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Sample records for bovine adrenocortical cells

  1. Global gene expression response to telomerase in bovine adrenocortical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perrault, Steven D.; Hornsby, Peter J.; Betts, Dean H. . E-mail: bettsd@uoguelph.ca

    2005-09-30

    The infinite proliferative capability of most immortalized cells is dependent upon the presence of the enzyme telomerase and its ability to maintain telomere length and structure. However, telomerase may be involved in a greater system than telomere length regulation, as recent evidence has shown it capable of increasing wound healing in vivo, and improving cellular proliferation rate and survival from apoptosis in vitro. Here, we describe the global gene expression response to ectopic telomerase expression in an in vitro bovine adrenocortical cell model. Telomerase-immortalized cells showed an increased ability for proliferation and survival in minimal essential medium above cells transgenic for GFP. cDNA microarray analyses revealed an altered cell state indicative of increased adrenocortical cell proliferation regulated by the IGF2 pathway and alterations in members of the TGF-B family. As well, we identified alterations in genes associated with development and wound healing that support a model that high telomerase expression induces a highly adaptable, progenitor-like state.

  2. Transplantation of bovine adrenocortical cells encapsulated in alginate

    PubMed Central

    Balyura, Mariya; Gelfgat, Evgeny; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Ludwig, Barbara; Gendler, Zohar; Barkai, Uriel; Zimerman, Baruch; Rotem, Avi; Block, Norman L.; Schally, Andrew V.; Bornstein, Stefan R.

    2015-01-01

    Current treatment options for adrenal insufficiency are limited to corticosteroid replacement therapies. However, hormone therapy does not replicate circadian rhythms and has unpleasant side effects especially due to the failure to restore normal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Adrenal cell transplantation and the restoration of HPA axis function would be a feasible and useful therapeutic strategy for patients with adrenal insufficiency. We created a bioartificial adrenal with 3D cell culture conditions by encapsulation of bovine adrenocortical cells (BACs) in alginate (enBACs). We found that, compared with BACs in monolayer culture, encapsulation in alginate significantly increased the life span of BACs. Encapsulation also improved significantly both the capacity of adrenal cells for stable, long-term basal hormone release as well as the response to pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, [D-Trp6]LHRH. The enBACs were transplanted into adrenalectomized, immunodeficient, and immunocompetent rats. Animals received enBACs intraperitoneally, under the kidney capsule (free cells or cells encapsulated in alginate slabs) or s.c. enclosed in oxygenating and immunoisolating βAir devices. Graft function was confirmed by the presence of cortisol in the plasma of rats. Both types of grafted encapsulated cells, explanted after 21–25 d, preserved their morphology and functional response to ACTH stimulation. In conclusion, transplantation of a bioartificial adrenal with xenogeneic cells may be a treatment option for patients with adrenocortical insufficiency and other stress-related disorders. Furthermore, this model provides a microenvironment that ensures 3D cell–cell interactions as a unique tool to investigate new insights into cell biology, differentiation, tissue organization, and homeostasis. PMID:25675525

  3. Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Rainey, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The human adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens. These steroids are produced from unique cell types located within the three distinct zones of the adrenal cortex. Disruption of adrenal steroid production results in a variety of diseases that can lead to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and androgen excess. The adrenal cortex is also a common site for the development of adenomas, and rarely the site for the development of carcinomas. The adenomas can lead to diseases associated with adrenal steroid excess, while the carcinomas are particularly aggressive and have a poor prognosis. In vitro cell culture models provide an important tool to examine molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling both the normal and pathologic function of the adrenal cortex. Herein we discuss the human adrenocortical cell lines and their use as model systems for adrenal studies. PMID:21924324

  4. Adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio) triphosphate (ATPgammaS) stimulates both P2Y receptors linked to inositol phosphates production and cAMP accumulation in bovine adrenocortical fasciculata cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Haruhisa; Hori, Seiji; Niitsu, Akiyoshi; Kawamura, Masahiro

    2004-01-16

    The study was aimed to investigate the existence of at least two kinds of P2Y receptors linked to steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical fasciculata cells (BAFCs). Extracellular nucleotides facilitated steroidogenesis in BAFCs. The potency order was UTP > adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio) triphosphate (ATPgammaS) > ATP > 2-methylthio ATP (2MeSATP) > adenosine 5'-(beta-thio) diphosphate (ADPbetaS) > alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-me-ATP), beta,gamma-methylene ATP (beta,gamma -me-ATP). ATPgammaS (10-100 microM) remarkably stimulated both total inositol phosphates (IPs) production and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation. Competitive displacement experiments by using [35S]ATPgammaS as a radioactive ligand in BAFCs showed that the potency under these unlabelled ligands was ATPgammaS > ATP > ADPbetaS > 2MeSATP > UTP > alpha,beta-me-ATP, beta,gamma-me-ATP. These suggest that two different binding sites of [35S]ATPgammaS, namely P2Y receptors, exist in BAFCs, and that these receptors are linked to steroidogenesis via distinct second messenger systems in the cells.

  5. In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Alex C; Barlaskar, Ferdous M; Heaton, Joanne H; Else, Tobias; Kelly, Victoria R; Krill, Kenneth T; Scheys, Joshua O; Simon, Derek P; Trovato, Alessia; Yang, Wei-Hsiung; Hammer, Gary D

    2009-05-01

    Scientists have long hypothesized the existence of tissue-specific (somatic) stem cells and have searched for their location in different organs. The theory that adrenocortical organ homeostasis is maintained by undifferentiated stem or progenitor cells can be traced back nearly a century. Similar to other organ systems, it is widely believed that these rare cells of the adrenal cortex remain relatively undifferentiated and quiescent until needed to replenish the organ, at which time they undergo proliferation and terminal differentiation. Historical studies examining cell cycle activation by label retention assays and regenerative potential by organ transplantation experiments suggested that the adrenocortical progenitors reside in the outer periphery of the adrenal gland. Over the past decade, the Hammer laboratory, building on this hypothesis and these observations, has endeavored to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical development and organ maintenance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of adrenal organogenesis. We present evidence for the existence and location of adrenocortical stem/progenitor cells and their potential contribution to adrenocortical carcinomas. Data described herein come primarily from studies conducted in the Hammer laboratory with incorporation of important related studies from other investigators. Together, the work provides a framework for the emerging somatic stem cell field as it relates to the adrenal gland.

  6. Acute self-suppression of corticosteroidogenesis in isolated adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Malamed, S

    1979-10-01

    The relation between steroidogenesis induced by ACTH and that induced by exogenous concentrations of glucocorticoids was studied in isolated adrenocortical cells. Exogenous corticosterone and cortisol, in concentrations within the production capacity of the adrenal gland, suppressed steroidogenesis induced by ACTH in rat and beef cells, respectively. The precursors pregnenolone and progesterone enhanced steroidogenesis in both rat and beef cells. Aldosterone in rat cells and 17 beta-estradiol in rat and beef cells had little if any effect on steroidogenesis. Either suppression or stimulation by exogenous steroids was acute, that is, after 2-h incubation for rat cells and 1-h incubation for beef cells. A direct suppressive action of end product glucocorticoids is indicated. This observed self-suppression of adrenocortical cells suggests the existence of a mechanism for the find adjustment of steroidogenesis that operates in addition to the classical control exerted by the anterior pituitary.

  7. Steroid control of steroidogenesis in isolated adrenocortical cells: molecular and species specificity.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Macdonald, G J; Malamed, S

    1983-06-01

    The molecular and species specificity of glucocorticoid suppression of corticosteroidogenesis was investigated in isolated adrenocortical cells. Trypsin-isolated cells from male rat, domestic fowl and bovine adrenal glands were incubated with or without steroidogenic agents and with or without steroids. Glucocorticoids were measured by radioimmunoassay or fluorometric assay after 1-2 h incubation. Glucocorticoids suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis of isolated rat cells with the following relative potencies: corticosterone greater than cortisol = cortisone greater than dexamethasone. The mineralocorticoid, aldosterone did not affect steroidogenesis. Suppression by glucocorticoids was acute (within 1-2 h), and varied directly with the glucocorticoid concentration. Testosterone also suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis. Glucocorticoid-type steroids have equivalent suppressive potencies, thus suggesting that these steroids may induce suppression at least partly by a common mechanism. Although corticosterone caused the greatest suppression, testosterone was more potent. The steroid specificity of suppression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced and ACTH-induced steroidogenesis were similar, suggesting that suppression is not solely the result of interference with ACTH receptor function or the induction of adenylate cyclase activity. Exogenous glucocorticoids also suppressed ACTH-induced steroidogenesis of cells isolated from domestic fowl and beef adrenal glands, thus suggesting that this observed suppression may be a general mechanism of adrenocortical cell autoregulation.

  8. mTOR pathway is activated by PKA in adrenocortical cells and participates in vivo to apoptosis resistance in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).

    PubMed

    de Joussineau, Cyrille; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Tissier, Frédérique; Dumontet, Typhanie; Drelon, Coralie; Batisse-Lignier, Marie; Tauveron, Igor; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Stratakis, Constantine A; Bertherat, Jérôme; Val, Pierre; Martinez, Antoine

    2014-10-15

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is associated with inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A tumor suppressor gene that encodes the regulatory subunit R1α of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In human and mouse adrenocortical cells, these mutations lead to increased PKA activity, which results in increased resistance to apoptosis that contributes to the tumorigenic process. We used in vitro and in vivo models to investigate the possibility of a crosstalk between PKA and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in adrenocortical cells and its possible involvement in apoptosis resistance. Impact of PKA signaling on activation of the mTOR pathway and apoptosis was measured in a mouse model of PPNAD (AdKO mice), in human and mouse adrenocortical cell lines in response to pharmacological inhibitors and in PPNAD tissues by immunohistochemistry. AdKO mice showed increased mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway activity. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin restored sensitivity of adrenocortical cells to apoptosis in AdKO but not in wild-type mice. In both cell lines and mouse adrenals, rapid phosphorylation of mTORC1 targets including BAD proapoptotic protein was observed in response to PKA activation. Accordingly, BAD hyperphosphorylation, which inhibits its proapoptotic activity, was increased in both AdKO mouse adrenals and human PPNAD tissues. In conclusion, mTORC1 pathway is activated by PKA signaling in human and mouse adrenocortical cells, leading to increased cell survival, which is correlated with BAD hyperphosphorylation. These alterations could be causative of tumor formation. PMID:24865460

  9. Loss of expression of a differentiated function gene, steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase, as adrenocortical cells senescence in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, P J; Hancock, J P; Vo, T P; Nason, L M; Ryan, R F; McAllister, J M

    1987-01-01

    Senescence in cultured adrenocortical cells involves changes in expression of differentiated functions as well as changes in responses to mitogenic stimulation. Steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase (steroid 17 alpha-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) is an adrenal-specific enzyme, the expression of which is dependent on the presence of stimulators of cyclic AMP production, such as cholera toxin. Dot-blot hybridization of RNA from bovine adrenocortical cells that had been incubated with cholera toxin showed a marked decline in 17 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels as a function of population doubling level, closely paralleling the decline in induction of 17 alpha-hydroxylase enzyme activity. The lower levels of 17 alpha-hydroxylase induction did not result from a requirement for a longer time period for induction or from a specific defect in response to cholera toxin and were not caused by a general failure of enzyme induction in response to cyclic AMP. The decreased growth rate in older cells results from a general decline in response to several growth factors. However, the decline in 17 alpha-hydroxylase induction did not result from a loss of response of the cells to mitogens, since quiescent cells at a low population doubling level showed stimulation of 17 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA by cholera toxin to levels similar to those in nonquiescent cultures and added mitogens either had no effect on 17 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels or decreased them. There was, however, a specific posttranscriptional effect of insulin on 17 alpha-hydroxylase. The loss of 17 alpha-hydroxylase induction is unlikely to result from overgrowth of a minority cell type lacking the ability to induce 17 alpha-hydroxylase, because adrenocortical cell clones that had high levels of 17 alpha-hydroxylase induction gave rise to cells with lower levels of induction on subcloning. Thus, loss of 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity in adrenocortical cellular senescence results from a primary failure of accumulation of 17 alpha

  10. Effects of PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs on adrenocortical steroidogenesis in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Yu, Richard M K; Zhang, Xiaowei; Murphy, Margaret B; Giesy, John P; Lam, Michael H W; Lam, Paul K S; Wu, Rudolf S S; Yu, Hongxia

    2006-05-01

    Some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment have been shown to exert their biological effects through interference with steroidogenesis. In this study, the potential effects of four selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB101, PCB110, PCB126 and PCB149) as well as several of their environmentally-relevant methylsulfonyl-(MeSO(2)-) PCB metabolites (3'-MeSO(2)-CB101, 4'-MeSO(2)-CB101, 4'-MeSO(2)-CB110, 3'-MeSO(2)-CB149 and 4'-MeSO(2)-CB149) on adrenocortical steroidogenesis were evaluated by in vitro bioassay based on the human adrenocortical carcinoma H295R cell line. The PCBs included in the study represented different structures and potential mechanisms of action. Cells were exposed for 48 h to 10 microM of each PCB congener in the presence or absence of 20% (w/w) of their corresponding MeSO(2)-PCB metabolite(s). After the chemical treatments, changes in mRNA expression of 11 steroidogenic genes (CYP11A, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, CYP21, 3beta-HSD1, 3beta-HSD2, 17beta-HSD1, StAR and HMGR) were quantified using molecular beacon-based real-time RT-PCR. Genes coding for enzymes involved in the later or final steps of steroid production (CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP19, 3beta-HSD1, 3beta-HSD2 and 17beta-HSD1) were up-regulated to various extents by most PCBs. The greatest transcriptional activations (2.8-29.9-fold) were elicited by PCB110 on CYP11B1, CYP11B2, 3beta-HSD2 and CYP19, and PCB149 on CYP11B1, 3beta-HSD1 and 17beta-HSD1. Increased expression of these steroidogenic genes might ultimately lead to a change in hormonal balance through excessive production of steroid hormones including aldosterone, cortisol and estradiol. In addition, co-treatment with 3'- and 4'-MeSO(2)-PCB149 resulted in a significant decrease in PCB149-induced 3beta-HSD1 and 17beta-HSD1 expression. This result indicates that some PCB congeners and their MeSO(2)-metabolites may affect steroidogenesis via different mechanisms. Overall, these findings suggest that

  11. Loss of sensitivity to ACTH of adrenocortical cells isolated from maturing domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-07-01

    Maturation of domestic fowl corticosteroidogenesis was evaluated using purified adrenocortical cells. Basal corticosterone production decreased steadily from 2 days to 26 weeks after hatching. However, maximally stimulated corticosterone production was not changed. In contrast, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations (ED50 values or effective doses for 50% maximal effect) of ACTH analogs increased approximately 40 times by 26 weeks, but the ED50 values of 8-bromo-cyclic AMP and pregnenolone were not changed. This suggests that adrenocortical cell sensitivity to ACTH decreases with maturation of the domestic fowl.

  12. Properties of calcium and potassium currents of clonal adrenocortical cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The ionic currents of clonal Y-1 adrenocortical cells were studied using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. These cells had two major current components: a large outward current carried by K ions, and a small inward Ca current. The Ca current depended on the activity of two populations of Ca channels, slow (SD) and fast (FD) deactivating, that could be separated by their different closing time constants (at -80 mV, SD, 3.8 ms, and FD, 0.13 ms). These two kinds of channels also differed in (a) activation threshold (SD, approximately - 50 mV; FD, approximately -20 mV), (b) half-maximal activation (SD, between -15 and -10 mV; FD between +10 and +15 mV), and (c) inactivation time course (SD, fast; FD, slow). The total amplitude of the Ca current and the proportion of SD and FD channels varied from cell to cell. The amplitude of the K current was strongly dependent on the internal [Ca2+] and was almost abolished when internal [Ca2+] was less than 0.001 microM. The K current appeared to be independent, or only slightly dependent, of Ca influx. With an internal [Ca2+] of 0.1 microM, the activation threshold was -20 mV, and at +40 mV the half- time of activation was 9 ms. With 73 mM external K the closing time constant at -70 mV was approximately 3 ms. The outward current was also modulated by internal pH and Mg. At a constant pCa gamma a decrease of pH reduced the current amplitude, whereas the activation kinetics were not much altered. Removal of internal Mg produced a drastic decrease in the amplitude of the Ca-activated K current. It was also found that with internal [Ca2+] over 0.1 microM the K current underwent a time- dependent transformation characterized by a large increase in amplitude and in activation kinetics. PMID:2539432

  13. Opposite regulation of thrombospondin-1 and corticotropin-induced secreted protein/thrombospondin-2 expression by adrenocorticotropic hormone in adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Lafeuillade, B; Pellerin, S; Keramidas, M; Danik, M; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1996-04-01

    Corticotropin-induced secreted protein (CISP) is a trimeric glycoprotein secreted by primary cultures of bovine adrenortical cells in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). This protein was recently purified in our laboratory, and its N-terminal amino-acid sequence revealed a significant similarity with thrombospondin-2 (TSP2). We report here the nucleotide sequence of a 386 bp RT-PCR fragment specific for CISP. The deduced protein sequence shares 84% identity with the N-terminal portion of mature human TSP2, suggesting that CISP is its bovine counterpart. Northern analysis of adrenocortical cell RNA using the above cDNA fragment as a probe revealed a 6.0 kb CISP/TSP2 mRNA whose abundance was increased nearly fivefold following a 24 h cell treatment with 10(-7) M ACTH. Under the same conditions, the expression of TSP1 mRNA was reduced by tenfold. The protein levels of TSP1 and CISP/TSP2 varied accordingly with their respective mRNA levels, as shown by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments. Taken together, these data show that ACTH induces a dramatic shift in the pattern of adrenocortical cell thrombospondin expression from TSP1 to CISP/TSP2. This observation suggests that these two members of the thrombospondin family exert distinct biological functions in the adrenal cortex. This hypothesis is further supported by the observation that anti-CISP antibodies inhibit the maintenance of the morphological changes of bovine adrenocortical cells induced by ACTH, whereas anti-TSP1 antibodies do not. PMID:8698834

  14. Evidence for protein kinase C in bovine adrenocortical membrane preparations using (/sup 35/S) gamma-thio-ATP as a phosphate donor

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, M.D.; Luszczynska, H.M.; Kunzi, M.

    1987-01-01

    Thio-substituted ATP is a sensitive probe for detecting protein kinase C activity as demonstrated in bovine adrenocortical cell membrane preparations. A single endogenous protein substrate with a molecular weight of approximately 47 Kd was rapidly phosphorylated with (/sup 35/S) gamma-thio-ATP as phosphate donor. Phosphorylation was significantly increased in 30 seconds and reached a plateau by 3 minutes. The activity of the endogenous membrane kinase was unaffected by ACTH, cAMP, calmodulin or trifluoperazine but was responsive to combinations of calcium (Ca), diolein and phosphatidyl serine (PS). In addition, the kinase was activated by the tumor promoting phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, indicating that the membrane contains a protein kinase C and a single 47 Kd phosphorylatable protein substrate. The same substrate is phosphorylated by Ca/diolein/PS activated kinase in membrane preparations from a broad range of rat tissues. Attempts to identify the substrate indicate that it is neither the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP dependent protein kinase nor mitochondrial cytochrome P450.

  15. Effects of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals on Steroidogenesis in H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma cells (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid hormones are essential for proper development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells were used to evalu...

  16. Toying with fate: Redirecting the differentiation of adrenocortical progenitor cells into gonadal-like tissue

    PubMed Central

    Röhrig, Theresa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Ziegler, Ricarda; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Schrade, Anja; Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Mitra, Robi D.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Cell fate decisions are integral to zonation and remodeling of the adrenal cortex. Animal models exhibiting ectopic differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenic cell fate. In one such model, prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) of mice triggers the formation of adrenocortical neoplasms that resemble luteinized ovarian stroma. Transcriptomic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation mapping have identified genetic and epi-genetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia. Members of the GATA transcription factor family have emerged as key regulators of cell fate in this model. Expression of Gata4 is pivotal for the accumulation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized mice, whereas expression of Gata6 limits the spontaneous and GDX-induced differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex. Additionally, Gata6 is essential for proper development of the adrenal X-zone, a layer analogous to the fetal zone of the human adrenal cortex. The relevance of these observations to developmental signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex, to other animal models of altered adrenocortical cell fate, and to human diseases is discussed. PMID:25498963

  17. Ultrastructural Localization of Endogenous Exchange Factor for ARF6 in Adrenocortical Cells In Situ of Mice.

    PubMed

    Chomphoo, Surang; Mothong, Wilaiwan; Sawatpanich, Tarinee; Kanla, Pipatphong; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisatake; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi

    2016-06-28

    EFA6 (exchange factor for ARF6) activates Arf6 (ADP ribosylation factor 6) by exchanging ADP to ATP, and the resulting activated form of Arf6 is involved in the membrane dynamics and actin re-organization of cells. The present study was attempted to localize EFA6 type D (EFA6D) in mouse adrenocortical cells in situ whose steroid hormone secretion is generally considered not to depend on the vesicle-involved regulatory mechanism. In immunoblotting, an immunoreactive band with the same size as brain EFA6D was detected in homogenates of adrenal cortical tissues almost free of adrenal capsules and medulla. In immuno-light microscopy, EFA6D-immunoreactivity was positive in adrenocortical cells and it was often distinct along the plasmalemma, especially along portions of the cell columns facing the interstitium. In immuno-electron microscopy, the gold-labeling was more dense in the peripheral intracellular domains than the central domain of the immunopositive cells. The labeling was deposited on the plasma membranes in a discontinuous pattern and in cytoplasmic domains rich in filaments. It was also associated with some, but not all, of pleiomorphic vesicles and coated pits/vesicles. No labeling was seen in association with lipid droplets or smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The present finding is in support of the importance of EFA6D for activation of Arf6 in adrenocortical cells. PMID:27462133

  18. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    in vivo ACTH challenge test to prove adrenocortical competency, and the H295R cell line to examine molecular mechanisms of steroidogenic pathway toxicity, are discussed. Finally, because of the central role of the adrenal in the physiologically adaptive stress response, the distinguishing features of stress, compared with adrenocortical toxicity, are discussed with reference to the evidence required to claim that adrenal hypertrophy results from stress rather than adrenocortical enzyme inhibition which is a serious adverse toxicological finding. This article is part of a special issue entitled 'Endocrine disruptors and steroids'.

  19. Aging of the rat adrenocortical cell: response to ACTH and cyclic AMP in vitro.

    PubMed

    Malamed, S; Carsia, R V

    1983-03-01

    To study intrinsic age-related changes in adrenocortical steroid production, cells isolated from rats of different ages (3 to 24 months) were used. Acute (2 hour) corticosterone production in response to stimulation by adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) was measured by radioimmunoassay. With age, adrenocortical cells lose much of their ability to produce corticosterone in the absence or presence of ACTH or cAMP. The loss is progressive from 6 to 24 months of age. Analysis of the data suggests that from 6 to 12 months, an intracellular steroidogenic lesion develops; in addition there may be a loss in ACTH receptors on the plasma membrane. After 12 months these defects increase and are accompanied by a decrease in receptor sensitivity to ACTH.

  20. Isolated adrenocortical cells of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): steroidogenic and ultrastructural properties.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-02-01

    Isolated adrenocortical cells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) were compared to those from rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cells were prepared from collagenase-dispersed adrenal glands of sexually mature male animals. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay after incubation for 2 h with steroidogenic agents. Of the four ACTH analogues used, three were 6-17 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells (potencies were indicated by half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations). However, 9-tryptophan (O-nitrophenylsulfenyl) ACTH was 8 times more potent with fowl cells than with rat cells, thus suggesting that ACTH receptor differences exist between the two cell types. In addition, cAMP analogues were 10 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells suggesting that fowl corticosteroidogenesis is less dependent on cAMP than is rat corticosteroidogenesis. At equal cell concentrations, rat cells secreted 20-40 times more corticosterone than did chicken cells when they were maximally stimulated. Although rat cells converted 8 times more pregnenolone to corticosterone than did fowl cells, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration for pregnenolone-supported corticosterone synthesis was the same for both cell types (about 5 microM). This suggests that fowl cells have lower steroidogenic enzyme content rather than lower steroidogenic enzyme activity. An unusual feature seen in the isolated fowl adrenocortical cells was an abundance of intracellular filaments.

  1. Effects of Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Silencing in a Human Adrenocortical Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T C; Jorge, A A; Montenegro, L R; Almeida, M Q; Ferraz-de-Souza, B; Nishi, M Y; Mendonca, B B; Latronico, A C

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, including adrenocortical tumors. The aim of the work was to investigate the effects of IGF-1R downregulation in a human adrenocortical cell line by small interfering RNA (siRNA). The human adrenocortical tumor cell line NCI H295R was transfected with 2 specific IGF1R siRNAs (# 1 and # 2) and compared with untreated cells and a negative control siRNA. IGF1R expression was determined by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRTPCR) and Western blot. The effects of IGF-1R downregulation on cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed. IGF-1R levels were significantly decreased in cells treated with IGF-1R siRNA # 1 or # 2. Relative expression of IGF1R mRNA decreased approximately 50% and Western blot analysis revealed a 30% of reduction in IGF-1R protein. Downregulation of this gene resulted in 40% reduction in cell growth in vitro and 45% increase in apoptosis using siRNA # 2. These findings demonstrate that decreasing IGF-1R mRNA and protein expression in NCI H295R cells can partially inhibit adrenal tumor cell growth in vitro. Targeting IGF1R is a promising therapy for pediatric malignant adrenocortical tumor and can still be an option for adult adrenocortical cancer based on personalized genomic tumor profiling. PMID:27246621

  2. Cell cycle dependent RRM2 may serve as proliferation marker and pharmaceutical target in adrenocortical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grolmusz, Vince Kornél; Karászi, Katalin; Micsik, Tamás; Tóth, Eszter Angéla; Mészáros, Katalin; Karvaly, Gellért; Barna, Gábor; Szabó, Péter Márton; Baghy, Kornélia; Matkó, János; Kovalszky, Ilona; Tóth, Miklós; Rácz, Károly; Igaz, Péter; Patócs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, but agressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Histopathological diagnosis is challenging and pharmacological options for treatment are limited. By the comparative reanalysis of the transcriptional malignancy signature with the cell cycle dependent transcriptional program of ACC, we aimed to identify novel biomarkers which may be used in the histopathological diagnosis and for the prediction of therapeutical response of ACC. Comparative reanalysis of publicly available microarray datasets included three earlier studies comparing transcriptional differences between ACC and benign adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and one study presenting the cell cycle dependent gene expressional program of human ACC cell line NCI-H295R. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on ACC samples. In vitro effects of antineoplastic drugs including gemcitabine, mitotane and 9-cis-retinoic acid alone and in combination were tested in the NCI-H295R adrenocortical cell line. Upon the comparative reanalysis, ribonucleotide reductase subunit 2 (RRM2), responsible for the ribonucleotide dezoxyribonucleotide conversion during the S phase of the cell cycle has been validated as cell cycle dependently expressed. Moreover, its expression was associated with the malignancy signature, as well. Immunohistochemical analysis of RRM2 revealed a strong correlation with Ki67 index in ACC. Among the antiproliferative effects of the investigated compounds, gemcitabine showed a strong inhibition of proliferation and an increase of apoptotic events. Additionally, RRM2 has been upregulated upon gemcitabine treatment. Upon our results, RRM2 might be used as a proliferation marker in ACC. RRM2 upregulation upon gemcitabine treatment might contribute to an emerging chemoresistance against gemcitabine, which is in line with its limited therapeutical efficacy in ACC, and which should be overcome for successful clinical applications. PMID:27725909

  3. Rosiglitazone induces autophagy in H295R and cell cycle deregulation in SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cerquetti, Lidia; Sampaoli, Camilla; Amendola, Donatella; Bucci, Barbara; Masuelli, Laura; Marchese, Rodolfo; Misiti, Silvia; De Venanzi, Agostino; Poggi, Maurizio; Toscano, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Antonio

    2011-06-10

    Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-{gamma}-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-{gamma}-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma}. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPK{alpha} and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-{gamma} activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.

  4. Acute effects of ACTH on dissociated adrenocortical cells: quantitative changes in mitochondria and lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Zoller, L C; Malamed, S

    1975-08-01

    To study the role of certain organelles in steroidogenesis, dissociated rat adrenocortical cells were incubated for two hours with ACTH at a concentration that induces a high level of steroid production. Sections of ACTH treated and untreated cells were photographed in the electron microscope, and morphometric analysis was undertaken to assess possible ACTH-induced changes in total cell volume, volume density and numerical denisty of lipid droplets and mitochondria. There was no change in total cell volume. Lipid droplet volume density and numerical density decreased. Mitochondrial volume density did not change, but numerical density increased. The decrease in lipid droplet volume density indicates a rapid depletion of cholesterol for steroid production. This depletion is almost entirely due to the disappearance of lipid droplets, rather than to an overall diminution in their size, as shown by the decrease in lipid droplet numerical density. The mitochondrial data suggest that the adrenocortical cell has an adedquate mitochondrial apparatus to respond to acute ACTH stimulation with increased steroid output without an increase inmitochondrial volume.

  5. Direct inhibitory effect of etomidate on corticosteroid secretion in human pathologic adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Varga, I; Rácz, K; Kiss, R; Fütö, L; Tóth, M; Sergev, O; Gláz, E

    1993-02-01

    Etomidate has been shown to inhibit corticosteroid secretion in the normal adrenal gland, but its direct effect in human pathologic adrenals has not been clearly established. In the present study the effect of varying doses of etomidate (10(-11)-10(-5) M) was investigated on basal and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated corticosteroid secretions in isolated adrenocortical cells obtained from two patients with primary aldosteronism (adenoma and micronodular hyperplasia) and in those from a patient with Cushing's syndrome (adenoma). In cells from primary aldosteronism, increasing concentrations of etomidate (10(-11)-10(-5) M) produced a dose-dependent decrease of basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol, aldosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and corticosterone secretions (ED50: 10(-9)-10(-8) M for each of these corticosteroids). In the same cells, the secretions of 11-deoxycortisol and deoxycorticosterone were increased in the presence of low (10(-9)-10(-7) M) but not high doses of etomidate (10(-6)-10(-5) M). In cells from Cushing's syndrome the changes in corticosteroid secretion were similar to those found in primary aldosteronism except that aldosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone could not be determined due to their low levels. Thus the potent inhibition of corticosteroids in human pathologic adrenocortical cells in the presence of low concentrations of etomidate may be predominantly due to inhibition of the 11 beta-hydroxylase enzyme, whereas higher doses of the drug may inhibit earlier steps of the corticosteroid biosynthetic pathway. PMID:8387232

  6. A Case of Cushing's Syndrome with Multiple Adrenocortical Adenomas Composed of Compact Cells and Clear Cells.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Masahiro; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ota, Mitsutane; Numasawa, Mitsuyuki; Sasahara, Yuriko; Takeuchi, Takato; Nakano, Yujiro; Oohara, Norihiko; Murakami, Masanori; Bouchi, Ryotaro; Minami, Isao; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Hashimoto, Koshi; Izumiyama, Hajime; Kawamura, Naoko; Kihara, Kazunori; Negi, Mariko; Akashi, Takumi; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Sasano, Hironobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    A 58-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for Cushingoid features and diagnosed as adrenal Cushing's syndrome due to a right adrenocortical mass (60 × 55 mm). The mass was composed of three different tumors; the first one was homogeneously lipid-poor neoplasm measuring 20 × 13 mm located at the most dorsal region, the second one was heterogeneous and lipid-rich tumor containing multiple foci of calcification measuring 50 × 32 mm located at the central region, and the last one was heterogeneous harboring dilated and tortuous vessels and lipid-poor one measuring 35 × 18 mm at the most ventral region of the adrenal gland. A right adrenalectomy was subsequently performed by open surgery. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses revealed that all three tumors were adrenocortical adenomas; the first one represents a pigmented adrenocortical adenoma, the second one adrenocortical adenoma associated with degeneration, and the third one adrenocortical adenoma harboring extensive degeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis of the steroidogenic enzymes also revealed that all of the tumors had the capacity of synthesizing cortisol. This is a very rare case of Cushing's syndrome caused by multiple adrenocortical adenomas including a pigmented adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of steroidogenic enzymes contributed to understanding of steroidogenesis in each of these three different adrenocortical adenomas in this case.

  7. Adrenocortical carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this tumor. Adrenocortical carcinoma can produce the hormones cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, or testosterone, as well as other ... Symptoms of increased cortisol or other adrenal gland hormones: ... high on the back just below the neck ( buffalo hump ) Flushed, ...

  8. High-throughput screening of chemical effects on steroidogenesis using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2,060 chemical samples...

  9. IGF2 Promotes Growth of Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells, but Its Overexpression Does Not Modify Phenotypic and Molecular Features of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Ragazzon, Bruno; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Chevalier, Claire; Francillard, Isabelle; Barreau, Olivia; Steunou, Virginie; Guillemot, Johann; Tissier, Frédérique; Rizk-Rabin, Marthe; René-Corail, Fernande; Ghuzlan, Abir Al; Assié, Guillaume; Bertagna, Xavier; Baudin, Eric; Le Bouc, Yves; Bertherat, Jérôme; Clauser, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) overexpression is an important molecular marker of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), which is a rare but devastating endocrine cancer. It is not clear whether IGF2 overexpression modifies the biology and growth of this cancer, thus more studies are required before IGF2 can be considered as a major therapeutic target. We compared the phenotypical, clinical, biological, and molecular characteristics of ACC with or without the overexpression of IGF2, to address these issues. We also carried out a similar analysis in an ACC cell line (H295R) in which IGF2 expression was knocked down with si- or shRNA. We found no significant differences in the clinical, biological and molecular (transcriptomic) traits between IGF2-high and IGF2-low ACC. The absence of IGF2 overexpression had little influence on the activation of tyrosine kinase pathways both in tumors and in H295 cells that express low levels of IGF2. In IGF2-low tumors, other growth factors (FGF9, PDGFA) are more expressed than in IGF2-high tumors, suggesting that they play a compensatory role in tumor progression. In addition, IGF2 knock-down in H295R cells substantially impaired growth (>50% inhibition), blocked cells in G1 phase, and promoted apoptosis (>2-fold). Finally, analysis of the 11p15 locus showed a paternal uniparental disomy in both IGF2-high and IGF2-low tumors, but low IGF2 expression could be explained in most IGF2-low ACC by an additional epigenetic modification at the 11p15 locus. Altogether, these observations confirm the active role of IGF2 in adrenocortical tumor growth, but also suggest that other growth promoting pathways may be involved in a subset of ACC with low IGF2 expression, which creates opportunities for the use of other targeted therapies. PMID:25089899

  10. Adrenocortical hemorrhagic necrosis: the role of catecholamines and retrograde medullary-cell embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; McComb, D.J.; Kovacs, K.; Huettner, I.

    1981-10-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of adrenal necrosis using animal models of the disease (induced by administration of acrylonitrile, cysteamine, or pyrazole) and human cases. Results of electron-microscopic and histochemical time-response studies with rat models revealed an early, retrograde embolization of medullary cells and cell fragments in the cortical capillaries that showed prominent endothelial injury. The experimental adrenal lesions were prevented by surgical removal of the medulla one month before administration of adrenocorticolytic chemicals, or by the administration of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride. Histochemical staining for medullary (argyrophil) granules in human cases of adrenal necrosis demonstrated tissue fragments that stained positively for silver in vascular cortical spaces in nine of ten autopsy specimens and in all four surgical cases we reviewed. Thus, catecholamines released from the adrenal medulla and from the retrograde medullary emboli in the cortex may have a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical necrosis.

  11. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes. PMID:20336522

  12. The effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone and cortisol production in HAC15 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Ding; Choudhary, Vivek; Seremwe, Mutsa; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Olala, Lawrence; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-08-25

    Pioglitazone belongs to the class of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are widely used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of diabetes. A major side effect of TZDs is fluid retention. The steroid hormone aldosterone also promotes sodium and fluid retention; however, the effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone production is controversial. We analyzed the effect of pioglitazone alone and in combination with angiotensin II (AngII) on the late rate-limiting step of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma HAC15 cells. Treatment with pioglitazone for 24 h significantly increased the expression of CYP11B2 and enhanced AngII-induced CYP11B2 expression. Despite the observed changes in mRNA levels, pioglitazone significantly inhibited AngII-induced aldosterone production and CYP11B2 protein levels. On the other hand, pioglitazone stimulated the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) marker DDIT3, with this effect occurring at early times and inhibitable by the PPARγ antagonist GW9962. The levels of DDIT3 (CHOP) and phospho-eIF2α (Ser51), a UPR-induced event that inhibits protein translation, were also increased. Thus, pioglitazone promotes CYP11B2 expression but nevertheless inhibits aldosterone production in AngII-treated HAC15 cells, likely by blocking global protein translation initiation through DDIT3 and phospho-eIF2α. In contrast, pioglitazone promoted AngII-induced CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production. Since cortisol enhances lipolysis, this result suggests the possibility that PPARs, activated by products of fatty acid oxidation, stimulate cortisol secretion to promote utilization of fatty acids during fasting. In turn, the ability of pioglitazone to stimulate cortisol production could potentially underlie the effects of this drug on fluid retention. PMID:25038520

  13. The effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone and cortisol production in HAC15 human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Ding; Choudhary, Vivek; Seremwe, Mutsa; Tsai, Ying-Ying; Olala, Lawrence; Chen, Xunsheng; Bollag, Wendy B

    2014-08-25

    Pioglitazone belongs to the class of drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are widely used as insulin sensitizers in the treatment of diabetes. A major side effect of TZDs is fluid retention. The steroid hormone aldosterone also promotes sodium and fluid retention; however, the effect of pioglitazone on aldosterone production is controversial. We analyzed the effect of pioglitazone alone and in combination with angiotensin II (AngII) on the late rate-limiting step of adrenocortical steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma HAC15 cells. Treatment with pioglitazone for 24 h significantly increased the expression of CYP11B2 and enhanced AngII-induced CYP11B2 expression. Despite the observed changes in mRNA levels, pioglitazone significantly inhibited AngII-induced aldosterone production and CYP11B2 protein levels. On the other hand, pioglitazone stimulated the expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) marker DDIT3, with this effect occurring at early times and inhibitable by the PPARγ antagonist GW9962. The levels of DDIT3 (CHOP) and phospho-eIF2α (Ser51), a UPR-induced event that inhibits protein translation, were also increased. Thus, pioglitazone promotes CYP11B2 expression but nevertheless inhibits aldosterone production in AngII-treated HAC15 cells, likely by blocking global protein translation initiation through DDIT3 and phospho-eIF2α. In contrast, pioglitazone promoted AngII-induced CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production. Since cortisol enhances lipolysis, this result suggests the possibility that PPARs, activated by products of fatty acid oxidation, stimulate cortisol secretion to promote utilization of fatty acids during fasting. In turn, the ability of pioglitazone to stimulate cortisol production could potentially underlie the effects of this drug on fluid retention.

  14. Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors: Relationship with cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Mantovani, G.; Lania, A.G.; Bondioni, S.; Peverelli, E.; Pedroni, C.; Ferrero, S.; Pellegrini, C.; Vicentini, L.; Arnaldi, G.; Bosari, S.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Spada, A.

    2008-01-01

    The four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B, R2A, R2B) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in several cancer cell lines and exert distinct roles in growth control. Mutations of the R1A gene have been found in patients with Carney complex and in a minority of sporadic primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PKA regulatory subunits in non-PPNAD adrenocortical tumors causing ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and to test the impact of differential expression of these subunits on cell growth. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a defective expression of R2B in all cortisol-secreting adenomas (n = 16) compared with the normal counterpart, while both R1A and R2A were expressed at high levels in the same tissues. Conversely, carcinomas (n = 5) showed high levels of all subunits. Sequencing of R1A and R2B genes revealed a wild type sequence in all tissues. The effect of R1/R2 ratio on proliferation was assessed in mouse adrenocortical Y-1 cells. The R2-selective cAMP analogue 8-Cl-cAMP dose-dependently inhibited Y-1 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, while the R1-selective cAMP analogue 8-HA-cAMP stimulated cell proliferation. Finally, R2B gene silencing induced up-regulation of R1A protein, associated with an increase in cell proliferation. In conclusion, we propose that a high R1/R2 ratio favors the proliferation of well differentiated and hormone producing adrenocortical cells, while unbalanced expression of these subunits is not required for malignant transformation.

  15. GPER agonist G-1 decreases adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Casaburi, Ivan; Zolea, Fabiana; Rizza, Pietro; Avena, Paola; Malivindi, Rocco; De Luca, Arianna; Campana, Carmela; Martire, Emilia; Domanico, Francesco; Fallo, Francesco; Carpinelli, Giulia; Cerquetti, Lidia; Amendola, Donatella; Stigliano, Antonio; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (ESR1) increases proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) through both an estrogen-dependent and -independent (induced by IGF-II/IGF1R pathways) manner. Then, the use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), appears effective in reducing ACC growth in vitro and in vivo. However, tamoxifen not only exerts antiestrogenic activity, but also acts as full agonist on the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a non-steroidal GPER agonist G-1 in modulating ACC cell growth. We found that G-1 is able to exert a growth inhibitory effect on H295R cells both in vitro and, as xenograft model, in vivo. Treatment of H295R cells with G-1 induced cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cell death by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic mechanism. These events required sustained extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Silencing of GPER by a specific shRNA partially reversed G-1-mediated cell growth inhibition without affecting ERK activation. These data suggest the existence of G-1 activated but GPER-independent effects that remain to be clarified. In conclusion, this study provides a rational to further study G-1 mechanism of action in order to include this drug as a treatment option to the limited therapy of ACC.

  16. GPER agonist G-1 decreases adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zolea, Fabiana; Rizza, Pietro; Avena, Paola; Malivindi, Rocco; De Luca, Arianna; Campana, Carmela; Martire, Emilia; Domanico, Francesco; Fallo, Francesco; Carpinelli, Giulia; Cerquetti, Lidia; Amendola, Donatella; Stigliano, Antonio; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (ESR1) increases proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) through both an estrogen-dependent and -independent (induced by IGF-II/IGF1R pathways) manner. Then, the use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), appears effective in reducing ACC growth in vitro and in vivo. However, tamoxifen not only exerts antiestrogenic activity, but also acts as full agonist on the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a non-steroidal GPER agonist G-1 in modulating ACC cell growth. We found that G-1 is able to exert a growth inhibitory effect on H295R cells both in vitro and, as xenograft model, in vivo. Treatment of H295R cells with G-1 induced cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cell death by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic mechanism. These events required sustained extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Silencing of GPER by a specific shRNA partially reversed G-1-mediated cell growth inhibition without affecting ERK activation. These data suggest the existence of G-1 activated but GPER-independent effects that remain to be clarified. In conclusion, this study provides a rational to further study G-1 mechanism of action in order to include this drug as a treatment option to the limited therapy of ACC. PMID:26131713

  17. GPER agonist G-1 decreases adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Casaburi, Ivan; Zolea, Fabiana; Rizza, Pietro; Avena, Paola; Malivindi, Rocco; De Luca, Arianna; Campana, Carmela; Martire, Emilia; Domanico, Francesco; Fallo, Francesco; Carpinelli, Giulia; Cerquetti, Lidia; Amendola, Donatella; Stigliano, Antonio; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (ESR1) increases proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) through both an estrogen-dependent and -independent (induced by IGF-II/IGF1R pathways) manner. Then, the use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), appears effective in reducing ACC growth in vitro and in vivo. However, tamoxifen not only exerts antiestrogenic activity, but also acts as full agonist on the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a non-steroidal GPER agonist G-1 in modulating ACC cell growth. We found that G-1 is able to exert a growth inhibitory effect on H295R cells both in vitro and, as xenograft model, in vivo. Treatment of H295R cells with G-1 induced cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cell death by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic mechanism. These events required sustained extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Silencing of GPER by a specific shRNA partially reversed G-1-mediated cell growth inhibition without affecting ERK activation. These data suggest the existence of G-1 activated but GPER-independent effects that remain to be clarified. In conclusion, this study provides a rational to further study G-1 mechanism of action in order to include this drug as a treatment option to the limited therapy of ACC. PMID:26131713

  18. H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells as a Screening Platform for Steroidogenesis (NC SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proper biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones is essential for development and reproduction. Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental toxicants results in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. H295R human adrenocortical carc...

  19. Mutual effects of melatonin and activin on induction of aldosterone production by human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takayuki; Otsuka, Fumio; Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Naoko; Inagaki, Kenichi; Hosoya, Takeshi; Nakamura, Eri; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Komatsubara, Motoshi; Makino, Hirofumi

    2015-08-01

    Melatonin has been reported to suppress adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion in the anterior pituitary and cortisol production in the adrenal by different mechanisms. However, the effect of melatonin on aldosterone production has remained unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of melatonin in the regulation of aldosterone production using human adrenocortical H295R cells by focusing on the activin system expressed in the adrenal. Melatonin receptor MT1 mRNA and protein were expressed in H295R cells and the expression levels of MT1 were increased by activin treatment. Activin increased ACTH-induced, but not angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced, aldosterone production. Melatonin alone did not affect basal synthesis of either aldosterone or cortisol. However, melatonin effectively enhanced aldosterone production induced by co-treatment with ACTH and activin, although melatonin had no effect on aldosterone production induced by Ang II in combination with activin. These changes in steroidogenesis became apparent when the steroid production was evaluated by the ratio of aldosterone/cortisol. Melatonin also enhanced dibutyryl-AMP-induced aldosterone/cortisol levels in the presence of activin, suggesting a functional link to the cAMP-PKA pathway for induction of aldosterone production by melatonin and activin. In accordance with the data for steroids, ACTH-induced, but not Ang II-induced, cAMP synthesis was also amplified by co-treatment with melatonin and activin. Furthermore, the ratio of ACTH-induced mRNA level of CYP11B2 compared with that of CYP17 was amplified in the condition of treatment with both melatonin and activin. In addition, melatonin increased expression of the activin type-I receptor ALK-4 but suppressed expression of inhibitory Smads6/7, leading to the enhancement of Smad2 phosphorylation. Collectively, the results showed that melatonin facilitated aldosterone production induced by ACTH and activin via the cAMP-PKA pathway. The results also

  20. StAR Protein Stability in Y1 and Kin-8 Mouse Adrenocortical Cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Barbara J; Hudson, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-04

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) protein expression is required for cholesterol transport into mitochondria to initiate steroidogenesis in the adrenal and gonads. STAR is synthesized as a 37 kDa precursor protein which is targeted to the mitochondria and imported and processed to an intra-mitochondrial 30 kDa protein. Tropic hormone stimulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway is the major contributor to the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of STAR synthesis. Many studies have focused on the mechanisms of cAMP-PKA mediated control of STAR synthesis while there are few reports on STAR degradation pathways. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling on STAR protein stability. We have used the cAMP-PKA responsive Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells and the PKA-deficient Kin-8 cells to measure STAR phosphorylation and protein half-life. Western blot analysis and standard radiolabeled pulse-chase experiments were used to determine STAR phosphorylation status and protein half-life, respectively. Our data demonstrate that PKA-dependent STAR phosphorylation does not contribute to 30 kDa STAR protein stability in the mitochondria. We further show that inhibition of the 26S proteasome does not block precursor STAR phosphorylation or steroid production in Y1 cells. These data suggest STAR can maintain function and promote steroidogenesis under conditions of proteasome inhibition.

  1. Role of ALADIN in Human Adrenocortical Cells for Oxidative Stress Response and Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jühlen, Ramona; Idkowiak, Jan; Taylor, Angela E.; Kind, Barbara; Arlt, Wiebke; Huebner, Angela; Koehler, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Triple A syndrome is caused by mutations in AAAS encoding the protein ALADIN. We investigated the role of ALADIN in the human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R1 by either over-expression or down-regulation of ALADIN. Our findings indicate that AAAS knock-down induces a down-regulation of genes coding for type II microsomal cytochrome P450 hydroxylases CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 and their electron donor enzyme cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, thereby decreasing biosynthesis of precursor metabolites required for glucocorticoid and androgen production. Furthermore we demonstrate that ALADIN deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and alteration in redox homeostasis after paraquat treatment. Finally, we show significantly impaired nuclear import of DNA ligase 1, aprataxin and ferritin heavy chain 1 in ALADIN knock-down cells. We conclude that down-regulating ALADIN results in decreased oxidative stress response leading to alteration in steroidogenesis, highlighting our knock-down cell model as an important in-vitro tool for studying the adrenal phenotype in triple A syndrome. PMID:25867024

  2. Role of ALADIN in human adrenocortical cells for oxidative stress response and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jühlen, Ramona; Idkowiak, Jan; Taylor, Angela E; Kind, Barbara; Arlt, Wiebke; Huebner, Angela; Koehler, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Triple A syndrome is caused by mutations in AAAS encoding the protein ALADIN. We investigated the role of ALADIN in the human adrenocortical cell line NCI-H295R1 by either over-expression or down-regulation of ALADIN. Our findings indicate that AAAS knock-down induces a down-regulation of genes coding for type II microsomal cytochrome P450 hydroxylases CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 and their electron donor enzyme cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, thereby decreasing biosynthesis of precursor metabolites required for glucocorticoid and androgen production. Furthermore we demonstrate that ALADIN deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and alteration in redox homeostasis after paraquat treatment. Finally, we show significantly impaired nuclear import of DNA ligase 1, aprataxin and ferritin heavy chain 1 in ALADIN knock-down cells. We conclude that down-regulating ALADIN results in decreased oxidative stress response leading to alteration in steroidogenesis, highlighting our knock-down cell model as an important in-vitro tool for studying the adrenal phenotype in triple A syndrome.

  3. Human Adrenocortical Remodeling Leading to Aldosterone-Producing Cell Cluster Generation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuichiro; Al-Eyd, Ghaith; Nakagawa, Ken; Morita, Shinya; Kosaka, Takeo; Oya, Mototsugu; Mitani, Fumiko; Suematsu, Makoto; Kabe, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background. The immunohistochemical detection of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) has enabled the identification of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) in the subcapsular portion of the human adult adrenal cortex. We hypothesized that adrenals have layered zonation in early postnatal stages and are remodeled to possess APCCs over time. Purposes. To investigate changes in human adrenocortical zonation with age. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed adrenal tissues prepared from 33 autopsied patients aged between 0 and 50 years. They were immunostained for CYP11B2 and CYP11B1. The percentage of APCC areas over the whole adrenal area (AA/WAA, %) and the number of APCCs (NOA, APCCs/mm2) were calculated by four examiners. Average values were used in statistical analyses. Results. Adrenals under 11 years old had layered zona glomerulosa (ZG) and zona fasciculata (ZF) without apparent APCCs. Some adrenals had an unstained (CYP11B2/CYP11B1-negative) layer between ZG and ZF, resembling the rat undifferentiated cell zone. Average AA/WAA and NOA correlated with age, suggesting that APCC development is associated with aging. Possible APCC-to-APA transitional lesions were incidentally identified in two adult adrenals. Conclusions. The adrenal cortex with layered zonation remodels to possess APCCs over time. APCC generation may be associated with hypertension in adults. PMID:27721827

  4. Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Alex C.; Sabolch, Aaron; Raymond, Victoria M.; Kandathil, Asha; Caoili, Elaine M.; Jolly, Shruti; Miller, Barbra S.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, often with an unfavorable prognosis. Here we summarize the knowledge about diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of ACC. Over recent years, multidisciplinary clinics have formed and the first international treatment trials have been conducted. This review focuses on evidence gained from recent basic science and clinical research and provides perspectives from the experience of a large multidisciplinary clinic dedicated to the care of patients with ACC. PMID:24423978

  5. Molecular pathways of human adrenocortical carcinoma - translating cell signalling knowledge into diagnostic and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Szyszka, Paulina; Grossman, Ashley B; Diaz-Cano, Salvador; Sworczak, Krzysztof; Dworakowska, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is associated with a low cure rate and a high recurrence rate. The prognosis is poor, and at diagnosis 30-40% of cases are already metastatic. The current therapeutic options (surgical resection, followed by adjuvant mitotane treatment +/- chemotherapy) are limited, and the results remain unsatisfactory. Key molecular events that contribute to formation of adrenocortical cancer are IGF2 overexpression, TP53-inactivating mutations, and constitutive activation of the Wnt/b-catenin signalling pathway via activating mutations of the b-catenin gene. The underlying genetic causes of inherited tumour syndromes have provided insights into molecular pathogenesis. The increased occurrence of adrenocortical tumours in Li-Fraumeni and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes, and Carney complex, has highlighted the roles of specific susceptibility genes: TP53, IGF2, and PRKAR1A, respectively. Further studies have confirmed that these genes are also involved in sporadic tumour cases. Crucially, transcriptome-wide studies have determined the differences between malignant and benign adrenocortical tumours, providing potential diagnostic tools. In conclusion, enhancing our understanding of the molecular events of adrenocortical tumourigenesis, especially with regard to the signalling pathways that may be disrupted, will greatly contribute to improving a range of available diagnostic, prognostic, and treatment approaches. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 427-440). PMID:27387247

  6. Comparison of the effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B depletion on signaling pathways, cell growth, and cell cycle control of adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Basso, F; Rocchetti, F; Rodriguez, S; Nesterova, M; Cormier, F; Stratakis, C A; Ragazzon, B; Bertherat, J; Rizk-Rabin, M

    2014-11-01

    The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling cascade is one of the main pathways involved in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. The PKA R1A and R2B proteins are the most abundant regulatory subunits in endocrine tissues. Inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A are associated with Carney complex and a subset of sporadic tumors and the abundance of R2B protein is low in a subset of secreting adrenocortical adenomas. We previously showed that PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B inactivation have anti-apoptotic effects on the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B depletion on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. We found that PRKAR2B depletion is compensated by an upregulation of R1A protein, whereas PRKAR1A depletion has no effect on the production of R2B. The depletion of either PRKAR1A or PRKAR2B promotes the expression of Bcl-xL and resistance to apoptosis; and is associated with a high percentage of cells in S and G2 phase, activates PKA and MEK/ERK pathways, and impairs the expression of IkB leading to activate the NF-κB pathway. However, we observed differences in the regulation of cyclins. The depletion of PRKAR1A leads to the accumulation of cyclin D1 and p27kip, whereas the depletion of PRKAR2B promotes the accumulation of cyclin A, B, cdk1, cdc2, and p21Cip. In conclusion, although the depletion of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B in adrenocortical cells has similar effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis; loss of these PKA subunits differentially affects cyclin expression. PMID:25268545

  7. Comparison of the Effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B Depletion on Signaling Pathways, Cell Growth, and Cell Cycle Control of Adrenocortical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Basso, F.; Rocchetti, F.; Rodriguez, S.; Nesterova, M.; Cormier, F.; Stratakis, C.; Ragazzon, B.; Bertherat, J.; Rizk-Rabin, M.

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A signaling cascade is one of the main pathways involved in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors. The PKA R1A and R2B proteins are the most abundant regulatory subunits in endocrine tissues. Inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A are associated with Carney complex and a subset of sporadic tumors and the abundance of R2B protein is low in a subset of secreting adrenocortical adenomas. We previously showed that PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B inactivation have anti-apoptotic effects on the adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B depletion on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. We found that PRKAR2B depletion is compensated by an upregulation in the abundance of R1A protein, whereas PRKAR1A depletion has no effect on the production of R2B. The depletion of either PRKAR1A or PRKAR2B promotes the expression of Bcl-xL and resistance to apoptosis; and is associated with a high percentage of cells in S and G2 phase, activates PKA and MEK/ERK pathways, and impairs the expression of IkB leading to activate the NF-κB pathway. Nonetheless, we observed differences in the regulation of cyclins. The depletion of PRKAR1A leads to the accumulation of cyclin D1 and p27kip, whereas the depletion of PRKAR2B promotes the accumulation of cyclin A, B, cdk1, cdc2, and p21Cip. In conclusion, although the depletion of PRKAR1A and PRKAR2B in adrenocortical cells has similar effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis; loss of these PKA subunits differentially affects cyclin expression. PMID:25268545

  8. Adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Recent developments in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) include diagnostic and prognostic risk stratification algorithms, increasing evidence of the impact of historical therapies on overall survival, and emerging targets from integrated epigenomic and genomic analyses. Advances include proper clinical and molecular characterization of all patients with ACC, standardization of proliferative index analyses, referral of these patients to large cancer referral centers at the time of first surgery, and development of new trials in patients with well-characterized ACC. Networking and progress in the molecular characterization of ACC constitute the basis for significant future therapeutic breakthroughs. PMID:26038209

  9. Combined steroidogenic characters of fetal adrenal and Leydig cells in childhood adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Sakaguchi, Kimiyoshi; Ono, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Rie; Kato, Fumiko; Kagami, Masayo; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2016-05-01

    Although childhood adrenocortical carcinomas (c-ACCs) with a TP53 mutation are known to produce androgens, detailed steroidogenic characters have not been clarified. Here, we examined steroid metabolite profiles and expression patterns of steroidogenic genes in a c-ACC removed from the left adrenal position of a 2-year-old Brazilian boy with precocious puberty, using an atrophic left adrenal gland removed at the time of tumorectomy as a control. The c-ACC produced not only abundant dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but also a large amount of testosterone via the Δ5 pathway with Δ5-androstenediol rather than Δ4-androstenedione as the primary intermediate metabolite. Furthermore, the c-ACC was associated with elevated expressions of CYP11A1, CYP17A1, POR, HSD17B3, and SULT2A1, a low but similar expression of CYB5A, and reduced expressions of AKR1C3 (HSD17B5) and HSD3B2. Notably, a Leydig cell marker INSL3 was expressed at a low but detectable level in the c-ACC. Furthermore, molecular studies revealed a maternally inherited heterozygous germline TP53 mutation, and several post-zygotic genetic aberrations in the c-ACC including loss of paternally derived chromosome 17 with a wildtype TP53 and loss of maternally inherited chromosome 11 and resultant marked hyperexpression of paternally expressed growth promoting gene IGF2 and drastic hypoexpression of maternally expressed growth suppressing gene CDKN1C. These results imply the presence of combined steroidogenic properties of fetal adrenal and Leydig cells in this patient's c-ACC with a germline TP53 mutation and several postzygotic carcinogenic events.

  10. Silencing diacylglycerol kinase-theta expression reduces steroid hormone biosynthesis and cholesterol metabolism in human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kai; Lucki, Natasha C; Sewer, Marion B

    2014-04-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase theta (DGKθ) plays a pivotal role in regulating adrenocortical steroidogenesis by synthesizing the ligand for the nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1). In response to activation of the cAMP signaling cascade nuclear DGK activity is rapidly increased, facilitating PA-mediated, SF1-dependent transcription of genes required for cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) biosynthesis. Based on our previous work identifying DGKθ as the enzyme that produces the agonist for SF1, we generated a tetracycline-inducible H295R stable cell line to express a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against DGKθ and characterized the effect of silencing DGKθ on adrenocortical gene expression. Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis revealed that silencing DGKθ expression alters the expression of multiple genes, including steroidogenic genes, nuclear receptors and genes involved in sphingolipid, phospholipid and cholesterol metabolism. Interestingly, the expression of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) was also suppressed. Consistent with the suppression of SREBPs, we observed a down-regulation of multiple SREBP target genes, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA red) and CYP51, concomitant with a decrease in cellular cholesterol. DGKθ knockdown cells exhibited a reduced capacity to metabolize PA, with a down-regulation of lipin and phospholipase D (PLD) isoforms. In contrast, suppression of DGKθ increased the expression of several genes in the sphingolipid metabolic pathway, including acid ceramidase (ASAH1) and sphingosine kinases (SPHK). In summary, these data demonstrate that DGKθ plays an important role in steroid hormone production in human adrenocortical cells.

  11. Interleukin-6 inhibits adrenal androgen release from bovine adrenal zona reticularis cells by inhibiting the expression of steroidogenic proteins.

    PubMed

    McIlmoil, S; Call, G B; Barney, M; Strickland, J; Judd, A M

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is secreted by adrenocortical cells and modifies cortisol secretion. In this study, the effects of IL-6 on adrenal androgen release were investigated. The zona reticularis (ZR) was generally isolated from bovine adrenal glands by dissection. In select experiments, the intact adrenal cortex (ie, all 3 adrenocortical zones) was dissected from the adrenal glands. For androgen release experiments, ZR and intact adrenocortical cubes were dispersed into isolated cells, the cells cultured and exposed to IL-6 and/or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and androgen release determined by radioimmunoassay. Basal and ACTH-stimulated androgen release from the ZR was inhibited by IL-6 in a concentration-dependent (10-1000 pg/mL) and time-dependent (4-24 h) manner (P < 0.01 by 1-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test). In contrast, IL-6 increased basal and ACTH-stimulated androgen release from mixed adrenocortical cells (P < 0.01). The mechanism of IL-6 inhibition of androgen release was investigated by exposing ZR strips to IL-6 and measuring the expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein of steroidogenic factors. Basal and ACTH-stimulated expression of the mRNA and protein for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, steroid 17-α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase/17,20 desmolase, and the nuclear factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), that stimulates steroidogenesis, were decreased by IL-6 (P < 0.01). In contrast IL-6 increased the mRNA and protein for dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1 (DAX-1), a nuclear factor that inhibits steroidogenesis (P < 0.01). In summary, IL-6 decreased androgen release and the expression of steroidogenic factors in the ZR, and this decrease may be mediated in part through increasing DAX-1 and decreasing SF-1. PMID:26218834

  12. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD.

  13. Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Sun, Fei; Cao, Huang-Ming; Ma, Qin-Yun; Pan, Chun-Ming; Ma, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Jiang, He; Song, Huai-Dong; Chen, Ming-Dao

    2009-12-25

    Obesity is frequently associated with malfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyperaldosteronism, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been proposed. A previous study found that adiponectin receptor mRNA was expressed in human adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the expression of adiponectin receptors in adrenal glands has not been confirmed at the protein level or in other species. Furthermore, it is unclear whether adiponectin receptors expressed in adrenal cells are functional. We found, for the first time, that adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mRNA and protein were expressed in mouse adrenal and adrenocortical Y-1 cells. However, adiponectin itself was not expressed in mouse adrenal or Y-1 cells. Furthermore, adiponectin acutely reduced basal levels of corticosterone and aldosterone secretion. ACTH-induced steroid secretion was also inhibited by adiponectin, and this was accompanied by a parallel change in the expression of the key genes involved in steroidogenesis. These findings indicate that adiponectin may take part in the modulation of steroidogenesis. Thus, adiponectin is likely to have physiological and/or pathophysiological significance as an endocrine regulator of adrenocortical function.

  14. PROFILING GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN H295R ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA CELLS AND RAT TESTES TO IDENTIFY PATHWAYS OF TOXICITY FOR CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Profiling Gene Expression in Human H295R Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells and Rat Testes to Identify Pathways of Toxicity for Conazole Fungicides
    Ren1, H., Schmid1, J., Retief2, J., Turpaz2, Y.,Zhang3, X.,Jones3, P., Newsted3, J.,Giesy3, J., Wolf1, D.,Wood1, C., Bao1, W., Dix1, ...

  15. Expression of the epithelial Na(+) channel and other components of an aldosterone response pathway in human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Burton, Timothy J; Cope, Georgina; Wang, Jing; Sim, Joalice C; Azizan, Elena A B; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M; Brown, Morris J

    2009-06-24

    We have unexpectedly found expression of the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) in human adrenocortical cells and tested the hypothesis that these cells contain the components of an aldosterone response pathway. Tissue was obtained from patients undergoing adrenalectomy and mRNA and protein expression of recognised components of an aldosterone-response pathway were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The effects of mineralocorticoid receptor agonists and antagonists, amiloride analogues, and extracellular Na(+) on basal and stimulated aldosterone release from immortalised (H295R) cells were determined by radioimmunoassay. Expression of mRNA for alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunits of ENaC, the mineralocorticoid receptor, Nedd4L, Sgk1 and 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II was confirmed in human adrenal cortex. Using Western blotting alpha-, beta- and gamma-ENaC expression was demonstrated in adrenocortical cells. Measurements of 24 h aldosterone release from H295R cells showed stimulation by K(+) and angiotensin II, suppression by both Na(+) and high-concentration 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA, blocker of Na(+)-H(+) exchange) and no change with benzamil (ENaC blocker). (22)Na-uptake into H295R cells was inhibited by EIPA, but not by benzamil. Our experiments suggest that the components of an aldosterone response pathway are present in human adrenal cortex. Studies in H295R cells, however, suggest that ENaC is not an important mediator of (22)Na-uptake or aldosterone production. Further studies are required to determine the importance of an adrenal aldosterone response pathway. PMID:19371736

  16. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  17. Inhibition of the Tcf/beta-catenin complex increases apoptosis and impairs adrenocortical tumor cell proliferation and adrenal steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Letícia F.; Bueno, Ana Carolina; Gomes, Débora C.; Abduch, Rafael; de Castro, Margaret; Antonini, Sonir R.

