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Sample records for bovine embryos derived

  1. Development of bovine embryos derived from reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Míryan L V; Meirelles, Flavio V; Perecin, Felipe; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Favaron, Phelipe O; Franciolli, André L R; Mess, Andrea M; Dos Santos, José M; Rici, Rose E G; Bertolini, Marcelo; Miglino, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    Assisted reproduction techniques have improved agricultural breeding in the bovine. However, important development steps may differ from the situation in vivo and there is a high mortality rate during the first trimester of gestation. To better understand these events, we investigated the development of embryos and fetal membranes following fixed-time AI (FTAI), IVF and nuclear transfer (NT). The onset of yolk-sac development was not normal in cloned embryos. Later steps differed from conditions in vivo in all three groups; the yolk-sac was yellowish and juxtaposed with the amniotic membrane. Vascularisation of the chorioallantoic membrane was relatively late and low in NT gestations, but normal in the others. The overall development of the embryos was normal, as indicated by morphology and regression analysis of growth rate. However, NT conceptuses were significantly smaller, with the livers in some embryos occupying the abdominal cavity and others exhibiting heart abnormalities. In conclusion, the yolk-sac and the cardiovascular system seem to be vulnerable to morphogenetic alterations. Future studies will focus on gene expression and early vascularisation processes to investigate whether these changes may be responsible for the high incidence of intrauterine mortality, especially in clones.

  2. Expression of the gap junction gene connexin43 (Cx43) in preimplantation bovine embryos derived in vitro or in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wrenzycki, C; Herrmann, D; Carnwath, J W; Niemann, H

    1996-09-01

    In this study we have examined the presence of mRNA encoding connexin 43 (Cx43) in bovine embryos derived in vivo and in vitro. Cumulus-oocyte complexes, immature and matured oocytes liberated from cumulus cells, zygotes, 2-4-cell and 8-16-cell embryos, morulae, blastocysts and hatched blastocysts were produced in vitro from ovaries obtained from an abattoir using TCM 199 supplemented with hormones and 10% oestrous cow serum for maturation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes matured for 24 h were exposed to bull spermatozoa for 19 h and then cultured in TCM 199 supplemented with 10% oestrous cow serum to the desired developmental stage. Morulae and blastocysts derived in vivo were collected from superovulated donor cows. Total RNA was extracted from pools of 60-200 bovine oocytes or embryos using a modified phenol-chloroform extraction method and analysed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Before reverse transcription, aliquots of DNase-digested embryonic RNA were tested by polymerase chain reaction using bovine-specific primers to control for residual genomic DNA contamination. DNA-free, total RNA was reverse transcribed after preincubation with the Cx43 specific 3'primer. The resultant cDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using Cx43 specific primers that define a 516 bp fragment of Cx43. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction product was verified by restriction enzyme analysis with Alu I and sequencing. Assays were repeated at least twice for each developmental stage and provided identical results between replicates. Cx43 transcripts were detected in bovine morulae and blastocysts grown in vivo. In contrast, whereas the early in vitro stages from cumulus-oocyte complexes to morulae expressed Cx43, blastocysts and hatched blastocysts did not have detectable concentrations of mRNA from this gene. Restriction enzyme cutting revealed three fragments of the predicted size (139, 177, 200 bp). The amplified product showed 100% identity

  3. Risk assessment of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in abattoir-derived in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Perry, G H

    2007-07-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of the bovine reproductive system causing reduced conception rates, abortions and persistently infected calves. Most if not all strains of BVDV are transmissible by natural mating and AI. For international trade, it is recommended that in vitro fertilized embryos be washed according to the IETS Manual. However, BVDV may not be entirely washed out, resulting in possible transmission risks to recipients. Donor cows, donor bulls and biological agents are all possible sources of contamination. The process for producing in vitro produced (IVP) embryos is complex and non-standard, and some procedures can contribute to spread of BVDV to uninfected embryos. The structure of the zone pellucida (ZP) of IVP embryos permits adherence of BVDV to the ZP. To estimate the risk of producing infected recipients and persistently infected calves from abattoir-derived IVP embryos, a quantitative risk assessment model using Microsoft Excel and Palisade @Risk was developed. Assumptions simplified some of the complexities of the IVP process. Uncertainties due to incomplete or variable data were addressed by incorporating probability distributions in the model. Model variables included: disease prevalence; the number of donor cows slaughtered for ovaries; the number of oocytes collected, selected and cultured; the BVDV status of ovaries, semen, biological compounds and its behavior in the IVP embryo process. The model used the Monte Carlo method to simulate the IVP process. When co-culture cells derived from donor cows of unknown health status were used for in vitro culture (IVC), the probability of a recipient cow at risk of infection to BVDV per oocyte selected for IVP processing averaged 0.0006. However, when co-culture free from BVDV was used, the probability was 1.2 x 10(-5). Thus, for safe international trade in bovine IVP embryos (i.e. negligible risks of transmission of BVDV), co-culture cells, if used during IVC for producing IVP

  4. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: Intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nel-Themaat, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Pope, C.E.; Lopez, M.; Wirtu, G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Cole, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Bondioli, K.R.; Godke, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p < 0.0001), than for eland IgNT embryos (0.5 and 0%, respectively). DNA synthesis was not observed in either bovine NT or eland IgNT cybrids before activation, but in 75 and 70% of bovine NT and eland igNT embryos, respectively, cell-cycle resumption was observed at 16 h postactivation (hpa). For eland IgNT embryos, 13% had ???8 cells at 84 hpa, while 32% of the bovine NT embryos had ???8 cells at the same interval. However, 100 and 66% of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos, respectively, that had ???8 cells synthesized DNA. From these results we concluded that (1) semen-derived epithelial cell nuclei can interact and be transcriptionally controlled by bovine cytoplast, (2) the first cell-cycle occurred in IgNT embryos, (3) a high frequency of developmental arrest occurs before the eight-cell stage in IgNT embryos, and (4) IgNT embryos that progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. ?? 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  5. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, Liesl; Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle; Lopez, Monica; Wirtu, Gemechu; Jenkins, Jill A; Cole, Alex; Dresser, Betsy L; Bondioli, Kenneth R; Godke, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p < 0.0001), than for eland IgNT embryos (0.5 and 0%, respectively). DNA synthesis was not observed in either bovine NT or eland IgNT cybrids before activation, but in 75 and 70% of bovine NT and eland igNT embryos, respectively, cell-cycle resumption was observed at 16 h postactivation (hpa). For eland IgNT embryos, 13% had > or = 8 cells at 84 hpa, while 32% of the bovine NT embryos had > or = 8 cells at the same interval. However, 100 and 66% of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos, respectively, that had > or = 8 cells synthesized DNA. From these results we concluded that (1) semen-derived epithelial cell nuclei can interact and be transcriptionally controlled by bovine cytoplast, (2) the first cell-cycle occurred in IgNT embryos, (3) a high frequency of developmental arrest occurs before the eight-cell stage in IgNT embryos, and (4) IgNT embryos that progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. PMID:18241126

  6. The developmental competence of bovine nuclear transfer embryos derived from cow versus heifer cytoplasts.

    PubMed

    Aston, Kenneth I; Li, Guang-Peng; Hicks, Brady A; Sessions, Benjamin R; Pate, Barry J; Hammon, Douglas S; Bunch, Thomas D; White, Kenneth L

    2006-10-01

    Due to its economic importance, the production of cattle by nuclear transfer has been a primary research focus for many researchers during the past few years. While many groups have successfully produced cattle by nuclear transfer, and progress in this area continues, nuclear transfer remains a very inefficient technology. This study evaluates the effect of the oocyte source (cow and heifer) on the developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos. In order for nuclear transfer to be successful, a differentiated donor cell must be reprogrammed and restored to a totipotent state. This reprogramming is probably accomplished by factors within the oocyte cytoplasm. This study indicates that oocytes derived from cows have a greater capacity to reprogram donor cell DNA following nuclear transfer as compared to heifer oocytes based on in vitro development to the 2-cell stage and to the compacted morula/blastocyst stages. Nuclear transfer embryos derived from cow oocytes resulted in significantly higher rates of pregnancy establishment than embryos derived from heifer oocytes and resulted in higher pregnancy retention at 90 and 180 days and a greater number of term deliveries. Following delivery more calves derived from cow oocytes tended to be healthy and normal than those derived from heifer oocytes. The differences in developmental efficiency between nuclear transfer embryos derived from cow and heifer cytoplasts demonstrate that subtle differences in oocyte biology can have significant effects on subsequent development of nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:16324805

  7. [Isolation and nuclear transfer of ES-like cells colonies derived from embryos being cloning of bovine somatic].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ya-Juan; Bai, Xue-Jin; Li, Jian-Dong; Suzuki, Tatsuyuki

    2003-02-01

    In this experiment, it was designed to carry out proliferous culture of bovine blastocysts(day 7) derived from embryos cloned through bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer, isolating and passaging of ES cells. The cells of blastocysts, which were planted on feeder layer, formed small colonies within 24 h. The nest-shape colonies occurred after culturing for 2-3 days. After the colonies in the same shape were isolated and passaged 4-5 times, many different size colonies with monolayer of multi-cells appeared. The colonies that had been passaged 4-5 times were planted into 4-wells multi-dishes without feeder layer. The colonies with monolayer of multi-cells appeared after 24 h, spread all over the bottom of the dishes, emerged epidermis-like cells that appeared reticulate after 4-7 days. These cells were used as donor cells to carry out nuclear transfer. The results showed that 80% (40/50) of the reconstructed embryos cleaved, 5% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40) of them developed to the morulaes and blastocyst stage, respectively. It revealed that ES-like cells derived embryos constructed through somatic cell nuclear transfer have the developmental potentials.

  8. The monitoring of bovine pregnancies derived from transfer of in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Taverne, Marcel A M; Breukelman, Simone P; Perényi, Zsolt; Dieleman, Steph J; Vosa, Peter L A M; Jonker, Herman H; de Ruigh, Lisette; Van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw, Jannecke M; Beckers, Jean-François

    2002-01-01

    Both an increased rate of embryonic, foetal and perinatal losses, and the occurrence of deviations in foetal and placental development are associated with bovine pregnancies obtained from in vitro produced embryos. This thus requires for a more accurate and frequent monitoring of foetal and maternal functions during pregnancies. Such approaches will enable to establish the period during which these losses and deviations in development occur and to plan possible clinical interventions. This paper reviews some recent data on return rates, late embryonic and foetal losses in recipients after the transfer of either MOET, IVF or nuclear transfer embryos. Special attention is paid to the diagnostic value of measurements of pregnancy specific/associated proteins and progesterone in maternal plasma. Possibilities to measure foetal body sizes, size of placentomes and foetal heart rate by means of transrectal or transabdominal ultrasonography are illustrated with data from the literature and with recent results from our own large field study with MOET, IVP-co-culture and IVP-SOF embryos. PMID:12625425

  9. Effect of microinjection of a single IVF-derived blastomere on the development of cloned embryos at the eight-cell stage in bovine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Jianwu; Li, Rong; Ding, Fangrong; Li, Song; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yunping; Li, Ning

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of microinjection of a single blastomere from in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived eight-cell embryo into eight-cell cloned embryos harboring the gene encoding recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), GFP, and NEO markers in bovine. The reconstructed chimeric embryos were assessed for their development to blastocyst, or to term after transfer, and tissues of offspring were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of nuclear transfer (NT)-derived transgenic cells, and the cloned embryos without microinjection were used as controls. The chimeric embryos showed slightly higher blastocyst rate than that for controls. The single IVF-derived blastomere appeared to preferential contribute to inner cell mass (ICM) in the chimeric blastocysts. After transfer, the rates of development of chimeric embryos to day 60, to term, and to weaning were significantly higher than those of controls. Sixty-three chimeric blastocysts were transferred and 11 calves were born: 7 calves of them were dead, and the remaining 4 calves are apparently normal and healthy. Most of the tissues collected from dead fetus were transgenic, whereas NT-derived transgenic cells were not detected in some tissues of the living calves. Our results indicated that a single blastomere from IVF-derived eight-cell embryo improves the in vivo developmental potential of transgenic cloned eight-cell embryos in bovine; however, the single IVF-derived blastomere appears to be better able to populate the ICM and many tissues of offspring than NT-derived blastomeres.

  10. Effects of oocyte quality, incubation time and maturation environment on the number of chromosomal abnormalities in IVF-derived early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Demyda-Peyrás, Sebastian; Dorado, Jesus; Hidalgo, Manuel; Anter, Jaouad; De Luca, Leonardo; Genero, Enrique; Moreno-Millán, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are one of the major causes of embryo developmental failures in mammals. The occurrence of these types of abnormalities is higher in in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of oocyte morphology and maturation conditions on the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in bovine preimplantational embryos. To this end, 790 early cattle embryos derived from oocytes with different morphologies and matured under different conditions, including maturation period (24 v. 36h) and maturation media (five different serum supplements in TCM-199), were evaluated cytogenetically in three sequential experiments. The rates of normal diploidy and abnormal haploidy, polyploidy and aneuploidy were determined in each embryo. Throughout all the experiments, the rate of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly (P<0.05) affected by oocyte morphology and maturation conditions (maturation time and culture medium). Lower morphological quality was associated with a high rate of chromosome abnormalities (P<0.05). Moreover, polyploidy was associated with increased maturation time (P<0.01), whereas the maturation medium significantly (P<0.05) affected the rates of haploidy and polyploidy. In general, supplementing the maturation medium with oestrous cow serum or fetal calf serum resulted in higher rates of chromosomal aberrations (P<0.05) compared with the other serum supplements tested (bovine steer serum, anoestroues cow serum, bovine amniotic fluid and bovine serum albumin). On the basis of the results of the present study, we conclude that the morphological quality of oocytes and the maturation conditions affect the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in IVP bovine embryos.

  11. Studying bovine early embryo transcriptome by microarray.

    PubMed

    Dufort, Isabelle; Robert, Claude; Sirard, Marc-André

    2015-01-01

    Microarrays represent a significant advantage when studying gene expression in early embryo because they allow for a speedy study of a large number of genes even if the sample of interest contains small quantities of genetic material. Here we describe the protocols developed by the EmbryoGENE Network to study the bovine transcriptome in early embryo using a microarray experimental design.

  12. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development. PMID:27107972

  13. Aberrant expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins in placenta of bovine embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kohan-Ghadr, H R; Smith, L C; Arnold, D R; Murphy, B D; Lefebvre, R C

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal placental development is common in the bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived fetus. In the present study, we characterised the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, structural proteins of adherens junctions, in SCNT gestations as a model for impaired placentation. Cotyledonary tissues were separated from pregnant uteri of SCNT (n = 6) and control pregnancies (n = 8) obtained by artificial insemination. Samples were analysed by western blot, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Bovine trophectoderm cell lines derived from SCNT and control embryos were analysed to compare with the in utero condition. Although no differences in E-cadherin or β-catenin mRNA abundance were observed in fetal tissues between the two groups, proteins encoded by these genes were markedly under-expressed in SCNT trophoblast cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed a different pattern of E-cadherin and total β-catenin localisation in SCNT placentas compared with controls. No difference was observed in subcellular localisation of dephosphorylated active-β-catenin protein in SCNT tissues compared with controls. However, qRT-PCR confirmed that the wingless (WNT)/β-catenin signalling pathway target genes CCND1, CLDN1 and MSX1 were downregulated in SCNT placentas. No differences were detected between two groups of bovine trophectoderm cell lines. Our results suggest that impaired expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, along with defective β-catenin signalling during embryo attachment, specifically during placentation, is a molecular mechanism explaining insufficient placentation in the bovine SCNT-derived fetus.

  14. Effect of post-thaw cell rehydration at 4 degrees C on survival of frozen and vitrified IVP-derived bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Granados, J; De La Fuente, J

    1999-01-01

    In vitro-produced bovine embryos (IVP) were either frozen in 10% glycerol in a phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) using conventional slow freezing or vitrified in 25% glycerol and 25% ethylene glycol in PBS. The results of viability and hatching rates were compared between frozen and vitrified embryos after thawing and dilution using one of three different protocols: (A) a three-step dilution procedure, (B) a one-step dilution procedure or (C) a procedure in which embryos were kept in situ inside the straw at 4 degrees C for 10 min during a one-step dilution procedure. No significant differences in embryo survival were found among protocols A, B and C for frozen embryos and between protocols A and B for vitrified embryos. Viability and hatching rates of vitrified embryos thawed and diluted by protocol C (73 and 62%) were significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) in comparison to those obtained with protocol A (55 and 41.6%) or protocol B (54.5 and 35.3%). These results indicate that for vitrified IVP bovine embryos, direct in-straw rehydration at 4 degrees C for 10 min improves embryo survival and it could be a practical procedure for use under field conditions where there is sometimes a longer interval between thawing and transfer.

  15. Splitting and biopsy for bovine embryo sexing under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R F; Forell, F; Oliveira, A T; Rodrigues, J L

    2001-12-01

    Improvements on embryo micromanipulation techniques led to the use of embryo bisection technology in commercial embryo transfer programs, and made possible the direct genetic analysis of preimplantation bovine embryos by biopsy. For example, aspiration and microsection, allow bovine embryos sexing by detection of male-specific Y-chromosome in a sample of embryonic cells. We report on the application of the methodologies of splitting and biopsy of bovine embryos in field conditions, and on the results of embryo sex determination by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pregnancy rates achieved with fresh bisected or biopsied embryos (50 to 60%) were similar to the fresh intact embryos (55 to 61%). The PCR protocol used for embryo sexing showed 92% to 94% of efficiency and 90 to 100% of accuracy. These results demonstrate these procedures are suitable for use in field conditions.

  16. High levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy modify the development of ovine-bovine interspecies nuclear transferred embryos.

