founding group of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, and a major force in academic medicine. Levine served as intern to Christian and then joined the Brigham medical staff in 1915. Proctor Harvey followed Henry Christian's path from their mutual hometown of Lyunchburg, VA to the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital. A series of illuminating and respectful professional interactions--initially between Christian and Levine, between Levine and Harvey in the early 1940s, and between Harvey and Christian in the 1950s--provide the background for the genesis of the Little Green Book and a remarkable example of academic heritage.

  20. Contesting the Equivalency of Continuous Sedation until Death and Physician-assisted Suicide/Euthanasia: A Commentary on LiPuma.

    PubMed

    Raho, Joseph A; Miccinesi, Guido

    2015-10-01

    Patients who are imminently dying sometimes experience symptoms refractory to traditional palliative interventions, and in rare cases, continuous sedation is offered. Samuel H. LiPuma, in a recent article in this Journal, argues that continuous sedation until death is equivalent to physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia based on a higher brain neocortical definition of death. We contest his position that continuous sedation involves killing and offer four objections to the equivalency thesis. First, sedation practices are proportional in a way that physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia is not. Second, continuous sedation may not entirely abolish consciousness. Third, LiPuma's particular version of higher brain neocortical death relies on an implausibly weak construal of irreversibility--a position that is especially problematic in the case of continuous sedation. Finally, we explain why continuous sedation until death is not functionally equivalent to neocortical death and, hence, physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia. Concluding remarks review the differences between these two end-of-life practices. PMID:26242447

  1. Massive torsion modes, chiral gravity and the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lay Nam; Soo, Chopin

    2003-04-01

    Regularization of quantum field theories introduces a mass scale which breaks axial rotational and scaling invariances. We demonstrate from first principles that axial torsion and torsion trace modes have non-transverse vacuum polarization tensors, and become massive as a result. The underlying reasons are similar to those responsible for the Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) and scaling anomalies. Since these are the only torsion components that can couple minimally to spin-½ particles, the anomalous generation of masses for these modes, naturally of the order of the regulator scale, may help to explain why torsion and its associated effects, including CPT violation in chiral gravity, have so far escaped detection. As a simpler manifestation of the reasons underpinning the ABJ anomaly than triangle diagrams, the vacuum polarization demonstration is also pedagogically useful. In addition, it is shown that the teleparallel limit of a Weyl fermion theory coupled only to the left-handed spin connection leads to a counter term which is the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of chiral gravity in four dimensions.

  2. STS-35: Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-35, Commander Vance D. Brand, Pilot Guy S. Gardner, Mission Specialists Jeffrey A. Hoffman, John M. Lounge, and Robert A. Parker, and Payload Specialists Samuel T. Durrance, and Ronald A. Parise, participating in the traditional breakfast prior to launch. The crew is seen suiting up, and walking out to the Astro-Van for their 1 a.m. launch. Also shown are some beautiful panoramic shots of the shuttle on the launch pad, main engine start, ignition, liftoff, and various shots of the Launch Control Center (LCC). The crew is also shown during flight performing some routine functions such as operating the trash compactor, eating, and getting into and out of their sleeping quarters. The crew is seen taking part in a conversation with the Secretary of State, and the Foreign Minister of the Soviet Union. Footage also includes the landing of Columbia, its rollout on the runway, and its crew as they depart from the vehicle.

  3. Acquisition of Chinese characters: the effects of character properties and individual differences among second language learners.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Kim, Tae-Jin; Yang, Xinyuan; Li, Huiwen; Liu, Yan; Wang, Haixia; Hyun Park, Jeong; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In light of the dramatic growth of Chinese learners worldwide and a need for cross-linguistic research on Chinese literacy development, this study drew upon theories of visual complexity effect (Su and Samuels, 2010) and dual-coding processing (Sadoski and Paivio, 2013) and investigated (a) the effects of character properties (i.e., visual complexity and radical presence) on character acquisition and (b) the relationship between individual learner differences in radical awareness and character acquisition. Participants included adolescent English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese in the U.S. Following Kuo et al. (2014), a novel character acquisition task was used to investigate the process of acquiring the meaning of new characters. Results showed that (a) characters with radicals and with less visual complexity were easier to acquire than characters without radicals and with greater visual complexity; and (b) individual differences in radical awareness were associated with the acquisition of all types of characters, but the association was more pronounced with the acquisition of characters with radicals. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:26379562