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there is no effective therapy for patients with advanced/metastatic adrenocortical cancer (ACC). The activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is frequent in ACC and this pathway is a promising therapeutic target. Aim To investigate the effects of the inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin in ACC cells. Methods Adrenal (NCI-H295 and Y1) and non-adrenal (HeLa) cell lines were treated with PNU-74654 (5–200 μM) for 24–96 h to assess cell viability (MTS-based assay), apoptosis (Annexin V), expression/localization of beta-catenin (qPCR, immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and western blot), expression of beta-catenin target genes (qPCR and western blot), and adrenal steroidogenesis (radioimmunoassay, qPCR and western blot). Results In NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 significantly decreased cell proliferation 96 h after treatment, increased early and late apoptosis, decreased nuclear beta-catenin accumulation, impaired CTNNB1/beta-catenin expression and increased beta-catenin target genes 48 h after treatment. No effects were observed on HeLa cells. In NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 decreased cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione secretion 24 and 48 h after treatment. Additionally, in NCI-H295 cells, PNU-74654 decreased SF1 and CYP21A2 mRNA expression as well as the protein levels of STAR and aldosterone synthase 48 h after treatment. In Y1 cells, PNU-74654 impaired corticosterone secretion 24 h after treatment but did not decrease cell viability. Conclusions Blocking the Tcf/beta-catenin complex inhibits the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in adrenocortical tumor cells triggering increased apoptosis, decreased cell viability and impairment of adrenal steroidogenesis. These promising findings pave the way for further experiments inhibiting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in pre-clinical models of ACC. The inhibition of this pathway may become a promising adjuvant therapy for patients with ACC. PMID:26515592

  18. Cloning of DNA from double minutes of Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells: evidence for gene amplification.

    PubMed

    George, D L; Powers, V E

    1981-04-01

    We have isolated a metaphase chromosome fraction highly enriched in double minutes (dm) from a mouse adrenocortical tumor cell line (Y1-DM). We have cloned DNA from this dm-enriched fraction in the lambda vector Charon 4A, and have characterized two randomly chosen recombinant bacteriophage clones from this dm DNA library. When 32 P-labeled DNA from each recombinant was hybridized to Southern blots of restriction endonuclease-digested DNA from different mouse cell lines, large differences were seen in the intensity of the resulting autoradiographic images, depending on the source of the genomic DNA. A very strong signal was obtained with DNA from the Y1-DM cells and with DNA from a related Y1 subline that lacks dm but contains a marker chromosome bearing a large homogeneously staining region (HSR). Hybridization to DNA from parental inbred mice and from two unrelated mouse cell lines produced a significantly weaker signal than that obtained with DNA from the Y1 cells, but the DNA fragments from the sources were of similar size. Based on results from filter hybridization analysis, we estimate that sequences homologous to the cloned fragments are approximately 100- to 200-fold more abundant in the genome of the Y1-DM cells than in the parental mouse cells. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that dm and HSRs in these cells contain amplified genes.

  19. Orexin-A regulates cell apoptosis in human H295R adrenocortical cells via orexin receptor type 1 through the AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaocen; Zhao, Yuyan; Ju, Shujing; Guo, Lei

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the ability of orexin-A to regulate adrenocortical cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. In the present study, human H295R adrenocortical cells were exposed to orexin‑A (10‑10-10‑6 M), with orexin receptor type 1 (OX1 receptor) antagonist SB334867 or AKT antagonist PF‑04691502. It was found that orexin‑A stimulated H295R cell proliferation, reduced the pro‑apoptotic activity of caspase‑3 to protect against apoptotic cell death and increased cortisol secretion. Furthermore, phospho‑AKT protein was increased by orexin‑A. SB334867 (10‑6 M) and PF‑04691502 (10‑6 M) abolished the effects of orexin‑A (10‑6 M). These results suggested that the orexin‑A/OX1 receptor axis has a significant pro-survival function in adrenal cells, which is mediated by AKT activation. Further studies investigating the effects of orexin-A-upregulation may further elucidate the diverse biological effects of orexin-A in adrenal cells.

  20. The prolonged stimulatory effect of ACTH on 11 beta-hydroxylation, and its contribution to the steroidogenic potency of adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Lambert, F; Lammerant, J; Kolanowski, J

    1984-04-01

    The mechanism of the prolonged stimulatory influence of corticotropin (ACTH) on the capacity of adrenocortical cells to produce cortisol in response to ACTH and more specifically the role of 11 beta-hydroxylation, was studied on guinea-pig adrenocortical cells dispersed from control and ACTH-treated animals. As a result of the previous in vivo exposure to ACTH, the net maximal production of glucocorticoids in response to ACTH (by 10(5) cells and 2 h incubation) increased from 660 +/- 33.9 ng (control group) to 1105 +/- 117.9 ng for cells from ACTH-treated animals (P less than 0.001), whereas the apparent affinity of the steroidogenic response remained unchanged. In addition there occurred an increased conversion of exogenous pregnenolone into cortisol by cells from ACTH-treated animals, indicating a prolonged stimulatory influence of ACTH on the post-pregnenolone pathway of cortisol biosynthesis. The activity of 11 beta-hydroxylation step was therefore examined by incubating the adrenocortical cells from control and ACTH-treated animals in the presence of increasing amounts of 11-deoxycortisol. The maximal capacity of 11-deoxycortisol conversion into cortisol was increased as a result of the in vivo exposure to ACTH, averaging 3423 +/- 211 ng cortisol formed from 5 micrograms 11-deoxycortisol by 10(5) cells from ACTH-treated animals vs 2074 +/- 185 ng for cells from control guinea-pigs (P less than 0.001). However, the conversion of lower amounts of 11-deoxycortisol into cortisol, reproducing quantitatively the maximal effect of ACTH on cortisol biosynthesis, was only barely increased in cells from ACTH-treated animals (P greater than 0.05). Therefore it was concluded that ACTH increases in a lasting way not only the overall steroidogenic capacity of adrenocortical cells but also the maximal efficiency of 11 beta-hydroxylation. Since the latter effect cannot account quantitatively for the magnitude of the lasting effect of ACTH on the maximal capacity of

  1. Origin and Molecular Pathology of Adrenocortical Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bielinska, M.; Parviainen, H.; Kiiveri, S.; Heikinheimo, M.; Wilson, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Neoplastic adrenocortical lesions are common in humans and several species of domestic animals. Although there are unanswered questions about the origin and evolution of adrenocortical neoplasms, analysis of human tumor specimens and animal models indicates that adrenocortical tumorigenesis involves both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Chromosomal changes accumulate during tumor progression, and aberrant telomere function is one of the key mechanisms underlying chromosome instability during this process. Epigenetic changes serve to expand the size of the uncommitted adrenal progenitor population, modulate their phenotypic plasticity (i.e., responsiveness to extracellular signals), and increase the likelihood of subsequent genetic alterations. Analyses of heritable and spontaneous types of human adrenocortical tumors have documented alterations in either cell surface receptors or their downstream effectors that impact neoplastic transformation. Many of the mutations associated with benign human adrenocortical tumors result in dysregulated cyclic AMP signaling, whereas key factors/signaling pathways associated with adrenocortical carcinomas include dysregulated expression of the IGF2 gene cluster, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor. A better understanding of the factors and signaling pathways involved in adrenal tumorigenesis is necessary to develop targeted pharmacologic and genetic therapies. PMID:19261630

  2. Steroid hormone related effects of marine persistent organic pollutants in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Rijk, Jeroen C W; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T; Murk, Albertinka J

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) 126 and 153, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tributyltin (TBT), and methylmercury (MeHg) can be accumulated in seafood and then form a main source for human exposure. Some POPs have been associated with changes in steroid hormone levels in both humans and animals. This study describes the in vitro effects of these POPs and mixtures thereof in H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Relative responses for 13 steroid hormones and 7 genes involved in the steroidogenic pathway, and CYP1A1, were analyzed. PFOS induced the most pronounced effects on steroid hormone levels by significantly affecting 9 out of 13 hormone levels measured, with the largest increases found for 17β-estradiol, corticosterone, and cortisol. Furthermore, TCDD, both PCBs, and TBT significantly altered steroidogenesis. Increased steroid hormone levels were accompanied by related increased gene expression levels. The differently expressed genes were MC2R, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19A1 and changes in gene expression levels were more sensitive than changes in hormone levels. The POP mixtures tested showed mostly additive effects, especially for DHEA and 17β-estradiol levels. This study shows that some seafood POPs are capable of altering steroidogenesis in H295R cells at concentrations that mixtures might reach in human blood, suggesting that adverse health effects cannot be excluded.

  3. 3βHSD and CYB5A double positive adrenocortical cells during adrenal development/aging

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Hui, Xiao-Gang; Felizola, Saulo J.A.; Shibahara, Yukiko; Akahira, Jun-ichi; McNamara, Keely M.; Rainey, William E.; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Androstenedione is a common precursor of sex steroids produced and secreted in the human adrenal gland and produced by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD), 17α-hydroxylase/17-20 lyase (CYP17) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A). 3βHSD is expressed in the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculata (ZF), CYP17 in the ZF and zona reticularis (ZR) and CYB5A in the ZR, respectively. We previously demonstrated the presence of cortical parenchymal cells co-expressing 3βHSD and CYB5A with hybrid features of both ZF and ZR in human adrenal cortex and hypothesized that these cells may play an important role in androstenedione production in human adrenal gland. Age-related morphologic development of these hybrid cells has, however, not been studied. Therefore, in this study, 48 human adrenal specimens from various age groups were retrieved. Double-immunohistochemical analyses were used in order to study the correlation between this hybrid cell type and age. In both male and female adrenal cortex, the mean of total adrenocortical area, the area of CYB5A positive cells and the mean of its ratio reached highest peak in the 21–40 year-old (y.o.). The greatest overlap between 3βHSD and CYB5A in both total and relative area was present in the 13–20 y.o. group. For all of the markers above, statistically significant differences were detected among the different age groups examined (P<0.05). These findings all indicated that both area and ratio of 3βHSD and CYB5A double positive cells, which could represent the hybrid cells of ZF and ZR, are correlated with human adrenal development and could subsequently influence age-related serum androstenedione levels. PMID:24832628

  4. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L. Hontela, A.

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite

  5. Stages of Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  6. Susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial cells to bovine herpesviruses and pseudocowpox virus.

    PubMed

    Wellenberg, G J; Verstraten, E R A M; Jongejan, F; Van Oirschot, J T

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the susceptibility of bovine umbilical cord endothelial (BUE) cells to bovine herpesvirus (BHV) 1, BHV2, BHV4 and BHV5, and to pseudocowpox virus. The detection limits and growth curves of these viruses in BUE cells were compared with those in Vero, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK). or bovine fetal diploid lung (BFDL) cells. Detection limits were determined by inoculating cell cultures with serial 10-fold dilutions of these viruses, and growth curves by titration of virus, harvested at various times after infecting cells at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. The detection limits of BHV2 and BHV4 were lower in BUE cells than in Vero or MDBK cells, and cytopathic effects were observed earlier in BUE cells. In addition, BHV2 and BHV4 grew to higher titres in BUE cells than in Vero or MDBK cells. BUE cells appeared to be equally susceptible to BHV5, but less susceptible to BHV1.1 and BHVI.2 than MDBK cells. The study showed that BUE cells are highly susceptible to BHV2 and BHV4. and that the use of BUE cells can improve the laboratory diagnosis of these viruses. The use of BUE cells could also improve the isolation and growth of pseudocowpox virus.

  7. High-Throughput Screening of Chemical Effects on Steroidogenesis Using H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Karmaus, Agnes L; Toole, Colleen M; Filer, Dayne L; Lewis, Kenneth C; Martin, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2060 chemical samples on steroidogenesis via high-performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry quantification of 10 steroid hormones, including progestagens, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. The study employed a 3 stage screening strategy. The first stage established the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC; ≥ 70% viability) per sample. The second stage quantified changes in hormone levels at the MTC whereas the third stage performed concentration-response (CR) on a subset of samples. At all stages, cells were prestimulated with 10 µM forskolin for 48 h to induce steroidogenesis followed by chemical treatment for 48 h. Of the 2060 chemical samples evaluated, 524 samples were selected for 6-point CR screening, based in part on significantly altering at least 4 hormones at the MTC. CR screening identified 232 chemical samples with concentration-dependent effects on 17β-estradiol and/or testosterone, with 411 chemical samples showing an effect on at least one hormone across the steroidogenesis pathway. Clustering of the concentration-dependent chemical-mediated steroid hormone effects grouped chemical samples into 5 distinct profiles generally representing putative mechanisms of action, including CYP17A1 and HSD3B inhibition. A distinct pattern was observed between imidazole and triazole fungicides suggesting potentially distinct mechanisms of action. From a chemical testing and prioritization perspective, this assay platform provides a robust model for high-throughput screening of chemicals for effects on steroidogenesis.

  8. High-Throughput Screening of Chemical Effects on Steroidogenesis Using H295R Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Colleen M.; Filer, Dayne L.; Lewis, Kenneth C.; Martin, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of steroidogenesis by environmental chemicals can result in altered hormone levels causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects. A high-throughput assay using H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells was used to evaluate the effect of 2060 chemical samples on steroidogenesis via high-performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry quantification of 10 steroid hormones, including progestagens, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. The study employed a 3 stage screening strategy. The first stage established the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC; ≥ 70% viability) per sample. The second stage quantified changes in hormone levels at the MTC whereas the third stage performed concentration-response (CR) on a subset of samples. At all stages, cells were prestimulated with 10 µM forskolin for 48 h to induce steroidogenesis followed by chemical treatment for 48 h. Of the 2060 chemical samples evaluated, 524 samples were selected for 6-point CR screening, based in part on significantly altering at least 4 hormones at the MTC. CR screening identified 232 chemical samples with concentration-dependent effects on 17β-estradiol and/or testosterone, with 411 chemical samples showing an effect on at least one hormone across the steroidogenesis pathway. Clustering of the concentration-dependent chemical-mediated steroid hormone effects grouped chemical samples into 5 distinct profiles generally representing putative mechanisms of action, including CYP17A1 and HSD3B inhibition. A distinct pattern was observed between imidazole and triazole fungicides suggesting potentially distinct mechanisms of action. From a chemical testing and prioritization perspective, this assay platform provides a robust model for high-throughput screening of chemicals for effects on steroidogenesis. PMID:26781511

  9. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  10. The effect of mitotane on viability, steroidogenesis and gene expression in NCI‑H295R adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Tomasz P; Wrzesiński, Tomasz; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2013-03-01

    Mitotane, also known as o,p'‑DDD or (RS)‑1‑chl-oro‑2‑[2,2‑dichloro‑1‑(4‑chlorophenyl)‑ethyl]‑benzene, is an adrenal cortex-specific cytotoxic drug used in the therapy of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). The drug also inhibits steroidogenesis, however, the mechanisms of its anticancer and antisteroidogenic effects remain unknown. At present, data on the impact of mitotane on cell viability and the regulation of genes encoding proteins associated with steroids synthesis in the adrenal cortex, including cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), are limited and contradictory. In the present study, the effect of 24‑h mitotane treatment on viability of the ACC cell line, NCI‑H295R, was analyzed, identifying a decrease in cell viability and an increase in caspase‑3 and ‑7 activities. Mitotane treatment also led to decreased cortisol and DHEAS concentration in the culture media. Concomitantly, mitotane resulted in decreased mRNA levels of two cytochromes P450 (CYP11A1 and CYP17A1), mRNAs encoding proteins involved in the synthesis of cortisol and DHEAS. Mitotane did not affect mRNA levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (encoding p21) and MYC (encoding cMyc). cMyc and p21 are key transcription factors associated with cell cycle regulation. However, mitotane inhibited expression of transforming growth factor β1 gene, encoding a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. PRKAR1A, a protein kinase A regulatory subunit, is involved in the activation of steroidogenesis. PRKAR1A mRNA levels were reduced following 24‑h treatment with mitotane. Results indicate that mitotane markedly inhibited expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, secretion of cortisol and DHEAS. Reduced expression of TGFB1 cannot account fully for the effect of mitotane on CYP11A1 and CYP17A1. We hypothesized that reduced viability of NCI‑H295R cells in the presence of mitotane may be a result of apoptosis triggered by increased

  11. A Short Review: Research progress of bovine stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y-H; Guan, W-J; Ma, Y-H

    2015-10-23

    All bodies rely on stem cells to grow from a single cell into an adult. Stem cells allow our bodies to build new tissue, such as new muscle when we exercise. Domestic livestock stem cells offer a unique opportunity to study developmental biology, serve as a resource to screen for harmful toxins or lifesaving drugs or even regenerative therapies for a number of diseases. This review provides information on bovine stem cells, emphasizing different sources of stem cells and current methods for isolation and culture of pluripotent stem cells from cattle. We also review the application of bovine stem cell in future.

  12. Adrenocortical Zonation, Renewal, and Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Dörner, Julia; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal cortex is divided into concentric zones. In humans the major cortical zones are the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. The adrenal cortex is a dynamic organ in which senescent cells are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This constant renewal facilitates organ remodeling in response to physiological demand for steroids. Cortical zones can reversibly expand, contract, or alter their biochemical profiles to accommodate needs. Pools of stem/progenitor cells in the adrenal capsule, subcapsular region, and juxtamedullary region can differentiate to repopulate or expand zones. Some of these pools appear to be activated only during specific developmental windows or in response to extreme physiological demand. Senescent cells can also be replenished through direct lineage conversion; for example, cells in the zona glomerulosa can transform into cells of the zona fasciculata. Adrenocortical cell differentiation, renewal, and function are regulated by a variety of endocrine/paracrine factors including adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin II, insulin-related growth hormones, luteinizing hormone, activin, and inhibin. Additionally, zonation and regeneration of the adrenal cortex are controlled by developmental signaling pathways, such as the sonic hedgehog, delta-like homolog 1, fibroblast growth factor, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The mechanisms involved in adrenocortical remodeling are complex and redundant so as to fulfill the offsetting goals of organ homeostasis and stress adaptation. PMID:25798129

  13. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are a correlate of protection. Recent...

  14. Beacon[47-73] inhibits glucocorticoid secretion and growth of cultured rat and human adrenocortical cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Carraro, Gianni; Rebuffat, Piera; Spinazzi, Raffaella; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Rucinski, Marcin; Malendowicz, Ludwik K

    2004-09-01

    Evidence has been recently provided that beacon, an ubiquitin-like protein overexpressed in the hypothalamus of Israeli sand rat, is also expressed in several endocrine glands of the Wistar rat, including adrenal cortex. Moreover, it has been shown that the in vivo administration of beacon[47-73] (hereinafter, beacon) evokes within 60 min a marked decrease in the plasma concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone. Hence, we have investigated the effect of beacon (4x10(-9) or 4x10(-7) M) on the secretion and growth of cultured rat and human zona fasciculata/reticularis (ZF/R) cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detected beacon mRNA in all human adrenal cortexes examined. A 3-h exposure to beacon was ineffective, but prolonged (24 and 96 h) exposures significantly lowered basal corticosterone and cortisol secretion from cultured rat and human ZF/R cells, respectively. Moreover, beacon (4x10(-7) M) counteracted the secretagogue action of 10(-8) M ACTH on cultured cells. The 96-h exposure to beacon concentration-dependently decreased basal proliferation rate of cultured cells, without inducing significant changes in the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Beacon (4x10(-7) M) significantly inhibited the proliferogenic effect of 10(-8) M adrenomedullin. In light of the involvement of ubiquitin-like proteins in the control of cell cycle and protein sorting and degradation, the hypothesis is advanced that the inhibitory effect of beacon on the secretion and growth of cultured rat ZF/R cells may be connected to its stimulating effect on proteolysis of steroidogenic enzymes and proteins involved in cell replication.

  15. Corticotropin (ACTH) regulates alternative RNA splicing in Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Bernard P; Cordova, Martha

    2015-06-15

    The stimulatory effect of ACTH on gene expression is well documented and is thought to be a major mechanism by which ACTH maintains the functional and structural integrity of the gland. Previously, we showed that ACTH regulates the accumulation of over 1200 transcripts in Y1 adrenal cells, including a cluster with functions in alternative splicing of RNA. On this basis, we postulated that some of the effects of ACTH on the transcription landscape of Y1 cells are mediated by alternative splicing. In this study, we demonstrate that ACTH regulates the alternative splicing of four transcripts - Gnas, Cd151, Dab2 and Tia1. Inasmuch as alternative splicing potentially affects transcripts from more than two-thirds of the mouse genome, we suggest that these findings are representative of a genome-wide effect of ACTH that impacts on the mRNA and protein composition of the adrenal cortex.

  16. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection. In other species, Tcm’s pose low activation threshold and a...

  17. Comparative CYP-dependent binding of the adrenocortical toxicants 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE and o,p'-DDD in Y-1 adrenal cells.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Veronica; Asp, Vendela; Bergman, Ake; Bergström, Ulrika; Brandt, Ingvar

    2007-11-01

    The environmental pollutant 3-MeSO(2)-DDE [2-(3-methylsulfonyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] is an adrenocortical toxicant in mice, specifically in the glucocorticoid-producing zona fasciculata, due to a cytochrome P450 11B1 (CYP11B1)-catalysed bioactivation and formation of covalently bound protein adducts. o,p'-DDD [2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] is toxic and inhibits steroidogenesis in the human adrenal cortex after bioactivation by unidentified CYPs, but does not exert any toxic effects on the mouse adrenal. As a step towards determining in vitro/in vivo relationships for the CYP-catalysed binding and toxicity of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE and o,p'-DDD, we have investigated the irreversible protein binding of these two toxicants in the murine adrenocortical cell line Y-1. The irreversible binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE previously demonstrated in vivo was successfully reproduced and could be inhibited by the CYP-inhibitors etomidate, ketoconazole and metyrapone. Surprisingly, o,p'-DDD reached similar levels of binding as 3-MeSO(2)-DDE. The binding of o,p'-DDD was sensitive to etomidate and ketoconazole, but not to metyrapone. Moreover, GSH depletion increased the binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE, but not of o,p'-DDD, indicating an important role of GSH conjugation in the detoxification of the 3-MeSO(2)-DDE-derived reactive metabolite. In addition, the specificity of CYP11B1 in activating 3-MeSO(2)-DDE was investigated using structurally analogous compounds. None of the analogues produced histopathological lesions in the mouse adrenal in vivo following a single i.p. injection of 100 mg/kg body weight, but two of the compounds were able to decrease the irreversible binding of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE to Y-1 cells. These results indicate that the bioactivation of 3-MeSO(2)-DDE by CYP11B1 is highly structure-dependent. In conclusion, both 3-MeSO(2)-DDE and o,p'-DDD bind irreversibly to Y-1 cells despite differences in binding and adrenotoxicity in mice

  18. Role of EPAC in cAMP-Mediated Actions in Adrenocortical Cells.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Aurélia E; Aesoy, Reidun; Bakke, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone regulates adrenal steroidogenesis mainly via the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP. The effects of cAMP are principally relayed by activating protein kinase A (PKA) and the more recently discovered exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP 1 and 2 (EPAC1 and EPAC2). While the intracellular roles of PKA have been extensively studied in steroidogenic tissues, those of EPACs are only emerging. EPAC1 and EPAC2 are encoded by the genes RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, respectively. Whereas EPAC1 is ubiquitously expressed, the expression of EPAC2 is more restricted, and typically found in endocrine tissues. Alternative promoter usage of RAPGEF4 gives rise to three different isoforms of EPAC2 that vary in their N-termini (EPAC2A, EPAC2B, and EPAC2C) and that exhibit distinct expression patterns. EPAC2A is expressed in the brain and pancreas, EPAC2B in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal gland and testis, and EPAC2C has until now only been found in the liver. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on EPAC expression and function with focus on the known roles of EPAC in adrenal gland physiology. PMID:27379015

  19. Role of EPAC in cAMP-Mediated Actions in Adrenocortical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Aurélia E.; Aesoy, Reidun; Bakke, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone regulates adrenal steroidogenesis mainly via the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP. The effects of cAMP are principally relayed by activating protein kinase A (PKA) and the more recently discovered exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP 1 and 2 (EPAC1 and EPAC2). While the intracellular roles of PKA have been extensively studied in steroidogenic tissues, those of EPACs are only emerging. EPAC1 and EPAC2 are encoded by the genes RAPGEF3 and RAPGEF4, respectively. Whereas EPAC1 is ubiquitously expressed, the expression of EPAC2 is more restricted, and typically found in endocrine tissues. Alternative promoter usage of RAPGEF4 gives rise to three different isoforms of EPAC2 that vary in their N-termini (EPAC2A, EPAC2B, and EPAC2C) and that exhibit distinct expression patterns. EPAC2A is expressed in the brain and pancreas, EPAC2B in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal gland and testis, and EPAC2C has until now only been found in the liver. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on EPAC expression and function with focus on the known roles of EPAC in adrenal gland physiology. PMID:27379015

  20. Blockade of bovine PD-1 increases T cell function and inhibits bovine leukemia virus expression in B cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a known immunoinhibitory receptor that contributes to immune evasion of various tumor cells and pathogens causing chronic infection, such as bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection. First, in this study, to establish a method for the expression and functional analysis of bovine PD-1, hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) specific for bovine PD-1 were established. Treatment with these anti-PD-1 mAb enhanced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Next, to examine whether PD-1 blockade by anti-PD-1 mAb could upregulate the immune reaction during chronic infection, the expression and functional analysis of PD-1 in PBMC isolated from BLV-infected cattle with or without lymphoma were performed using anti-PD-1 mAb. The frequencies of both PD-1+ CD4+ T cells in blood and lymph node and PD-1+ CD8+ T cells in lymph node were higher in BLV-infected cattle with lymphoma than those without lymphoma or control uninfected cattle. PD-1 blockade enhanced IFN-γ production and proliferation and reduced BLV-gp51 expression and B-cell activation in PBMC from BLV-infected cattle in response to BLV-gp51 peptide mixture. These data show that anti-bovine PD-1 mAb could provide a new therapy to control BLV infection via upregulation of immune response. PMID:23876077

  1. [Culture and control of cells producing bovine leukemia virus].

    PubMed

    Granátová, M

    1987-10-01

    In the field surveys of the occurrence of enzootic bovine leucosis caused by the bovine leucosis virus (BLV), the identification of positive animals is based on the detection of specific antiviral antibodies by serological methods. The reliability of these tests (particularly their sensitivity and specificity) depends on the quality of the virus antigen. The preparation of the antigen is based on the cultivation of BLV virus in cultures of the FLS cell line. A modified procedure of preparing the BLV antigen in the FLS cell culture is described, along with the control of its production by the immunoperoxidase test. PMID:2827363

  2. Characterization of an epithelial cell line from bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    German, Tania; Barash, Itamar

    2002-05-01

    Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland's unique characteristics depends on obtaining an authentic cell line that will reproduce its function in vitro. Representative clones from bovine mammary cell populations, differing in their attachment capabilities, were cultured. L-1 cells showed strong attachment to the plate, whereas H-7 cells detached easily. Cultures established from these clones were nontumorigenic upon transplantation to an immunodeficient host; they exhibited the epithelial cell characteristics of positive cytokeratin but not smooth muscle actin staining. Both cell lines depended on fetal calf serum for proliferation. They exhibited distinct levels of differentiation on Matrigel in serum-free, insulin-supplemented medium on the basis of their organization and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) secretion. H-7 cells organized into mammospheres, whereas L-1 cells arrested in a duct-like morphology. In both cell lines, prolactin activated phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription, Stat5-a regulator of milk protein gene transcription, and of PHAS-I-an inhibitor of translation initiation in its nonphosphorylated form. De novo synthesis and secretion of BLG were detected in differentiated cultures: in L-1 cells, BLG was dependent on lactogenic hormones for maximal induction but was less stringently controlled than was beta-casein in the mouse CID-9 cell line. L-1 cells also encompassed a near-diploid chromosomal karyotype and may serve as a tool for studying functional characteristics of the bovine mammary gland.

  3. Orexin-A stimulates 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression and cortisol production in H295R human adrenocortical cells through the AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaocen; Zhao, Yuyan; Ju, Shujing; Guo, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Orexin-A is a regulatory peptide involved in the regulation of food intake, sleep-wakefulness, and it has various endocrine and metabolic functions. It orchestrates diverse central and peripheral processes through the stimulation of two G-protein coupled receptors, orexin receptor type 1 (OX1 receptor) and orexin receptor type 2 (OX2 receptor). In this study, human adrenocortical cells (NCI-H295R cells) were incubated with various concentrations of orexin-A (10-10 to 10-6 M) in vitro, and the mRNA and protein expression of OX1 receptor was determined in the cells. In addition, NCI-H295R cells treated with 10-6 M orexin-A were then treated with or without OX1 receptor specific antagonist (SB334867), AKT antagonist (PF-04691502), or a combination of both. Subsequently, cell proliferation, the cortisol content in the medium and the mRNA and protein expression expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) were analyzed. The activity of the AKT signaling pathway was also determined in the NCI-H295R cells. We observed that the increase in the mRNA and protein expression of OX1 receptor was orexin-A concentration-dependent, with 10-6 M orexin-A exerting the most potent effect. Orexin-A enhanced cell proliferation and cortisol production, and increased the mRNA and protein expression of 3β-HSD in the NCI-H295R cells; however, these effects were partly blocked by the OX1 receptor antagonist, the AKT antagonist and the combination of both. Furthermore, orexin-A significantly increased the phosphorylation of AKT, with the levels of total AKT protein remaining unaltered. This effect was blocked in the presence of PF-04691502 (10-6 M), SB334867 (10-6 M) and the combination of both. On the whole, our data demonstrate that the effects of orexin-A on the survival and function of human adrenocortical cells are mediated through the AKT signaling pathway.

  4. Multilineage potential research of bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhua; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC). The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos) was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy. PMID:24590129

  5. Multilineage potential research of bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhua; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-02-28

    The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC). The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos) was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  6. [Bovine serum albumin inhibits the adsorption of respiratory syncytial virus on MDBK cells].

    PubMed

    Fassi Fihri, O; Mohanty, J; Elazhary, Y

    1993-01-01

    In order to obtain optimal bovine respiratory syncytial virus adsorption to host cells, the effect of several products (fetal bovine serum, bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin and cytochrome c) was studied. The adsorption of the virus to MDBK cells was higher in the presence of 2% than in the presence of 5% fetal bovine serum. Adsorption was inhibited in the presence of bovine serum albumin at concentrations > 0.2% when added before or at the same time as the virus. Ovalbumin and cytochrome c did not inhibit adsorption. These results will allow the study of virus adsorption on cell receptors.

  7. Alterations of Phosphodiesterases in Adrenocortical Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Faucz, Fabio R.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the cyclic (c)AMP-dependent signaling pathway have been implicated in the majority of benign adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing syndrome (CS). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that regulate cyclic nucleotide levels, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Inactivating mutations and other functional variants in PDE11A and PDE8B, two cAMP-binding PDEs, predispose to ACTs. The involvement of these two genes in ACTs was initially revealed by a genome-wide association study in patients with micronodular bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia. Thereafter, PDE11A or PDE8B genetic variants have been found in other ACTs, including macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasias and cortisol-producing adenomas. In addition, downregulation of PDE11A expression and inactivating variants of the gene have been found in hereditary and sporadic testicular germ cell tumors, as well as in prostatic cancer. PDEs confer an increased risk of ACT formation probably through, primarily, their action on cAMP levels, but other actions might be possible. In this report, we review what is known to date about PDE11A and PDE8B and their involvement in the predisposition to ACTs. PMID:27625633

  8. Alterations of Phosphodiesterases in Adrenocortical Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Faucz, Fabio R.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the cyclic (c)AMP-dependent signaling pathway have been implicated in the majority of benign adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing syndrome (CS). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that regulate cyclic nucleotide levels, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Inactivating mutations and other functional variants in PDE11A and PDE8B, two cAMP-binding PDEs, predispose to ACTs. The involvement of these two genes in ACTs was initially revealed by a genome-wide association study in patients with micronodular bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia. Thereafter, PDE11A or PDE8B genetic variants have been found in other ACTs, including macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasias and cortisol-producing adenomas. In addition, downregulation of PDE11A expression and inactivating variants of the gene have been found in hereditary and sporadic testicular germ cell tumors, as well as in prostatic cancer. PDEs confer an increased risk of ACT formation probably through, primarily, their action on cAMP levels, but other actions might be possible. In this report, we review what is known to date about PDE11A and PDE8B and their involvement in the predisposition to ACTs.

  9. Alterations of Phosphodiesterases in Adrenocortical Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Faucz, Fabio R; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the cyclic (c)AMP-dependent signaling pathway have been implicated in the majority of benign adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) causing Cushing syndrome (CS). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that regulate cyclic nucleotide levels, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Inactivating mutations and other functional variants in PDE11A and PDE8B, two cAMP-binding PDEs, predispose to ACTs. The involvement of these two genes in ACTs was initially revealed by a genome-wide association study in patients with micronodular bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia. Thereafter, PDE11A or PDE8B genetic variants have been found in other ACTs, including macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasias and cortisol-producing adenomas. In addition, downregulation of PDE11A expression and inactivating variants of the gene have been found in hereditary and sporadic testicular germ cell tumors, as well as in prostatic cancer. PDEs confer an increased risk of ACT formation probably through, primarily, their action on cAMP levels, but other actions might be possible. In this report, we review what is known to date about PDE11A and PDE8B and their involvement in the predisposition to ACTs. PMID:27625633

  10. Bovine mammary stem cells: new perspective for dairy science.

    PubMed

    Martignani, E; Cravero, D; Miretti, S; Accornero, P; Baratta, M

    2014-01-01

    Mammary stem cells provide opportunities for the cyclic remodelling of the bovine mammary gland. Therefore, understanding the character and regulation of mammary stem cells is important for increasing animal health and productivity. The exciting possibility that stem cell expansion can influence milk production is currently being investigated by several researchers. In fact, appropriate regulation of mammary stem cells could hopefully benefit milk yield, persistency of lactation, dry period management and tissue repair. Accordingly, we and others have attempted to characterize and regulate the function of bovine mammary stem cells. However, research on mammary stem cells requires tissue biopsies, which represents a limitation for the management of animal welfare. Interestingly, different studies recently reported the identification of putative mammary stem cells in human breast milk. The possible identification of primitive cell types within cow's milk may provide a non-invasive source of relevant mammary cells for a wide range of applications. In this review, we have summarized the main achievements in this field for dairy cow science and described the interesting perspectives open to manipulate milk persistency during lactation and to cope with oxidative stress during the transition period by regulating mammary stem cells.

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  12. Expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    López-Meza, Joel E; Gutiérrez-Barroso, Angelina; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2009-08-01

    The production of antimicrobial peptides is an important key of innate immunity. Tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) expression has been reported in bovine tracheal epithelial cells and it can be modulated by bacterial infection or bacterial components. In mammary gland TAP expression has been reported, but the cell type that produces it is unknown. The objective of this work was to evaluate if bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) express TAP mRNA, and evaluate the regulation of its expression in response to Staphylococcus aureus infection, bovine prolactin (bPRL) or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). By retrotranscription and PCR, we demonstrated that bMEC express TAP mRNA. bMEC infected with live S. aureus down-regulates TAP expression, whereas the challenge with gentamicin-killed S. aureus up-regulates it. Also, bPRL do not significantly modify TAP expression, but in the presence of 5 mM ASA it was down-regulated, suggesting that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway can be involved in its regulation. PMID:19181355

  13. Efficient PRNP deletion in bovine genome using gene-editing technologies in bovine cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, WooJae; Kim, Eunji; Yum, Soo-Young; Lee, ChoongIl; Lee, JiHyun; Moon, JoonHo; Ramachandra, Sisitha; Malaweera, Buddika Oshadi; Cho, JongKi; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, SeokJoong; Jang, Goo

    2015-01-01

    Even though prion (encoded by the PRNP gene) diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases in cattle, their study via gene deletion has been limited due to the absence of cell lines or mutant models. In this study, we aim to develop an immortalized fibroblast cell line in which genome-engineering technology can be readily applied to create gene-modified clones for studies. To this end, this study is designed to 1) investigate the induction of primary fibroblasts to immortalization by introducing Bmi-1 and hTert genes; 2) investigate the disruption of the PRNP in those cells; and 3) evaluate the gene expression and embryonic development using knockout (KO) cell lines. Primary cells from a male neonate were immortalized with Bmi-1and hTert. Immortalized cells were cultured for more than 180 days without any changes in their doubling time and morphology. Furthermore, to knockout the PRNP gene, plasmids that encode transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) pairs were transfected into the cells, and transfected single cells were propagated. Mutated clonal cell lines were confirmed by T7 endonuclease I assay and sequencing. Four knockout cell lines were used for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the resulting embryos were developed to the blastocyst stage. The genes (CSNK2A1, FAM64A, MPG and PRND) were affected after PRNP disruption in immortalized cells. In conclusion, we established immortalized cattle fibroblasts using Bmi-1 and hTert genes, and used TALENs to knockout the PRNP gene in these immortalized cells. The efficient PRNP KO is expected to be a useful technology to develop our understanding of in vitro prion protein functions in cattle. PMID:26217959

  14. Cannabinoid-Induced Chemotaxis in Bovine Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murataeva, Natalia; Li, Shimin; Oehler, Olivia; Miller, Sally; Dhopeshwarkar, Amey; Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Bonanno, Joseph A.; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; McHugh, Douglas; Straiker, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are found in abundance in the vertebrate eye, with most tissue types expressing this receptor. However, the function of CB1 receptors in corneal epithelial cells (CECs) is poorly understood. Interestingly, the corneas of CB1 knockout mice heal more slowly after injury via a mechanism proposed to involve protein kinase B (Akt) activation, chemokinesis, and cell proliferation. The current study examined the role of cannabinoids in CEC migration in greater detail. Methods. We determined the role of CB1 receptors in corneal healing. We examined the consequences of their activation on migration and proliferation in bovine CECs (bCECs). We additionally examined the mRNA profile of cannabinoid-related genes and CB1 protein expression as well as CB1 signaling in bovine CECs. Results. We now report that activation of CB1 with physiologically relevant concentrations of the synthetic agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN) induces bCEC migration via chemotaxis, an effect fully blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716. The endogenous agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) also enhances migration. Separately, mRNA for most cannabinoid-related proteins are present in bovine corneal epithelium and cultured bCECs. Notably absent are CB2 receptors and the 2-AG synthesizing enzyme diglycerol lipase-α (DAGLα). The signaling profile of CB1 activation is complex, with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Lastly, CB1 activation does not induce bCEC proliferation, but may instead antagonize EGF-induced proliferation. Conclusions. In summary, we find that CB1-based signaling machinery is present in bovine cornea and that activation of this system induces chemotaxis. PMID:26024113

  15. Development of Eimeria bovis in vitro: suitability of several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, C; Barbisch, B; Heise, A; Kowalik, S; Zahner, H

    2002-04-01

    Several bovine, human and porcine endothelial cell lines, bovine fetal gastrointestinal cells (BFGC), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and African green monkey kidney (VERO) cells were exposed in vitro to sporozoites of Eimeria bovis. Parasites invaded all cells used and changed their shape to more stumpy forms within 12 h. Sporozoites left their host cells and invaded new ones frequently within the first 12 h post-infection. Further development took place only in bovine cells, although parasites survived in the other cells for at least 3 weeks. Within the non-bovine cells, conspicuously enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles developed in VERO cells and reached a diameter of 15-20 microm. The best development to first generation schizonts with regard both to time required to mature, to schizont size and to merozoite yields was observed in BFGC, followed by bovine umbilical vein and bovine spleen lymphatic endothelial cells. MDBK cells were less suitable. The life cycle was completed (development of oocysts) only occasionally in BFGC. Results are considered under several aspects. Thus, infected VERO cells may represent a suitable tool for studying the parasitophorous vacuole, while infected endothelial cells represent a system quite narrow to the in vivo situation and should allow basic studies on parasite/host cell interactions and BFGC can be used for the mass production of E. bovis first generation merozoites.

  16. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces autophagy in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Ren, Yan; Guo, Fei; Ni, Wei; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Pengyan; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuangfu

    2014-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae). The signaling pathways and levels of signaling molecules are altered in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BVDV. Autophagy is a conservative biological degradation pathway that mainly eliminates and degrades damaged or superfluous organelles and macromolecular complexes for intracellular recycling in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy can also be induced as an effective response to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to different stresses, such as nutrient or growth factor deprivation, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species exposure and pathogen infection. However, the effects of BVDV infection on autophagy in MDBK cells remain unclear. Therefore, we performed an analysis of autophagic activity after BVDV NADL infection using real-time PCR, electron microscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and Western blotting analysis. The results demonstrated that BVDV NADL infection increased autophagic activity and significantly elevated the expression levels of the autophagy-related genes Beclin1 and ATG14 in MDBK cells. However, the knockdown of Beclin1 and ATG14 by RNA interference (RNAi) did not affect BVDV NADL infection-related autophagic activity. These findings provided a novel perspective to elaborate the effects of viral infection on the host cells.

  17. In vitro differentiation of a cloned bovine mammary epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael T; Aso, Hisashi; Yonekura, Shinichi; Komatsu, Tokushi; Hagino, Akihiko; Ozutsumi, Kyouhei; Obara, Yoshiaki

    2002-08-01

    The aim of the study was to establish in vitro a bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) clone, able to respond to mitogenic growth factors and to lactogenic hormones. Mammary tissue from a 200-d pregnant Holstein cow was used as a source of MEC, from which a clone was established through a process of limiting dilution. When plated on plastic, the cells assumed a monolayer, cobblestone, epithelial-like morphology, with close contact between cells. Inclusion of IGF-1 and EGF in the media significantly increased the number of cells 5 d after plating. All cells stained strongly for cytokeratin and moderately for vimentin at young and old passage stages, indicating the epithelial nature of this cell clone. When the cells were plated at a high density on a thin layer of a commercial extracellular matrix preparation (Matrigel), lobular, alveoli-like structures developed within approximately 5 d, with a clearly visible lumen. When cells were plated onto Matrigel in differentiation media (containing lactogenic hormones), detectable quantities of alpha-casein were present in the media and particularly on the lumen side of the structures. Omission of one of the lactogenic hormones (insulin, prolactin or hydrocortisone) reduced alpha-casein release to the limit of detection of the assay used. Lactoferrin was also produced when the cells were plated on Matrigel, again principally on the lumen side of the lobules, though this was independent of the lactogenic hormones. By passage 40, the cells had senesced, and it was not possible to induce alpha-casein or lactoferrin production. This study notes the establishment of a functional bovine mammary epithelial cell clone, which is responsive to mitogenic and lactogenic hormones and an extracellular matrix.

  18. Effect of dietary bovine colostrum on the responses of immune cells to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have revealed that ingestion of bovine colostrum is effective in preventing pathogens from invading through the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and modulating the mucosal immunity of the GI tract, indicating that its effect is principally local. Thus it is unclear if ingestion of bovine colostrum can affect the systemic immune system. In this study, we investigated the effect of taking bovine colostrum (vs phosphate-buffered saline) for 14 days on the behavior of the immune cells of mice. Isolated splenocytes, which are pivotal cells of systemic immunity, were then stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Bovine colostrum significantly reduced NK cell and monocyte activities and lymphoproliferaltive responses to LPS stimulation. Thus dietary bovine colostrum renders immune cells less responsive to LPS stimulation. Dietary bovine colostrum thus affects the systemic immune system and may have anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:24234910

  19. Substrate elasticity affects bovine satellite cell activation kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lapin, M R; Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, S E

    2013-05-01

    Satellite cells support efficient postnatal skeletal muscle hypertrophy through fusion into the adjacent muscle fiber. Nuclear contribution allows for maintenance of the fiber myonuclear domain and proficient transcription of myogenic genes. Niche growth factors affect satellite cell biology; however, the interplay between fiber elasticity and microenvironment proteins remains largely unknown. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and surface elasticity on bovine satellite cell (BSC) activation kinetics in vitro. Young's elastic modulus was calculated for the semimembranosus (SM) and LM muscles of young bulls (5 d; n = 8) and adult cows (27 mo; n = 4) cattle. Results indicate that LM elasticity decreased (P < 0.05) with age; no difference in Young's modulus for the SM was noted. Bovine satellite cells were seeded atop polyacrylamide bioscaffolds with surface elasticities that mimic young bull and adult cow LM or traditional cultureware. Cells were maintained in low-serum media supplemented with 5 ng/mL HGF or vehicle only for 24 or 48 h. Activation was evaluated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunocytochemistry. Results indicate that BSC maintained on rigid surfaces were activated at 24 h and refractive to HGF supplementation. By contrast, fewer (P < 0.05) BSC had exited quiescence after 24 h of culture on surfaces reflective of either young bull (8.1 ± 1.7 kPa) or adult cow (14.6 ± 1.6 kPa) LM. Supplementation with HGF promoted activation of BSC cultured on bioscaffolds as measured by an increase (P < 0.05) in PCNA immunopositive cells. Culture on pliant surfaces affected neither activation kinetics nor numbers of Paired box 7 (Pax7) immunopositive muscle stem cells (P > 0.05). However, with increasing surface elasticity, an increase (P < 0.05) in the numbers of muscle progenitors was observed. These results confirm that biophysical and biochemical signals regulate BSC activation.

  20. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression of functional bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein gIV in transfected bovine cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tikoo, S K; Fitzpatrick, D R; Babiuk, L A; Zamb, T J

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gIV was mapped, cloned, and sequenced. The gene is situated between map units 0.892 and 0.902 and encodes a predicted protein of 417 amino acids with a signal sequence cleavage site between amino acids 18 and 19. Comparison of the BHV-1 amino acid sequence with the homologous glycoproteins of other alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gD, revealed significant homology in the amino-terminal half of the molecules, including six invariant cysteine residues. The identity of the open reading frame was verified by expression of the authentic recombinant BHV-1 gIV in bovine cells by using eucaryotic expression vectors pRSDneo (strong, constitutive promoter) and pMSG (weak, dexamethasone-inducible promoter). Constitutive expression of gIV proved toxic to cells, since stable cell lines could only be established when the gIV gene was placed under the control of an inducible promoter. Expression of gIV was cell associated and localized predominantly in the perinuclear region, although nuclear and plasma membrane staining was also observed. Radioimmunoprecipitation revealed that the recombinant glycoprotein was efficiently processed and had a molecular weight similar to that of the native form of gIV expressed in BHV-1-infected bovine cells. Recombinant gIV produced in the transfected bovine cells induced cell fusion, polykaryon formation, and nuclear fusion. In addition, expression of gIV interfered with BHV-1 replication in the transfected bovine cells. Images PMID:2168991

  1. Phenotypic, ultra-structural and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multifunctional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets...

  2. Presence of Gumprecht shadows (smudge cells) in bovine leukemia virus-positive cattle.

    PubMed

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Larsen, Alejandra; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2013-11-01

    Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a chronic disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Smudge cells, also known as Gumprecht shadows, are not simple artifacts of slide preparation, but ragged lymphoid cells found mainly in peripheral blood smears from human patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study, we report the presence of Gumprecht shadows in peripheral blood from BLV-positive cattle.

  3. Adrenocortical Gap Junctions and Their Functions

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Cheryl L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal cortical steroidogenesis and proliferation are thought to be modulated by gap junction-mediated direct cell–cell communication of regulatory molecules between cells. Such communication is regulated by the number of gap junction channels between contacting cells, the rate at which information flows between these channels, and the rate of channel turnover. Knowledge of the factors regulating gap junction-mediated communication and the turnover process are critical to an understanding of adrenal cortical cell functions, including development, hormonal response to adrenocorticotropin, and neoplastic dedifferentiation. Here, we review what is known about gap junctions in the adrenal gland, with particular attention to their role in adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis and proliferation. Information and insight gained from electrophysiological, molecular biological, and imaging (immunocytochemical, freeze fracture, transmission electron microscopic, and live cell) techniques will be provided. PMID:27445985

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and retinoic acid trigger bovine VASA homolog expression in differentiating bovine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Jain, Kanika; Verma, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest identifiable and completely committed progenitors of female and male gametes. They are obvious targets for genome editing because they assure the transmission of desirable or introduced traits to future generations. PGCs are established at the earliest stages of embryo development and are difficult to propagate in vitro--two characteristics that pose a problem for their practical application. One alternative method to enrich for PGCs in vitro is to differentiate them from pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Here, we establish a reporter system for germ cell identification in bovine pluripotent stem cells based on green fluorescent protein expression driven by the minimal essential promoter of the bovine Vasa homolog (BVH) gene, whose regulatory elements were identified by orthologous modelling of regulatory units. We then evaluated the potential of bovine induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSC) lines carrying the reporter construct to differentiate toward the germ cell lineage. Our results showed that biPSCs undergo differentiation as embryoid bodies, and a fraction of the differentiating cells expressed BVH. The rate of differentiation towards BVH-positive cells increased up to tenfold in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 or retinoic acid. Finally, we determined that the expression of key PGC genes, such as BVH or SOX2, can be modified by pre-differentiation cell culture conditions, although this increase is not necessarily mirrored by an increase in the rate of differentiation.

  5. Susceptibility of irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells to injury

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, M.H.; Dong, Q.; Ts'ao, C.

    1988-11-01

    Using cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), the authors attempted to determine whether prior irradiation would alter the susceptibility of these cells to three known injurious stimuli and, if so, whether the alteration would be related to radiation dose. BAEC were irradiated with 0, 5, or 10 Gy of gamma rays and, on the third postirradiation day, exposed to fibrin, nicotine, or bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Release of prelabeled 51Cr, representing cell lysis, cell detachment, or a combination of the two, was determined. Significant differences between irradiated and control cells were determined by using paired Student's t-tests. Irradiation did not appear to have altered the sensitivity of BAEC to fibrin-induced injury. Cells irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays, but generally not those irradiated with half this dose, showed a heightened susceptibility to nicotine. Contrary to the nicotine results, irradiated cells showed less cell detachment and lysis after exposure to LPS. These results suggest that the susceptibility of irradiated BAEC to harmful stimuli depends largely on the nature of the stimulus as well as the radiation dose.

  6. Curcumin inhibits bovine herpesvirus type 1 entry into MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L; Ding, X; Zhang, D; Yuan, Ch; Wang, J; Ndegwa, E; Zhu, G

    2015-09-01

    The generation of antiviral drugs from herbs and other natural resources with traditionally long-confirmed effects is an efficient approach. So far, no herb or components from herbs that could inhibit bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) replication have been described. In this study, the antiviral effect of curcumin, a natural phenolic constituent of the spice turmeric, on BoHV-1 replication was evaluated in cell culture. We demonstrated that curcumin impairs BoHV-1 viral particles and affects the virus post-binding entry process. Furthermore, curcumin upregulated the proportion of the plasma membrane adopting a lipid raft conformation in MDBK cells, which supported the previous reports that curcumin can modulate the lipid bilayer. Though the antiviral mechanism of curcumin on BoHV-1 needs further study, we identified for the first time a component from herb that could inhibit BoHV-1 replication, in vitro.

  7. Adrenocortical Activity and Emotion Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kathy; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system does not appear to be related to emotion regulation processes in children, although individual differences in emotion processes related to negative emotion temperaments appear to be associated with individual differences in HPA reactivity among normally…

  8. Integrated genome-wide analysis of genomic changes and gene regulation in human adrenocortical tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Wang, Yonghong; Patel, Dhaval; Liu-Chittenden, Yi; Jain, Meenu; Boufraqech, Myriem; Zhang, Lisa; Meltzer, Paul S.; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and whether there is progression from normal-to-adenoma-to-carcinoma, we performed genome-wide gene expression, gene methylation, microRNA expression and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis in human adrenocortical tissue (normal, adrenocortical adenomas and ACC) samples. A pairwise comparison of normal, adrenocortical adenomas and ACC gene expression profiles with more than four-fold expression differences and an adjusted P-value < 0.05 revealed no major differences in normal versus adrenocortical adenoma whereas there are 808 and 1085, respectively, dysregulated genes between ACC versus adrenocortical adenoma and ACC versus normal. The majority of the dysregulated genes in ACC were downregulated. By integrating the CGH, gene methylation and expression profiles of potential miRNAs with the gene expression of dysregulated genes, we found that there are higher alterations in ACC versus normal compared to ACC versus adrenocortical adenoma. Importantly, we identified several novel molecular pathways that are associated with dysregulated genes and further experimentally validated that oncostatin m signaling induces caspase 3 dependent apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation. Finally, we propose that there is higher number of genomic changes from normal-to-adenoma-to-carcinoma and identified oncostatin m signaling as a plausible druggable pathway for therapeutics. PMID:26446994

  9. Integrated genome-wide analysis of genomic changes and gene regulation in human adrenocortical tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Wang, Yonghong; Patel, Dhaval; Liu-Chittenden, Yi; Jain, Meenu; Boufraqech, Myriem; Zhang, Lisa; Meltzer, Paul S; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-10-30

    To gain insight into the pathogenesis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and whether there is progression from normal-to-adenoma-to-carcinoma, we performed genome-wide gene expression, gene methylation, microRNA expression and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis in human adrenocortical tissue (normal, adrenocortical adenomas and ACC) samples. A pairwise comparison of normal, adrenocortical adenomas and ACC gene expression profiles with more than four-fold expression differences and an adjusted P-value < 0.05 revealed no major differences in normal versus adrenocortical adenoma whereas there are 808 and 1085, respectively, dysregulated genes between ACC versus adrenocortical adenoma and ACC versus normal. The majority of the dysregulated genes in ACC were downregulated. By integrating the CGH, gene methylation and expression profiles of potential miRNAs with the gene expression of dysregulated genes, we found that there are higher alterations in ACC versus normal compared to ACC versus adrenocortical adenoma. Importantly, we identified several novel molecular pathways that are associated with dysregulated genes and further experimentally validated that oncostatin m signaling induces caspase 3 dependent apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation. Finally, we propose that there is higher number of genomic changes from normal-to-adenoma-to-carcinoma and identified oncostatin m signaling as a plausible druggable pathway for therapeutics.

  10. Characterization of Bovine NANOG5′-flanking Region during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hye-Jeong; Park, Hwan Hee; Linh, Tran Thi Thuy; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used as a powerful tool for research including gene manipulated animal models and the study of developmental gene regulation. Among the critical regulatory factors that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal of undifferentiated ESCs, NANOG plays a very important role. Nevertheless, because pluripotency maintaining factors and specific markers for livestock ESCs have not yet been probed, few studies of the NANOG gene from domestic animals including bovine have been reported. Therefore, we chose mouse ESCs in order to understand and compare NANOG expression between bovine, human, and mouse during ESCs differentiation. We cloned a 600 bp (−420/+181) bovine NANOG 5′-flanking region, and tagged it with humanized recombinant green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) as a tracing reporter. Very high GFP expression for bovine NANOG promoter was observed in the mouse ESC line. GFP expression was monitored upon ESC differentiation and was gradually reduced along with differentiation toward neurons and adipocyte cells. Activity of bovine NANOG (−420/+181) promoter was compared with already known mouse and human NANOG promoters in mouse ESC and they were likely to show a similar pattern of regulation. In conclusion, bovine NANOG 5-flanking region functions in mouse ES cells and has characteristics similar to those of mouse and human. These results suggest that bovine gene function studied in mouse ES cells should be evaluated and extrapolated for application to characterization of bovine ES cells. PMID:26580439

  11. Radioligand binding to muscarinic receptors of bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brunner, F; Kukovetz, W R

    1991-02-01

    1. Muscarinic receptors on endothelial cells of bovine thoracic aorta were characterized by binding assays in which (-)-[3H]-N-methyl quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-NMeQNB) was used as radioligand. 2. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to crude membranes of freshly isolated endothelial cells was atropine-displaceable and of high affinity (KD = 0.48 nM) to a single class of sites (maximum binding capacity: 14 +/- 3 fmol mg-1 protein). Stereospecificity of the binding sites was demonstrated in experiments in which [3H]-NMeQNB binding was inhibited by dexetimide in the nanomolar range (KI = 0.63 nM) and by levetimide, its stereoisomer in the micromolar range (KI = 3.2 microM) (selectivity factor: approximately 5000). 3. Drug competition curves indicated a single class of binding sites for antagonists and the following apparent affinities (KI, nM): methyl atropine: 1.1: 4-diphenylacetoxy N-methyl piperidine methyl bromide (4-DAMP): 3.4; pirenzepine: 16; 11-[2-diethylamino-methyl)-1-piperidinyl- acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)1,4-benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116); 2.500. Competition of acetylcholine with [3H]-NMeQNB was best described by two affinity sites (or states) (KH = 0.82 microM, KL = 1.6 microM). In the presence of guanylimido diphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] (100 microM), acetylcholine affinity (IC50) was slightly, but significantly reduced (factor approximately 4). 4. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to freshly harvested intact cells was also atropine-displaceable, stereospecific (selectivity factor: approximately 3500) and of high affinity (KD = 0.35 nM). The maximum binding capacity (9 +/- 2 fmol mg-1 total cell protein) was comparable to that of membranes and corresponded to approximately 900 binding sites per endothelial cell. Binding to enzymatically harvested and cultured endothelial cells, or membranes derived therefrom, showed no atropine-displaceable binding. 5. The results suggest that (1) bovine aortic endothelial cells contain muscarinic binding sites with all necessary

  12. Characterization of bovine aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase expressed in a mouse cell line: comparison with native enzyme.

    PubMed

    Park, D H; Kim, K T; Choi, M U; Samanta, H; Joh, T H

    1992-12-01

    Bovine aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) was expressed in a mouse cell line, using a bovine papilloma virus-derived expression vector containing the full coding region of bovine AADC. The recombinant bovine AADC was characterized biochemically and immunochemically and compared with the native bovine AADC. The specific activity of crude recombinant bovine AADC was 30-fold higher than that of crude native AADC. With regard to optimal pH, effects of pyridoxal phosphate concentration and Km for 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as a substrate, both native and recombinant enzymes were essentially identical. Rabbit polyclonal antiserum directed against bovine adrenal AADC recognized on Western blot a single protein band (molecular mass = 55,000 Dalton) in both native and recombinant bovine AADC crude extracts. Furthermore, double immunodiffusion analysis showed a single precipitin line of confluence with both enzyme preparations, indicating immunological identity of native and recombinant bovine AADC. Northern blot analysis identified a single mRNA species (2.2 kb) from native and recombinant bovine AADC preparations. The recombinant bovine AADC has two charge isozymes corresponding to those of the native bovine enzyme, although their relative abundances are different between native and recombinant enzymes. Taken together, our results show that recombinant bovine AADC, expressed from bovine AADC cDNA in a mouse cell line is not only enzymatically active, but also shares many biochemical and immunochemical common features with native bovine AADC.

  13. Delivery of iron to human cells by bovine transferrin. Implications for the growth of human cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S P; Garner, C

    1990-01-01

    Following suggestions that transferrin present in fetal-bovine serum, a common supplement used in tissue-culture media, may not bind well to human cells, we have isolated the protein and investigated its interaction with both human and bovine cells. Bovine transferrin bound to a human cell line, K562, at 4 degrees C with a kd of 590 nM, whereas human transferrin bound with a kd of 3.57 nM, a 165-fold difference. With a bovine cell line, NBL4, bovine transferrin bound with the higher affinity, kd 9.09 nM, whereas human transferrin bound with a kd of 41.7 nM, only a 5-fold difference. These values were reflected in an 8.6-fold difference in the rate of iron delivery by the two proteins to human cells, whereas delivery to bovine cells was the same. Nevertheless, the bovine transferrin was taken up by the human cells by a specific receptor-mediated process. Human cells cultured in bovine diferric transferrin at 40 micrograms/ml, the concentration expected in the presence of 10% fetal-bovine serum, failed to thrive, whereas cells cultured in the presence of human transferrin proliferated normally. These results suggest that growth of human cells in bovine serum could give rise to a cellular iron deficiency, which may in turn lead to the selection of clones of cells adapted for survival with less iron. This has important consequences for the use of such cells as models, since they may have aberrant iron-dependent pathways and perhaps other unknown alterations in cell function. PMID:2302189

  14. Factors regulating the bovine, caprine, rat and human ovarian aromatase promoters in a bovine granulosa cell model.

    PubMed

    Sahmi, Fatiha; Nicola, Edmir S; Zamberlam, Gustavo O; Gonçalves, Paulo D B; Vanselow, Jens; Price, Christopher A

    2014-05-01

    The ovarian promoter of the primate and rodent genes encoding cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) are robustly responsive to forskolin in luteinized cell models, whereas the ruminant ovarian promoter is minimally active. We explored this discrepancy by investigating the activity of the bovine ovarian promoter in two bovine granulosa cell models, luteinizing and non-luteinizing cells in vitro. In non-luteinizing cells, both FSH and IGF1 increased abundance of transcripts derived from the ovarian promoter. Comparison of the activity of promoters of several species in response to transcription factors (forskolin, NR5A2, FOXL2) in luteinizing cells demonstrated that a rat ovarian promoter-luciferase reporter was regulated mainly by forskolin (18-fold increase over basal expression) and addition of NR5A2 or FOXL2 had no further effect. Activity of a human promoter was significantly increased by NR5A2 plus forskolin (153-fold) compared with forskolin alone (71-fold over basal); addition of FOXL2 did not significantly increase promoter activity. Forskolin alone provoked minor activation of caprine and bovine promoter reporters (3-fold over basal), and addition of NR5A2 increased activity (7- to 11-fold). When forskolin, NR5A2 and FOXL2 treatments were combined, the activity of the caprine and bovine promoters increased to 20- and 34-fold, respectively. These data suggest that a major reason why CYP19A1 is not expressed in luteinized cells (and the corpus luteum) of ruminants may be the stimulatory effect of FOXL2, which does not appear to be the case in the human and rat. PMID:24556528

  15. Cell-mediated immune responses of lambs to challenge with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A K; Woldehiwet, Z

    1995-01-01

    The lamb is a good model to study the pathogenesis and immune responses to infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as lambs experimentally infected with bovine or human RSV may develop overt clinical disease. In the present study the development of cellular cytotoxic responses was studied in splenic, pulmonary and peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from lambs after primary and secondary infection with bovine RSV. Infection with bovine RSV was followed by the appearance of cytotoxic cells in the peripheral blood, the spleen and lung lavage fluids. These effector cells lysed virus-infected targets in a self-restricted manner. Depletion techniques revealed that cytotoxic activity was largely due to OvCD8+ cells. When effector cells obtained from primed lambs were stimulated with inactivated bovine RSV or with virus-infected cells in vitro, virus-specific cytotoxicity was significantly increased. PMID:7544251

  16. Adhesion of Tritrichomonas foetus to bovine vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, B N; Lucas, J J; Beach, D H; Shin, S T; Gilbert, R O

    1999-08-01

    An in vitro culture system of bovine vaginal epithelial cells (BVECs) was developed to study the cytopathogenic effects of Tritrichomonas foetus and the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG)-like cell surface glycoconjugates in adhesion of parasites to host cells. Exposure of BVEC monolayers to T. foetus resulted in extensive damage of monolayers. Host cell disruption was measured quantitatively by a trypan blue exclusion assay and by release of (3)H from [(3)H]thymidine-labeled host cells. Results indicated contact-dependent cytotoxicity of host cells by T. foetus. The cytopathogenic effect was a function of T. foetus density. Metronidazole- or periodate-treated T. foetus showed no damage to BVEC monolayers. A related human trichomonad, Trichomonas vaginalis, showed no cytotoxic effects, indicating species-specific host-parasite interactions. A direct binding assay was developed and used to investigate the role of a major cell surface LPG-like molecule in host-parasite adhesion. The results of competition experiments showed that the binding to BVECs was displaceable, was saturable, and yielded a typical binding curve, suggesting that specific receptor-ligand interactions mediate the attachment of T. foetus to BVECs. Progesterone-treated BVECs showed enhanced parasite binding. T. foetus LPG inhibited the binding of T. foetus to BVECs; the LPG from T. vaginalis and a variety of other glycoconjugates did not. These data imply specificity of LPG on host-parasite adhesion. Periodate-treated parasites showed no adherence to host cells, indicating the involvement of carbohydrate containing molecules in the adhesion process. PMID:10417148

  17. Adhesion of Tritrichomonas foetus to Bovine Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B. N.; Lucas, J. J.; Beach, D. H.; Shin, S. T.; Gilbert, R. O.