    PubMed

    Hua, Song; Lu, Chenglong; Song, Yakun; Li, Ruizhe; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Su, Feng; Zhang, Yong

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of mitochondrial heteroplasmy on embryo development, cloned embryos produced using bovine oocytes as the recipient cytoplasm and ovine granulosa cells as the donor nuclei were complemented with 2pL mitochondrial suspension isolated from ovine (BOOMT embryos) or bovine (BOBMT embryos) granulosa cells; cloned embryos without mitochondrial injection served as the control group (BO embryos). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and sodium bisulfite genomic sequencing were used to analyse mRNA and methylation levels of pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2) and mitochondrial genes (TFAM, POLRMT) in the early developmental stages of cloned embryos. The number of mitochondrial DNA copies in 2pL ovine-derived and bovine-derived mitochondrial suspensions was 960±110 and 1000±120, respectively. The blastocyst formation rates were similar in BOBMT and BO embryos (P>0.05), but significantly higher than in BOOMT embryos (P<0.01). Expression of OCT4 and SOX2, as detected by RT-qPCR, decreased significantly in BOOMT embryos (P<0.05), whereas the expression of TFAM and POLRMT increased significantly, compared with expression in BOOMT and BO embryos (P<0.05). In addition, methylation levels of OCT4 and SOX2 were significantly greater (P<0.05), whereas those of TFAM and POLRMT were significantly lower (P<0.01), in BOOMT embryos compared with BOBMT and BO embryos. Together, the results of the present study suggest that the degree of mitochondrial heteroplasmy may affect embryonic development.

  17. Constant transmission of mitochondrial DNA in intergeneric cloned embryos reconstructed from swamp buffalo fibroblasts and bovine ooplasm.

    PubMed

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Akagi, Satoshi; Tasai, Mariko; Tagami, Takahiro; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Nagai, Takashi; Kanai, Yukio; Parnpai, Rangsun; Takeda, Kumiko

    2011-04-01

    Although interspecies/intergeneric somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) has been proposed as a tool to produce offspring of endangered species, conflict between donor nucleus and recipient cytoplasm in iSCNT embryos has been identified as an impediment to implementation for agricultural production. To investigate the nuclear-mitochondrial interactions on the developmental potential of iSCNT embryos, we analyzed the mtDNA copy numbers in iSCNT embryos reconstructed with water buffalo (swamp type) fibroblasts and bovine enucleated oocytes (buffalo iSCNT). As controls, SCNT embryos were derived from bovine fibroblasts (bovine SCNT). Buffalo iSCNT and bovine SCNT embryos showed similar rates of cleavage and development to the 8-cell stage (P>0.05). However, buffalo iSCNT embryos did not develop beyond the 16-cell stage. Both bovine and buffalo mtDNA content in buffalo iSCNT embryos was stable throughout the nuclear transfer process, and arrested at the 8- to 16-cell stage (P>0.05). In bovine SCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage, mtDNA copy number was increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, both the donor cell and recipient cytoplast mtDNAs of buffalo iSCNT embryos were identified and maintained through the iSCNT process until the 8-16-cell stage. In addition, the copy number of mtDNA per embryo was a useful monitor to investigate nuclear-mitochondrial interactions.

  18. Oocyte-secreted factors in oocyte maturation media enhance subsequent development of bovine cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianmin; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Guo, Zekun; Quan, Fusheng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-04-01

    Successful in vitro maturation (IVM) and oocyte quality both affect the subsequent development of cloned embryos derived from somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Developmental competence is usually lower in oocytes matured in vitro compared with those that matured in vivo, possibly due to insufficient levels of oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) and disrupted oocyte-cumulus communication. This study investigated the effects of OSFs secreted by denuded oocytes (DOs) during IVM on the subsequent developmental competence of cloned bovine embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from antral follicles of slaughtered-cow ovaries collected from an abattoir were divided into four groups: COCs co-cultured with and without DOs in maturation media used for SCNT, as well as COCs co-cultured with and without DOs in maturation media used for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Based on the developmental competence and embryo quality of bovine embryos generated from these four groups, we found that co-culturing the COCs with DOs enhanced the in vitro development of IVF and cloned bovine embryos, and potentially generated more high-quality cloned blastocysts that possessed locus-specific histone modifications at levels similar to in vitro-fertilized embryos. These results strongly suggest that co-culturing COCs with DOs enhances subsequent developmental competence of cloned bovine embryo.

  19. Preimplantation death of xenomitochondrial mouse embryo harbouring bovine mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Manabu; Koyama, Shiori; Iimura, Satomi; Yamazaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kohri, Nanami; Sasaki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, cellular organelles playing essential roles in eukaryotic cell metabolism, are thought to have evolved from bacteria. The organization of mtDNA is remarkably uniform across species, reflecting its vital and conserved role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Our objectives were to evaluate the compatibility of xenogeneic mitochondria in the development of preimplantation embryos in mammals. Mouse embryos harbouring bovine mitochondria (mtB-M embryos) were prepared by the cell-fusion technique employing the haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). The mtB-M embryos showed developmental delay at embryonic days (E) 3.5 after insemination. Furthermore, none of the mtB-M embryos could implant into the maternal uterus after embryo transfer, whereas control mouse embryos into which mitochondria from another mouse had been transferred developed as well as did non-manipulated embryos. When we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) of mouse and bovine ND5, we found that the mtB-M embryos contained 8.3% of bovine mitochondria at the blastocyst stage. Thus, contamination with mitochondria from another species induces embryonic lethality prior to implantation into the maternal uterus. The heteroplasmic state of these xenogeneic mitochondria could have detrimental effects on preimplantation development, leading to preservation of species-specific mitochondrial integrity in mammals. PMID:26416548

  20. Preimplantation death of xenomitochondrial mouse embryo harbouring bovine mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Manabu; Koyama, Shiori; Iimura, Satomi; Yamazaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kohri, Nanami; Sasaki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, cellular organelles playing essential roles in eukaryotic cell metabolism, are thought to have evolved from bacteria. The organization of mtDNA is remarkably uniform across species, reflecting its vital and conserved role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Our objectives were to evaluate the compatibility of xenogeneic mitochondria in the development of preimplantation embryos in mammals. Mouse embryos harbouring bovine mitochondria (mtB-M embryos) were prepared by the cell-fusion technique employing the haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). The mtB-M embryos showed developmental delay at embryonic days (E) 3.5 after insemination. Furthermore, none of the mtB-M embryos could implant into the maternal uterus after embryo transfer, whereas control mouse embryos into which mitochondria from another mouse had been transferred developed as well as did non-manipulated embryos. When we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) of mouse and bovine ND5, we found that the mtB-M embryos contained 8.3% of bovine mitochondria at the blastocyst stage. Thus, contamination with mitochondria from another species induces embryonic lethality prior to implantation into the maternal uterus. The heteroplasmic state of these xenogeneic mitochondria could have detrimental effects on preimplantation development, leading to preservation of species-specific mitochondrial integrity in mammals. PMID:26416548

  1. Establishment of a bovine blastocyst-derived cell line collection for the comparative analysis of embryos created in vivo and by in vitro fertilization, somatic cell nuclear transfer, or parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Powell, Anne M; Camp, Mary; Ealy, Alan D

    2007-02-01

    Tools and methods for analyzing differences in embryos resulting from somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) in comparison to those derived from normal fertilization are needed to define better the nature of the nuclear reprogramming that occurs after NT. To this end, a collection of bovine blastocyst-derived cell lines was created. In vitro expanded or hatched blastocysts, used as primary culture tissue, were from NT; in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture (IVF); or parthenogenetic (P) activation. Also, five in vivo-fertilized and developed blastocysts were collected by uterine flushing on the eighth d postfertilization. Whole blastocysts were physically attached to STO feeder layers to initiate all of the cell lines generated. The majority of the cell lines in the collection are trophectoderm, 38 NT-derived, 6 in vivo-derived, 20 IVF-derived, and 13 P-derived. Trophectoderm identity was ascertained by morphology and, in many cases, interferon-tau production. Several visceral endoderm cell lines and putative parietal endoderm cell lines were also established. At approximately 5% efficiency, epiblast masses from NT and IVF blastocysts survived and were isolated in culture. Two epiblast masses were also isolated from P blastocysts. Spontaneous differentiation from the epiblast outgrowths resulted in the establishment of fibroblast cell lines. The use of the trophectoderm cell lines as a comparative in vitro model of bovine trophectoderm and placental function is discussed in relation to NT reprogramming.

  2. Effect of embryo density on in vitro development and gene expression in bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in a microwell system.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 μl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density. PMID:23154384

  3. Effect of Embryo Density on In Vitro Development and Gene Expression in Bovine In Vitro-fertilized Embryos Cultured in a Microwell System

    PubMed Central

    SUGIMURA, Satoshi; AKAI, Tomonori; HASHIYADA, Yutaka; AIKAWA, Yoshio; OHTAKE, Masaki; MATSUDA, Hideo; KOBAYASHI, Shuji; KOBAYASHI, Eiji; KONISHI, Kazuyuki; IMAI, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 µl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density. PMID:23154384

  4. Production of chimeric embryos by aggregation of bovine egfp eight-cell stage blastomeres with two-cell fused and asynchronic embryos.

    PubMed

    Hiriart, M I; Bevacqua, R J; Canel, N G; Fernández-Martín, R; Salamone, D F

    2013-09-01

    Embryo disaggregation allows the production of two to four identical offspring from a single cow embryo. In addition, embryo complementation has become the technique of choice to demonstrate the totipotency of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to generate a new and simple method by aggregation in the well-of-the-well system to direct each single enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) eight-cell blastomere derived from bovine in vitro fertilization embryos to the inner cell mass (ICM) of chimeras produced with fused and asynchronic embryos. To this end, the best conditions to generate in vitro fertilization-fused embryos were determined. Then, the fused (F) and nonfused (NF) embryos were aggregated in two distinct conditions: synchronically (S), with both transgenic and F embryos produced on the same day, and asynchronically (AS), with transgenic embryos produced one day before F embryos. The highest fusion and blastocysts rates were obtained with two pulses of 40 V. The 2ASF and 2ASNF groups showed the best number of blastocysts expressing the EGFP protein (48% and 41%, respectively). Furthermore, the 2ASF group induced the highest localization rates of the egfp-expressing blastomere in the ICM (6/13, 46% of ICM transgene-expressing blastocysts). This technique will have great application for multiplication of embryos of high genetic value or transgenic embryos and also with the generation of truly bovine embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells.

  5. Effects of sperm pretreatment and embryo activation methods on the development of bovine embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Chang, Hsun-Chung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Wang, Chih-Hua; Chu, Chun-Yen; Shen, Perng-Chih

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of different embryo activation methods and sperm pretreatments on the activation and development of bovine embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Four activation agents, i.e., calcium ionophore (A23187), ionomycin (Ion), electric pulse (EP) and ethanol (Eth) were used in various combinations to activate bovine ICSI embryos. The normal fertilization rate was similar in bovine ICSI embryos activated by A23187+Eth, Ion+Eth, Ion+EP+Eth, and 2-Ion (Ion administered two times)+Eth. Increasing the frequency of ionomycin stimulation from two (2-Ion+Eth) to three times (3-Ion+Eth) significantly (p<0.05) increased the cell number per embryo at the blastocyst stage. In addition, spermatozoa were pretreated with dithiothreitol (DTT), glutathione (GSH) or GSH+lysolecithin (LL) and used for producing bovine ICSI embryos. The blastocyst rate of bovine ICSI embryos produced from sperm pretreated with GSH was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of embryos produced from sperm pretreated with DTT and GSH+LL. In conclusion, the embryo activation methods and sperm pretreatments examined in the present study did not affect the normal fertilization rate of bovine ICSI embryos. However, activation with 3-Ion+Eth and sperm pretreatment with GSH increased the cell number per embryo at blastocyst stage and the blastocyst rate, respectively, in bovine ICSI embryos.

  6. Effects of steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) on in vitro bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Panter, K E; Gaffield, W; Evans, R C; Bunch, T D

    2005-02-01

    alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine are two naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and solanidine-N-oxide is a corresponding steroidal aglycone. The objective of this research was to screen potential cyto-toxicity of these potato glycoalkaloids using bovine oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization techniques and subsequent embryonic development as the in vitro model. A randomized complete block design with four in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) treatments (Experiment 1) and four in vitro embryo culture (IVC) treatments (Experiment 2) was used. In Experiment 1, bovine oocytes (n=2506) were matured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVM medium only. The in vitro matured oocytes were then subject to routine IVF and IVC procedures. Results indicated that exposure of bovine oocytes to the steroidal glycoalkaloids during in vitro maturation inhibited subsequent pre-implantation embryo development. Potency of the embryo-toxicity varied between these steroidal glycoalkaloids. In Experiment 2, IVM/IVF derived bovine embryos (n=2370) were cultured in vitro in medium supplemented with 6 microM of alpha-solanine, alpha-chaconine, solanidine-N-oxide or IVC medium only. The results showed that the pre-implantation embryo development is inhibited by exposure to these glycoalkaloids. This effect is significant during the later pre-implantation embryo development period as indicated by fewer numbers of expanded and hatched blastocysts produced in the media containing these alkaloids. Therefore, we conclude that in vitro exposure of oocytes and fertilized ova to the steroidal glycoalkaloids from potatoes inhibits pre-implantation embryo development. Furthermore, we suggest that ingestion of Solanum species containing toxic amounts of glycoalkaloids may have negative effects on pre-implantation embryonic survival.

  7. Culture of bovine embryos on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell plate.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Hosoe, Misa; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takahashi, Seiya

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle. PMID:20484872

  8. Utilization of endogenous fatty acid stores for energy production in bovine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L; Feil, Deanne; Robker, Rebecca L; Thompson, Jeremy G; Dunning, Kylie R

    2012-05-01

    Although current embryo culture media are based on carbohydrate metabolism of embryos, little is known about metabolism of endogenous lipids. L-carnitine is a β-oxidation cofactor absent in most culture media. The objective was to investigate the influence of L-carnitine supplementation on bovine embryo development. Abattoir-derived bovine cumulus oocyte complexes were cultured and fertilized. Post-fertilization, presumptive zygotes were transferred into a basic cleavage medium ± carbohydrates (glucose, lactate and pyruvate) ± 5 mm L-carnitine and cultured for 4 days in vitro. In the absence of carbohydrates during culture, embryos arrested at the 2- and 4-cell stages. Remarkably, +L-carnitine increased development to the morula stage compared to +carbohydrates alone (P < 0.001). The beneficial effects of L-carnitine were further demonstrated by inclusion of carbohydrates, with 14-fold more embryos reaching the morula stage after culture in the +carbohydrates +L-carnitine group compared to the +carbohydrates group (P < 0.05). Whereas there was a trend for +L-carnitine to increase ATP (P = 0.09), ADP levels were higher and ATP: ADP ratio were 1.9-fold lower (main effect, P < 0.05) compared to embryos cultured in -L-carnitine. Therefore, we inferred that +L-carnitine embryos were more metabolically active, with higher rates of ATP-ADP conversion. In conclusion, L-carnitine supplementation supported precompaction embryo development and there was an additive effect of +L-carnitine +carbohydrates on early embryo development, most likely through increased β-oxidation within embryos.

  9. Ease of calving, blood chemistry, insulin and bovine growth hormone of newborn calves derived from embryos produced in vitro in culture systems with serum and co-culture or with PVA.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, H; Schmidt, M; Hom, P; Sangild, P T; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    2000-07-01

    Blood chemistry (pH, pCO2, pO2, glucose, lactate) as well as plasma insulin and growth hormone of calves derived from embryos produced under 2 different in vitro culture systems (modified SOFaa with 20% serum and co-culture with bovine oviduct epithelial cells [IVP serum, n=8] or with 3 mg/mL PVA [IVPdefined, n=6]) were compared with those of calves derived from AI (n=5). Calvings were classified according to the ease (unassisted, light traction, heavy traction). Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of calves at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min, and at 2, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h after delivery, then daily for 6 d. At the second day of life after 4 feedings and a 4-h fasting period, a glucose tolerance test was performed to evaluate glucose metabolism and insulin secretion. Calves in the IVP serum group had higher birth weights than AI calves (LS mean +/- SEM, IVP serum: 45.2 +/- 1.4 kg vs AI: 40.4 +/- 1.7 kg; P < 0.05), while the birth weights of calves in the IVP defined group were in between (IVPdefined: 41.9 +/- 1.6 kg). More IVP serum calves (75%) needed assistance than IVP defined (33%) or AI (40%) calves. The effect of ease of calving vs the effect of embryo culture was compared in relation to blood parameters at birth. There was an effect of ease of calving but not of embryo culture conditions on blood pH, lactate and PCO2. Calves requiring heavy traction had lower pH during the first 3 h after calving, a higher lactate during the first 60 min after calving and a higher pCO2 the first 2 h after calving than calves born unassisted. Calves requiring heavy traction also had lower pH the first 2 h and higher lactate the first 3 h after calving than calves born by light traction. IVP defined calves had lower lactate than IVP serum calves the first 60 min after calving. At 6 h after delivery, all blood parameters had stabilized. There was no effect of either embryo culture or ease of calving on basal insulin and growth hormone level, or the ability of the calves to

  10. Somatic cell nuclear transfer alters peri-implantation trophoblast differentiation in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Daniel R; Bordignon, Vilceu; Lefebvre, Réjean; Murphy, Bruce D; Smith, Lawrence C

    2006-08-01

    Abnormal placental development limits success in ruminant pregnancies derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), due to reduction in placentome number and consequently, maternal/fetal exchange. In the primary stages of an epithelial-chorial association, the maternal/fetal interface is characterized by progressive endometrial invasion by specialized trophoblast binucleate/giant cells (TGC). We hypothesized that dysfunctional placentation in SCNT pregnancies results from aberration in expression of genes known to be necessary for trophoblast proliferation (Mash2), differentiation (Hand1), and function (IFN-tau and PAG-9). We, therefore, compared the expression of these factors in trophoblast from bovine embryos derived from artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and SCNT prior to (day 17) and following (day 40 of gestation) implantation, as well as TGC densities and function. In preimplantation embryos, Mash2 mRNA was more abundant in SCNT embryos compared to AI, while Hand1 was highest in AI and IVF relative to SCNT embryos. IFN-tau mRNA abundance did not differ among groups. PAG-9 mRNA was undetectable in SCNT embryos, present in IVF embryos and highest in AI embryos. In postimplantation pregnancies, SCNT fetal cotyledons displayed higher Mash2 and Hand1 than AI and IVF tissues. Allelic expression of Mash2 was not different among the groups, which suggests that elevated mRNA expression was not due to altered imprinting status of Mash2. The day 40 SCNT cotyledons had the fewest number of TGC compared to IVF and AI controls. Thus, expression of genes critical to normal placental development is altered in SCNT bovine embryos, and this is expected to cause abnormal trophoblast differentiation and contribute to pregnancy loss.