  4. Dynamic inversion enables external magnets to concentrate ferromagnetic rods to a central target.

    PubMed

    Nacev, A; Weinberg, I N; Stepanov, P Y; Kupfer, S; Mair, L O; Urdaneta, M G; Shimoji, M; Fricke, S T; Shapiro, B

    2015-01-14

    The ability to use magnets external to the body to focus therapy to deep tissue targets has remained an elusive goal in magnetic drug targeting. Researchers have hitherto been able to manipulate magnetic nanotherapeutics in vivo with nearby magnets but have remained unable to focus these therapies to targets deep within the body using magnets external to the body. One of the factors that has made focusing of therapy to central targets between magnets challenging is Samuel Earnshaw's theorem as applied to Maxwell's equations. These mathematical formulations imply that external static magnets cannot create a stable potential energy well between them. We posited that fast magnetic pulses could act on ferromagnetic rods before they could realign with the magnetic field. Mathematically, this is equivalent to reversing the sign of the potential energy term in Earnshaw's theorem, thus enabling a quasi-static stable trap between magnets. With in vitro experiments, we demonstrated that quick, shaped magnetic pulses can be successfully used to create inward pointing magnetic forces that, on average, enable external magnets to concentrate ferromagnetic rods to a central location.

  5. Wilson disease: pathogenesis and clinical considerations in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosencrantz, Richard; Schilsky, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Nearly a century after Dr. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson composed his doctoral thesis on the pathologic findings of "lenticular degeneration" in the brain associated with cirrhosis of the liver we know that the underlying molecular basis for this autosomal recessive inherited disorder that now bears his name is mutation of a copper transporting ATPase, ATP7B, an intracellular copper transporter mainly expressed in hepatocytes. Loss of ATP7B function is the basis for reduced hepatic biliary copper excretion and reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin. During the intervening years, there was recognition of the clinical signs, histologic, biochemical features, and mutation analysis of ATP7B that characterize and enable diagnosis of this disorder. These include the presence of signs of liver or neurologic disease and detection of Kayser-Fleischer rings, low ceruloplasmin, elevated urine and hepatic copper, and associated histologic changes in the liver. Medical therapies and liver transplantation can effectively treat patients with this once uniformly fatal disorder. The earlier detection of the disease led to the initiation of treatment to prevent disease progression and reverse pathologic findings if present, and family screening to detect the disorder in first-degree relatives is warranted. Gene therapy and hepatocyte cell transplantation for Wilson disease has only been tested in animal models but represent future areas for study. Despite all the advances we still have to consider the diagnosis of Wilson disease to test patients for this disorder and properly establish the diagnosis before committing to life-long treatment. PMID:21901655

  6. [Meyerbeer, spa curist, biography of J. -F. Struensee, physician and man of the modernist state].

    PubMed

    Trépardoux, Francis

    2015-01-01

    In 1757, Struensee (1737-1772) graduated in medicine at Halle-Saale university, as his father a high dignitary in the lutherian church was, and supported by the presence of his grand-father the physician and scientist Samuel Carl. The family moved to Altona where he was nominated as physician in the city council. Then he largely dealt with medical and social items, for orphans and disabled, and attempted to prevent infectious deseases, small pox, typhus, scabies ans dysenteric syndroms. For sure when he practised his investigations on water samples with microscopy, Struensee acted as a pioneer to suspect microrganisms to be responsible for infectious diseases. Later on, he started his medical service dedicated to the Danish king Christian VII. This part of his life demonstrated the ambitious but highly capable man he was when running the whole government load for Denmark, in a liberal and advanced way. We link the drama of his death when he was condamned, to the symphony composed by Meyerbeer (1791-1864), known as an incidental music for Michael Beer's play Struensee, 1846. PMID:26492683

  7. Origins of a stereotype: categorization of facial attractiveness by 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H; Hoss, Rebecca A; Rubenstein, Adam J; Griffin, Angela M