    1999-01-01

    An in vitro culture system of bovine vaginal epithelial cells (BVECs) was developed to study the cytopathogenic effects of Tritrichomonas foetus and the role of lipophosphoglycan (LPG)-like cell surface glycoconjugates in adhesion of parasites to host cells. Exposure of BVEC monolayers to T. foetus resulted in extensive damage of monolayers. Host cell disruption was measured quantitatively by a trypan blue exclusion assay and by release of 3H from [3H]thymidine-labeled host cells. Results indicated contact-dependent cytotoxicity of host cells by T. foetus. The cytopathogenic effect was a function of T. foetus density. Metronidazole- or periodate-treated T. foetus showed no damage to BVEC monolayers. A related human trichomonad, Trichomonas vaginalis, showed no cytotoxic effects, indicating species-specific host-parasite interactions. A direct binding assay was developed and used to investigate the role of a major cell surface LPG-like molecule in host-parasite adhesion. The results of competition experiments showed that the binding to BVECs was displaceable, was saturable, and yielded a typical binding curve, suggesting that specific receptor-ligand interactions mediate the attachment of T. foetus to BVECs. Progesterone-treated BVECs showed enhanced parasite binding. T. foetus LPG inhibited the binding of T. foetus to BVECs; the LPG from T. vaginalis and a variety of other glycoconjugates did not. These data imply specificity of LPG on host-parasite adhesion. Periodate-treated parasites showed no adherence to host cells, indicating the involvement of carbohydrate containing molecules in the adhesion process. PMID:10417148

  18. Dietary bovine lactoferrin increases intestinal cell proliferation in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Reznikov, Elizabeth A; Comstock, Sarah S; Yi, Cuiyi; Contractor, Nikhat; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-09-01

    Lactoferrin is a bioactive milk protein that stimulates cell proliferation in vitro; however, limited in vivo evidence exists to allow lactoferrin to be incorporated into infant formula. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on neonatal intestinal growth and maturation was investigated guided by the hypothesis that bLF would increase cellular proliferation leading to functional differences in neonatal piglets. Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formula containing 0.4 [control (Ctrl)], 1.0 (LF1), or 3.6 (LF3) g bLF/L for the first 7 or 14 d of life. To provide passive immunity, sow serum was provided orally during the first 36 h of life. Intestinal cell proliferation, histomorphology, mucosal DNA concentration, enzyme activity, gene expression, and fecal bLF content were measured. Intestinal enzyme activity, DNA concentration, and villus length were unaffected by bLF. However, crypt proliferation was 60% greater in LF1- and LF3-fed piglets than in Ctrl piglets, and crypt depth and area were 20% greater in LF3-fed piglets than in Ctrl piglets. Crypt cells from LF3-fed piglets had 3-fold higher β-catenin mRNA expression than did crypt cells from Ctrl piglets. Last, feces of piglets fed bLF contained intact bLF, suggesting that some bLF was resistant to digestion and could potentially affect intestinal proliferation through direct interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary bLF stimulates crypt cell proliferation in vivo. The increased β-catenin expression indicates that Wnt signaling may in part mediate the stimulatory effect of bLF on intestinal cell proliferation. PMID:25056692

  19. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  20. Identification of bovine B cell reactive and B cell specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mukwedeya, D T; Takamatsu, H; Parkhouse, R M

    1993-11-01

    All monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) submitted to the workshop panel were screened for reactivity with bovine surface immunoglobulin (sIg)+ cells (gated small dense lymphocytes from peripheral blood) by fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. Eighteen temporary clusters--TCs 1-12, 15, 16, 18, 19, 25 and 26--contained mAbs reactive with sIg+ cells. mAb BAS21A (unclustered) and CC92 (TC25) were also reactive with sIg+ cells. Further FACS analysis with B cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes and mesenteric lymph nodes, and B and T lymphoma cell lines, indicated that the majority of mAbs within TCs 2, 4, 15, 18 and 26 reacted specifically with bovine B cells. Bovine B cell specific mAbs within these clusters were TH14B, IL-A55, CACT101A, MUC76A from TC4, VPM30, GC65A, CACT65A from TC15, IL-A58, CC56, CC70, IL-A65 from TC18, and CC57 and 26A9 from TC26. Three mAbs--IL-A65, CC70, and BAQ15A--within TC18 defined WC3; mAbs TD9 and CC56 may also be related to WC3.

  1. Cholesterol and steroid synthesizing smooth endoplasmic reticulum of adrenocortical cells contains high levels of proteins associated with the translocation channel.

    PubMed

    Black, Virginia H; Sanjay, Archana; van Leyen, Klaus; Lauring, Brett; Kreibich, Gert

    2005-10-01

    Steroid-secreting cells are characterized by abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum whose membranes contain many enzymes involved in sterol and steroid synthesis. Yet they have relatively little morphologically identifiable rough endoplasmic reticulum, presumably required for synthesis and maintenance of the smooth membranes. In this study, we demonstrate that adrenal smooth microsomal subfractions enriched in smooth endoplasmic reticulum membranes contain high levels of translocation apparatus and oligosaccharyltransferase complex proteins, previously thought confined to rough endoplasmic reticulum. We further demonstrate that these smooth microsomal subfractions are capable of effecting cotranslational translocation, signal peptide cleavage, and N-glycosylation of newly synthesized polypeptides. This shifts the paradigm for distinction between smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Confocal microscopy revealed the proteins to be distributed throughout the abundant tubular endoplasmic reticulum in these cells, which is predominantly smooth surfaced. We hypothesize that the broadly distributed translocon and oligosaccharyltransferase proteins participate in local synthesis and/or quality control of membrane proteins involved in cholesterol and steroid metabolism in a sterol-dependent and hormonally regulated manner.

  2. Zfp423 promotes adipogenic differentiation of bovine stromal vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Das, Arun Kr; Yang, Qi-Yuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2012-01-01

    Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was higher (156.1±48.7%, P<0.05) in low adipogenic cells. Following adipogenic differentiation, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) were much higher (239.4±84.1% and 310.7±138.4%, respectively, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells. Over-expression of Zfp423 in stromal vascular cells and cloned low adipogenic cells dramatically increased their adipogenic differentiation, accompanied with the inhibition of TGF-β expression. Zfp423 knockdown by shRNA in high adipogenic cells largely prevented their adipogenic differentiation. The differential regulation of Zfp423 and TGF-β between low and high adipogenic cells is associated with the DNA methylation in their promoters. In conclusion, data show that Zfp423 is a critical regulator of adipogenesis in stromal vascular cells of bovine muscle, and Zfp423 may provide a molecular target for enhancing intramuscular adipogenesis

  3. Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. (3H)arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein.

  4. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  5. Culture of mature trophoblastic giant cells from bovine placentomes.

    PubMed

    Landim, L P; Miglino, M A; Pfarrer, C; Ambrosio, C E; Garcia, J M

    2007-04-01

    The mostly binucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGC) found in bovine placentomes, in addition to synthesizing and releasing hormones play an important role in fetal development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Placentomes from early gestation were collected, and for isolation of mature TGC, three cellular disaggregation methods, mechanical (MECH), enzymatic by trypsin (TRYP) or collagenase (COLL) were compared to each other. Further on, the cell survival in culture medium (DMEM) supplemented with either 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 10% serum replacement (SR) on culture plates free of any substrate was evaluated over a period of 90 days by trypan blue exclusion. The cells were further characterized by HOECHST 33342 nuclear staining, and immunocytochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies against vimentin and cytokeratin. A mean total rate of TGC survival of 82.56% was recorded. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates after enzymatic disaggregation with COLL (86.23%) than following MECH (80.38%) or TRYP (80.91%) treatment. Supplementation of DMEM with FCS resulted in significantly higher cellular survival rates (87.13%) when compared to the addition of SR (77.73%). Analysis of the influence of both, disaggregation method and medium supplementation on TGC survival revealed statistically significant differences between the following groups: MECH-SR (71.09%) was significantly lower than all other groups; TRYP-SR (78.03%) was significantly different from all other groups; TRYP-FCS (83.43%) and COLL-SR (84.08%) were significantly lower than MECH-FCS (89.98%) which together with COLL-FCS (88.25%) showed the highest cellular survival rate. In summary, our results show that TGC isolated from early gestation placentomes may be viable for more than 90 days of culture. However, whether these TGC produce placental lactogen throughout this period has yet to be determined.

  6. Culture of mature trophoblastic giant cells from bovine placentomes.

    PubMed

    Landim, L P; Miglino, M A; Pfarrer, C; Ambrosio, C E; Garcia, J M

    2007-04-01

    The mostly binucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGC) found in bovine placentomes, in addition to synthesizing and releasing hormones play an important role in fetal development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Placentomes from early gestation were collected, and for isolation of mature TGC, three cellular disaggregation methods, mechanical (MECH), enzymatic by trypsin (TRYP) or collagenase (COLL) were compared to each other. Further on, the cell survival in culture medium (DMEM) supplemented with either 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 10% serum replacement (SR) on culture plates free of any substrate was evaluated over a period of 90 days by trypan blue exclusion. The cells were further characterized by HOECHST 33342 nuclear staining, and immunocytochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies against vimentin and cytokeratin. A mean total rate of TGC survival of 82.56% was recorded. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates after enzymatic disaggregation with COLL (86.23%) than following MECH (80.38%) or TRYP (80.91%) treatment. Supplementation of DMEM with FCS resulted in significantly higher cellular survival rates (87.13%) when compared to the addition of SR (77.73%). Analysis of the influence of both, disaggregation method and medium supplementation on TGC survival revealed statistically significant differences between the following groups: MECH-SR (71.09%) was significantly lower than all other groups; TRYP-SR (78.03%) was significantly different from all other groups; TRYP-FCS (83.43%) and COLL-SR (84.08%) were significantly lower than MECH-FCS (89.98%) which together with COLL-FCS (88.25%) showed the highest cellular survival rate. In summary, our results show that TGC isolated from early gestation placentomes may be viable for more than 90 days of culture. However, whether these TGC produce placental lactogen throughout this period has yet to be determined. PMID:16716544

  7. Conditioned medium from irradiated bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells stimulates increased protein synthesis by irradiated bovine lung fibroblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, M.P.; Parton, L.A.; Bowman, C.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis, a potentially fatal consequence of radiation exposure, occurs by unknown mechanisms. The hypothesis that endothelial cells, injured by radiation, could alter the biochemical function of lung fibroblasts, was tested by exposing cultures of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells to 0 or 5 Gy radiation and then incubating them in fresh medium for 48 h. This endothelial cell conditioned medium (ECCM) was then applied to irradiated or nonirradiated cultures of bovine lung fibroblasts. Forty-eight hours later the fibroblasts were analyzed for their ability to synthesize DNA and protein. The ECCM from injured cells stimulated fibroblast protein synthesis twofold to threefold in irradiated fibroblasts without increasing DNA synthesis. It also stimulated a significant but less marked increase in protein synthesis in nonirradiated fibroblasts. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed this increased synthesis to be expressed in less than 10% of the 1100 separable fibroblast proteins. This study shows that endothelial cells injured by radiation produce factors that stimulate injured fibroblasts to markedly increase their synthesis of certain intracellular proteins, while not stimulating fibroblast replication.

  8. Mobile and immobile calcium buffers in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z; Neher, E

    1993-01-01

    1. The calcium binding capacity (kappa S) of bovine chromaffin cells preloaded with fura-2 was measured during nystatin-perforated-patch recordings. 2. Subsequently, the perforated patch was ruptured to obtain a whole-cell recording situation, and the time course of kappa S was monitored during periods of up to one hour. 3. No rapid change (within 10-20 s) of kappa S was observed upon transition to whole-cell recording, as would be expected, if highly mobile organic anions contributed significantly to calcium buffering. However, approximately half of the cells investigated displayed a drop in kappa S within 2-5 min, indicative of the loss of soluble Ca2+ binding proteins in the range of 7-20 kDa. 4. The average Ca2+ binding capacity (differential ratio of bound calcium over free calcium) was 9 +/- 7 (mean +/- S.E.M.) for the poorly mobile component and 31 +/- 10 for the fixed component. It was concluded that a contribution of 7 from highly mobile buffer would have been detected, if present. Thus, this value can be considered as an upper bound to highly mobile Ca2+ buffer. 5. Both mobile and fixed calcium binding capacity appeared to have relatively low Ca2+ affinity, since kappa S did not change in the range of Ca2+ concentrations between 0.1 and 3 microM. 6. It was found that cellular autofluorescence and contributions to fluorescence of non-hydrolysed or compartmentalized dye contribute a serious error in estimation of kappa S. 'Balanced loading', a degree of fura-2 loading such that the calcium binding capacity of fura-2 equals cellular calcium binding capacity, minimizes these errors. Also, changes in kappa S at the transition from perforated-patch to whole-cell recording can be most faithfully recorded for similar degrees of loading in both situations. 7. Nystatin was found unable to make pores from inside of the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells. With careful preparation and storage the diluted nystatin solution maintained its high activity of membrane

  9. Virus-Mediated Metalloproteinase 1 Induction Revealed by Transcriptome Profiling of Bovine Herpesvirus 4-Infected Bovine Endometrial Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Tebaldi, Giulia; Jacca, Sarah; Montanini, Barbara; Capra, Emanuele; Rosamilia, Alfonso; Sala, Arianna; Stella, Alessandra; Castiglioni, Bianca; Ottonello, Simone; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Viral infections can cause genital tract disorders (including abortion) in cows, and bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is often present in endometritis-affected animals. A major problem with cattle uterine viral infections in general, and BoHV-4 in particular, is our limited understanding of the pathogenic role(s) that these infections play in the endometrium. A similar lack of knowledge holds for the molecular mechanisms utilized, and the host cell pathways affected, by BoHV-4. To begin to fill these gaps, we set up optimized conditions for BoHV-4 infection of a pure population of bovine endometrial stromal cells (BESCs) to be used as source material for RNA sequencing-based transcriptome profiling. Many genes were found to be upregulated (417) or downregulated (181) after BoHV-4 infection. As revealed by enrichment functional analysis on differentially expressed genes, BoHV-4 infection affects various pathways related to cell proliferation and cell surface integrity, at least three of which were centered on upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and interleukin 8 (IL8). This was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR, real-time PCR, Western-immunoblot analysis, and a luciferase assay with a bovine MMP1-specific promoter reporter construct. Further, it was found that MMP1 transcription was upregulated by the BoHV-4 transactivator IE2/RTA, leading to abnormally high metalloproteinase tissue levels, potentially leading to defective endometrium healing and unresolved inflammation. Based on these findings, we propose a new model for BoHV-4 action centered on IE2-mediated MMP1 upregulation and novel therapeutic interventions based on IFN gamma-mediated MMP1 downregulation. PMID:27281703

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cell lines used for somatic cell cloning.

    PubMed

    Stringfellow, David A; Riddell, Kay P; Givens, M Daniel; Galik, Patricia K; Sullivan, Eddie; Dykstra, Christine C; Robl, James; Kasinathan, Poothapillai

    2005-03-01

    Culture of cell lines from fetuses or postnatal animals is an essential part of somatic cell cloning. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is commonly used in media for propagation of these cells. Unfortunately, bovine fetuses and postnatal animals as well as FBS are all possible sources of non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) which is widely distributed among cattle. This study was prompted when screening of samples sent to veterinary diagnostic labs revealed that 15 of 39 fetal fibroblast cell lines used in cloning research were positive for BVDV as determined by various assays including reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Goals of the research were to use both virus isolation and reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) to confirm which of the cell lines were actually infected with BVDV and to assay samples of media, FBS and the earliest available passages of each cell line in an attempt to determine the source of the viral infections. Sequence analysis of amplified cDNA from all isolates was performed to provide a definitive link between possible sources of virus and infected cell lines. Only 5 of the 39 cell lines were actually infected with BVDV. Three of these five lines were not infected at the earliest cryopreserved passage, leading to the conclusion that they likely became infected after culture in media containing contaminated FBS. In fact, sequence comparison of the amplified cDNA from one lot of FBS confirmed that it was the source of infection for one of these cell lines. Since BVDV was isolated from the remaining two cell lines at the earliest available passage, the fetuses from which they were established could not be ruled out as the source of the virus.

  11. Interaction of Bovine Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Cells and Leptospira Species; Innate Responses in the Natural Bovine Reservoir Host

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Frank, Ami T.; Hornsby, Richard L.; Olsen, Steven C.; Alt, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains

  12. Interaction of Bovine Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Cells and Leptospira Species; Innate Responses in the Natural Bovine Reservoir Host.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H; Frank, Ami T; Hornsby, Richard L; Olsen, Steven C; Alt, David P

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains

  13. Alternative splicing regulated by butyrate in bovine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sitao; Li, Congjun; Huang, Wen; Li, Weizhong; Li, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    As a signaling molecule and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), butyrate exerts its impact on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. This study examined the effect of butyrate on alternative splicing in bovine epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology. Junction reads account for 11.28 and 12.32% of total mapped reads between the butyrate-treated (BT) and control (CT) groups. 201,326 potential splicing junctions detected were supported by ≥ 3 junction reads. Approximately 94% of these junctions conformed to the consensus sequence (GT/AG) while ~3% were GC/AG junctions. No AT/AC junctions were observed. A total of 2,834 exon skipping events, supported by a minimum of 3 junction reads, were detected. At least 7 genes, their mRNA expression significantly affected by butyrate, also had exon skipping events differentially regulated by butyrate. Furthermore, COL5A3, which was induced 310-fold by butyrate (FDR <0.001) at the gene level, had a significantly higher number of junction reads mapped to Exon#8 (Donor) and Exon#11 (Acceptor) in BT. This event had the potential to result in the formation of a COL5A3 mRNA isoform with 2 of the 69 exons missing. In addition, 216 differentially expressed transcript isoforms regulated by butyrate were detected. For example, Isoform 1 of ORC1 was strongly repressed by butyrate while Isoform 2 remained unchanged. Butyrate physically binds to and inhibits all zinc-dependent HDACs except HDAC6 and HDAC10. Our results provided evidence that butyrate also regulated deacetylase activities of classical HDACs via its transcriptional control. Moreover, thirteen gene fusion events differentially affected by butyrate were identified. Our results provided a snapshot into complex transcriptome dynamics regulated by butyrate, which will facilitate our understanding of the biological effects of butyrate and other HDAC inhibitors.

  14. Radioligand binding to muscarinic receptors of bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, F.; Kukovetz, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Muscarinic receptors on endothelial cells of bovine thoracic aorta were characterized by binding assays in which (-)-[3H]-N-methyl quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-NMeQNB) was used as radioligand. 2. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to crude membranes of freshly isolated endothelial cells was atropine-displaceable and of high affinity (KD = 0.48 nM) to a single class of sites (maximum binding capacity: 14 +/- 3 fmol mg-1 protein). Stereospecificity of the binding sites was demonstrated in experiments in which [3H]-NMeQNB binding was inhibited by dexetimide in the nanomolar range (KI = 0.63 nM) and by levetimide, its stereoisomer in the micromolar range (KI = 3.2 microM) (selectivity factor: approximately 5000). 3. Drug competition curves indicated a single class of binding sites for antagonists and the following apparent affinities (KI, nM): methyl atropine: 1.1: 4-diphenylacetoxy N-methyl piperidine methyl bromide (4-DAMP): 3.4; pirenzepine: 16; 11-[2-diethylamino-methyl)-1-piperidinyl- acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)1,4-benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116); 2.500. Competition of acetylcholine with [3H]-NMeQNB was best described by two affinity sites (or states) (KH = 0.82 microM, KL = 1.6 microM). In the presence of guanylimido diphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] (100 microM), acetylcholine affinity (IC50) was slightly, but significantly reduced (factor approximately 4). 4. Binding of [3H]-NMeQNB to freshly harvested intact cells was also atropine-displaceable, stereospecific (selectivity factor: approximately 3500) and of high affinity (KD = 0.35 nM). The maximum binding capacity (9 +/- 2 fmol mg-1 total cell protein) was comparable to that of membranes and corresponded to approximately 900 binding sites per endothelial cell.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2015420

  15. Cell Arrest and Cell Death in Mammalian Preimplantation Development: Lessons from the Bovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Leidenfrost, Sandra; Boelhauve, Marc; Reichenbach, Myriam; Güngör, Tuna; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Sinowatz, Fred; Wolf, Eckhard; Habermann, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The causes, modes, biological role and prospective significance of cell death in preimplantation development in humans and other mammals are still poorly understood. Early bovine embryos represent a very attractive experimental model for the investigation of this fundamental and important issue. Methods and Findings To obtain reference data on the temporal and spatial occurrence of cell death in early bovine embryogenesis, three-dimensionally preserved embryos of different ages and stages of development up to hatched blastocysts were examined in toto by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In parallel, transcript abundance profiles for selected apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our study documents that in vitro as well as in vivo, the first four cleavage cycles are prone to a high failure rate including different types of permanent cell cycle arrest and subsequent non-apoptotic blastomere death. In vitro produced and in vivo derived blastocysts showed a significant incidence of cell death in the inner cell mass (ICM), but only in part with morphological features of apoptosis. Importantly, transcripts for CASP3, CASP9, CASP8 and FAS/FASLG were not detectable or found at very low abundances. Conclusions In vitro and in vivo, errors and failures of the first and the next three cleavage divisions frequently cause immediate embryo death or lead to aberrant subsequent development, and are the main source of developmental heterogeneity. A substantial occurrence of cell death in the ICM even in fast developing blastocysts strongly suggests a regular developmentally controlled elimination of cells, while the nature and mechanisms of ICM cell death are unclear. Morphological findings as well as transcript levels measured for important apoptosis-related genes are in conflict with the view that classical caspase-mediated apoptosis is the major cause of cell death in early bovine development. PMID

  16. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells. PMID:23440124

  17. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Ricardo Chaves; Benchimol, Marlene

    2013-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.

  18. Characterization of hybrids between bovine (MDBK) and mouse (L-cell) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chinchar, V G; Floyd, A D; Chinchar, G D; Taylor, M W

    1979-02-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT)-deficient mutants of a bovine kidney cell line (MDBK) were selected following mutagenesis with ethylmethane sulfonate or ICR-170G. MDBK mutants were hybridized to thymidine kinase-deficient L cells and selected in HAT medium. Parental and hybrid cells were characterized for isozyme patterns of lactic dehydrogenase malate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutamate oxalate transaminase. Chromosomes of MDBK can be distinguished from mouse L cells by configuration and by fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33-258 stain. Hybrid cells contained both MDBK and L-cell chromosomes and had elevated DNA content. MDBK cells are normally restrictive for mengovirus replication. Both permissive and restrictive hybrids were found. Our data indicate that there was preferential loss of MDBK chromosomes in the hybrid cell lines.

  19. Protection of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Cell Damage by Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiaolu; Wang, Kai; Liu, Hongyun; Hu, Fuliang; Zhao, Fengqi; Liu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The mammary epithelial cells (MECs) of high-producing dairy cows are likely to be subject to oxidative stress (OS) due to the intensive cell metabolism. The objectives of this study were to investigate the cytoprotective effects of resveratrol against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced OS in cultured bovine MECs (MAC-T). Pretreatment of MAC-T cells with resveratrol could rescue the decrease in cell viability and resulted in lower intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after H2O2 exposure. Resveratrol helped MAC-T cells to prevent H2O2-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-related cell apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol induced mRNA expression of multiple antioxidant defense genes in MAC-T cells under normal/oxidative conditions. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was required for the cytoprotective effects on MAC-T cells by resveratrol, as knockdown of Nrf2 significantly abolished resveratrol-induced cytoprotective effects against OS. In addition, by using selective inhibitors, we further confirmed that the induction of Nrf2 by resveratrol was mediated through the prolonged activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK/MAPK pathways but negatively regulated by p38/MAPK pathway. Overall, resveratrol has beneficial effects on bovine MECs redox balance and may be potentially used as a therapeutic medicine against oxidative insult in lactating animals. PMID:26962394

  20. Pathogenesis of benign adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Vezzosi, Delphine; Bertherat, Jérôme; Groussin, Lionel

    2010-12-01

    Most adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are benign unilateral adrenocortical adenomas, often discovered incidentally. Exceptionally, ACT are bilateral. However bilateral ACT have been very helpful to progress in the pathophysiology of ACT. Although most ACT are of sporadic origin, they may also be part of syndromic and/or hereditary disorders. The identification of the genetics of familial diseases associated with benign ACT has been helpful to define somatic alterations in sporadic ACT: for example, identification of PRKAR1A mutations in Carney complex or alterations of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Coli. Components of the cAMP signaling pathway-for example, adrenocorticotropic-hormone receptors and other membrane receptors, Gs protein, phosphodiesterases and protein kinase A-can be altered to various degrees in benign cortisol-secreting ACT. These progress have been important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of benign ACT, but already have profound implications for clinical management, for example in unraveling the genetic origin of disease in some patients with ACT. They also have therapeutic consequences, and should help to develop new therapeutic options. PMID:21115158

  1. Generation of a persistently infected MDBK cell line with natural bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).

    PubMed

    Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Hyojin; Neale, Michael H; Kim, Minjeong; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Insoo; Joo, Yiseok; Windl, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE) and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE.

  2. Generation of a Persistently Infected MDBK Cell Line with Natural Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

    PubMed Central

    Tark, Dongseob; Kim, Hyojin; Neale, Michael H.; Kim, Minjeong; Sohn, Hyunjoo; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Insoo; Joo, Yiseok; Windl, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) thought to be caused by the same prion strain as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Unlike scrapie and chronic wasting disease there is no cell culture model allowing the replication of proteinase K resistant BSE (PrPBSE) and the further in vitro study of this disease. We have generated a cell line based on the Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line over-expressing the bovine prion protein. After exposure to naturally BSE-infected bovine brain homogenate this cell line has shown to replicate and accumulate PrPBSE and maintain infection up to passage 83 after initial challenge. Collectively, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the BSE agent can infect cell lines over-expressing the bovine prion protein similar to other prion diseases. These BSE infected cells will provide a useful tool to facilitate the study of potential therapeutic agents and the diagnosis of BSE. PMID:25647616

  3. Bovine natural killer cells are present in Escherichia coli infected mammary gland tissue and show antimicrobial activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sipka, Anja; Pomeroy, Brianna; Klaessig, Suzanne; Schukken, Ynte

    2016-10-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are early responders in bacterial infections but their role in bovine mastitis has not been characterized. For the first time, we show the presence of NK cells (NKp46(+)/CD3(-)) in bovine mammary gland tissue after an intramammary challenge with Escherichia (E.) coli. A small number of NK cells was detected in milk from quarters before and during an E. coli challenge. In vitro cultures of primary bovine mammary gland epithelial cells stimulated with UV irradiated E. coli induced significant migration of peripheral blood NK cells (pbNK) within 2h. Furthermore, pbNK cells significantly reduced counts of live E. coli in vitro within 2h of culture. The results show that bovine NK cells have the capacity to migrate to the site of infection and produce antibacterial mediators. These findings introduce NK cells as a leukocyte population in the mammary gland with potential functions in the innate immune response in bovine mastitis. PMID:27638120

  4. p53 Mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms: Immunohistochemical and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Reincke, M.; Allolio, B.; Travis, W.H.; Linehan, H.M.; Karl, M.; Mastorakos, G.; Chrousos, G.P.

    1994-03-01

    p53 is a recessive tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17p. Mutations in the p53 gene play an important role in the tumorigenesis of diverse types of human neoplasms including breast and colon cancers. More than 90% of all mutations discovered in such tumors have been detected in 4 hot spot areas that lie between exons 5 and 8. In contrast to wild-type p53, mutant p53 accumulates intracellularly and can be easily detected by immunohistochemistry. The authors therefore investigated the frequency of p53 mutations in human adrenocortical neoplasms using molecular biology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Five patients with adrenocortical adenomas (5 female; ages 39-72 yr), 11 patients with adrenocortical carcinomas (8 female, 3 male; ages 15-50 yr), and two adrenocortical tumor cell lines were studied. After DNA extraction from frozen tumor tissue or paraffin-embedded material, exons 5 through 8 were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced by the dideoxy termination method. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tumor specimens obtained during adrenalectomy using a monoclonal antibody reacting with both wild-type and mutant p53. Prevalence of mutations was adenomas, 0/5, carcinomas, 3/11, and adrenocortical cell lines, 2/2. Single point mutations were detected in 3 cases (exons 5, 6, and 7, respectively), and rearrangements of exon 7/8 and 8 were found in 2 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected strong nuclear and/or cytoplasmic p53 immunoreactivity in all adrenocortical carcinomas with point mutations of the p53 gene but not in adenomas and carcinomas with the wild-type sequence or with deletion/rearrangement of the p53 gene. They conclude that p53 plays a role in the tumorigenesis of adrenocortical carcinomas but is of less importance to benign adenomas. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Systematic study of cell isolation from bovine nucleus pulposus: Improving cell yield and experiment reliability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juliana T Y; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Leung, Victor Y L

    2015-12-01

    Differences in matrix compositions in human nucleus pulposus (NP) clinical samples demand different cell isolation protocols for optimal results but there is no clear guide about this to date. Sub-optimal protocols may result in low cell yield, limited reliability of results or even failure of experiments. Cell yield, viability and attachment of cells isolated from bovine NP tissue with different protocols were estimated by cell counting, Trypan blue staining and cell culturing respectively. RNA was extracted from isolated cells and quantified by Nanodrop spectrometry and RT-qPCR. Higher collagenase concentration, longer digestion duration and pronase pre-treatment increased the cell yield. Cell viability remained high (<5% dead cells) even after 0.2% collagenase treatment for overnight. NP cells remained to have high ACAN, COL2A1, CDH2, KRT18, and KRT19 expression compared to muscle cells for different cell isolation conditions tested. Digestion by collagenase alone without the use of pronase could isolate cells from human degenerated NP tissue but clusters of cells were observed. We suggest the use of the disappearance of tissue as an indirect measure of cells released. This study provides a guide for researchers to decide the parameters involved in NP cell isolation for optimal outcome.

  6. Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis of somatic cells primary cultures established for bovine cloning.

    PubMed

    Katska, L; Bochenek, M; Kania, G; Ryñska, B; Smorag, Z

    2002-12-01

    An important factor governing developmental rates of somatic cloned embryos is the phase of the cell cycle of donor nuclei. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the distribution of cell cycle phases in bovine cumulus and fibroblast cells cultured using routine treatment, and under cell cycle-arresting treatments. The highest percentages of cumulus cells in the G0 + G1 stage were observed in uncultured, frozen/thawed cells originating from immature oocytes (79.8 +/- 2.2%), fresh and frozen/thawed cells from in vitro matured oocytes (84.1 +/- 6.2 and 77.8 +/- 5.7%, respectively), and in cycling cells (72.7 +/- 16.3 and 78.4 +/- 11.2%, respectively for cumulus cells from immature and in vitro matured oocytes). Serum starvation of cumulus cultures markedly decreased percentages of cells in G0 + G1, and prolonged starvation significantly increased (P < 0.05) percentages of cells in G2 + M phase. Culture of cumulus cells to confluency did not increase percentages of cells in G0 + G1. Contrary to findings in cumulus cells, significantly higher percentages of cells in G0 + G1 were apparent when fibroblast cells were cultured to confluency or serum starved, and significantly increased (P < 0.01) as the starvation period was prolonged. It is concluded that for particular cell types specific strategies should be used to attain improvements in the efficiency of cloning procedures.

  7. Telomere-to-centromere ratio of bovine clones, embryos, gametes, fetal cells, and adult cells.

    PubMed

    Meerdo, Lora N; Reed, William A; White, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult cell, was born. It was announced in 1999 that Dolly might be aging faster than normal because her telomeres were shorter than age-matched control sheep. Telomeres, a repeated DNA sequence located at the ends of linear chromosomes, allow for base pair loss during DNA replication. Telomere shortening acts as a "mitotic clock," leading to replicative senescence. By using whole cell lysate and slot-blot analysis, we determined the telomere-to-centromere ratio (T/C) for bovine gametes, embryos, fetal tissues (brain, heart, lung, kidney, uterus, ovary, and skin), adult donor cells, and cloned embryos. Our data indicates a consistency in T/C among the various fetal tissues. The T/C of sperm is significantly lower than in oocytes. The T/C decreases from the oocyte to the 2-8-cell stage embryo, increases dramatically at the morula stage, and decreases at the blastocyst stage. Our data shows no significant difference in T/C between cloned embryos and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos, but there is a significant difference between cloned embryos and adult donor cells. In conclusion, the enucleated bovine oocyte has the ability to reestablish the telomere length of adult somatic cell donor nuclei. PMID:15996118

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase epsilon in bovine and rat photoreceptor cells. Light-dependent distribution in photoreceptor cells.

    PubMed

    Natalini, Paola M; Zulian, Sandra E; Ilincheta de Boschero, Mónica G; Giusto, Norma M

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows the selective light-dependent distribution of 1,2-diacylglycerol kinase epsilon (DAGKɛ) in photoreceptor cells from bovine and albino rat retina. Immunofluorescence microscopy in isolated rod outer segments from bleached bovine retinas (BBROS) revealed a higher DAGKɛ signal than that found in rod outer segments from dark-adapted bovine retinas (BDROS). The light-dependent outer segment localization of DAGKɛ was also observed by immunohistochemistry in retinas from albino rats. DAGK activity, measured in terms of phosphatidic acid formation from a) [(3)H]DAG and ATP in the presence of EGTA and R59022, a type I DAGK inhibitor, or b) [γ-(32)P]ATP and 1-stearoyl, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (SAG), was found to be significantly higher in BBROS than in BDROS. Higher light-dependent DAGK activity (condition b) was also found when ROS were isolated from dark-adapted rat retinas exposed to light. Western blot analysis of isolated ROS proteins from bovine and rat retinas confirmed that illumination increases DAGKɛ content in the outer segments of these two species. Light-dependent DAGKɛ localization in the outer segment was not observed when U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, was present prior to the exposure of rat eyecups (in situ model) to light. Furthermore, no increased PA synthesis from [(3)H]DAG and ATP was observed in the presence of neomycin prior to the exposure of bovine eyecups to light. Interestingly, when BBROS were pre-phosphorylated with ATP in the presence of 1,2-dioctanoyl sn-glycerol (di-C8) or phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) as PKC activation conditions, higher DAGK activity was observed than in dephosphorylated controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that the selective distribution of DAGKɛ in photoreceptor cells is a light-dependent mechanism that promotes increased SAG removal and synthesis of 1-stearoyl, 2-arachidonoyl phosphatidic acid in the sensorial portion of this cell, thus demonstrating a novel mechanism of light

  9. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Childhood Treatment for more information.) Having certain genetic conditions increases the risk of adrenocortical carcinoma. Anything ... can be a sign of disease. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of ...

  10. TCGA analysis of adrenocortical carcinoma - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    In the most comprehensive molecular characterization to date of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, researchers extensively analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes.

  11. Infectivity assay of bovine rotavirus: evaluation of plaque and end-point methods in comparison with immunofluorescent cell assay.

    PubMed

    Butchaiah, G

    1988-01-01

    Three different methods, namely plaque assay, immunofluorescent cell (IFC) count and end-point dilution (TCID50) were evaluated for quantitative infectivity assay of the cell culture adapted UK strain of bovine rotavirus in secondary calf kidney (CK) cells and BGM cell line. Plaque and IFC count techniques were found equally efficient for infectivity titration of bovine rotavirus. Addition of trypsin into maintenance medium enhanced the sensitivity of the TCID50 method. Both CK and BGM cells served as efficient assay cells for infectivity assay of bovine rotavirus by IFC count and TCID50 methods, whereas, for plaque assay, only CK cells were found suitable.

  12. Stem cell research: a novel boulevard towards improved bovine mastitis management.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2013-01-01

    The dairy industry is a multi-billion dollar industry catering the nutritional needs of all age groups globally through the supply of milk. Clinical mastitis has a severe impact on udder tissue and is also an animal welfare issue. Moreover, it significantly reduces animal value and milk production. Mammary tissue damage reduces the number and activity of epithelial cells and consequently contributes to decreased milk production. The high incidence, low cure rate of this highly economic and sometimes deadly disease is an alarming for dairy sector as well as policy makers. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and their stem cells are very important in milk production and bioengineering. The adult mammary epithelium consists of two main cell types; an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells, which produce the milk during lactation, and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells resting on a basement membrane, which are responsible for pushing the milk through the ductal network to the teat cistern. Inner layer of columner/luminal cells of bovine MECs, is characterized by cytokeratin18, 19 (CK18, CK19) and outer layer such as myoepithelial cells which are characterized by CK14, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and p63. Much work has been done in mouse and human, on mammary gland stem cell research, particularly in cancer therapy, but stem cell research in bovine is still in its infancy. Such stem/progenitor cell discoveries in human and mouse mammary gland bring some hope for application in bovines. These progenitors may be therapeutically adopted to correct the structural/cytological defects in the bovine udder due to mastitis. In the present review we focused on various kinds of stem/progenitor cells which can have therapeutic utility and their possibilities to use as a potential stem cell therapy in the management of bovine post-mastitis damage in orders to restore milk production. The possibilities of bovine mammary stem cell therapy offers significant potential for

  13. Measuring bovine gamma delta T cell function at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle is Mycobacterium bovis. The characteristic lesions of bovine TB are well-organized pulmonary granulomas. Gamma delta T cells are a unique subset of nonconventional T cells that play major roles in both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune sys...

  14. Identification of Putative Bovine Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells by Their Retention of Labeled DNA Strands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem cells characteristically retain labeled DNA for extended periods due to their selective segregation of template DNA strands during mitosis. In this study, proliferating cells in the prepubertal bovine mammary gland were labeled using five daily-injections of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Fiv...

  15. Effector and memory T cell subsets in the response to bovine tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are used to access T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both cattle and humans. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT response correlates with protection; how...

  16. Intracellular accumulation, subcellular distribution, and efflux of tilmicosin in bovine mammary, blood, and lung cells.

    PubMed

    Scorneaux, B; Shryock, T R

    1999-06-01

    Tilmicosin is a semisynthetic macrolide antibiotic currently approved for veterinary use in cattle and swine to combat respiratory disease. Because the concentrations of tilmicosin are generally low in bovine serum, the interaction of tilmicosin with three types of bovine phagocytes (monocyte-macrophages, macrophages, and neutrophils from blood, lungs, and mammary gland, respectively) and mammary gland epithelial cells was evaluated to provide an understanding of potential clinical efficacy. After incubation with radiolabeled tilmicosin, uptake was determined and expressed as the ratio of the intracellular to the extracellular drug concentration. Accumulation of tilmicosin at 4 h of incubation by the alveolar macrophages (Cc/Ce 193) was 4 to 13 times more than that observed in monocyte-macrophages (Cc/Ce 43), neutrophils, (Cc/Ce 13), or mammary epithelial cells (Cc/Ce 20). Subcellular distribution showed that 70 to 80% of tilmicosin was localized in the lysosomes. Uptake in mammary gland cells was dependent on cell viability, temperature, and pH, but was not influenced by metabolic inhibitors or anaerobiosis. However, lipopolysaccharide exposure increased tilmicosin uptake by the bovine mammary macrophages and epithelial cells. When neutrophils and epithelial cells were incubated in the presence of tilmicosin and extracellular tilmicosin was then removed, 40% of the intracellular tilmicosin remained cell associated after 4 h of incubation (i.e., 60% effluxed), but only 25% remained in macrophages. These in vitro interactions of tilmicosin with bovine phagocytes and epithelial cells suggest an integral role in effecting clinical efficacy.

  17. Targeting exogenous GDNF gene to the bovine somatic cell beta-casein locus for the production of transgenic bovine animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X M; Luo, F H; Ding, H M; Li, B; Zhang, J J; Wu, Y J

    2015-11-25

    Considerable attention is currently being directed toward methods for producing recombinant human proteins in the mammary glands of genetically modified transgenic livestock. However, the expression of inserted genes in transgenic animals is variable and often very low because of the randomness of the site of transgene integration. One possible strategy to avoid the expression problem associated with random integration is to use site-specific integration by targeting integration to a high expression locus and, thereby, to improve expression of the transferred gene. In the present study, we focused on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a novel type of neurotrophic factor first cloned in 1993. Research has shown that GDNF may have potential applications in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system since it acts as a protective factor for central dopaminergic neurons. Here, we constructed a gene targeting vector to knock-in the human GDNF gene at the bovine beta-casein gene locus as a first step to producing transgenic animals with a high level of expression of human GDNF protein in their mammary glands. Bovine fetal fibroblast cells were transfected with linearized pNRTCNbG by electroporation. Three cell clones were identified with successful targeting to the beta-casein locus; and were confirmed using both polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing. Gene-targeted cells were used as nuclear donors; a total of 161 embryos were reconstructed, 23 of which developed to the blastocyst stage. These blastocysts were transferred to 8 recipient cows, but no offspring were obtained.

  18. Targeting exogenous GDNF gene to the bovine somatic cell beta-casein locus for the production of transgenic bovine animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X M; Luo, F H; Ding, H M; Li, B; Zhang, J J; Wu, Y J

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is currently being directed toward methods for producing recombinant human proteins in the mammary glands of genetically modified transgenic livestock. However, the expression of inserted genes in transgenic animals is variable and often very low because of the randomness of the site of transgene integration. One possible strategy to avoid the expression problem associated with random integration is to use site-specific integration by targeting integration to a high expression locus and, thereby, to improve expression of the transferred gene. In the present study, we focused on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a novel type of neurotrophic factor first cloned in 1993. Research has shown that GDNF may have potential applications in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system since it acts as a protective factor for central dopaminergic neurons. Here, we constructed a gene targeting vector to knock-in the human GDNF gene at the bovine beta-casein gene locus as a first step to producing transgenic animals with a high level of expression of human GDNF protein in their mammary glands. Bovine fetal fibroblast cells were transfected with linearized pNRTCNbG by electroporation. Three cell clones were identified with successful targeting to the beta-casein locus; and were confirmed using both polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing. Gene-targeted cells were used as nuclear donors; a total of 161 embryos were reconstructed, 23 of which developed to the blastocyst stage. These blastocysts were transferred to 8 recipient cows, but no offspring were obtained. PMID:26634460

  19. GATA4 is a critical regulator of gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Krachulec, Justyna; Vetter, Melanie; Schrade, Anja; Löbs, Ann-Kathrin; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Cochran, Rebecca; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Parviainen, Helka; Jay, Patrick Y; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2012-06-01

    In response to gonadectomy certain inbred mouse strains develop sex steroidogenic adrenocortical neoplasms. One of the hallmarks of neoplastic transformation is expression of GATA4, a transcription factor normally present in gonadal but not adrenal steroidogenic cells of the adult mouse. To show that GATA4 directly modulates adrenocortical tumorigenesis and is not merely a marker of gonadal-like differentiation in the neoplasms, we studied mice with germline or conditional loss-of-function mutations in the Gata4 gene. Germline Gata4 haploinsufficiency was associated with attenuated tumor growth and reduced expression of sex steroidogenic genes in the adrenal glands of ovariectomized B6D2F1 and B6AF1 mice. At 12 months after ovariectomy, wild-type B6D2F1 mice had biochemical and histological evidence of adrenocortical estrogen production, whereas Gata4(+/-) B6D2F1 mice did not. Germline Gata4 haploinsufficiency exacerbated the secondary phenotype of postovariectomy obesity in B6D2F1 mice, presumably by limiting ectopic estrogen production in the adrenal glands. Amhr2-cre-mediated deletion of floxed Gata4 (Gata4(F)) in nascent adrenocortical neoplasms of ovariectomized B6.129 mice reduced tumor growth and the expression of gonadal-like markers in a Gata4(F) dose-dependent manner. We conclude that GATA4 is a key modifier of gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia, postovariectomy obesity, and sex steroidogenic cell differentiation.

  20. GATA4 Is a Critical Regulator of Gonadectomy-Induced Adrenocortical Tumorigenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krachulec, Justyna; Vetter, Melanie; Schrade, Anja; Löbs, Ann-Kathrin; Bielinska, Malgorzata; Cochran, Rebecca; Kyrönlahti, Antti; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Parviainen, Helka; Jay, Patrick Y.; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2012-01-01

    In response to gonadectomy certain inbred mouse strains develop sex steroidogenic adrenocortical neoplasms. One of the hallmarks of neoplastic transformation is expression of GATA4, a transcription factor normally present in gonadal but not adrenal steroidogenic cells of the adult mouse. To show that GATA4 directly modulates adrenocortical tumorigenesis and is not merely a marker of gonadal-like differentiation in the neoplasms, we studied mice with germline or conditional loss-of-function mutations in the Gata4 gene. Germline Gata4 haploinsufficiency was associated with attenuated tumor growth and reduced expression of sex steroidogenic genes in the adrenal glands of ovariectomized B6D2F1 and B6AF1 mice. At 12 months after ovariectomy, wild-type B6D2F1 mice had biochemical and histological evidence of adrenocortical estrogen production, whereas Gata4+/− B6D2F1 mice did not. Germline Gata4 haploinsufficiency exacerbated the secondary phenotype of postovariectomy obesity in B6D2F1 mice, presumably by limiting ectopic estrogen production in the adrenal glands. Amhr2-cre-mediated deletion of floxed Gata4 (Gata4F) in nascent adrenocortical neoplasms of ovariectomized B6.129 mice reduced tumor growth and the expression of gonadal-like markers in a Gata4F dose-dependent manner. We conclude that GATA4 is a key modifier of gonadectomy-induced adrenocortical neoplasia, postovariectomy obesity, and sex steroidogenic cell differentiation. PMID:22461617

  1. Methionine protects against hyperthermia-induced cell injury in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-Yu; Mu, Tian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methionine on cell proliferation, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, the expression levels of related genes (HSF-1, HSP70, Bax and Bcl-2) and the expression levels of protein (HSP70) in mammary epithelial cells, after heat treatment. Methionine (60 mg/L) increased the viability and attenuated morphological damage in hyperthermia-treated bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Additionally, methionine significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase leakage, malondialdehyde formation, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase activity. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity was increased significantly in the presence of methionine. Bovine mammary epithelial cells also exhibited a certain amount of HSP70 reserve after methionine pretreatment for 24 h, and the expression level of the HSP70 gene and protein further increased with incubation at 42 °C for 30 min. Compared to the control, the expression of HSF-1 mRNA increased, and there was a significantly reduced expression of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA and a reduced activity of caspase-3 against heat stress. Methionine also increased survival and decreased early apoptosis of hyperthermia-treated BMECs. Thus, methionine has cytoprotective effects on hyperthermia-induced damage in BMECs.

  2. Effects of interferon-tau and steroids on cytochrome P450 activity in bovine endometrial epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current study was to examine cyclooxygenase (COX), cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and 2C (CYP2C) activity in bovine endometrial cell cultures following exposure to oxytocin (OT), interferon-t (IFN), estradiol (E2) and/or progesterone (P4). Bovine endometrial epithelial cells were tr...

  3. Susceptibility of neuron-like cells derived from bovine Wharton’s jelly to bovine herpesvirus type 5 infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), frequently lethal in cattle, is associated with significant agricultural economic losses due to neurological disease. Cattle and rabbits are frequently used as models to study the biology and pathogenesis of BoHV-5 infection. In particular, neural invasion and proliferation are two of the factors important in BoHV-5 infection. The present study investigated the potential of bovine Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (bWJ-MSCs) to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype and support robust BoHV-5 replication. Results Upon inducing differentiation within a defined neuronal specific medium, most bWJ-MSCs acquired the distinctive neuronal morphological features and stained positively for the neuronal/glial markers MAP2 (neuronal microtubule associated protein 2), N200 (neurofilament 200), NT3 (neutrophin 3), tau and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Expression of nestin, N200, β-tubulin III (TuJI) and GFAP was further demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Following BoHV-5 inoculation, there were low rates of cell detachment, good cell viability at 96 h post-infection (p.i.), and small vesicles developed along neuronal branches. Levels of BoHV-5 antigens and DNA were associated with the peak in viral titres at 72 h p.i. BoHV-5 glycoprotein C mRNA expression was significantly correlated with production of progeny virus at 72 h p.i. (p < 0.05). Conclusion The results demonstrated the ability of bWJ-MSCs to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype in vitro and support productive BoHV-5 replication. These findings constitute a remarkable contribution to the in vitro study of neurotropic viruses. This work may pave the way for bWJ-MSCs to be used as an alternative to animal models in the study of BoHV-5 biology. PMID:23227933

  4. Differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into Schwann-like cells: fetal bovine serum or human serum?

    PubMed Central

    Younesi, Elham; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Azandeh, Seyyed Saeed; Bijannejad, Dariush; Bahreini, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Access to autologous Schwann cells is limited due to lack of donor site and its difficult isolation and culture. Therefore, one of the possible ways to obtain to Schwann cells is to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into glial pathway using various materials and protocols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fetal bovine serum and human serum on Schwann cell differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells to choose the best serum for use in future research. For this purpose, after isolation of human adipose-derived stem cells, it was characterized and differentiated into Schwann cell lineage using two protocols which one of them contained fetal bovine serum and the other human serum. At the end, morphological evaluation declared an increased detachment of cells in response to human serum. On the other side, immunocytochemistry showed that there was a significant increase in the number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic proteins and S100 in fetal bovine serum-treated group when compared to human serum-treated one (P<0.05). It was concluded that fetal bovine serum was more effective than allogeneic human serum in Schwann cell differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. PMID:26417476

  5. Replication of bovine herpesvirus type 4 in human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Egyed, L

    1998-07-01

    A reference strain (Movár 33/63) of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) was inoculated into 14 different human cell lines and five primary cell cultures representing various human tissues. BHV-4 replicated in two embryonic lung cell lines, MRC-5 and Wistar-38, and in a giant-cell glioblastoma cell culture. Cytopathic effect and intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in these cells. PCR detected a 10,000-times-higher level of BHV-4 DNA. Titration of the supernatant indicated a 100-fold increase of infectious particles. Since this is the first bovine (human herpesvirus 8 and Epstein-Barr virus related) herpesvirus which replicates on human cells in vitro, the danger of possible human BHV-4 infection should not be ignored.

  6. Persistence of a Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (S. aureus SCV) within bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Atalla, Heba; Gyles, Carlton; Mallard, Bonnie

    2010-07-14

    Persistent bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis is attributable to the versatility of this pathogen within the mammary gland environment and to the formation of small colony variants (SCVs) that can survive within host cells. Previous studies had shown that S. aureus SCV Heba3231, isolated from a cow with chronic mastitis, had invaded and persisted in primary bovine aortic endothelial cells but caused minimal deleterious effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of SCV Heba3231 with bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cells) compared to its parent strain 3231 and to prototype strain Newbould 305. Monolayer cells were infected with each strain at various multiplicity of infections (MOIs) for 1 and 3.5h, followed by 20 min incubation with lysostaphin. Recovery of the SCV was significantly higher (P<0.05) after 3.8h with MOI of 100 compared to recovery of strains 3231 and Newbould 305. Upon further incubation, viable SCV were detected up to 96 h while 3231 were not isolated at 24h or later. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated SCV uptake by MAC-T cells following a series of events similar to those for strain 3231. At 24h, multiple SCV were seen within enclosed vacuoles, while the 3231 parent strain was released extracellularly and the monolayer cells were damaged. The ability of SCV Heba3231 to survive inside vacuoles could be related to up-regulation of protective mechanisms. These findings highlight the potential role of bovine mammary epithelial cells and S. aureus SCV in persistent bovine mastitis.

  7. Tat protein expression in MDBK cells does not confer susceptibility to bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Kempster, S; Collins, M E; Brownlie, J

    2002-03-01

    The ability of BIV strain R29 to infect bovine cell lines in the presence or absence of a functional lentiviral Tat protein is described. Jembrana disease virus (JDV) Tat protein was stably expressed in MDBK cells. No viral replication could be detected in this cell line after infection with BIV R29. Transfection of MDBK cells and MDBK Tat expressing cells with BIV R29 proviral DNA established that BIV R29 could not replicate in MDBK cells. Whether viral entry into MDBK cells is also a block to BIV R29 infection of MDBK cells has yet to be established.

  8. Genetics of adrenocortical tumors: Carney complex.

    PubMed

    Stratakis, C A

    2001-04-01

    Adrenal cancer is a rare neoplasm; however, up to 1 in 1 500 adrenal incidentalomas may hide a carcinoma, which, if diagnosed late or left untreated, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite extensive investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in adrenal carcinogenesis and significant improvements in diagnostic imaging, efforts to cure advanced adrenal cancer remain largely unsuccessful. Thus, the investigation of the genetics of adrenocortical cancer by the candidate or positional cloning gene approach is essential in the development of new therapies for this disease. We propose that adrenocortical tumorigenesis follows a pattern similar to that in other organs: As the pathology of the adrenocortical tumor increases towards malignancy, the genetic changes that are observed also increase. Known genetic associations, like TP53 gene changes, occur during the latest stages of adrenocortical tumorigenesis. Thus, it is essential to study the relatively few genes that are affected at the beginning of this process, at the stages of benign tumorigenesis in the cortex. We have studied primary pigmented adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), a benign, bilateral, adrenocortical hyperplasia, which either in its isolated form or as part of Carney complex (CNC), is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and, therefore, the gene(s) responsible for this disorder could be identified by positional cloning approaches. Indeed, we have identified two genetic loci harboring genes for PPNAD and/or CNC on chromosomal loci 2p16 and 17q22-24. The chromosome 17 gene, PRKAR1A, was recently cloned and the identification of other responsible genes is currently under way in our, and collaborating laboratories. The present report reviews the genetics of adrenocortical cancer first, followed by what is known today about the genetics of PPNAD and/or CNC. PMID:11353891

  9. Characterization of bovine A20 gene: Expression mediated by NF-κB pathway in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus-1.

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2016-05-01

    Cytokine production for immunological process is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The NF-κB signaling pathway maintains immune homeostasis in the cell through the participation of molecules such as A20 (TNFAIP3), which is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, hematopoietic differentiation, and immunomodulation. Although A20 has been identified in mammals, and despite recent efforts to identify A20 members in other higher vertebrates, relatively little is known about the composition of this regulator in other classes of vertebrates, particularly for bovines. In this study, the genetic context of bovine A20 was explored and compared against homologous genes in the human, mouse, chicken, dog, and zebrafish chromosomes. Through in silico analysis, several regions of interest were found conserved between even phylogenetically distant species. Additionally, a protein-deduced sequence of bovine A20 evidenced many conserved domains in humans and mice. Furthermore, all potential amino acid residues implicated in the active site of A20 were conserved. Finally, bovine A20 mRNA expression as mediated by the bovine viral diarrhea virus and poly (I:C) was evaluated. These analyses evidenced a strong fold increase in A20 expression following virus exposure, a phenomenon blocked by a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 117085). Interestingly, A20 mRNA had a half-life of only 32min, likely due to adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a regulator of immune marker expression. Finally, this is the first report to find the bovine viral diarrhea virus modulating bovine A20 activation through the NF-κB pathway.

  10. Histophilus somni Stimulates Expression of Antiviral Proteins and Inhibits BRSV Replication in Bovine Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C.; Agnes, J. T.; Behrens, N.; Tagawa, Y.; Gershwin, L. J.; Corbeil, L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) followed by Histophilus somni causes more severe bovine respiratory disease and a more permeable alveolar barrier in vitro than either agent alone. However, microarray analysis revealed the treatment of bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) epithelial cells with H. somni concentrated culture supernatant (CCS) stimulated up-regulation of four antiviral protein genes as compared with BRSV infection or dual treatment. This suggested that inhibition of viral infection, rather than synergy, may occur if the bacterial infection occurred before the viral infection. Viperin (or radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2—RSAD2) and ISG15 (IFN-stimulated gene 15—ubiquitin-like modifier) were most up-regulated. CCS dose and time course for up-regulation of viperin protein levels were determined in treated bovine turbinate (BT) upper respiratory cells and BAT2 lower respiratory cells by Western blotting. Treatment of BAT2 cells with H. somni culture supernatant before BRSV infection dramatically reduced viral replication as determined by qRT PCR, supporting the hypothesis that the bacterial infection may inhibit viral infection. Studies of the role of the two known H. somni cytotoxins showed that viperin protein expression was induced by endotoxin (lipooligosaccharide) but not by IbpA, which mediates alveolar permeability and H. somni invasion. A naturally occurring IbpA negative asymptomatic carrier strain of H. somni (129Pt) does not cause BAT2 cell retraction or permeability of alveolar cell monolayers, so lacks virulence in vitro. To investigate initial steps of pathogenesis, we showed that strain 129Pt attached to BT cells and induced a strong viperin response in vitro. Thus colonization of the bovine upper respiratory tract with an asymptomatic carrier strain lacking virulence may decrease viral infection and the subsequent enhancement of bacterial respiratory infection in vivo. PMID:26859677

  11. Embryo production and possible species preservation by nuclear transfer of somatic cells isolated from bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Westhusin, Mark; Long, Charles; Johnson, Gregory; Burghardt, Robert; Kraemer, Duane

    2010-12-01

    Somatic cells in semen are a potential source of nuclei for nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical animals; this is especially important when an animal has died and the only viable genetic material available is frozen semen. Usefulness of somatic cells obtained from fresh (cultured) and frozen (isolated, not cultured) bovine semen for nuclear transfer was evaluated. Twelve ejaculates were collected from nine bulls representing three breeds: Charolais, Brahman, and crossbred Rodeo bull. All samples were processed immediately and cell growth was obtained from seven of the twelve ejaculates (58.3%). Cells from three bulls (with the best growth rates) were evaluated by optical microscopy and used in cloning experiments. In culture, these cells exhibited classic epithelial morphology and expressed cytokeratin and vimentin, indicating they were of epithelial origin. When cells from the three bulls were used as donor cells, 15.9% (18/113), 34.5% (29/84), and 14.4% (13/90) of the fused embryos developed into blastocysts, respectively. Of the blastocyst stage embryos, 38.9% (7/18), 72.4% (21/29), and 61.5% (8/13) hatched, respectively. Somatic cells isolated (not cultured) from frozen bovine semen were also used in the cloning experiments. Although cleavage occurred, no compact morulae or blastocysts were obtained. In conclusion, epithelial cell growth was obtained from fresh bovine ejaculates with relatively high efficiency. Somatic cells from semen can be used as nucleus donors to produce cloned blastocyst-stage embryos.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated gene knock-in in bovine-induced pluripotent cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Young Tae; Quan, Xiaoyuan; Xu, Yong Nan; Baek, Soonbong; Choi, Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Jongpil

    2015-02-01

    Efficient and precise genetic engineering in livestock such as cattle holds great promise in agriculture and biomedicine. However, techniques that generate pluripotent stem cells, as well as reliable tools for gene targeting in livestock, are still inefficient, and thus not routinely used. Here, we report highly efficient gene targeting in the bovine genome using bovine pluripotent cells and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 nuclease. First, we generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from bovine somatic fibroblasts by the ectopic expression of yamanaka factors and GSK3β and MEK inhibitor (2i) treatment. We observed that these bovine iPSCs are highly similar to naïve pluripotent stem cells with regard to gene expression and developmental potential in teratomas. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease, which was specific for the bovine NANOG locus, showed highly efficient editing of the bovine genome in bovine iPSCs and embryos. To conclude, CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated homologous recombination targeting in bovine pluripotent cells is an efficient gene editing method that can be used to generate transgenic livestock in the future.

  13. CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated gene knock-in in bovine-induced pluripotent cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Young Tae; Quan, Xiaoyuan; Xu, Yong Nan; Baek, Soonbong; Choi, Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Jongpil

    2015-02-01

    Efficient and precise genetic engineering in livestock such as cattle holds great promise in agriculture and biomedicine. However, techniques that generate pluripotent stem cells, as well as reliable tools for gene targeting in livestock, are still inefficient, and thus not routinely used. Here, we report highly efficient gene targeting in the bovine genome using bovine pluripotent cells and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 nuclease. First, we generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from bovine somatic fibroblasts by the ectopic expression of yamanaka factors and GSK3β and MEK inhibitor (2i) treatment. We observed that these bovine iPSCs are highly similar to naïve pluripotent stem cells with regard to gene expression and developmental potential in teratomas. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease, which was specific for the bovine NANOG locus, showed highly efficient editing of the bovine genome in bovine iPSCs and embryos. To conclude, CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated homologous recombination targeting in bovine pluripotent cells is an efficient gene editing method that can be used to generate transgenic livestock in the future. PMID:25209165

  14. Familial predisposition to adrenocortical tumors: clinical and biological features and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Raul C; Pinto, Emilia M; Zambetti, Gerard P

    2010-06-01

    The incidence of adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) is increased in several familial cancer syndromes resulting from abnormalities in genes that encode transcription factors implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence, apoptosis, and genomic instability. These include P53, MEN1, APC, and PRKAR1A. Adenomas are the most common ACTs, but adrenocortical carcinomas occur rarely as well. The clinical manifestations of ACTs, which result from increased secretion of adrenocortical hormones, are similar in the familial and sporadic forms of the disease. However, their management may differ because of unique aspects of the constitutional syndromes. The analysis of gene expression profiles of ACTs in these constitutional syndromes have contributed to our understanding of adrenal tumorigenesis and revealed new molecular diagnostic and prognostic markers and candidate genes for targeted therapies. This chapter summarizes the clinical and biological features, pathogenesis, and management strategies for ACTs that develop in patients with familial cancer syndrome. PMID:20833338

  15. Exposure to the three structurally different PCB congeners (PCB 118, 153, and 126) results in decreased protein expression and altered steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R.

    PubMed

    Tremoen, Nina Hårdnes; Fowler, Paul A; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven; Krogenæs, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), synthetic, persistent organic pollutants (POP), are detected ubiquitously, in water, soil, air, and sediments, as well as in animals and humans. PCB are associated with range of adverse health effects, such as interference with the immune system and nervous system, reproductive abnormalities, fetotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption. Our objective was to determine the effects of three structurally different PCB congeners, PCB118, PCB 126, and PCB 153, each at two concentrations, on the steroidogenic capacity and proteome of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line cultures (H295R) . After 48 h of exposure, cell viability was monitored and estradiol, testosterone, cortisol and progesterone secretion measured to quantify steroidogenic capacity of the cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteome alterations in H295R cells in response to the PCB. Exposure to PCB 118 increased estradiol and cortisol secretion, while exposure to PCB 153 elevated estradiol secretion. PCB 126 was the most potent congener, increasing estradiol, cortisol, and progesterone secretion in exposed H295R cells. Seventy-three of the 711 spots analyzed showed a significant difference in normalized spot volumes between controls (vehicle only) and at least one exposure group. Fourteen of these protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Exposure to three PCB congeners with different chemical structure perturbed steroidogenesis and protein expression in the H295R in vitro model. This study represents an initial analysis of the effects on proteins and hormones in the H295R cell model, and additional studies are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the pathways disturbed by PCB congeners in H295R cells. Overall, alterations in protein regulation and steroid hormone synthesis suggest that exposure to PCB disturbs several cellular processes, including

  16. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until now, the isolation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bBM-MSCs) have not been established, which prompted us to optimize the differentiation protocol for bBM-MSCs. In this study, bBM-MSCs were freshly isolated from three 6-month-old cattle and used for p...

  17. Effector and memory T cell subsets in the response to bovine tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14d) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays of PBMC are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in cattle and humans. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited Tcm responses correlate with protection against experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection. The objective ...

  18. Detection and quantification of bovine signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles.

    PubMed

    Hisazumi, Rinnosuke; Kayumi, Miya; Kikukawa, Ryuji; Nasu, Tetsuo; Yasuda, Masahiro

    2015-09-15

    A signal joint (sj) T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) is produced by T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements during αβ T-cell maturation in the thymus. sjTREC have been studied as a marker of thymic function in several spices. We designed specific primers for δrec-ψJα sj region to identify the location of the bovine sjTREC region and determined the nucleotide sequence of the PCR product. The obtained sequences were subjected to a BLAST search, which identified a matching region. This matching region contained TCR δ genes and was identified on bovine chromosome 10. We also confirmed the polymorphism of the sj region by sequencing of 10 PCR products, and observed irregular insertion of bases in the δrec-ψJα recombination signal sequence. We then developed a quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay for evaluation of sjTRECs level in order to evaluate bovine thymic function for application in the veterinary clinic. This QPCR assay specifically amplified the sj region of bovine sjTREC and could detected 10(1)-10(7) copy numbers of sjTRECs. Using this assay we found that the number of sjTRECs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was less than 10% that of the thymus.

  19. Virus-host interactions in persistently FMDV-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus. Here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (PBPT)...

  20. Polyfunctional CD4 T cells in the response to bovine tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyfunctional CD4 T cells simultaneously produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and play relevant roles in several chronic infections, including human TB and HIV. However, the assessment of this response in bovine infections was not fe...

  1. Interference activity of bovine herpes virus 1 strains against Aujeszky's disease virus in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Peshev, R; Bostandjieva, R; Haralambiev, H

    1997-02-01

    The interference-inducing activity of different low- and high-virulence strains of bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) against Aujeszky's disease virus was studied by a parallel titration on permissive and non-permissive cell culture. The low-virulence BHV-1 strains possessed better interference-inducing activity than the high-virulence strains. An interference blocking test (IBT) was developed for the detection of BHV-1 antibodies in bovine sera. Comparative results of IBT and the virus neutralisation reaction did not show statistically reliable differences.

  2. Gamma Interferon Production by Bovine γδ T Cells following Stimulation with Mycobacterial Mycolylarabinogalactan Peptidoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Vesosky, B.; Turner, O. C.; Turner, J.; Orme, I. M.

    2004-01-01

    A large percentage of lymphocytes in the blood of cattle express the γδ T-cell receptor, but specific functions for these cells have not yet been clearly defined. There is evidence, however, that human, murine, and bovine γδ T cells have a role in the immune response to mycobacteria. This study investigated the ability of bovine γδ T cells to expand and produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to stimulation with mycobacterial products. Bovine γδ T cells, isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy cattle, expanded following in vitro stimulation with live mycobacteria, mycobacterial crude cell wall extract, and Mycobacterium bovis culture filtrate proteins. In addition, purified γδ T cells, cocultured with purified monocytes and interleukin-2, consistently produced significant amounts of IFN-γ in response to mycobacterial cell wall. The IFN-γ-inducing component of the cell wall was further identified as a proteolytically resistant, non-sodium dodecyl sulfate-soluble component of the mycolylarabinogalactan peptidoglycan. PMID:15271921

  3. Foetal bovine serum-derived exosomes affect yield and phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Francesco; Ionta, Vittoria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Miraldi, Fabio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a powerful tool in cardiac regenerative medicine. Pre-clinical studies suggest that most of the beneficial effects promoted by the injected cells are due to their paracrine activity exerted on endogenous cells and tissue. Exosomes are candidate mediators of this paracrine effects. According to their potential, many researchers have focused on characterizing exosomes derived from specific cell types, but, up until now, only few studies have analyzed the possible in vitro effects of bovine serum-derived exosomes on cell proliferation or differentiation. Methods: The aim of this study was to analyse, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, the in vitro effects of bovine serum exosomes on human CPCs cultured either as cardiospheres or as monolayers of cardiosphere-forming cells. Results: Effects on proliferation, yield and molecular patterning were detected. We show, for the first time, that exogenous bovine exosomes support the proliferation and migration of human cardiosphere-forming cells, and that their depletion affects cardiospheres formation, in terms of size, yield and extra-cellular matrix production. Conclusion: These results stress the importance of considering differential biological effects of exogenous cell culture supplements on the final phenotype of primary human cell cultures. PMID:27340620

  4. Angiotensin II binding to cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells: identification of angiotensin II receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.; Printz, M.P.