  11. Aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming in bovine SCNT preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Xin; Wang, Fang; An, Xinglan; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Xueming; Sun, Liguang; Li, Ziyi

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation reprogramming plays important roles in mammalian embryogenesis. Mammalian somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos with reprogramming defects fail to develop. Thus, we compared DNA methylation reprogramming in preimplantation embryos from bovine SCNT and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and analyzed the influence of vitamin C (VC) on the reprogramming of DNA methylation. The results showed that global DNA methylation followed a typical pattern of demethylation and remethylation in IVF preimplantation embryos; however, the global genome remained hypermethylated in SCNT preimplantation embryos. Compared with the IVF group, locus DNA methylation reprogramming showed three patterns in the SCNT group. First, some pluripotency genes (POU5F1 and NANOG) and repeated elements (satellite I and α-satellite) showed insufficient demethylation and hypermethylation in the SCNT group. Second, a differentially methylated region (DMR) of an imprint control region (ICR) in H19 exhibited excessive demethylation and hypomethylation. Third, some pluripotency genes (CDX2 and SOX2) were hypomethylated in both the IVF and SCNT groups. Additionally, VC improved the DNA methylation reprogramming of satellite I, α-satellite and H19 but not that of POU5F1 and NANOG in SCNT preimplantation embryos. These results indicate that DNA methylation reprogramming was aberrant and that VC influenced DNA methylation reprogramming in SCNT embryos in a locus-specific manner. PMID:27456302

  12. Development of bovine embryos in vitro as affected by energy substrates.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrans, C F; Zeng, G Q; MCNamara, G T; Schoff, P K; First, N L

    1993-09-01

    Simple media were developed to study the metabolic requirements of bovine embryos up to Day 7 (Day 0 = day of oocyte aspiration) in vitro. Embryos were derived from oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro. At 45 +/- 2 h post insemination, embryos (> or = 2 cells) were randomly allotted to treatments. Examined in experiments 1 and 3 was the effect of pyruvate concentration in the presence of lactate. In the presence of lactate, pyruvate (0.2-5.0 mM) had no effect (p > 0.05) on the percentage of morulae or blastocysts. However, increasing the concentration of hemicalcium L-lactate from 5 mM to 10 mM decreased (p < 0.001) the percentage of embryos reaching the morula or blastocyst stage (experiment 3). Neither magnesium sulfate (0.5 mM) nor EDTA (10 mM) improved embryo development when added to the medium CR1 (experiment 2). Increasing the calcium level to 5 mM or the lactate level to 10 mM had no effect (p > 0.05) on embryo development (experiment 4). However, the interaction of adding calcium and lactate resulted in a decreased (p < 0.05) percentage of morulae. Determined in experiment 6 were the independent effects of pyruvate, lactate, and glucose on embryo development in vitro. As pyruvate or lactate level was increased from 1 to 10 mM, the percentage of blastocysts was decreased (p < 0.05). These experiments indicate that adding pyruvate to a medium containing lactate is not necessary for development of bovine embryos in vitro. PMID:8399836

  13. Development of bovine embryos in vitro as affected by energy substrates.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrans, C F; Zeng, G Q; MCNamara, G T; Schoff, P K; First, N L

    1993-09-01

    Simple media were developed to study the metabolic requirements of bovine embryos up to Day 7 (Day 0 = day of oocyte aspiration) in vitro. Embryos were derived from oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro. At 45 +/- 2 h post insemination, embryos (> or = 2 cells) were randomly allotted to treatments. Examined in experiments 1 and 3 was the effect of pyruvate concentration in the presence of lactate. In the presence of lactate, pyruvate (0.2-5.0 mM) had no effect (p > 0.05) on the percentage of morulae or blastocysts. However, increasing the concentration of hemicalcium L-lactate from 5 mM to 10 mM decreased (p < 0.001) the percentage of embryos reaching the morula or blastocyst stage (experiment 3). Neither magnesium sulfate (0.5 mM) nor EDTA (10 mM) improved embryo development when added to the medium CR1 (experiment 2). Increasing the calcium level to 5 mM or the lactate level to 10 mM had no effect (p > 0.05) on embryo development (experiment 4). However, the interaction of adding calcium and lactate resulted in a decreased (p < 0.05) percentage of morulae. Determined in experiment 6 were the independent effects of pyruvate, lactate, and glucose on embryo development in vitro. As pyruvate or lactate level was increased from 1 to 10 mM, the percentage of blastocysts was decreased (p < 0.05). These experiments indicate that adding pyruvate to a medium containing lactate is not necessary for development of bovine embryos in vitro.

  14. Lipid droplet analysis using in vitro bovine oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez-Leon, E A; Merchant, H; Medrano, A; Kjelland, M; Romo, S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the content of lipid droplets in bovine oocytes and embryos from Bos indicus (Bi), Bos taurus (Bt) and Bos indicus × Bos taurus (Bi × Bt). Oocytes were aspirated post-mortem and subjected to in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro development; the medium employed at each stage (TCM-199, TALP, SOF) was supplemented with (i) serum replacement (SR), (ii) foetal calf serum (FCS) or (iii) oestrous cow serum (ECS). The structure and distribution of the lipid droplets were established using electron microscopy, but were quantified using an optical microscope on semi-fine toluidine blue-stained sections. The highest percentage of embryos corresponded to those produced with FCS and ECS, which differed from embryos generated with SR (p < 0.05). The highest percentage of morulae and the lowest percentage of blastocysts were obtained with the SR supplement (p < 0.05). The oocytes cultured in FCS demonstrated a higher number of lipid droplets compared to those cultured in SR and ECS (p < 0.05). Less accumulation of lipids was observed in embryos supplemented with SR. The lowest and highest numbers of lipid droplets in oocytes corresponded to the Bi and Bt strain, respectively. The lowest amount of lipid droplets in embryos was observed in Bi (p < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of the in vitro development culture medium (synthetic oviduct fluid) with a synthetic substitute serum produced similar results in terms of embryo development compared to those obtained with FCS, but a decreased degree of lipid droplet accumulation was observed in the in vitro-cultured embryos. PMID:24467659

  15. Hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis affects sex ratio of bovine and murine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Adela; Madrid-Bury, Ninoska; Fernández, Raúl; Pérez-Garnelo, Sonia; Moreira, Pedro; Pintado, Belén; de la Fuente, Julio; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2003-06-01

    The effect of glucose in the medium used during in vitro culture on both cell death by apoptosis and the sex ratio of bovine blastocysts derived from in vitro-matured and in vitro-fertilized oocytes was evaluated. Oocytes were matured, inseminated, and cultured in vitro in mSOF medium with 10% FCS with or without glucose supplementation. Exposure to high concentrations of glucose (10, 20, and 30 mM) during bovine embryo development in vitro from zygote to blastocyst resulted in a decrease in the number of cells per embryo and an increase in the frequency of apoptotic cells. A significantly higher proportion of females was found among those embryos that developed under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro. Moreover, both murine and bovine blastocysts incubated for 6 hr in 20 mM glucose had a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in comparison to control. In this study, we also determined whether blastocyst production of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) differs between the sexes. Our results show that female bovine blastocysts produce significantly higher amounts of XIAP mRNA than males and this could be crucial in explaining the higher proportion of female blastocysts observed following in vitro culture under hyperglycemic conditions which induce apoptosis. Moreover, a higher proportion of female murine blastocysts cultured under hyperglycemic conditions were implanted in the uterus (65.3 of implantations from embryos cultured with 20 mM of glucose are females vs. 49% in control). This mechanism provides an explanation for the significant reduction of male children born to diabetic mothers.

  16. Impact of pro-oxidant agents on the morula-blastocyst transition in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Feugang, Jean-Magloire; Donnay, Isabelle; Mermillod, Pascal; Marchandise, Joelle; Lequarre, Anne-Sophie

    2005-07-01

    Exposing day 5 bovine morulae to reactive oxygen species induces a delayed degeneration of some blastocysts on day 8 post-insemination (pi) but without affecting the blastocyst rates. The aim of this study was to characterize the resisting and the degenerating population of blastocysts. The kinetics of degeneration of the embryos exposed to the two pro-oxidant agents: 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was evaluated using time-lapse cinematography. With both agents the first signs of degeneration appeared at day 7.5 pi but the duration of the degeneration process was shorter in presence of AAPH than BSO (4.2 vs. 12.5 hr, ANOVA, P < 0.05). The resisting blastocysts derived from morulae with a larger diameter (mean diameter: 161 vs. 154 microm, ANOVA, P < 0.05) and showed an earlier cavitation (135 vs. 142 hpi, P < 0.05) than the degenerating ones. The profile of protein neosynthesis at day 7 was not affected by the treatment. The proportion of male embryos was more important in the resisting than in the degenerating population (70 vs. 55%, chi2, P < 0.05) especially when the stress was induced by AAPH. The quality of the resisting embryos, measured by the total cell number and the rate of apoptosis, did not seem to be affected when compared to control embryos. In conclusion, resistance to oxidative stress seems related to the kinetics of development and/or the sex of the embryos. Resisting embryos apparently display a quality similar to untreated embryos. PMID:15806560

  17. Reprogrammed Transcriptome in Rhesus-Bovine Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Otu, Hasan H.; Chen, Ying; Lee, Young; Latham, Keith; Cibelli, Jose B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Global activation of the embryonic genome (EGA), one of the most critical steps in early mammalian embryo development, is recognized as the time when interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos fail to thrive. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed the EGA-related transcriptome of rhesus-bovine iSCNT 8- to 16-cell embryos and dissected the reprogramming process in terms of embryonic gene activation, somatic gene silencing, and maternal RNA degradation. Compared with fibroblast donor cells, two thousand and seven genes were activated in iSCNT embryos, one quarter of them reaching expression levels comparable to those found in in vitro fertilized (IVF) rhesus embryos. This suggested that EGA in iSCNT embryos had partially recapitulated rhesus embryonic development. Eight hundred and sixty somatic genes were not silenced properly and continued to be expressed in iSCNT embryos, which indicated incomplete nuclear reprogramming. We compared maternal RNA degradation in bovine oocytes between bovine-bovine SCNT and iSCNT embryos. While maternal RNA degradation occurred in both SCNT and iSCNT embryos, we saw more limited overall degradation of maternal RNA in iSCNT embryos than in SCNT embryos. Several important maternal RNAs, like GPF9, were not properly processed in SCNT embryos. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggested that iSCNT embryos are capable of triggering EGA, while a portion of somatic cell-associated genes maintain their expression. Maternal RNA degradation seems to be impaired in iSCNT embryos. Further understanding of the biological roles of these genes, networks, and pathways revealed by iSCNT may expand our knowledge about cell reprogramming, pluripotency, and differentiation. PMID:21799794

  18. Identification of bovine embryos cultured in groups by attachment of barcodes to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Morató, Roser; Penon, Oriol; Duran, Sara; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Mogas, Teresa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The low number of oocytes collected from unstimulated donors by ovum pick-up means that embryos produced from each individual female have to be cultured individually or in very small groups. However, it has been demonstrated that single-embryo culture is less efficient than embryo culture in groups. To overcome this limitation, we developed a direct embryo-tagging system, which allows the collective culture of embryos from different origins whilst preserving their pedigree. Presumptive bovine zygotes were tagged with eight wheat-germ agglutinin biofunctionalised polysilicon barcodes attached to the outer surface of the zona pellucida (ZP). Four different barcodes were used to encode groups of 20-25 embryos, which were then cultured in the same drop. Cleavage, Day-7 and Day-8 blastocysts and barcode retention rates were assessed. In addition, Day-7 blastocysts were vitrified and warmed. Barcode attachment to the ZP of bovine embryos affected neither in vitro embryo development nor post-warming survival of the tagged embryos. All the embryos maintained barcodes attached until Day 8 of culture (3.63±0.37 barcodes per embryo) and could be identified. In conclusion, identification of embryos by barcodes attached to the ZP is feasible and will allow the culture of embryos from different donors in the same drop. PMID:24942183

  19. Identification of bovine embryos cultured in groups by attachment of barcodes to the zona pellucida.

    PubMed

    Novo, Sergi; Morató, Roser; Penon, Oriol; Duran, Sara; Barrios, Leonardo; Nogués, Carme; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Luisa; Mogas, Teresa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The low number of oocytes collected from unstimulated donors by ovum pick-up means that embryos produced from each individual female have to be cultured individually or in very small groups. However, it has been demonstrated that single-embryo culture is less efficient than embryo culture in groups. To overcome this limitation, we developed a direct embryo-tagging system, which allows the collective culture of embryos from different origins whilst preserving their pedigree. Presumptive bovine zygotes were tagged with eight wheat-germ agglutinin biofunctionalised polysilicon barcodes attached to the outer surface of the zona pellucida (ZP). Four different barcodes were used to encode groups of 20-25 embryos, which were then cultured in the same drop. Cleavage, Day-7 and Day-8 blastocysts and barcode retention rates were assessed. In addition, Day-7 blastocysts were vitrified and warmed. Barcode attachment to the ZP of bovine embryos affected neither in vitro embryo development nor post-warming survival of the tagged embryos. All the embryos maintained barcodes attached until Day 8 of culture (3.63±0.37 barcodes per embryo) and could be identified. In conclusion, identification of embryos by barcodes attached to the ZP is feasible and will allow the culture of embryos from different donors in the same drop.

  20. Monitoring in-vitro bovine embryo development during the first days after fertilization (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Mikhail E.; Rubessa, Marcello; Fernandes, Daniel; Nguyen, Tan H.; Wheeler, Matthew B.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Conventional label-based contrast enhancement techniques (e.g., fluorescence) frequently modify the genetic makeup of tagged cells, making them poor candidates for use in in-vitro fertilization applications. Instead, we choose a label-free form of contrast, based on interferometric imaging, sensitive to optical path length differences. Compared to, single HeLa cells, typical mammalian ova and embryos are more than an order of magnitude thicker. As a result, regions of large phase variation lead to phase wrapping and an overall reduction in signal intensity occurs due to multiple scattering. These effects manifest themselves in low-spatial frequencies (blurs), with the desired details buried in the background. We present a phase shifting interferometer that yields the derivative of the phase, a quantity whose value is particularly sensitive to local variations and fine details. We demonstrate that our new real-time imaging platform is valuable in measuring the multiday development of bovine embryos. Reconstructing the derivative of the image phase and amplitude, we characterize the motion of previously low-contrast structures, which are relevant for embryo viability tests.

  1. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from the yolk sacs of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Mançanares, C A F; Oliveira, V C; Oliveira, L J; Carvalho, A F; Sampaio, R V; Mançanares, A C F; Souza, A F; Perecin, F; Meirelles, F V; Miglino, M A; Ambrósio, C E

    2015-10-01

    The yolk sac (YS) represents a promising source of stem cells for research because of the hematopoietic and mesenchymal cell niches that are present in this structure during the development of the embryo. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of YS tissue and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bovine YSs. Our results show that the YS is macroscopically located in the exocoelomic cavity in the ventral portion of the embryo and consists of a transparent membrane formed by a central sac-like portion and two ventrally elongated projections. Immunohistochemistry analyses were positive for OCT4, CD90, CD105, and CD44 markers in the YS of both gestational age groups. The MSCs of bovine YS were isolated using enzymatic digestion and were grown in vitro for at least 11 passages to verify their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization that revealed the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79 and the absence of CD45, CD44, and CD79, which are positive and negative markers of MSCs, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (chondrogenic: Alcian Blue, osteogenic: Alizarin Red, and adipogenic: Oil Red O) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analyses showed no differences in the patterns of gene expression between the groups or passages tested, with the exception of the expression of SOX2, which was slightly different in the G1P3 group compared to the other groups. Our results suggest that YS tissue from bovines can be used as a source of MSCs, which makes YS tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  2. Efficient delivery of DNA into bovine preimplantation embryos by multiwall carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Michele; Ladeira, Luiz O.; Carvalho, Bruno C.; Camargo, Luiz S. A.; Raposo, Nádia R. B.; Serapião, Raquel V.; Quintão, Carolina C. R.; Silva, Saulo R.; Soares, Jaqueline S.; Jorio, Ado; Brandão, Humberto M.