    2004-04-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois, Kalakanis, Rubenstein, Larson, Hallam & Smooth, 2000). How do preferences for attractive faces develop into stereotypes? Several theories of stereotyping posit that categorization of groups is necessary before positive and negative traits can become linked to the groups (e.g. Taifel, Billig, Bundy & Flament, 1971; Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1982). We investigated whether or not 6-month-old infants can categorize faces as attractive or unattractive. In Experiment 1, we familiarized infants to unattractive female faces; in Experiment 2, we familiarized infants to attractive female faces and tested both groups of infants on novel faces from the familiar or novel attractiveness category. Results showed that 6-month-olds categorized attractive and unattractive female faces into two different groups of faces. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that infants could discriminate among the faces used in Experiments 1 and 2, and therefore categorized the faces based on their similarities in attractiveness rather than because they could not differentiate among the faces. These findings suggest that categorization of facial attractiveness may underlie the development of the 'beauty is good' stereotype. PMID:15320380

  8. Moral medicine: symbolic content in 19th century Shaker therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Idler, E L

    1989-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the symbolic meanings implicit in an ostensibly empirical therapeutic system. The Shakers, a celibate communal religious order founded in New York State in the mid 1770s, were practitioners of botanic medicine, as were many other Americans in the nineteenth century. This study analyzes the therapeutic properties of the herbs they produced (such as diuretic, stimulant, narcotic, emetic, astringent), using a classification scheme based on the location of the botanical substance's effect vis-à-vis body boundaries and surfaces. The Shakers' beliefs about the therapeutic properties of their herbs are compared with similar analyses of the properties given by two contemporary nineteenth century New England proponents of herbal medicine, botanist Constantine Rafinesque and sectarian practitioner Samuel Thomson. The comparison shows systematic variation in emphasis given to herbs which regulate internal body processes, or act through the openings of the body or on its surface. In this context Shaker medicine can be characterized as quickening, internal, and purifying in its effects on body processes, effects which are highly consistent with Shaker religious beliefs in active, physical worship, selflessness and spiritual purification by confession.

  9. Orion Scripted Interface Generator (OrionSIG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dooling, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft undergoing development at NASA and Lockheed Martin aims to launch the first humans to set foot on asteroids and Mars.' Sensors onboard Orion must transmit back to Earth astronomical amounts of data recording almost everything in 50,231 lb. (22,784 kg)2 of spacecraft, down to the temperatures, voltages, or torsions of even the most minor components. This report introduces the new Orion Scripted Interface Generator (OrionSIG) software created by summer 2013 NASA interns Robert Dooling and Samuel Harris. OrionSIG receives a list of Orion variables and produces a script to graph these measurements regardless of their size or type. The program also accepts many other input options to manipulate displays, such as limits on the graph's range or commands to graph different values in a reverse sawtooth wave. OrionSIG paves the way for monitoring stations on Earth to process, display, and test Orion data much more efficiently, a helpful asset in preparation for Orion's first test mission in 2014. Figure I.

  10. The mesh of civilizations in the global network of digital communication.

    PubMed

    State, Bogdan; Park, Patrick; Weber, Ingmar; Macy, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Conflicts fueled by popular religious mobilization have rekindled the controversy surrounding Samuel Huntington's theory of changing international alignments in the Post-Cold War era. In The Clash of Civilizations, Huntington challenged Fukuyama's "end of history" thesis that liberal democracy had emerged victorious out of Post-war ideological and economic rivalries. Based on a top-down analysis of the alignments of nation states, Huntington famously concluded that the axes of international geo-political conflicts had reverted to the ancient cultural divisions that had characterized most of human history. Until recently, however, the debate has had to rely more on polemics than empirical evidence. Moreover, Huntington made this prediction in 1993, before social media connected the world's population. Do digital communications attenuate or echo the cultural, religious, and ethnic "fault lines" posited by Huntington prior to the global diffusion of social media? We revisit Huntington's thesis using hundreds of millions of anonymized email and Twitter communications among tens of millions of worldwide users to map the global alignment of interpersonal relations. Contrary to the supposedly borderless world of cyberspace, a bottom-up analysis confirms the persistence of the eight culturally differentiated civilizations posited by Huntington, with the divisions corresponding to differences in language, religion, economic development, and spatial distance. PMID:26024487

  11. Contesting the Equivalency of Continuous Sedation until Death and Physician-assisted Suicide/Euthanasia: A Commentary on LiPuma.