    1986-03-05

    Physiological experiments have provided evidence that angiotensin II stimulates catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. Their laboratory and others have now shown by receptor autoradiography the presence of angiotensin II receptors (AIIR) in bovine and rat adrenal medulla. In order to extend these studies they have undertaken to define AIIR on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Cells were isolated using the method of Levitt including cell enrichment with Percoll gradient centrifugation. Primary cultures of bovine adrenal medullary cells were maintained in DME/F12 medium containing 10% FCS. Cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry for Met- and Leu-enkephalin, PNMT, DBH and Chromagranin A. Cultured cells bind with high affinity and specificity (/sup 125/I)-ANG II yielding a K/sub D/ of 0.74 nM and B/sub max/ of 24,350 sites/cell. After Percoll treatment values of .77 nm and 34,500 sites/cell are obtained. K/sub D/ values are in close agreement with that obtained in adrenal slices by Healy. Competition studies identify a rank order of binding by this receptor similar to that of other tissues. They conclude that cultured chromaffin cells provide a suitable model system for the investigation and characterization of the ANG II receptor and for cellular studies of its functional significance.

  5. Protein kinase A alterations in adrenocortical tumors.

    PubMed

    Espiard, S; Ragazzon, B; Bertherat, J

    2014-11-01

    Stimulation of the cAMP pathway by adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is essential for adrenal cortex maintenance, glucocorticoid and adrenal androgens synthesis, and secretion. Various molecular and cellular alterations of the cAMP pathway have been observed in endocrine tumors. Protein kinase A (PKA) is a central key component of the cAMP pathway. Molecular alterations of PKA subunits have been observed in adrenocortical tumors. PKA molecular defects can be germline in hereditary disorders or somatic in sporadic tumors. Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations of the PKA regulatory subunit RIα gene (PRKAR1A) can be observed in patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS) due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PRKAR1A is considered as a tumor suppressor gene. Interestingly, these mutations can also be observed as somatic alterations in sporadic cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Germline gene duplication of the catalytic subunits Cα (PRKACA) has been observed in patients with PPNAD. Furthermore, exome sequencing revealed recently activating somatic mutations of PRKACA in about 40% of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. In vitro and in vivo functional studies help in the progress to understand the mechanisms of adrenocortical tumors development due to PKA regulatory subunits alterations. All these alterations are observed in benign oversecreting tumors and are mimicking in some way cAMP pathway constitutive activation. On the long term, unraveling these alterations will open new strategies of pharmacological treatment targeting the cAMP pathway in adrenal tumors and cortisol-secretion disorders. PMID:25105543

  6. The antiproliferative effect of bovine lactoferrin on canine mammary gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichi; Sato, Reeko; Kobayashi, Saori; Hankanga, Careen; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Momota, Yutaka; Tomizawa, Nobuyuki; Yasuda, Jun

    2008-05-01

    Lactoferrin has several biological activities, including antitumor activities in some human and animal tumor cells. Clinical trials have been carried out in human medicine based on these effects. However, the antitumor effects of lactoferrin in veterinary medicine remain unknown. In this in vitro study, we demonstrated that co-incubation of canine mammary gland tumor cells (CIPp and CHMp) and bovine lactoferrin induced growth arrest of tumor cells. This growth arrest was associated with induction of G1 arrest. Furthermore, this effect was stronger in tumor cells than in normal cells. These findings demonstrate that bovine lactoferrin has anti-tumor activity in canine mammary tumors and has the potential for use in tumor-bearing dogs.

  7. Isolation and characterization of bovine and mouse terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase cDNAs expressible in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Koiwai, O; Yokota, T; Kageyama, T; Hirose, T; Yoshida, S; Arai, K

    1986-01-01

    We have isolated nearly full-length cDNA clones of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) from calf thymus and mouse lymphoma cDNA libraries. The libraries were constructed using the pcD vector system which permits the expression of cDNA inserts in mammalian cells. The bovine TdT cDNA clone contains an open reading frame coding for 520 amino acids, Mr 59,678. The mouse TdT cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 1,587 bp, whose translated cDNA encodes a 60,004 dalton protein. The mouse TdT cDNA clone contains 60 bp in the 3' end region of the coding sequence not found in the bovine TdT cDNA sequence, otherwise, the clones share about 80% homology. A possible nuclear-localization-sequence (Pro-Arg-Lys-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg) was conserved in the N-terminal region in the mouse and bovine cDNA clones. Bovine and mouse cDNAs transfected into COS7 monkey fibroblasts directed the synthesis of enzymatically active protein of Mr 60,000 which was detected immunologically using polyclonal rabbit antibody against bovine TdT. Bovine TdT expressed in COS7 cells by nearly full-length cDNA clone was localized in the nucleus and the translational product of pOK103 lacking the nuclear-localization-sequence was localized in the cytoplasm. Images PMID:3755527

  8. Evaluation of STAT5A Gene Expression in Aflatoxin B1 Treated Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mycotoxin which has been produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus as secondary metabolites due to their growth on food stuffs and induces hepatocellular carcinoma in many animal species, including humans. In the present study, the effect of AFB1 on STAT5A gene expression was investigated in bovine mammary epithelial cells using real time RT-PCR. Methods: Bovine mammary epithelial cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, cells were treated with AFB1 and incubated for 8 h. For real time PCR reaction, total RNA from the cultured and treated cells was extracted and used for complementary DNA synthesis. Results: The expression of STAT5A gene was significantly down regulated by AFB1 in dose- dependent manner and led to the reduction of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, which has direct effect in milk protein quantity and quality. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that down regulation of STAT5A gene in AFB1-treated cells maybe due to DNA damage induced by AFB1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:24312879

  9. Oxygen consumption by bovine granulosa cells with prediction of oxygen transport in preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongxing; Redding, Gabe P; Bronlund, John E

    2013-01-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption by granulosa cells is a key parameter in mathematical models that describe oxygen transport across ovarian follicles. This work measured the oxygen consumption rate of bovine granulosa cells in vitro to be in the range 2.1-3.3×10⁻¹⁶ mol cell⁻¹ s⁻¹ (0.16-0.25 mol m⁻³ s⁻¹). The implications of the rates for oxygen transport in large bovine preantral follicles were examined using a mathematical model. The results indicate that oocyte oxygenation becomes increasingly constrained as preantral follicles grow, reaching hypoxic levels near the point of antrum formation. Beyond a preantral follicle radius of 134 µm, oxygen cannot reach the oocyte surface at typical values of model parameters. Since reported sizes of large bovine preantral follicles range from 58 to 145 µm in radius, this suggests that oocyte oxygenation is possible in all but the largest preantral follicles, which are on the verge of antrum formation. In preantral bovine follicles, the oxygen consumption rate of granulosa cells and fluid voidage will be the key determinants of oxygen levels across the follicle.

  10. Derivation and characterization of bovine induced pluripotent stem cells by transposon-mediated reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Thirumala R; Kumar, Dharmendra; Glage, Silke; Garrels, Wiebke; Ivics, Zoltan; Debowski, Katharina; Behr, Rüdiger; Niemann, Heiner; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a seminal breakthrough in stem cell research and are promising tools for advanced regenerative therapies in humans and reproductive biotechnology in farm animals. iPSCs are particularly valuable in species in which authentic embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are yet not available. Here, we describe a nonviral method for the derivation of bovine iPSCs employing Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposon systems encoding different combinations of reprogramming factors, each separated by self-cleaving peptide sequences and driven by the chimeric CAGGS promoter. One bovine iPSC line (biPS-1) generated by a PB vector containing six reprogramming genes was analyzed in detail, including morphology, alkaline phosphatase expression, and typical hallmarks of pluripotency, such as expression of pluripotency markers and formation of mature teratomas in immunodeficient mice. Moreover, the biPS-1 line allowed a second round of SB transposon-mediated gene transfer. These results are promising for derivation of germ line-competent bovine iPSCs and will facilitate genetic modification of the bovine genome. PMID:25826726

  11. Derivation and Characterization of Bovine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Transposon-Mediated Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Talluri, Thirumala R.; Kumar, Dharmendra; Glage, Silke; Garrels, Wiebke; Ivics, Zoltan; Debowski, Katharina; Behr, Rüdiger; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a seminal breakthrough in stem cell research and are promising tools for advanced regenerative therapies in humans and reproductive biotechnology in farm animals. iPSCs are particularly valuable in species in which authentic embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are yet not available. Here, we describe a nonviral method for the derivation of bovine iPSCs employing Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposon systems encoding different combinations of reprogramming factors, each separated by self-cleaving peptide sequences and driven by the chimeric CAGGS promoter. One bovine iPSC line (biPS-1) generated by a PB vector containing six reprogramming genes was analyzed in detail, including morphology, alkaline phosphatase expression, and typical hallmarks of pluripotency, such as expression of pluripotency markers and formation of mature teratomas in immunodeficient mice. Moreover, the biPS-1 line allowed a second round of SB transposon-mediated gene transfer. These results are promising for derivation of germ line–competent bovine iPSCs and will facilitate genetic modification of the bovine genome. PMID:25826726

  12. Cyclophilin A is a new M cell marker of bovine intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hondo, Tetsuya; Someya, Shunsuke; Nagasawa, Yuya; Terada, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Chen, Xiangning; Watanabe, Kouichi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Rose, Michael T; Nochi, Tomonori; Aso, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    Microfold (M) cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of Peyer's patches contribute to the mucosal immune response by the transcytosis of microorganisms. The mechanism by which M cells take up microorganisms, and the functional proteins by which they do this, are not clear. In order to explore one such protein, we developed a 2H5-F3 monoclonal antibody (2H5-F3 mAb) through its binding to bovine M cells, and identified the antibody reactive molecule as cyclophilin A (Cyp-A). The localization patterns of Cyp-A were very similar to the localization pattern of cytokeratin (CK) 18-positive M cells. Cyp-A was identified at the luminal surface of CK18-positive M cells in bovine jejunal and ileal FAE. The membranous localization of Cyp-A in the bovine intestinal cell line (BIE cells) increased as cells differentiated toward M cells, as determined by flow cytometry analysis. Additionally, BIE cells released Cyp-A to the extracellular space and the differentiation of BIE cells to M cells increased the secretion of Cyp-A, as determined by western blotting. Accordingly, Cyp-A may be localized in M cells in the small intestinal epithelium of cattle. The rise of the membranous localization and secretion of Cyp-A by differentiation toward M cells indicates that Cyp-A has an important role in the function of M cells. While Cyp-A of the M cell membrane may contribute to the uptake of viruses with peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, in the extracellular space Cyp-A may work as a chemokine and contribute to the distribution of immuno-competent cells.

  13. In vitro replication activity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in an epithelial cell line and in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Turin, Lauretta; Lucchini, Barbara; Bronzo, Valerio; Luzzago, Camilla

    2012-11-01

    The present study focused on the in vitro infection of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from naÏve animals with non-cytopathic (ncp, BVDV-1b NY-1) and cytopathic (cp, BVDV-1a NADL) strains. Infections with 0.1 and 1 multiplicity of infections (MOI) and incubation times of 18 and 36 hr were compared. Twelve BVDV naÏve heifers were enrolled to collect PBMCs. The viral loads in MDBK cells and in PBMCs after in vitro infections were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The highest viral loads were measured at 1 MOI and 36 hr post infection in both cell systems and the lowest at 0.1 MOI and 18 hr with the exception of the cp strain NADL in PBMCs, for which the highest viral load was observed at 0.1 MOI and 36 hr. Viral load mean values were higher for the cp strain than the ncp strain irrespective of the extent of the infection period and MOI. The models of infection studied uncovered different replication activities respectively according to the biotype of virus, the cell substrate and the duration of infection. Replication tends to be higher in PBMCs, particularly at low MOIs and for the ncp strain.

  14. Bovine CD2-/NKp46+ cells are fully functional natural killer cells with a high activation status

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Preben; Olsen, Ingrid; Berg, Ingvild; Kulberg, Siri; Johansen, Grethe M; Storset, Anne K

    2006-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells in the cow have been elusive due to the lack of specific NK cell markers, and various criteria including a CD3-/CD2+ phenotype have been used to identify such cells. The recent characterization of the NK-specific NKp46 receptor has allowed a more precise definition of bovine NK cells. NK cells are known as a heterogeneous cell group, and we here report the first functional study of bovine NK cell subsets, based on the expression of CD2. Results Bovine CD2- NK cells, a minor subset in blood, proliferated more rapidly in the presence of IL-2, dominating the cultures after a few days. Grown separately with IL-2, CD2- and CD2+ NK cell subsets did not change CD2 expression for at least two weeks. In blood, CD2- NK cells showed a higher expression of CD44 and CD25, consistent with a high activation status. A higher proportion of CD2- NK cells had intracellular interferon-gamma in the cytoplasm in response to IL-2 and IL-12 stimulation, and the CD2- subset secreted more interferon-gamma when cultured separately. Cytotoxic capacity was similar in both subsets, and both carried transcripts for the NK cell receptors KIR, CD16, CD94 and KLRJ. Ligation by one out of two tested anti-CD2 monoclonal antibodies could trigger interferon-gamma production from NK cells, but neither of them could alter cytotoxicity. Conclusion These results provide evidence that bovine CD2- as well as CD2+ cells of the NKp46+ phenotype are fully functional NK cells, the CD2- subset showing signs of being more activated in the circulation. PMID:16643649

  15. Primary aldosteronism and malignant adrenocortical neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Salassa, T. M.; Weeks, R. E.; Northcutt, R. C.; Carney, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Our experience indicates that although adrenal carcinoma is not a common cause of primary aldosteronism, 4 to 5% of patients in a single large series may have a malignant adrenocortical tumor. The magnitude of the hypokalemia and the hyperaldosteronuria tends to be greater in patients with malignant tumors, but these patients cannot be clearly separated from those with benign tumors or hyperplasia on this basis. Patients who have malignant tumors may have no chemical evidence of adrenocortical dysfunction other than excessive aldosterone secretion. Finally, a good response to spironolactone for months does not exclude adrenal carcinoma as the cause of primary aldosteronism. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1179589

  16. Adrenocortical carcinoma in pregnancy: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Jairath, Ankush; Aulakh, Baldev S.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease. Additionally, in the case of coexisting pregnancy, there are diagnostic difficulties due to associated physiological hormonal changes as well as imaging limitations. Cushing's syndrome and virilization during pregnancy is a rare entity with few cases reported in the literature. Misdiagnosis is common as the syndrome may be easily confused with preeclampsia or gestational diabetes. We present the case of a 31-year-old pregnant woman with rapidly developing symptoms related to hormonally active adrenocortical cancer. PMID:25097324

  17. Characterization of putative receptors specific for quercetin on bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.C.; Becker, C.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have reported that tobacco glycoprotein (TGP), rutin-bovine serum albumin conjugates (R-BSA), quercetin, and chlorogenic acid are mitogenic for bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells (SMC). To investigate whether there are binding sites or receptors for these polyphenol-containing molecules on SMC, the authors have synthesized /sup 125/I-labeled rutin-bovine serum albumin ((/sup 125/I)R-BSA) of high specific activity (20 Ci/mmol). SMC were isolated from a bovine thoracic aorta and maintained in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% calf serum in culture. These SMC at early subpassages were suspended (3-5 x 10/sup 7/ cells/ml) in phosphate-buffered saline and incubated with (/sup 125/I)R-BSA (10 pmol) in the presence or absence of 200-fold unlabeled R-BSA, TGP, BSA, rutin, quercetin or related polyphenols, and catecholamines. Binding of (/sup 125/I)R-BSA to SMC was found to be reproducible and the radioligand was displaced by R-BSA, and also by TGP, rutin, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, but not by BSA, ellagic acid, naringin, hesperetin, dopamine, epinephrine, or isoproterenol. The binding was saturable, reversible, and pH-dependent. These results demonstrate the presence of specific binding sites for quercetinon arterial SMC.

  18. Evaluation of bovine thymic function by measurement of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles.

    PubMed

    Hisazumi, Rinnosuke; Kayumi, Miya; Zhang, Weidong; Kikukawa, Ryuji; Nasu, Tetuo; Yasuda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    A signal joint T-cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) is a circular DNA produced by T-cell receptor α gene rearrangement in the thymus. Measurements of sjTREC values have been used to evaluate thymic function. We recently established a quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay of bovine sjTREC. In the present study, we used this QPCR assay to measure the sjTREC value in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and we then evaluated the relationships between sjTREC values and peripheral blood T-cell number, growth stage, gender, and meteorological season. The sjTREC value was highest at the neonatal stage, and its value subsequently decreased with age. On the other hand, the peripheral T-cell number increased with age. The sjTREC value in calves up to 50-days old was significantly higher for males than for females, suggesting that thymic function might differ by gender. In addition, the sjTREC value and the peripheral T-cell number were significantly higher in calves in the summer season than in calves in the winter season. These data suggest that bovine thymic function is highly variable and varies according to the growth stage, gender, and environmental factors such as air temperature or the UV index.

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of in vitro bluetongue virus infection of bovine blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Barratt-Boyes, S M; Rossitto, P V; Stott, J L; MacLachlan, N J

    1992-08-01

    Cultures of adherent and non-adherent bovine peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells were inoculated with bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10. Some cultures of non-adherent cells were stimulated with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and concanavalin A for 24 h prior to virus inoculation. Cells were harvested at various intervals up to 72 h after inoculation. A panel of leukocyte differentiation antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), specific for bovine CD2, CD4 or CD8, monocytes and granulocytes, B cells, gamma delta T cells or the IL-2 receptor (IL-2r), was directly conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate, and a MAb specific for the BTV major core protein VP7 was directly conjugated to phycoerythrin. Cells were labelled with conjugated MAbs in single- and double-label immunofluorescence studies to identify specifically the BTV-infected cells in inoculated cultures. The viability of cells was determined by propidium iodide exclusion, and all analyses were done using flow cytometry. Productive infection of cultures of PBM cells was confirmed by virus titration. The data revealed a clear difference between subsets of bovine PBM cells in susceptibility to infection with BTV in vitro. Monocytes were readily infected with BTV, as were stimulated CD4+ cells, and infection was cytopathic to monocytes and stimulated lymphocytes. The proportion of infected cells decreased after 24 h and virus titres dropped markedly by 72 h in all cultures. CD4+ cells in cultures of unstimulated non-adherent cells inoculated with BTV showed increased expression of IL-2r. The possible relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of BTV infection of cattle is discussed.

  20. Adhesion of Fusobacterium necrophorum to bovine endothelial cells is mediated by outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Gart, Elena; Nagaraja, T G; Narayanan, Sanjeev

    2013-03-23

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is frequently associated with suppurative and necrotic infections of animals and humans. The organism is a major bovine pathogen, and in cattle, the common fusobacterial infections are hepatic abscesses, foot rot, and necrotic laryngitis. The species comprises two subspecies: F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum and F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Bacterial adhesion to the host cell surface is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis, and outer membrane proteins (OMP) play an important role in adhesion and establishment of certain Gram-negative bacterial infections. The means by which F. necrophorum attaches to epithelial or endothelial cells has not been determined. We evaluated whether OMP of F. necrophorum, isolated from a liver abscess, mediated adhesion to bovine endothelial cells (adrenal gland capillary endothelial cell line). The extent of binding of subsp. necrophorum to the endothelial cells was higher than that of F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Trypsin treatment of bacterial cells decreased their binding to endothelial cells indicating the protein nature of adhesins. Preincubation of endothelial cells with OMP extracted from F. necrophorum decreased the binding of bacterial cells. In addition, binding of each subspecies to endothelial cells was inhibited by polyclonal antibodies raised against respective OMP and the antibody-mediated inhibition was subspecies specific. The western blot analysis of OMP bound to endothelial cells with anti-OMP antibodies showed four OMP of 17, 24, 40 and 74 kDa. We conclude that OMP of F. necrophorum play a role in adhesion of bacterial cells to the endothelial cells.

  1. Inhibitory effect of BMAP-28 on Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TLR2-Dependent Immune Response in Bovine Cells

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Yijie; Ding, Cuiping; Zhang, Bo; XU, Jun; XUN, Meng; XU, Jiru

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease, leading to serious economic losses in animal production and causing potential hazards to human health. Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) plays an important role in leptospirosis pathogenicity. Objectives With respect to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we examined bovine immune response to L-LPS and the inhibitory ability of bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-28 (BMAP-28) against L-LPS-induced immune activation in bovine cells. Materials and Methods In this study, L-LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in bovine cells was quantitatively measured with real-time PCR and ELISA, and we determined which cell membrane receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2 and TLR4) played a major role. In addition, the ability of BMAP-28 to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like immune activation in bovine cells was determined by the decrease in cytokine secretion. Results L-LPS showed the ability to induce cytokine production in bovine cells, and its induction was TLR2-dependent. BMAP-28 was used to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like activity. The function of BMAP-28 was to inhibit LPS-induced TLR2 expression and cytokine production. Conclusions In this study, the L-LPS immune response of bovine cells was significant, indicating that TLR2 is the predominant receptor for L-LPS. Due to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we found a strategy through using BMAP-28 to prevent L-LPS-induced TLR2-dependent immune activation in bovine cells.

  2. Inhibitory effect of BMAP-28 on Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TLR2-Dependent Immune Response in Bovine Cells

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Yijie; Ding, Cuiping; Zhang, Bo; XU, Jun; XUN, Meng; XU, Jiru

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease, leading to serious economic losses in animal production and causing potential hazards to human health. Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) plays an important role in leptospirosis pathogenicity. Objectives With respect to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we examined bovine immune response to L-LPS and the inhibitory ability of bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-28 (BMAP-28) against L-LPS-induced immune activation in bovine cells. Materials and Methods In this study, L-LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in bovine cells was quantitatively measured with real-time PCR and ELISA, and we determined which cell membrane receptors (toll-like receptor [TLR]2 and TLR4) played a major role. In addition, the ability of BMAP-28 to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like immune activation in bovine cells was determined by the decrease in cytokine secretion. Results L-LPS showed the ability to induce cytokine production in bovine cells, and its induction was TLR2-dependent. BMAP-28 was used to inhibit L-LPS-induced endotoxin-like activity. The function of BMAP-28 was to inhibit LPS-induced TLR2 expression and cytokine production. Conclusions In this study, the L-LPS immune response of bovine cells was significant, indicating that TLR2 is the predominant receptor for L-LPS. Due to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we found a strategy through using BMAP-28 to prevent L-LPS-induced TLR2-dependent immune activation in bovine cells. PMID:27635213

  3. Mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated with bovine tendon extract acquire the phenotype of mature tenocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Lívia Maria Mendonça; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Amanda; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, in tenocytes after treatment with bovine tendon extract. Methods Bovine tendons were used for preparation of the extract and were stored at −80 °C. Mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow of three donors were used for cytotoxicity tests by means of MTT and cell differentiation by means of qPCR. Results The data showed that mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated for up to 21 days in the presence of bovine tendon extract diluted at diminishing concentrations (1:10, 1:50 and 1:250) promoted activation of biglycan, collagen type I and fibromodulin expression. Conclusion Our results show that bovine tendon extract is capable of promoting differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in tenocytes. PMID:26962503

  4. The effects of Pasteurella haemolytica lipopolysaccharide on bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the potential role of Pasteurella haemolytica Al lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the pathogenesis of the vascular lesions of pneumonic pasteurellosis. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelia cells (BPAEC) were the test model. The direct toxic potential of P. Haemolytica LPS on BPAEC was examined by cell detachment assays, morphologic alterations, and membrane damage as reflected in the leakage of large internal molecules such as LDH and {sup 51}Cr-labeled molecules. LPS-induced effects having potential for causing indirect vascular damage were studied and included neutrophil-adherence to and arachidonic acid-release from BPAEC. Several substances were examined for their ability to inhibit the LPS-induced cytotoxicity. Pasteurella haemolytica LPS caused direct toxic effects in BPAEC. Cell-detachment, LDH-leakage, {sup 51}Cr-leakage, and {sup 3}H-arachidonic acid-release proceeded with similar time- and dose-dependency after exposure of BPAEC to LPS. Morphologic alterations were observed as early as one-half hour after LPS-exposure and became collectively more severe with time. Neutrophil adherence to BPAEC was increased by LPS through independent effects on both cells types. The adherence required protein synthesis in both cell types.

  5. Tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin inhibits tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Teraoka, K.; Azuma, M.; Oka, M.; Hamano, S. )

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin on both the secretion of endogenous catecholamines and the formation of 14C-catecholamines from (14C)tyrosine were examined using cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Palytoxin was shown to cause the stimulation of catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. However, this toxin caused the reduction rather than the stimulation of 14C-catecholamine formation at the same concentrations. Palytoxin failed to cause any alteration in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. Furthermore, the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells was shown to be inhibited by this toxin under the conditions in which the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation was observed, and this inhibitory action on tyrosine uptake was closely correlated with that on catecholamine formation. The inhibitory action of palytoxin on tyrosine uptake into the cells was observed to be noncompetitive, and this effect was not altered by the removal of Na+ from the incubation mixture. These results suggest that palytoxin may be able to inhibit the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells, resulting in the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation, probably through its direct action on the plasma membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

  6. Nuclear transfer with apoptotic bovine fibroblasts: can programmed cell death be reprogrammed?

    PubMed

    Miranda, Moyses dos Santos; Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; De Bem, Tiago Henrique Camara; Merighe, Giovana Krempel Fonseca; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; King, William Alan; Meirelles, Flavio Viera

    2012-06-01

    Cell death by apoptosis is considered to be irreversible. However, reports have indicated that its reversibility is possible if the cells have not yet reached the "point of no return." In order to add new information about this topic, we used cells at different moments of apoptotic process as nuclear donors in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in order to test if programmed cell death can be reversed. Adult bovine fibroblasts were treated with 10 μM of staurosporine (STP) for 3 h and analyzed for phosphatidylserine externalization (Annexin assay) and presence of active caspase-9. Annexin-positive (Anx+) and Caspase-9-positive (Casp-9+) cells were isolated by FACS and immediately transferred into enucleated in vitro matured bovine oocytes. After STP treatment, 89.9% of cells were Anx+ (4.6% in control cells; p<0.01) and 24.9% were Casp-9+ (2.4% in control cells; p<0.01). Fusion and cleavage were not affected by the use apoptotic cells (p>0.05). Also, the use of Anx+ cells did not affect blastocyst production compared to control (26.4% vs. 22.9%, respectively; p>0.05). However, blastocyst formation was affected by the use of Casp-9+ cells (12.3%; p<0.05). These findings contribute to the idea of that apoptosis is reversible only at early stages. Additionally, we hypothesize that the "point of no return" for apoptosis may be located around activation of Caspase-9.

  7. Antibacterial activity of thionin Thi2.1 from Arabidopsis thaliana expressed by bovine endothelial cells against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Loeza-Angeles, Heber; Sagrero-Cisneros, Eduardo; Villagómez-Gómez, Erik; Lara-Zárate, Leticia; López-Meza, Joel E

    2008-03-18

    Bovine mastitis is mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial therapy, commonly used for its control, has resulted in an increase in the frequency of resistant staphylococci in recent years. Thus, alternative therapies are desirable and the antimicrobial peptides represent attractive control agents. In this work, we expressed the antimicrobial peptide thionin Thi2.1 cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7 and evaluated its activity against bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates. A polyclonal population from BVE-E6E7 cells transfected with the pThi2.1 construct was obtained and thionin Thi2.1 expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. From this population, eight stably transfected cell clones were obtained and their conditioned media (CM) were evaluated against the S. aureus ATCC 27543 strain. Clones showed high antibacterial activity (>95%) relative to the activity of the polyclonal population. The C8 clone showed the highest antibacterial activity (>99%) and its CM was evaluated against eleven bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates. A 2.5microg aliquot of total protein from the C8 clone's CM inhibited the growth of S. aureus isolates (>40%) relative to the CM from BVE-E6E7 cells used as control. Growth inhibition of S. aureus isolates was dose-dependent, showing a total inhibition at concentrations higher than 3.12microg/ml. These results suggest that thionin Thi2.1 antimicrobial peptide could be use in the treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:17961938

  8. A Bovine Cell Line That Can Be Infected by Natural Sheep Scrapie Prions

    PubMed Central

    Oelschlegel, Anja M.; Geissen, Markus; Lenk, Matthias; Riebe, Roland; Angermann, Marlies; Schaetzl, Hermann; Groschup, Martin H.

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture systems represent a crucial part in basic prion research; yet, cell lines that are susceptible to prions, especially to field isolated prions that were not adapted to rodents, are very rare. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cell line that was susceptible to ruminant-derived prions and to establish a stable prion infection within it. Based on species and tissue of origin as well as PrP expression rate, we pre-selected a total of 33 cell lines that were then challenged with natural and with mouse propagated BSE or scrapie inocula. Here, we report the successful infection of a non-transgenic bovine cell line, a sub-line of the bovine kidney cell line MDBK, with natural sheep scrapie prions. This cell line retained the scrapie infection for more than 200 passages. Selective cloning resulted in cell populations with increased accumulation of PrPres, although this treatment was not mandatory for retaining the infection. The infection remained stable, even under suboptimal culture conditions. The resulting infectivity of the cells was confirmed by mouse bioassay (Tgbov mice, Tgshp mice). We believe that PES cells used together with other prion permissive cell lines will prove a valuable tool for ongoing efforts to understand and defeat prions and prion diseases. PMID:25565633

  9. A bovine cell line that can be infected by natural sheep scrapie prions.

    PubMed

    Oelschlegel, Anja M; Geissen, Markus; Lenk, Matthias; Riebe, Roland; Angermann, Marlies; Schatzl, Herman; Schaetzl, Hermann; Groschup, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture systems represent a crucial part in basic prion research; yet, cell lines that are susceptible to prions, especially to field isolated prions that were not adapted to rodents, are very rare. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cell line that was susceptible to ruminant-derived prions and to establish a stable prion infection within it. Based on species and tissue of origin as well as PrP expression rate, we pre-selected a total of 33 cell lines that were then challenged with natural and with mouse propagated BSE or scrapie inocula. Here, we report the successful infection of a non-transgenic bovine cell line, a sub-line of the bovine kidney cell line MDBK, with natural sheep scrapie prions. This cell line retained the scrapie infection for more than 200 passages. Selective cloning resulted in cell populations with increased accumulation of PrPres, although this treatment was not mandatory for retaining the infection. The infection remained stable, even under suboptimal culture conditions. The resulting infectivity of the cells was confirmed by mouse bioassay (Tgbov mice, Tgshp mice). We believe that PES cells used together with other prion permissive cell lines will prove a valuable tool for ongoing efforts to understand and defeat prions and prion diseases.

  10. Colostrogenesis: candidate genes for IgG1 transcytosis mechanisms in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Stark, A; Vachkova, E; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R; Baumrucker, C

    2013-12-01

    Bovine colostrogenesis is distinguished by the specific transfer of IgG1 from the blood to mammary secretions. The process has been shown to be initiated by hormones and occurs during the last weeks of pregnancy when steroid concentrations of estradiol (E2 ) and progesterone (P4 ) are highly elevated. Rodent intestinal uptake of immunoglobulin G is mediated by a receptor termed Fc fragment of IgG, Receptor, Transporter, alpha (FcGRT) and supported by light chain Beta-2-Microglobulin (β2M). We hypothesized that steroid hormone treatments (E2 and P4 ) of bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro would induce up-regulation of IgG1 transcytosis candidate gene mRNA expression suggesting involvement in IgG1 transcytosis. Two different primary bovine mammary epithelial cell cultures were cultured on plastic and rat tail collagen and treated with hormonal combinations (steroids/lactogenic hormones). Evaluated mRNA components were bLactoferrin (bLf: a control), bFcGRT, β2M, and various small GTPases; the latter components are reported to direct endosomal movements in eukaryotic cells. All tested transcytosis components showed strong expression of mRNA in the cells. Expression of bFcGRT, bRab25 and bRhoB were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) by steroid hormones. bRab25 and bRhoB showed increased expression by steroid treatments, but also with lactogenic hormones. Analysis for the oestrogen receptor (ER) mRNA was mostly negative, but 25% of the cultures tested exhibited weak expression, while the progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was always detected. bRab25 and bRhoB and likely bFcGRT are potential candidate genes for IgG1 transcytosis in bovine mammary cells. PMID:23279563

  11. Reprogrammed Transcriptome in Rhesus-Bovine Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Otu, Hasan H.; Chen, Ying; Lee, Young; Latham, Keith; Cibelli, Jose B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Global activation of the embryonic genome (EGA), one of the most critical steps in early mammalian embryo development, is recognized as the time when interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos fail to thrive. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed the EGA-related transcriptome of rhesus-bovine iSCNT 8- to 16-cell embryos and dissected the reprogramming process in terms of embryonic gene activation, somatic gene silencing, and maternal RNA degradation. Compared with fibroblast donor cells, two thousand and seven genes were activated in iSCNT embryos, one quarter of them reaching expression levels comparable to those found in in vitro fertilized (IVF) rhesus embryos. This suggested that EGA in iSCNT embryos had partially recapitulated rhesus embryonic development. Eight hundred and sixty somatic genes were not silenced properly and continued to be expressed in iSCNT embryos, which indicated incomplete nuclear reprogramming. We compared maternal RNA degradation in bovine oocytes between bovine-bovine SCNT and iSCNT embryos. While maternal RNA degradation occurred in both SCNT and iSCNT embryos, we saw more limited overall degradation of maternal RNA in iSCNT embryos than in SCNT embryos. Several important maternal RNAs, like GPF9, were not properly processed in SCNT embryos. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggested that iSCNT embryos are capable of triggering EGA, while a portion of somatic cell-associated genes maintain their expression. Maternal RNA degradation seems to be impaired in iSCNT embryos. Further understanding of the biological roles of these genes, networks, and pathways revealed by iSCNT may expand our knowledge about cell reprogramming, pluripotency, and differentiation. PMID:21799794

  12. [Study on pluripotency and cultivation of ES-like cells derived from male germ stem cells of bovine fetuses].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wu-Zi; Shen, Wen-Zheng; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2007-07-01

    Male germ stem cells (mGSCs), which is in testis after sex differentiation, derive from primordial germ cells. In this study, bovine mGSCs were isolated from testis of 20 weeks fetuses. Number of CD9 positive cells of the cells through two-steps adhering plates velocity different was 95.8% by flow cytometer. The carina-type cells clones and the plane-type cells clones appeared in co-cultured system. One cells lines had been successively maintained for 4 passages, and the cells clusters showed AKP positive staining. The cells clusters showed nest-shape in third passage showed SSEA1 and Oct-4 positive staining. These cells can also spontaneously differentiate into c-kit positive staining germ cells, and the cells were directional induced to formaactin positive staining cardiac-like cells cluster and NF positive staining neuron-like cells. The conclusion showed that male germ stem cells from 20 weeks bovine fetuses could be in vitro formed like embryonic stem cells. PMID:17822057

  13. [Study on pluripotency and cultivation of ES-like cells derived from male germ stem cells of bovine fetuses].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wu-Zi; Shen, Wen-Zheng; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2007-07-01

    Male germ stem cells (mGSCs), which is in testis after sex differentiation, derive from primordial germ cells. In this study, bovine mGSCs were isolated from testis of 20 weeks fetuses. Number of CD9 positive cells of the cells through two-steps adhering plates velocity different was 95.8% by flow cytometer. The carina-type cells clones and the plane-type cells clones appeared in co-cultured system. One cells lines had been successively maintained for 4 passages, and the cells clusters showed AKP positive staining. The cells clusters showed nest-shape in third passage showed SSEA1 and Oct-4 positive staining. These cells can also spontaneously differentiate into c-kit positive staining germ cells, and the cells were directional induced to formaactin positive staining cardiac-like cells cluster and NF positive staining neuron-like cells. The conclusion showed that male germ stem cells from 20 weeks bovine fetuses could be in vitro formed like embryonic stem cells.

  14. Cell proliferation and progesterone synthesis depend on lipid metabolism in bovine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Elis, Sebastien; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2015-03-15

    In dairy cows, lipids are essential to support energy supplies for all biological functions, especially during early lactation. Lipid metabolism is crucial for sustaining proper reproductive function. Alteration of lipid metabolism impacts follicular development and affects oocyte developmental competence. Indeed, nonesterified fatty acids are able to decrease granulosa cell (GC) proliferation and affect estradiol synthesis, thus potentially affecting follicular growth and viability. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of lipid metabolism on bovine GCs, through the use of the lipid metabolism inhibitors etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid (FA) oxidation through inhibition of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), and C75, an inhibitor of FA synthesis through inhibition of fatty acid synthase. We showed that etomoxir and C75 significantly inhibited DNA synthesis in vitro; C75 also significantly decreased progesterone synthesis. Both inhibitors significantly reduced AMPK (5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation. Etomoxir also affected the AKT (protein kinase B) signaling pathway. Combined, these data suggest that both FA oxidation and synthesis are important for the bovine GCs to express a proliferative and steroidogenic phenotype and, thus, for sustaining follicular growth. Despite these findings, it is important to note that the changes caused by the inhibitors of FA metabolism on GCs in vitro are globally mild, suggesting that lipid metabolism is not as critical in GCs as was observed in the oocyte-cumulus complex. Further studies are needed to investigate the detailed mechanisms by which lipid metabolism interacts with GC functions.

  15. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal cells on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a tissue engineered nerve scaffold.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuping; Wang, Jiao; Ling, Shixin; Li, Zhuo; Li, Mingsheng; Li, Qiongyi; Ma, Zongren; Yu, Sijiu

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix as a scaffold for supporting the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells following induction with neural differentiation medium. We performed long-term, continuous observation of cell morphology, growth, differentiation, and neuronal development using several microscopy techniques in conjunction with immunohistochemistry. We examined specific neuronal proteins and Nissl bodies involved in the differentiation process in order to determine the neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The results show that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells that differentiate on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix display neuronal morphology with unipolar and bi/multipolar neurite elongations that express neuronal-specific proteins, including βIII tubulin. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grown on fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix and induced for long periods of time with neural differentiation medium differentiated into a multilayered neural network-like structure with long nerve fibers that was composed of several parallel microfibers and neuronal cells, forming a complete neural circuit with dendrite-dendrite to axon-dendrite to dendrite-axon synapses. In addition, growth cones with filopodia were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Paraffin sectioning showed differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells with the typical features of neuronal phenotype, such as a large, round nucleus and a cytoplasm full of Nissl bodies. The data suggest that the biological scaffold fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix is capable of supporting human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into functional neurons and the subsequent formation of tissue engineered nerve.

  16. Zonal centrifuge purification of human rabies vaccine obtained on bovine fetal kidney cells. Biological results.

    PubMed

    Atanasiu, P; Tsiang, H; Reculard, P; Aguilon, F; Lavergne, M; Adamovicz, P

    1978-01-01

    An inactivated human rabies vaccine prepared on bovine fetal kidney cells is concentrated and purified by zonal centrifugation. The peak of rabies particles is monitored by hemagglutination. Immunogenicity of the purified particles was evaluated by titration of specific antibodies from vaccinated animals. Protective activity of the vaccine was assayed on guinea pigs challenged with street rabies. Biological results were compared with those obtained with other tissue culture vaccines.

  17. Localization and quantitation of macrophages, mast cells, and eosinophils in the developing bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, K L; Parsons, C L M; Ellis, S E; Akers, R M

    2016-01-01

    Prepubertal mammary development involves elongation and branching of ducts and stromal tissue remodeling. This process is highly regulated and in mice is known to be affected by the presence of innate immune cells. Whether or not such immune cells are present or involved in bovine mammary development is unknown. For the first time, we determined the presence, location (relative to mammary ductal structures), and changes in numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages in prepubertal bovine mammary tissue, and evaluated the effects of age, ovariectomy, and exogenous estrogen on numbers of each cell type. Chemical stains and immunofluorescence were used to identify the 3 cell types in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mammary tissue from prepubertal female calves from 3 archived tissue sets. The ontogeny tissue set included samples of mammary tissue from female calves (n=4/wk) from birth to 6 wk of age. The ovary tissue set contained samples from ovary intact and ovariectomized heifers allowing us to investigate the influence of the ovaries on immune cells in the developing mammary gland in prepubertal heifers. Nineteen animals were intact or ovariectomized 30 d before sampling; they were 90, 120, or 150 d old at the time of sampling. A third tissue set, the estrogen set, allowed us to determine the effect of exogenous estrogen on innate immune cells in the gland. Eosinophils were identified via Luna staining, mast cells by May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and macrophages with immunofluorescence. Key findings were that more eosinophils and mast cells were observed in near versus far stroma in the ontogeny and ovary tissue sets but not estrogen. More macrophages were observed in near versus far stroma in ontogeny animals. Eosinophils were more abundant in the younger animals, and fewer macrophages tended to be observed in ovariectomized heifers as compared with intact heifers and estrogen treatment resulted in a reduction in cell numbers. In summary, we show for

  18. Alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (. cap alpha. -hANP) specific binding sites in bovine adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, K.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.I.; Ibayashi, H.; Matsuo, H.

    1986-06-13

    The effects of synthetic ..cap alpha..-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (..cap alpha..-hANP) on steroidogenesis in bovine adrenocortical cells in primary monolayer culture were investigated. ..cap alpha..-hANP did not inhibit basal aldosterone secretion. ..cap alpha..-hANP induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of basal levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion and also of aCTH (10/sup -8/M)-stimulated increases in aldosterone, cortisol and DHEA secretion. Visualization of (/sup 125/I) ..cap alpha..-hANP binding sites in bovine adrenal gland by an in vitro autoradiographic technique demonstrated that these sites were highly localized in the adrenal cortex, especially the zona glomerulosa. These results suggest that the adrenal cortex may be a target organ for direct receptor-mediated actions of ..cap alpha..-hANP.

  19. Establishment of bovine embryonic stem cells after knockdown of CDX2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Song, Miao; Yang, Xi; Liu, Xin; Liu, Kun; Jiao, Cuihua; Wang, Jinze; Bai, Chunling; Su, Guanghua; Liu, Xuefei; Li, Guangpeng

    2016-01-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cells (bESCs) have not been successfully established yet. One reason could be that CDX2, as the trophectoderm regulator, expresses in bovine inner cell mass (ICM), which probably becomes a technical barrier for maintaining the pluripotency of bESCs in vitro. We hypothesized that CDX2 knockdown (CDX2-KD) could remove such negative effort, which will be helpful for capturing complete and permanent capacity of pluripotency. Expression and localization of pluripotent genes were not affected in CDX2-KD blastocysts. The CDX2-KD bESCs grew into monolayers on feeder layer. Pluripotent genes expressed at an improved levels and lasted longer time in CDX2-KD bESCs, along with down-regulation of DNA methylation on promoters of both OCT4 and SOX2. The cystic structure typical for trophoblast cells did not show during culturing CDX2-KD bESCs. CDX2-KD bESC-derived Embryoid bodies showed with compact morphology and with the improved levels of differentiations in three germ layers. CDX2-KD bESCs still carried the capacity of forming teratomas with three germ layers after long-term culture. In summary, CDX2 in bovine ICM was inducer of trophoblast lineage with negative effect on maintenance of pluripotency of bESCs. Precise regulation CDX2 expression to switch on/off will be studied next for application on establishment of bESCs. PMID:27320776

  20. A morphometric analysis of adrenocortical actin localized by immunoelectron microscopy: the effect of adrenocorticotropin.

    PubMed

    Loesser, K E; Malamed, S

    1987-10-01

    The localization of actin and the effect of ACTH on its concentration was examined in freshly isolated rat adrenocortical cells. Lowicryl K4M-embedded cells were used for the immunoelectron localization of actin; gold was used as a label for immunoreactive sites. Actin was at least 4 times as concentrated at the cortical cytoplasm as in the lipid droplets and at least 5 times as concentrated in the microvilli as in the lipid droplets. ACTH stimulation approximately doubled the concentration of actin in the cortical cytoplasm and increased by 50% the concentration of actin in the microvilli. The microvillar contribution to the cell surface area was 40% higher in ACTH-stimulated cells than it was in unstimulated cells. These results provide quantitative evidence suggesting that actin and the microvilli participate in steroid secretion by the adrenocortical cell.

  1. Establishment of an indicator cell line for monitoring bovine immunodeficiency virus infection and inhibitor susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xue; Su, Yang; Liu, Chang; Tan, Juan; Liu, Li; Geng, Yun-Qi; Qiao, Wen-Tao

    2010-01-01

    Indicator cell lines are useful biological tools for monitoring virus infection. In order to monitor infection with bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in vitro, an indicator cell line derived from baby hamster kidney cells which contains integrated copies of an enhanced green fluorescent protein gene driven by the BIV long terminal repeat was constructed. The BIV indicator cell line, designated BIVE, can detect BIV infection more easily and effectively than the established method, which involves the observation of cell cytopathic effects. Furthermore, viral titration using an assay based on the indicator cells is 100 times more sensitive than the assay based on cytopathic effect. The finding that BIV can infect the hamster cell line expands the known host range of BIV in vitro. The BIV indicator cell line could also be used for the evaluation of the inhibitory effect of antiviral agents. The fusion inhibition effect of the heptad repeat 2 region of the BIV envelope protein could also be quantified.

  2. Ultrastructural Aspects of the Prenatal Bovine Ovary Differentiation with a Special Focus on the Interstitial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, R A-M; Scholz, W; Sinowatz, F

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the ultrastructural features during the development of fetal bovine ovaries (crown rump length ranging from 11.4 to 94.0 cm). An interesting observation was the occurrence of big elongated cells containing a variety of electron dense granules and light homogenous vacuoles/bodies. They were located between the stroma cells surrounding the germ cell cord ends, adjacent to the first formed primordial follicles, typically situated near blood vessels. ER alpha and ER beta receptor positive cells could be detected in the same regions by means of immunohistochemistry. Intercellular bridges linked the germ cells nests oogonia. Germ cell cords consisted of centrally located, large, pale oogonia, surrounded by elongated somatic cells with very long cytoplasm extensions. Primordial follicles with flat pale follicular cells could be observed on the inner end of the cords. Extrusions of the outer nuclear membrane could often been recognised in voluminous oocytes. PMID:27439665

  3. [Testing the susceptibility of cultured cells to infection with bovine leukemia virus].

    PubMed

    Bobáková, M; Lesník, F; Vrtiak, O J

    1985-05-01

    Different cell cultures were studied for their susceptibility to bovine leucosis virus infection. Syncytial assay was used for this study. The FLS/BLV+ cell line served as virus source. Cell lines BHK-21 and ZP-1/58 were found to be susceptible to syncytium formation. Large cells with one to three large nuclei, and loose nuclei reaching the size of syncytium were observed to occur in the BHK-21 and ZP-1/58 cell lines, apart from the syncytial formations. The virus specificity of the syncytia arising in these two cell lines was confirmed by the immunofluorescence assay. In the case of the immunoperoxidase assay, a positive result was obtained only in the BHK-21 cell line. The occurrence of syncytia and large nuclei was observed even in the cases when the BHK-21 cells were infected with the lymphocytes of leucotic cows. PMID:2992148

  4. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the yolk sacs of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Mançanares, C A F; Oliveira, V C; Oliveira, L J; Carvalho, A F; Sampaio, R V; Mançanares, A C F; Souza, A F; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

    2015-10-01

    The yolk sac (YS) represents a promising source of stem cells for research because of the hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell niches that are present in this structure during the development of the embryo. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of YS tissue and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bovine YSs. Our results show that the YS is macroscopically located in the exocoelomic cavity in the ventral portion of the embryo and consists of a transparent membrane formed by a central sac-like portion and two ventrally elongated projections. Immunohistochemistry analyses were positive for OCT4, CD90, CD105, and CD44 markers in the YS of both gestational age groups. The MSCs of bovine YS were isolated using enzymatic digestion and were grown in vitro for at least 11 passages to verify their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization that revealed the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79 and the absence of CD45, CD44, and CD79, which are positive and negative markers of MSCs, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (chondrogenic: Alcian Blue, osteogenic: Alizarin Red, and adipogenic: Oil Red O) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analyses showed no differences in the patterns of gene expression between the groups or passages tested, with the exception of the expression of SOX2, which was slightly different in the G1P3 group compared to the other groups. Our results suggest that YS tissue from bovines can be used as a source of MSCs, which makes YS tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  5. Interaction of urokinase with specific receptors stimulates mobilization of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fibbi, G.; Ziche, M.; Morbidelli, L. ); Magnelli, L.; Del Rosso, M. )

    1988-12-01

    On the basis of {sup 125}I-labeled plasminogen activator binding analysis the authors have found that bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells have specific receptors for human urinary-type plasminogen activator on the cell membrane. Each cell exposes about 37,000 free receptors with a K{sub d} of 0.8958{times}10{sup {minus}12} M. A monoclonal antibody against the 17,500 proteolytic fragment of the A chain of the plasminogen activator, not containing the catalytic site of the enzyme, impaired the specific binding, thus suggesting the involvement of a sequence present on the A chain in the interaction with the receptor, as previously shown in other cell model systems. Both the native molecule and the A chain are able to stimulate endothelial cell motility in the Boyden chamber, when used at nanomolar concentrations. The use of the same monoclonal antibody that can inhibit ligand-receptor interaction can impair the plasminogen activator and A-chain-induced endothelial cell motility, suggesting that under the conditions used in this in vitro model system, the motility of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells depends on the specific interaction of the ligand with free receptors on the surface of endothelial cells.

  6. The ultrastructure of bovine ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells during the perinatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Asari, M; Kano, Y; Wakui, S; Nishita, T; Matsushita, H; Oshige, H

    1989-01-01

    The ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells in bovine fetuses and neonates were examined by light and electron microscopy. In 7-9 months old fetuses (68, 82 and 86 cm CRL) the dome epithelium was usually a little thinner than elsewhere and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. FAE cells were already distinguishable by their being more cuboidal and eosinophilic than the other epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of the FAE cells bulged noticeably into the lumen and contained numerous mitochondria and vacuoles. At 18 hours and 21 hours after birth, the dome epithelium was more columnar and eosinophilic than previously and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. The FAE cells showed characteristic bulging of large cytoplasmic processes into the lumen, as seen in the previous stage. In the cytoplasm, moderate numbers of mitochondria, numerous vesicles and microtubules could be seen. Frequently degenerated FAE cells could also be found among normal FAE cells in the epithelium. After this stage the cytoplasmic processes almost disappeared but distribution of the other organelles was similar to that seen at the previous stage except that multivesicular bodies were frequently seen in the apical cytoplasm. These histological results suggest that bovine ileal FAE cells are histologically and functionally mature by birth and that at birth they seem to be able to react against the penetration of pathogenic substances from the extrauterine environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2606783

  7. CDX2 regulates multiple trophoblast genes in bovine trophectoderm CT-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Schiffmacher, Andrew T; Keefer, Carol L

    2013-10-01

    The bovine trophectoderm (TE) undergoes a dramatic morphogenetic transition prior to uterine endometrial attachment. Many studies have documented trophoblast-specific gene expression profiles at various pre-attachment stages, yet genetic interactions within the transitioning TE gene regulatory network are not well characterized. During bovine embryogenesis, transcription factors OCT4 and CDX2 are co-expressed during early trophoblast elongation. In this study, the bovine trophectoderm-derived CT-1 cell line was utilized as a genetic model to examine the roles of CDX2 and OCT4 within the bovine trophoblast gene regulatory network. An RT-PCR screen for TE-lineage transcription factors identified expression of CDX2, ERRB, ID2, SOX15, ELF5, HAND1, and ASCL2. CT-1 cells also express a nuclear-localized, 360 amino acid OCT4 ortholog of the pluripotency-specific human OCT4A. To delineate the roles of CDX2 and OCT4 within the CT-1 gene network, CDX2 and OCT4 levels were manipulated via overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown. An increase in CDX2 negatively regulated OCT4 expression, but increased expression of IFNT, HAND1, ASCL2, SOX15, and ELF5. A reduction of CDX2 levels exhibited a reciprocal effect, resulting in decreased expression of IFNT, HAND1, ASCL2, and SOX15. Both overexpression and knockdown of CDX2 increased ETS2 transcription. In contrast to CDX2, manipulation of OCT4 levels only revealed a positive autoregulatory mechanism and upregulation of ASCL2. Together, these results suggest that CDX2 is a core regulator of multiple trophoblast genes within CT-1 cells.

  8. Pathological and molecular features of adrenocortical carcinoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Volante, M; Buttigliero, C; Greco, E; Berruti, A; Papotti, M

    2008-07-01

    The pathological diagnosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), which is based on gross and microscopic criteria, is subjective. None of the features are absolutely indicative of malignancy, although their combination in a scoring system may correctly identify ACC. The Weiss system, which is currently the most popular, combines nine morphological parameters, of which three are structural ("dark" cytoplasm, diffuse architecture, necrosis), three are cytological (atypia, mitotic count, atypical mitotic figures) and three are related to invasion (of sinusoids, veins and tumour capsule). Although there are strictly defined criteria for each feature, some are straightforward and objective, while others are potentially more problematic (diffuse architecture, necrosis, sinusoidal, venous and capsular invasions). The classification of oncocytic and paediatric adrenocortical tumours is even more challenging, as not all of the above morphological parameters are predictors of malignancy in these tumour types. As an alternative to the morphological approach, a wide array of chromosomal, genetic, molecular and immunohistochemical markers have been tested in ACC to identify reliable diagnostic and prognostic factors. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of p53, IGF-2 and molecules involved in cancer cell invasive properties seem the most promising. These molecular markers may not only play a role in the biology of these tumours and have prognostic implications, but may also be used as potential targets for treatment. However, these markers are not sufficiently sensitive and specific to replace conventional morphological criteria. PMID:18430754

  9. Cultured C2C12 cell lines as a model for assessment of bacterial attachment to bovine primary muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zulfakar, Siti Shahara; White, Jason D; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark L

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms of bacterial attachment to meat tissues need to be understood to enhance meat safety interventions. However, little is known about attachment of foodborne pathogens to meat muscle cells. In this study, attachment of six Escherichia coli and two Salmonella strains to primary bovine muscle cells and a cultured muscle cell line, C2C12, was measured, including the effect of temperature. At 37°C, all but one strain (EC623) attached to C2C12 cells, whereas only five of eight strains (M23Sr, H10407, EC473, Sal1729a and Sal691) attached to primary cells. At 10 °C, two strains (H10407 and EC473) attached to C2C12 cells, compared to four strains (M23Sr, EC614, H10407 and Sal1729a) of primary cells. Comparing all strains at both temperatures, EC614 displayed the highest CFU per C2C12 cell (4.60±2.02CFU/muscle cell at 37 °C), whereas greater numbers of M23Sr attached per primary cell (51.88±39.43CFU/muscle cell at 37 °C). This study indicates that primary bovine muscle cells may provide a more relevant model system to study bacterial attachment to beef carcasses compared to cell lines such as C2C12.

  10. Analgesia Induced by Isolated Bovine Chromaffin Cells Implanted in Rat Spinal Cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagen, Jacqueline; Pappas, George D.; Pollard, Harvey B.

    1986-10-01

    Chromaffin cells synthesize and secrete several neuroactive substances, including catecholamines and opioid peptides, that, when injected into the spinal cord, induce analgesia. Moreover, the release of these substances from the cells can be stimulated by nicotine. Since chromaffin cells from one species have been shown to survive when transplanted to the central nervous system of another species, these cells are ideal candidates for transplantation to alter pain sensitivity. Bovine chromaffin cells were implanted into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar spinal region in adult rats. Pain sensitivity and response to nicotine stimulation was determined at various intervals following cell implantation. Low doses of nicotine were able to induce potent analgesia in implanted animals as early as one day following their introduction into the host spinal cord. This response could be elicited at least through the 4 months the animals were tested. The induction of analgesia by nicotine in implanted animals was dose related. This analgesia was blocked by the opiate antagonist naloxone and partially attenuated by the adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. These results suggest that the analgesia is due to the stimulated release of opioid peptides and catecholamines from the implanted bovine chromaffin cells and may provide a new therapeutic approach for the relief of pain.

  11. The effects of glucocorticosteroids on the chemiluminescence response of bovine phagocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Phillips, T R; Yang, W C; Schultz, R D

    1987-03-01

    The effects of corticosteroids on the chemiluminescence response of bovine phagocytic cells were determined both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro addition of hydrocortisone or dexamethasone had no significant effect on the chemiluminescence response of leukocytes in a whole blood or purified polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) population. Cattle that received a single 20 mg dose of dexamethasone or three 20 mg doses of dexamethasone (given 24 hours apart) demonstrated the expected effects on the bovine leukogram (leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, and monocytosis) and also demonstrated the expected suppressive effect on lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). However, neither a single nor multiple dexamethasone treatment(s) had an effect on the chemiluminescence response of phagocytes in whole blood, but significantly enhanced the chemiluminescence response of the purified PMN leukocyte population. There was no significant difference between the two dexamethasone treatment groups in either the degree or duration of the effects observed in the chemiluminescence or lymphocyte response assays.

  12. Melatonin improves reprogramming efficiency and proliferation of bovine-induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chunyu; Li, Xiangchen; Gao, Yuhua; Yuan, Ziao; Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hui; Liu, Changqing; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin can modulate neural stem cell (NSC) functions such as proliferation and differentiation into NSC-derived pluripotent stem cells (N-iPS) in brain tissue, but the effect and mechanism underlying this are unclear. Thus, we studied how primary cultured bovine NSCs isolated from the retinal neural layer could transform into N-iPS cell. NSCs were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 μm melatonin, and cell viability studies indicated that 10 μm melatonin can significantly increase cell viability and promote cell proliferation in NSCs in vitro. Thus, 10 μm melatonin was used to study miR-302/367-mediated cell reprogramming of NSCs. We noted that this concentration of melatonin increased reprogramming efficiency of N-iPS cell generation from primary cultured bovine NSCs and that this was mediated by downregulation of apoptosis-related genes p53 and p21. Then, N-iPS cells were treated with 1, 10, 100, or 500 μm melatonin, and N-iPS (M-N-iPS) cell proliferation was measured. We noted that 100 μm melatonin increased proliferation of N-iPS cells via increased phosphorylation of intracellular ERK1/2 via activation of its pathway in M-N-iPS via melatonin receptors 1 (MT1). Finally, we verified that N-iPS cells and M-N-iPS cells are similar to typical embryonic stem cells including the expression of pluripotency markers (Oct4 and Nanog), the ability to form teratomas in vivo, and the capacity to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers.

  13. Binding of Host Factors Influences Internalization and Intracellular Trafficking of Streptococcus uberis in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Raul A.; Dunlap, John R.; Oliver, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    We showed that internalization of Streptococcus uberis into bovine mammary epithelial cells occurred through receptor- (RME) and caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CME). We reported also that treatment of S. uberis with host proteins including lactoferrin (LF) enhanced its internalization into host cells. Since the underlying mechanism(s) involved in such enhancement was unknown we investigated if preincubation of S. uberis with host proteins drives internalization of this pathogen into host cells through CME. Thus, experiments involving coculture of collagen-, fibronectin-, and LF-pretreated S. uberis with bovine mammary epithelial cells treated with RME and CME inhibitors were conducted. Results showed that internalization of host proteins-pretreated S. uberis into mammary epithelial cells treated with RME inhibitors was higher than that of untreated controls. These results suggest that pretreatment with selected host proteins commits S. uberis to CME, thus avoiding intracellular bactericidal mechanisms and allowing its persistence into bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:20614000

  14. Expression and effect of resistin on bovine and rat granulosa cell steroidogenesis and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Virginie; Froment, Pascal; Ramé, Christelle; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Elis, Sébastien; Dupont, Joëlle

    2011-04-01

    Resistin, initially identified in adipose tissue and macrophages, was implicated in insulin resistance. Recently, its mRNA was found in hypothalamo-pituitary axis and rat testis, leading us to hypothesize that resistin may be expressed in ovary. In this study, we determined in rats and cows 1) the characterization of resistin in ovary by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and 2) the effects of recombinant resistin (10, 100, 333, and 667 ng/ml) ± IGF1 (76 ng/ml) on steroidogenesis, proliferation, and signaling pathways of granulosa cells (GC) measured by enzyme immunoassay, [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, and immunoblotting respectively. We observed that resistin mRNA and protein were present in several bovine and rat ovarian cells. Nevertheless, only bovine GC abundantly expressed resistin mRNA and protein. Resistin treatment decreased basal but not IGF1-induced progesterone (P<0.05; whatever the dose) and estradiol (P<0.005; for 10 and 333 ng/ml) production by bovine GC. In rats, resistin (10 ng/ml) increased basal and IGF1-induced progesterone secretion (P<0.0001), without effect on estradiol release. We found no effect of resistin on rat GC proliferation. Conversely, in cows, resistin increased basal proliferation (P<0.0001; for 100-667 ng/ml) and decreased IGF1-induced proliferation of GC (P<0.0001; for 10-333 ng/ml) associated with a decrease in cyclin D2 protein level (P<0.0001). Finally, resistin stimulated AKT and p38-MAPK phosphorylation in both species, ERK1/2-MAPK phosphorylation in rats and had the opposite effect on the AMPK pathway (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results show that resistin is expressed in rat and bovine ovaries. Furthermore, it can modulate GC functions in basal state or in response to IGF1 in vitro. PMID:21239528

  15. Bovine ooplasm partially remodels primate somatic nuclei following somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Beyhan, Zeki; Rodriguez, Ramon M; Ross, Pablo J; Iager, Amy E; Kaiser, German G; Chen, Ying; Cibelli, Jose B

    2009-03-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) has the potential to become a useful tool to address basic questions about the nucleus-cytoplasm interactions between species. It has also been proposed as an alternative for the preservation of endangered species and to derive autologous embryonic stem cells. Using chimpanzee/ bovine iSCNT as our experimental model we studied the early epigenetic events that take place soon after cell fusion until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Our analysis suggested partial EGA in iSCNT embryos at the eight-cell stage, as indicated by Br-UTP incorporation and expression of chimpanzee embryonic genes. Oct4, Stella, Crabp1, CCNE2, CXCL6, PTGER4, H2AFZ, c-MYC, KLF4, and GAPDH transcripts were expressed, while Nanog, Glut1, DSC2, USF2, Adrbk1, and Lin28 failed to be activated. Although development of iSCNT embryos did not progress beyond the 8- to 16-cell stage, chromatin remodeling events, monitored by H3K27 methylation, H4K5 acetylation, and global DNA methylation, were similar in both intra- and interspecies SCNT embryos. However, bisulfite sequencing indicated incomplete demethylation of Oct4 and Nanog promoters in eight-cell iSCNT embryos. ATP production levels were significantly higher in bovine SCNT embryos than in iSCNT embryos, TUNEL assays did not reveal any difference in the apoptotic status of the nuclei from both types of embryos. Collectively, our results suggest that bovine ooplasm can partially remodel chimpanzee somatic nuclei, and provides insight into some of the current barriers iSCNT must overcome if further embryonic development is to be expected. PMID:19196039

  16. Zinc supplementation protects against cadmium accumulation and cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ding; Liu, Jingying; Gao, Jianfeng; Shahzad, Muhammad; Han, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhi; Li, Jiakui; Sjölinder, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium ions (Cd2+) have been reported to accumulate in bovine tissues, although Cd2+ cytotoxicity has not been investigated thoroughly in this species. Zinc ions (Zn2+) have been shown to antagonize the toxic effects of heavy metals such as Cd2+ in some systems. The present study investigated Cd2+ cytotoxicity in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, and explored whether this was modified by Zn2+. Exposure to Cd2+ led to a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic cell death, with increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage. Zn2+ supplementation alleviated Cd2+-induced cytotoxicity and this protective effect was more obvious when cells were exposed to a lower concentration of Cd2+ (10 μM), as compared to 50 μM Cd2+. This indicated that high levels of Cd2+ accumulation might induce irreversible damage in bovine kidney cells. Metallothioneins (MTs) are metal-binding proteins that play an essential role in heavy metal ion detoxification. We found that co-exposure to Zn2+ and Cd2+ synergistically enhanced RNA and protein expression of MT-1, MT-2, and the metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in MDBK cells. Notably, addition of Zn2+ reduced the amounts of cytosolic Cd2+ detected following MDBK exposure to 10 μM Cd2+. These findings revealed a protective role of Zn2+ in counteracting Cd2+ uptake and toxicity in MDBK cells, indicating that this approach may provide a means to protect livestock from excessive Cd2+ accumulation.

  17. Application of a novel population of multipotent stem cells derived from skin fibroblasts as donor cells in bovine SCNT.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shaohui; Chen, Wuju; Liu, Xu; Xiao, Jiajia; Wang, Yanqin; Liu, Jun; Du, Yue; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated stem cells are better donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), resulting in more offspring than more differentiated cells. While various stem cell populations have been confirmed to exist in the skin, progress has been restricted due to the lack of a suitable marker for their prospective isolation. To address this fundamental issue, a marker is required that could unambiguously prove the differentiation state of the donor cells. We therefore utilized magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) to separate a homogeneous population of small SSEA-4(+) cells from a heterogeneous population of bovine embryonic skin fibroblasts (BEF). SSEA-4(+) cells were 8-10 μm in diameter and positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP). The percentage of SSEA-4(+) cells within the cultured BEF population was low (2-3%). Immunocytochemistry and PCR analyses revealed that SSEA-4(+) cells expressed pluripotency-related markers, and could differentiate into cells comprising all three germ layers in vitro. They remained undifferentiated over 20 passages in suspension culture. In addition, cloned embryos derived from SSEA-4 cells showed significant differences in cleavage rate and blastocyst development when compared with those from BEF and SSEA-4(-) cells. Moreover, blastocysts derived from SSEA-4(+) cells showed a higher total cell number and lower apoptotic index as compared to BEF and SSEA-4(-) derived cells. It is well known that nuclei from pluripotent stem cells yield a higher cloning efficiency than those from adult somatic cells, however, pluripotent stem cells are relatively difficult to obtain from bovine. The SSEA-4(+) cells described in the current study provide an attractive candidate for SCNT and a promising platform for the generation of transgenic cattle.