    2016-01-01

    The pellucid zone (PZ) is a protective embryonic cells barrier against chemical, physical or biological substances. This put, usual transfection methods are not efficient for mammal oocytes and embryos as they are exclusively for somatic cells. Carbon nanotubes have emerged as a new method for gene delivery, and they can be an alternative for embryos transfection, however its ability to cross the PZ and mediated gene transfer is unknown. Our data confirm that multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can cross the PZ and delivery of pDNA into in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos. The degeneration rate and the expression of genes associated to cell viability were not affected in embryos exposed to MWNTs. Those embryos, however, had lower cell number and higher apoptotic cell index, but this did not impair the embryonic development. This study shows the potential utility of the MWNT for the development of new method for delivery of DNA into bovine embryos. PMID:27642034

  3. Efficient delivery of DNA into bovine preimplantation embryos by multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Munk, Michele; Ladeira, Luiz O; Carvalho, Bruno C; Camargo, Luiz S A; Raposo, Nádia R B; Serapião, Raquel V; Quintão, Carolina C R; Silva, Saulo R; Soares, Jaqueline S; Jorio, Ado; Brandão, Humberto M

    2016-01-01

    The pellucid zone (PZ) is a protective embryonic cells barrier against chemical, physical or biological substances. This put, usual transfection methods are not efficient for mammal oocytes and embryos as they are exclusively for somatic cells. Carbon nanotubes have emerged as a new method for gene delivery, and they can be an alternative for embryos transfection, however its ability to cross the PZ and mediated gene transfer is unknown. Our data confirm that multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can cross the PZ and delivery of pDNA into in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos. The degeneration rate and the expression of genes associated to cell viability were not affected in embryos exposed to MWNTs. Those embryos, however, had lower cell number and higher apoptotic cell index, but this did not impair the embryonic development. This study shows the potential utility of the MWNT for the development of new method for delivery of DNA into bovine embryos. PMID:27642034

  4. Exposure of bovine embryos to trypsin during washing does not decrease embryonic survival.

    PubMed

    Echternkamp, S E; Kappes, S M; Maurer, R R

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the exposure of zona pellucida-intact bovine embryos to the proteolytic enzyme, trypsin, during embryo washing has a detrimental effect on their subsequent survival and development. Embryos were collected nonsurgically from superovulated cows (n = 19) 7.5 d after insemination. Grade 1 and Grade 2 embryos were washed 12 times in modified Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA), or in a series of five washes in BSA-PBS (without Ca++ and Mg++), two in 0.25% trypsin in Hank's solution (without Ca++ and Mg++) and five in PBS-BSA medium. Within 30 min after washing, embryos were either transferred nonsurgically into recipient cows, 7 to 8 d post estrus, or cryopreserved and transferred later. Frozen-thawed embryos from five of the donors were cultured for 72 h in vitro and their development was evaluated. Pregnancy rates did not differ (P>0.1) between recipient cows receiving control-washed and trypsin-washed embryos transferred fresh (51.0 vs 56.3%). However, pregnancy rates were higher (P<0.05) for frozen-thawed embryos treated with trypsin before cryopreservation than for frozen-thawed, control-washed embryos (68.2 vs 38.5%). Survival and development of embryos in vitro after cryopreservation did not differ between embryos subjected to the control- and trypsin-wash procedures. These results suggest that exposure of bovine embryos to trypsin for 2 to 3 min during washing did not have a detrimental effect on embryonic development, but may have enhanced cryopreservation of the embryos.

  5. Preimplantation bovine embryos: Pathobiology of Haemophilus somnus exposure and resistance mechanisms to vesicular stomatitis virus

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Preimplantation bovine embryos were exposed in vitro to H. somnus to determine if the bacteria would adhere to zona pellucida-intact (ZP-I) embryos or adhere to or infect ZP-free embryos. The effect of H. somnus on embryonic development in vitro was also investigated. Electrophoretic comparisons of outer membrane proteins of H. somnus revealed 2 major protein bands common to 10 H. somnus isolates. A monoclonal antibody produced against the outer membrane proteins reacted to one of the major protein bands. The sensitivity of a nucleic acid probe for detection of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was validated in cells in culture and used to determine if the synthetic double-stranded complex of polyriboinosinic and polyribocytidylic acids (poly I:C) would induce viral resistance in cultured bovine embryos. Two {sup 32}P-nick translated probes of high specific activity prepared from plasmids containing nucleic acid sequences of VSV virus were employed for viral mRNA detection in the tissue culture cells using a DNA-hybridization dot-blot technique. Using one of the probes, the technique was applied to detect differences in viral replication between four groups of bovine embryos (nonexposed, exposed to VSV virus, poly I:C-treated, and poly I:C-treated and exposed to VSV). The nucleic acid probe was sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in quantities of VSV mRNA among embryo treatment groups, resulting in the demonstration that resistance to viral infection was induced in day 9 bovine embryos.

  6. Splitting of IVP bovine blastocyst affects morphology and gene expression of resulting demi-embryos during in vitro culture and in vivo elongation.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Alejandra E; Castro, Fidel O; Veraguas, Daniel; Cox, Jose F; Lara, Evelyn; Briones, Mario; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Lleretny

    2016-02-01

    Embryo splitting might be used to increase offspring yield and for molecular analysis of embryo competence. How splitting affects developmental potential of embryos is unknown. This research aimed to study the effect of bovine blastocyst splitting on morphological and gene expression homogeneity of demi-embryos and on embryo competence during elongation. Grade I bovine blastocyst produced in vitro were split into halves and distributed in nine groups (3 × 3 setting according to age and stage before splitting; age: days 7-9; stage: early, expanded and hatched blastocysts). Homogeneity and survival rate in vitro after splitting (12 h, days 10 and 13) and the effect of splitting on embryo development at elongation after embryo transfer (day 17) were assessed morphologically and by RT-qPCR. The genes analysed were OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, CDX2, TP1, TKDP1, EOMES, and BAX. Approximately 90% of split embryos had a well conserved defined inner cell mass (ICM), 70% of the halves had similar size with no differences in gene expression 12 h after splitting. Split embryos cultured further conserved normal and comparable morphology at day 10 of development; this situation changes at day 13 when embryo morphology and gene expression differed markedly among demi-embryos. Split and non-split blastocysts were transferred to recipient cows and were recovered at day 17. Fifty per cent of non-split embryos were larger than 100 mm (33% for split embryos). OCT4, SOX2, TP1 and EOMES levels were down-regulated in elongated embryos derived from split blastocysts. In conclusion, splitting day-8 blastocysts yields homogenous demi-embryos in terms of developmental capability and gene expression, but the initiation of the filamentous stage seems to be affected by the splitting.

  7. MicroRNA expression profiling of elongated cloned and in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Castro, F O; Sharbati, S; Rodríguez-Alvarez, L L; Cox, J F; Hultschig, C; Einspanier, R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed in bovine (Bos Taurus) cloned embryos at Day 17 of development (Day 0=day of nucleus transfer or in vitro fertilization) during elongation. Day 7 bovine expanded blastocysts produced by hand made cloning (HMC) or in vitro fertilization were bulk-transferred to synchronized recipient cattle (48 HMC embryos to 10 recipients and 28 in vitro-produced embryos to four recipients). Elongated embryos were retrieved at Day 17; miRNAs were isolated and subjected to microarray screening using custom composite slides spotted with human, mouse, and rat and in silico-predicted miRNAs. An initial profile of expressed miRNAs was determined in cloned embryos and somatic donor cells; this profile changed after somatic cell nucleus transfer, identifying differentially expressed miRNAs between cloned and in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Furthermore, microarray data were validated using a miRNA-specific quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) approach (miR-Q). There was an 83% correlation (P=0.01) between microarray and qPCR data. Based on qRT-PCR, correct reprogramming of some miRNAs from the donor cells was confirmed in cloned bovine embryos, whereas other somatic miRNAs were not appropriately reprogrammed. Some of the miRNAs that were equally reprogrammed clustered on the same chromosomal location in the bovine genome. In conclusion, reprogramming of miRNAs seemed to occur in cloned bovine embryos. This could have profound implications for elucidating nuclear reprogramming in somatic cloning, as well as for the role of miRNAs in preimplantation mammalian development.

  8. Oxygen tension affects histone remodeling of in vitro-produced embryos in a bovine model.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Roberta C; Arnold, Daniel R; Corrêa, Carolina A P; da Rocha, Carlos V; Penteado, João C T; Del Collado, Maite; Vantini, Roberta; Garcia, Joaquim M; Lopes, Flavia L

    2015-06-01

    In vitro production of bovine embryos is a biotechnology of great economic impact. Epigenetic processes, such as histone remodeling, control gene expression and are essential for proper embryo development. Given the importance of IVP as a reproductive biotechnology, the role of epigenetic processes during embryo development, and the important correlation between culture conditions and epigenetic patterns, the present study was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial to investigate the influence of varying oxygen tensions (O2; 5% and 20%) and concentrations of fetal bovine serum (0% and 2.5%), during IVC, in the epigenetic remodeling of H3K9me2 (repressive) and H3K4me2 (permissive) in bovine embryos. Bovine oocytes were used for IVP of embryos, cleavage and blastocyst rates were evaluated, and expanded blastocysts were used for evaluation of the histone marks H3K9me2 and H3K4me2. Morulae and expanded blastocysts were also used to evaluate the expression of remodeling enzymes, specific to the aforementioned marks, by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Embryos produced in the presence of fetal bovine serum (2.5%) had a 10% higher rate of blastocyst formation. Global staining for the residues H3K9me2 and H3K4me2 was not affected significantly by the presence of serum. Notwithstanding, the main effect of oxygen tension was significant for both histone marks, with both repressive and permissive marks being higher in embryos cultured at the higher oxygen tension; however, expression of the remodeling enzymes did not differ in morulae or blastocysts in response to the varying oxygen tension. These results suggest that the use of serum during IVC of embryos increases blastocyst rate without affecting the evaluated histone marks and that oxygen tension has an important effect on the histone marks H3K9me2 and H3K4me2 in bovine blastocysts.

  9. Expression of microRNAs in bovine and human pre-implantation embryo culture media.

    PubMed

    Kropp, Jenna; Salih, Sana M; Khatib, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short non-coding RNAs which act to regulate expression of genes driving numerous cellular processes. These RNAs are secreted within exosomes from cells into the extracellular environment where they may act as signaling molecules. In addition, they are relatively stable and are specifically expressed in association to certain cancers making them strong candidates as biological markers. Moreover, miRNAs have been detected in body fluids including urine, milk, saliva, semen, and blood plasma. However, it is unknown whether they are secreted by embryonic cells into the culture media. Given that miRNAs are expressed throughout embryonic cellular divisions and embryonic genome activation, we hypothesized that they are secreted from the embryo into the extracellular environment and may play a role in the developmental competence of bovine embryos. To test this hypothesis, bovine embryos were cultured individually from day 5 to day 8 of development in an in vitro fertilization system and gene expression of 5 miRNAs was analyzed in both embryos and culture media. Differential miRNA gene expression was observed between embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage, deemed degenerate embryos. MiR-25, miR-302c, miR-196a2, and miR-181a expression was found to be higher in degenerate embryos compared to blastocyst embryos. Interestingly, these miRNAs were also found to be expressed in the culture media of both bovine and human pre-implantation embryos. Overall, our results show for the first time that miRNAs are secreted from pre-implantation embryos into culture media and that miRNA expression may correlate with developmental competence of the embryo. Expression of miRNAs in in vitro culture media could allow for the development of biological markers for selection of better quality embryos and for subsequent successful pregnancy.

  10. Replication of cytopathic and noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in zona-free and zona-intact in vitro-produced bovine embryos and the effect on embryo quality.

    PubMed

    Vanroose, G; Nauwynck, H; Van Soom, A; Vanopdenbosch, E; de Kruif, A

    1998-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not cytopathic (CP) and noncytopathic (NCP) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are able to replicate within in vitro-produced embryos and to investigate whether inoculation of embryos with BVDV affects their normal development. Zona pellucida (ZP)-free oocytes, zygotes, 8-cell-stage embryos, morulae, and hatched blastocysts (HB) were incubated for 1 h in 1 ml of Minimal Essential Medium containing 10(6.00) tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)50/ml NCP BVDV isolate 22,146 or 10(6.25) TCID50/ml CP BVDV strain Oregon C24V. At 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h postinoculation (hpi), groups of embryos were collected for virus titration. A small amount of newly produced virus was detected in 8-cell embryos at 60 hpi (10(1.8) TCID50/100 cells), but only for CP BVDV. For ZP-free morulae and HB, maximal intracellular virus titers were, respectively, 10(1.47) and 10(2.33) TCID50/100 cells at 48 hpi for the CP biotype and 10(0.64) and 10(0.84) TCID50/100 cells at 72 hpi for the NCP biotype. Only an infection with CP BVDV had a significant inhibitory effect on further development of ZP-free morulae. It can be concluded that ZP-free in vitro-produced embryos are permissive to an infection with BVDV, with increasing susceptibility of the embryos in accordance with their developmental stage. In contrast to observations in ZP-free in vitro-produced embryos, no virus replication or signs of embryonic degeneration were detected in ZP-intact in vitro-derived embryos.

  11. Developmental kinetics of bovine nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic embryos.

    PubMed

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Callesen, H

    2003-01-01

    Early developmental kinetics of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstituted with blastomeres and parthenogenones produced by ionophore activation followed by either dimethylaminopurine (DMAP) or cycloheximide (CHX) treatment was studied. In vitro produced (IVP) embryos served as controls. Embryos were cultured to the hatched blastocyst stage, and images were recorded every 0.5 h throughout the culture period. The longest cell cycle shifted from 4th to 5th cycle (26 +/- 4 and 44 +/- 5 h) in NT-embryos compared to IVP-embryos (41 +/- 2 and 20 +/- 3 h) and showed greater asynchrony between blastomeres than any other embryo category. Compared to DMAP, CHX prolonged the 1(st) (23 +/- 1 vs. 33 +/- 1 h) and shortened the 3(rd) cell cycle (17 +/- 2 vs. 13 +/- 1 h). Moreover, though cytoskeleton activity was initialised, a larger proportion of CHX embryos was unable to accomplish first cleavage. The parthegenones differed from IVP embryos with respect to the lengths of the 1st, 3rd, and 4th cell cycles and time of hatching. The findings are discussed in relation to known ultrastructural, chromosomal and genomic aberrations found in NT embryos and parthenogenones. We hypothesize that the shift of the longest cell cycle in NT embryos is associated with a shift in the time of major genomic transition.

  12. Demi-embryo production from hatching of zona-drilled bovine and rabbit blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Skrzyszowska, M; Smorag, Z; Katska, L

    1997-09-01

    It is known that the pregnancy rate resulting after transfer of bisected embryos is lower than after transfer of whole embryos. The main reason is the reduced cell number in the demi-embryo which is less than 1 2 of that in the intact embryo, since a number of blastomeres is damaged as a result of the procedure used in conventional embryo splitting. The aim of our experiment was to develop a non-invasive procedure which would limit cell losses during microsurgery. The experiment was carried out on bovine IVM-IVF embryos at middle, late and expanded blastocyst stage and rabbit embryos at late blastocyst stage cultured in vitro from in vivo produced zygotes. The zona pellucida of these embryos was drilled on the line between the inner cell mass and the trophoblast using a glass microneedle (embryo configuration, connected by a very thin cell bridge (figure eight in shape). To separate the parts of the embryo, the cell bridge was cut using a glass microneedle. During the separation only a few cells were damaged. As a result of the procedure 4 20 (20.0%), 48 144 (33.3%) and 3 40 (7.5%) middle, late and expanded blastocysts hatched according to the pattern described. The developed procedure could be considered as a non-invasive alternative to conventional embryo splitting.

  13. Elongation and gene expression in bovine cloned embryos transferred to temporary recipients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alvarez, Lleretny; Cox, José; Navarrete, Felipe; Valdés, Cristián; Zamorano, Teresa; Einspanier, Ralf; Castro, Fidel Ovidio

    2009-11-01

    SummaryElongated embryos provide a unique source of information about trophoblastic differentiation, gene expression and maternal-embryonic interactions; however they are difficult and costly to obtain, especially elongated cloned embryos. One alternative is their production in heterologous temporary recipients such as sheep and goats. We aimed to produce elongated bovine cloned embryos using heterologous transfer to temporary recipients. Day-7 cloned cattle blastocysts were transferred to the uteri of ewes and goats and recovered as elongated structures at day 17. We evaluated elongation, length, presence of embryonic disc and expression of several important genes for embryonic development. We also produced homologous (cloned cattle embryos transferred into cattle uteri). Cloned bovine blastocysts were able to proceed with preimplantation development through elongation with high efficiency despite the species to which they were transferred. In qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR experiments we found differences in the pattern of gene expression among embryos recovered from different species. Sox2, Nanog and FGF-4 were markedly deregulated. No previous reports about the expression pattern of the studied genes had been published for elongated bovine cloned embryos produced in intermediate recipients, furthermore, the pattern of expression of Nanog, Oct4, Eomes, Cdx2, IFN-tau, Dicer, FGF-4 and Sox2 shown here are novel for elongated cloned bovine embryos created by hand-made cloning. Our data confirmed that sheep and goats can be used as temporary recipients. This model could serve as a basis for further research on gene expression and cellular changes during bovine peri-implantation development.

  14. Culture of bovine embryos in intermediate host oviducts with emphasis on the isolated mouse oviduct.

    PubMed

    Rizos, D; Ramirez, M A; Pintado, B; Lonergan, P; Gutierrez-Adan, A

    2010-04-01

    The oviduct provides the optimal environment for the transport of sperm and oocyte at the earliest stages of mammalian embryo development. During the early postfertilization period, several major developmental events occur in the embryo including (i) the first cleavage division, (ii) activation of the embryonic genome, (iii) compaction of the morula, and (iv) formation of the blastocyst. Most of these events are initiated in the oviduct. The absence of assistance from the oviduct may compromise the developmental ability of the cattle embryo under in vitro culture conditions. The oviducts of several mammalian species, including rabbits, cow, sheep (in situ), and mice (organ culture), can sustain early bovine embryos and yield blastocysts of better quality compared with those of culture conditions in vitro, leading to normal pregnancy rates in recipient animals. This review focuses on the use of oviducts in vitro or in vivo as intermediate hosts for postfertilization culture environment of bovine in vitro-produced zygotes with emphasis on the mouse model.