    PubMed

    Raho, Joseph A; Miccinesi, Guido

    2015-10-01

    Patients who are imminently dying sometimes experience symptoms refractory to traditional palliative interventions, and in rare cases, continuous sedation is offered. Samuel H. LiPuma, in a recent article in this Journal, argues that continuous sedation until death is equivalent to physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia based on a higher brain neocortical definition of death. We contest his position that continuous sedation involves killing and offer four objections to the equivalency thesis. First, sedation practices are proportional in a way that physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia is not. Second, continuous sedation may not entirely abolish consciousness. Third, LiPuma's particular version of higher brain neocortical death relies on an implausibly weak construal of irreversibility--a position that is especially problematic in the case of continuous sedation. Finally, we explain why continuous sedation until death is not functionally equivalent to neocortical death and, hence, physician-assisted suicide/euthanasia. Concluding remarks review the differences between these two end-of-life practices.

  12. Quantifying characters: polygenist anthropologists and the hardening of heredity.

    PubMed

    Hume, Brad D

    2008-01-01

    Scholars studying the history of heredity suggest that during the 19th-century biologists and anthropologists viewed characteristics as a collection of blended qualities passed on from the parents. Many argued that those characteristics could be very much affected by environmental circumstances, which scholars call the inheritance of acquired characteristics or "soft" heredity. According to these accounts, Gregor Mendel reconceived heredity--seeing distinct hereditary units that remain unchanged by the environment. This resulted in particular traits that breed true in succeeding generations, or "hard" heredity. The author argues that polygenist anthropology (an argument that humanity consisted of many species) and anthropometry in general should be seen as a hardening of heredity. Using a debate between Philadelphia anthropologist and physician, Samuel G. Morton, and Charleston naturalist and reverend, John Bachman, as a springboard, the author contends that polygenist anthropologists hardened heredity by conceiving of durable traits that might reappear even after a race has been eliminated. Polygenists saw anthropometry (the measurement of humans) as one method of quantifying hereditary qualities. These statistical ranges were ostensibly characteristics that bred true and that defined racial groups. Further, Morton's interest in hybridity and racial mixing demonstrates that the polygenists focused as much on the transmission and recognition of "amalgamations" of characters as they did on racial categories themselves. The author suggests that seeing race science as the study of heritable, statistical characteristics rather than broad categories helps explain why "race" is such a persistent cultural phenomenon.

  13. Darbishire expands his vision of heredity from Mendelian genetics to inherited memory.

    PubMed

    Wood, Roger J

    2015-10-01

    The British biologist A.D. Darbishire (1879-1915) responded to the rediscovery in 1900 of Mendel's theory of heredity by testing it experimentally, first in Oxford, then in Manchester and London. He summarised his conclusions in a textbook 'Breeding and the Mendelian Discovery' (1911), in which he questioned whether Mendelism alone could explain all aspects of practical breeding experience. Already he had begun to think about an alternative theory to give greater emphasis to the widely held conviction among breeders regarding the inheritance of characteristics acquired during an individual's life. Redefining heredity in terms of a germ-plasm based biological memory, he used vocabulary drawn partly from sources outside conventional science, including the metaphysical/vitalistic writings of Samuel Butler and Henri Bergson. An evolving hereditary memory fitted well with the conception of breeding as a creative art aimed at greater economic efficiency. For evolution beyond human control he proposed a self-modifying process, claiming it to surpass in efficiency the chancy mechanism of natural selection proposed by Darwin. From his writings, including early chapters of an unfinished book entitled 'An Introduction to a Biology', we consider how he reached these concepts and how they relate to later advances in understanding the genome and the genetic programme.