  18. Role of endothelial cells in bovine mammary gland health and disease.

    PubMed

    Ryman, Valerie E; Packiriswamy, Nandakumar; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-12-01

    The bovine mammary gland is a dynamic and complex organ composed of various cell types that work together for the purpose of milk synthesis and secretion. A layer of endothelial cells establishes the blood-milk barrier, which exists to facilitate the exchange of solutes and macromolecules necessary for optimal milk production. During bacterial challenge, however, endothelial cells divert some of their lactation function to protect the underlying tissue from damage by initiating inflammation. At the onset of inflammation, endothelial cells tightly regulate the movement of plasma components and leukocytes into affected tissue. Unfortunately, endothelial dysfunction as a result of exacerbated or sustained inflammation can negatively affect both barrier integrity and the health of surrounding extravascular tissue. The objective of this review is to highlight the role of endothelial cells in supporting milk production and regulating optimal inflammatory responses. The consequences of endothelial dysfunction and sustained inflammation on milk synthesis and secretion are discussed. Given the important role of endothelial cells in orchestrating the inflammatory response, a better understanding of endothelial function during mastitis may support development of targeted therapies to protect bovine mammary tissue and mammary endothelium.

  19. Endotoxin induction of an inhibitor of plasminogen activator in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    The effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) on the fibrinolytic activity of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were examined. Endotoxin suppressed the net fibrinolytic activity of cell extracts and conditioned media in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of endotoxin required at least 6 h for expression. Cell extracts and conditioned media contained a 44-kDa urokinase-like plasminogen activator. Media also contained multiple plasminogen activators with molecular masses of 65-75 and 80-100 kDa. Plasminogen activators in extracts and media were unchanged by treatment of cells with endotoxin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-abolished fibrinolytic activity of extracts and conditioned media. DFP-treated samples from endotoxin-treated but not untreated cells inhibited urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, but not plasmin. Inhibitory activity was lost by incubation at pH 3 or heating to 56/sup 0/C for 10 min. These treatments did not affect inhibitory activity of fetal bovine serum. Incubation of /sup 125/I-urokinase with DFP-treated medium from endotoxin-treated cells produced an inactive complex with an apparent molecular mass of 80-85 kDa.

  20. Chemerin is a novel regulator of lactogenesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Haga, Satoshi; Katoh, Daiki; So, Kyoung-ha; Choi, Ki-choon; Jung, U-suk; Lee, Hong-gu; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-gun

    2015-10-23

    Chemerin is a chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) produced by adipocytes and hepatocytes; it regulates insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemerin on the expression of genes related to lactogenesis and the regulators of chemerin signaling in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T). Two types of chemerin receptors, chemokine like-receptor 1 (CMKLR1) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2), were detected in cultured MAC-T cells, whereas chemerin was not detected. G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), another receptor of chemerin, was undetectable in MAC-T cells. Chemerin upregulated transcript expression of CMKLR1, CCRL2, and genes associated with fatty acid synthesis, glucose uptake, insulin signaling, and casein synthesis in MAC-T cells. Lactogenic hormones (insulin, growth hormone, and prolactin) downregulated the expression of CMKLR1 in MAC-T cells. Adiponectin suppressed CMKLR1 expression. TNF-α suppressed CMKLR1, but induced CCRL2 expression. These data suggest chemerin is a novel regulator of lactogenesis via its own receptor in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:26342800

  1. [Product safety analysis of somatic cell cloned bovine].

    PubMed

    Hua, Song; Lan, Jie; Song, Yongli; Lu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yong

    2010-05-01

    Somatic cell cloning (nuclear transfer) is a technique through which the nucleus (DNA) of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte for the generation of a new individual, genetically identical to the somatic cell donor. It could be applied for the enhancement of reproduction rate and the improvement of food products involving quality, yield and nutrition. In recent years, the United States, Japan and Europe as well as other countries announced that meat and milk products made from cloned cattle are safe for human consumption. Yet, cloned animals are faced with a wide range of health problems, with a high death rate and a high incidence of disease. The precise causal mechanisms for the low efficiency of cloning remain unclear. Is it safe that any products from cloned animals were allowed into the food supply? This review focuses on the security of meat, milk and products from cloned cattle based on the available data.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of cyclic AMP response in bovine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, D R; Guillemette, C; Sirard, M A; Richard, F J

    2015-09-01

    Acquisition of oocyte developmental competence needs to be understood to improve clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction. The stimulation of cumulus cell concentration of cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) by pharmacological agents during in vitro maturation (IVM) participates in improvement of oocyte quality. However, precise coordination and downstream targets of cAMP signaling in cumulus cells are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated better embryo development after cAMP stimulation for first 6 h during IVM. Using this model, we investigated cAMP signaling in cumulus cells through in vitro culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the presence of cAMP raising agents: forskolin, IBMX, and dipyridamole (here called FID treatment). Transcriptomic analysis of cumulus cells indicated that FID-induced differentially expressed transcripts were implicated in cumulus expansion, steroidogenesis, cell metabolism, and oocyte competence. Functional genomic analysis revealed that protein kinase-A (PKA), extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and calcium (Ca(2+)) pathways as key regulators of FID signaling. Inhibition of PKA (H89) in FID-supplemented COCs or substitution of FID with calcium ionophore (A23187) demonstrated that FID activated primarily the PKA pathway which inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and was upstream of calcium signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by FID supported a regulation by dual specific phosphatase (DUSP1) via PKA. Our findings imply that cAMP (FID) regulates cell metabolism, steroidogenesis, intracellular signaling and cumulus expansion through PKA which modulates these functions through optimization of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and coordination of calcium signaling. These findings have implications for development of new strategies for improving oocyte in vitro maturation leading to better developmental competence.

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of cyclic AMP response in bovine cumulus cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, D. R.; Guillemette, C.; Sirard, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of oocyte developmental competence needs to be understood to improve clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction. The stimulation of cumulus cell concentration of cyclic adenosine 3′5′-monophosphate (cAMP) by pharmacological agents during in vitro maturation (IVM) participates in improvement of oocyte quality. However, precise coordination and downstream targets of cAMP signaling in cumulus cells are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated better embryo development after cAMP stimulation for first 6 h during IVM. Using this model, we investigated cAMP signaling in cumulus cells through in vitro culture of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in the presence of cAMP raising agents: forskolin, IBMX, and dipyridamole (here called FID treatment). Transcriptomic analysis of cumulus cells indicated that FID-induced differentially expressed transcripts were implicated in cumulus expansion, steroidogenesis, cell metabolism, and oocyte competence. Functional genomic analysis revealed that protein kinase-A (PKA), extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), and calcium (Ca2+) pathways as key regulators of FID signaling. Inhibition of PKA (H89) in FID-supplemented COCs or substitution of FID with calcium ionophore (A23187) demonstrated that FID activated primarily the PKA pathway which inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and was upstream of calcium signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by FID supported a regulation by dual specific phosphatase (DUSP1) via PKA. Our findings imply that cAMP (FID) regulates cell metabolism, steroidogenesis, intracellular signaling and cumulus expansion through PKA which modulates these functions through optimization of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and coordination of calcium signaling. These findings have implications for development of new strategies for improving oocyte in vitro maturation leading to better developmental competence. PMID:26082143

  4. Alternate splicing regulated by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a signaling molecule and a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HADCs), butyrate exerts its impacts on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. In this study, we examined the effect of...

  5. Designing bovine T-cell vaccines via reverse immunology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T-cell responses contribute to immunity against many intra-cellular infections. There is, for example, strong evidence that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an essential role in mediating immunity to East Coast fever (ECF), a fatal lymphop...

  6. Giant adrenal pseudocyst harbouring adrenocortical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Michael; Fanning, Deirdre Mary; Moloney, James; Flood, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a very rare case of adreno-cortical carcinoma arising in a giant adrenal pseudocyst. A 64-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 6 week history of progressively worsening severe left abdominal pain, anorexia, anergia and constipation. On examination, she was cachectic with tenderness over the left abdomen and flank. Medical history was significant for gastritis and anaemia. During her investigation, a well-defined para-renal 12×6 centimetre multi-loculated cyst, of uncertain origin was identified on CT. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was not diagnostic. MRI showed the cyst to be likely adrenal in origin. Serum and urinary catecholamines were unremarkable. At laparotomy an unresectable large, tense, fixed, cystic mass was seen to occupy the left side of the abdomen. The cyst was de-roofed. Pathology showed a high-grade poorly differentiated adreno-cortical carcinoma with a pseudo-capsule. She died 2 months postoperatively. PMID:22679267

  7. Global Genetic Profiles of Gene Network Disruption in Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Induced Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient nutrient assimilation into useful animal-derived products is the ultimate requirement for successful animal production. Infection in young growing animals can decrease energy and nutrient use required for growth rate by redirection of nutrients to support immune defense processes. Bovine l...

  8. Identification of pluripotent cells in bovine uterus: in situ and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Łupicka, Martyna; Bodek, Gabriel; Shpigel, Nahum; Elnekave, Ehud; Korzekwa, Anna J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify uterine pluripotent cells both in bovine uterine tissues as well in epithelial, stromal, and myometrial uterine cell populations. Moreover, the relationship of pluripotent markers expression with age and the uterine horn side was considered. Uterine tissue was collected from ipsilateral and contralateral horns (days 8-10 of the estrous cycle). Immunohistostaining for C-KIT, OCT3/4, NANOG, and SOX2 in uterine tissue was determined. mRNA expression of C-KIT, OCT3/4, NANOG and SOX2 was evaluated in uterine tissue relative to the age of the cow and uterine horn side. Gene and protein expression of these markers in the uterine luminal epithelial, stromal, and myometrial cells was evaluated by real-time PCR and western blotting respectively. The expression of pluripotent cell markers OCT3/4, NANOG, and SOX2 was identified by flow cytometry assay in epithelial, stromal, and myometrial cells. Multilineage differentiation of the bovine uterine cells was performed. mRNA expression of OCT3/4, NANOG, and SOX2 in uterine tissue was higher in the ipsilateral horn than in the contralateral horn. Flow cytometry assay revealed positive fluorescence for OCT3/4, NANOG, and SOX2 in all uterine cell types. Results showed the age-dependent expression of pluripotent markers in uterine tissue. Beside, the different expression of pluripotent cells in each horn of uterus suggests the influence of ovarian hormones on these characteristics. The highest mRNA and protein expression for pluripotent markers was observed in stromal cells among uterine cells, which indicates this population of cells as the main site of pluripotent cells in the cow uterus.

  9. Effects of butyrate on the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in bovine kidney epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in bovine kidney epithelial cells primarily via down-regulating cell cycle-related gene expression and enhancing expression of pro-apoptotic genes. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an essential role in these processes as well a...

  10. [Study on relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on pain treatment].

    PubMed

    Hui, Jianfeng; Li, Tao; Du, Zhi; Song, Jichang

    2011-12-01

    This study was to investigate the relationship of dose-effect and time-effect of Alginate-Polylysine-Alginate (APA) microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells on the treatment of pain model rats. Using a rat model of painful peripheral neuropathy, the antinociceptive effects of APA microencapsulated bovine cells transplanted into the subarachnoid space was evaluated by cold allodynia test and hot hyperalgesia test. Compared with control group, the withdrawal difference with cell number 50 thousands groups, 100 thousands groups and 200 thousands groups was reduced (P < 0.05), and the difference decreased with the cells increases, indicating a significant analgesic effect. There was no significant difference between 400 thousands groups and 200 thousands groups. This analgesic effect maintained longer than 12 weeks. There was a positive correlation between the analgesic effect and the quantity of APA microencapsulated bovine chromaffin cells which were transplanted to treat pain model rats, and the effective antinociception remained longer than 12 weeks.

  11. Identification, characterization, and regulation of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    Synaptic input to bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and results in secretion of catecholamines. Three probes previously shown to recognize AChRs on neurons were used to identify the AChR on bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture: monoclonal antibody mAb 35, a toxin that blocks receptor function, and the agonist nicotine. Competition for {sup 3}H-nicotine binding was used to measure the affinity of cholinergic ligands, and revealed the pharmacological profile expected for a neuronal-type AChR. At steady state the rate both of receptor insertion into and loss from the plasma membrane is about 3%/hour, resulting in a half-life in the surface of about 24 hours. Exposure to the anti-AChR antibody results in a loss of AChRs from the surface of the cells through a process that has the characteristics of antigenic modulation. The number of AChRs on the surface of the chromaffin cells can also be modulated by agonists and hormones, including glucocotricoids. Catecholamines, three peptides that may be secreted by chromaffin cells, and K{sup +}-induced secretion reduce agonist-induced catecholamine release by decreasing the number of AChRs, providing a mechanism for autoregulation.

  12. Effects of concanavalin A on the progesterone production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Destro, F C; Martin, I; Landim-Alvarenga, Fdc; Ferreira, Jcp; Pate, J L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of concanavalin A (CONA) on the progesterone (P4) production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells (LCs) in vitro. Luteal cells were collected during the mid-luteal stage (at 10-12 days following ovulation) and processed in the laboratory. Luteal cells were grown for 7 days in a humid atmosphere with 5% CO2 , with or without 10% foetal bovine serum, and were subjected to the following treatments: control: no treatment; CONA (10 μg/ml); LH (100 μg/ml); CONA + LH; LH (100 μg/ml) + prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10 ng/ml); CONA + LH + PGF2α. Samples of the culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 7 (D7) for P4 quantification. The cells were counted on D7 of culture. Differences between treatments were considered statistically significant at p < .05. Culture in the presence of CONA decreased the P4-secreting capacity of LCs on D7 of culture, particularly in the absence of serum. The cell numbers did not change between treatments.

  13. Expression of bovine vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity in baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed

    Roth, D A; Rehemtulla, A; Kaufman, R J; Walsh, C T; Furie, B; Furie, B C

    1993-09-15

    A vitamin K-dependent carboxylase has recently been purified from bovine liver microsomes and candidate cDNA clones have been isolated. Definitive identification of the carboxylase remains circumstantial since expression of candidate carboxylase cDNAs in mammalian cells is confounded by the presence of endogenous carboxylase activity. To overcome this problem, a recombinant strain of baculovirus (Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus, AcMNPV) encoding a putative carboxylase (vbCbx/AcMNPV) was used to infect Sf9 insect cells, which we demonstrate have no endogenous carboxylase activity. Infection with vbCbx/AcMNPV conferred vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity to Sf9 insect cells. Carboxylase activity was demonstrated to peak 2-3 days after infection with vbCbx/AcMNPV. Metabolic radiolabeling with L-[35S]methionine revealed that the 90-kDa recombinant protein is the major protein synthesized at the time of peak activity after infection. An anti-peptide antibody directed against residues 86-99 reacted with bovine liver carboxylase on Western blot analysis and immunoprecipitated recombinant carboxylase from infected Sf9 microsomal protein preparations. Since Sf9 insect cells lack endogenous vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity, expression of carboxylase activity in Sf9 insect cells with recombinant baculovirus demonstrates that the protein encoded by this cDNA is a vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. PMID:8378308

  14. Effects of concanavalin A on the progesterone production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Destro, F C; Martin, I; Landim-Alvarenga, Fdc; Ferreira, Jcp; Pate, J L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of concanavalin A (CONA) on the progesterone (P4) production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells (LCs) in vitro. Luteal cells were collected during the mid-luteal stage (at 10-12 days following ovulation) and processed in the laboratory. Luteal cells were grown for 7 days in a humid atmosphere with 5% CO2 , with or without 10% foetal bovine serum, and were subjected to the following treatments: control: no treatment; CONA (10 μg/ml); LH (100 μg/ml); CONA + LH; LH (100 μg/ml) + prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10 ng/ml); CONA + LH + PGF2α. Samples of the culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 7 (D7) for P4 quantification. The cells were counted on D7 of culture. Differences between treatments were considered statistically significant at p < .05. Culture in the presence of CONA decreased the P4-secreting capacity of LCs on D7 of culture, particularly in the absence of serum. The cell numbers did not change between treatments. PMID:27558864

  15. Critical role of cholesterol in bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqian; Ding, Xiuyan; Tao, Jie; Wang, Jianye; Zhao, Xin; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2010-07-29

    Cholesterol is involved in the life cycle of many viruses. Here, we examined the role of cholesterol for both viral envelope and target cell membrane for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) infection. Cholesterol depletion by pretreatment of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells with a cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), inhibited the production of BoHV-1 in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was partially reversed by cholesterol replenishment, indicating that the reduction was caused by cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol depletion at the post-entry stage only had a mild effect on the virus production. However, cell membrane cholesterol depletion did not reduce the virus attachment. In addition, treatment of BoHV-1 particles with MbetaCD also reduced the virus infectivity significantly and the effect was partially reversed by addition of exogenous cholesterol. Taken together, these data implicated that cell membrane cholesterol mainly contributed to BoHV-1 entry into MDBK cells and the viral envelope cholesterol was also essential for the virus infectivity.

  16. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). MDA content in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was significantly increased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). The cryomedia added 15% trehalose exhibited the greatest percentage of cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT) among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, GSH content was the lowest among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). However, there were no significance differences in MDA content among the groups added 10, 15 and 20% trehalose (P>0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. PMID:25818604

  17. Adrenal medulla calcium channel population is not conserved in bovine chromaffin cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Benavides, A; Calvo, S; Tornero, D; González-García, C; Ceña, V

    2004-01-01

    During the stress response adrenal medullary chromaffin cells release catecholamines to the bloodstream. Voltage-activated calcium channels present in the cell membrane play a crucial role in this process. Although the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of chromaffin cell calcium channels have been studied in detail, the molecular composition of these channels has not been defined yet. Another aspect that needs to be explored is the extent to which chromaffin cells in culture reflect the adrenal medulla calcium channel characteristics. In this sense, it has been described that catecholamine release in the intact adrenal gland recruits different calcium channels than those recruited during secretion from cultured chromaffin cells. Additionally, recent electrophysiological studies show that chromaffin cells in culture differ from those located in the intact adrenal medulla in the contribution of several calcium channel types to the whole cell current. However there is not yet any study that compares the population of calcium channels in chromaffin cells with that one present in the adrenal medulla. In order to gain some insight into the roles that calcium channels might play in the adrenal medullary cells we have analyzed the alpha1 subunit mRNA expression profile. We demonstrate that the expression pattern of voltage-dependent calcium channels in cultured bovine chromaffin cells markedly differs from that found in the native adrenal medulla and that glucocorticoids are only partially involved in those differences. Additionally, we show, for the first time, that the cardiac isoform of L-type calcium channel is present in both bovine adrenal medulla and cultured chromaffin cells and that its levels of expression do not vary during culture. PMID:15450357

  18. Genomic landscape of paediatric adrenocortical tumours.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Emilia M; Chen, Xiang; Easton, John; Finkelstein, David; Liu, Zhifa; Pounds, Stanley; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Lund, Troy C; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Boggs, Kristy; Yergeau, Donald; Cheng, Jinjun; Mulder, Heather L; Manne, Jayanthi; Jenkins, Jesse; Mastellaro, Maria J; Figueiredo, Bonald C; Dyer, Michael A; Pappo, Alberto; Zhang, Jinghui; Downing, James R; Ribeiro, Raul C; Zambetti, Gerard P

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis. Here we analyse 37 adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. Most cases (91%) show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 11p, with uniform selection against the maternal chromosome. IGF2 on chromosome 11p is overexpressed in 100% of the tumours. TP53 mutations and chromosome 17 LOH with selection against wild-type TP53 are observed in 28 ACTs (76%). Chromosomes 11p and 17 undergo copy-neutral LOH early during tumorigenesis, suggesting tumour-driver events. Additional genetic alterations include recurrent somatic mutations in ATRX and CTNNB1 and integration of human herpesvirus-6 in chromosome 11p. A dismal outcome is predicted by concomitant TP53 and ATRX mutations and associated genomic abnormalities, including massive structural variations and frequent background mutations. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the nature, timing and potential prognostic significance of key genetic alterations in paediatric ACT and outline a hypothetical model of paediatric adrenocortical tumorigenesis. PMID:25743702

  19. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  20. Differential effects of the neuroprotectant lubeluzole on bovine and mouse chromaffin cell calcium channel subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Guijo, Jesús M; Gandía, Luis; de Pascual, Ricardo; García, Antonio G

    1997-01-01

    The effects of lubeluzole (a neuroprotective benzothiazole derivative) and its (−) enantiomer R91154 on whole-cell currents through Ca2+ channels, with 10 mM Ba2+ as charge carrier (IBa), have been studied in bovine and mouse voltage-clamped adrenal chromaffin cells. Currents generated by applying 50 ms depolarizing test pulses to 0 mV, from a holding potential of −80 mV, at 10 s intervals had an average magnitude of 1 nA. Lubeluzole and R91154 blocked the peak IBa of bovine chromaffin cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner; their IC50s were 1.94 μM for lubeluzole and 2.54 μM for R91154. In a current-voltage protocol, lubeluzole (3 μM) inhibited peak IBa at all test potentials. However, no obvious shifts of the I-V curve were detected. After 10 min exposure to 3 μM lubeluzole, the late current (measured at the end of the pulse) was inhibited more than the peak current. Upon wash out of the drug, the inactivation reversed first and then the peak current recovered. Blockade of peak current was greater at more depolarizing holding potentials (i.e. 35% at −110 mV and 87% at −50 mV, after 10 min superfusion with lubeluzole). Inactivation of the current was pronounced at −110 mV, decreased at −80 mV and did not occur at −50 mV. Intracellular dialysis of bovine voltage-clamped chromaffin cells with 3 μM lubeluzole caused neither blockade nor inactivation of IBa. The external application of 3 μM lubeluzole to those dialysed cells produced inhibition as well as inactivation of IBa. The effects of lubeluzole (3 μM) on IBa in mouse chromaffin cells were similar to those in bovine chromaffin cells. At −80 mV holding potential, a pronounced inactivation of the current led to greater blockade of the late IBa (66%) as compared with peak IBa (46% after 10 min superfusion with lubeluzole). In mouse chromaffin cells approximately half of the whole-cell IBa was sensitive to 3 μM nifedipine (L-type Ca2

  1. Melatonin inhibits paraquat-induced cell death in bovine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yun-Wei; Sun, Ye-Qing; Sun, Wei-Jun; Du, Wei-Hua; Hao, Hai-Sheng; Zhao, Shan-Jiang; Zhu, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Preimplantation embryos are sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage that can be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from normal embryonic metabolism and/or the external surroundings. Paraquat (PQ), a commonly used pesticide and potent ROS generator, can induce embryotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin on PQ-induced damage during embryonic development in bovine preimplantation embryos. PQ treatment significantly reduced the ability of bovine embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage, and the addition of melatonin markedly reversed the developmental failure caused by PQ (20.9% versus 14.3%). Apoptotic assay showed that melatonin pretreatment did not change the total cell number in blastocysts, but the incidence of apoptotic nuclei and the release of cytochrome c were significantly decreased. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that melatonin pre-incubation significantly altered the expression levels of genes associated with redox signaling, particularly by attenuating the transcript level of Txnip and reinforcing the expression of Trx. Furthermore, melatonin pretreatment significantly reduced the expression of the pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Bax, while the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and XIAP was unaffected. Western blot analysis showed that melatonin protected bovine embryos from PQ-induced damage in a p38-dependent manner, but extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) did not appear to be involved. Together, these results identify an underlying mechanism by which melatonin enhances the developmental potential of bovine preimplantation embryos under oxidative stress conditions.

  2. Virus-host interactions in persistently FMDV-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, V; Pacheco, J M; Larocco, Michael; Gladue, D P; Pauszek, S J; Smoliga, G; Krug, P W; Baxt, B; Borca, M V; Rodriguez, L

    2014-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus in pharyngeal tissues. Here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (PBPT) infected with FMDV serotype O1 Manisa, where surviving cells were serially passed until a persistently infected culture was generated. Characterization of the persistent virus demonstrated changes in its plaque size, ability to grow in different cell lines, and change in the use of integrins as receptors, when compared with the parental virus. These results demonstrate the establishment of persistently infected PBPT cell cultures where co-adaptation has taken place between the virus and host cells. This in vitro model for FMDV persistence may help further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the cattle carrier state.

  3. Identification and characterization of an angiotensin II receptor on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of an angiotensin II receptor on cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was demonstrated by radioligand binding. A single class of finding sites with a K/sub D/ of 0.7 nM was characterized. The use of radioligands also allows the localization of receptors by autoradiography. Autoradiography demonstrated that approximately 50% of the isolated cells bound angiotensin II. It was of interest to see if angiotensin II bound to a cell that possessed a certain phenotype. In order to evaluate this possibility a technique was developed that combined autoradiography and immunocytochemistry. Results indicated that angiotensin II binding sites were not localized preferentially to either norepinephrine or epinephrine cells. Binding of angiotensin II was associated with the release of intracellular catecholamine stores. Cells were pre-loaded with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine and secretion was monitored by following radioactivity released into the supernatant. Alternatively, release of endogenous catecholamines was determined by fluorometric assay.

  4. Interaction between bovine-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci species and strains and bovine mammary epithelial cells reflects differences in ecology and epidemiological behavior.

    PubMed

    Souza, F N; Piepers, S; Della Libera, A M M P; Heinemann, M B; Cerqueira, M M O P; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria adherence seems to be an essential first stage for the internalization of bacteria into the cytoplasm of the host cell, which is considered an important virulence strategy enabling bacteria to occupy a microenvironment separated from host defense mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to explore the difference in the capacity of 4 bovine-associated staphylococci species or strains to adhere to and internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC). Three different isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were used: one strain of Staphylococcus fleurettii isolated from sawdust and considered an environmental opportunistic bacterium, and 2 dissimilar Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates, one cultured from a heifer's teat apex (Staph. chromogenes TA) and the other originating from a chronic intramammary infection (Staph. chromogenes IM). Also, one well-characterized strain of Staphylococcus aureus (Newbould 305) was used for comparison with a major mastitis pathogen. The CNS species and strains adhered to and internalized into MEC slower than did Staph. aureus. Still, we observed high variation in adhesion and internalization capacity among the different CNS, with Staph. chromogenes IM showing a greater ability to adhere to and internalize into MEC than the 2 CNS strains isolated from extramammary habitats. In conclusion, the 3 well-characterized bovine-associated CNS species and strains originating from distinct habitats showed clear differences in their capacity to adhere to and internalize into MEC. The observed differences might be related to their diversity in ecology and epidemiological behavior. PMID:26830736

  5. Colloidal Properties of Nanoerythrosomes Derived from Bovine Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuan-Chia; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Hoang, Dao; Bentley, William E; D'Souza, Warren D; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-12

    Liposomes are nanoscale containers that are typically synthesized from lipids using a high-shear process such as extrusion or sonication. While liposomes are extensively used in drug delivery, they do suffer from certain problems including limited colloidal stability and short circulation times in the body. As an alternative to liposomes, we explore a class of container structures derived from erythrocytes (red blood cells). The procedure involves emptying the inner contents of these cells (specifically hemoglobin) and resuspending the empty structures in buffer, followed by sonication. The resulting structures are termed nanoerythrosomes (NERs), i.e., they are membrane-covered nanoscale containers, much like liposomes. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are employed for the first time to study these NERs. The results reveal that the NERs are discrete spheres (∼110 nm diameter) with a unilamellar membrane of thickness ∼4.5 nm. Remarkably, the biconcave disc-like shape of erythrocytes is also exhibited by the NERs under hypertonic conditions. Moreover, unlike typical liposomes, NERs show excellent colloidal stability in both buffer as well as in serum at room temperature, and are also able to withstand freeze-thaw cycling. We have explored the potential for using NERs as colloidal vehicles for targeted delivery. Much like conventional liposomes, NER membranes can be decorated with fluorescent or other markers, solutes can be encapsulated in the cores of the NERs, and NERs can be targeted to specifically bind to mammalian cells. Our study shows that NERs are a promising and versatile class of nanostructures. NERs that are harvested from a patient's own blood and reconfigured for nanomedicine can potentially offer several benefits including biocompatibility, minimization of immune response, and extended circulation time in the body. PMID:26684218

  6. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, Robert J. . E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca; Sanderson, J. Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P.; Berg, Martin van den

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 {mu}M) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2, 1 {mu}M). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 {mu}M, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 {mu}M, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 {mu}M). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 {mu}M, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 {mu}M), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 {mu}M. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 {mu}M) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 {mu}M) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At

  7. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Sanderson, J Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P; van den Berg, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 microM) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17beta-estradiol (E2, 1 microM). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 microM, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 microM, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 microM). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 microM, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 microM), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 microM. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 microM) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 microM) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At

  8. Effect of bovine lactoferrin on the internalization of coagulase-negative staphylococci into bovine mammary epithelial cells under in-vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, Paula; Käyhkö, Sari; Taponen, Suvi; von Wright, Atte; Pyörälä, Satu

    2009-05-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have emerged as bovine mastitis pathogens in many countries. CNS mastitis is generally mild but can persist in the udder for long periods. Pathogenesis of CNS intramammary infection is not well understood. In the present study, adhesion, invasion and intracellular replication of twenty-two CNS strains isolated from bovine mastitis and the effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) on the internalization were studied in vitro in a bovine mammary epithelial (BME) cell model. The CNS strains were of Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, Staph. epidermidis, Staph. haemolyticus and Staph. cohnii urealyticus; two strains of Staph. aureus were used as controls. Seven of the CNS strains originated from persistent and five from transient mastitis infections. The in-vitro susceptibility of the strains to bLf was also investigated. All CNS species examined had an adhesive ability equal to that of Staph. aureus, but internalization varied among staphylococcal strains. The antagonistic effect of bLf on the adhesion and invasion of CNS strains was weak, but bLf significantly decreased intracellular replication and replication rates of CNS. No correlation between the in-vitro susceptibility of the strain to bLf or internalization among clinical signs of mastitis was established. No difference between the persistent and transient CNS strains in adhesion, invasion or replication rate was recorded. This in-vitro BME cell model can be used to study the virulence potential of mastitis pathogens, although the severity and persistence of eventual infections shall be further investigated in vivo. The role of bLf in intramammary infection caused by CNS may be limited. PMID:19121234

  9. Enzyme separation techniques for the study of growth of cells from layers of bovine dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Everett, M M; Freedman, J T; Feagans, W C; Cramer, J F

    1976-08-01

    Effects of the enzymes trypsin, papain, bromelains and ficin on bovine dental pulp tissue were studied. Minced or whole pulps were subjected to each enzyme at 17 degrees, 20 degrees and 37 degrees C for set time intervals, after which aliquots of supernatant fluid were removed for cell counts and viability tests. Pooled samples were subsequently cultured as monolayers in Eagle's MEM plus 10% calf serum. The dissociation characteristics were quite distinct for each enzyme, although quite similar between minced and whole pulp. A parallel histological study was made of the residual pulp tissue. Ficin was found to be the most suitable enzyme for future studies on the growth of isolated pulp cells from various layers of the bovine pulp, due to its even rate of cell removal, and the good initial viability and subsequent growth of the separated cells in monolayer culture. Further studies on ficin may show that it is more suitable for enzymatic separation of tissues generally than the more commonly used trypsin, a major advantage being its use in media containing Ca2+ and Mg2+.

  10. Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Xiao-Ge; Sun, Li-Ping; Wu, Li-Ming; Wei, Jiang-Qin; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Hu, Fu-Liang; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese propolis (CP), an important hive product, can alleviate inflammatory responses. However, little is known regarding the potential of propolis treatment for mastitis control. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CP on bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), we used a range of pathogens to induce cellular inflammatory damage. Cell viability was determined and expressions of inflammatory/antioxidant genes were measured. Using a cell-based reporter assay system, we evaluated CP and its primary constituents on the NF-κB and Nrf2-ARE transcription activation. MAC-T cells treated with bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), heat-inactivated Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus exhibited significant decreases in cell viability while TNF-α and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) did not. Pretreatment with CP prevented losses in cell viability associated with the addition of killed bacteria or bacterial endotoxins. There were also corresponding decreases in expressions of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. Compared with the mastitis challenged cells, enhanced expressions of antioxidant genes HO-1, Txnrd-1, and GCLM were observed in CP-treated cells. CP and its polyphenolic active components (primarily caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin) had strong inhibitive effects against NF-κB activation and increased the transcriptional activity of Nrf2-ARE. These findings suggest that propolis may be valuable in the control of bovine mastitis. PMID:27433029

  11. Effects of Chinese Propolis in Protecting Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells against Mastitis Pathogens-Induced Cell Damage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Xiao-Ge; Sun, Li-Ping; Wu, Li-Ming; Wei, Jiang-Qin; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Hu, Fu-Liang; Liu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Chinese propolis (CP), an important hive product, can alleviate inflammatory responses. However, little is known regarding the potential of propolis treatment for mastitis control. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of CP on bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T), we used a range of pathogens to induce cellular inflammatory damage. Cell viability was determined and expressions of inflammatory/antioxidant genes were measured. Using a cell-based reporter assay system, we evaluated CP and its primary constituents on the NF-κB and Nrf2-ARE transcription activation. MAC-T cells treated with bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), heat-inactivated Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus exhibited significant decreases in cell viability while TNF-α and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) did not. Pretreatment with CP prevented losses in cell viability associated with the addition of killed bacteria or bacterial endotoxins. There were also corresponding decreases in expressions of proinflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. Compared with the mastitis challenged cells, enhanced expressions of antioxidant genes HO-1, Txnrd-1, and GCLM were observed in CP-treated cells. CP and its polyphenolic active components (primarily caffeic acid phenethyl ester and quercetin) had strong inhibitive effects against NF-κB activation and increased the transcriptional activity of Nrf2-ARE. These findings suggest that propolis may be valuable in the control of bovine mastitis. PMID:27433029

  12. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infects Monocyte-Derived Bovine Dendritic Cells by an E2-Glycoprotein-Mediated Mechanism and Transiently Impairs Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nancy; Franco-Mahecha, Olga Lucía; Czepluch, Wenzel; Quintana, María Eugenia; Malacari, Darío Amílcar; Trotta, Myrian Vanesa; Mansilla, Florencia Celeste; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Infection of professional antigen presenting cells by viruses can have a marked effect on these cells and important consequences for the generation of subsequent immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that different strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect bovine dendritic cells differentiated from nonadherent peripheral monocytes (moDCs). BVDV did not cause apoptosis in these cells. Infection of moDC was prevented by incubating the virus with anti-E2 antibodies or by pretreating the cells with recombinant E2 protein before BVDV contact, suggesting that BVDV infects moDC through an E2-mediated mechanism. Virus entry was not reduced by incubating moDC with Mannan or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) before infection, suggesting that Ca(2+) and mannose receptor-dependent pathways are not mediating BVDV entry to moDC. Infected moDC did not completely upregulate maturation surface markers. Infection, but not treatment with inactivated virus, prevented moDC to present a third-party antigen to primed CD4(+) T cells within the first 24 hours postinfection (hpi). Antigen-presenting capacity was recovered when viral replication diminished at 48 hpi, suggesting that active infection may interfere with moDC maturation. Altogether, our results suggest an important role of infected DCs in BVDV-induced immunopathogenesis.

  13. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infects Monocyte-Derived Bovine Dendritic Cells by an E2-Glycoprotein-Mediated Mechanism and Transiently Impairs Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nancy; Franco-Mahecha, Olga Lucía; Czepluch, Wenzel; Quintana, María Eugenia; Malacari, Darío Amílcar; Trotta, Myrian Vanesa; Mansilla, Florencia Celeste; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Infection of professional antigen presenting cells by viruses can have a marked effect on these cells and important consequences for the generation of subsequent immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that different strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect bovine dendritic cells differentiated from nonadherent peripheral monocytes (moDCs). BVDV did not cause apoptosis in these cells. Infection of moDC was prevented by incubating the virus with anti-E2 antibodies or by pretreating the cells with recombinant E2 protein before BVDV contact, suggesting that BVDV infects moDC through an E2-mediated mechanism. Virus entry was not reduced by incubating moDC with Mannan or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) before infection, suggesting that Ca(2+) and mannose receptor-dependent pathways are not mediating BVDV entry to moDC. Infected moDC did not completely upregulate maturation surface markers. Infection, but not treatment with inactivated virus, prevented moDC to present a third-party antigen to primed CD4(+) T cells within the first 24 hours postinfection (hpi). Antigen-presenting capacity was recovered when viral replication diminished at 48 hpi, suggesting that active infection may interfere with moDC maturation. Altogether, our results suggest an important role of infected DCs in BVDV-induced immunopathogenesis. PMID:27529119

  14. Identification and characterization of microRNA sequences from bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bu, D P; Nan, X M; Wang, F; Loor, J J; Wang, J Q

    2015-03-01

    The bovine mammary gland is composed of various cell types including bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). The use of BMEC to uncover the microRNA (miRNA) profile would allow us to obtain a more specific profile of miRNA sequences that could be associated with lactation and avoid interference from other cell types. The objective of this study was to characterize the miRNA sequences expressed in isolated BMEC. The miRNA were identified by Solexa sequencing technology (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Furthermore, novel miRNA were uncovered by stem-loop reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing of PCR products. To detect tissue specificity, expression of novel miRNA sequences was measured by stem-loop RT-PCR and sequencing of PCR products in mammary gland, liver, adipose, ileum, spleen and kidney tissue from 3 lactating Holstein cows (50±10 d postpartum). After bioinformatics analysis, 12,323,451 reads were obtained by Solexa sequencing, of which 11,979,706 were clean reads, matching the bovine genome. Among clean reads, 9,428,122 belonged to miRNA sequences. Further analysis revealed that the miRNA bta-mir-184 had the most abundant expression, and 388 loci possessed the typical stem-loop structures matching known miRNA hairpins. In total, 38 loci with novel hairpins were identified as novel miRNA and were numbered from bta-U1 to bta-U38. One novel miRNA (bta-U21) was specific to mammary gland. Seven novel miRNA, including bta-U21, had tissue-restricted distribution. Uncovering the specific roles of these novel miRNA during lactation appears warranted.

  15. Bovine Lhx8, a Germ Cell-Specific Nuclear Factor, Interacts with Figla

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liyuan; Zhang, Mingxiang; Mastrantoni, Kristen; Perfetto, Mark; Wei, Shuo; Yao, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    LIM homeobox 8 (Lhx8) is a germ cell-specific transcription factor essential for the development of oocytes during early oogenesis. In mice, Lhx8 deficiency causes postnatal oocyte loss and affects the expression of many oocyte-specific genes. The aims of this study were to characterize the bovine Lhx8 gene, determine its mRNA expression during oocyte development and early embryogenesis, and evaluate its interactions with other oocyte-specific transcription factors. The bovine Lhx8 gene encodes a protein of 377 amino acids. A splice variant of Lhx8 (Lhx8_v1) was also identified. The predicted bovine Lhx8 protein contains two LIM domains and one homeobox domain. However, one of the LIM domains in Lhx8_v1 is incomplete due to deletion of 83 amino acids near the N terminus. Both Lhx8 and Lhx8_v1 transcripts were only detected in the gonads but none of the somatic tissues examined. The expression of Lhx8 and Lhx8_v1 appears to be restricted to oocytes as none of the transcripts was detectable in granulosa or theca cells. The maternal Lhx8 transcript is abundant in GV and MII stage oocytes as well as in early embryos but disappear by morula stage. A nuclear localization signal that is required for the import of Lhx8 into nucleus was identified, and Lhx8 is predominantly localized in the nucleus when ectopically expressed in mammalian cells. Finally, a novel interaction between Lhx8 and Figla, another transcription factor essential for oogenesis, was detected. The results provide new information for studying the mechanisms of action for Lhx8 in oocyte development and early embryogenesis. PMID:27716808

  16. Label-free biochemical characterization of bovine sperm cells using Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A. C.; Manago, S.; Ferrara, M. A.; Sirleto, L.; Puglisi, R.; Balduzzi, D.; Galli, A.; Rendina, I.; Ferraro, P.; Coppola, G.

    2013-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a label-free and non-invasive method that measures the inelastic scattered light from a sample giving insight into the vibration eigenmodes of the excited molecules. For these reasons, Raman spectroscopy has been used as a powerful tool to investigate different biological tissues and living cells. In this paper, we present a Raman spectroscopy-based method for sensitive biochemical characterization of bovine sperm cells. Importantly, by analysing separate Raman spectra from the nucleus, acrosomale vesicle and tail of single sperm cells, we are able to identify characteristic Raman features associated with DNA, protein and lipid molecular vibrations for discriminating among different locations inside the cell with sub-micrometric resolution (˜0.3 μm). We demonstrate that our Raman spectroscopy facilitates spectral assignment and increases detection sensitivity, opening the way for novel bio-imaging platforms.

  17. Celecoxib reduces glucocorticoids in vitro and in a mouse model with adrenocortical hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Berthon, Annabel; Starost, Matthew F; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Salpea, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Faucz, Fabio R; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), whether in the context of Carney complex (CNC) or isolated, leads to ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS). CNC and PPNAD are caused typically by inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A, a gene coding for the type 1a regulatory subunit (R1α) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Mice lacking Prkar1a, specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO) developed CS caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is formed from the abnormal proliferation of fetal-like adrenocortical cells. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inhibitor. In bone, Prkar1a inhibition is associated with COX2 activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production that, in turn, activates proliferation of bone stromal cells. We hypothesized that COX2 inhibition may have an effect in PPNAD. In vitro treatment of human cell lines, including one from a patient with PPNAD, with celecoxib resulted in decreased cell viability. We then treated AdKO and control mice with 1500 mg/kg celecoxib or vehicle. Celecoxib treatment led to decreased PGE2 and corticosterone levels, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of adrenocortical cells, and decreased steroidogenic gene expression. We conclude that, in vitro and in vivo, celecoxib led to decreased steroidogenesis. In a mouse model of PPNAD, celecoxib caused histological changes that, at least in part, reversed BAH and this was associated with a reduction of corticosterone levels. PMID:26438728

  18. Celecoxib reduces glucocorticoids in vitro and in a mouse model with adrenocortical hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Berthon, Annabel; Starost, Matthew F.; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Salpea, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Faucz, Fabio R.; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), whether in the context of Carney complex (CNC) or isolated, leads to adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) - independent Cushing’s syndrome (CS). CNC and PPNAD are caused typically by inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A, a gene coding for the type 1a regulatory subunit (R1α) of cAMP–dependent protein kinase (PKA). Mice lacking Prkar1a, specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO) developed CS caused by bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH), which is formed from the abnormal proliferation of fetal-like adrenocortical cells. Celecoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor. In bone, Prkar1a inhibition is associated with COX2 activation and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production that, in turn, activates proliferation of bone stromal cells. We hypothesized that COX2 inhibition may have an effect in PPNAD. In vitro treatment of human cell lines, including one from a patient with PPNAD, with Celecoxib resulted in decreased cell viability. We then treated AdKO and control mice with 1,500 mg/kg Celecoxib or vehicle. Celecoxib treatment led to decreased PGE2 and corticosterone levels, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of adrenocortical cells, and decreased steroidogenic gene expression. We conclude that, in vitro and in vivo, Celecoxib led to decreased steroidogenesis. In a mouse model of PPNAD, Celecoxib caused histological changes that reversed, at least in part, BAH and this was associated with a reduction of corticosterone levels. PMID:26438728

  19. Growth Patterns of Placental and Paraovarian Adrenocortical Heterotopias Are Different

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Popiolek, Dorota A.

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of adrenocortical heterotopia are reported. One is in a full-term placenta. The other is adjacent to the ovarian hilum of an adult. Both are incidental findings. Despite sharing similar histological and immunological features, they show different growth patterns. The literature is reviewed and adrenocortical heterotopias of different locations are compared. New hypotheses of its histogenesis are discussed. PMID:24383032

  20. Gene expression changes in MDBK cells infected with genotype 2 bovine viral diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2003-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea viruses (BVDVs) are ubiquitous viral pathogens of cattle. These viruses exist as one of two biotypes, cytopathic and noncytopathic, based on the ability to induce cytopathic effect in cell culture. The noncytopathic biotypes are able to establish inapparent, persistent infections in both cell culture and in bovine foetuses of less than 150 days gestation. Interactions with the host cell and the mechanism by which viral tolerance is established are unknown. To examine the changes in gene expression that occur following infection of host cells with BVDV, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a global gene expression technology was used. SAGE allows quantitation of virtually every transcript in a cell type without prior sequence information. Transcript expression levels and identities are determined by sequencing libraries composed of concatamers of 14 base DNA fragments (tags) derived from the 3'-end of each cellular mRNA transcript. Comparison of data obtained from uninfected and BVDV genotype 2-infected cell libraries revealed changes in gene expression associated with distinct biochemical pathways or functions. Isotypes of both alpha- and beta-tubulins were down-regulated, indicating possible dysfunction in cell division and other functions where microtubules play a major role. Expression of genes encoding proteins involved in energy metabolism were expressed at essentially equivalent levels in both infected and uninfected cells. Genes encoding proteins involved in protein translation and post-translational modifications, functions necessary for viral replication, were generally up-regulated. These data indicate that following infection with BVDV, changes in gene expression occur that are beneficial for virus replication while having only minor changes in energy metabolism.

  1. Comprehensive Pan-Genomic Characterization of Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Siyuan; Cherniack, Andrew D; Dewal, Ninad; Moffitt, Richard A; Danilova, Ludmila; Murray, Bradley A; Lerario, Antonio M; Else, Tobias; Knijnenburg, Theo A; Ciriello, Giovanni; Kim, Seungchan; Assie, Guillaume; Morozova, Olena; Akbani, Rehan; Shih, Juliann; Hoadley, Katherine A; Choueiri, Toni K; Waldmann, Jens; Mete, Ozgur; Robertson, A Gordon; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Raphael, Benjamin J; Shao, Lina; Meyerson, Matthew; Demeure, Michael J; Beuschlein, Felix; Gill, Anthony J; Sidhu, Stan B; Almeida, Madson Q; Fragoso, Maria C B V; Cope, Leslie M; Kebebew, Electron; Habra, Mouhammed A; Whitsett, Timothy G; Bussey, Kimberly J; Rainey, William E; Asa, Sylvia L; Bertherat, Jérôme; Fassnacht, Martin; Wheeler, David A; Hammer, Gary D; Giordano, Thomas J; Verhaak, Roel G W

    2016-05-01

    We describe a comprehensive genomic characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Using this dataset, we expand the catalogue of known ACC driver genes to include PRKAR1A, RPL22, TERF2, CCNE1, and NF1. Genome wide DNA copy-number analysis revealed frequent occurrence of massive DNA loss followed by whole-genome doubling (WGD), which was associated with aggressive clinical course, suggesting WGD is a hallmark of disease progression. Corroborating this hypothesis were increased TERT expression, decreased telomere length, and activation of cell-cycle programs. Integrated subtype analysis identified three ACC subtypes with distinct clinical outcome and molecular alterations which could be captured by a 68-CpG probe DNA-methylation signature, proposing a strategy for clinical stratification of patients based on molecular markers. PMID:27165744

  2. The cell wall component lipoteichoic acid of Staphylococcus aureus induces chemokine gene expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    KIKU, Yoshio; NAGASAWA, Yuya; TANABE, Fuyuko; SUGAWARA, Kazue; WATANABE, Atsushi; HATA, Eiji; OZAWA, Tomomi; NAKAJIMA, Kei-ichi; ARAI, Toshiro; HAYASHI, Tomohito

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major cause of bovine mastitis, but its pathogenic mechanism remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in the immune or inflammatory response of SA mastitis, we investigated the gene expression profile in bovine mammary epithelial cells stimulated with LTA alone or with formalin-killed SA (FKSA) using cap analysis of gene expression. Seven common differentially expressed genes related to immune or inflammatory mediators were up-regulated under both LTA and FKSA stimulations. Three of these genes encode chemokines (IL-8, CXCL6 and CCL2) functioning as chemoattractant molecules for neutrophils and macrophages. These results suggest that the initial inflammatory response of SA infection in mammary gland may be related with LTA induced chemokine genes. PMID:27211287

  3. Xanthosine administration does not affect the proportion of epithelial stem cells in bovine mammary tissue, but has a latent negative effect on cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Rauner, Gat; Barash, Itamar

    2014-10-15

    The challenge in manipulating the proportion of somatic stem cells lies in having to override tissue homeostasis. Xanthosine infusion via the teat canal has been reported to augment the number of label-retaining cells in the mammary gland of 3-month-old bovine calves. To further delineate xanthosine's effect on defined stem cells in the mammary gland of heifers—which are candidates for increased prospective milk production following such manipulation—bovine mammary parenchymal tissue was transplanted and integrated into the cleared mammary fat pad of immunodeficient mice. Xanthosine administration for 14 days did not affect the number of label-retaining cells after 10- and 11-week chases. No change in stem cell proportion, analyzed according to CD49f and CD24 expression, was noted. Clone formation and propagation rate of cultured cells, as well as expression of stem cell markers, were also unaffected. In contrast, a latent 50% decrease in bovine mammary cell proliferation rate was observed 11 weeks after xanthosine administration. Tumor development in mice was also limited by xanthosine administration. These effects may have resulted from an initial decrease in expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in guanine synthesis, IMPDH. The data indicate that caution should be exerted when considering xanthosine for stem cell manipulation. - Highlights: • Novel “bovinized“ mouse model for exogenous effects on bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine did not affect stem cell number/function in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine caused an immediate decrease in IMPDH expression in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine had latent negative effect on cell proliferation in bovine mammary gland. • Xanthosine administration limited mammary tumor growth.

  4. Mixed nicotinic and muscarinic features of cholinergic receptor coupled to secretion in bovine chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvan, M.H.; Pollard, H.B.; Heldman, E. )

    1991-06-01

    Acetylcholine evokes release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells by a mechanism that is believed to be classically nicotinic. However, the authors found that the full muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) induced a robust catecholamine (CA) secretion. By contrast, muscarine, pilocarpine, bethanechol, and McN-A-343 did not elicit any secretory response. Desensitization of the response to nicotine by Oxo-M and desensitization of the response to Oxo-M by nicotine suggest that both nicotine and Oxo-M were acting at the same receptor. Additional experiments supporting this conclusion show that nicotine-induced secretion and Oxo-M-induced secretion were similarly blocked by various muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. Moreover, secretion induced by nicotine and Oxo-M were Ca{sup 2+} dependent, and both agonists induced {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake. Equilibrium binding studies showed that ({sup 3}H)Oxo-M bound to chromaffin cell membranes with a K{sub d} value of 3.08 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}M and a Hill coefficient of 1.00, suggesting one binding site for this ligand. Nicotine inhibited Oxo-M binding in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that both ligands bind at two different sites on the same receptor. They propose that the receptor on bovine chromaffin cells that is coupled to secretion represents an unusual cholinergic receptor that has both nicotinic and muscarinic features.

  5. Mixed nicotinic and muscarinic features of cholinergic receptor coupled to secretion in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shirvan, M H; Pollard, H B; Heldman, E

    1991-01-01

    Acetylcholine evokes release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells by a mechanism that is believed to be classically nicotinic. However, we found that the full muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M (Oxo-M) induced a robust catecholamine (CA) secretion. By contrast, muscarine, pilocarpine, bethanechol, and McN-A-343 did not elicit any secretory response. Desensitization of the response to nicotine by Oxo-M and desensitization of the response to Oxo-M by nicotine suggest that both nicotine and Oxo-M were acting at the same receptor. Additional experiments supporting this conclusion show that nicotine-induced secretion and Oxo-M-induced secretion were similarly blocked by various muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. Moreover, secretion induced by nicotine and Oxo-M were Ca2+ dependent, and both agonists induced 45Ca2+ uptake. Equilibrium binding studies showed that [3H]Oxo-M bound to chromaffin cell membranes with a Kd value of 3.08 x 10(-8) M and a Hill coefficient of 1.00, suggesting one binding site for this ligand. Nicotine inhibited Oxo-M binding in a noncompetitive manner, suggesting that both ligands bind at two different sites on the same receptor. We propose that the receptor on bovine chromaffin cells that is coupled to secretion represents an unusual cholinergic receptor that has both nicotinic and muscarinic features. Images PMID:2052567

  6. Systematic evaluation of sericin protein as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Duan, Shengchang; Chen, Lei; Xiang, Hui; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) shows obvious deficiencies in cell culture, such as low batch to batch consistency, adventitious biological contaminant risk, and high cost, which severely limit the development of the cell culture industry. Sericin protein derived from the silkworm cocoon has become increasingly popular due to its diverse and beneficial cell culture characteristics. However, systematic evaluation of sericin as a substitute for FBS in cell culture medium remains limited. In this study, we conducted cellular morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic evaluation on three widely used mammalian cells. Compared with cells cultured in the control, those cultured in sericin-substitute medium showed similar cellular morphology, similar or higher cellular overall survival, lower population doubling time (PDT), and a higher percentage of S-phase with similar G2/G1 ratio, indicating comparable or better cell growth and proliferation. At the transcriptomic level, differentially expressed genes between cells in the two media were mainly enriched in function and biological processes related to cell growth and proliferation, reflecting that genes were activated to facilitate cell growth and proliferation. The results of this study suggest that cells cultured in sericin-substituted medium perform as well as, or even better than, those cultured in FBS-containing medium. PMID:27531556

  7. Systematic evaluation of sericin protein as a substitute for fetal bovine serum in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyuan; Wang, Jinhuan; Duan, Shengchang; Chen, Lei; Xiang, Hui; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) shows obvious deficiencies in cell culture, such as low batch to batch consistency, adventitious biological contaminant risk, and high cost, which severely limit the development of the cell culture industry. Sericin protein derived from the silkworm cocoon has become increasingly popular due to its diverse and beneficial cell culture characteristics. However, systematic evaluation of sericin as a substitute for FBS in cell culture medium remains limited. In this study, we conducted cellular morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic evaluation on three widely used mammalian cells. Compared with cells cultured in the control, those cultured in sericin-substitute medium showed similar cellular morphology, similar or higher cellular overall survival, lower population doubling time (PDT), and a higher percentage of S-phase with similar G2/G1 ratio, indicating comparable or better cell growth and proliferation. At the transcriptomic level, differentially expressed genes between cells in the two media were mainly enriched in function and biological processes related to cell growth and proliferation, reflecting that genes were activated to facilitate cell growth and proliferation. The results of this study suggest that cells cultured in sericin-substituted medium perform as well as, or even better than, those cultured in FBS-containing medium. PMID:27531556

  8. The Effect of Deproteinized Bovine Bone Mineral on Saos-2 Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Khojasteh, Arash; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Eslami, Mohammad; Motahhary, Pourya; Morad, Golnaz; Shidfar, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Deproteinized bovine bone mineral (Bio-Oss) is a xenogenic bone substitute, widely used in maxillofacial bone regeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate its influence on the growth behavior of human osteosarcoma cell line, Saos-2 culture, and compare it with the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone, an inductive factor for osteoblasts. Materials and Methods Human osteosarcoma cells, Saos-2, were cultured on Bio-Oss and their growth rate was compared to Saos-2 cultures treated with Dexamethasone 10-7 M in contrast to cells cultivated in PBS, in the control group. Assessment of proliferation was performed after 24, 36, and 48 hours by counting cells using trypan blue exclusion method. Alkaline phosphatase was measured spectrophotometrically at 405 nm with paranitrophenol buffer. Results After 48 hours, the number of Saos-2 cells increased significantly when subcultured with Bio-Oss. Bio-Oss was more effective on the enhancement of proliferation of Saos-2 cells when compared to the physiologic dose of Dexamethasone (P<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activity increased in cells grown on Bio-Oss and dexamethasone 10-7 M in contrast to cells cultivated in PBS control group. The greatest level of activity was observed in the group containing Bio-Oss after 48 hour. Conclusion The significant increase of cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity in cells cultured on Bio-Oss, compared to Dexamethasone-treated cells, suggests the important role of this bone substitute in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:23922573

  9. Elevated non-esterified fatty acid concentrations hamper bovine oviductal epithelial cell physiology in three different in vitro culture systems.

    PubMed

    Jordaens, L; Arias-Alvarez, M; Pintelon, I; Thys, S; Valckx, S; Dezhkam, Y; Bols, P E J; Leroy, J L M R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been recognized as an important link between lipolytic metabolic conditions and impaired fertility in high-yielding dairy cows. However, NEFA effects on the oviductal micro-environment currently remain unknown. We hypothesize that elevated NEFAs may contribute to the complex pathology of subfertility by exerting a negative effect on bovine oviductal epithelial cell (BOEC) physiology. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to elucidate direct NEFA effects on BOEC physiology in three different in vitro cell culture systems. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells (four replicates) were mechanically isolated, pooled, and cultured as conventional monolayers, as explants, and in a polarized cell culture system with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12-based culture medium. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells were exposed to an NEFA mixture of oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids for 24 hours at both physiological and pathologic concentrations. A control (0 μM NEFA) and a solvent control (0 μM NEFA + 0.45% ethanol) group were implemented. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells physiology was assessed by means of cell number and viability, a sperm binding assay, transepithelial electric resistance (TER), and a wound-healing assay. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy on cell polarity, presence of microvilli and cilia, and monolayer integrity. Bovine oviductal epithelial cell number was negatively affected by increasing NEFAs, however, cell viability was not. Sperm binding affinity significantly decreased with increasing NEFAs and tended (P = 0.051) to be more affected by the direction of NEFA exposure in the polarized cell culture system. The absolute TER increase after NEFA exposure in the control (110 ± 11 Ω.cm(2)) was significantly higher than that in all the other treatments and was also different depending on the exposure side. Bidirectional exposed monolayers were even

  10. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

    PubMed Central

    Samrath, Devprabha; Shakya, Sanjay; Rawat, Nidhi; Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Singh, Fateh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test. Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test. Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test. PMID:27051213

  11. Isolation and Culture of Bovine Oviductal Epithelial Cells for Use in the Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory and Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents methods for the isolation and culture of epithelial cells from the bovine oviduct for use in both research and the teaching laboratory and provides examples of ways that an oviductal cell culture can be incorporated into an undergraduate research program. Cow reproductive tracts are readily available from area butchers, and…

  12. Factors controlling proliferation and progesterone production by bovine granulosa cells in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Savion, N; Lui, G M; Laherty, R; Gospodarowicz, D

    1981-08-01

    Bovine granulosa cells seeded in the presence of serum on extracellular matrix-coated dishes proliferate actively when exposed to serum-free medium supplemented with insulin (2 microgram/ml), fibroblast growth factor (FGF, 100 ng/ml), and high density lipoprotein (HDL, 30 microgram protein/ml). The final density of the cultures is 80-120% that of cultures grown in the presence of medium supplemented with optimal concentration (10%) of calf serum. Insulin has the greatest effect on cell proliferation when added alone to serum-free medium, since it induced an increase in cell number that was 35-60% that observed with optimal serum concentration. Somatomedin C can replace insulin when added alone. FGF, epidermal growth factor, or HDL had no significant effect on cell proliferation by themselves. When these factors were added together with insulin, they acted synergistically in stimulating cell proliferation. When cultures were seeded in the total absence of serum, the addition of transferrin (10 microgram/ml) to serum-free medium was required in order for insulin and FGF to be mitogenic. Cultures maintained on extracellular matrix and exposed to serum-free medium alone have a lifespan in culture of 4 generations. Addition of insulin, FGF, and HDL increases the lifespan of the cultures to 12 generations. Bovine granulosa cells, which proliferate in a defined medium, respond to dibutyryl cAMP by releasing progesterone into the medium. Addition of FSH to the defined medium resulted in a 30% decrease in cell proliferation and in a 2.1-fold increase in the amount of progesterone released into the medium in response to dibutyryl cAMP. This release of progesterone reached a level similar to that observed with cultures grown in medium supplemented with optimal concentration of serum and exposed or not to FSH during their growth phase and at confluence. These results demonstrate that bovine granulosa cells can actively proliferate in a serum-free medium and maintain their

  13. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Bovine Epithelial Cells and Partial Redirection Toward a Mammary Phenotype In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Cravero, Diego; Martignani, Eugenio; Miretti, Silvia; Accornero, Paulo; Pauciullo, Alfredo; Sharma, Ruchi; Donadeu, Francesco Xavier; Baratta, Mario

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be grown robustly in vitro and differentiated into virtually any tissue, thus providing an attractive alternative for biomedical applications. Although iPSC technology is already being used in human biomedicine, its potential in animal production has not been investigated. Herein, we investigated the potential application of iPSCs in dairy production by generating bovine iPSCs and establishing their ability to generate mammary epithelial tissue. iPSCs were derived by retrovirus-mediated expression of murine Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc in mammary epithelium and dermal fibroblasts. The resulting reprogrammed cells stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and showed renewed expression of pluripotency genes, including Lin28, Rex1, Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog. In addition, injection of epithelial- or fibroblast-derived reprogrammed cells into nonobese diabetic (NOD/NOD) mice resulted in the formation of teratomas containing differentiated derivatives of the three germ layers, including cartilage, membranous ossification, stratified squamous epithelial tissue, hair follicles, neural pinwheels, and different types of glandular tissue. Finally, mammary epithelium-derived iPSCs could be induced to differentiate back to a mammary phenotype characterized by epithelial cells expressing cytokeratin 14 (CK14), CK18, and smooth muscle actin (SMA) as a result of treatment with 10 nM progesterone. This study reports for the first time the generation of iPSCs from bovine epithelial cells and demonstrates the potential of using iPSCs technology for generating bovine mammary tissue in vitro. PMID:26053520

  14. Transcriptional response of HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells to human and bovine milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jonathan A; O'Callaghan, John; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M

    2013-12-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been shown to interact directly with immune cells. However, large quantities of HMO are required for intervention or clinical studies, but these are unavailable in most cases. In this respect, bovine milk is potentially an excellent source of commercially viable analogues of these unique molecules. In the present study, we compared the transcriptional response of colonic epithelial cells (HT-29) to the entire pool of HMO and bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) to determine whether the oligosaccharides from bovine milk had effects on gene expression that were similar to those of their human counterparts. Gene set enrichment analysis of the transcriptional data revealed that there were a number of similar biological processes that may be influenced by both treatments including a response to stimulus, signalling, locomotion, and multicellular, developmental and immune system processes. For a more detailed insight into the effects of milk oligosaccharides, the effect on the expression of immune system-associated glycogenes was chosen as a case study when performing validation studies. Glycogenes in the current context are genes that are directly or indirectly regulated in the presence of glycans and/or glycoconjugates. RT-PCR analysis revealed that HMO and BCO influenced the expression of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, colony-stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage) (GM-CSF2), IL-17C and platelet factor 4 (PF4)), chemokines (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CXCL2) and cell surface receptors (interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) and IL-10 receptor α (IL10RA)). The present study suggests

  15. Transcriptional response of HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells to human and bovine milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jonathan A; O'Callaghan, John; Carrington, Stephen D; Hickey, Rita M

    2013-12-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been shown to interact directly with immune cells. However, large quantities of HMO are required for intervention or clinical studies, but these are unavailable in most cases. In this respect, bovine milk is potentially an excellent source of commercially viable analogues of these unique molecules. In the present study, we compared the transcriptional response of colonic epithelial cells (HT-29) to the entire pool of HMO and bovine colostrum oligosaccharides (BCO) to determine whether the oligosaccharides from bovine milk had effects on gene expression that were similar to those of their human counterparts. Gene set enrichment analysis of the transcriptional data revealed that there were a number of similar biological processes that may be influenced by both treatments including a response to stimulus, signalling, locomotion, and multicellular, developmental and immune system processes. For a more detailed insight into the effects of milk oligosaccharides, the effect on the expression of immune system-associated glycogenes was chosen as a case study when performing validation studies. Glycogenes in the current context are genes that are directly or indirectly regulated in the presence of glycans and/or glycoconjugates. RT-PCR analysis revealed that HMO and BCO influenced the expression of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, colony-stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage) (GM-CSF2), IL-17C and platelet factor 4 (PF4)), chemokines (chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCL6), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CXCL2) and cell surface receptors (interferon γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2) and IL-10 receptor α (IL10RA)). The present study suggests

  16. Bovine Gamma Delta T Cells Contribute to Exacerbated IL-17 Production in Response to Co-Infection with Bovine RSV and Mannheimia haemolytica

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Jodi L.; Rusk, Rachel A.; Guerra-Maupome, Mariana; Briggs, Robert E.; Sacco, Randy E.

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in children under five years of age. IL-17 and Th17 responses are increased in children infected with HRSV and have been implicated in both protective and pathogenic roles during infection. Bovine RSV (BRSV) is genetically closely related to HRSV and is a leading cause of severe respiratory infections in young cattle. While BRSV infection in the calf parallels many aspects of human infection with HRSV, IL-17 and Th17 responses have not been studied in the bovine. Here we demonstrate that calves infected with BRSV express significant levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22; and both CD4 T cells and γδ T cells contribute to this response. In addition to causing significant morbidity from uncomplicated infections, BRSV infection also contributes to the development of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a leading cause of morbidity in both beef and dairy cattle. BRDC is caused by a primary viral infection, followed by secondary bacterial pneumonia by pathogens such as Mannheimia haemolytica. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo infection with M. haemolytica results in increased expression of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-22. We have also developed an in vitro model of BRDC and show that co-infection of PBMC with BRSV followed by M. haemolytica leads to significantly exacerbated IL-17 production, which is primarily mediated by IL-17-producing γδ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that calves, like humans, mount a robust IL-17 response during RSV infection; and suggest a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and γδ T cells in the pathogenesis of BRDC. PMID:26942409

  17. Role of intramitochondrial arachidonic acid and acyl-CoA synthetase 4 in angiotensin II-regulated aldosterone synthesis in NCI-H295R adrenocortical cell line.