  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in embryo and semen production systems.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Waldrop, Julie G

    2004-03-01

    Although BVDV-free offspring have been produced from persistently infected bulls and heifers via advanced reproductive techniques, embryos and semen can potentially transmit the virus. Due to this potential for transmission, appropriate testing is necessary to ensure freedom of semen and embryos from BVDV. In the future, less constraining quality control measures may ensure freedom of embryos and semen from BVDV. These quality control measures require additional research to be validated. PMID:15062472

  16. Phosphorylated H2AX in parthenogenetically activated, in vitro fertilized and cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A F; Melo, L M; Freitas, V J F; Salamone, D F

    2015-08-01

    In vitro embryo production methods induce DNA damage in the embryos. In response to these injuries, histone H2AX is phosphorylated (γH2AX) and forms foci at the sites of DNA breaks to recruit repair proteins. In this work, we quantified the DNA damage in bovine embryos undergoing parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by measuring γH2AX accumulation at different developmental stages: 1-cell, 2-cell and blastocyst. At the 1-cell stage, IVF embryos exhibited a greater number of γH2AX foci (606.1 ± 103.2) and greater area of γH2AX staining (12923.6 ± 3214.1) than did PA and SCNT embryos. No differences at the 2-cell stage were observed among embryo types. Although PA, IVF and SCNT were associated with different blastocyst formation rates (31.1%, 19.7% and 8.3%, P < 0.05), no differences in the number of γH2AX foci or area were detected among the treatments. γH2AX is detected in bovine preimplantation embryos produced by PA, IVF and SCNT; the amount of DNA damage was comparable among those embryos developing to the blastocyst stage among different methods for in vitro embryo production. While IVF resulted in increased damage at the 1-cell embryo stage, no difference was observed between PA and SCNT embryos at any developmental stage. The decrease in the number of double-stranded breaks at the blastocyst stage seems to indicate that DNA repair mechanisms are functional during embryo development.

  17. Phosphorylated H2AX in parthenogenetically activated, in vitro fertilized and cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A F; Melo, L M; Freitas, V J F; Salamone, D F

    2015-08-01

    In vitro embryo production methods induce DNA damage in the embryos. In response to these injuries, histone H2AX is phosphorylated (γH2AX) and forms foci at the sites of DNA breaks to recruit repair proteins. In this work, we quantified the DNA damage in bovine embryos undergoing parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by measuring γH2AX accumulation at different developmental stages: 1-cell, 2-cell and blastocyst. At the 1-cell stage, IVF embryos exhibited a greater number of γH2AX foci (606.1 ± 103.2) and greater area of γH2AX staining (12923.6 ± 3214.1) than did PA and SCNT embryos. No differences at the 2-cell stage were observed among embryo types. Although PA, IVF and SCNT were associated with different blastocyst formation rates (31.1%, 19.7% and 8.3%, P < 0.05), no differences in the number of γH2AX foci or area were detected among the treatments. γH2AX is detected in bovine preimplantation embryos produced by PA, IVF and SCNT; the amount of DNA damage was comparable among those embryos developing to the blastocyst stage among different methods for in vitro embryo production. While IVF resulted in increased damage at the 1-cell embryo stage, no difference was observed between PA and SCNT embryos at any developmental stage. The decrease in the number of double-stranded breaks at the blastocyst stage seems to indicate that DNA repair mechanisms are functional during embryo development. PMID:24735637

  18. Prolonging hypothermic storage (4 C) of bovine embryos with fish antifreeze protein

    PubMed Central

    IDETA, Atsushi; AOYAGI, Yoshito; TSUCHIYA, Kanami; NAKAMURA, Yuuki; HAYAMA, Kou; SHIRASAWA, Atsushi; SAKAGUCHI, Kenichiro; TOMINAGA, Naomi; NISHIMIYA, Yoshiyuki; TSUDA, Sakae

    2014-01-01

    Embryos obtained via superovulation are necessary for mammalian artificial reproduction, and viability is a key determinant of success. Nonfreezing storage at 4 C is possible, but currently used storage solutions can maintain embryo viability for only 24–48 h. Here we found that 10 mg/ml antifreeze protein (AFP) dissolved in culture medium 199 with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 25 mM HEPES could keep bovine embryos alive for 10 days at 4 C. We used a recombinant AFP isolated from the notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongatus Kner). Photomicroscopy indicated that the AFP–embryo interaction was enhanced at 37 C. Embryos pre-warmed with the AFP solution at 37 C for 60 min maintained high viability, whereas those that were not pre-warmed could live no longer than 7 days. Thus, short-term storage of bovine embryos was achieved by a combination of AFP-containing medium and controlled pre-warming. PMID:25311466

  19. Determination of pentose phosphate and Embden-Meyerhof pathway activities in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Javed, M H; Wright, R W

    1991-05-01

    Quantitative determination was made of the activity of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) in individual bovine embryos from the six-cell to the hatched blastocyst stage. Embryos were collected from superovulated cross-bred heifers and classified into good and poor categories. A single embryo in 1 microl of medium was mixed with 2 microl of medium containing 3 to 30 nCi radiolabeled glucose previously placed on a detached lid of the 1.5-ml polypropylene microcentrifugé vial. The lid was then fitted to its vial which had been loaded in advance with 1.5 ml of 0.1 N NaOH. Vials were then incubated at 37 degrees C for 3 h. At the end of the incubation period, a 1.5-ml NaOH trap was inverted and placed into a 20-ml scintillation vial containing 10 ml of aqueous counting solution and counted in a liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The PPP activity in good-quality embryos was greatest at the six-cell stage and decreased with increasing embryo development. The EMP activity showed the reverse trend. Poor- quality embryos had a lower glucose metabolism and higher PPP activity. Similar measurements were made on embryos following 24 h of culture, and total glucose metabolism and percentage of PPP activity were increased. In conclusion, these data suggest that in good quality bovine embryos total glucose utilization is low until 16-cell stage, with PPP being the predominant pathway. Total glucose utilization increases significantly at the morula stage; EMP activity increases with increasing embryo development; and PPP activity increases significantly in poor quality embryos and in embryos 24 h in culture.

  20. Effect of washing, antibiotics and trypsin treatment of bovine embryos on the removal of adhering K99+ Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Otoi, T; Tachikawa, S; Kondo, S; Suzuki, T

    1993-12-01

    Bovine embryos with the intact zona pellucida were exposed in vitro to K99+ Escherichia coli (K99 E. coli). The recommended procedures for washing and treating embryos were then evaluated for their effectiveness in removing or killing the adherent bacteria. After 10-step washing, bacteria were recovered not only from the embryos exposed to E. coli suspensions but also from those treated with trypsin during washing. On the other hand, no bacteria were recovered from any embryos treated with antibiotics (gentamicin; 50 micrograms/ml) in culture medium before washing, indicating that the recommended washing procedures with appropriate antibiotics assure that zona pellucida-intact bovine embryos are free from E. coli.

  1. Effects of amino acids on development in vitro of cleavage-stage bovine embryos into blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Pinyopummintr, T; Bavister, B D

    1996-01-01

    Effects of amino acids on early bovine embryo development in vitro were examined using a chemically-defined, protein-free culture medium. Bovine embryos produced in vitro were cultured from 18 h to 72 h post insemination in a simple medium containing lactate as the only energy source except for the amino acid treatments. Subsequently, embryos were transferred to TCM-199 supplemented with serum for blastocyst development to substantiate their developmental competence. Treatments were: (1) non-essential amino acids from TCM-199 (NEA); (2) essential amino acids from TCM-199 (EA); (3) NEA+EA; (4) Eagle's minimum essential medium amino acids (MEM AA); (5) 11 amino acids present in HECM-6 (11 AA); and (6) 0.2 mM glutamine (GLN). A higher proportion of embryos (percentage of inseminated ova) cleaved to the > or = 8-cell stage by 72 h post insemination in NEA (56.7%), EA (41.2%), 11 AA (40.3%) and GLN (51.1%) than in either NEA+EA (30.0%) or MEM AA (33.1%). However, after transfer to complex medium, embryos that had developed in EA, as well as those in MEM AA or NEA+EA, produced significantly fewer blastocysts (37.1%, 34.4% and 25.6% respectively) than those in NEA (56.7%), GLN (48.9%) or 11 AA (37.7%). The ability of blastocysts to hatch from their zonae pellucidae was also affected by amino acid treatment during cleavage stages. The present study indicated that the addition of NEA or GLN or 11 AA to a chemically-defined culture medium during the cleavage phase of bovine embryo development increases their subsequent ability to reach the blastocyst stage. These data have implications for understanding the nutritional needs of bovine embryos produced in vitro and for optimizing the composition of culture media to support their development.

  2. The p66Shc Adaptor Protein Controls Oxidative Stress Response in Early Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Dean H.; Bain, Nathan T.; Madan, Pavneesh

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro production of mammalian embryos suffers from high frequencies of developmental failure due to excessive levels of permanent embryo arrest and apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. The p66Shc stress adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response of somatic cells by regulating intracellular ROS levels through multiple pathways, including mitochondrial ROS generation and the repression of antioxidant gene expression. We have previously demonstrated a strong relationship with elevated p66Shc levels, reduced antioxidant levels and greater intracellular ROS generation with the high incidence of permanent cell cycle arrest of 2–4 cell embryos cultured under high oxygen tensions or after oxidant treatment. The main objective of this study was to establish a functional role for p66Shc in regulating the oxidative stress response during early embryo development. Using RNA interference in bovine zygotes we show that p66Shc knockdown embryos exhibited increased MnSOD levels, reduced intracellular ROS and DNA damage that resulted in a greater propensity for development to the blastocyst stage. P66Shc knockdown embryos were stress resistant exhibiting significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels, DNA damage, permanent 2–4 cell embryo arrest and diminished apoptosis frequencies after oxidant treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that p66Shc controls the oxidative stress response in early mammalian embryos. Small molecule inhibition of p66Shc may be a viable clinical therapy to increase the developmental potential of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. PMID:24475205

  3. Raman-based noninvasive metabolic profile evaluation of in vitro bovine embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Érika Cristina; Martinho, Herculano; Annes, Kelly; da Silva, Thais; Soares, Carlos Alexandre; Leite, Roberta Ferreira; Milazzotto, Marcella Pecora

    2016-07-01

    The timing of the first embryonic cell divisions may predict the ability of an embryo to establish pregnancy. Similarly, metabolic profiles may be markers of embryonic viability. However, in bovine, data about the metabolomics profile of these embryos are still not available. In the present work, we describe Raman-based metabolomic profiles of culture media of bovine embryos with different developmental kinetics (fast x slow) throughout the in vitro culture. The principal component analysis enabled us to classify embryos with different developmental kinetics since they presented specific spectroscopic profiles for each evaluated time point. We noticed that bands at 1076 cm-1 (lipids), 1300 cm-1 (Amide III), and 2719 cm-1 (DNA nitrogen bases) gave the most relevant spectral features, enabling the separation between fast and slow groups. Bands at 1001 cm-1 (phenylalanine) and 2892 cm-1 (methylene group of the polymethylene chain) presented specific patterns related to embryonic stage and can be considered as biomarkers of embryonic development by Raman spectroscopy. The culture media analysis by Raman spectroscopy proved to be a simple and sensitive technique that can be applied with high efficiency to characterize the profiles of in vitro produced bovine embryos with different development kinetics and different stages of development.

  4. Screening of biotechnical parameters for production of bovine inter-subspecies embryonic chimeras by the aggregation of tetraploid Bos indicus and diploid crossbred Bos taurus embryos.

    PubMed

    Razza, Eduardo M; Satrapa, Rafael A; Emanuelli, Isabele P; Barros, Ciro M; Nogueira, Marcelo F G

    2016-03-01

    The aggregation of a tetraploid zebu embryo (Bos indicus, a thermotolerant breed) with a diploid taurine embryo (Bos taurus, a thermosensitive breed) should create a complete taurine fetus, whose extra-embryonic components, e.g., the chorion, is derived mainly from the zebu embryo. These zebu-derived extra-embryonic components may interact positively with the taurine embryo/fetus during pregnancy in a tropical environment. We tested different parameters for the production of tetraploid Nelore (Bos indicus) embryos to be combined via aggregation with crossbred Bos taurus (diploid) embryos in order to produce viable chimeric blastocysts. Bovine (Bos indicus or crossbred Bos taurus) embryos were produced in vitro according to standard procedures. Two-cell Bos indicus embryos were submitted to electrofusion with varying numbers of pulses (1 or 2), voltages (0.4, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.4 and 5.0 kV/cm) and time (20, 25, 50 and 60 μs) to produce tetraploid embryos. Electrofused embryos were cultured with crossbred non-fused embryos to form chimeras that developed until the blastocyst stage. The best fusion parameter was 0.75 kV/cm for 60 μs. Four chimeric blastocysts (tetraploid Nelore with diploid crossbred Holstein) were formed after 31 attempts in 4 replicates (13%). We established an optimal procedure for the production of tetraploid Bos indicus (4n) embryos and embryonic chimeras by aggregation of crossbred Bos taurus (2n) with Bos indicus (4n) embryos. This technique would be valid in applied research, by producing exclusively taurine calves, but with placental elements from the Bos indicus breed, following transfer of these chimeras into recipient cows.

  5. Telomere-to-centromere ratio of bovine clones, embryos, gametes, fetal cells, and adult cells.

    PubMed

    Meerdo, Lora N; Reed, William A; White, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult cell, was born. It was announced in 1999 that Dolly might be aging faster than normal because her telomeres were shorter than age-matched control sheep. Telomeres, a repeated DNA sequence located at the ends of linear chromosomes, allow for base pair loss during DNA replication. Telomere shortening acts as a "mitotic clock," leading to replicative senescence. By using whole cell lysate and slot-blot analysis, we determined the telomere-to-centromere ratio (T/C) for bovine gametes, embryos, fetal tissues (brain, heart, lung, kidney, uterus, ovary, and skin), adult donor cells, and cloned embryos. Our data indicates a consistency in T/C among the various fetal tissues. The T/C of sperm is significantly lower than in oocytes. The T/C decreases from the oocyte to the 2-8-cell stage embryo, increases dramatically at the morula stage, and decreases at the blastocyst stage. Our data shows no significant difference in T/C between cloned embryos and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos, but there is a significant difference between cloned embryos and adult donor cells. In conclusion, the enucleated bovine oocyte has the ability to reestablish the telomere length of adult somatic cell donor nuclei. PMID:15996118

  6. Morphokinetic-related response to stress in individually cultured bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Silva, T; Santos, E C; Annes, K; Soares, C A; Leite, R F; Lima, C B; Milazzotto, M P

    2016-09-15

    The kinetics of in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos is related to embryo viability, metabolism, and epigenetic patterns. Therefore, we believe that embryos with different speeds of development also respond differently to stress. In the present study, we performed global metabolic analysis (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF]) of culture media, characterized apoptotic events (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling [TUNEL] and caspase quantitation), and quantified transcript abundance of stress-related gene (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR]) in IVP bovine embryos with different developmental kinetics to investigate possible markers of stress response. For this purpose, embryos were considered "fast" if they presented four or more cells at 40 hours post insemination (hpi). Embryos presenting two cells at this time were classified as "slow". Evaluations were performed at 40 hpi, 112 hpi, and 186 hpi. Metabolome analysis revealed several metabolites differentially represented between groups at all time points related with energy, lipid and amino acids metabolism, and stress response. There was no difference in TUNEL positive cells between groups in any of the time points analyzed. Nevertheless, at 112 hpi, classified as a critical phase because of the genome activation, the amount of caspase 3 and 7 and total caspase were higher in slow when compared to fast group. Transcript abundance analysis of candidate genes (GRP78, HSP60, SOD1, and MORF4L2) was also different among groups. In conclusion, IVP bovine embryos of different development speeds respond differentially to the environmental stress leading to different metabolome patterns and apoptosis activation throughout the culture.