  14. Origins of a stereotype: categorization of facial attractiveness by 6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Langlois, Judith H; Hoss, Rebecca A; Rubenstein, Adam J; Griffin, Angela M

    2004-04-01

    Like adults, young infants prefer attractive to unattractive faces (e.g. Langlois, Roggman, Casey, Ritter, Rieser-Danner & Jenkins, 1987; Slater, von der Schulenburg, Brown, Badenoch, Butterworth, Parsons & Samuels, 1998). Older children and adults stereotype based on facial attractiveness (Eagly, Ashmore, Makhijani & Longo, 1991; Langlois, Kalakanis, Rubenstein, Larson, Hallam & Smooth, 2000). How do preferences for attractive faces develop into stereotypes? Several theories of stereotyping posit that categorization of groups is necessary before positive and negative traits can become linked to the groups (e.g. Taifel, Billig, Bundy & Flament, 1971; Zebrowitz-McArthur, 1982). We investigated whether or not 6-month-old infants can categorize faces as attractive or unattractive. In Experiment 1, we familiarized infants to unattractive female faces; in Experiment 2, we familiarized infants to attractive female faces and tested both groups of infants on novel faces from the familiar or novel attractiveness category. Results showed that 6-month-olds categorized attractive and unattractive female faces into two different groups of faces. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that infants could discriminate among the faces used in Experiments 1 and 2, and therefore categorized the faces based on their similarities in attractiveness rather than because they could not differentiate among the faces. These findings suggest that categorization of facial attractiveness may underlie the development of the 'beauty is good' stereotype.

  15. 'The second greatest benefit to mankind'?

    PubMed

    Chantler, Cyril

    2002-01-01

    In 1739 Samuel Johnson wrote an essay on the life of Dr Hermann Boerhaave, Professor of Physic at the University of Leiden, who died in 1738. Boerhaave, born 11 years after Harvey's death, could be said to have been influenced by Harvey in that he favoured experimental natural philosophy as the gateway to scientific medicine. He was denied entry into the church because he was accused wrongly of being a follower of the philosopher Baruch Spinoza, regarded as a heretic because he criticised established religious practices; this in spite of strongly supporting the love of God and humanity. Boerhaave decided to become a physician as he was, in Johnson's words, 'equally qualified for a profession, not indeed of equal dignity or importance, but which must undoubtedly claim the second place amongst those which are the greatest benefit to mankind'. It is this claim that I wish to examine. Can we still claim this regard for our profession? Is the medicine we practise, and the way we practise, of the greatest benefit to mankind, and how do we ensure that it is?

  16. Darbishire expands his vision of heredity from Mendelian genetics to inherited memory.

    PubMed

    Wood, Roger J

    2015-10-01

    The British biologist A.D. Darbishire (1879-1915) responded to the rediscovery in 1900 of Mendel's theory of heredity by testing it experimentally, first in Oxford, then in Manchester and London. He summarised his conclusions in a textbook 'Breeding and the Mendelian Discovery' (1911), in which he questioned whether Mendelism alone could explain all aspects of practical breeding experience. Already he had begun to think about an alternative theory to give greater emphasis to the widely held conviction among breeders regarding the inheritance of characteristics acquired during an individual's life. Redefining heredity in terms of a germ-plasm based biological memory, he used vocabulary drawn partly from sources outside conventional science, including the metaphysical/vitalistic writings of Samuel Butler and Henri Bergson. An evolving hereditary memory fitted well with the conception of breeding as a creative art aimed at greater economic efficiency. For evolution beyond human control he proposed a self-modifying process, claiming it to surpass in efficiency the chancy mechanism of natural selection proposed by Darwin. From his writings, including early chapters of an unfinished book entitled 'An Introduction to a Biology', we consider how he reached these concepts and how they relate to later advances in understanding the genome and the genetic programme. PMID:26183796

  17. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity: genealogy of a debate in genetics.

    PubMed

    Nicoglou, Antonine

    2015-04-01

    The paper describes the context and the origin of a particular debate that concerns the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. In 1965, British biologist A. D. Bradshaw proposed a widely cited model intended to explain the evolution of norms of reaction, based on his studies of plant populations. Bradshaw's model went beyond the notion of the "adaptive norm of reaction" discussed before him by Dobzhansky and Schmalhausen by suggesting that "plasticity"--the ability of a phenotype to be modified by the environment--should be genetically determined. To prove Bradshaw's hypothesis, it became necessary for some authors to identify the pressures exerted by natural selection on phenotypic plasticity in particular traits, and thus to model its evolution. In this paper, I contrast two different views, based on quantitative genetic models, proposed in the mid-1980s: Russell Lande and Sara Via's conception of phenotypic plasticity, which assumes that the evolution of plasticity is linked to the evolution of the plastic trait itself, and Samuel Scheiner and Richard Lyman's view, which assumes that the evolution of plasticity is independent from the evolution of the trait. I show how the origin of this specific debate, and different assumptions about the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, depended on Bradshaw's definition of plasticity and the context of quantitative genetics. PMID:25636689