    PubMed

    Mele, Pablo G; Duarte, Alejandra; Paz, Cristina; Capponi, Alessandro; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2012-07-01

    Although the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in angiotensin II (ANG II)- and potassium-stimulated steroid production in zona glomerulosa cells is well documented, the mechanism responsible for AA release is not fully described. In this study we evaluated the mechanism involved in the release of intramitochondrial AA and its role in the regulation of aldosterone synthesis by ANG II in glomerulosa cells. We show that ANG II and potassium induce the expression of acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesterase 2 and acyl-CoA synthetase 4, two enzymes involved in intramitochondrial AA generation/export system well characterized in other steroidogenic systems. We demonstrate that mitochondrial ATP is required for AA generation/export system, steroid production, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein induction. We also demonstrate the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases regulating acyl-CoA synthetase 4 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein induction, and hence ANG II-stimulated aldosterone synthesis.

  18. The effects of the standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba on steroidogenesis pathways and aromatase activity in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were evaluated in the H295R cells by competitive enzyme-linked immunospecific assay after exposure to EGb761. Real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate effects on critical genes in steroid hormone production, specifically cytochrome P450 (CYP11/ 17/19/21) and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1/4). Finally, aromatase activities were measured with a tritiated water-release assay and by western blotting analysis. Results H295R cells exposed to EGb761 (10 and 100 μg/mL) showed a significant decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone, but no change in aldosterone or cortisol. Genes (CYP19 and 17β-HSD1) related to the estrogen steroidogenesis were significantly decreased by EGb761. EGb761 treatment of H295R cells resulted in a significant decrease of aromatase activity as measured by the direct and indirect assays. The coding sequence/ Exon PII of CYP19 gene transcript and protein level of CYP19 were significantly decreased by EGb761. Conclusions These results suggest that EGb761 could regulate steroidogenesis-related genes such as CYP19 and 17β-HSD1, and lead to a decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone. The present study provides good information on potential therapeutic effects of EGb761 on estrogen dependent breast cancer. PMID:27188280

  19. Interaction between Angiotensin II and Insulin/IGF-1 Exerted a Synergistic Stimulatory Effect on ERK1/2 Activation in Adrenocortical Carcinoma H295R Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tong, An-li; Wang, Fen; Cui, Yun-ying; Li, Chun-yan; Li, Yu-xiu

    2016-01-01

    The cross talk between angiotensin II (Ang II) and insulin has been described mainly in cardiovascular cells, hepatocytes, adipocytes, and so forth, and to date no such cross talk was reported in adrenal. In this study, we examined the interaction between Ang II and insulin/IGF-1 in ERK and AKT signaling pathways and expression of steroidogenic enzymes in H295R cells. Compared to the control, 100 nM Ang II increased phospho-ERK1/2 approximately 3-fold. Insulin (100 nM) or IGF-1 (10 nM) alone raised phospho-ERK1/2 1.8- and 1.5-fold, respectively, while, after pretreatment with 100 nM Ang II for 30 min, insulin (100 nM) or IGF-1 (10 nM) elevated phospho-ERK1/2 level 8- and 7-fold, respectively. The synergistic effect of Ang II and insulin/IGF-1 on ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by selective AT1 receptor blocker, PKC inhibitor, and MEK1/2 inhibitor. Ang II marginally suppressed AKT activation under the basal condition, while it had no effect on phospho-AKT induced by insulin/IGF-1. Ang II significantly stimulated mRNA expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, and such stimulatory effects were enhanced when cells were cotreated with insulin/IGF-1. We are led to conclude that Ang II in combination with insulin/IGF-1 had an evident synergistic stimulatory effect on ERK1/2 activation in H295R cells and the effect may be responsible for the enhanced steroid hormone production induced by Ang II plus insulin/IGF-1. PMID:27293433

  20. Effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation in bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Young; Suresh, Sekar; Park, Mi Na; Jang, Mi; Park, Sungkwon; Gobianand, Kuppannan; You, Seungkwon; Yeon, Sung-Heom; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Capsaicin is a major constituent of hot chili peppers that influences lipid metabolism in animals. In this study, we explored the effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The BMSCs were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 2, 4, and 6 days. Capsaicin suppressed fat deposition significantly during adipogenic differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine/enhancer binding protein alpha, fatty acid binding protein 4, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression decreased after capsaicin treatment. We showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin increased the expression levels of apoptotic genes, such as B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein and caspase 3. Overall, capsaicin inhibits fat deposition by triggering apoptosis. PMID:25358373

  1. Effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation in bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Young; Suresh, Sekar; Park, Mi Na; Jang, Mi; Park, Sungkwon; Gobianand, Kuppannan; You, Seungkwon; Yeon, Sung-Heom; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Capsaicin is a major constituent of hot chili peppers that influences lipid metabolism in animals. In this study, we explored the effects of capsaicin on adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The BMSCs were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (0, 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 2, 4, and 6 days. Capsaicin suppressed fat deposition significantly during adipogenic differentiation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, cytosine-cytosine-adenosine-adenosine-thymidine/enhancer binding protein alpha, fatty acid binding protein 4, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase expression decreased after capsaicin treatment. We showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin increased the expression levels of apoptotic genes, such as B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein and caspase 3. Overall, capsaicin inhibits fat deposition by triggering apoptosis.

  2. Observations on intramammary infection and somatic cell counts in cows treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; McBride, B W; Burton, J H; Willan, A R; Bateman, K G

    1991-01-01

    Data were collected on udder health variables as part of a study of the effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin on production in lactating dairy cows. Milk samples, obtained at three intervals during the study, were assessed for their somatic cell count and bacteriological culture result. There was an increase in the prevalence of infection at mid-lactation in the 20.6 and 41.2 mg per day treatment groups as compared to the controls. There was no difference detected in the mean cell count between groups from the samples collected pretrial, mid-lactation, or late lactation. However, analysis of the individual cow Dairy Herd Improvement somatic cell count data showed a difference between groups which was most evident in mid-lactation. PMID:1884302

  3. Label-Free Imaging and Biochemical Characterization of Bovine Sperm Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Maria Antonietta; Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Managò, Stefano; De Angelis, Annalisa; Sirleto, Luigi; Coppola, Giuseppe; De Luca, Anna Chiara

    2015-01-01

    A full label-free morphological and biochemical characterization is desirable to select spermatozoa during preparation for artificial insemination. In order to study these fundamental parameters, we take advantage of two attractive techniques: digital holography (DH) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). DH presents new opportunities for studying morphological aspect of cells and tissues non-invasively, quantitatively and without the need for staining or tagging, while RS is a very specific technique allowing the biochemical analysis of cellular components with a spatial resolution in the sub-micrometer range. In this paper, morphological and biochemical bovine sperm cell alterations were studied using these techniques. In addition, a complementary DH and RS study was performed to identify X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells. We demonstrate that the two techniques together are a powerful and highly efficient tool elucidating some important criterions for sperm morphological selection and sex-identification, overcoming many of the limitations associated with existing protocols. PMID:25836358

  4. RAD51 plays a crucial role in halting cell death program induced by ionizing radiation in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kujjo, Loro L; Ronningen, Reg; Ross, Pablo; Pereira, Ricardo J G; Rodriguez, Ramon; Beyhan, Zeki; Goissis, Marcelo D; Baumann, Thomas; Kagawa, Wataru; Camsari, Cagri; Smith, George W; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Cibelli, Jose B; Perez, Gloria I

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive health of humans and animals exposed to daily irradiants from solar/cosmic particles remains largely understudied. We evaluated the sensitivities of bovine and mouse oocytes to bombardment by krypton-78 (1 Gy) or ultraviolet B (UV-B; 100 microjoules). Mouse oocytes responded to irradiation by undergoing massive activation of caspases, rapid loss of energy without cytochrome-c release, and subsequent necrotic death. In contrast, bovine oocytes became positive for annexin-V, exhibited cytochrome-c release, and displayed mild activation of caspases and downstream DNAses but with the absence of a complete cell death program; therefore, cytoplasmic fragmentation was never observed. However, massive cytoplasmic fragmentation and increased DNA damage were induced experimentally by both inhibiting RAD51 and increasing caspase 3 activity before irradiation. Microinjection of recombinant human RAD51 prior to irradiation markedly decreased both cytoplasmic fragmentation and DNA damage in both bovine and mouse oocytes. RAD51 response to damaged DNA occurred faster in bovine oocytes than in mouse oocytes. Therefore, we conclude that upon exposure to irradiation, bovine oocytes create a physiologically indeterminate state of partial cell death, attributed to rapid induction of DNA repair and low activation of caspases. The persistence of these damaged cells may represent an adaptive mechanism with potential implications for livestock productivity and long-term health risks associated with human activity in space. PMID:22190703

  5. RAD51 plays a crucial role in halting cell death program induced by ionizing radiation in bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Kujjo, Loro L; Ronningen, Reg; Ross, Pablo; Pereira, Ricardo J G; Rodriguez, Ramon; Beyhan, Zeki; Goissis, Marcelo D; Baumann, Thomas; Kagawa, Wataru; Camsari, Cagri; Smith, George W; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Cibelli, Jose B; Perez, Gloria I

    2012-03-01

    Reproductive health of humans and animals exposed to daily irradiants from solar/cosmic particles remains largely understudied. We evaluated the sensitivities of bovine and mouse oocytes to bombardment by krypton-78 (1 Gy) or ultraviolet B (UV-B; 100 microjoules). Mouse oocytes responded to irradiation by undergoing massive activation of caspases, rapid loss of energy without cytochrome-c release, and subsequent necrotic death. In contrast, bovine oocytes became positive for annexin-V, exhibited cytochrome-c release, and displayed mild activation of caspases and downstream DNAses but with the absence of a complete cell death program; therefore, cytoplasmic fragmentation was never observed. However, massive cytoplasmic fragmentation and increased DNA damage were induced experimentally by both inhibiting RAD51 and increasing caspase 3 activity before irradiation. Microinjection of recombinant human RAD51 prior to irradiation markedly decreased both cytoplasmic fragmentation and DNA damage in both bovine and mouse oocytes. RAD51 response to damaged DNA occurred faster in bovine oocytes than in mouse oocytes. Therefore, we conclude that upon exposure to irradiation, bovine oocytes create a physiologically indeterminate state of partial cell death, attributed to rapid induction of DNA repair and low activation of caspases. The persistence of these damaged cells may represent an adaptive mechanism with potential implications for livestock productivity and long-term health risks associated with human activity in space.

  6. PGRMC1 participates in late events of bovine granulosa cells mitosis and oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Terzaghi, L; Tessaro, I; Raucci, F; Merico, V; Mazzini, G; Garagna, S; Zuccotti, M; Franciosi, F; Lodde, V

    2016-08-01

    Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) is expressed in both oocyte and ovarian somatic cells, where it is found in multiple cellular sub-compartments including the mitotic spindle apparatus. PGRMC1 localization in the maturing bovine oocytes mirrors its localization in mitotic cells, suggesting a possible common action in mitosis and meiosis. To test the hypothesis that altering PGRMC1 activity leads to similar defects in mitosis and meiosis, PGRMC1 function was perturbed in cultured bovine granulosa cells (bGC) and maturing oocytes and the effect on mitotic and meiotic progression assessed. RNA interference-mediated PGRMC1 silencing in bGC significantly reduced cell proliferation, with a concomitant increase in the percentage of cells arrested at G2/M phase, which is consistent with an arrested or prolonged M-phase. This observation was confirmed by time-lapse imaging that revealed defects in late karyokinesis. In agreement with a role during late mitotic events, a direct interaction between PGRMC1 and Aurora Kinase B (AURKB) was observed in the central spindle at of dividing cells. Similarly, treatment with the PGRMC1 inhibitor AG205 or PGRMC1 silencing in the oocyte impaired completion of meiosis I. Specifically the ability of the oocyte to extrude the first polar body was significantly impaired while meiotic figures aberration and chromatin scattering within the ooplasm increased. Finally, analysis of PGRMC1 and AURKB localization in AG205-treated oocytes confirmed an altered localization of both proteins when meiotic errors occur. The present findings demonstrate that PGRMC1 participates in late events of both mammalian mitosis and oocyte meiosis, consistent with PGRMC1's localization at the mid-zone and mid-body of the mitotic and meiotic spindle.

  7. Evidence of heterogeneity within bovine satellite cells isolated from young and adult animals.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gonzalez, J M; Walker, D K; Hersom, M J; Ealy, A D; Johnson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Satellite cells are a heterogeneous population of myogenic precursors responsible for muscle growth and repair in mammals. The objectives of the experiment were to examine the growth rates and degree of heterogeneity within bovine satellite cells (BSC) isolated from young and adult animals. The BSC were harvested from the semimembranosus of young (4.3 ± 0.5 d) and adult (estimated 24 to 27 mo) cattle and cultured en masse. Young animal BSC re-enter the cell cycle sooner and reach maximal 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation earlier (P < 0.05) than adult contemporaries. Adult BSC contain fewer (P < 0.05) MyoD and myogenin immunopositive nuclei than BSC isolated from young animals after 3, 4, and 5 d in culture. These results indicate that BSC from young animals activate, proliferate, and differentiate sooner than isolates from adult animals. Lineage heterogeneity within BSC was examined using antibodies specific for Pax7 and Myf5, lineage markers of satellite cells, and myoblasts. Immunocytochemistry revealed the majority of Pax7-expressing BSC also express Myf5; a minor population (~5%) fails to exhibit Myf5 immunoreactivity. The percentage of Pax7:Myf5 BSC from young animals decreases sooner (P < 0.05) in culture than adult BSC, indicating a more rapid rate of muscle fiber formation. A subpopulation immunopositive for Myf5 only was identified in both ages of BSC isolates. The growth kinetics and heterogeneity of young BSC was further evaluated by clonal analysis. Single cell clones were established and analyzed after 10 d. Colonies segregated into 2 groups based upon population doubling time. Immunostaining of the slow-growing colonies (population doubling time ≥ 3 d) revealed that a portion exhibited asymmetric distribution of the lineage markers Pax7 and Myf5, similar to self-renewable mouse muscle stem cells. In summary, these results offer insight into the heterogeneity of BSC and provide evidence for subtle differences between rodent and bovine

  8. PGRMC1 participates in late events of bovine granulosa cells mitosis and oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Terzaghi, L; Tessaro, I; Raucci, F; Merico, V; Mazzini, G; Garagna, S; Zuccotti, M; Franciosi, F; Lodde, V

    2016-08-01

    Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) is expressed in both oocyte and ovarian somatic cells, where it is found in multiple cellular sub-compartments including the mitotic spindle apparatus. PGRMC1 localization in the maturing bovine oocytes mirrors its localization in mitotic cells, suggesting a possible common action in mitosis and meiosis. To test the hypothesis that altering PGRMC1 activity leads to similar defects in mitosis and meiosis, PGRMC1 function was perturbed in cultured bovine granulosa cells (bGC) and maturing oocytes and the effect on mitotic and meiotic progression assessed. RNA interference-mediated PGRMC1 silencing in bGC significantly reduced cell proliferation, with a concomitant increase in the percentage of cells arrested at G2/M phase, which is consistent with an arrested or prolonged M-phase. This observation was confirmed by time-lapse imaging that revealed defects in late karyokinesis. In agreement with a role during late mitotic events, a direct interaction between PGRMC1 and Aurora Kinase B (AURKB) was observed in the central spindle at of dividing cells. Similarly, treatment with the PGRMC1 inhibitor AG205 or PGRMC1 silencing in the oocyte impaired completion of meiosis I. Specifically the ability of the oocyte to extrude the first polar body was significantly impaired while meiotic figures aberration and chromatin scattering within the ooplasm increased. Finally, analysis of PGRMC1 and AURKB localization in AG205-treated oocytes confirmed an altered localization of both proteins when meiotic errors occur. The present findings demonstrate that PGRMC1 participates in late events of both mammalian mitosis and oocyte meiosis, consistent with PGRMC1's localization at the mid-zone and mid-body of the mitotic and meiotic spindle. PMID:27260975

  9. Improved efficiency of bovine cloning by autologous somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Hua; Ma, Qing-Wen; Yan, Jing-Bin; Zhao, Jiang-Guo; Li, Hua-Wei; Shen, Hai-Qing; Liu, Hai-Feng; Huang, Ying; Huang, Shu-Zhen; Zeng, Yi-Tao; Zeng, Fanyi

    2006-11-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been used for the cloning of various mammals. However, the rates of successful, healthy birth are generally poor. To improve cloning efficiency, we report the utilization of an 'autologous SCNT' cloning technique in which the somatic nucleus of a female bovine donor is transferred to its own enucleated oocyte recovered by ovum pick up, in contrast to the routine 'allogeneic SCNT' procedure using oocytes from unrelated females. Our results showed that embryos derived from autologous SCNThave significantly higher developmental competence than those derived from allogeneic SCNT, especiallyat the eight-cell (60 vs 44%), morula (45 vs 36%), and blastocyst (38 vs 23%) stages. The pregnancy and birth rates were also higher for the autologous (39 and 23%), compared to the allogeneic (22 and 6%) SCNT groups. Genome-wide histone3-lysine9 methylation profiles reveal that autologous SCNTembryos have less epigenetic defects than the allogeneic SCNTembryos. This study indicates that autologous SCNT can improve the efficiency of bovine cloning with less reprogramming deficiency.

  10. Evaluation of proliferation and cytokines production by mitogen-stimulated bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Norian, Reza; Delirezh, Nowruz; Azadmehr, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate lymphocyte blastogenic and cytokine production by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and concanavalin A (Con A) mitogens, by using tetrazolium salt and ELISA tests, respectively. The results presented that Interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ production in response to PWM mitogens was the highest and Con A the lowest amount and the median values of three mitogens were in the following order: PWM > PHA > Con A > cell control. In the case of IL-6, the production of this cytokine was the same amount for PWM and Con A and a lower amount for PHA stimulation. The results of this study not only showed a normal range for the production of these cytokines from PBMCs that were affected by mitogens, but it demonstrated that the bovine immune system at 2.5 to 3 months was post-natally matured enough to mount an effective immune response to mitogens as well as specific antigens. PMID:26973760

  11. Bovine colostrum modulates immune activation cascades in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Marcel; Pedersen, Ninfa R; Hidayat, Budi J; Schennach, Harald; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-04-01

    Bovine colostrum (BC) is the thick yellow fluid a lactating cow gives to a suckling calf during its first days of life to support the growth of the calf and prevent gastrointestinal infections until the calf has synthesized its own active immune defense system. BC contains a complex system of immune factors and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. In an approach to evaluate the effects of bovine colostrum (BC) on the T-cell/macrophage interplay, we investigated and compared the capacity of BC containing low and high amounts of lactose and lactoferrin to modulate tryptophan degradation and neopterin formation in unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The present study shows significant immunomodulatory effects of these BC preparations in human PBMC, either by enhancing or suppressing the occurrence of a Th-1 type immune response. The amount of lactose present in BC seems to diminish the activity of BC in our test system, since BC with higher amounts of lactose attenuated the stimulatory as well as the suppressive activity of BC. PMID:20518274

  12. Increase in proto-oncogene mRNA transcript levels in bovine lymphoid cells infected with a cytopathic type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2008-08-01

    Infection of susceptible animals with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) can result in an array of disease symptoms that are dependent in part on the strain of infecting virus and the physiological status of the host. BVDV are lymphotrophic and exist as two biotypes. Cytopathic BVDV kill cells outright while noncytopathic strains can readily establish persistent infections. The molecular mechanisms behind these different affects are unknown. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms of disease, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), a powerful method for global gene expression analysis, was employed to examine gene expression changes in BVDV-infected BL3 cells, a bovine B-cell lymphosarcoma cell line. SAGE libraries were constructed from mRNA derived from BL3 cells that were noninfected or infected with the cytopathic BVDV2 strain 296c. Annotation of the SAGE data showed the expression of many genes that are characteristic of B cells and integral to their function. Comparison of the SAGE databases also revealed a number of genes that were differentially expressed. Of particular interest was the increased numbers of transcripts encoding proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, junB, junD) in 296c-infected cells, all of which are constituents of the AP-1 transcriptional activation complex. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed these results and indicated that the actual increases were larger than that predicted by SAGE. In contrast, there was no corresponding increase in protein levels, but instead a significant decrease of c-jun and junB protein levels in the infected BL3 cells was observed. Rather than an increase in transcription of these genes, it appeared that these proto-oncogenes transcripts accumulated in the BVDV2-infected cells.

  13. Expression of interleukin 6 receptors and interleukin 6 mRNA by bovine leukaemia virus-induced tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Droogmans, L; Cludts, I; Cleuter, Y; Kerkhofs, P; Adam, E; Willems, L; Kettmann, R; Burny, A

    1994-11-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the aetiologic agent of bovine leucosis. The virus induces malignancies of the B-cell lineage (leukaemia/lymphoma). The role played by interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the BLV-induced leukemogenesis process was evaluated. Six cell lines derived from BLV-induced tumours were tested for the expression of IL-6 receptors. Two cell lines (LB155 and YR2) display 250-300 receptor per cell (kd = 1.7 10(-10) M and 1.4 10(-10) M, respectively) whereas the other four (LB159, LB167, YR1 and M51) do not display detectable amounts of receptors. Very low (if any) expression of IL-6 receptors has been found in the case of the B lymphocytes of animals in persistent lymphocytosis (PL). Despite the presence of IL-6 receptors on the surface of LB155 and YR2 cells, no influence of exogenous IL-6 on their growth has been observed. Northern analyses indicated the presence of IL-6 transcripts only in the case of mRNA isolated from LB155 cells. Since this cell line also expresses receptors for the cytokine, an autocrine loop may exist in these cells. Experiments in which bovine and bovine epithelial cell lines were transfected with a plasmid containing the bovine IL-6 promoter controlling the expression of the reporter cat gene failed to indicate any influence of the viral transactivator p34tax on the activity of this promoter. We conclude that IL-6 receptors and IL-6 mRNA can be found in some BLV-induced tumours, but this does not correlate with viral expression in BLV-induced leukaemia/lymphoma. PMID:7893972

  14. Identification of an outer membrane protein of Fusobacterium necrophorum subsp. necrophorum that binds with high affinity to bovine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Menon, Sailesh; Nagaraja, T G; Narayanan, Sanjeev

    2015-03-23

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative anaerobe, is the primary etiologic agent of liver abscesses in cattle. There are two subspecies; subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme, which differ in morphological, biochemical, molecular characteristics, and virulence. The subsp. necrophorum, which is more virulent, occurs more frequently in liver abscesses than the subsp. funduliforme. Bacterial adhesion to the host cell surface is critical to the pathogenesis of several bacterial infections, and in F. necrophorum, outer membrane proteins (OMP) have been shown to mediate adhesion to bovine endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to identify potential adhesins that are involved in adhesion of F. necrophorum subsp. necrophorum to the host cells. An OMP of 42.4 kDa, which binds with high affinity to the bovine endothelial cells and is recognized by the sera from cattle with liver abscesses, was identified. N-terminal sequencing of the protein showed 96% homology to the FomA protein of F. nucleatum. The PCR analysis showed that this fomA gene was present in several strains of subsp. necrophorum, subsp. funduliforme of bovine and subsp. funduliforme of human origin. The purified native and recombinantly expressed protein when preincubated with the endothelial cells, prevented the attachment of subsp. necrophorum significantly. In addition, the polyclonal antibody produced against the protein prevented the binding of subsp. necrophorum to bovine endothelial cells.

  15. Adrenocortical LDL receptor function negatively influences glucocorticoid output.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-09-01

    Over 50% of the cholesterol needed by adrenocortical cells for the production of glucocorticoids is derived from lipoproteins. However, the overall contribution of the different lipoproteins and associated uptake pathways to steroidogenesis remains to be determined. Here we aimed to show the importance of LDL receptor (LDLR)-mediated cholesterol acquisition for adrenal steroidogenesis in vivo. Female total body LDLR knockout mice with a human-like lipoprotein profile were bilaterally adrenalectomized and subsequently provided with one adrenal either expressing or genetically lacking the LDLR under their renal capsule to solely modulate adrenocortical LDLR function. Plasma total cholesterol levels and basal plasma corticosterone levels were identical in the two types of adrenal transplanted mice. Strikingly, restoration of adrenal LDLR function significantly reduced the ACTH-mediated stimulation of adrenal steroidogenesis (P<0.001), with plasma corticosterone levels that were respectively 44-59% lower (P<0.01) as compared to adrenal LDLR negative controls. In addition, LDLR positive adrenal transplanted mice exhibited a significant decrease (-39%; P<0.001) in their plasma corticosterone level under fasting stress conditions. Biochemical analysis did not show changes in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol mobilization. However, LDLR expressing adrenal transplants displayed a marked 62% reduction (P<0.05) in the transcript level of the key steroidogenic enzyme HSD3B2. In conclusion, our studies in a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein profile provide the first in vivo evidence for a novel inhibitory role of the LDLR in the control of adrenal glucocorticoid production. PMID:26136384

  16. Adrenocortical function in cane toads from different environments.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2016-05-01

    The adrenocortical function of cane toads (Rhinella marina) exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as captured from different environments, was assessed by challenging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It was found that restriction stress as well as cannulation increased plasma corticosterone (B) levels for up to 12h. A single dose of dexamethasone (DEX 2mg/kg) significantly reduced B levels demonstrating its potential for use in the evaluation of the HPA axis in amphibia. We also demonstrate that 0.05 IU/g BW (im) of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) significantly increased plasma B levels in cane toads. Changes in size area of the cortical cells were positively associated with total levels of B after ACTH administration. We also found differences in adrenal activity between populations. This was assessed by a DEX-ACTH test. The animals captured from the field and maintained in captivity for one year at the animal house (AH) present the highest levels of total and free B after ACTH administration. We also found that animals from the front line of dispersion in Western Australia (WA) present the weakest adrenal response to a DEX-ACTH test. The animals categorized as long established in Queensland Australia (QL), and native in Mexico (MX), do not shown a marked difference in the HPA activity. Finally we found that in response to ACTH administration, females reach significantly higher levels of plasma B than males. For the first time the adrenocortical response in cane toads exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as from different populations was assessed systematically. PMID:26877241

  17. Monolayer co-culture of rat heart cells and bovine adrenal chromaffin paraneurons.

    PubMed

    Trifaró, J M; Tang, R; Novas, M L

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a method for the preparation of co-cultures of rat heart cells and bovine adrenal chromaffin paraneurons. The most suitable condition for heart cell isolation was when a combination of trypsin-DNAse I in Locke's solution was used for digestion. The best co-culture conditions were obtained when 10(6) heart cells were plated on 7- to 8-d-old adrenal chromaffin paraneuron cultures containing 0.5 x 10(6) cells per 35-mm diameter culture dishes. Measurements of DNA (heart cells and chromaffin paraneurons), monitoring of beating frequency (heart cells), and catecholamine (chromaffin paraneurons) levels and release indicated that both cell types remain viable and functional for several weeks. Heart cells started their characteristic contractile activity 24 h earlier when plated either on viable or lysed chromaffin paraneurons, an effect apparently due to faster surface adhesion of heart cells. The beating frequency of heart cells increased after treatment of co-cultures with either noradrenaline or nicotine, with the latter agent acting indirectly through the release of chromaffin paraneuron catecholamines. Propranolol produced a dose-related inhibition of the responses to either noradrenaline or nicotine, thus suggesting that the increase in myocyte's beating activity was mediated through beta-receptors. Anti-myosin and anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunostaining was used for cell type identification and for the demonstration of body-to-body and process-to-process contacts between adrenal chromaffin paraneurons and heart cells. This co-culture system will serve as a starting point of further studies directed to understand a) the influence of a cell type on the development and on the phenotypic characteristics of a second cell type and b) the interaction of cells derived from different organs and species.

  18. Characterization of release of basic fibroblast growth factor from bovine retinal endothelial cells in monolayer cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, R A; Burrin, J M; Kohner, E M

    1991-01-01

    Release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was investigated in bovine retinal endothelial cells (BREC) maintained in monolayer culture. Confluent cells released bFGF into serum-free culture medium or medium containing 5% serum at rates of up to 105.2 and 61.3 pM/day respectively. bFGF release coincided with a decrease in monolayer cell number and increases in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration and cells and cell-debris particles in the medium, which suggested that cell damage and lysis were responsible for growth-factor release. Maximum bFGF release at 24 h (230 +/- 10 pM) occurred when the cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (10 micrograms/ml), which also produced the greatest changes in parameters of cell damage. Sub-confluent cells showed little overt damage at 24 h, but released bFGF (78 +/- 20 pM) along with LDH, indicating that some cell lysis had occurred. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was also released into serum-free culture medium at a rate of 0.34 nM/day, but not into medium containing serum or when the cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide. This implies that the mechanism of IGF-1 release is different from that of bFGF and is not related to cell damage. Culture medium conditioned by BREC stimulated the proliferation of these cells, as measured by an increase in their incorporation of [methyl-3H]thymidine from 7550 +/- 479 to 10467 +/- 924 d.p.m. These results demonstrate that bFGF is released from damaged BREC and that medium conditioned by these cells can stimulate retinal-endothelial-cell proliferation. This strengthens the case for an involvement of this growth factor in retinal neovascularization. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2039465

  19. In Vitro Evolution of Bovine Foamy Virus Variants with Enhanced Cell-Free Virus Titers and Transmission.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qiuying; Hipp, Michaela; Hugo, Annette; Lei, Janet; Liu, Yang; Kehl, Timo; Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin

    2015-11-11

    Virus transmission is essential for spreading viral infections and is a highly coordinated process which occurs by cell-free transmission or cell-cell contact. The transmission of Bovine Foamy Virus (BFV) is highly cell-associated, with undetectable cell-free transmission. However, BFV particle budding can be induced by overexpression of wild-type (wt) BFV Gag and Env or artificial retargeting of Gag to the plasma membrane via myristoylation membrane targeting signals, closely resembling observations in other foamy viruses. Thus, the particle release machinery of wt BFV appears to be an excellent model system to study viral adaption to cell-free transmission by in vitro selection and evolution. Using selection for BFV variants with high cell-free infectivity in bovine and non-bovine cells, infectivity dramatically increased from almost no infectious units to about 105-106 FFU (fluorescent focus forming units)/mL in both cell types. Importantly, the selected BFV variants with high titer (HT) cell-free infectivity could still transmit via cell-cell contacts and were neutralized by serum from naturally infected cows. These selected HT-BFV variants will shed light into virus transmission and potential routes of intervention in the spread of viral infections. It will also allow the improvement or development of new promising approaches for antiretroviral therapies.

  20. Internalization of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 by Bovine Rectal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Haiqing; Wang, Jing; Lim, Ji Youn; Davitt, Christine; Minnich, Scott A.; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) causes human diarrheal disease and healthy cattle are its primary reservoir. O157 colonize the bovine epithelial mucosa at the recto-anal junction (RAJ). Previous studies show that O157 at this site are not eliminated by aggressive interventions including applications of O157-specific lytic bacteriophages and other bactericidal agents. We hypothesize that some O157 at the RAJ mucosa are protected from these killing agents by host cell internalization. To test this hypothesis, rectal biopsies from O157 culture positive and negative cattle were analyzed by fluorescent microscopy and subjected to gentamicin protection assays. GFP-labeled bacteria were found located deep within the tissue crypts and a small number of O157 were recovered from rectal biopsies after gentamicin treatment. Primary bovine rectal epithelial (PBRE) cell cultures were incubated with O157 and subjected to gentamicin protection assays. Strains ATCC 43895, 43894, Sakai, and WSU180 entered the PBRE cells with different levels of efficiency ranging from 0.18 to 19.38% of the inocula. Intracellular bacteria were confirmed to be within membrane-bounded vacuoles by electron microscopy. Cytochalasin D curtailed internalization of O157 indicating internalization was dependent on eukaryotic microfilament assembly. Strain ATCC 43895 exhibited the highest efficiency of internalization and survived for at least 24 h within PBRE cells. Deletion mutation of intimin or its receptor in ATCC 43895 did not reduce bacterial internalization. This strain produced more biofilm than the others tested. Retrospective analysis of cattle challenged with two O157 strains, showed ATCC 43895, the most efficient at host cell internalization, was most persistent. PMID:21687423

  1. Bovine herpesvirus type 4 infection modulates autophagy in a permissive cell line.

    PubMed

    Montagnaro, Serena; Ciarcia, Roberto; Pagnini, Francesco; De Martino, Luisa; Puzio, Maria Valeria; Granato, Giovanna Elvira; Avino, Franca; Pagnini, Ugo; Iovane, Giuseppe; Giordano, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4), like other herpesviruses, induces a series of alterations in the host cell that modify the intracellular environment in favor of viral replication, survival and spread. This research examined the impact of BoHV-4 infection on autophagy in BoHV-4 infected Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Protein extracts of BoHV-4 infected and control MDBK cells were subjected to Western blot. The concentrations of the autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins Beclin 1, p21, PI3 kinase, Akt1/2, mTOR, phospho mTOR, p62 and the light chain three (LC3) were normalized to the actin level and expressed as the densitometric ratio. Western blot analysis of virus-infected cells revealed that autophagic degradation pathway was induced in the late phase of BoHV-4 infection. After 48 h post-infection the protein LC3II, which is essential for autophagy was found to be markedly increased, while infection of MDBK cells with BoHV-4 resulted in a depletion of p62 levels. Becline 1, PI3 kinase, Akt1/2 and p21 expression increased between 24 and 48 h post-infection. Surprisingly, mTOR and its phosphorylated form, which are negative regulators of autophagy, also increased after 24 h post-infection. In conclusion, our findings suggest that BoHV-4 has developed mechanisms for modulation of autophagy that are probably part of a strategy designed to enhance viral replication and to evade the immune system. Additional studies on the relationship between autophagy and BoHV-4 replication and survival, in both lytic and latent replication phases, are needed to understand the role of autophagy in BoHV-4 pathogenesis.

  2. Bovine thrombospondin-2: complete complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequence and immunolocalization in the external zones of the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Danik, M; Chinn, A M; Lafeuillade, B; Keramidas, M; Aguesse-Germon, S; Penhoat, A; Chen, H; Mosher, D F; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1999-06-01

    Given the variety of biological functions in the adrenal cortex that are controlled by ACTH, we hypothesized that some extracellular proteins act as biological relays for this systemic hormone. One candidate protein [corticotropin-induced secreted protein (CISP)] was purified from the conditioned medium of bovine adrenocortical cells on the basis of a 5- to 14-fold increase in its synthesis after the addition of ACTH. We report here the cloning of overlapping complementary DNAs that span the sequence encoding the full-length protein (1170 amino acids). The deduced CISP protein sequence is 89% identical to that of human thrombospondin-2 (TSP2), but only 61% identical to that of bovine TSP1, confirming that CISP is the bovine ortholog of TSP2. The bovine TSP2 sequence aligned perfectly with human, mouse, and chicken TSP2 sequences, except for a gap of 2 amino acids located in a linker region. All 58 cysteine residues that are conserved in other species were present in the bovine sequence as well as most of the functional domains. Most endocrine tissues (adrenal cortex, testis, ovary, and placenta) appeared to express TSP2, as determined by Western blot analysis. The highest levels of TSP2 protein were found in the adrenal cortex, followed by the heart, spleen, brain, and kidney. A differential extent of N-glycosylation or tissular proteolytic maturation may be responsible for the mol wt differences observed between bovine TSP2 detected in the medium from primary cultures and that in fresh tissue extracts. The immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of TSP2 in the bovine adrenal gland revealed that the protein is much more abundant in the external zones (zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata) than in the internal reticularis zone, a pattern similar to that reported for ACTH receptors. This distribution clearly suggests that TSP2 is a candidate relay protein for a subset of ACTH actions in the adrenal cortex. PMID:10342868

  3. MicroRNA-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by repressing Sp1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yang; Zhang, Wei Ran; Wang, Yi Min; Liu, Xin Feng; Li, Xin; Ding, Xiang Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 have been shown to regulate muscle development and promote myogenic differentiation; however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been reported to be highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-128 is also up-regulated during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle cell development. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-128 regulates the Sp1 gene. Over-expression of miR-128 reduced Sp1 protein levels and inhibited muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Inhibition of miR-128 increased Sp1 protein levels and promoted muscle satellite cell differentiation but also suppressed proliferation. Changes in miR-128 and Sp1 expression levels also affected the protein levels of MyoD and CDKN1A. Sp1, an activator of MyoD and a suppressor of CDKN1A, plays an important role in bovine muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The results of our study reveal a mechanism by which miR-128 regulates bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation via Sp1.

  4. Inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin on the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to host cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Y; Tazume, S; Shimizu, K; Matsuzawa, H; Dosako, S; Isoda, H; Tsukiji, M; Fujimura, R; Muranaka, Y; Isihida, H

    2000-02-01

    Adherence is an essential and prerequisite step for the colonization of mucosal surfaces by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We studied the effect of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) on the adherence of ETEC to human epithelial cells in vitro, and to intestinal mucosa of ICR germfree mice in vivo. In the in vitro study, BLF was found to inhibit the adherence of ETEC. This adhesion-inhibiting activity of BLF was found to lessen with decreasing BLF concentration, but the data obtained suggest a positive inhibitory effect of BLF against the adhesion of ETEC cells. In the in vivo study, the counts of adherent bacteria in various sections of the intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunoileum, and large intestine) were lower in the BLF group than in the control group, suggesting the possible action of BLF as an intestinal tract adherence-blocking agent with regards to ETEC.

  5. Inhibition of Bovine herpesvirus multiplication in MDBK cells by small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    Narute, P S; Raut, A A; Saini, M; Rai, A; Gupta, P K

    2009-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated gene silencing is a promising approach in antiviral therapy. To investigate the antiviral effects of siRNAs on Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) multiplication, we designed and in vitro synthesized two siRNAs (siRNA-1 and siRNA-2) targeting the UL25 gene that is essential for BHV-1 multiplication. siRNA-1 and siRNA-2 inhibited the BoHV-1 multiplication in MDBK cells to a different extent, namely by 11% and 40%, respectively, as demonstrated by virus titers (TCID(50)/ml) determined in cell culture. This indicates that, in general, siRNAs can inhibit BHV-1 multiplication in vitro and could be used also against a BHV-1 infection in vivo following optimization of their application.

  6. In Vitro Evolution of Bovine Foamy Virus Variants with Enhanced Cell-Free Virus Titers and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Qiuying; Hipp, Michaela; Hugo, Annette; Lei, Janet; Liu, Yang; Kehl, Timo; Hechler, Torsten; Löchelt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Virus transmission is essential for spreading viral infections and is a highly coordinated process which occurs by cell-free transmission or cell–cell contact. The transmission of Bovine Foamy Virus (BFV) is highly cell-associated, with undetectable cell-free transmission. However, BFV particle budding can be induced by overexpression of wild-type (wt) BFV Gag and Env or artificial retargeting of Gag to the plasma membrane via myristoylation membrane targeting signals, closely resembling observations in other foamy viruses. Thus, the particle release machinery of wt BFV appears to be an excellent model system to study viral adaption to cell-free transmission by in vitro selection and evolution. Using selection for BFV variants with high cell-free infectivity in bovine and non-bovine cells, infectivity dramatically increased from almost no infectious units to about 105–106 FFU (fluorescent focus forming units)/mL in both cell types. Importantly, the selected BFV variants with high titer (HT) cell-free infectivity could still transmit via cell-cell contacts and were neutralized by serum from naturally infected cows. These selected HT–BFV variants will shed light into virus transmission and potential routes of intervention in the spread of viral infections. It will also allow the improvement or development of new promising approaches for antiretroviral therapies. PMID:26569290

  7. Phenotypic characterization of bovine memory cells responding to mycobacteria in IFNγ enzyme linked immunospot assays.

    PubMed

    Blunt, Laura; Hogarth, Philip J; Kaveh, Daryan A; Webb, Paul; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Vordermeier, Hans Martin

    2015-12-16

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a globally significant veterinary health problem. Defining correlates of protection can accelerate the development of novel vaccines against TB. As the cultured IFNγ ELISPOT (cELISPOT) assay has been shown to predict protection and duration of immunity in vaccinated cattle, we sought to characterize the phenotype of the responding T-cells. Using expression of CD45RO and CD62L we purified by cytometric cell sorting four distinct CD4(+) populations: CD45RO(+)CD62L(hi), CD45RO(+)CD62L(lo), CD45RO(-)CD62L(hi) and CD45RO(-)CD62L(lo) (although due to low and inconsistent cell recovery, this population was not considered further in this study), in BCG vaccinated and Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle. These populations were then tested in the cELISPOT assay. The main populations contributing to production of IFNγ in the cELISPOT were of the CD45RO(+)CD62L(hi) and CD45RO(+)CD62L(lo) phenotypes. These cell populations have been described in other species as central and effector memory cells, respectively. Following in vitro culture and flow cytometry we observed plasticity within the bovine CD4(+) T-cell phenotype. Populations switched phenotype, increasing or decreasing expression of CD45RO and CD62L within 24h of in vitro stimulation. After 14 days all IFNγ producing CD4(+) T cells expressed CD45RO regardless of the original phenotype of the sorted population. No differences were detected in behavior of cells derived from BCG-vaccinated animals compared to cells derived from naturally infected animals. In conclusion, although multiple populations of CD4(+) T memory cells from both BCG vaccinated and M. bovis infected animals contributed to cELISPOT responses, the dominant contributing population consists of central-memory-like T cells (CD45RO(+)CD62L(hi)).

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) replication in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, F; Pagnini, U; De Martino, L; Montagnaro, S; Ciarcia, R; Florio, S; Pacilio, M; Fucito, A; Rossi, A; Iovane, G; Giordano, A

    2008-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental toxin of current interest. In the last years, higher levels of TCDD than those permitted in UE [European Commission. 2002. European Commission Recommendation 2002/201/CE. Official Gazette, L 67/69] were detected in milk samples from cow, water buffalo, goat, and sheep raised on some areas of Campania Region (South Italy). Dioxin often causes immunosuppression and might render the animal liable to viral infections. In addition, viral infections are able to alter the pattern of dioxin distribution in different organs of the exposed animals. Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is a widespread pathogen, which causes infectious rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle. Herein, we have studied the effects of TCDD and BHV-1 infection, in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, alone as well as in association, so as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and virus replication. We have observed an increase in cell viability of confluent monolayers at low TCDD concentrations. TCDD treated cells demonstrated increased viability compared to controls as evaluated by MTT test. TCDD exposure increased cell proliferation but induced no changes on apoptosis. Cells exposed to TCDD along with BHV-1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytopathy, represented by ample syncytia formation with the elimination of the cellular sheets and increased viral titer. These results suggest that TCDD increases viral replication in MDBK cells while BHV-1 further decreases viability of TCDD exposed cells. Since very low concentrations (0.01 pg/ml) are sufficient to augment BHV-1 titer, TCDD may contribute to reactivate BHV-1 from latency, leading to recurrent disease and increase virus transmission. PMID:17516555

  9. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin increases Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) replication in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, F; Pagnini, U; De Martino, L; Montagnaro, S; Ciarcia, R; Florio, S; Pacilio, M; Fucito, A; Rossi, A; Iovane, G; Giordano, A

    2008-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental toxin of current interest. In the last years, higher levels of TCDD than those permitted in UE [European Commission. 2002. European Commission Recommendation 2002/201/CE. Official Gazette, L 67/69] were detected in milk samples from cow, water buffalo, goat, and sheep raised on some areas of Campania Region (South Italy). Dioxin often causes immunosuppression and might render the animal liable to viral infections. In addition, viral infections are able to alter the pattern of dioxin distribution in different organs of the exposed animals. Bovine Herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) is a widespread pathogen, which causes infectious rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cattle. Herein, we have studied the effects of TCDD and BHV-1 infection, in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells, alone as well as in association, so as cellular proliferation, apoptosis, and virus replication. We have observed an increase in cell viability of confluent monolayers at low TCDD concentrations. TCDD treated cells demonstrated increased viability compared to controls as evaluated by MTT test. TCDD exposure increased cell proliferation but induced no changes on apoptosis. Cells exposed to TCDD along with BHV-1 showed a dose-dependent increase in cytopathy, represented by ample syncytia formation with the elimination of the cellular sheets and increased viral titer. These results suggest that TCDD increases viral replication in MDBK cells while BHV-1 further decreases viability of TCDD exposed cells. Since very low concentrations (0.01 pg/ml) are sufficient to augment BHV-1 titer, TCDD may contribute to reactivate BHV-1 from latency, leading to recurrent disease and increase virus transmission.

  10. Nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles regulate steroidogenic gene expression and steroid synthesis in the human H295R adrenocortical cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Chie; Noda, Shiho; Li Chunmei; Suzuki, Akira K; Taneda, Shinji; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-05-15

    Studies of nitrophenols isolated from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC) and 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol (PNMPP) have revealed that these chemicals possess estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in vitro and in vivo and that PNMC accumulate in adrenal glands in vivo. However, the impacts of exposure to these compounds on adrenal endocrine disruption and steroidogenesis have not been investigated. To elucidate the non-receptor mediated effects of PNMC and PNMPP, we investigated the production of the steroid hormones progesterone, cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol-17{beta} and modulation of nine major enzyme genes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones (CYP11A, CYP11B1, CYP17, CYP19, 17{beta}HSD1, 17{beta}HSD4, CYP21, 3{beta}HSD2, StAR) in human adrenal H295R cells supplied with cAMP. Exposure to 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5} M PNMC and 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol-17{beta} levels and increased progesterone secretion. At 10{sup -5} M, PNMC with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP significantly stimulated expression of the 17{beta}HSD4 and significantly suppressed expression of 3{beta}HSD2. In comparison, 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} M PNMPP with 1 mM 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h decreased concentrations of estradiol-17{beta}, increased progesterone levels, but did not affect testosterone and cortisol secretion due to the significant suppression of CYP17 and the non-significant but obvious suppression of CYP19. Our results clarified steroidogenic enzymes as candidates responsible for the inhibition or stimulation for the production of steroid hormones in the steroidogenic pathway, thus providing the first experimental evidence for multiple mechanisms of disruption of endocrine pathways by these nitrophenols.

  11. Signal Inhibition Reveals JAK/STAT3 Pathway as Critical for Bovine Inner Cell Mass Development.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanli; Forrester-Gauntlett, Blaise; Turner, Pavla; Henderson, Harold; Oback, Björn

    2015-12-01

    The inner cell mass (ICM) of mammalian blastocysts consists of pluripotent epiblast and hypoblast lineages, which develop into embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, respectively. We conducted a chemical screen for regulators of epiblast identity in bovine Day 8 blastocysts. From the morula stage onward, in vitro fertilized embryos were cultured in the presence of cell-permeable small molecules targeting nine principal signaling pathway components, including TGFbeta1, BMP, EGF, VEGF, PDGF, FGF, cAMP, PI3K, and JAK signals. Using 1) blastocyst quality (by morphological grading), 2) cell numbers (by differential stain), and 3) epiblast (FGF4, NANOG) and hypoblast (PDGFRa, SOX17) marker gene expression (by quantitative PCR), we identified positive and negative regulators of ICM development and pluripotency. TGFbeta1, BMP, and cAMP and combined VEGF/PDGF/FGF signals did not affect blastocyst development while PI3K was important for ICM growth but did not alter lineage-specific gene expression. Stimulating cAMP specifically increased NANOG expression, while combined VEGF/PDGF/FGF inhibition up-regulated epiblast and hypoblast markers. The strongest effects were observed by suppressing JAK1/2 signaling with AZD1480. This treatment interfered with ICM formation, but trophectoderm cell numbers and markers (CDX2, KTR8) were not altered. JAK inhibition repressed both epiblast and hypoblast transcripts as well as naive pluripotency-related genes (KLF4, TFCP2L1) and the JAK substrate STAT3. We found that tyrosine (Y) 705-phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3(Y705)) was restricted to ICM nuclei, where it colocalized with SOX2 and NANOG. JAK inhibition abolished this ICM-exclusive pSTAT3(Y705) signal and strongly reduced the number of SOX2-positive nuclei. In conclusion, JAK/STAT3 activation is required for bovine ICM formation and acquisition of naive pluripotency markers. PMID:26510863

  12. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten; Menge, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains. PMID:27021246

  13. Extracellular vesicle–depleted fetal bovine and human sera have reduced capacity to support cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Erez; Zhang, Shi; Witwer, Kenneth W.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is the most widely used serum supplement for mammalian cell culture. It supports cell growth by providing nutrients, growth signals, and protection from stress. Attempts to develop serum-free media that support cell expansion to the same extent as serum-supplemented media have not yet succeeded, suggesting that FBS contains one or more as-yet-undefined growth factors. One potential vehicle for the delivery of growth factors from serum to cultured cells is extracellular vesicles (EVs). Methods EV-depleted FBS and human serum were generated by 120,000g centrifugation, and its cell growth–supporting activity was measured. Isolated EVs from FBS were quantified and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, and protein assay. EV internalization into cells was quantified using fluorescent plate reader analysis and microscopy. Results Most cell types cultured with EV-depleted FBS showed a reduced growth rate but not an increased sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent etoposide and the endoplasmic reticulum stress–inducing chemical tunicamycin. Supplying cells with isolated FBS-derived EVs enhanced their growth. FBS-derived EVs were internalized by mouse and human cells wherein 65±26% of them interacted with the lysosomes. EV-depleted human serum also exhibited reduced cell growth–promoting activity. Conclusions EVs play a role in the cell growth and survival-promoting effects of FBS and human serum. Thus, it is important to take the effect of EV depletion under consideration when planning EV extraction experiments and while attempting to develop serum-free media that support rapid cell expansion. In addition, these findings suggest roles for circulating EVs in supporting cell growth and survival in vivo. PMID:25819213

  14. Citrus-derived oil inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and alters its interactions with bovine mammary cells.

    PubMed

    Federman, C; Joo, J; Almario, J A; Salaheen, S; Biswas, D

    2016-05-01

    This experiment examined the effects of cold-pressed, terpeneless citrus-derived oil (CDO) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which a major cause of contagious bovine mastitis, and invasion of bovine mammary cells (MAC-T). To determine minimum inhibitory concentration, we used the broth dilution method, using CDO concentrations range from 0.0125 to 0.4% with 2-fold dilutions. Growth inhibition was examined by adding 0.00, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625% CDO to 10(5) cfu/mL S. aureus in nutrient broth and enumerating colonies after serial dilution. In a 96-well plate, S. aureus (10(7) cfu/mL) was allowed to form a biofilm, treated with 0, 0.025, 0.5, or 1% CDO, and then was measured using a spectrophotometer. Cytotoxic effect on immortalized MAC-T cells was also examined at various concentrations of CDO using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. We observed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of CDO to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in vitro was 0.025% CDO. A time kill curve for CDO action on S. aureus over 4h was generated. The CDO completely eliminated S. aureus after 3h of incubation at a concentration of 0.25%, or after 2h of incubation at concentrations of 0.05%. It was also observed that CDO had no effect on preformed biofilms except at a concentration of 0.05%, in which a significant reduction in the measured absorbance was noted. In addition, the association and invasion of S. aureus to MAC-T cells were significantly inhibited after 1h of treatment with CDO. Citrus-derived oil was also able to increase cellular proliferation of MAC-T cells at concentrations up 0.05% and had no effect at a concentration of 0.1% after 1 h. Our data suggests that CDO should be considered for further research as a preventive and therapeutic against bovine mastitis. PMID:26947297

  15. Influence of several extracellular matrix components in primary cultures of bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Delabarre, S; Claudon, C; Laurent, F

    1997-02-01

    Mammary epithelial cells, obtained from lactating cows, were cultured onto inserts coated with several components of extracellular matrix. The influence of these components upon the maintenance of differentiation has been determinated. Every day, alpha S1-casein secretion was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in apical and basal compartments. Reorganization of functional tight junctions was evaluated by measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). On EHS matrix, cells underwent alveolar structures and never established TER. alpha S1-casein secretion strongly fluctuated with the day of culture. When plated onto fibronectin, cells reorganized a typical pavement and established TER. Nevertheless, TER and casein secretion highly fluctuated. On laminin-coated inserts, a few cells bound to the substratum, dedifferentiated, and proliferated to confluency within 9 days. TER progressively increased to a stable level after 15 days. Casein was not recovered after 6 days. Cells on type I collagen-coated inserts reorganized an epithelial pavement within 2 days and quickly established a stable TER. They secreted apically high levels of casein during 2 weeks. As cells maintained their biochemical differentiation, the culture on type I collagen-coated inserts seems an efficient model for primary culture of bovine mammary epithelial cells and allows studies of polarized alpha S1-casein secretion.

  16. Effects of Fetal Bovine Serum deprivation in cell cultures on the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis Multinucleopolyhedrovirus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anticarsia gemmatalis is a pest in South America's soybean crops, which could be controlled by the Multinucleopolyhedrovirus of A. gemmatalis (AgMNPV). Currently, its commercial production is based on infected larvae. However, the possibility of using modified baculoviruses in Integrated Pest Management programs has stimulated an interest to develop alternative multiplication processes. This study evaluated the AgMNPV production in UFL-Ag-286 cells previously deprived Fetal Bovine Serum. Results Culture media containing 1% FBS during the previous 48 hours achieved a synchronized condition where 90% of cells were found in G0/G1 stage, showing the presence of non-filamentous actin. All characteristics were estimated from cellular viability tests, cell actin detection trials and flow cytometer cell cycle analysis. AgMNPV production was tested by transcript studies and budded viruses (BVs) and occlusion bodies (OBs) yield quantitation. Results showed that the productivity in FBS deprived cells was 9.8 times more in BVs and 3.8 times more in OBs with respect to non-treated cells. Conclusions UFL-Ag-286 cells previously deprived in FBS shown to be a better host for AgMNPV propagation, increasing the useful for both in vitro bioinsecticide production and applications such as recombinant protein expression or gene delivery. PMID:20843354

  17. Slow and steady cell shrinkage reduces osmotic stress in bovine and murine oocyte and zygote vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Lai, D.; Ding, J.; Smith, G.W.; Smith, G.D.; Takayama, S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does the use of a new cryoprotectant agent (CPA) exchange protocol designed to minimize osmotic stress improve oocyte or zygote vitrification by reducing sublethal cryodamage? SUMMARY ANSWER The use of a new CPA exchange protocol made possible by automated microfluidics improved oocyte and zygote vitrification with superior morphology as indicated by a smoother cell surface, higher sphericity, higher cytoplasmic lipid retention, less cytoplasmic leakage and higher developmental competence compared with conventional methods. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The use of more ‘steps’ of CPA exposure during the vitrification protocol increases cryosurvival and development in the bovine model. However, such an attempt to eliminate osmotic stress is limited by the practicality of performing numerous precise pipetting steps in a short amount of time. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Murine meiotically competent germinal vesicle intact oocytes and zygotes were harvested from the antral follicles in ovaries and ampulla, respectively. Bovine ovaries were obtained from a local abattoir at random stages of the estrous cycle. A total of 110 murine oocytes, 802 murine zygotes and 52 bovine oocytes were used in this study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Microfluidic devices were fabricated using conventional photo- and soft-lithography. CPAs used were 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG) and 7.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for equilibration solution and 15% EG, 15% DMSO and 0.5 M sucrose for vitrification solution. End-point analyses include mathematical modeling using Kedem–Katchalsky equations, morphometrics assessed by conventional and confocal microscopy, cytoplasmic lipid quantification by nile red staining, cytoplasmic leakage quantification by fluorescent dextran intercalation and developmental competence analysis by 96 h embryo culture and blastomere quantification. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The automated microfluidics protocol decreased the shrinkage rate of

  18. Generation of bovine (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adipose tissue derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, and multipotentiality.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, R V; Chiaratti, M R; Santos, D C N; Bressan, F F; Sangalli, J R; Sá, A L A; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Santos, S S D; Ambrosio, C E; Adona, P R; Meirelles, F V; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2015-01-15

    Adult stem cells are known for their plasticity and their potential to differentiate into several different cell types; these characteristics have implications for cell therapy and reproductive biotechnologies. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bovine and buffalo adipose tissue. Cells isolated using enzymatic digestion of bovine and buffalo adipose-tissue biopsy samples were grown in vitro for at least 15 passages, verifying their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization for the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79, and the absence of CD45, CD34, and CD73, which are positive and negative markers of MSC, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three different cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (Chondrogenic-Alcian Blue, Osteogenic-Alizarin Red, and Adipogenic-Oil-Red O, respectively) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analysis of pluripotency-related genes was also conducted. Our results suggest that adipose tissue from bovines and buffalos can be used as a source of MSC, making adipose tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Additionally, these findings have implications for reproductive biotechnology because the use of MSC as nuclear donors has been linked to an increase in the efficiency of nuclear transfer.

  19. Activation of factor IX bound to cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stern, D M; Drillings, M; Kisiel, W; Nawroth, P; Nossel, H L; LaGamma, K S

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that factor IX and its activated form, factor IXa, bind to cultured vascular endothelial cells and that cell-bound factor IXa retains its procoagulant activity. The present studies provide evidence that factor IX bound to cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells can be activated. Factor IX activation was assessed by finding cleavage of the factor IX molecule on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by the generation of procoagulant activity as assessed by thrombin-treated factor VIII-dependent generation of factor Xa activity. Cell-bound factor IX (0.8 micrograms per 4 X 10(8) cells per ml) could be activated by factor XIa (5 micrograms/ml) or by factor VIIa (0.1 micrograms/ml) without exogenous tissue factor when endothelial cells were treated with phorbol ester and acquired tissue factor-like procoagulant activity. Regardless of how factor IX was activated, the cell-bound factor IXa required thrombin-treated factor VIII and calcium, but not exogenous phospholipid, to activate factor X. In further experiments, factor X bound to endothelial cells specifically and reversibly with a dependence on calcium and with a lower affinity (half-maximal at 480 nM) than factor IX. At saturation, 9.1 X 10(6) factor X molecules were bound per cell. After activation of factor X by factor IXa, approximately 50% of the factor Xa formed could be eluted from the cells by 10 mM EDTA, suggesting that the factor Xa was cell associated. These observations indicate that endothelial cells can bind and promote the activation of factors IX and X in the absence of platelets or exogenous phospholipid. PMID:6608105

  20. Comparative Analysis of KnockOut™ Serum with Fetal Bovine Serum for the In Vitro Long-Term Culture of Human Limbal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The limbal epithelial cells can be maintained on 3T3 feeder layer with fetal bovine serum supplemented culture medium, and these cells have been used to successfully treat limbal stem cell deficiency. However, fetal bovine serum contains unknown components and displays quantitative and qualitative lot-to-lot variations. To improve the culture condition, the defined KnockOut serum replacement was investigated to replace fetal bovine serum for culturing human limbal epithelial cell. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were cultured in KnockOut serum and fetal bovine serum supplemented medium, respectively. The cell growth rate, gene expression, and maintenance of limbal epithelial stem cells were studied and compared between these two groups. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were isolated and successfully serially cultivated in this novel KnockOut serum supplemented medium; the cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance were similar to those of cells grown in fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. These data suggests that this KnockOut serum supplemented medium is an efficient replacement to traditional fetal bovine serum supplemented medium for limbal epithelial cell culture, and this medium has great potential for long term maintenance of limbal epithelial cells, limbal epithelial stem cells transplantation, and tissue regeneration. PMID:27446607

  1. Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on Growth of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells in 3D and Monolayer Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Many studies have been showed transfer of aflatoxins, toxins produced by Aspergillus flvaus and Aspergillus parasiticus fungi, into milk. These toxins are transferred into the milk through digestive system by eating contaminated food. Due to the toxicity of these materials, it seems that it has side effects on the growth of mammary cells. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate possible toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on bovine mammary epithelial cells in monolayer and three-dimensional cultures. Methods: Specimens of the mammary tissue of bovine were sized out in size 2×2 cm in slaughterhouse. After disinfection and washing in sterile PBS, primary cell culture was performed by enzymatic digestion of tissue with collagenase. When proper numbers of cells were achieved in monolayer culture, cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, the concentrations of 15, 25 and 35 µL of AFB1 were added to the culture in quadruplicate and incubated for 8 hours. Cellular cytotoxicity was examined using standard colorimetric assay and finally, any change in the morphology of the cells was studied by microscopic technique. Results: Microscopic investigations showed necrosis of the AFB1-exposed cells compared to the control cells. Also, bovine mammary epithelial cells were significantly affected by AFB1 in dose and time dependent manner in cell viability assays. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that AFB1 can induce cytotoxicity and necrosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:24312827

  2. Use of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells for the comparison of adherence and invasion ability of Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    PubMed

    Hensen, S M; Pavicić, M J; Lohuis, J A; Poutrel, B

    2000-03-01

    Adherence and invasion of epithelial cells are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. A cell culture model with primary mammary epithelial cells originating from the secretory tissue from the bovine udder was used to study adherence and invasion of S. aureus. The cells were characterized with antibodies against several cell markers that had been validated on histologic cryostat sections of bovine mammary tissue. All cells stained positively with the anticytokeratin antibodies, which are restricted to epithelial cells. The cell cultures contained a small number of alpha-smooth-muscle-actin positive cells (< 1%), probably myoepithelial cells. The use of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells and bovine S. aureus isolates, which were cultured in milk serum, results in a system similar to in vivo. Strain differences for adherence and invasion of S. aureus strains cultured in milk serum were studied. In addition, the correlation between adherence and invasion was evaluated. The number of adhered and invaded bacteria was strain dependent. The percentage of adherence after 5 min of incubation was correlated to the percentage of adherence after 3 h of incubation (r = 0.94; Pearson's correlation test). Fourteen of the 20 strains were able to invade epithelial cells. The percentage of invasion was correlated to the percentage of adherence after 5 min and to the percentage adherence after 3 h (r = 0.95 and 0.90, respectively; Pearson's correlation test). Results indicate that strain differences of adherence and invasion exist for S. aureus and that the invasion is a post adherence event.

  3. In vitro permissivity of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells to bovine viral diarrhoea virus is dependent on the animal specific immune status.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Barbara; Ponti, Wilma; Turin, Lauretta; Bronzo, Valerio; Scaccabarozzi, Licia; Luzzago, Camilla

    2012-04-01

    The in vitro permissivity to infection with homologous and heterologous bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strains of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from eight naïve and eight BVDV-1b immune animals was studied. Four reference strains (BVDV-1a NADL, BVDV-1b NY-1, BVDV-2 125 and BVDV-2 890) were selected, based on genotype, prevalence and biotype. Virus neutralizing antibody titres were determined at bleeding and the viral loads were measured in PBMCs by end point titration in cell culture and by real-time PCR. PBMCs from both naïve and immune animals became infected by all BVDV strains tested, although virus titres were lower for immune heifers than naïve ones; the differences were significant for NADL (P<0.05) and 890 (P<0.001) strains. The in vitro model used in this study showed that PBMCs from immune animals are susceptible to re-infection with both homologous and heterologous BVDV strains, albeit at a lower extent than naïve cattle.

  4. Characterization of effector and memory T cell subsets in the immune response to bovine tuberculosis in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine-elicited long-term cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection against bovine tuberculosis in cattle. With humans, cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are primarily a measure of central memory T cell (Tcm) responses; however, this important subset of lymphocytes is poorly ch...

  5. Silkworm (Bombyx mori) hemolymph unable to substitute fetal bovine serum in insect cell culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparto, Irma H.; Khalam, Chandra Nur; Praira, Willy; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-03-01

    Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in animal cell culture media is an important source of nutrients for cell growth. However, the harvest and collection of FBS cause bioethical concerns. Efforts to reduce and preferably replace FBS with synthetic or other natural alternatives are continually being explored. Hemolymph silkworm (Bombyx mori) contains many nutrients needed for the process of metamorphosis. Therefore, there is possibility as an alternative nutritional supplement for cell culture to reduce the use of FBS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macrocomponent of hemolymph and the possibility as medium supplement for Spodoptera fugiperda (Sf9) cell culture. Proximate analyses showed that hemolymph contains 89.76% of water, 2.52 mg/mL carbohydrate, 2.35% fat and 55.61 mg/mL protein. Further protein analysis, it consists of 15 fractions containing molecular weight of 22 - 152 kDa. The use of hemolymph as FBS substitution in Sf9 cell culture with various concentrations was unable to maintain and support cell growth. Further research still needed by prior adaptation of the tissue culture to minimal nutrition media before introduction of the hemolymph as supplement.

  6. Bovine Muc1 inhibits binding of enteric bacteria to Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, Phillip; Sando, Lillian; Pearson, Roger; Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Tellam, Ross L; Smith, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial receptors by the consumption of natural food components is an attractive strategy for the prevention of microbial related gastrointestinal illness. We hypothesised that Muc1, a highly glycosylated mucin present in cows' milk, may be one such food component. Purified bovine Muc1 was tested for its ability to inhibit binding of common enteric bacterial pathogens to Caco-2 cells grown in vitro. Muc1 caused dose-dependent binding inhibition of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. This inhibition was more pronounced for the Gram negative compared with Gram positive bacteria. It was also demonstrated that Muc1, immobilised on a membrane, bound all these bacterial species in a dose-dependent manner, although there was greater interaction with the Gram negative bacteria. A range of monosaccharides, representative of the Muc1 oligosaccharide composition, were tested for their ability to prevent binding of E. coli and S. Typhimurium to Caco-2 cells. Inhibition was structure dependent with sialic acid, L(-) fucose and D(+) mannose significantly inhibiting binding of both Gram negative species. N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine significantly inhibited binding of E. coli whilst galactose, one of the most abundant Muc1 monosaccharides, showed the strongest inhibition against S. Typhimurium. Treatment with sialidase significantly decreased the inhibitory properties of Muc1, demonstrating the importance of sialic acid in adhesion inhibition. It is concluded that bovine Muc1 prevents binding of bacteria to human intestinal cells and may have a role in preventing the binding of common enteropathogenic bacteria to human intestinal epithelial surfaces.