  7. Improving efficiencies of locus-specific DNA methylation assessment for bovine in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Wroclawska, Ewa; Brant, Jason O; Yang, Thomas P; Moore, Karen

    2010-02-01

    Characterization of DNA methylation is one assessment of chromatin remodeling in early embryos. Unfortunately, evaluation at specific loci is hindered by their small cell numbers. Our objective was to determine if bisulfite sequencing could be optimized for preimplantation embryos, comparing conversion times, primer design, and DNA amplification methods. Methylation at three loci, SATI, OCT4, and IGF2, was investigated in bovine in vitro produced (IVP) embryos, somatic cells, and no template controls. Bisulfite treatment for 15-16 h gave higher quality DNA than treatment for 18 h. Three step primer design improved bisulfite primer specificity, yielding more PCR product than primers previously reported. Following optimization, methylation data were obtained from as few as 4 cell equivalents. Finally, DNA amplification efficiencies were evaluated using miniprep, TempliPhi, or 96-well glycerol stocks with automated TempliPhi. While TempliPhi was better than standard minipreps, the 96-well format proved most efficient. Preliminary methylation profiles of bovine IVP 2-cell, 8-cell, blastocyst stage embryos and somatic cells were 25, 10, 22, and 74% for SATI and 88, 88, 79, and 88% for OCT4, respectively, suggesting that SATI is demethylated during early embryonic reprogramming, while OCT4 remains hypermethylated. IGF2 methylation was 84, 28, and 84% for bovine IVP 8-cell, blastocyst stage embryos and somatic cells; blastocyst stage embryos exhibited more variability, ranging from 0 to 80%. This new assay will enhance assessment of chromatin remodeling in embryos, and be especially useful for evaluating those produced by assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:20170282

  8. Morphokinetic-related response to stress in individually cultured bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Silva, T; Santos, E C; Annes, K; Soares, C A; Leite, R F; Lima, C B; Milazzotto, M P

    2016-09-15

    The kinetics of in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos is related to embryo viability, metabolism, and epigenetic patterns. Therefore, we believe that embryos with different speeds of development also respond differently to stress. In the present study, we performed global metabolic analysis (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF]) of culture media, characterized apoptotic events (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling [TUNEL] and caspase quantitation), and quantified transcript abundance of stress-related gene (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR]) in IVP bovine embryos with different developmental kinetics to investigate possible markers of stress response. For this purpose, embryos were considered "fast" if they presented four or more cells at 40 hours post insemination (hpi). Embryos presenting two cells at this time were classified as "slow". Evaluations were performed at 40 hpi, 112 hpi, and 186 hpi. Metabolome analysis revealed several metabolites differentially represented between groups at all time points related with energy, lipid and amino acids metabolism, and stress response. There was no difference in TUNEL positive cells between groups in any of the time points analyzed. Nevertheless, at 112 hpi, classified as a critical phase because of the genome activation, the amount of caspase 3 and 7 and total caspase were higher in slow when compared to fast group. Transcript abundance analysis of candidate genes (GRP78, HSP60, SOD1, and MORF4L2) was also different among groups. In conclusion, IVP bovine embryos of different development speeds respond differentially to the environmental stress leading to different metabolome patterns and apoptosis activation throughout the culture. PMID:27298151

  9. In vitro bovine embryo production in a synthetic medium: embryo development, cryosurvival, and establishment of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moreno, D; Neira, A; Dubreil, L; Liegeois, L; Destrumelle, S; Michaud, S; Thorin, C; Briand-Amirat, L; Bencharif, D; Tainturier, D

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro embryo culture medium without either fetal calf serum or BSA, using various growth factors and cytokines (GFs-CYKs; IGF-I, IGF-II, bFGF, LIF, GM-CSF, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB), and other molecules with surfactant and embryotrophic properties, such as recombinant albumin (RA) and hyaluronan (HA). The first part of the study was dedicated to define the best combination of GFs-CYKs + RA + HA for optimal embryonic development. Next, we compared development rates and embryo quality (inner cell mass [ICM]-to-total cell number [TCN] ratio), and postthaw survival and hatching rates using this synthetic medium (T1) and a control medium: synthetic oviduct fluid + BSA + ITS (insulin, transferrin, and selenium). The blastocyst rates were significantly higher with T1 than those with the control at 7 and 8 days after fertilization. There was no significant difference in TCN or the ICM/TCN ratio between the two treatments. Survival and hatching rates 48 hours after thawing were similar for both treatments. Finally, nine embryo transfers were conducted using fresh and previously frozen Day-7 blastocysts to evaluate the in vivo viability of embryos produced in this synthetic medium; four gestations were obtained from six fresh embryos and one gestation from three frozen embryos. In conclusion, the fetal calf serum and BSA-free medium, supplemented with GFs-CYKs + RA + HA, improved embryo development and gave comparable ICM/TCN ratios and postthaw survival rates to the control with BSA. Fresh and frozen embryos produced in this medium are viable for embryo transfer. This fully synthetic method of embryo culture is a useful means of reducing the risk of disease transmission via embryo transfer.

  10. Development of fetuses from in vitro-produced and cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Farin, C E; Farin, P W; Piedrahita, J A

    2004-01-01

    The establishment of in vitro fertilization and culture systems for mammalian embryos has facilitated the application of embryo technologies in research, industry, and clinical settings. Furthermore, the advent of cloning by nuclear transfer has significantly enhanced the potential for genetic modification of livestock. Based on studies in cattle, sheep, and mice, it has become apparent that embryos produced using these systems can differ in morphology and developmental potential compared with embryos produced in vivo. Referred to as "large offspring syndrome," these abnormalities in the development of fetuses, placentas, and offspring are particularly evident following transfer of cloned embryos, but they also occur in pregnancies from embryos produced using in vitro culture alone. The objective of this review is to examine the effects of in vitro production and cloning on bovine embryo and fetal development. Literature pertaining to preimplantation embryo, conceptus, and fetal development, as well as gene expression occurring at each of these three stages, is reviewed. Physiologic and genetic mechanisms that contribute to large offspring syndrome also are discussed.

  11. Birth of correctly genotyped calves after multiplex marker detection from bovine embryo microblade biopsies.

    PubMed

    Peippo, Jaana; Viitala, Sirja; Virta, Jouni; Räty, Mervi; Tammiranta, Niina; Lamminen, Terttu; Aro, Johanna; Myllymäki, Hannu; Vilkki, Johanna

    2007-11-01

    We report a method for multiplex genotyping of bovine embryo microblade biopsies. We have tested the reliability of the method and the viability of the embryos in vitro and in vivo. Two polymorphic gene markers (GHR F279Y and PRLR S18N) associated with milk production traits and one marker for sex diagnosis (ZFX/ZFY) were genotyped simultaneously with a method that combines nested PCR and allelic discrimination. To test the accuracy of genotyping, in the first experiment the genotypes of 134 biopsies from in vitro produced embryos were compared to genotypes determined from the corresponding embryos after biopsy. The method proved to be highly accurate as only in three cases (two for PRLR S18N and one for GHR F279Y) out of 395 genotypes the genotype was in disagreement between the two samples. The viability of similarly biopsied embryos was tested in parallel: after 24-hr culture 94.6% of embryos recovered in vitro. In the second experiment, a total of 150 in vivo-produced embryos were biopsied on Day 7 and genotyped. After the genotyping results were obtained on Day 8, female embryos were selected for transfer. From a total of 57 selected embryos 43 were transferred individually and 14 as pairs. After single embryo transfers, 19 recipients became pregnant and after embryo transfers in pairs one became pregnant. The success of genotyping was tested with the genotypes of donors and bulls and also from the hair samples of born calves. All calves were females and of the same genotypes determined from the biopsy.

  12. Expression of adrenergic receptors in bovine and rabbit oocytes and preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Čikoš, Š; Czikková, S; Chrenek, P; Makarevich, A V; Burkuš, J; Janštová, Ž; Fabian, D; Koppel, J

    2014-02-01

    Catecholamines play an important role in embryogenesis, and data obtained in the rodent model indicate that they can act even during the preimplantation period of development. Using RT-PCR with specific oligonucleotide primers distinguishing among all members of the adrenergic receptor family, we examined expression of adrenergic receptors in bovine and rabbit oocytes, morulas and blastocysts. We found several profiles of adrenoceptor mRNA expression. Transcripts for some receptor subtypes (bovine alpha 2 receptors, rabbit α2A, α2C, β1 and β2 receptors) were detected at all examined stages, which suggests receptor expression throughout (or at most stages) the preimplantation developmental period. Expression in oocytes but not at later stages was found in only one adrenoceptor subtype (rabbit α1B). In contrast, mRNA for several adrenoceptors was found in embryos but not in oocytes (bovine beta adrenoceptors and rabbit α1A). Nucleotide sequences of our PCR products amplified in rabbit oocytes, and preimplantation embryos represent the first published mRNA sequences (partial sequences coding at least one transmembrane region) of rabbit α2C, β1 and β2 adrenoceptors. Our results suggest that the expression of adrenergic receptors can be a general feature of mammalian oocytes and preimplantation embryos. On the other hand, comparison of three mammalian species (cattle, rabbit and mouse) revealed possible interspecies differences in the expression of particular adrenoceptor subtypes. Our results support the opinion that stress mediators can act directly in cells of preimplantation embryos.

  13. A small set of extra-embryonic genes defines a new landmark for bovine embryo staging.

    PubMed

    Degrelle, Séverine A; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Heyman, Yvan; Everts, Robin E; Campion, Evelyne; Richard, Christophe; Ducroix-Crépy, Céline; Tian, X Cindy; Lewin, Harris A; Renard, Jean-Paul; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Hue, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Axis specification in mouse is determined by a sequence of reciprocal interactions between embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues so that a few extra-embryonic genes appear as 'patterning' the embryo. Considering these interactions as essential, but lacking in most mammals the genetically driven approaches used in mouse and the corresponding patterning mutants, we examined whether a molecular signature originating from extra-embryonic tissues could relate to the developmental stage of the embryo proper and predict it. To this end, we have profiled bovine extra-embryonic tissues at peri-implantation stages, when gastrulation and early neurulation occur, and analysed the subsequent expression profiles through the use of predictive methods as previously reported for tumour classification. A set of six genes (CALM1, CPA3, CITED1, DLD, HNRNPDL, and TGFB3), half of which had not been previously associated with any extra-embryonic feature, appeared significantly discriminative and mainly dependent on embryonic tissues for its faithful expression. The predictive value of this set of genes for gastrulation and early neurulation stages, as assessed on naive samples, was remarkably high (93%). In silico connected to the bovine orthologues of the mouse patterning genes, this gene set is proposed as a new trait for embryo staging. As such, this will allow saving the bovine embryo proper for molecular or cellular studies. To us, it offers as well new perspectives for developmental phenotyping and modelling of embryonic/extra-embryonic co-differentiation.

  14. Melatonin inhibits paraquat-induced cell death in bovine preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yun-Wei; Sun, Ye-Qing; Sun, Wei-Jun; Du, Wei-Hua; Hao, Hai-Sheng; Zhao, Shan-Jiang; Zhu, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Preimplantation embryos are sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage that can be caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from normal embryonic metabolism and/or the external surroundings. Paraquat (PQ), a commonly used pesticide and potent ROS generator, can induce embryotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin on PQ-induced damage during embryonic development in bovine preimplantation embryos. PQ treatment significantly reduced the ability of bovine embryos to develop to the blastocyst stage, and the addition of melatonin markedly reversed the developmental failure caused by PQ (20.9% versus 14.3%). Apoptotic assay showed that melatonin pretreatment did not change the total cell number in blastocysts, but the incidence of apoptotic nuclei and the release of cytochrome c were significantly decreased. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, we found that melatonin pre-incubation significantly altered the expression levels of genes associated with redox signaling, particularly by attenuating the transcript level of Txnip and reinforcing the expression of Trx. Furthermore, melatonin pretreatment significantly reduced the expression of the pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and Bax, while the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and XIAP was unaffected. Western blot analysis showed that melatonin protected bovine embryos from PQ-induced damage in a p38-dependent manner, but extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) did not appear to be involved. Together, these results identify an underlying mechanism by which melatonin enhances the developmental potential of bovine preimplantation embryos under oxidative stress conditions.

  15. Holistic differential analysis of embryo-induced alterations in the proteome of bovine endometrium in the preattachment period.

    PubMed

    Berendt, Frank J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Schmidt, Susanne E M; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wolf, Eckhard; Arnold, Georg J

    2005-07-01

    During the peri-implantation period, molecular signaling between embryo and endometrium (layer of tissue lining the uterus lumen) is supposed to be crucial for the maintenance of pregnancy. To investigate embryo-induced alterations in the proteome of bovine endometrium in the preattachment period (day 18), we used monozygotic cattle twins (generated by embryo splitting) as a model eliminating genetic variability as a source for proteome differences. One of the twins was pregnant after the transfer of two in vitro produced blastocysts, while the corresponding twin received a sham-transfer and served as a nonpregnant control. The two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) analysis of the endometrium samples of three twin pairs (pregnant/nonpregnant) revealed four proteins with significantly higher abundance (p < 10(-9)) in each sample derived from the pregnant animals: Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor beta; 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-HSD); soluble NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 1; and acyl-CoA-binding protein. To verify the accuracy of the 2-D DIGE quantification, the abundances of 20 alpha-HSD were quantified by a targeted cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) approach. The mass spectrometry-based ICAT quantification matched perfectly the results obtained by 2-D DIGE quantification, demonstrating the accuracy of our data. These results demonstrate that our model (monozygotic twins) in combination with the appropriate analytical tools is particularly suitable for the detection of the proteins involved in the embryo-maternal interactions.

  16. Diagnostic dilemma encountered when detecting bovine viral diarrhea virus in IVF embryo production.

    PubMed

    Given, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Galik, Patricia K; Stringfellow, David A; Brock, Kenny V; Loskutoff, Naida M

    2002-10-15

    Routine quality controls in production of bovine embryos by in vitro fertilization (IVF) should include screening all materials of animal origin for the presence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Using a reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) assay, we detected BVDV in primary cultures of uterine tubal cells (UTC) that had been used during IVF procedures. The goal of our ensuing investigation was to determine its source and assess risks associated with the identified contaminant. Sequencing of the amplified 5' nontranslated region (NTR) of the viral genome confirmed a Genotype I BVDV contaminant. This viral contaminant was also identified by RT-nPCR in multiple samples of the same lot of fetal bovine serum (FBS) that was used in transport media by the laboratory that harvested the UTC. Both routine and enhanced roller bottle methods for virus isolation failed to detect BVDV in the FBS. Furthermore, virus neutralization assays did identify antibodies to Genotype I strains of BVDV in the FBS. After 7 days of co-incubation, neither cultured, washed UTC nor exposed, washed embryos were RT-nPCR positive for BVDV. Eight embryos produced in the contaminated system were nonsurgically transferred into eight seronegative cows. None of the embryo recipients seroconverted to BVDV. Thus, contamination of cell culture medium with BVDV did not result in transmission of the virus when IVF embryos were transferred. Failure to transmit disease was likely aided by serendipitous control from anti-BVDV antibodies in the FBS. However, a diagnostic dilemma was created when the RT-nPCR assays used to screen for BVDV were positive, yet attempts to isolate the virus were negative. This case study illustrates that if molecular assays are to be used to confirm the pathogen-free status of IVF embryo production systems, media components of animal origin (e.g. FBS) should be screened with molecular assays for BVDV as well as traditional virus isolation techniques

  17. Bovine embryo sex determination by multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Khamlor, Trisadee; Pongpiachan, Petai; Parnpai, Rangsun; Punyawai, Kanchana; Sangsritavong, Siwat; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa

    2015-03-15

    In cattle, the ability to determine the sex of embryos before embryo transfer is beneficial for increasing the number of animals with the desired sex. This study therefore developed a new modification of loop-mediated isothermal amplification in a multiplex format (multiplex LAMP) for highly efficient bovine embryo sexing. Two chromosomal regions, one specific for males (Y chromosome, S4 region) and the other common to both males and females (1.715 satellite DNA), were amplified in the same reaction tube. Each target was amplified by specifically designed inner primers, outer primers, and loop primers, where one of the S4 loop primers was labeled with the fluorescent dye 6-carboxyl-X-rhodamine (emitting a red color), whereas both satellite loop primers were labeled with the fluorescent dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (emitting a green color). After amplification at 63 °C for 1 hour, the amplified products were precipitated by a small volume of cationic polymer predispensed inside the reaction tube cap. Green precipitate indicated the presence of only control DNA without the Y chromosome, whereas orange precipitate indicated the presence of both target DNAs, enabling interpretation as female and male, respectively. Accuracy of the multiplex LAMP assay was evaluated using 46 bovine embryos with known sex (25 male and 21 female) generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The multiplex LAMP showed 100% accuracy in identifying the actual sex of the embryos and provides a fast, simple, and cost-effective tool for bovine embryo sexing. PMID:25542460

  18. Culture of ovine embryos in the absence of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Russler-Long, J A; Dickey, J F; Richardson, M E; Ivey, K W

    1991-02-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a relatively impure protein, is routinely used as a component of embryo culture media. Since media containing BSA are chemically undefined, it would be desirable to replace BSA with substitutes of similar activity which are either chemically better defined and/or better standardized than BSA. Two commercial products, Ultroser((R)) G (USG) and Solcoseryl((R)) (SOL), were evaluated as replacements for BSA in culture with respect to the development of ovine embryos in vitro. A total of 126 late 8-cell and early 16-cell embryos were distributed among modified Brinster's medium for ovum culture (BMOC-2) containing either 1.5% BSA, 2.0% USG or 2.0% SOL. All three culture media supported development of ovine embryos. Results indicate that 8- and 16-cell embryos will develop into blastocysts in a BSA-free medium containing either USG or SOL. A higher number of embryos developed into blastocysts in media containing BSA than in media containing USG or SOL, and more blastocysts hatched in media containing BSA. Although the overall degree of embryonic development was more advanced in BSA-supplemented media, the concentrations of USG and SOL that were used in this study may not have been optimal for ovine embryo culture. PMID:16726908

  19. Effect of Maternal Age on the Ratio of Cleavage and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Early Developmental Stage Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    TAKEO, Shun; GOTO, Hiroya; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; MONJI, Yasunori; IWATA, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25 to 209 months were categorized based on their cleavage status. There was an overall negative relationship between the age of the cow and cleavage status, to the extent that the ratio of embryos cleaved over the 4-cell stage was greater in younger cows. The mtDNA number did not differ among the cleaved status of embryos. In the next experiment, oocytes collected from each donor cow were divided into 2 groups containing 10 oocytes each, in order to compare the mtDNA number of mature oocytes and early developmental stage embryos within individuals. Upon comparing the mtDNA number between oocytes at the M2 stage and early developmental stage 48 h post insemination, mtDNA number was found to decrease in most cows, but was found to increase in some cows. In conclusion, age affects the cleaving ability of oocytes, and very old cows (> 180 months) tend to have lower mtDNA numbers in their oocytes. The change in mtDNA number during early development varied among individual cows, although overall, it showed a tendency to decrease. PMID:23269452

  20. The effect of different zwitterionic buffers and PBS used for out-of-incubator procedures during standard in vitro embryo production on development, morphology and gene expression of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Palasz, A T; Breña, P Beltrán; De la Fuente, J; Gutiérrez-Adán, A