  18. Tunable water desalination across Graphene Oxide Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolai, Adrien; Meunier, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    ``Water, water, everywhere, nor any drop to drink.'' wrote Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1798. Today's scientific advances in water desalination promise to change the second part of the sentence into ``and every drop to drink,'' by transforming sea water into fresh water and quench the thirst of 1.2B people facing shortages of water. To achieve this, the design of nanoporous materials with high water permeability and coupled with high salt rejection capacity is crucial. Graphene Oxide Frameworks (GOF) materials are a class of porous materials consisting of layers of graphene oxide sheets interconnected by linear boronic acid linkers. Water desalination across GOF is studied using classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. We used quantum mechanically obtained boron-related force field parameters to study the diffusion of water molecules inside bulk GOF. Properties, such as the self-diffusion coefficient of water molecules increases linearly with linker concentration n. Further, the desalination performance of GOF membranes reveals that the water permeability of GOF is several orders of magnitude higher than conventional membranes and an high water permeability can be coupled with a 100% efficiency of salt rejection by choosing the appropriate concentration n and thickness h.

  19. Experimental hepatology applied to stem cells.

    PubMed

    Burra, P; Tomat, S; Villa, E; Gasbarrini, A; Costa, A N; Conconi, M T; Forbes, S J; Farinati, F; Cozzi, E; Alison, M R; Russo, F P

    2008-01-01

    Transplantation is an accepted treatment today for many people suffering from organ failure. More and more patients are referred for transplant surgery, and the waiting lists are growing longer because not enough organs and tissues are donated for transplantation. This has led to several potentially viable alternatives being considered, including bio-artificial support devices, the transplantation of mature cells or stem/progenitor cells and the potential transplantation of xenogenic organs and cells [Burra P, Samuel D, Wendon J, Pietrangelo A, Gupta S. Strategies for liver support: from stem cells to xenotransplantation. J Hepatol 2004;41:1050-9]. Numerous investigators around the world are engaged in these investigations and the pace of discovery has begun to accelerate in recent years. To take stock of the achievements of recent years, the AISF sponsored a Single-Topic Conference, held in Padua on 26-27 May, 2006, with the participation of many leading investigators from various parts of Italy and Europe. This present paper summarizes the content of the Conference. Different issues were analysed, from the biology of stem cells to the possible use of gene therapy. The speakers were clinicians and scientists interested in diseases not only of the liver but also of other organs such as the kidney or heart. The fact that numerous specialties were represented helped the audience to understand the stem cell research area from different standpoints, and what research has achieved so far.

  20. A history of the isolation and identification of vitamin B(6).

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2012-01-01

    In the 1930s, Rudolf Peters showed that young rats kept on a semi-synthetic diet with added thiamin and riboflavin but no other supplement developed 'rat acrodynia', a condition characterized by severe cutaneous lesions. In 1934, Paul György showed that the factor which cured 'rat acrodynia' was vitamin B(6). Other studies soon showed that vitamin B(6) deficiency produced convulsions in rats, pigs, and dogs, and a microcytic anemia in certain animals. Samuel Lepkovsky isolated and crystallized vitamin B(6) in 1938. The following year, Leslie Harris and Karl Folkers, and Richard Kuhn and his associates independently showed that vitamin B(6) was a pyridine derivative, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dihydroxy-methyl-2-methyl-pyridine. György proposed the term pyridoxine for this derivative. Esmond Snell developed a microbiological growth assay in 1942 that led to the characterization of pyridoxamine, the animated product of pyridoxine, and pyridoxal, the formyl derivative of pyridoxine. Further studies showed that pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine have largely equal activity in animals and owe their vitamin activity to the ability of the organism to convert them into the enzymatically active form pyridoxal-5-phosphate. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate plays a role in a wide variety of enzyme systems, especially in the metabolic utilization and transformation of amino acids.