  7. A patch-clamp study of bovine chromaffin cells and of their sensitivity to acetylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, E M; Marty, A; Neher, E

    1982-01-01

    1. Bovine chromaffin cells were enzymatically isolated and kept in short term tissue culture. Their electrical properties were studied using recent advances of the patch-clamp technique (Hamill, Marty, Neher, Sakmann & Sigworth, 1981). 2. When a patch pipette was sealed tightly to a chromaffin cell ('cell-attached configuration') current wave forms due to intracellular action potentials could be observed. The frequency of the wave forms was altered by changing the pipette potential. When acetylcholine was present in the pipette solution, acetylcholine-induced single channel currents were evident in the patch recording. Action potential wave forms were then often seen to follow acetycholine-induced single channel currents. 3. In the cell-attached configuration, large single channel current events did not resemble square pulses but showed exponential relaxations with time constants of the order of 50 ms. 4. After rupture of the patch of membrane, the pipette--cell seal remained stable ('whole-cell recording', Hamill et al. 1981). Chromaffin cells were found to have a resting potential of -50 to -80 mV, and an input resistance around 5 G omega. The high cell resistance accounts for the relaxing currents evident in the cell-attached configuration. 5. In the best cases, the effective time constant of the voltage clamp in the whole-cell recording mode was 15 microseconds. Exchange of small ions such as Na+ ions between pipette and cell interior solutions was then complete within 15 s. 6. Acetylcholine-induced currents were obtained at various acetylcholine concentrations. Single acetylcholine-induced channels had a slope conductance of 44 pS between -100 and -55 mV, and a mean duration of 27 ms at -80 mV (at room temperature). Images Fig. 1 PMID:6296371

  8. Improved development of somatic cell cloned bovine embryos by a mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-bing; He, Xiao-ning; Si, Wan-tong; Zheng, Yue-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have established a bovine mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model by the adenovirus-mediated telomerase (hTERT-bMGEs). The present study was conducted to confirm whether hTERT-bMGEs were effective target cells to improve the efficiency of transgenic expression and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). To accomplish this, a mammary-specific vector encoding human lysozyme and green fluorescent protein was used to verify the transgenic efficiency of hTERT-bMGEs, and untreated bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (bMGEs) were used as a control group. The results showed that the hTERT-bMGEs group had much higher transgenic efficiency and protein expression than the bMGEs group. Furthermore, the nontransgenic and transgenic hTERT-bMGEs were used as donor cells to evaluate the efficiency of SCNT. There were no significant differences in rates of cleavage or blastocysts or hatched blastocysts of cloned embryos from nontransgenic hTERT-bMGEs at passage 18 and 28 groups (82.8% vs. 81.9%, 28.6% vs. 24.8%, 58.6% vs. 55.3%, respectively) and the transgenic group (80.8%, 26.5% and 53.4%); however, they were significantly higher than the bMGEs group (71.2%, 12.8% and 14.8%), (p < 0.05). We confirmed that hTERT-bMGEs could serve as effective target cells for improving development of somatic cell cloned cattle embryos. PMID:26243608

  9. Improved development of somatic cell cloned bovine embryos by a mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Ying; Ma, Li-Bing; He, Xiao-Ning; Si, Wan-Tong; Zheng, Yue-Mao

    2016-06-30

    Previous studies have established a bovine mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model by the adenovirus-mediated telomerase (hTERT-bMGEs). The present study was conducted to confirm whether hTERT-bMGEs were effective target cells to improve the efficiency of transgenic expression and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). To accomplish this, a mammary-specific vector encoding human lysozyme and green fluorescent protein was used to verify the transgenic efficiency of hTERT-bMGEs, and untreated bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (bMGEs) were used as a control group. The results showed that the hTERT-bMGEs group had much higher transgenic efficiency and protein expression than the bMGEs group. Furthermore, the nontransgenic and transgenic hTERT-bMGEs were used as donor cells to evaluate the efficiency of SCNT. There were no significant differences in rates of cleavage or blastocysts or hatched blastocysts of cloned embryos from nontransgenic hTERT-bMGEs at passage 18 and 28 groups (82.8% vs. 81.9%, 28.6% vs. 24.8%, 58.6% vs. 55.3%, respectively) and the transgenic group (80.8%, 26.5% and 53.4%); however, they were significantly higher than the bMGEs group (71.2%, 12.8% and 14.8%), (p < 0.05). We confirmed that hTERT-bMGEs could serve as effective target cells for improving development of somatic cell cloned cattle embryos. PMID:26243608

  10. Improved development of somatic cell cloned bovine embryos by a mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Ying; Ma, Li-Bing; He, Xiao-Ning; Si, Wan-Tong; Zheng, Yue-Mao

    2016-06-30

    Previous studies have established a bovine mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model by the adenovirus-mediated telomerase (hTERT-bMGEs). The present study was conducted to confirm whether hTERT-bMGEs were effective target cells to improve the efficiency of transgenic expression and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). To accomplish this, a mammary-specific vector encoding human lysozyme and green fluorescent protein was used to verify the transgenic efficiency of hTERT-bMGEs, and untreated bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (bMGEs) were used as a control group. The results showed that the hTERT-bMGEs group had much higher transgenic efficiency and protein expression than the bMGEs group. Furthermore, the nontransgenic and transgenic hTERT-bMGEs were used as donor cells to evaluate the efficiency of SCNT. There were no significant differences in rates of cleavage or blastocysts or hatched blastocysts of cloned embryos from nontransgenic hTERT-bMGEs at passage 18 and 28 groups (82.8% vs. 81.9%, 28.6% vs. 24.8%, 58.6% vs. 55.3%, respectively) and the transgenic group (80.8%, 26.5% and 53.4%); however, they were significantly higher than the bMGEs group (71.2%, 12.8% and 14.8%), (p < 0.05). We confirmed that hTERT-bMGEs could serve as effective target cells for improving development of somatic cell cloned cattle embryos.

  11. Otilonium: a potent blocker of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gandía, L.; Villarroya, M.; Lara, B.; Olmos, V.; Gilabert, J. A.; López, M. G.; Martínez-Sierra, R.; Borges, R.; García, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Otilonium, a clinically useful spasmolytic, behaves as a potent blocker of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) as well as a mild wide-spectrum Ca2+ channel blocker in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. 45Ca2+ uptake into chromaffin cells stimulated with high K+ (70 mM, 1 min) was blocked by otilonium with an IC50 of 7.6 microM. The drug inhibited the 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by the nicotinic AChR agonist, dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP) with a 79 fold higher potency (IC50 = 0.096 microM). 3. Whole-cell Ba2+ currents (IBa) through Ca2+ channels of voltage-clamped chromaffin cells were blocked by otilonium with an IC50 of 6.4 microM, very close to that of K(+)-evoked 45Ca2+ uptake. Blockade developed in 10-20 s, almost as a single step and was rapidly and almost fully reversible. 4. Whole-cell nicotinic AChR-mediated currents (250 ms pulses of 100 microM DMPP) applied at 30 s intervals were blocked by otilonium in a concentration-dependent manner, showing an IC50 of 0.36 microM. Blockade was induced in a step-wise manner. Wash out of otilonium allowed a slow recovery of the current, also in discrete steps. 5. In experiments with recordings in the same cells of whole-cell IDMPP, Na+ currents (INa) and Ca2+ currents (ICa), 1 microM otilonium blocked 87% IDMPP, 7% INa and 13% ICa. 6. Otilonium inhibited the K(+)-evoked catecholamine secretory response of superfused bovine chromaffin cells with an IC50 of 10 microM, very close to the IC50 for blockade of K(+)-induced 45Ca2+ uptake and IBa. 7. Otilonium inhibited the secretory responses induced by 10 s pulses of 50 microM DMPP with an IC50 of 7.4 nM. Hexamethonium blocked the DMPP-evoked responses with an IC50 of 29.8 microM, 4,000 fold higher than that of otilonium. 8. In conclusion, otilonium is a potent blocker of nicotinic AChR-mediated responses. The drugs also blocked various subtypes of neuronal voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels at a considerably lower potency. Na+ channels were unaffected by

  12. Bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase cDNA. Complete coding sequence and expression in mammalian cells with vaccinia virus vector.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E J; Allison, S; Fader, D; Claflin, V; Baizer, L

    1990-01-15

    We have isolated cDNA clones for bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase from an adrenal medulla cDNA library and have determined the complete coding sequence. The largest cDNA clone isolated from the library is 2.4 kilobase pairs (kb) and contains an open reading frame of 1788 bases, coding for a protein of 597 amino acids and Mr = 66,803. The predicted amino acid sequence of the bovine cDNA contains 85% identity with human dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Lamouroux, A., Vingny, A., Faucon Biquet, N., Darmon, M. C., Franck, R., Henry, J.P., and Mallet, J. (1987) EMBO J. 6, 3931-3937; Kobayashi, K., Kurosawa, Y., Fujita, K., and Nagatsu, T. (1989) Nucleic Acids Res. 17, 1089-1102). Northern blot analysis reveals that the cDNA hybridizes to an mRNA of 2.4 kb present in bovine adrenal medulla, but not in kidney, heart, or liver. In addition, the cDNA hybridizes to a second RNA species of 5.5 kb, which is 4-fold less abundant than the 2.4-kb RNA. In vitro translation of a synthetic RNA transcribed from the 2.4-kb cDNA produces a 68-kDa protein, which is specifically immunoprecipitated by antiserum to bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase. The 2.4-kb cDNA was cloned into a vaccinia virus vector, and the recombinant virus was used to infect the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 and monkey BSC-40 fibroblast cell lines. In both cell lines, infection with recombinant virus produces a protein of Mr = 75,000, which reacts with antiserum to bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase. These results indicate that the 2.4-kb cDNA contains the genetic information necessary to code for the bovine dopamine beta-hydroxylase subunit.

  13. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, p<0.05), compact morulae formation (60.83 vs. 51.30%, p<0.05), and the blastomere apoptosis index (3.70 ± 1.41 vs. 4.43% ± 1.65, p<0.05) of bovine SCNT embryos. However, vitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, p<0.05) on day 7 and the hatching blastocysts formation rate on day 9 (26.51 vs. 50.65%, p<0.05) compared with that of the untreated group. Vitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  14. Unsaturated fatty acids promote proliferation via ERK1/2 and Akt pathway in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Tomo Haga, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Katoh, Kazuo; Obara, Yoshiaki

    2008-03-21

    GPR40 has recently been identified as a G protein-coupled cell-surface receptor for long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). The mRNA of the bovine ortholog of GPR40 (bGPR40) was detected by RT-PCR in cloned bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and in the bovine mammary gland at various stages of lactation. Oleate and linoleate caused an increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in these cells, and significantly reduced forskolin-induced cAMP concentrations. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and Akt kinase, which regulates cell proliferation and survival, was rapidly increased by oleate. Incubation with oleate and linoleate for 24 h significantly promoted cell proliferation. Moreover, in serum-free medium, oleate significantly stimulated cell proliferation during a 7-day culture. These results suggest that bGPR40 mediates LCFA signaling in mammary epithelial cells and thereby plays an important role in cell proliferation and survival.

  15. Low DICER1 expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Gabriela Resende Vieira; Ribeiro, Tamaya C; Faria, Andre M; Mariani, Beatriz M P; Lerario, Antonio M; Zerbini, Maria Claudia N; Soares, Iberê C; Wakamatsu, Alda; Alves, Venancio A F; Mendonca, Berenice B; Fragoso, Maria Candida B V; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Almeida, Madson Q

    2015-09-01

    Low DICER1 expression was associated with poor outcome in several cancers. Recently, hot-spot DICER1 mutations were found in ovarian tumors, and TARBP2 truncating mutations in tumor cell lines with microsatellite instability. In this study, we assessed DICER1 e TRBP protein expression in 154 adult adrenocortical tumors (75 adenomas and 79 carcinomas). Expression of DICER1 and TARBP2 gene was assessed in a subgroup of 61 tumors. Additionally, we investigated mutations in metal biding sites located at the RNase IIIb domain of DICER1 and in the exon 5 of TARBP2 in 61 tumors. A strong DICER1 expression was demonstrated in 32% of adenomas and in 51% of carcinomas (p = 0.028). Similarly, DICER1 gene overexpression was more frequent in carcinomas (60%) than in adenomas (23%, p = 0.006). But, among adrenocortical carcinomas, a weak DICER1 expression was significantly more frequent in metastatic than in non-metastatic adrenocortical carcinomas (66% vs. 31%; p = 0.002). Additionally, a weak DICER1 expression was significantly correlated with a reduced overall (p = 0.004) and disease-free (p = 0.005) survival. In the multivariate analysis, a weak DICER1 expression (p = 0.048) remained as independent predictor of recurrence. Regarding TARBP2 gene, its protein and gene expression did not correlate with histopathological and clinical parameters. No variant was identified in hot spot areas of DICER1 and TARBP2. In conclusion, a weak DICER1 protein expression was associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival and was a predictor of recurrence in adrenocortical carcinomas.

  16. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: Intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nel-Themaat, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Pope, C.E.; Lopez, M.; Wirtu, G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Cole, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Bondioli, K.R.; Godke, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p < 0.0001), than for eland IgNT embryos (0.5 and 0%, respectively). DNA synthesis was not observed in either bovine NT or eland IgNT cybrids before activation, but in 75 and 70% of bovine NT and eland igNT embryos, respectively, cell-cycle resumption was observed at 16 h postactivation (hpa). For eland IgNT embryos, 13% had ???8 cells at 84 hpa, while 32% of the bovine NT embryos had ???8 cells at the same interval. However, 100 and 66% of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos, respectively, that had ???8 cells synthesized DNA. From these results we concluded that (1) semen-derived epithelial cell nuclei can interact and be transcriptionally controlled by bovine cytoplast, (2) the first cell-cycle occurred in IgNT embryos, (3) a high frequency of developmental arrest occurs before the eight-cell stage in IgNT embryos, and (4) IgNT embryos that progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. ?? 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  17. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, Liesl; Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle; Lopez, Monica; Wirtu, Gemechu; Jenkins, Jill A; Cole, Alex; Dresser, Betsy L; Bondioli, Kenneth R; Godke, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p < 0.0001), than for eland IgNT embryos (0.5 and 0%, respectively). DNA synthesis was not observed in either bovine NT or eland IgNT cybrids before activation, but in 75 and 70% of bovine NT and eland igNT embryos, respectively, cell-cycle resumption was observed at 16 h postactivation (hpa). For eland IgNT embryos, 13% had > or = 8 cells at 84 hpa, while 32% of the bovine NT embryos had > or = 8 cells at the same interval. However, 100 and 66% of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos, respectively, that had > or = 8 cells synthesized DNA. From these results we concluded that (1) semen-derived epithelial cell nuclei can interact and be transcriptionally controlled by bovine cytoplast, (2) the first cell-cycle occurred in IgNT embryos, (3) a high frequency of developmental arrest occurs before the eight-cell stage in IgNT embryos, and (4) IgNT embryos that progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. PMID:18241126

  18. Human platelet lysate: Replacing fetal bovine serum as a gold standard for human cell propagation?

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Thierry; Strunk, Dirk; Koh, Mickey B C; Schallmoser, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The essential physiological role of platelets in wound healing and tissue repair builds the rationale for the use of human platelet derivatives in regenerative medicine. Abundant growth factors and cytokines stored in platelet granules can be naturally released by thrombin activation and clotting or artificially by freeze/thaw-mediated platelet lysis, sonication or chemical treatment. Human platelet lysate prepared by the various release strategies has been established as a suitable alternative to fetal bovine serum as culture medium supplement, enabling efficient propagation of human cells under animal serum-free conditions for a multiplicity of applications in advanced somatic cell therapy and tissue engineering. The rapidly increasing number of studies using platelet derived products for inducing human cell proliferation and differentiation has also uncovered a considerable variability of human platelet lysate preparations which limits comparability of results. The main variations discussed herein encompass aspects of donor selection, preparation of the starting material, the possibility for pooling in plasma or additive solution, the implementation of pathogen inactivation and consideration of ABO blood groups, all of which can influence applicability. This review outlines the current knowledge about human platelet lysate as a powerful additive for human cell propagation and highlights its role as a prevailing supplement for human cell culture capable to replace animal serum in a growing spectrum of applications. PMID:26561934

  19. Fetal Bovine Serum RNA Interferes with the Cell Culture derived Extracellular RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiyun; Batagov, Arsen O.; Carter, David R. F.; Krichevsky, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been used in eukaryotic cell cultures for decades. However, little attention has been paid to the biological effects associated with RNA content of FBS on cell cultures. Here, using RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that FBS contains a diverse repertoire of protein-coding and regulatory RNA species, including mRNA, miRNA, rRNA, and snoRNA. The majority of them (>70%) are retained even after extended ultracentrifugation in the preparations of vesicle-depleted FBS (vdFBS) commonly utilized in the studies of extracellular vesicles (EV) and intercellular communication. FBS-associated RNA is co-isolated with cell-culture derived extracellular RNA (exRNA) and interferes with the downstream RNA analysis. Many evolutionally conserved FBS-derived RNA species can be falsely annotated as human or mouse transcripts. Notably, specific miRNAs abundant in FBS, such as miR-122, miR-451a and miR-1246, have been previously reported as enriched in cell-culture derived EVs, possibly due to the confounding effect of the FBS. Analysis of publically available exRNA datasets supports the notion of FBS contamination. Furthermore, FBS transcripts can be taken up by cultured cells and affect the results of highly sensitive gene expression profiling technologies. Therefore, precautions for experimental design are warranted to minimize the interference and misinterpretations caused by FBS-derived RNA. PMID:27503761

  20. Morphological and biological characterization of cell line developed from bovine Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Claudia I; Isolabella, Dora M; Prieto Gonzalez, Elio A; Leonardelli, Araceli; Prada, Laura; Perrone, Alina; Fuchs, Alicia G

    2010-10-01

    The taeniid tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of echinococcal disease, a major zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Several efforts to establish an in vitro model of E. granulosus have been undertaken; however, many of them have been designed for Echinococcus multilocularis. In the present study, we have described and characterized a stable cell line obtained from E. granulosus bovine protoscoleces maintained 3 yr in vitro. Growth characterization, morphology by light, fluorescent and electronic microscopy, and karyotyping were carried out. Cell culture origin was confirmed by immunofluorescent detection of AgB4 antigen and by PCR for the mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1 (DCO1) gene. Cells seeded in agarose biphasic culture resembled a cystic structure, similar to the one formed in secondary hosts. This cell line could be a useful tool to research equinococcal behavior, allowing additional physiological and pharmacological studies, such as the effect of growth factors, nutrients, and antiparasitic drugs on cell viability and growth and on cyst formation.

  1. Enzymatically cross-linked bovine lactoferrin as injectable hydrogel for cell delivery.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ashley A; Kan, Ho-Man; Cui, Zhanwu; Maye, Peter; Nair, Lakshmi S

    2014-11-01

    Lactoferrin (LF), a 78 kDa glycoprotein, has recently been recognized as an effector molecule in the skeleton due to its ability to decrease osteoclastogenesis and increase osteoblast proliferation, survival, and differentiation. The objective of the study is to investigate the feasibility of developing an injectable hydrogel from bovine lactoferrin (bLF) as a cell delivery vehicle. The study demonstrated the feasibility of cross-linking tyramine substituted bLF in the presence of horse radish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The gel presented a mild environment to maintain mouse bone marrow-derived stromal cell (mBMSC) viability and proliferation. Stromal cells derived from multiple gene reporter transgenic mouse (Ibsp-Topaz/Dmp1-mCherry) line showed the ability of the cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation in the hydrogel when cultured in mineralization media. The cross-linked gel supported protein phosphorylation/de-phosphorylation in the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells. bLF and bLF gel also showed the ability to modulate growth factor production in mBMSCs. PMID:24802947

  2. Bovine and soybean milk bioactive compounds: Effects on inflammatory response of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Calvello, Rosa; Aresta, Antonella; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo; Cianciulli, Antonia; Salvatore, Rosaria; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effects of commercial bovine and soybean milks and their bioactive compounds, namely genistein, daidzein and equol, on the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human intestinal Caco-2 cells were examined, in terms of nitric oxide (NO) release and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) expression. Both milks and their bioactive compounds significantly inhibited, dose-dependently, the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein, resulting in a decreased NO production. The NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated intestinal cells was also examined. In all cases we observed that cell pre-treatment before LPS activation inhibited the IkB phosphorylation. Accordingly, quantification of bioactive compounds by solid phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography has shown that they were absorbed, metabolized and released by Caco-2 cells in culture media. In conclusion, we demonstrated that milks and compounds tested are able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses from intestinal cells, interfering with NF-kB dependent molecular mechanisms. PMID:27211648

  3. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) up-regulates telomerase activity in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Pagnini, U; De Martino, L; Montagnaro, S; Diodato, A; Longo, M; Pacelli, F; Pisanelli, G; Iovane, G

    2006-03-31

    The proliferative capacity of mammalian cells is regulated by telomerase, an enzyme uniquely specialised for telomeric DNA synthesis. The critical role of telomerase activation in tumor progression and maintenance has been well established in studies of cancer and of oncogenic transformation in cell culture. Experimental data suggest that telomerase activation has an important role in normal somatic cells, and that failure to activate sufficient telomerase also promotes disease. Evidence regarding the role of telomerase in the pathogenesis of several viruses including human immunodeficiency virus has led to an increased interest in the role of telomerase activity in other virus infections. In this research we evaluated the telomerase modulating activity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in MDBK cells. MDBK cells were infected at different multiplicity of infection with BHV-1 Cooper strain and telomerase activity at different times post-infection was measured by the TRAP assay. Our data indicate that BHV-1 significantly up-regulates telomerase activity at 3 and 6h post-infection decreasing after the 24h post-infection. Our data, showed that the effect was mediated by an immediate-early or early viral gene, and use of the protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide confirmed that an immediate early gene is primarily responsible.

  4. Fetal Bovine Serum RNA Interferes with the Cell Culture derived Extracellular RNA.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhiyun; Batagov, Arsen O; Carter, David R F; Krichevsky, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been used in eukaryotic cell cultures for decades. However, little attention has been paid to the biological effects associated with RNA content of FBS on cell cultures. Here, using RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that FBS contains a diverse repertoire of protein-coding and regulatory RNA species, including mRNA, miRNA, rRNA, and snoRNA. The majority of them (>70%) are retained even after extended ultracentrifugation in the preparations of vesicle-depleted FBS (vdFBS) commonly utilized in the studies of extracellular vesicles (EV) and intercellular communication. FBS-associated RNA is co-isolated with cell-culture derived extracellular RNA (exRNA) and interferes with the downstream RNA analysis. Many evolutionally conserved FBS-derived RNA species can be falsely annotated as human or mouse transcripts. Notably, specific miRNAs abundant in FBS, such as miR-122, miR-451a and miR-1246, have been previously reported as enriched in cell-culture derived EVs, possibly due to the confounding effect of the FBS. Analysis of publically available exRNA datasets supports the notion of FBS contamination. Furthermore, FBS transcripts can be taken up by cultured cells and affect the results of highly sensitive gene expression profiling technologies. Therefore, precautions for experimental design are warranted to minimize the interference and misinterpretations caused by FBS-derived RNA. PMID:27503761

  5. Morphological changes in the pituitary-adrenocortical axis in natives of La Paz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosney, John; Heath, Donald; Williams, David; Rios-Dalenz, Jaime

    1991-03-01

    Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is part of the response to the stress of initial exposure to hypoxia, but there is evidence to suggest that it persists after homeostatic stability has been regained and acclimatization achieved. The adrenal glands of five lifelong residents of La Paz, Bolivia, who had lived at altitudes in the range 3600 3800 m, were significantly larger than those in age-matched controls from sea level (15.3g vs 10.4g; P<0.001) and appeared hyperplastic. The pituitary glands of the highlanders were not significantly different in size from those of the controls (0.67 g vs 0.51 g), but contained larger populations of corticotrophs expressed in terms of the total cell population of their anterior lobes (25.6% vs 19.4%; P<0.001). In conjunction with other studies of this endocrine axis in man and animals exposed to a hypoxic environment, these data suggest that greater amounts of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) are required to maintain normal adrenocortical function under such circumstances, probably as a result of hypoxic inhibition of adrenocortical sensitivity to stimulation. Physiological hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex may be common in people living at high altitude.

  6. Somatic cell nuclear transfer alters peri-implantation trophoblast differentiation in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Daniel R; Bordignon, Vilceu; Lefebvre, Réjean; Murphy, Bruce D; Smith, Lawrence C

    2006-08-01

    Abnormal placental development limits success in ruminant pregnancies derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), due to reduction in placentome number and consequently, maternal/fetal exchange. In the primary stages of an epithelial-chorial association, the maternal/fetal interface is characterized by progressive endometrial invasion by specialized trophoblast binucleate/giant cells (TGC). We hypothesized that dysfunctional placentation in SCNT pregnancies results from aberration in expression of genes known to be necessary for trophoblast proliferation (Mash2), differentiation (Hand1), and function (IFN-tau and PAG-9). We, therefore, compared the expression of these factors in trophoblast from bovine embryos derived from artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and SCNT prior to (day 17) and following (day 40 of gestation) implantation, as well as TGC densities and function. In preimplantation embryos, Mash2 mRNA was more abundant in SCNT embryos compared to AI, while Hand1 was highest in AI and IVF relative to SCNT embryos. IFN-tau mRNA abundance did not differ among groups. PAG-9 mRNA was undetectable in SCNT embryos, present in IVF embryos and highest in AI embryos. In postimplantation pregnancies, SCNT fetal cotyledons displayed higher Mash2 and Hand1 than AI and IVF tissues. Allelic expression of Mash2 was not different among the groups, which suggests that elevated mRNA expression was not due to altered imprinting status of Mash2. The day 40 SCNT cotyledons had the fewest number of TGC compared to IVF and AI controls. Thus, expression of genes critical to normal placental development is altered in SCNT bovine embryos, and this is expected to cause abnormal trophoblast differentiation and contribute to pregnancy loss.

  7. The transcendental meditation technique, adrenocortical activity, and implications for stress.

    PubMed

    Jevning, R; Wilson, A F; Smith, W R

    1978-05-15

    The practice of the transcendental meditation technique in subjects eliciting this state regularly for 3--5 years is correlated with acute decline of adrenocortical activity not associated with sleep during the practice.

  8. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine. PMID:26552001

  9. Novel CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell epitopes in bovine leukemia virus with cattle.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lanlan; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Isogai, Emiko; Kohara, Junko; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-16

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV). The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) plays a key role in suppressing the progression of disease caused by BLV. T and B cell epitopes in BLV have been studied, but CD8(+) CTL epitopes remain poorly understood. We used a library of 115 synthetic peptides covering the entirety of the Env proteins (gp51 and gp30), the Gag proteins (p15, p24, and p12), and the Tax protein of BLV to identify 11 novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes (gp51N5, gp51N11, gp51N12, gp30N5, gp30N6, gp30N8, gp30N16, tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20) in four calves experimentally infected with BLV. The number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be identified in each calf correlated with the BLV proviral load. Interestingly, among the 11 epitopes identified, only gp51N11 was capable of inducing CD8(+) T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in all four calves, but it is not a suitable vaccine target because it shows a high degree of polymorphism according to the Wu-Kabat variability index. By contrast, no CTL epitopes were identified from the Gag structural protein. In addition, several epitopes were obtained from gp30 and Tax, indicating that cellular immunity against BLV is strongly targeted to these proteins. CD8(+) CTL epitopes from gp30 and Tax were less polymorphic than epitopes from. Indeed, peptides tax16, tax18, tax19, and tax20 include a leucine-rich activation domain that encompasses a transcriptional activation domain, and the gp30N16 peptide contains a proline-rich region that interacts with a protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 to regulate B cell activation. Moreover, at least one CD8(+) CTL epitope derived from gp30 was identified in each of the four calves. These results indicate that BLV gp30 may be the best candidate for the development of a BLV vaccine.

  10. Measuring the Refractive Index of Bovine Corneal Stromal Cells Using Quantitative Phase Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Steven J.; White, Nick; Albon, Julie; Knupp, Carlo; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is the primary refractive lens in the eye and transmits >90% of incident visible light. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative corneal haze could be due to an increase in light scattering from activated corneal stromal cells. Quiescent keratocytes are thought to produce crystallins that match the refractive index of their cytoplasm to the surrounding extracellular material, reducing the amount of light scattering. To test this, we measured the refractive index (RI) of bovine corneal stromal cells, using quantitative phase imaging of live cells in vitro, together with confocal microscopy. The RI of quiescent keratocytes (RI = 1.381 ± 0.004) matched the surrounding matrix, thus supporting the hypothesis that keratocyte cytoplasm does not scatter light in the normal cornea. We also observed that the RI drops after keratocyte activation (RI = 1.365 ± 0.003), leading to a mismatch with the surrounding intercellular matrix. Theoretical scattering models showed that this mismatch would reduce light transmission in the cornea. We conclude that corneal transparency depends on the matching of refractive indices between quiescent keratocytes and the surrounding tissue, and that after surgery or wounding, the resulting RI mismatch between the activated cells and their surrounds significantly contributes to light scattering. PMID:26488650

  11. Tudor-SN Regulates Milk Synthesis and Proliferation of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ao, Jinxia; Wei, Chengjie; Si, Yu; Luo, Chaochao; Lv, Wei; Lin, Ye; Cui, Yingjun; Gao, Xuejun

    2015-12-16

    Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein, related to multiple and diverse cell type- and species-specific cellular processes. Studies have shown that Tudor-SN is mainly expressed in secretory cells, however knowledge of its role is limited. In our previous work, we found that the protein level of Tudor-SN was upregulated in the nucleus of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC). In this study, we assessed the role of Tudor-SN in milk synthesis and cell proliferation of BMEC. We exploited gene overexpression and silencing methods, and found that Tudor-SN positively regulates milk synthesis and proliferation via Stat5a activation. Both amino acids (methionine) and estrogen triggered NFκB1 to bind to the gene promoters of Tudor-SN and Stat5a, and this enhanced the protein level and nuclear localization of Tudor-SN and p-Stat5a. Taken together, these results suggest the key role of Tudor-SN in the transcriptional regulation of milk synthesis and proliferation of BMEC under the stimulation of amino acids and hormones.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-08-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  13. Neuroprotective effects of bovine colostrum on intracerebral hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death in rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Eun; Ko, Il Gyu; Shin, Mal Soon; Kim, Chang Ju; Ko, Young Gwan; Cho, Hanjin

    2012-01-01

    Brain cell death after intracerebral hemorrhage may be mediated in part by an apoptotic mechanism. Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammals for their young. It plays an important role in protection and development by providing various antibodies, growth factors and nutrients, and has been used for various diseases in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effects of bovine colostrum using organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and an intracerebral hemorrhage animal model. We performed densitometric measurements of propidium iodide uptake, a step-down avoidance task, Nissl staining, and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. The present results revealed that colostrum treatment significantly suppressed N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the rat hippocampus. Moreover, colostrum treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing hemorrhage-induced apoptotic neuronal cell death and decreasing the volume of the lesion induced by intracerebral hemorrhage in the rat hippocampus. These results suggest that colostrum may have a beneficial role in recovering brain function following hemorrhagic stroke by suppressing apoptotic cell death. PMID:25624793

  14. Intracellular trafficking of VP22 in bovine herpesvirus-1 infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lobanov, Vladislav A.; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia van

    2010-01-20

    The intracellular trafficking of different VP22-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) fusion proteins expressed by bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) recombinants was examined by live-cell imaging. Our results demonstrate that (i) the fusion of EYFP to the C terminus of VP22 does not alter the trafficking of the protein in infected cells, (ii) VP22 expressed during BHV-1 infection translocates to the nucleus through three different pathways, namely early mitosis-dependent nuclear translocation, late massive nuclear translocation that follows a prolonged cytoplasmic stage of the protein in non-mitotic cells, and accumulation of a small subset of VP22 in discrete dot-like nuclear domains during its early cytoplasmic stage, (iii) the addition of the SV40 large-T-antigen nuclear localization signal (NLS) to VP22-EYFP abrogates its early cytoplasmic stage, and (iv) the VP22 {sup 131}PRPR{sup 134} NLS is not required for the late massive nuclear translocation of the protein, but this motif is essential for the targeting of VP22 to discrete dot-like nuclear domains during the early cytoplasmic stage. These results show that the amount of VP22 in the nucleus is precisely regulated at different stages of BHV-1 infection and suggest that the early pathways of VP22 nuclear accumulation may be more relevant to the infection process as the late massive nuclear influx starts when most of the viral progeny has already emerged from the cell.

  15. Measuring the Refractive Index of Bovine Corneal Stromal Cells Using Quantitative Phase Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Steven J; White, Nick; Albon, Julie; Knupp, Carlo; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Meek, Keith M

    2015-10-20

    The cornea is the primary refractive lens in the eye and transmits >90% of incident visible light. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative corneal haze could be due to an increase in light scattering from activated corneal stromal cells. Quiescent keratocytes are thought to produce crystallins that match the refractive index of their cytoplasm to the surrounding extracellular material, reducing the amount of light scattering. To test this, we measured the refractive index (RI) of bovine corneal stromal cells, using quantitative phase imaging of live cells in vitro, together with confocal microscopy. The RI of quiescent keratocytes (RI = 1.381 ± 0.004) matched the surrounding matrix, thus supporting the hypothesis that keratocyte cytoplasm does not scatter light in the normal cornea. We also observed that the RI drops after keratocyte activation (RI = 1.365 ± 0.003), leading to a mismatch with the surrounding intercellular matrix. Theoretical scattering models showed that this mismatch would reduce light transmission in the cornea. We conclude that corneal transparency depends on the matching of refractive indices between quiescent keratocytes and the surrounding tissue, and that after surgery or wounding, the resulting RI mismatch between the activated cells and their surrounds significantly contributes to light scattering.

  16. Quantification and Localization of Intracellular Free Mg2+ in Bovine Chromaffin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montezinho, Liliana P.; Fonseca, Carla P.; Geraldes, Carlos F. G. C.

    2002-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential element for all living systems. The quantification of free intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) is of utmost importance since changes in its basal value may be an indication of different pathologies due to abnormalities of Mg2+ metabolism. In this work we used 31P NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy to determine the resting [Mg2+]i in bovine chromaffin cells, a neuron-like cellular model, as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy to study the free Mg2+ spatial distribution in these cells. 31P NMR spectroscopy did not prove to be effective for the determination of [Mg2+]i in this particular case due to some special morphological and physiological properties of this cell type. A basal [Mg2+]i value of 0.551 ± 0.008 mM was found for these cells using fluorescence spectroscopy and the Mg2+-sensitive probe furaptra; this value falls in the concentration range reported in the literature for neurons from different sources. This technique proved to be an accurate and sensitive tool to determine the [Mg2+]i. lntraceilular free Mg2+ seems to be essentially localized in the nucleus and around it, as shown by confocal microscopy with the Mg2+-sensitive probe Magnesium Green. It was not possible to derive any conclusion about free Mg2+ localization inside the chromaffin granules and/or in the cytoplasm due to the lack of sufficient spatial resolution and to probe compartmentalization. PMID:18475427

  17. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP{sub 4}), an IP{sub 3} derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP{sub 4} are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP{sub 4} in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} and ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP{sub 3} and IP{sub 4} hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP{sub 4} and calcium homeostasis.

  18. Transcriptional Induction of Metallothionein by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane in Cultured Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Tomoya; Murakami, Masaki; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Kimura, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells cover the luminal surface of blood vessels and contribute to the prevention of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding, inducible protein, which protects cells from the toxicity of heavy metals and active oxygen species. Endothelial MT is not induced by inorganic zinc. Adequate tools are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying endothelial MT induction. In the present study, we found that an organoantimony compound, tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane, induces gene expression of MT-1A and MT-2A, which are subisoforms of MT in bovine aortic endothelial cells. The data reveal that MT-1A is induced by activation of both the MTF-1-MRE and Nrf2-ARE pathways, whereas MT-2A expression requires only activation of the MTF-1-MRE pathway. The present data suggest that the original role of MT-1 is to protect cells from heavy metal toxicity and oxidative stress in the biological defense system, while that of MT-2 is to regulate intracellular zinc metabolism. PMID:27563876

  19. Transcriptional Induction of Metallothionein by Tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane in Cultured Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujie, Tomoya; Murakami, Masaki; Yoshida, Eiko; Yasuike, Shuji; Kimura, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Chika; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells cover the luminal surface of blood vessels and contribute to the prevention of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Metallothionein (MT) is a low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding, inducible protein, which protects cells from the toxicity of heavy metals and active oxygen species. Endothelial MT is not induced by inorganic zinc. Adequate tools are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying endothelial MT induction. In the present study, we found that an organoantimony compound, tris(pentafluorophenyl)stibane, induces gene expression of MT-1A and MT-2A, which are subisoforms of MT in bovine aortic endothelial cells. The data reveal that MT-1A is induced by activation of both the MTF-1–MRE and Nrf2–ARE pathways, whereas MT-2A expression requires only activation of the MTF-1–MRE pathway. The present data suggest that the original role of MT-1 is to protect cells from heavy metal toxicity and oxidative stress in the biological defense system, while that of MT-2 is to regulate intracellular zinc metabolism. PMID:27563876

  20. Loss of calcium responsiveness in cultured bovine parathyroid cells is associated with decreased calcium receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Brown, A J; Zhong, M; Ritter, C; Brown, E M; Slatopolsky, E

    1995-07-26

    Suppression of PTH secretion by extracellular calcium is mediated by a plasma membrane calcium receptor (CaR). However, primary cultures of bovine parathyroid cells are known to quickly lose their responsiveness to extracellular calcium. The present study was designed to determine if the loss of calcium responsiveness is due to changes in CaR expression. In primary monolayer cultures of parathyroid cells, calcium-mediated suppression of PTH was still evident after 24 hours in culture but was completely absent after 6 days. This was preceded by a 75% drop in CaR mRNA content within 24 hours. CaR mRNA levels remained low for the 6-day culture. Earlier time points, examined in parathyroid cell suspensions, showed a 70% drop in CaR mRNA by 4 hours after collagenase-dispersion of the glands and an 85% drop after 24 hours. The decreased expression of CaR mRNA was not influenced by altering medium serum, calcium, or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Our results indicate that the loss of responsiveness of cultured parathyroid cells to calcium is due to decreased CaR mRNA and, presumably, CaR protein expression.

  1. Roles of bovine viral diarrhea virus envelope glycoproteins in inducing autophagy in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Shi, Mengting; Meng, Luping; Bao, Haiyang; Zhang, Guoqi; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Fei; Qiao, Jun; Jia, Bin; Wang, Pengyan; Ni, Wei; Sheng, Jinliang; Chen, Chuangfu

    2014-11-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved control process that maintains cellular homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy principally serves an adaptive role to degrade dysfunctional proteins and to clean damaged organelles in response to pathogenic, viral, or microbial infection, nutrient deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In previous study, we showed bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) NADL infection induced autophagy and significantly elevated the expression levels of autophagy-related genes, Beclin1 and ATG14, at 12 h post-infection in MDBK cells. However, the specific mechanisms involved in controlling autophagic activity remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effects of BVDV NADL envelope glycoproteins overexpression on inducing autophagy. The results show that viral envelope glycoproteins E(rns) and E2 overexpression mediated by lentivirus increase the formation of autophagosome, the percentage of GFP-LC3 puncta-positive cells and the expression levels of Beclin1 and ATG14. Whereas E1 overexpression doesn't affect autophagic activity. Collectively, these findings suggest that the viral envelope glycoproteins E(rns) and E2 are involved in inducing autophagy, and provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of autophagy in viral infected cells.

  2. Regulation of collagen biosynthesis in cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stepp, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Aortic smooth muscles cells have been implicated in the etiology of lesions which occur in atherosclerosis and hypertension. Both diseases involve proliferation of smooth muscle cells and accumulation of excessive amounts of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen type I and type III produced by the smooth muscle cells. To better understand the sites of regulation of collagen biosynthesis and to correlate these with the growth rate of the cells, cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle cells were studied as a function of the number of days (3 to 14) in second passage. Cells grew rapidly up to day 6 when confluence was reached. The total incorporation of (/sup 3/H)-proline into proteins was highest at day 3 and decreased to a constant level after the cultures reached confluence. In contrast, collagen protein production was lowest before confluence and continued to increase over the entire time course of the experiments. cDNA clones for the ..cap alpha..1 and ..cap alpha..2 chains of type I and the ..cap alpha..1 chain of type III collagen were used to quantitate the steady state level of collagen mRNAs. RNA was tested in a cell-free translation system. Changes in the translational activity of collagen mRNAs parallelled the observed increases in collagen protein production. Thus, at later time points, collagen mRNAs are more active in directing synthesis of preprocollagens, even though less collagen mRNA is present. The conclusion is that the site of regulation of the expression of collagen genes is a function of the growth rate of cultured smooth muscle cells.

  3. Physiological stimuli evoke two forms of endocytosis in bovine chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shyue-An; Smith, Corey

    2001-01-01

    Exocytosis and endocytosis were measured following single, or trains of, simulated action potentials (sAP) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Catecholamine secretion was measured by oxidative amperometry and cell membrane turnover was measured by voltage clamp cell capacitance measurements. The sAPs evoked inward Na+ and Ca2+ currents that were statistically identical to those evoked by native action potential waveforms. On average, a single secretory granule underwent fusion following sAP stimulation. An equivalent amount of membrane was then quickly internalised (τ = 560 ms). Stimulation with sAP trains revealed a biphasic relationship between cell firing rate and endocytic activity. At basal stimulus frequencies (single to 0.5 Hz) cells exhibited a robust membrane internalisation that then diminished as firing increased to intermediate levels (1.9 and 6 Hz). However at the higher stimulation rates (10 and 16 Hz) endocytic activity rebounded and was again able to effectively maintain cell surface near pre-stimulus levels. Treatment with cyclosporin A and FK506, inhibitors of the phosphatase calcineurin, left endocytosis characteristics unaltered at the lower basal stimulus levels, but blocked the resurgence in endocytosis seen in control cells at higher sAP frequencies. Based on these findings we propose that, under physiological electrical stimulation, chromaffin cells internalise membrane via two distinct pathways that are separable. One is prevalent at basal stimulus frequencies, is lessened with increased firing, and is insensitive to cyclosporin A and FK506. A second endocytic form is activated by increased firing frequencies, and is selectively blocked by cyclosporin A and FK506. PMID:11744761

  4. Cytotoxicity Testing of Temporary Luting Cements with Two- and Three-Dimensional Cultures of Bovine Dental Pulp-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ülker, Hayriye Esra; Ülker, Mustafa; Gümüş, Hasan Önder; Yalçın, Muhammet; Şengün, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of eugenol-containing and eugenol-free temporary luting cements. For cytotoxicity testing, bovine pulp-derived cells transfected with Simian virus 40 Large T antigen were exposed to extracts of eugenol-containing (Rely X Temp E) and eugenol-free (Provicol, PreVISION CEM, and Rely X Temp NE) temporary luting cements for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of the same materials was also evaluated in a dentin barrier test device using three-dimensional cell cultures of bovine pulp-derived cells. The results of the cytotoxicity studies with two-dimensional cultures of bovine dental pulp-derived cells revealed that cell survival with the extracts of Rely X Temp E, Provicol, PreVISION CEM, and Rely X Temp NE was 89.1%, 84.9%, 92.3%, and 66.8%, respectively. Rely X Temp NE and Provicol showed cytotoxic effects on bovine dental pulp-derived cells (P < 0.05). The results of the dentin barrier test revealed that cell survival with the above-mentioned temporary cement was 101.5%, 91.9%, 93.5%, and 90.6%, respectively. None of the temporary luting cements significantly reduced cell survival compared with the negative control in the dentin barrier test (P > 0.05). Biologically active materials released from temporary luting cements may not influence the dentine-pulp complex if the residual dentine layer is at least 0.5 mm thick. PMID:23984419

  5. Identification of Short Hairpin RNA Targeting Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus with Transgenic Bovine Fetal Epithelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongbin; Ding, Fangrong; Yang, Hongjun; Cheng, Lei; Liu, Wenhao; Zhong, Jifeng; Dai, Yunping; Li, Guangpeng; He, Chengqiang; Yu, Li; Li, Jianbin

    2012-01-01

    Background Although it is known that RNA interference (RNAi) targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), it has not been previously investigated whether shRNAs targeting FMDV in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against FMDV challenge. Principal Finding Here we constructed three recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against VP2 (RNAi-VP2), VP3 (RNAi-VP3), or VP4 (RNAi-VP4) of FMDV, and found that all of them strongly suppressed the transient expression of a FLAG-tagged viral gene fusion protein in 293T cells. In BHK-21 cells, RNAi-VP4 was found to be more potent in inhibition of viral replication than the others with over 98% inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, recombinant lentiviral vector RNAi-VP4 was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells to generate transgenic nuclear donor cells. With subsequent somatic cell cloning, we generated forty transgenic blastocysts, and then transferred them to 20 synchronized recipient cows. Three transgenic bovine fetuses were obtained after pregnant period of 4 months, and integration into chromosome in cloned fetuses was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The primary tongue epithelium cells of transgenic fetuses were isolated and inoculated with 100 TCID50 of FMDV, and it was observed that shRNA significantly suppressed viral RNA synthesis and inhibited over 91% of viral replication after inoculation of FMDV for 48 h. Conclusion RNAi-VP4 targeting viral VP4 gene appears to prevent primary epithelium cells of transgenic bovine fetus from FMDV infection, and it could be a candidate shRNA used for cultivation of transgenic cattle against FMDV. PMID:22905125

  6. Short communication: opposing effects of lactoferrin on the proliferation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells from bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Itoh, F; Nakamura, M; Kawamura, A; Yamazaki, T; Kozakai, T; Takusari, N; Ishisaki, A

    2015-02-01

    Lactoferrin is present in several physiologic fluids, including milk and colostrum. Recently, evidence has accumulated that lactoferrin acts as a regulator of cell proliferation. Lactoferrin mRNA and protein levels in bovine mammary glands are known to markedly increase after cessation of milking. To clarify the role of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) in mammary involution and remodeling during dry periods, we investigated whether bLF affects the proliferation of cultured cells derived from bovine mammary gland and examined the mechanism underlying the proliferative response to bLF. Addition of bLF to the culture medium increased the proliferation of bovine mammary stromal fibroblasts (bMSF), but decreased that of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC). Proliferation was significantly increased in the bMSF treated with bLF (100μg/mL or greater) as compared with unstimulated cells. The maximal proliferative effect of bLF on bMSF occurred at 1,000μg/mL, such that the proliferation of the bLF-stimulated bMSF was approximately 2.5 times that of unstimulated cells. The bLF increased the production of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and rapid phosphorylation of the p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in bMSF, but not in bMEC. The bLF-induced proliferation and production of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in bMSF was suppressed by U0126, a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, treatment with bLF for 24h decreased the mRNA levels of the 3 isoforms of transforming growth factor β in bMSF (16-66%) but upregulated those in bMEC (122-157%). These opposite effects of bLF on the proliferation of epithelial and fibroblast cells and their expression of transforming growth factor β may play a crucial role in bovine mammary involution and remodeling. PMID:25497822

  7. Murine and Bovine γδ T Cells Enhance Innate Immunity against Brucella abortus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Skyberg, Jerod A.; Thornburg, Theresa; Rollins, MaryClare; Huarte, Eduardo; Jutila, Mark A.; Pascual, David W.

    2011-01-01

    γδ T cells have been postulated to act as a first line of defense against infectious agents, particularly intracellular pathogens, representing an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Human γδ T cells expand in the blood of brucellosis patients and are active against Brucella in vitro. However, the role of γδ T cells in vivo during experimental brucellosis has not been studied. Here we report TCRδ−/− mice are more susceptible to B. abortus infection than C57BL/6 mice at one week post-infection as measured by splenic colonization and splenomegaly. An increase in TCRγδ cells was observed in the spleens of B. abortus-infected C57BL/6 mice, which peaked at two weeks post-infection and occurred concomitantly with diminished brucellae. γδ T cells were the major source of IL-17 following infection and also produced IFN-γ. Depletion of γδ T cells from C57BL/6, IL-17Rα−/−, and GMCSF−/− mice enhanced susceptibility to B. abortus infection although this susceptibility was unaltered in the mutant mice; however, when γδ T cells were depleted from IFN-γ−/− mice, enhanced susceptibility was observed. Neutralization of γδ T cells in the absence of TNF-α did not further impair immunity. In the absence of TNF-α or γδ T cells, B. abortus-infected mice showed enhanced IFN-γ, suggesting that they augmented production to compensate for the loss of γδ T cells and/or TNF-α. While the protective role of γδ T cells was TNF-α-dependent, γδ T cells were not the major source of TNF-α and activation of γδ T cells following B. abortus infection was TNF-α-independent. Additionally, bovine TCRγδ cells were found to respond rapidly to B. abortus infection upon co-culture with autologous macrophages and could impair the intramacrophage replication of B. abortus via IFN-γ. Collectively, these results demonstrate γδ T cells are important for early protection to B. abortus infections. PMID:21765931

  8. Catha edulis (khat) Induces Apoptosis in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Ageely, Hussein M.; Agag, Ahmed E.; Mohan, Syam; Shehata, Atef

    2016-01-01

    Background: Khat (Catha edulis) is a controversial plant having a euphoretic effect, at the same time part of culture in many countries such as Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The presence of amphetamine-like substance, cathinone and cathine make this plant banned in many countries. Many neurological and other system related studies have been carried out in this plant, but the lack of toxicity studies are there especially the mechanism. Objective: In this study, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cell line was used as an in vitro model to study the cell death mechanism. Crude extract of fresh Khat plant leaves were prepared and exposed to cells. Materials and Methods: Trypan blue assay, phase-contrast microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, clonogenic assay, annexin-V assay, and hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining were employed to check the objectives. Results: Reductions in cellular viability were observed at concentrations above 1.25 mg/ml while using Trypan blue assay. The results of the clonogenic assay had shown that the untreated control with the highest number of colonies (100% survival) and the 0.1562 concentration could not prevent the colony formation significantly. The high concentrations reduced the colony formation at concentration dependent manner 27.4% and 24.9%, for 0.625 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml concentrations, respectively. The acridine orange/ethidium bromide experiment had observed the cells were intact with round nucleus while the apoptosis features such as blebbing and nuclear chromatin condensation were clearly observed in treatment. The shrinkage of cells was clearly observed in H and E staining. Conclusion: In addition, annexin-V binding confirmed the presence of apoptosis significantly on Khat treatment. SUMMARY Khat (Catha edulis) is a controversial plant having euphoretic effectReductions in cellular viability were observed at concentrations above 1.25 mg/ml while using Trypan blue assayThe high concentrations of khat extract had reduced the colony

  9. Histone modifications and mRNA expression in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm of bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Doris; Dahl, John Arne; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Collas, Philippe; Niemann, Heiner

    2013-03-01

    Normal development depends on the precise sequence of changes in the configuration of chromatin; these are primarily related to specific biochemical modifications such as acetylation or methylation of histones and DNA methylation. While the role of DNA methylation during preimplantation development has been studied extensively, little is known about histone modifications related to early embryonic development. Here, we investigated gene-specific histone modifications in in vitro produced bovine blastocysts. Selected genes thought to be critical for bovine preimplantation development were examined and included POU5F1 (OCT4), NANOG, INFT, GAPDH, SLC2A3 and IGF1. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation from pools of bovine blastocysts to unravel several modifications of histone H3 in relation to mRNA expression profiles. We focused on the two cell compartments of the blastocyst, the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm (TE). We show that gene expression patterns in the ICM and TE of the bovine blastocyst are consistent with histone modification patterns on the promoter of the corresponding genes. The data show a complex epigenetic pattern of promoter occupancy by transcriptionally permissive and repressive H3 modifications. These results pave the way to in-depth epigenetic studies of preimplantation embryos that are crucial to gain a better understanding of the epigenetic changes frequently observed after use of assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:23406883

  10. Disruption of exogenous eGFP gene using RNA-guided endonuclease in bovine transgenic somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, WooJae; Yum, SooYoung; Lee, SongJeon; Lee, WonWu; Lee, JiHyun; Kim, SeokJoong; Koo, OkJae; Lee, ByeongChun; Jang, Goo

    2015-12-01

    Genome-editing technologies are considered to be an important tool for generating gene knockout cattle models. Here, we report highly efficient disruption of a chromosomally integrated eGFP gene in bovine somatic cells using RNA-guided endonucleases, a new class of programmable nucleases developed from a bacterial Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. In the present study, we obtained homogenously eGFP-expressing primary fibroblasts from cloned bovine transgenic embryonic tissues and employed them for further analysis. CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids specifically targeting the eGFP gene were transfected into the eGFP fibroblasts by electroporation. After 10 days of culture, more than 40% of the cells had lost eGFP expression in fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Targeted sequences of the transfected cells were analyzed, and various small indel mutations (6-203 bp deletions) in the target sequence were found. The fibroblasts mutated with the CRISPR/Cas9 system were applied for somatic cell nuclear transfer, and the reconstructed embryos were successfully developed into the blastocyst stage. In conclusion, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was successfully utilized in bovine cells and cloned embryos. This will be a useful technique to develop livestock transgenesis for agricultural science. PMID:25424059

  11. Effect of heparin on bovine epithelial lens cell proliferation induced by heparin affin regulatory peptide.

    PubMed

    Delbé, J; Vacherot, F; Laaroubi, K; Barritault, D; Courty, J

    1995-07-01

    HARP (heparin affin regulatory peptide) is an 18 kDa heparin binding protein, also known as HB-GAM or pleiotrophin (PTN) which has been primarily isolated from brain and uterus, and displays neurite outgrowth, angiogenic and mitogenic activities. Previously, we have expressed the human cDNA encoding human HARP in NIH 3T3 cells. Purified recombinant HARP displayed mitogenic activity for endothelial cells. Its NH2-terminal sequence indicates that the HARP molecule possesses a three amino acid extension from the signal peptide more than the NH2-terminal described. For HB-GAM or PTN, these three amino acids may be essential for the stability and the mitogenic activity of this growth factor. In an attempt to further study the mode of action of this growth factor, we have investigated the mitogenic effect of HARP on various cell types. In contrast to FGF-2, HARP failed to induce stimulation of DNA synthesis on a CCL39 cell line. However, we found that in quiescent bovine epithelial lens (BEL) cells, the stimulation of DNA synthesis induced by HARP is dose-dependent (EC50: 2.5 ng/ml) and maximal stimulation is as potent as that induced by FGF-2 (EC50: 25 pg/ml). Interestingly, when BEL cells were allowed to quiesce in the presence of serum, the stimulation induced by HARP is considerably less potent. In this highly responsive cell system, heparin could potentiate the mitogenic activity of HARP at very low doses (0.1-1 microgram/ml) and inhibit this activity at concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml. In contrast to its protective effect on FGF-1 and -2, heparin was unable to preserve HARP from tryptic and chymotryptic degradations.

  12. Isolation of a mutant MDBK cell line resistant to bovine viral diarrhea virus infection due to a block in viral entry.

    PubMed

    Flores, E F; Donis, R O

    1995-04-20

    A cell line, termed CRIB, resistant to infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been derived from the MDBK bovine kidney cell line. CRIB cells were obtained by selection and cloning of cells surviving infection with a highly cytolytic BVDV strain. CRIB cells contain no detectable infectious or defective BVDV as ascertained by cocultivation, animal inoculation, indirect immunofluorescence, Western immunoblot, Northern hybridization, and RNA PCR. Inoculation of CRIB cells with 24 cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV strains does not result in expression of viral genes or amplification of input virus. Karyotype and isoenzyme analyses demonstrated that CRIB are genuine bovine cells. CRIB cells are as susceptible as the parental MDBK cells to 10 other bovine viruses, indicating that these cells do not have a broad defect blocking viral replication. Transfection of CRIB cells with BVDV RNA or virus inoculation in the presence of polyethylene-glycol results in productive infection, indicating that the defect of CRIB cells is at the level of virus entry. CRIB cells are the first bovine cells reported to be resistant to BVDV infection in vitro and may be a useful tool for studying the early interactions of pestiviruses with host cells.

  13. Identification of Novel, Highly Expressed Retroviral MicroRNAs in Cells Infected by Bovine Foamy Virus

    PubMed Central

    Whisnant, Adam W.; Kehl, Timo; Bao, Qiuying; Materniak, Magdalena; Kuzmak, Jacek; Löchelt, Martin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT While numerous viral microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed by DNA viruses, especially herpesvirus family members, have been reported, there have been very few reports of miRNAs derived from RNA viruses. Here we describe three miRNAs expressed by bovine foamy virus (BFV), a member of the spumavirus subfamily of retroviruses, in both BFV-infected cultured cells and BFV-infected cattle. All three viral miRNAs are initially expressed in the form of an ∼122-nucleotide (nt) pri-miRNA, encoded within the BFV long terminal repeat U3 region, that is subsequently cleaved to generate two pre-miRNAs that are then processed to yield three distinct, biologically active miRNAs. The BFV pri-miRNA is transcribed by RNA polymerase III, and the three resultant mature miRNAs were found to contribute a remarkable ∼70% of all miRNAs expressed in BFV-infected cells. These data document the second example of a retrovirus that is able to express viral miRNAs by using embedded proviral RNA polymerase III promoters. IMPORTANCE Foamy viruses are a ubiquitous family of nonpathogenic retroviruses that have potential as gene therapy vectors in humans. Here we demonstrate that bovine foamy virus (BFV) expresses high levels of three viral microRNAs (miRNAs) in BFV-infected cells in culture and also in infected cattle. The BFV miRNAs are unusual in that they are initially transcribed by RNA polymerase III as a single, ∼122-nt pri-miRNA that is subsequently processed to release three fully functional miRNAs. The observation that BFV, a foamy virus, is able to express viral miRNAs in infected cells adds to emerging evidence that miRNA expression is a common, albeit clearly not universal, property of retroviruses and suggests that these miRNAs may exert a significant effect on viral replication in vivo. PMID:24522910

  14. Transcriptomic Features of Bovine Blastocysts Derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungkuk; Cho, Sunwha; Park, Jung Sun; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Kim, Namshin; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2015-09-03

    Reprogramming incompletely occurs in most somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, which results in misregulation of developmentally important genes and subsequent embryonic malfunction and lethality. Here we examined transcriptome profiles in single bovine blastocysts derived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Different types of donor cells, cumulus cell and ear-skin fibroblast, were used to derive cSCNT and fSCNT blastocysts, respectively. SCNT blastocysts expressed 13,606 genes on average, similar to IVF (13,542). Correlation analysis found that both cSCNT and fSCNT blastocyst groups had transcriptomic features distinctive from the IVF group, with the cSCNT transcriptomes closer to the IVF ones than the fSCNT. Gene expression analysis identified 56 underrepresented and 78 overrepresented differentially expressed genes in both SCNT groups. A 400-kb locus harboring zinc-finger protein family genes in chromosome 18 were found coordinately down-regulated in fSCNT blastocysts, showing a feature of reprogramming-resistant regions. Probing into different categories of genes important for blastocyst development revealed that genes involved in trophectoderm development frequently were underrepresented, and those encoding epigenetic modifiers tended to be overrepresented in SCNT blastocysts. Our effort to identify reprogramming-resistant, differentially expressed genes can help map reprogramming error-prone loci onto the genome and elucidate how to handle the stochastic events of reprogramming to improve cloning efficiency.

  15. Effect of quinine on the release of catecholamines from bovine cultured chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, R; Novas, M L; Glavinovic, M I; Trifaró, J M

    1990-03-01

    1. The effects of quinine on catecholamine release from cultured bovine chromaffin cells were studied. 2. Quinine (25-400 microM) produced a dose-related inhibition of catecholamine release in response to depolarizing concentrations (12.5-50 mM) of K+. 3. The inhibition of the secretory response to high K+ produced by quinine decreased with the increase in the extracellular concentration of Ca2+. 4. Stimulation of cultured chromaffin cells with 50 mM K+ produced a significant increase in Ca2+ influx. In the presence of 100 microM quinine a 54% inhibition of the K(+)-induced Ca2+ influx was observed. 5. Quinine treatment of chromaffin cell cultures produced a small but significant decrease in membrane resting potential and a less pronounced depolarization in response to 50 mM K+. 6. The results suggest that the inhibition of the K(+)-evoked release of catecholamines produced by quinine is at least partly due to a decrease in Ca2+ influx. Ca2+ influx is lower because quinine reduces the sensitivity of the membrane potential to changes in extracellular K+ but direct effects of quinine on Ca2+ channels cannot be excluded.

  16. Bovine seminal ribonuclease inhibits in vivo growth of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kotchetkov, R; Cinatl, J; Matousek, J; Vogel, J; Pouckova, P; Wagner, M; Kornhuber, B; Schwabe, D; Cinatl, J

    2000-01-01

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is a homologue of RNase A with specific antitumor activities. It is selectively toxic for neuroblastoma (NB) cells in vitro with no significant effects on the viability of normal human cells. We evaluated the antitumoral effects of BS-RNase on human NB xenografts from UKF-NB-3 cells in athymic (nude) mice. The efficacy of direct intraneoplastic, subcutaneous and systemic delivery of BS-RNase was explored. Systemic administration of BS-RNase (12.5 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally, for 20 days in the course of four weeks) suppressed tumor growth but was not able to induce any cures. Subcutaneous injections (12.5 mg/kg/day for 20 days in the course of four weeks) and intratumoral BS-RNase treatment using the same schedule resulted in complete tumor regression. During 30 days following cessation of treatment no tumor regrowth was observed and animals were free of tumors. Toxic effects of BS-RNase (e.g., on bone marrow and inner organs) were not apparent. This data indicates that BS-RNase fulfills important criteria for a candidate antitumor agent specific for NB.

  17. Transcriptomic Features of Bovine Blastocysts Derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byungkuk; Cho, Sunwha; Park, Jung Sun; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Kim, Namshin; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming incompletely occurs in most somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, which results in misregulation of developmentally important genes and subsequent embryonic malfunction and lethality. Here we examined transcriptome profiles in single bovine blastocysts derived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Different types of donor cells, cumulus cell and ear-skin fibroblast, were used to derive cSCNT and fSCNT blastocysts, respectively. SCNT blastocysts expressed 13,606 genes on average, similar to IVF (13,542). Correlation analysis found that both cSCNT and fSCNT blastocyst groups had transcriptomic features distinctive from the IVF group, with the cSCNT transcriptomes closer to the IVF ones than the fSCNT. Gene expression analysis identified 56 underrepresented and 78 overrepresented differentially expressed genes in both SCNT groups. A 400-kb locus harboring zinc-finger protein family genes in chromosome 18 were found coordinately down-regulated in fSCNT blastocysts, showing a feature of reprogramming-resistant regions. Probing into different categories of genes important for blastocyst development revealed that genes involved in trophectoderm development frequently were underrepresented, and those encoding epigenetic modifiers tended to be overrepresented in SCNT blastocysts. Our effort to identify reprogramming-resistant, differentially expressed genes can help map reprogramming error-prone loci onto the genome and elucidate how to handle the stochastic events of reprogramming to improve cloning efficiency. PMID:26342001

  18. Effects of phenylalanine and threonine oligopeptides on milk protein synthesis in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M M; Wu, Y M; Liu, H Y; Liu, J X

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of phenylalanine (Phe) and threonine (Thr) oligopeptides on αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Primary mammary epithelial cells were obtained from Holstein dairy cows and incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-F12 medium (DMEM/F12) containing lactogenic hormones (prolactin and glucocorticoids). Free Phe (117 μg/ml) was substituted partly with peptide-bound Phe (phenylalanylphenylalanine, phenylalanyl threonine, threonyl-phenylalanyl-phenylalanine) in the experimental media. After incubation with experimental medium, cells were collected for gene expression analysis and medium was collected for milk protein or amino acid determination. The results showed that peptide-bound Phe at 10% (11.7 μg/ml) significantly enhanced αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis as compared with equivalent amount of free Phe. When 10% Phe was replaced by phenylalanylphenylalanine, the disappearance of most essential amino acids increased significantly, and gene expression of peptide transporter 2 and some amino acid transporters was significantly enhanced. These results indicate that the Phe and Thr oligopeptides are important for milk protein synthesis, and peptide-bound amino acids could be utilised more efficiently in milk protein synthesis than the equivalent amount of free amino acids.