    2008-12-01

    The effect of the zwitterionic buffers HEPES, TES and MOPS and of PBS used for out-of-incubator procedures during standard in vitro embryo production on bovine oocytes and embryo development, morphology and on the expression patterns of eight selected genes: Fgf-4, Lama1, Ube2a, Gsta4, Il6, Sod1, Prss11 and Hspb1, was evaluated. All buffers were prepared at a concentration of 10 mM in TALP medium, with the exception of PBS. The total time of oocyte/embryo exposure to each buffer was approximately 41 min. The cleavage rates and number of embryos that developed to > or =8 cells at day 4 were no different among the buffers tested, however, more blastocysts developed at day 7, 8 and 9 in HEPES and MOPS treatments than in PBS and TES (P<0.05). No difference between buffers in total and apoptotic cell number was found. Except for Hspb1 and Ube2a genes, the levels of expression of the six remaining transcripts were higher in in vivo than in in vitro embryos irrespective of buffer used (P<0.05). In addition, higher expression of Hspb1 and lower expression of Ube2a and Lama1 were observed in PBS and TES than in MOPS and HEPES treatments (P<0.05). Expression of Fgf-4 and Gsta4 in the in vitro embryos was lower in PBS than in the remaining three buffers (P<0.05) and the level of expression of the Il6 gene was not affected by any buffer tested but was lower in in vitro than in in vivo derived embryos. Expression of both Sod1 and Prss11 genes in MOPS were at the level of the in vivo embryos. These results showed that the choice of buffer and short exposure time of approximately 41 min, affects mRNA expression of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

  1. Changes in Sperm Motility and Capacitation Induce Chromosomal Aberration of the Bovine Embryo following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoku; Nagao, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become the method of choice to treat human male infertility. One of the outstanding problems associated with this technique is our current lack of knowledge concerning the effect of sperm capacitation and motility upon the subsequent development of oocytes following ICSI. In the present study, we first examined the capacitation state of sperm exhibiting normal motility, along with sperm that had been activated, and examined the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by these sperm types upon embryogenesis following bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) and ICSI. Data showed that activated sperm reduced the chromosomal integrity of IVF/ICSI embryos at the blastocyst stage, while capacitated sperm produced ROS in capacitation media. Secondly, we treated sperm with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP), a chemical known to uncouple cell respiration within the mitochondria, and investigated the effect of this treatment upon blastocyst formation and chromosomal integrity at the blastocyst stage. Activated sperm in which the mitochondria had been treated with CCCP reduced levels of chromosomal aberration at the blastocyst stage following ICSI, by reducing mitochondrial activity in activated sperm. In conclusion, these findings suggest that capacitated sperm exhibiting activated motility induced chromosomal aberration during development to the blastocyst stage following ICSI. The injection of sperm exhibiting normal motility, or activated sperm in which mitochondrial activity had been reduced, improved the quality of ICSI-derived embryos. Therefore, the selection of sperm exhibiting progressive motility may not always be better for early embryo development and fetal growth following human ICSI, and that the use of a bovine model may contribute to a deeper understanding of sperm selection for human ICSI embryo development.

  2. Effect of vitrification using the Cryotop method on the gene expression profile of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Leme, Ligiane; Dufort, Isabelle; Spricigo, José Felipe Warmling; Braga, Thiago Felipe; Sirard, Marc-André; Franco, Maurício Machaim; Dode, Margot Alves Nunes

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyzed the changes in gene expression induced by the Cryotop vitrification technique in bovine blastocyst-stage embryos, using Agilent EmbryoGENE microarray slides. Bovine in vitro-produced embryos were vitrified and compared with nonvitrified (control) embryos. After vitrification, embryos were warmed and cultured for an additional 4 hours. Survived embryos were used for microarray analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) quantification. Survival rates were higher (P < 0.05) in the control embryos (100%) than in the vitrified embryos (87%). Global gene expression analysis revealed that only 43 out of 21,139 genes exhibited significantly altered expression in the vitrified embryos compared to the control embryos, with a very limited fold change (P < 0.05). A total of 10 genes were assessed by qPCR. Only the FOS-like antigen 1 (FOSL1) gene presented differential expression (P < 0.05) according to both the array and qPCR methods, and it was overexpressed in vitrified embryos. Although, the major consequence of vitrification seems to be the activation of the apoptosis pathway in some cells. Indeed, FOSL1 is part of the activating protein 1 transcription factor complex and is implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Therefore, our results suggest that a limited increase in the rate of apoptosis was the only detectable response of the embryos to vitrification stress. PMID:26553569

  3. Embryo production and possible species preservation by nuclear transfer of somatic cells isolated from bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Westhusin, Mark; Long, Charles; Johnson, Gregory; Burghardt, Robert; Kraemer, Duane

    2010-12-01

    Somatic cells in semen are a potential source of nuclei for nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical animals; this is especially important when an animal has died and the only viable genetic material available is frozen semen. Usefulness of somatic cells obtained from fresh (cultured) and frozen (isolated, not cultured) bovine semen for nuclear transfer was evaluated. Twelve ejaculates were collected from nine bulls representing three breeds: Charolais, Brahman, and crossbred Rodeo bull. All samples were processed immediately and cell growth was obtained from seven of the twelve ejaculates (58.3%). Cells from three bulls (with the best growth rates) were evaluated by optical microscopy and used in cloning experiments. In culture, these cells exhibited classic epithelial morphology and expressed cytokeratin and vimentin, indicating they were of epithelial origin. When cells from the three bulls were used as donor cells, 15.9% (18/113), 34.5% (29/84), and 14.4% (13/90) of the fused embryos developed into blastocysts, respectively. Of the blastocyst stage embryos, 38.9% (7/18), 72.4% (21/29), and 61.5% (8/13) hatched, respectively. Somatic cells isolated (not cultured) from frozen bovine semen were also used in the cloning experiments. Although cleavage occurred, no compact morulae or blastocysts were obtained. In conclusion, epithelial cell growth was obtained from fresh bovine ejaculates with relatively high efficiency. Somatic cells from semen can be used as nucleus donors to produce cloned blastocyst-stage embryos.

  4. Risks of transmitting scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy by semen and embryos.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, A E

    1997-04-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on transmission of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by semen and embryos. In sheep, in particular, it is difficult to distinguish between the genetic transmission of susceptibility to scrapie and vertical transmission of the infection. Nevertheless, there is evidence that vertical transmission of infection does occur, probably across the placenta, but none to suggest a significant scrapie risk from semen. Two teams have studied scrapie transmission from experimentally infected sheep using embryo transfer. Whereas one team found no evidence for transmission, the results from the other team suggest that embryos, even after washing, might carry the disease into the offspring. In regard to goats, although genetic differences in susceptibility exist, they are much less obvious than in sheep. There is no evidence for vertical transmission or for transmission through semen and embryos. With regard to BSE, although it appears that genetic differences in susceptibility are absent or unimportant, some recent work does suggest that the disease may be passed from cow to calf. The route of transmission and stage or stages when this takes place are unclear, however. In conclusion, despite growing evidence to indicate that scrapie and BSE are unlikely to be transmitted through semen and embryos, more research is needed to confirm this. Furthermore, until all possibility of risk is ruled out, risk reduction methods must be considered, especially when semen and embryos are being imported into countries where the diseases do not exist. PMID:9329121

  5. Functional analysis of bovine Nramp1 and production of transgenic cloned embryos in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Yu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yajun; Deng, Jie; Ma, Xiaoling; Wang, Huayan

    2015-02-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) plays an important role in restraining the growth of intracellular pathogens within macrophages. In this study, Nramp1 cDNA was cloned from Qinchuan cattle and its anti-bacterial activity was demonstrated as being able to significantly inhibit the growth of Salmonella abortusovis and Brucella abortus in macrophages. Calf fibroblasts stably transfected with pSP-NRAMP1-HA vector were used to reconstruct bovine embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Reconstructed embryos were maturated in vitro and the blastocyst formation rate (14.0%) was similar to that of control embryos (14.5%). Transgenic blastocysts were transplanted into 43 recipient cattle, of which 14 recipients became pregnant as evidenced by non-return estrus and by rectal palpation. One fetus was aborted after 6½ months of pregnancy and transgene integration was confirmed by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Together, this study showed that bovine Nramp1 retains biological function against the growth of intracellular bacteria and can be used to reconstruct embryos and produce Nramp1 transgenic cattle, which may benefit the animal and enhance their ability to prevent attack by intracellular pathogens.

  6. Characterization of developmental arrest in early bovine embryos cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eyestone, W H; First, N L

    1991-03-01

    The susceptibility of early bovine embryos to developmental arrest ("blocking") in vitro was examined. Embryos, obtained from superovulated donors, were cultured in vitro in Ham's F10 culture medium or in vivo in sheep oviducts. Treatments were terminated on Day 7 post-donor estrus (estrus = day 0), and the embryos were evaluated for development. Experiment 1 tested whether the 8- to 16-cell block was reversible. One- to two-cell embryos were cultured in vitro to the 8-cell stage (2 d), then in vivo for 3 d; controls were cultured in vitro or in vivo for 5 d. Forty-two percent (19/45) of in vivo controls developed normally; none (0/55; 0%) of the in vitro controls cleaved past the 9- to 16-cell stage. Only 4% (2/48) of the embryos cultured to eight cells in vitro developed normally after culture in sheep oviducts, indicating that the block was irreversible. Irreversibility was not caused by overt cell death, since 33/33 (100%) of blocked embryos responded positively to fluorescein diacetate vital staining. Experiment 2 tested the effect of in vitro exposure at specific cell stages on subsequent in vivo development. Embryos at the 1- to 2-, 3- to 4-, 5- to 8- and 9- to 16-cell stages were assigned randomly to one of the following treatments: in vivo culture; in vitro culture; or 24 h in vitro culture, followed by in vivo culture. Subsequent in vivo development was affected by 24 h of in vitro culture (P<0.05) only in 3- to 4-cell embryos (11/41, 27% vs 22/41, 54% for in vivo controls). We conclude that 1) the block is a manifestation of in vitro exposure during the four- to eight-cell stage, and 2) the block, while irreversible, is not the result of overt embryonic death. PMID:16726930

  7. Characterization of developmental arrest in early bovine embryos cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eyestone, W H; First, N L

    1991-03-01

    The susceptibility of early bovine embryos to developmental arrest ("blocking") in vitro was examined. Embryos, obtained from superovulated donors, were cultured in vitro in Ham's F10 culture medium or in vivo in sheep oviducts. Treatments were terminated on Day 7 post-donor estrus (estrus = day 0), and the embryos were evaluated for development. Experiment 1 tested whether the 8- to 16-cell block was reversible. One- to two-cell embryos were cultured in vitro to the 8-cell stage (2 d), then in vivo for 3 d; controls were cultured in vitro or in vivo for 5 d. Forty-two percent (19/45) of in vivo controls developed normally; none (0/55; 0%) of the in vitro controls cleaved past the 9- to 16-cell stage. Only 4% (2/48) of the embryos cultured to eight cells in vitro developed normally after culture in sheep oviducts, indicating that the block was irreversible. Irreversibility was not caused by overt cell death, since 33/33 (100%) of blocked embryos responded positively to fluorescein diacetate vital staining. Experiment 2 tested the effect of in vitro exposure at specific cell stages on subsequent in vivo development. Embryos at the 1- to 2-, 3- to 4-, 5- to 8- and 9- to 16-cell stages were assigned randomly to one of the following treatments: in vivo culture; in vitro culture; or 24 h in vitro culture, followed by in vivo culture. Subsequent in vivo development was affected by 24 h of in vitro culture (P<0.05) only in 3- to 4-cell embryos (11/41, 27% vs 22/41, 54% for in vivo controls). We conclude that 1) the block is a manifestation of in vitro exposure during the four- to eight-cell stage, and 2) the block, while irreversible, is not the result of overt embryonic death.

  8. Superovulatory response and embryo development in ewes treated with two doses of bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Carrera-Chávez, J M; Hernández-Cerón, J; López-Carlos, M A; Lozano-Domínguez, R R; Molinar, F; Echavarría-Cháirez, F G; Bañuelos-Valenzuela, R; Aréchiga-Flores, C F

    2014-12-30

    This study evaluated whether the administration of 50 and 100mg bovine somatotropin (bST) at the start of synchronization and at the time of natural mating in ewes improves the ovulation rate, embryonic development and pregnancy rate of transferred embryos. Forty-eight donors were assigned to three treatments: the bST-100 treatment (n=15) received 100mg bST at the start of synchronization and at natural mating, the bST-50 treatment (n=15) received 50mg bST on the same schedule as the previous group, and the control (n=18) did not receive any bST. Two embryos were transferred to each recipient (n=121): 35 received embryos from bST-100; 50 received embryos from bST-50, and 36 received embryos from the control. The superovulatory rate, percentage of recovered structures, cleavage rate, percentage of transferable embryos, embryo quality and development and pregnancy rate were analyzed using the GENMOD procedure of SAS. The number of corpora lutea and the cell number were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS. The insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were analyzed with ANOVA for repeated measures. The bST application did not affect the superovulatory rate, number of corpora lutea and recovered structures (P>0.05). The numbers of transferable embryos and embryos reaching the blastocyst were higher (P≤0.01) in the bST-50 (96.4±3.6% and 69.0±7.8%) than the bST-100 (93.0±4.5% and 27.2±38.9%) and control (87.7±5.4% and 50.4±6.4%) groups. The insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were higher (P<0.05) in the bST-treated groups, but the insulin concentration was higher (P<0.05) in the bST-100 group than in the bST-50 group. The pregnancy rate was similar (P=0.21) in ewes receiving embryos from the two treatments [bST-50, (70.0%); bST-100, (62.5%), and control, (56.6%)]. The administration of 50mg bST at the start of synchronization and at natural mating in superovulated ewes was concluded to enhance the proportion and development of transferable embryos. However, bST did not

  9. Direct and Osmolarity-Dependent Effects of Glycine on Preimplantation Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Sarah M.; Greene, Alison F.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Schoolcraft, William B.; Krisher, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of glycine (Gly) in embryo culture media are often lower (~0.1 mM) than those in oviductal or uterine fluids (≥1.2 mM). The objective of this study was to determine direct and osmolarity-dependent effects of physiological concentrations of Gly on blastocyst formation and hatching, cell allocation to the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), and metabolic activity of bovine embryos. In experiment 1, zygotes were cultured with 100 or 120 mM NaCl and 0 or 1 mM Gly for the first 72 h of culture. Blastocyst formation and hatching were improved (P<0.05) when embryos were cultured with 100 compared to 120 mM NaCl. Inclusion of 1 mM Gly improved (P<0.05) blastocyst formation compared to 0 mM Gly, but this effect was only significant (P<0.05) for embryos cultured with 120 mM NaCl, suggesting bovine embryos can utilize Gly as an osmolyte. In experiment 2, embryos were cultured with 0.1, 1.1, 2.1, or 4.1 mM Gly (100 mM NaCl) for the final 96 h of culture. Blastocyst development was not affected (P>0.05) by Gly, but hatching (0.1 mM Gly, 18.2%) was improved (P<0.05) when embryos were cultured with 1.1 (31.4%) or 2.1 (29.4%) mM Gly. Blastocyst, TE, and ICM cell numbers were not affected (P>0.05) by Gly in either experiment. Blastocysts produced alanine, glutamine, pyruvate, and urea and consumed aspartate, but this metabolic profile was not affected (P>0.05) by Gly. In conclusion, Gly (1.0 mM) improves the development of both early and late stage embryos, but beneficial effects are more pronounced for early embryos exposed to elevated osmolarity. PMID:27459477

  10. Direct and Osmolarity-Dependent Effects of Glycine on Preimplantation Bovine Embryos.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Jason R; Lyons, Sarah M; Greene, Alison F; Broeckling, Corey D; Schoolcraft, William B; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of glycine (Gly) in embryo culture media are often lower (~0.1 mM) than those in oviductal or uterine fluids (≥1.2 mM). The objective of this study was to determine direct and osmolarity-dependent effects of physiological concentrations of Gly on blastocyst formation and hatching, cell allocation to the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM), and metabolic activity of bovine embryos. In experiment 1, zygotes were cultured with 100 or 120 mM NaCl and 0 or 1 mM Gly for the first 72 h of culture. Blastocyst formation and hatching were improved (P<0.05) when embryos were cultured with 100 compared to 120 mM NaCl. Inclusion of 1 mM Gly improved (P<0.05) blastocyst formation compared to 0 mM Gly, but this effect was only significant (P<0.05) for embryos cultured with 120 mM NaCl, suggesting bovine embryos can utilize Gly as an osmolyte. In experiment 2, embryos were cultured with 0.1, 1.1, 2.1, or 4.1 mM Gly (100 mM NaCl) for the final 96 h of culture. Blastocyst development was not affected (P>0.05) by Gly, but hatching (0.1 mM Gly, 18.2%) was improved (P<0.05) when embryos were cultured with 1.1 (31.4%) or 2.1 (29.4%) mM Gly. Blastocyst, TE, and ICM cell numbers were not affected (P>0.05) by Gly in either experiment. Blastocysts produced alanine, glutamine, pyruvate, and urea and consumed aspartate, but this metabolic profile was not affected (P>0.05) by Gly. In conclusion, Gly (1.0 mM) improves the development of both early and late stage embryos, but beneficial effects are more pronounced for early embryos exposed to elevated osmolarity. PMID:27459477

  11. Chemically Assisted Enucleation Results in Higher G6PD Expression in Early Bovine Female Embryos Obtained by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clara Slade; Tetzner, Tatiane Almeida Drummond; de Lima, Marina Ragagnin; de Melo, Danilas Salinet; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite extensive efforts, low efficiency is still an issue in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The hypothesis of our study was that the use of cytoplasts produced by chemically assisted enucleation (EN) would improve nuclear reprogramming in nuclear transfer (NT)–derived embryos because it results in lower damage and higher cytoplasm content than conventional EN. For that purpose, we investigated the expression of two X-linked genes: X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In the first experiment, gene expression was assessed in day-7 female blastocysts from embryonic cell NT (ECNT) groups [conventional, ECNT conv; chemically assisted, ECNT deme (demecolcine)]. Whereas in the ECNT conv group, only one embryo (25%; n=4) expressed XIST transcripts, most embryos showed XIST expression (75%; n=4) in the ECNT deme group. However, no significant differences in transcript abundance of XIST and G6PD were found when comparing the embryos from all groups. In a second experiment using somatic cells as nuclear donors, we evaluated gene expression profiles in female SCNT-derived embryos. No significant differences in relative abundance (RA) of XIST transcripts were observed among the groups. Nonetheless, higher (p<0.05) levels of G6PD were observed in SCNT deme and in vitro–derived groups in comparison to SCNT conv. To know whether higher G6PD expression in embryos derived from SCNT chemically assisted EN indicates higher metabolism in embryos considered of superior quality or if the presence of higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels generated by the increased oxygen consumption triggers G6PD activation, the expression of genes related to stress response should be investigated in embryos produced by that technique. PMID:22908977

  12. Culture of bovine embryos in polyester mesh sections: the effect of pore size and oxygen tension on in vitro development.