  19. Transcriptome dynamics and molecular cross-talk between bovine oocyte and its companion cumulus cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The bi-directional communication between the oocyte and its companion cumulus cells (CCs) is crucial for development and functions of both cell types. Transcripts that are exclusively expressed either in oocytes or CCs and molecular mechanisms affected due to removal of the communication axis between the two cell types is not investigated at a larger scale. The main objectives of this study were: 1. To identify transcripts exclusively expressed either in oocyte or CCs and 2. To identify those which are differentially expressed when the oocyte is cultured with or without its companion CCs and vice versa. Results We analyzed transcriptome profile of different oocyte and CC samples using Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome array containing 23000 transcripts. Out of 13162 genes detected in germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes and their companion CCs, 1516 and 2727 are exclusively expressed in oocytes and CCs, respectively, while 8919 are expressed in both. Similarly, of 13602 genes detected in metaphase II (MII) oocytes and CCs, 1423 and 3100 are exclusively expressed in oocytes and CCs, respectively, while 9079 are expressed in both. A total of 265 transcripts are differentially expressed between oocytes cultured with (OO + CCs) and without (OO - CCs) CCs, of which 217 and 48 are over expressed in the former and the later groups, respectively. Similarly, 566 transcripts are differentially expressed when CCs mature with (CCs + OO) or without (CCs - OO) their enclosed oocytes. Of these, 320 and 246 are over expressed in CCs + OO and CCs - OO, respectively. While oocyte specific transcripts include those involved in transcription (IRF6, POU5F1, MYF5, MED18), translation (EIF2AK1, EIF4ENIF1) and CCs specific ones include those involved in carbohydrate metabolism (HYAL1, PFKL, PYGL, MPI), protein metabolic processes (IHH, APOA1, PLOD1), steroid biosynthetic process (APOA1, CYP11A1, HSD3B1, HSD3B7). Similarly, while transcripts over expressed in OO + CCs are involved in

  20. Bovine ovarian cells have (pro)renin receptors and prorenin induces resumption of meiosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dau, Andressa Minussi Pereira; da Silva, Eduardo Pradebon; da Rosa, Paulo Roberto Antunes; Bastiani, Felipe Tusi; Gutierrez, Karina; Ilha, Gustavo Freitas; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of a receptor that binds prorenin and renin in human endothelial and mesangial cells highlights the possible effect of renin-independent prorenin in the resumption of meiosis in oocytes that was postulated in the 1980s.This study aimed to identify the (pro)renin receptor in the ovary and to assess the effect of prorenin on meiotic resumption. The (pro)renin receptor protein was detected in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, theca cells, granulosa cells, and in the corpus luteum. Abundant (pro)renin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was detected in the oocytes and cumulus cells, while prorenin mRNA was identified in the cumulus cells only. Prorenin at concentrations of 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8)M incubated with oocytes co-cultured with follicular hemisections for 15h caused the resumption of oocyte meiosis. Aliskiren, which inhibits free renin and receptor-bound renin/prorenin, at concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-5), and 10(-3)M blocked this effect (P<0.05). To determine the involvement of angiotensin II in prorenin-induced meiosis resumption, cumulus-oocyte complexes and follicular hemisections were treated with prorenin and with angiotensin II or saralasin (angiotensin II antagonist). Prorenin induced the resumption of meiosis independently of angiotensin II. Furthermore, cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured with forskolin (200μM) and treated with prorenin and aliskiren did not exhibit a prorenin-induced resumption of meiosis (P<0.05). Only the oocytes' cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels seemed to be regulated by prorenin and/or forskolin treatment after incubation for 6h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the (pro)renin receptor in ovarian cells and to demonstrate the independent role of prorenin in the resumption of oocyte meiosis in cattle.

  1. Effect of Elevated Intracellular cAMP Levels on Actomyosin Contraction in Bovine Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Charanya; Patil, Rajkumar V.; Sharif, Najam A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Elevated cAMP in the trabecular meshwork (TM) cells increases the aqueous humor outflow facility. The authors investigated the mechanisms by which elevated cAMP opposes the RhoA-Rho kinase pathway, leading to the relaxation of the actomyosin system in bovine TM cells. Methods. Forskolin (Fsk) and rolipram were used to elevate cAMP levels. Changes in the phosphorylation of RhoA at Ser188 (a putative inhibitory site), the regulatory light chain of myosin (pMLC), and the regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) were determined by Western blot analysis. The actomyosin contraction was measured by collagen gel contraction (CGC) assay. The impact of cAMP on cell-matrix adhesion was followed by immunostaining of focal adhesion proteins and by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Results. Elevated cAMP led to an increase in the phosphorylation of RhoA at Ser188, to the inhibition of endothelin-1 (ET-1)–induced activation of RhoA, and to the formation of stress fibers. The loss of pMLC along the stress fibers was comparable to that induced by Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor). A concomitant reduction in both MYPT1 phosphorylation and pMLC was observed. Elevated cAMP also reduced (ET-1)–induced CGC and the cell-substrate resistance by >50%. Conclusions. In TM cells, elevated cAMP leads to the phosphorylation of RhoA at Ser188. Consequent inhibition of RhoA activity reduces the phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr853, leading to a reduction in MLC phosphorylation and actomyosin contraction. These actions, similar to those of the Rho kinase inhibitors, possibly underlie the reported increase in outflow facility in response to Fsk perfusion ex vivo. PMID:21071747

  2. Transcript levels of several epigenome regulatory genes in bovine somatic donor cells are not correlated with their cloning efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenli; Sadeghieh, Sanaz; Abruzzese, Ronald; Uppada, Subhadra; Meredith, Justin; Ohlrichs, Charletta; Broek, Diane; Polejaeva, Irina

    2009-09-01

    Among many factors that potentially affect somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryo development is the donor cell itself. Cloning potentials of somatic donor cells vary greatly, possibly because the cells have different capacities to be reprogrammed by ooplasma. It is therefore intriguing to identify factors that regulate the reprogrammability of somatic donor cells. Gene expression analysis is a widely used tool to investigate underlying mechanisms of various phenotypes. In this study, we conducted a retrospective analysis investigating whether donor cell lines with distinct cloning efficiencies express different levels of genes involved in epigenetic reprogramming including histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), -2 (HDAC2); DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), -3a (DNMT3a),-3b (DNMT3b), and the bovine homolog of yeast sucrose nonfermenting-2 (SNF2L), a SWI/SNF family of ATPases. Cell samples from 12 bovine donor cell lines were collected at the time of nuclear transfer experiments and expression levels of the genes were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results show that there are no significant differences in expression levels of these genes between donor cell lines of high and low cloning efficiency defined as live calving rates, although inverse correlations are observed between in vitro embryo developmental rates and expression levels of HDAC2 and SNF2L. We also show that selection of stable reference genes is important for relative quantification, and different batches of cells can have different gene expression patterns. In summary, we demonstrate that expression levels of these epigenome regulatory genes in bovine donor cells are not correlated with cloning potential. The experimental design and data analysis method reported here can be applied to study any genes expressed in donor cells.

  3. Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.

    PubMed

    Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2012-10-01

    The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2α), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2α) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed.

  4. Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.

    PubMed

    Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2012-10-01

    The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2α), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2α) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed. PMID:23054443

  5. Effective Oocyte Vitrification and Survival Techniques for Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Jee; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2015-06-01

    Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using vitrified-thawed (VT) oocytes has been studied; however, the cloning efficiency of these oocytes is not comparable with that of nonvitrified (non-V) fresh oocytes. This study sought to optimize the survival and cryopreservation of VT oocytes for SCNT. Co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 15 h significantly improved the survival of VT oocytes and their in vitro developmental potential following SCNT in comparison to co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 2, 5, or 24 h (p<0.05). Spindle assessment via the Oosight Microscopy Imaging System and microtubule staining revealed that vitrified metaphase II oocytes (VT group) were not suitable for SCNT. However, enucleating and/or activating oocytes prior to freezing enhanced their developmental potential and suitability for SCNT. The cloning efficiency of the enucleated-activated-vitrified-thawed (EAVT) group (21.6%) was better than that of the other vitrification groups [enucleated-vitrified-thawed (EVT) group, 13.7%; VT group, 15.0%; p<0.05] and was comparable with that of the non-V group (25.9%). The reactive oxygen species level was significantly lower in the EAVT group than in the other vitrification groups (p<0.05). mRNA levels of maternal genes (ZAR1, BMP15, and NLRP5) and a stress gene (HSF1) were lower in the vitrification groups than in the non-V group (p<0.05), whereas the level of phospho-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase did not differ among the groups. Among the vitrification groups, blastocysts in the EAVT group had the best developmental potential, as judged by their high mRNA expression of developmental potential-related genes (POU5f1, Interferon-tau, and SLC2A5) and their low expression of proapoptotic (CASP3) and stress (Hsp70) genes. This study demonstrates that SCNT using bovine frozen-thawed oocytes can be successfully achieved using optimized vitrification and co-culture techniques.

  6. Effective Oocyte Vitrification and Survival Techniques for Bovine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Jee; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2015-06-01

    Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using vitrified-thawed (VT) oocytes has been studied; however, the cloning efficiency of these oocytes is not comparable with that of nonvitrified (non-V) fresh oocytes. This study sought to optimize the survival and cryopreservation of VT oocytes for SCNT. Co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 15 h significantly improved the survival of VT oocytes and their in vitro developmental potential following SCNT in comparison to co-culture with feeder cells that had been preincubated for 2, 5, or 24 h (p<0.05). Spindle assessment via the Oosight Microscopy Imaging System and microtubule staining revealed that vitrified metaphase II oocytes (VT group) were not suitable for SCNT. However, enucleating and/or activating oocytes prior to freezing enhanced their developmental potential and suitability for SCNT. The cloning efficiency of the enucleated-activated-vitrified-thawed (EAVT) group (21.6%) was better than that of the other vitrification groups [enucleated-vitrified-thawed (EVT) group, 13.7%; VT group, 15.0%; p<0.05] and was comparable with that of the non-V group (25.9%). The reactive oxygen species level was significantly lower in the EAVT group than in the other vitrification groups (p<0.05). mRNA levels of maternal genes (ZAR1, BMP15, and NLRP5) and a stress gene (HSF1) were lower in the vitrification groups than in the non-V group (p<0.05), whereas the level of phospho-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase did not differ among the groups. Among the vitrification groups, blastocysts in the EAVT group had the best developmental potential, as judged by their high mRNA expression of developmental potential-related genes (POU5f1, Interferon-tau, and SLC2A5) and their low expression of proapoptotic (CASP3) and stress (Hsp70) genes. This study demonstrates that SCNT using bovine frozen-thawed oocytes can be successfully achieved using optimized vitrification and co-culture techniques. PMID:25984830

  7. The Protozoan Neospora caninum Directly Triggers Bovine NK Cells To Produce Gamma Interferon and To Kill Infected Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, Preben; Klevar, Siv; Olsen, Ingrid; Storset, Anne K.

    2006-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are considered to be key players in the early innate responses to protozoan infections, primarily indirectly by producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in response to cytokines, like interleukin 12 (IL-12). We demonstrate that live, as well as heat-inactivated, tachyzoites of Neospora caninum, a Toxoplasma-like protozoan, directly trigger production of IFN-γ from purified, IL-2-activated bovine NK cells. This response occurred independently of IL-12 but was increased by the addition of the cytokine. A similar IFN-γ response was measured in cocultures of NK cells and N. caninum-infected autologous fibroblasts. However, no NK cell-derived IFN-γ response was detected when cells were cultured with soluble antigens from the organism, indicating that intact tachyzoites or nonsoluble components are necessary for NK cell triggering. Furthermore, N. caninum-infected autologous fibroblasts had increased susceptibility to NK cell cytotoxicity compared to uninfected fibroblasts. This cytotoxicity was largely mediated by a perforin-mediated mechanism. The activating receptor NKp46 was involved in cytotoxicity against fibroblasts but could not explain the increased cytotoxicity against infected targets. Interestingly, N. caninum tachyzoites were able to infect cultured NK cells, in which tachyzoites proliferated inside parasitophorous vacuoles. Together, these findings underscore the role of NK cells as primary responders during a protozoan infection, describe intracellular protozoan infection of NK cells in vitro for the first time, and represent the first functional study of purified bovine NK cells in response to infection. PMID:16428740

  8. Quantitation of cytokine gene expression by real time PCR in bovine milk and colostrum cells from cows immunized with a bovine rotavirus VP6 experimental vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, D D; Rimondi, A; Perez Aguirreburualde, M S; Mozgovoj, M; Bellido, D; Wigdorovitz, A; Dus Santos, M J

    2013-10-01

    In a previous work, VP6 recombinant protein was produced using baculovirus system and it was evaluated in a colostrum-deprived calf model. This vaccine was able to protect calves against viral challenge without inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAb), suggesting that another immunological effectors were involved in the protection observed. In this work, groups of cows (n=4) were immunized in the last third of gestation with a bovine rotavirus (BRV) experimental vaccine and with a VP6 subunit vaccine. At birth, colostrums from vaccinated and non-vaccinated cows were processed and viable colostral mononuclear cells were obtained. With the purpose of determining the cytokine patterns generated by cells from immune secretions (colostrums and milk), a relative quantification by real time PCR was standardized. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine transcript levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and IFN-α from these cells. Colostral and milk mononuclear cells expressed a different cytokine transcript expression pattern regarding the vaccine used. These results demonstrated that the colostral cellular population was active and could exert its action influencing the final immune response. PMID:23602433

  9. Ephrin-A5 promotes bovine muscle progenitor cell migration before mitotic activation.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Johnson, S E

    2013-03-01

    Satellite cells are the resident stem cell population of adult skeletal muscle tissue that is responsible for growth and regeneration. The cells typically congregate near the tips of the muscle fibers and in close proximity to the neural muscular junction (NMJ). Ephrin-A5 is a chemotactic molecule that participates in the correct positioning and formation of the NMJ. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of ephrin-A5 signaling on bovine satellite cell (BSC) biology. Primary cultures of BSC demonstrate changes in velocity with time in culture that is unique to the Paired box protein 7 (Pax7):Myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) subpopulation. Treatment of the BSC with ephrin-A5 causes a reduction (P < 0.05) in velocity with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in directed migration. The chemoattractant properties of ephrin-A5 occur before myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) expression in the myogenic precursors and are abrogated after their differentiation to committed myoblasts. Ephrin-A5 induced migration appears to require components of the Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) and Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling machinery. Supplementation of culture media with a chemical ROCK inhibitor suppressed (P < 0.05) ephrin-A5 initiated BSC migration. These results contrast with treatment of BSC with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a key modulator of myogenic and motogenic activity. Treatment of BSC with HGF had no effect on cell motility or migration immediately after culture establishment. Twenty-four hours after culture establishment, BSC demonstrated an increase (P < 0.05) in transwell migration toward HGF. These results document that temporal and spatial gradients of chemokines and growth factors participate in the localization of BSC within the niche.

  10. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) differentially regulates antimicrobial peptide expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells: implications during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Pérez, Ana Dolores; Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2012-11-01

    Vitamin D has immunomodulatory functions regulating the expression of host defense genes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on S. aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and antimicrobial peptide (AP) mRNA expression. Cholecalciferol (1-200 nM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability; but it reduced bacterial internalization into bMEC (15-74%). Also, bMEC showed a basal expression of all AP genes evaluated, which were induced by S. aureus. Cholecalciferol alone or together with bacteria diminished tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and bovine neutrophil β-defensin (BNBD) 5 mRNA expression; while alone induced the expression of lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), bovine β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) and bovine psoriasin (S100A7), which was inhibited in the presence of S. aureus. This compound (50 nM) increased BNBD10 mRNA expression coinciding with the greatest reduction in S. aureus internalization. Genes of vitamin D pathway (25-hydroxylase and 1 α-hydroxylase) show basal expression, which was induced by cholecalciferol or bacteria. S. aureus induced vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA expression, but not in the presence of cholecalciferol. In conclusion, cholecalciferol can reduce S. aureus internalization and differentially regulates AP expression in bMEC. Thus, vitamin D could be an effective innate immunity modulator in mammary gland, which leads to a better defense against bacterial infection.

  11. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA. PMID:26982472

  12. Bovine Mx1 enables resistance against foot-and-mouth disease virus in naturally susceptible cells by inhibiting the replication of viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-M; Xia, X-Z; Hu, G-X; Yu, L; He, H-B

    2016-03-01

    Innate immunity, especially the anti-viral genes, exerts an important barrier function in preventing viral infections. Myxovirus-resistant (Mx) gene take an anti-viral role, whereas its effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in naturally susceptible cells are still unclear. The bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cell line BPTE-siMx1, in which bovine Mx1 gene was silenced, was established and treated with IFN alpha for 6 hr before FMDV infection. The copy numbers of the negative and positive strand viral RNA were determined by strand-specific real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The TCID50 of BPTE-siMx1 cells increased at least 17-fold as compared to control cells BPTE-LacZ at 8 hr post infection, thus silencing of bovine Mx1 could promote the replication of FMDV. The amount of both the negative and positive strand viral RNA in BPTE-siMx1 cells significantly increased as compared to BPTE-LacZ cells, indicating that the replication levels of viral RNA were promoted by silencing bovine Mx1. The bovine Mx1 gene could provide resistance against FMDV in the bovine primary fetal tracheal epithelial cells via suppressing the replication of viral RNA.

  13. In vitro development of bovine one-cell embryos: Influence of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; First, N L

    1992-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of nutrient substrates on embryo development, in vitro fertilized bovine one-cell embryos were cultured in a medium similar to synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) but without glucose and containing 3.3 mM lactate, 0.3 mM pyruvate and 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 39 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air. Results indicated that addition of glucose was not only unnecessary, but it also had a deleterious effect on embryo development to the morula stage. Lactate supported embryo development up to the morula stage as well as pyruvate. Supplementation with 20 amino acids contained in basal medium Eagle's (BME) and minimum essential medium (MEM) improved development to the morula stage dramatically and increased the cell number compared with that of the controls. Addition of the vitamins from MEM to SOF had no beneficial effect. The SOF with amino acids did not increase the frequency of blastocysts 7 days after in-vitro fertilization but did increase the total number of cells compared with that of the controls. Frequency of blastocysts at Day 7 in SOF with amino acids was equivalent to that of co-culture although the total cell number was lower. These results demonstrate that a semi-chemically defined medium can successfully support the development of bovine embryos to the morula stage to a limited extent, but the medium lacks some nutrients or growth factors to fully support development through the blastocyst stage. PMID:16727096

  14. In vitro development of bovine one-cell embryos: Influence of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; First, N L

    1992-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of nutrient substrates on embryo development, in vitro fertilized bovine one-cell embryos were cultured in a medium similar to synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) but without glucose and containing 3.3 mM lactate, 0.3 mM pyruvate and 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 39 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air. Results indicated that addition of glucose was not only unnecessary, but it also had a deleterious effect on embryo development to the morula stage. Lactate supported embryo development up to the morula stage as well as pyruvate. Supplementation with 20 amino acids contained in basal medium Eagle's (BME) and minimum essential medium (MEM) improved development to the morula stage dramatically and increased the cell number compared with that of the controls. Addition of the vitamins from MEM to SOF had no beneficial effect. The SOF with amino acids did not increase the frequency of blastocysts 7 days after in-vitro fertilization but did increase the total number of cells compared with that of the controls. Frequency of blastocysts at Day 7 in SOF with amino acids was equivalent to that of co-culture although the total cell number was lower. These results demonstrate that a semi-chemically defined medium can successfully support the development of bovine embryos to the morula stage to a limited extent, but the medium lacks some nutrients or growth factors to fully support development through the blastocyst stage.

  15. The influence of protein fractions from bovine colostrum digested in vivo and in vitro on human intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Alison J; Riley, Lisa G; Sheehy, Paul A; Wynn, Peter C

    2014-02-01

    Colostrum consists of a number of biologically active proteins and peptides that influence physiological function and development of a neonate. The present study investigated the biological activity of peptides released from first day bovine colostrum through in vitro and in vivo enzymatic digestion. This was assessed for proliferative activity using a human intestinal epithelial cell line, T84. Digestion of the protein fraction of bovine colostrum in vitro was conducted with the enzymes pepsin, chymosin and trypsin. Pepsin and chymosin digests yielded protein fractions with proliferative activity similar to that observed with undigested colostrum and the positive control foetal calf serum (FCS). In contrast trypsin digestion significantly (P<0·05) decreased colostral proliferative activity when co-cultured with cells when compared with undigested colostrum. The proliferative activity of undigested colostrum protein and abomasal whey protein digesta significantly increased (P<0·05) epithelial cell proliferation in comparison to a synthetic peptide mix. Bovine colostrum protein digested in vivo was collected from different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in newborn calves fed either once (n=3 calves) or three times at 12-h intervals (n=3 calves). Digesta collected from the distal duodenum, jejunum and colon of calves fed once, significantly (P<0·05) stimulated cell proliferation in comparison with comparable samples collected from calves fed multiple times. These peptide enriched fractions are likely to yield candidate peptides with potential application for gastrointestinal repair in mammalian species. PMID:24433585

  16. Complex actions of protein kinase A inhibitors on mitogenesis of bovine coronary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Osinski, M T; Weber, A; Schrör, K

    2000-05-01

    This study investigates the possible modulation of platelet-derived growth factor-(PDGF, 20 ng/ml)-induced DNA synthesis in bovine coronary artery smooth muscle cells by the protein kinase A inhibitors Rp-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic phosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS, 0. 03-10 microM) and ¿N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, HCl¿ (H-89, 0.01-1 microM). Rp-cAMPS concentration dependently enhanced PDGF-induced DNA synthesis. In contrast, no potentiation of PDGF-induced DNA synthesis was seen with H-89. However, H-89 but not Rp-cAMPS, inhibited p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Thus, Rp-cAMPS, but not H-89, unmasks inhibitory actions of protein kinase A on PDGF-induced mitogenesis of vascular smooth muscle cells. Low specificity may limit the use of H-89 as protein kinase A inhibitor. PMID:10812046

  17. Making the Switch: Alternatives to Fetal Bovine Serum for Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Dessels, Carla; Potgieter, Marnie; Pepper, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are being used extensively in clinical trials. These trials require that ASCs are prepared using good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and are safe for use in humans. The majority of clinical trials in which ASCs are expanded make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS). While FBS is used traditionally in the research setting for in vitro expansion, it does carry the risk of xenoimmunization and zoonotic transmission when used for expanding cells destined for therapeutic purposes. In order to ensure a GMP quality product for cellular therapy, in vitro expansion of ASCs has been undertaken using xeno-free (XF), chemically-defined, and human blood-derived alternatives. These investigations usually include the criteria proposed by the International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) and International Fat Applied Technology Society (IFATS). The majority of studies use these criteria to compare plastic-adherence, morphology, the immunophenotype and the trilineage differentiation of ASCs under the different medium supplemented conditions. Based on these studies, all of the alternatives to FBS seem to be suitable replacements; however, each has its own advantages and drawbacks. Very few studies have investigated the effects of the supplements on the immunomodulation of ASCs; the transcriptome, proteome and secretome; and the ultimate effects in appropriate animal models. The selection of medium supplementation will depend on the downstream application of the ASCs and their efficacy and safety in preclinical studies. PMID:27800478

  18. Deciphering dead-end docking of large dense core vesicles in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sandra; Dembla, Ekta; Halimani, Mahantappa; Matti, Ulf; Rettig, Jens; Becherer, Ute

    2013-10-23

    Large dense core vesicle (LDCV) exocytosis in chromaffin cells follows a well characterized process consisting of docking, priming, and fusion. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) studies suggest that some LDCVs, although being able to dock, are resistant to calcium-triggered release. This phenomenon termed dead-end docking has not been investigated until now. We characterized dead-end vesicles using a combination of membrane capacitance measurement and visualization of LDCVs with TIRFM. Stimulation of bovine chromaffin cells for 5 min with 6 μm free intracellular Ca2+ induced strong secretion and a large reduction of the LDCV density at the plasma membrane. Approximately 15% of the LDCVs were visible at the plasma membrane throughout experiments, indicating they were permanently docked dead-end vesicles. Overexpression of Munc18-2 or SNAP-25 reduced the fraction of dead-end vesicles. Conversely, expressing open-syntaxin increased the fraction of dead-end vesicles. These results indicate the existence of the unproductive target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor acceptor complex composed of 2:1 syntaxin-SNAP-25 in vivo. More importantly, they define a novel function for this acceptor complex in mediating dead-end docking.

  19. Impairment of nuclear pores in bovine herpesvirus 1-infected MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Wild, Peter; Engels, Monika; Senn, Claudia; Tobler, Kurt; Ziegler, Urs; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Loepfe, Eva; Ackermann, Mathias; Mueller, Martin; Walther, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Herpesvirus capsids originating in the nucleus overcome the nucleocytoplasmic barrier by budding at the inner nuclear membrane. The fate of the resulting virions is still under debate. The fact that capsids approach Golgi membranes from the cytoplasmic side led to the theory of fusion between the viral envelope and the outer nuclear membrane, resulting in the release of capsids into the cytoplasm. We recently discovered a continuum from the perinuclear space to the Golgi complex implying (i) intracisternal viral transportation from the perinuclear space directly into Golgi cisternae and (ii) the existence of an alternative pathway of capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Here, we analyzed the nuclear surface by high-resolution microscopy. Confocal microscopy of MDBK cells infected with recombinant bovine herpesvirus 1 expressing green fluorescent protein fused to VP26 (a minor capsid protein) revealed distortions of the nuclear surface in the course of viral multiplication. High-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy proved the distortions to be related to enlargement of nuclear pores through which nuclear content including capsids protrudes into the cytoplasm, suggesting that capsids use impaired nuclear pores as gateways to gain access to the cytoplasmic matrix. Close examination of Golgi membranes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and outer nuclear membrane yielded capsid-membrane interaction of high identity to the budding process at the inner nuclear membrane. These observations signify the ability of capsids to induce budding at any cell membrane, provided the fusion machinery is present and/or budding is not suppressed by viral proteins.

  20. Autophagy during early stages contributes to bovine viral diarrhea virus replication in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Zhang, Hui; Ren, Yan; Guo, Fei; Qiao, Jun; Jia, Bin; Wang, Pengyan; Chen, Chuangfu

    2014-10-01

    Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) is an essential and precise control process by which cells degrade unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components or organelles in the cytoplasm in response to nutrient depletion, exogenous pathogens, or other stimuli. This process results in the removal of damaged or surplus organelles and macromolecular complexes via a lysosome-dependent mechanism. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a ssRNA virus of the Flaviviridae family (genus Pestivirus). BVDV infection results in major economic losses due to poor reproductive performance and poor calf performance in cattle herds. In our previous studies, we have shown that BVDV NADL infection significantly increases autophagy in MDBK cells. To further define the interactions between autophagy and BVDV infection, we investigated the effects of autophagy on the replication of BVDV NADL. The findings showed that autophagy was inhibited by treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or wortmannin and that the knockdown of LC3 and Beclin1 using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed BVDV NADL replication. In contrast, the findings showed the replication of BVDV NADL was significantly increased by treatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin within 18 h post-infection (pi). However, the mRNA levels of BVDV NADL 5'UTRs showed a downward trend after 18 h pi, and this effect was reversed by chloroquine treatment. Therefore, we inferred that infection with BVDV NADL increases autophagy, which in turn favors BVDV NADL replication at early stages.

  1. Effects of mycotoxins in cultured kidney cells: cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in Madin-Darby and primary fetal bovine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, M; Sharma, R P; Elsner, Y Y

    1987-04-01

    The cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1, a fungal metabolite and an important food contaminant, was evaluated in an established cell line, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, and in primary fetal bovine kidney (PFBK) cells. Cells were grown in monolayers and treated with media containing AFB1 for 24 hr. Both culture systems were sensitive to the chemical; the PFBK cultures were approximately four times more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect. Cell multiplication decreased in both systems in long-term cultures. Adherence of MDBK cells was only slightly reduced at the toxic concentrations of the chemical. Electron microscopy revealed condensation of chromatin, separation of nuclei from the cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and loss of surface microvilli. Results indicated differential sensitivity of the two culture systems.

  2. [Isolation and nuclear transfer of ES-like cells colonies derived from embryos being cloning of bovine somatic].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ya-Juan; Bai, Xue-Jin; Li, Jian-Dong; Suzuki, Tatsuyuki

    2003-02-01

    In this experiment, it was designed to carry out proliferous culture of bovine blastocysts(day 7) derived from embryos cloned through bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer, isolating and passaging of ES cells. The cells of blastocysts, which were planted on feeder layer, formed small colonies within 24 h. The nest-shape colonies occurred after culturing for 2-3 days. After the colonies in the same shape were isolated and passaged 4-5 times, many different size colonies with monolayer of multi-cells appeared. The colonies that had been passaged 4-5 times were planted into 4-wells multi-dishes without feeder layer. The colonies with monolayer of multi-cells appeared after 24 h, spread all over the bottom of the dishes, emerged epidermis-like cells that appeared reticulate after 4-7 days. These cells were used as donor cells to carry out nuclear transfer. The results showed that 80% (40/50) of the reconstructed embryos cleaved, 5% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40) of them developed to the morulaes and blastocyst stage, respectively. It revealed that ES-like cells derived embryos constructed through somatic cell nuclear transfer have the developmental potentials.

  3. Generation of CD8+ T-Cell Responses to Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterial Antigen in Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Liébana, Ernesto; Girvin, Robert M.; Welsh, Michael; Neill, Sydney D.; Pollock, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Protective immunity against tuberculosis is considered to be essentially cell mediated, and an important role for CD8+ T lymphocytes has been suggested by several studies of murine and human infections. The present work, using an experimental model of infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle, showed that live M. bovis elicits the activation of CD8+ T cells in vitro. However, a sonic extract prepared from M. bovis (MBSE) and protein purified derivative (PPDb) also induced a considerable degree of activation of the CD8+ T cells. Analysis of proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, purified CD8+ T cells, and CD8+ T-cell clones to M. bovis and to soluble antigenic preparations (MBSE, PPDb) showed that the responses of all three types of cells were always superior for live mycobacteria but that strong responses were also obtained with complex soluble preparations. Furthermore, while cytotoxic capabilities were not investigated, the CD8+ T cells were found to produce and release gamma interferon in response to antigen (live and soluble), which indicated one possible protective mechanism for these cells in bovine tuberculosis. Finally, it was demonstrated by metabolic inhibition with brefeldin A and cytochalasin D at the clonal level that an endogenous pathway of antigen processing is required for presentation to bovine CD8+ cells and that presentation is also dependent on phagocytosis of the antigen. PMID:10024540

  4. Radiolocalization of bovine lymphosarcoma cells in athymic mice, using a monoclonal antibody against tumor-associated antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Aida, Y.; Ochiai, K.; Ito, K.; Onuma, M.; Fujimori, F.; Fujimoto, Y.; Izawa, H.

    1987-08-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibody c 143 was purified and F(ab')2 fragments were generated by pepsin digestion and then radiolabeled with /sup 125/I. The /sup 125/I-labeled c 143 F(ab')2 fragments were injected into athymic mice bearing bovine lymphoid tumor cells. The fragments became preferentially localized in tumor tissues, but not in normal tissues, as determined by differential counting of tissue radioactivity. The fragments became localized specifically in those tumors that were reactive with c 143 in vitro, but did not become localized in unrelated tumors. Localization of labeled F(ab')2 fragments of a monoclonal antibody of the same isotype directed against Taka virus (a variant of Newcastle disease virus) was not observed in athymic mice bearing bovine lymphoid tumor cells. Tumors were detectable by radioimmunoscintigraphy, using radiolabeled c 143 F(ab')2 fragments, without background subtraction, and by use of silver-grain scattering in light microscopic autoradiography.

  5. CHEMERIN (RARRES2) decreases in vitro granulosa cell steroidogenesis and blocks oocyte meiotic progression in bovine species.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Maxime; Bertoldo, Michael J; Ramé, Christelle; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-05-01

    CHEMERIN, or RARRES2, is a new adipokine that is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. Recent data suggest that it also plays a role in reproductive function in rats and humans. Here we studied the expression of CHEMERIN and its three receptors (CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2) in the bovine ovary and investigated the in vitro effects of this hormone on granulosa cell steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. By RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found CHEMERIN, CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2 in various ovarian cells, including granulosa and theca cells, corpus luteum, and oocytes. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, INSULIN, IGF1, and two insulin sensitizers-metformin and rosiglitazone-increased rarres2 mRNA expression whereas they decreased cmklr1, gpr1, and cclr2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, TNF alpha and ADIPONECTIN significantly increased rarres2 and cmklr1 expression, respectively. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, human recombinant CHEMERIN (hRec, 200 ng/ml) reduced production of both progesterone and estradiol, cholesterol content, STAR abundance, CYP19A1 and HMGCR proteins, and the phosphorylation levels of MAPK3/MAPK1 in the presence or absence of FSH (10(-8) M) and IGF1 (10(-8) M). All of these effects were abolished by using an anti-CMKLR1 antibody. In bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, the addition of hRec (200 ng/ml) in the maturation medium arrested most oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage, and this was associated with a decrease in MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in both oocytes and cumulus cells. Thus, in cultured bovine granulosa cells, hRec decreases steroidogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation, probably through CMKLR1. Moreover, in cumulus-oocyte complexes, it blocked meiotic progression at the germinal vesicle stage and inhibited MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in both the oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation. PMID:24671882

  6. Quantitative analysis of infiltrating immune cells and bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2-positive cells in equine sarcoids.

    PubMed

    Geisshüsler, H; Marti, E; Stoffel, M H; Kühni, K; Stojiljkovic, A; von Tscharner, C; Vidondo, B; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2016-10-01

    Sarcoids are the most frequently observed skin tumours in equids and consist of cutaneous accumulations of transformed fibroblasts. Their aetiopathogenesis is closely linked to a presumably abortive infection by bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2. In cattle, dermal fibropapillomas induced by BPV1/2 usually regress spontaneously due to a local, cell-mediated, immune response; however, equids appear to lack an effective immune response to BPV1/2 and mechanisms of immune evasion have been postulated. As a consequence, equine sarcoids tend to persist and are prone to recur. In this study, cryosections were analysed by immunofluorescent staining and a high content analysis system to determine the presence and distribution of CD4(+), CD8(+), FoxP3(+), RORγt(-), CD206(+) and CD14(+) cells, along with expression of the BPV1 early regulatory protein E2. A higher density of cells was positive for BPV1 E2(+) within the transformed tissue than in perilesional tissue or normal skin of horses with sarcoids and control horses. The proportion of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells was significantly increased in perilesional and lesional tissues, whereas CD4(+) T helper cells were present in higher density only in lesional tissue compared to normal skin from horses with and without sarcoids. The proportion of pro-inflammatory CD4(+)FoxP3(+)RORγt(+) regulatory T cells was decreased in sarcoid tissue compared to perilesional, distant and control tissue. There were no significant differences in densities of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) RORγt(-) regulatory T cells between sarcoids and control tissues. Equine sarcoids are characterised by infiltrations of CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, with decreased representation by pro-inflammatory CD4(+)FoxP3(+)RORγt(+) regulatory T cells. PMID:27687925

  7. Generation of lipid neutrophil chemoattractant by irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Matzner, Y; Cohn, M; Hyam, E; Razin, E; Fuks, Z; Buchanan, M R; Haas, T A; Vlodavsky, I; Eldor, A

    1988-04-15

    Radiation injury to blood vessels is associated with an acute inflammatory process. We investigated the capacity of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) to produce chemotactic factors after radiation injury. BAEC in serum-free media were irradiated with a cobalt-60 Gammacell 220 and the cell supernatants were assayed for chemotactic activity for human neutrophils in a Boyden chamber. There was a rapid release of chemotactic activity into the BAEC supernatants which was dependent both on the dose of radiation (5 to 40 Gy) and the time between irradiation and sample collection. In contrast, isolation of BAEC lysates by freeze-thawing was not associated with the presence of similar chemotactic activity. The chemotactic activity released from the irradiated BAEC was not destroyed by boiling nor by treatment with trypsin. The release of the chemotactic activity was, however, inhibited by the addition of a lipoxygenase inhibitor but not by the addition of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor before the irradiation. The chemotactic activity was recovered from the cell supernatants in the lipid phase after extraction with chloroform/methanol. Furthermore, the chloroform/methanol extracts co-eluted with authentic leukotriene B4 when the BAEC were prelabeled with [14C] arachidonic acid. However, we were unable to detect endogenous leukotriene B4 with RIA. Instead, the only detectable endogenous lipid present in the supernatants was 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid which is derived from linoleic acid via the lipoxygenase pathway. 13-Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, however, had no chemotactic activity. These findings suggest that endothelial cells rapidly release a chemotactic agent after irradiation, the release of which is associated with a lipoxygenase pathway. The release of this chemotactic activity may account in part for the acute inflammatory response that is observed after ionizing irradiation.

  8. Similar developmental patterns in immunolocalisation of stem cell factor and KIT in bovine meso- and metanephros.

    PubMed

    Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Sakurai, Michiharu; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina; Ricken, Albert M

    2010-04-01

    The mesonephros is often regarded as a simplified version of the terminal renal organ, the metanephros. Both renal organs result from an epithelio-mesenchymal interaction between the Wolffian duct and the nephrogenic ridge. It appears that the epithelio-mesenchymal interaction makes use of similar signal cascades for both renal organs and that key events required for the development of the metanephros occur at earlier stages. In murine metanephroi, the stem cell factor (SCF)/-KIT-signal transduction pathway has recently been shown to regulate ureteric bud branching and epithelial cell differentiation. We immunohistochemically defined the time-sequence of KIT and SCF presence in both renal organs using bovine embryos/foetuses with crown rump length (CRL) of 1.7-24 cm. In the mesonephroi, epithelial cells with strong KIT staining were scattered in distal tubules, and SCF was expressed in the epithelial wall of corpuscles and proximal tubules. KIT positivity occurred in the metanephroi of embryos prior to SCF; KIT was predominantly localised at the ureteric bud tips in the nephrogenic zone. In foetuses of 13 cm and more CRL, the SCF/KIT profile of developmentally advanced nephrons mirrored the situation in the mesonephros. Epithelial cells with strong KIT staining were scattered in the cortical areas of distal tubules, while SCF was expressed in the epithelial wall of corpuscles and proximal tubules. Our morphological findings agree with a potential role of KIT at the ureteric bud tips and demonstrate a similar expression of KIT and SCF along the areas of developmentally advanced mesonephric and metanephric nephrons.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells from amnion and amniotic fluid in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Corradetti, B; Meucci, A; Bizzaro, D; Cremonesi, F; Lange Consiglio, A

    2013-04-01

    Amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are noncontroversial and inexhaustible sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested noninvasively at low cost. As in humans, also in veterinary field, presumptive stem cells derived from these tissues reveal as promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of this work is to obtain and characterize, for the first time in bovine species, presumptive MSCs from the epithelial portion of the amnion (AECs) and from the AF (AF-MSCs) to be used for clinical applications. AECs display a polygonal morphology, whereas AF-MSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the second passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. For both lines, the proliferative ability has been found constant over the ten passages studied and AECs show a statistically lower (P<0.05) doubling time with respect to AF-MSCs. AECs express MSC-specific markers (ITGB1 (CD29), CD44, ALCAM (CD166), ENG (CD105), and NT5E (CD73)) from P1 to P3; in AF-MSCs, only ITGB1, CD44, and ALCAM mRNAs are detected; NT5E is expressed from P2 and ENG has not been found at any passage. AF-MSCs and AECs are positive for the pluripotent markers (POU5F1 (OCT4) and MYC (c-Myc)) and lack of the hematopoietic markers. When appropriately induced, both cell lines are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study contributes to reinforce the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine. A deeper evaluation of the immunological properties needs to be performed in order to better understand their role in cellular therapy.

  10. R56865 inhibits catecholamine release from bovine chromaffin cells by blocking calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Garcez-Do-Carmo, L.; Albillos, A.; Artalejo, A. R.; de la Fuente, M. T.; López, M. G.; Gandía, L.; Michelena, P.; García, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of R56865 (a new class of cardioprotective agent which prevents Na+ and Ca2+ overload in cardiac myocytes) on catecholamine release, whole-cell current through Ca2+ channels (IBa) and cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, have been studied in bovine chromaffin cells. 2. R56865 caused a time- and concentration-dependent blockade of catecholamine release from superfused cells stimulated intermittently with 5 s pulses of 59 mM K+. After 5 min superfusion, a 3 microM concentration inhibited secretion by 20%; the blockade increased gradually with perfusion time, to reach 85% after 40 min. The IC50 to block secretion after 5 min periods of exposure to increasing concentrations of R56865 was around 3.1 microM. The blocking effects of R56865 were reversible after 5-15 min wash out. In high Ca2+ solution (10 mM Ca2+), the degree of blockade of secretion diminished by 20% in comparison with 1 mM Ca2+. 3. In electroporated cells, R56865 (10 microM) did not modify the secretory response induced by the application of 10 microM free Ca2+. 4. R56865 blocked the peak IBa current in a concentration- and time-dependent manner; its IC50 was very similar to that obtained for secretion (3 microM). The compound not only reduced the size of the peak current but also promoted its inactivation; when the effects of R56865 were measured at the most inactivated part of the current, its IC50 was 1 microM. Both the inactivation and the reduction of the peak currents were reversible upon washing out the drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8298803

  11. Detection of C-type virus by immunoferritin technique in bat lung cell line chronically infected with bovine leucosis virus.

    PubMed

    Mihailescu, D; Patrascu, I V; Apostol, I; Mazilu, M

    1980-01-01

    Reported in this paper are morphological studies and tests for the detection of Type-C particles from a line of bat lung cells chronically infected with bovine leucosis virus. The immunoferritin technique was used. Ferritin labelling of Type-C particles was regularly accompanied by black-spot arrangement of ferritin around the virus envelope, which provided evidence to the specificity of this immunochemical technique. PMID:6260052

  12. Large scale in vivo risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through transfer of bovine embryos produced via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Gosch, G; Guerra, T; Chen, S H; Xiang, T; Broek, D; Bruner, B; Polejaeva, I

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to use the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model to assess the risk of infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production and transfer via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The risks of BVDV transmission in the SCNT embryo production were previously evaluated. In that in vitro study, following standard operating procedures (SOP), including pre-nuclear transfer donor cell testing, oocyte decontamination and virus-free cell and embryo culture conditions, SCNT embryos produced were free of detectable viral RNA. The current study focused on the evaluation of the potential risk of disease transmission from SCNT embryos to recipients, and the risk of producing persistently infected animals via SCNT embryo transfer. Blood samples were collected from 553 recipients of SCNT embryos and 438 cloned calves and tested for the presence of BVDV viral RNA via a sensitive real time PCR method. All samples tested were negative. These results, in conjunction with the previous in vitro study, confirmed that the established SCNT embryo production and transfer system is safe and presents no detectable risk of disease transmission.

  13. Dynamics of CD3+ T-cell Distribution Throughout the Estrous Cycle and Gestation in the Bovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    OHTA, Tomokazu; KOSHI, Katsuo; USHIZAWA, Koichi; HOSOE, Misa; TAKAHASHI, Toru; YAMAGUCHI, Takahiro; KIZAKI, Keiichiro; HASHIZUME, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    T cells are the dominant lymphocytes in the endometrium and are considered to play a crucial role in implantation and in the maintenance of gestation through cytokine production and immune regulation. The mechanisms underlying immunoregulation at the feto-maternal interface are still obscure for this complex system. Understanding the role of T cells is a key factor in understanding the endometrial immune system. In this study, the distribution of endometrial CD3+ T cells in bovines was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The estrous cycle and gestation was divided into 4 stages, and the number of CD3+-positive T cells was counted in each stage. CD3+ cells were found in the endometrium in significant numbers throughout the estrous cycle and were mostly located in the subepithelial area. The number of CD3+ cells significantly increased in the early and mid-luteal phases but decreased after implantation with the progression of gestation. No T cells were found in the placentome or specifically in the tissues near the fetus, including the trophoblastic area. In addition, very few T cells were found in stromal regions close to the myometrium of the endometrium. These findings suggest that downregulation of bovine endometrial CD3+ T-cell functions is closely related to the successful maintenance of gestation in a spatiotemporal manner. PMID:23955235

  14. Network analysis reveals potential markers for pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Anurag; Suman, Shikha; Ranjan, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy with a poor outcome. Molecular mechanisms of pediatric ACC oncogenesis and advancement are not well understood. Accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease requires identification of new markers for pediatric ACC. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from the gene expression profile of pediatric ACC and obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. Gene Ontology functional and pathway enrichment analysis was implemented to recognize the functions of DEGs. A protein–protein interaction (PPI) and gene–gene functional interaction (GGI) network of DEGs was constructed. Hub gene detection and enrichment analysis of functional modules were performed. Furthermore, a gene regulatory network incorporating DEGs–microRNAs–transcription factors was constructed and analyzed. A total of 431 DEGs including 228 upregulated and 203 downregulated DEGs were screened. These genes were largely involved in cell cycle, steroid biosynthesis, and p53 signaling pathways. Upregulated genes, CDK1, CCNB1, CDC20, and BUB1B, were identified as the common hubs of PPI and GGI networks. All the four common hub genes were also part of modules of the PPI network. Moreover, all the four genes were also present in the largest module of GGI network. A gene regulatory network consisting of 82 microRNAs and 100 transcription factors was also constructed. CDK1, CCNB1, CDC20, and BUB1B may serve as potential biomarker of pediatric ACC and as potential targets for therapeutic approach, although experimental studies are required to authenticate our findings. PMID:27555782

  15. Production of bovine cloned embryos with donor cells frozen at a slow cooling rate in a conventional freezer (20 C)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Usually, fibroblasts are frozen in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 10% v/v) at a cooling rate of 1 C/min in a low-temperature (80 C) freezer (LTF) before storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2); however, a LTF is not always available. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apoptosis and viability of bovine fibroblasts frozen in a LTF or conventional freezer (CF; 20 C) and their subsequent ability for development to blastocyst stage after fusion with enucleated bovine oocytes. Percentages of live cells frozen in LTF (49.5%) and CF (50.6%) were similar, but significantly less than non-frozen control (88%). In both CF and LTF, percentages of live apoptotic cells exposed to LN2 after freezing were lower (4% and 5%, respectively) as compared with unexposed cells (10% and 18%, respectively). Cells frozen in a CF had fewer cell doublings/24 h (0.45) and required more days (9.1) to reach 100% confluence at the first passage (P) after thawing and plating as compared with cells frozen in a LTF (0.96 and 4.0 days, respectively). Hypoploidy at P12 was higher than at P4 in cells frozen in either a CF (37.5% vs. 19.2%) or in a LTF (30.0% vs. 15.4%). A second-generation cryo-solution reduced the incidence of necrosis (29.4%) at 0 h after thawing as compared with that of a first generation cryo-solution (DMEM + DMSO, 60.2%). The percentage of apoptosis in live cells was affected by cooling rate (CF = 1.9% vs. LFT = 0.7%). Development of bovine cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage was not affected by cooling rate or freezer type. ?? 2009 Cambridge University Press.

  16. Nitrones reverse hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Headley, Colwyn A; DiSilvestro, David; Bryant, Kelsey E; Hemann, Craig; Chen, Chun-An; Das, Amlan; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana; Durand, Grégory; Villamena, Frederick A

    2016-03-15

    Hyperglycemia has been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction through heightened ROS production. Since nitrones reverse endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction, increase antioxidant enzyme activity, and suppress pro-apoptotic signaling pathway and mitochondrial dysfunction from ROS-induced toxicity, the objective of this study was to determine whether nitrone spin traps DMPO, PBN and PBN-LA were effective at duplicating these effects and improving glucose uptake in an in vitro model of hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction using bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). BAEC were cultured in DMEM medium with low (5.5mM glucose, LG) or high glucose (50mM, HG) for 14 days to model in vivo hyperglycemia as experienced in humans with metabolic disease. Improvements in cell viability, intracellular oxidative stress, NO and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)​ levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, glucose transport, and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured from single treatment of BAEC with nitrones for 24h after hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia significantly increased intracellular ROS by 50%, decreased cell viability by 25%, reduced NO bioavailability by 50%, and decreased (BH4) levels by 15% thereby decreasing NO production. Intracellular glucose transport and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also decreased by 50% and 25% respectively. Nitrone (PBN and DMPO, 50 μM) treatment of BAEC grown in hyperglycemic conditions resulted in the normalization of outcome measures except for SOD and catalase activities. Our findings demonstrate that the nitrones reverse the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia in BAEC. We believe that in vivo testing of these nitrone compounds in models of cardiometabolic disease is warranted.

  17. Nitrones reverse hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Headley, Colwyn A; DiSilvestro, David; Bryant, Kelsey E; Hemann, Craig; Chen, Chun-An; Das, Amlan; Ziouzenkova, Ouliana; Durand, Grégory; Villamena, Frederick A

    2016-03-15

    Hyperglycemia has been implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction through heightened ROS production. Since nitrones reverse endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction, increase antioxidant enzyme activity, and suppress pro-apoptotic signaling pathway and mitochondrial dysfunction from ROS-induced toxicity, the objective of this study was to determine whether nitrone spin traps DMPO, PBN and PBN-LA were effective at duplicating these effects and improving glucose uptake in an in vitro model of hyperglycemia-induced dysfunction using bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). BAEC were cultured in DMEM medium with low (5.5mM glucose, LG) or high glucose (50mM, HG) for 14 days to model in vivo hyperglycemia as experienced in humans with metabolic disease. Improvements in cell viability, intracellular oxidative stress, NO and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)​ levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, glucose transport, and activity of antioxidant enzymes were measured from single treatment of BAEC with nitrones for 24h after hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia significantly increased intracellular ROS by 50%, decreased cell viability by 25%, reduced NO bioavailability by 50%, and decreased (BH4) levels by 15% thereby decreasing NO production. Intracellular glucose transport and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also decreased by 50% and 25% respectively. Nitrone (PBN and DMPO, 50 μM) treatment of BAEC grown in hyperglycemic conditions resulted in the normalization of outcome measures except for SOD and catalase activities. Our findings demonstrate that the nitrones reverse the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia in BAEC. We believe that in vivo testing of these nitrone compounds in models of cardiometabolic disease is warranted. PMID:26774452

  18. Structural characterization of heparan sulfate proteoglycan subclasses isolated from bovine aortic endothelial cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, M.G.; Wight, T.N.

    1988-03-22

    Labeled heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) were isolated from wounded and confluent cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells by nondegradative extraction with 4 M guanidine hydrochloride and detergent. HSPG were separated from more highly charged chondroitin or dermatan sulfate proteoglycans by ion-exchange chromatography, and subclasses of different hydrodynamic size were isolated by gel filtration. Three major subclasses of HSPG were characterized structurally with respect to the presence and relative size of protein core, the presence and amount of nonsulfated oligosaccharide, and size and structure of heparan sulfate (HS) chains. The largest (600-800-kDa) HSPG subclass (I), isolated from cell layers and media of confluent cultures, bears 38-kDa HS chains on an apparently heterogeneous class of relatively large glycoprotein cores. HSPG II (150-200 kDa), isolated from cell layer or media, has 22-kDa HS chains and smaller core glycoproteins (less than 50 kDa). HSPG III, the subclass of smallest hydrodynamic size, has 13-kDa HS chains and a glycopeptide core of less than 15 kDa. All subclasses bear varying proportions of non-sulfated oligosaccharides of similar sizes. Comparisons of HS chain structure indicated that the different subclasses have similar proportions (49-55%) of N-sulfate, with both O-sulfate and highly N-sulfated blocks of disaccharide distributed similarly along HS chains. In addition, HS chains from subclasses II and III contain sequences that are insensitive to periodate oxidation or heparitinase digestion, suggesting that they contain increased proportions of iduronate.

  19. Bovine colostrum supports the serum-free proliferation of epithelial cells but not of fibroblasts in long-term culture

    PubMed Central

    Klagsbrun, M

    1980-01-01

    Medium lacking serum but supplemented with milk will support the growth of sparse cells in culture. Milk obtained within 8 h after the birth of a calf (day 1 colostrum) is the most effective in supporting proliferation. In mixed cultures of early-passage bovine embryonic kidney (BEK) or early-passage calf kidney (CK) cells, both epithelial cells and fibroblasts grow in Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium (DMEM) supplemented with serum. However, only cells that appear to be epithelial-like grow in DMEM supplemented with colostrum. Sparse cultures of early-passage human and rat fibroblasts that grow readily in DMEM supplemented with serum do not grow in DMEM supplemented with colostrum. Canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCK), when plated sparsely, grow exponentially in DMEM supplemented with day 1 bovine colostrum. The generation time is 26 h, the same growth rate as in DMEM supplemented with calf serum. The MDCK cells can be subcultured and regrown to confluence repeatedly in colostrum-supplemented DMEM. Growth in DMEM supplemented with colostrum does not alter the morphological characteristics of the MDCK cells, which are polygonal, contain microvilli at the apical surface, and are connected by tight junctions and desmosomes. MDCK cells do not proliferate in DMEM supplemented with milk obtained 1 wk after the birth of a calf. PMID:7358799

  20. [Morphological observation of bovine kidney (MDBK) cells effected by foot-and-mouth disease virus L(pro)].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fengqiang; Cong, Guozheng; Gao, Shandian; Lin, Tong; Du, Junzheng; Shao, Junjun; Chang, Huiyun

    2009-11-01

    In order to explore the morphological changes of Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) L protease, we induced the expression of FMDV L protease in bovine kidney cells (MDBK) artificially. All work is carried out on the basis of a stable MDBK cell line inducibly expresses the Lab gene under the control of tetracycline. We use cell morphology, Hoechst 33258 staining, AO-EB staining, and DNA Ladder abstraction to research the morphological changes of MDBK cells. 24 hours after FMDV L protease were induced and expressed in MDBK cells, cells shown the diminish of cell size, nuclear enrichment and the appearance of transparency circle under the light microscope. Apoptosis characteristics of nuclear condensation, fragmentation, accompanied by apoptotic bodies formation (Hoechst 33258 staining). 36 hours after the expression, nuclear staining of early lesions showed bright green plaque or debris-like dense, and advanced lesions showed Orange and dense plaques (AO-EB staining). 48 hours after the expression, DNA gel electrophoresis showed visible DNA ladder. Results indicate that FMDV L protease can induce apoptosis of MDBK and apoptosis plays an important role in the cytopathogenicity effect of FMDV.

  1. Transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells from bovine ovarian follicles during atresia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major function of the ovary is to produce oocytes for fertilisation. Oocytes mature in follicles surrounded by nurturing granulosa cells and all are enclosed by a basal lamina. During growth, granulosa cells replicate and a large fluid-filled cavity (the antrum) develops in the centre. Only follicles that have enlarged to over 10 mm can ovulate in cows. In mammals, the number of primordial follicles far exceeds the numbers that ever ovulate and atresia or regression of follicles is a mechanism to regulate the number of oocytes ovulated and to contribute to the timing of ovulation. To better understand the molecular basis of follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of granulosa cells from healthy (n = 10) and atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (< 5 mm). Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. These analyses and size-frequency plots of coefficients of variation of signal intensities revealed that the healthy follicles were more heterogeneous. Examining the differentially-expressed genes the most significantly affected functions in atretic follicles were cell death, organ development, tissue development and embryonic development. The overall processes influenced by transcription factor gene TP53 were predicted to be activated, whereas those of MYC were inhibited on the basis of known interactions with the genes in our dataset. The top ranked canonical pathway contained signalling molecules common to various inflammatory/fibrotic pathways such as the transforming growth factor-β and tumour necrosis factor-α pathways. The two most significant networks also reflect this pattern of tissue remodelling/fibrosis gene expression. These networks also contain molecules which are present in the canonical pathways of hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and transforming

  2. Dietary bovine lactoferrin alters mucosal and systemic immune cell responses in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Comstock, Sarah S; Reznikov, Elizabeth A; Contractor, Nikhat; Donovan, Sharon M

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional immune protein found at high concentrations in human milk. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine LF (bLF) on mucosal and systemic immune development was investigated. Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formula containing 130 [control (Ctrl)], 367 (LF1), or 1300 (LF3) mg of bLF/(kg body weight · d). To provide passive immunity, sow serum was provided orally during the first 36 h of life. Blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), and ascending colon (Asc) contents were collected on day 7 (n = 10-14/group) and day 14 (n = 10-12/group). Immune cell populations were quantified by flow cytometry and immunoglobulins (Igs) were measured by ELISA. Additionally, immune cells were isolated from spleen and MLNs (n = 7/group) on day 7 and stimulated ex vivo with phytohemagglutinin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ± LF for 72 h. Secreted cytokine concentrations were quantified by multiplex assay. Lymphocyte populations [cluster determinant (CD)4, CD8, and natural killer cells] developed normally and were unaffected by dietary bLF. LF3 piglets tended to have 1.4 to 2 times more serum IgG than Ctrl piglets (P = 0.07) or LF1 piglets (P = 0.03), but IgA in Asc contents was unaffected by bLF. Asc IgA was 4 times higher on day 14 than day 7. Spleen cells from LF3 piglets produced 2 times more interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α ex vivo than those from Ctrl or LF1 piglets. MLN cells from LF1 and LF3 piglets produced 40% more IL-10 and tended to produce 40% more IL-6 (P = 0.05) than those from Ctrl piglets. However, ex vivo bLF did not affect the cytokine response of spleen or MLN cells to LPS. In summary, dietary bLF alters the capacity of MLN and spleen immune cells to respond to stimulation, supporting a role for LF in the initiation of protective immune responses in these immunologically challenged neonates. PMID:24553692

  3. Estrogen related receptor α (ERRα) a promising target for the therapy of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC).

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Ivan; Avena, Paola; De Luca, Arianna; Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Malivindi, Rocco; Rago, Vittoria; Fiorillo, Marco; Domanico, Francesco; Campana, Carmela; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2015-09-22

    The pathogenesis of the adrenocortical cancer (ACC) involves integration of molecular signals and the interplay of different downstream pathways (i.e. IGFII/IGF1R, β-catenin, Wnt, ESR1). This tumor is characterized by limited therapeutic options and unsuccessful treatments. A useful strategy to develop an effective therapy for ACC is to identify a common downstream target of these multiple pathways. A good candidate could be the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) because of its ability to regulate energy metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis and signalings related to cancer progression. In this study we tested the effect of ERRα inverse agonist, XCT790, on the proliferation of H295R adrenocortical cancer cell line. Results from in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that XCT790 reduced H295R cell growth. The inhibitory effect was associated with impaired cell cycle progression which was not followed by any apoptotic event. Instead, incomplete autophagy and cell death by a necrotic processes, as a consequence of the cell energy failure, induced by pharmacological reduction of ERRα was evidenced. Our results indicate that therapeutic strategies targeting key factors such as ERRα that control the activity and signaling of bioenergetics processes in high-energy demanding tumors could represent an innovative/alternative therapy for the treatment of ACC. PMID:26312764

  4. Estrogen related receptor α (ERRα) a promising target for the therapy of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC)

    PubMed Central

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Malivindi, Rocco; Rago, Vittoria; Fiorillo, Marco; Domanico, Francesco; Campana, Carmela; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the adrenocortical cancer (ACC) involves integration of molecular signals and the interplay of different downstream pathways (i.e. IGFII/IGF1R, β-catenin, Wnt, ESR1). This tumor is characterized by limited therapeutic options and unsuccessful treatments. A useful strategy to develop an effective therapy for ACC is to identify a common downstream target of these multiple pathways. A good candidate could be the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) because of its ability to regulate energy metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis and signalings related to cancer progression. In this study we tested the effect of ERRα inverse agonist, XCT790, on the proliferation of H295R adrenocortical cancer cell line. Results from in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that XCT790 reduced H295R cell growth. The inhibitory effect was associated with impaired cell cycle progression which was not followed by any apoptotic event. Instead, incomplete autophagy and cell death by a necrotic processes, as a consequence of the cell energy failure, induced by pharmacological reduction of ERRα was evidenced. Our results indicate that therapeutic strategies targeting key factors such as ERRα that control the activity and signaling of bioenergetics processes in high-energy demanding tumors could represent an innovative/alternative therapy for the treatment of ACC. PMID:26312764

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis: neuropsychiatric aspects.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lauren

    2014-04-01

    Evidence of aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity in many psychiatric disorders, although not universal, has sparked long-standing interest in HPA hormones as biomarkers of disease or treatment response. HPA activity may be chronically elevated in melancholic depression, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. The HPA axis may be more reactive to stress in social anxiety disorder and autism spectrum disorders. In contrast, HPA activity is more likely to be low in PTSD and atypical depression. Antidepressants are widely considered to inhibit HPA activity, although inhibition is not unanimously reported in the literature. There is evidence, also uneven, that the mood stabilizers lithium and carbamazepine have the potential to augment HPA measures, while benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and to some extent, typical antipsychotics have the potential to inhibit HPA activity. Currently, the most reliable use of HPA measures in most disorders is to predict the likelihood of relapse, although changes in HPA activity have also been proposed to play a role in the clinical benefits of psychiatric treatments. Greater attention to patient heterogeneity and more consistent approaches to assessing treatment effects on HPA function may solidify the value of HPA measures in predicting treatment response or developing novel strategies to manage psychiatric disease.

  6. Development of a preliminary diagnostic measure for bovine leukosis in dairy cows using peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts

    PubMed Central

    NISHIIKE, Masao; HAOKA, Michiyo; DOI, Takashi; KOHDA, Tomoko; MUKAMOTO, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the association between antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV proviral load, and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts was performed with 774 dairy cows. The average age, WBC counts and lymphoid cell counts tended to be higher in BLV antibody-positive cows than in antibody-negative cows. There was a similar trend in levels of proviral DNA. We analyzed age, WBC counts and lymphocyte counts by principal component analyses to create a distribution chart of the principle component scores. Using the chart, we categorized cows into four quadrants based on additional information, such as the presence of antibody and the levels of proviral DNA. Antibody-positive cows and cows with high BLV proviral load were found mostly in one quadrant of the chart, indicating that it is possible to predict the risk of infection without any knowledge on antibody status by using information, such as WBC counts as a biomarker. When only antibody-positive cows were included in the analysis, a characteristic distribution of different levels of proviral DNA was seen in the quadrants, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the extent of bovine leukosis infection by using this analysis. For this analysis and categorization of the cows into quadrants, we computed a mathematical formulation using discriminant analysis based on age and WBC and lymphocyte counts. This mathematical formulation for the hematological preliminary diagnosis of the disease is recommended as a screening tool to monitor bovine leukosis. PMID:27064146

  7. Transcriptome characterization by RNA-seq unravels the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sitao; Li, Robert W; Li, Weizhong; Li, Cong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, affect cell differentiation, proliferation, and motility. Butyrate also induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). In addition, butyrate is a potent inducer of histone hyper-acetylation in cells. Therefore, this SCFA provides an excellent in vitro model for studying the epigenomic regulation of gene expression induced by histone acetylation. In this study, we analyzed the differential in vitro expression of genes induced by butyrate in bovine epithelial cells by using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq). The number of sequences read, ranging from 57,303,693 to 78,933,744, were generated per sample. Approximately 11,408 genes were significantly impacted by butyrate, with a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05. The predominant cellular processes affected by butyrate included cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results provided insight into the transcriptome alterations induced by butyrate, which will undoubtedly facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells.

  8. Monoclonal Antibody against Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme: Its Use as a Marker for Murine, Bovine, and Human Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, R.; Alby, L.; Grieves, J.; Joseph, J.; Lindgren, C.; Morrissey, L. W.; Sidky, Y. A.; Tu, M.; Watt, S. L.

    1982-12-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been prepared against rat angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). By selection for antibody binding to endothelial cells of bovine rather than rat origin we have obtained a reagent that has broad cross-species binding properties and that can at the same time serve as a useful marker for the surface of endothelial cells. The IgM-producing clone that we have established, α -ACE 3.1.1, has been grown in ascites form to yield ascites fluid that binds selectively to immobilized ACE at a >1:10,000 dilution. By use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunofluorescence histology, and flow cytometry, we have demonstrated the presence of ACE on endothelial cells of murine, bovine, and human origin. By means of a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS-IV) we have been able to selectively isolate viable endothelial cells from a mixture of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. We believe the antibody will be useful not only for the selection and in vitro cultivation of endothelial cells but also as a tool for the identification and pharmacological study of ACE.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide initiates inflammation in bovine granulosa cells via the TLR4 pathway and perturbs oocyte meiotic progression in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bromfield, John J.; Sheldon, I. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Infections of the reproductive tract or mammary gland with Gram-negative bacteria perturb ovarian function, follicular growth and fecundity in cattle. We hypothesised that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria stimulates an inflammatory response by ovarian granulosa cells that is mediated by TLR4. The present study tested the capacity of bovine ovarian granulosa cells to initiate an inflammatory response to pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and determined subsequent effects on the in vitro maturation of oocytes. Granulosa cells elicited an inflammatory response to PAMPs (LPS, lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan or Pam3CSK4) with accumulation of the cytokine IL-6, and the chemokine IL-8, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Granulosa cells responded acutely to LPS with rapid phosphorylation of TLR signaling components, p38 and ERK, and increased expression of IL6 and IL8 mRNA, although nuclear translocation of p65 was not evident. Targeting TLR4 with siRNA, attenuated granulosa cell accumulation of IL-6 in response to LPS. Endocrine function of granulosa cells is regulated by FSH, but here FSH also enhanced responsiveness to LPS, increasing IL-6 and IL-8 accumulation. Furthermore, LPS stimulated IL-6 secretion and expansion by cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), and increased rates of meiotic arrest and germinal vesicle breakdown failure. In conclusion, bovine granulosa cells initiate an innate immune response to LPS via the TLR4 pathway leading to inflammation and to perturbation of meiotic competence. PMID:21990308

  10. Aging effects on oxidative phosphorylation in rat adrenocortical mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Paola; Fujioka, Hisashi; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L

    2014-06-01

    Does aging in itself lead to alteration in adrenocortical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation? Mitochondria from Fischer 344 (F344) rats (6 and 24 months old), Brown Norway rats (6 and 32 months old) and F344-Brown Norway hybrid rats (6 and 30 months old) were compared. Mitochondria were isolated from extirpated adrenal cortex. The yields of mitochondria were quantitatively similar in all rat strains irrespective of age. In order to assess the activity of each mitochondrial complex, several different substrates were tested and the rate of oxidative phosphorylation measured. Aging does not affect mitochondrial activity except in the F344 rat adrenal cortex where the maximal ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation decreased with age. We hypothesize that impaired synthesis of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex with age in F344 rats might be due to decreased adrenocortical mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. We conclude that aging results in adrenocortical mitochondria effects that are non-uniform across different rat strains.

  11. Bovine neonatal pancytopenia - Comparative proteomic characterization of two BVD vaccines and the producer cell surface proteome (MDBK)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a disease syndrome in newborn calves of up to four weeks of age, first observed in southern Germany