    PubMed

    Somfai, T; Inaba, Y; Aikawa, Y; Ohtake, M; Kobayashi, S; Akai, T; Hattori, H; Konishi, K; Imai, K

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of polyester mesh culture for the in vitro production of bovine embryos, as polyester mesh is an alternative way for tracking individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). Bovine embryos were isolated during in vitro culture using sections of three different polyethylene terephthalate (PET) mesh products. In vitro matured and fertilized bovine oocytes were cultured in the 217 × 217, 230 × 230 or 238 × 238-μm openings of PET mesh sections or in simple micro-drops (control) for 7 days under either 20% or 5% O(2) tensions. No difference in embryo developmental rates was found between the culture groups in terms of cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst expansion irrespective of O(2) tension. In contrast, under 20% O(2) tension, blastocysts that developed in PET mesh with 217 × 217-μm opening had significantly higher numbers of total and trophectoderm (TE) cells than control embryos; however, the numbers and proportions of inner cell mass (ICM) cells did not differ. Under 5% O(2) tension, no difference was found among the culture groups in the numbers of total, ICM and TE cells in embryos. All three PET mesh products investigated in this study were proven to be effective to prevent embryo movement. The results demonstrate that bovine embryos can be cultured in PET mesh sections without negative side-effects and suggest that embryo distance determined by the mesh affects embryo quality at atmospheric oxygen tension. Polyethylene terephthalate mesh with 217 × 217-μm openings was found to be the most suitable for further application in TLC. PMID:19845884

  13. Stem Cell–Derived Bioactive Materials Accelerate Development of Porcine In Vitro–Fertilized Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Moon, Jeremiah Ji-Man; Kim, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stem cells show the capability to proliferate in an undifferentiated state with long-term self-renewal, which gives the cells advantages for use as bioactive material (BM) for embryo culture in vitro. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of two BMs—human adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cell BM (hAT-MSC-BM) and human embryonic stem cell–derived BM (hESC-BM)—on porcine embryo development compared to commonly used bovine serum albumin (BSA) or serum treatment groups. In vitro–fertilized (IVF) embryos were cultured in PZM-5 with 4 mg/mL BSA until day 4 and equally divided into four groups. Starting from day 4 (until day 6), each group was treated with the following protein additives: 4 mg/mL BSA (control), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% hAT-MSC-BM, or 10% hESC-BM. Our results show FBS- and two other BM-treated groups showed significant increases in blastocyst formation rate, hatching rate, and total cell number compared with the control group (p<0.05). The hAT-MSC-BM and hESC-BM treatment groups presented better-quality embryo development, especially from the middle expanding stage to hatching. In particular, the hAT-MSC-BM–treated group showed the highest developmental potential of all groups and formed the most expanding-stage blastocysts. The relative expression of reprogramming-related transcription factor (POU5F1, SOX2, DPPA5, and CDH1), antioxidant (PRDX5), and apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5) genes also increased in two types of BMs compared to the control. In addition, we investigated the protein synthesis of the tight junction– and gap junction–related genes, connexin 43 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); these increased more than in the control. These results demonstrate that stem cell–derived BMs accelerate porcine preimplantation embryo development and that the BMs would be helpful in the development of preimplantation embryos. PMID:26053518

  14. Spatiotemporal expression of DNA demethylation enzymes and histone demethylases in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pagé-Larivière, Florence; Sirard, Marc-André

    2014-02-01

    Fertilization in bovines causes profound changes in the epigenetic profile that affect both DNA methylation patterns and posttranslational histone modifications. These dynamic changes have a great potential for activating pluripotency genes and unfolding certain chromatin regions to recruit different transcription factors. Surprisingly, while the fundamental function of epigenetic remodeling is well understood, the bases of the process are still unknown. Recent developments in epigenetics suggest a multistep demethylation process that would imply the prior modification of the methylated cytosine or methyl group, followed by a DNA repair mechanism implicating enzymes such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) and ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenase. Their functions seem to differ from one species to the other, and they are not yet well characterized in large mammals. Histones have, for their part, many associated and specific lysine demethylases (KDM). Their expression profile in large mammals is not well characterized. We have been interested in characterizing the spatiotemporal expression profile for each of the genes studied to increase our understanding of the molecular interactions following fertilization in early bovine embryo stages. Bovine oocytes and embryos at various preimplantation stages were collected following in vitro fertilization protocol. Total RNA for AICDA, TET1, TET2, TET3, KDM3A, KDM4A, KDM4C, and KDM5B was extracted, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and amplified by real-time PCR. Other embryo pools were collected, and protein localization of the genes studied was characterized. TET3 dioxygenase was present in the very first embryo stages, in contrast to TET1 and AICDA. Histone demethylases KDM3A, KDM4A, and KDM4C were expressed before and after embryonic genome activation, whereas KDM5B was mainly expressed during the blastocyst period. DNA demethylation following fertilization in bovines is not accomplished by AICDA but most

  15. Homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining repair pathways in bovine embryos with different developmental competence

    SciTech Connect

    Henrique Barreta, Marcos; Garziera Gasperin, Bernardo; Braga Rissi, Vitor; Cesaro, Matheus Pedrotti de; Ferreira, Rogerio; Oliveira, Joao Francisco de; Goncalves, Paulo Bayard Dias; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the expression of genes controlling homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA-repair pathways in bovine embryos of different developmental potential. It also evaluated whether bovine embryos can respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced with ultraviolet irradiation by regulating expression of genes involved in HR and NHEJ repair pathways. Embryos with high, intermediate or low developmental competence were selected based on the cleavage time after in vitro insemination and were removed from in vitro culture before (36 h), during (72 h) and after (96 h) the expected period of embryonic genome activation. All studied genes were expressed before, during and after the genome activation period regardless the developmental competence of the embryos. Higher mRNA expression of 53BP1 and RAD52 was found before genome activation in embryos with low developmental competence. Expression of 53BP1, RAD51 and KU70 was downregulated at 72 h and upregulated at 168 h post-insemination in response to DSBs induced by ultraviolet irradiation. In conclusion, important genes controlling HR and NHEJ DNA-repair pathways are expressed in bovine embryos, however genes participating in these pathways are only regulated after the period of embryo genome activation in response to ultraviolet-induced DSBs.

  16. Phytohemagglutinin facilitates the aggregation of blastomere pairs from Day 5 donor embryos with Day 4 host embryos for chimeric bovine embryo multiplication.

    PubMed

    Simmet, Kilian; Reichenbach, Myriam; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Wolf, Eckhard

    2015-12-01

    Multiplication of bovine embryos by the production of aggregation chimeras is based on the concept that few blastomeres of a donor embryo form the inner cell mass (ICM) and thus the embryo proper, whereas cells of a host embryo preferentially contribute to the trophectoderm (TE), the progenitor cells of the embryonic part of the placenta. We aggregated two fluorescent blastomeres from enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic Day 5 morulae with two Day 4 embryos that did not complete their first cleavage until 27 hours after IVF and tested the effect of phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA) on chimeric embryo formation. The resulting blastocysts were characterized by differential staining of cell lineages using the TE-specific factor CDX2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy to facilitate the precise localization of eGFP-positive cells. The proportions of blastocyst development of sandwich aggregates with (n = 99) and without PHA (n = 46) were 85.9% and 54.3% (P < 0.05), respectively. Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the proportion of blastocysts with eGFP-positive cells in the ICM was higher in the PHA group than in the no-PHA group (40% vs. 16%; P < 0.05). Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the total cell numbers of blastocysts from the PHA group of aggregation chimeras (n = 17; 207.8 ± 67.3 [mean ± standard deviation]) were higher (P < 0.05) than those of embryos without ZP and exposed to PHA (n = 30; 159.6 ± 42.2) and of handling control embryos (n = 19; 176.9 ± 53.3). The same was true for ICM cell counts (56.5 ± 22.0 vs. 37.7 ± 14.2 and 38.7 ± 12.4) and TE cell counts (151.2 ± 58.0 vs. 121.9 ± 37.4 and 138.3 ± 53.0), whereas the ICM/total cell number ratio was not different between the groups. Of the 17 chimeric blastocysts analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, nine had eGFP-positive cells (three of them in the ICM, three in the TE, and three in both lineages). When integration in

  17. Effects of astaxanthin-containing oil on development and stress-related gene expression of bovine embryos exposed to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Namekawa, T; Ikeda, S; Sugimoto, M; Kume, S

    2010-12-01

    Early bovine embryos are vulnerable to heat stress during the first few days after fertilization. The inhibitory effect of heat stress on embryonic development is known to be associated with oxidative stress, which can be attenuated by antioxidants. In the present study, we focused on the use of astaxanthin as an antioxidant and examined the effects of astaxanthin-containing oil (Ax) on post-fertilization development of bovine embryos subjected to heat stress in vitro and the expression of stress-related genes. Bovine 1-cell embryos were in vitro produced by in vitro maturation and fertilization (IVF) of oocytes recovered from abattoir-derived ovaries. At 20 h post-insemination (hpi, 0 h = the start of IVF), the embryos were introduced in modified synthetic oviduct fluid supplemented with 25 ppm of Ax (concentration of astaxanthin was 0.25 ppm) or vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) up to 72 hpi. The embryos were basically cultured at 38.5°C, and in the heat stress group, embryos were exposed twice to 40.5°C for 10 h (at 20-30 and 44-54 hpi). Under the condition without the Ax treatment, the cleavage rate, rate of development to the 5-8 cell stage, blastocyst yield from cultured embryos and that from cleaved embryos were lower in the heat stress group than in the group not subjected to heat stress (p < 0.05). In the heat stress group, the rate of development to the 5-8 cell stage was improved (p < 0.05) by the addition of Ax. Subsequently, we performed semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to investigate the effects of heat stress and Ax on the mRNA expression of Src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein C1 (SHC1), an oxidative stress adaptor protein, and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. In 5-8 cell embryos at 72 hpi, the mRNA expression levels of SHC1 and SOD2 were lower in the Ax- and heat-treated group than in the other groups (p < 0

  18. Recombinant human growth differentiation factor-9 improves oocyte reprogramming competence and subsequent development of bovine cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianmin; Hu, Guangdong; Wang, Yongsheng; Liang, Dong; Gao, Mingqing; Sun, Hongzheng; Zhang, Yong

    2014-08-01

    Previously, we found that oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) secreted by denuded oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) enhance subsequent development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. This treatment requires many oocytes during IVM. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing with recombinant growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), one of crucial OFSs, in oocyte maturation medium could improve developmental competence of bovine oocytes and subsequent development of cloned embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from antral follicles of bovine ovaries collected from an abattoir were cultured with (SCNT+GDF9 group) or without (SCNT group) 200 ng/mL recombinant human GDF9 in oocyte maturation medium. After 22 h, metaphase II (MII) oocytes were used for SCNT. The presence of 200 ng/mL GDF9 significantly increased oocyte maturation rates, the cleavage rate, and blastocyst formation rates of bovine cloned embryos. The blastocyst total, inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers, and ratio of ICM:TE were higher, whereas the rate of apoptosis in bovine cloned blastocysts was lower in the SCNT+GDF9 group than in the SCNT group. The histone modifications at various sites were also different between each group. These results suggest that COCs cultured with recombinant GDF9 in oocyte maturation medium improve oocyte developmental competence and subsequent developmental competence of cloned embryo in cattle.

  19. Novel methods to induce exogenous gene expression in SCNT, parthenogenic and IVF preimplantation bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pereyra-Bonnet, Federico; Bevacqua, Romina; La Rosa, Isabel; Sipowicz, Pablo; Radrizzani, Martin; Fernandez-Martin, Rafael; Salamone, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    The import of exogenous DNA (eDNA) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus represents a key intracellular obstacle for efficient gene delivery in mammalian cells. In this study, cumulus cells or oolemma vesicles previously incubated with eDNA, and naked eDNA were injected into the cytoplasm of MII oocytes to evaluate their efficiency for eDNA expressing bovine embryo production. Our study evaluated the potential of short time co-incubation (5 min) of eDNA with; (1) cumulus cells, to be used as donor cells for SCNT and (2) oolemma vesicles (vesicles) to produce parthenogenic transgene expressing embryos. In addition, we included a group consisting of the injection of eDNA alone (plasmid) followed by parthenogenic activation. Two different pCX-EGFP plasmid concentrations (50 and 500 ng/μl) were employed. The results showed that embryos produced by SCNT and by vesicle injection assisted by chemical activation were able to express the eDNA in higher rates than embryos injected with plasmid alone. The lower plasmid concentration allowed the highest development rates in all groups. Using confocal microscopy, we analyzed the interaction of FITC- labeled eDNA with cumulus cells and vesicles as well as oocytes injected with labeled plasmid alone. Our images demonstrated that eDNA interacted with cumulus cells and vesicles, resulting an increase in its expression efficiency. In contrast, oocytes injected with DNA alone did not show signs of transgene accumulation, and their eDNA expression rates were lower. In a further experiment, we evaluated if transgene-expressing embryos could be produced by means of vesicle injection followed by IVF. The lower plasmid concentration (50 ng/μl) injected after IVF, produced the best results. Preliminary FISH analysis indicated detectable integration events in 1/5 of SCNT blastocysts treated. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that short term transgene co-incubation with somatic cells can produce transgene-expressing mammalian SCNT

  20. Time-lapse cinematography-compatible polystyrene-based microwell culture system: a novel tool for tracking the development of individual bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Somfai, Tamás; Hirayama, Muneyuki; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Hattori, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a polystyrene-based well-of-the-well (WOW) system using injection molding to track individual embryos throughout culture using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). WOW culture of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization was compared with conventional droplet culture (control). No differences between control- and WOW-cultured embryos were observed during development to the blastocyst stage. Morphological quality and inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers were not different between control- and WOW-derived blastocysts; however, apoptosis in both the ICM and TE cells was reduced in WOW culture (P < 0.01). Oxygen consumption in WOW-derived blastocysts was closer to physiological level than that of control-derived blastocysts. Moreover, WOW culture improved embryo viability, as indicated by increased pregnancy rates at Days 30 and 60 after embryo transfer (P < 0.05). TLC monitoring was performed to evaluate the cleavage pattern and the duration of the first cell cycle of embryos from oocytes collected by ovum pickup; correlations with success of pregnancy were determined. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the cleavage pattern correlated with success of pregnancy (P < 0.05), but cell cycle length did not. Higher pregnancy rates (66.7%) were observed for animals in which transferred blastocysts had undergone normal cleavage, identified by the presence of two blastomeres of the same size without fragmentation, than among those with abnormal cleavage (33.3%). These results suggest that our microwell culture system is a powerful tool for producing and selecting healthy embryos and for identifying viability biomarkers. PMID:20739661

  1. Production of Bovine Embryos and Calves Cloned by Nuclear Transfer Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Amniotic Fluid and Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carolina Gonzales; Martins, Carlos Frederico; Cardoso, Tereza Cristina; da Cunha, Elisa Ribeiro; Bessler, Heidi Christina; Martins, George Henrique Lima; Pivato, Ivo; Báo, Sônia Nair

    2016-04-01

    The less differentiated the donor cells are used in nuclear transfer (NT), the more easily are they reprogrammed by the recipient cytoplasm. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appear as an alternative to donor nuclei for NT. The amniotic fluid and adipose tissue are sources of MSCs that have not been tested for the production of cloned embryos in cattle. The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize, and use MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (MSC-AF) and adipose tissue (MSC-AT) to produce cloned calves. Isolation of MSC-AF was performed using in vivo ultrasound-guided transvaginal amniocentesis, and MSC-AT were isolated by explant culture. Cellular phenotypic and genotypic characterization by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR were performed, as well as induction in different cell lineages. The NT was performed using MSC-AF and MSC-AT as nuclear donors. The mesenchymal markers of MSC were expressed in bovine MSC-AF and MSC-AT cultures, as evidenced by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. When induced, these cells differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Embryo production was similar between the cell types, and two calves were born. The calf from MSC-AT was born healthy, and this fact opens a new possibility of using this type of cell to produce cloned cattle by NT. PMID:27055630

  2. Molecular Characterization of the First Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) Strains Isolated from In Vitro Bovine Embryos production in Argentina.

    PubMed

    González Altamiranda, Erika; Manrique, Julieta M; Pérez, Sandra E; Ríos, Glenda L; Odeón, Anselmo C; Leunda, María R; Jones, Leandro R; Verna, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is increasingly considered as responsible for various problems of the reproductive tract. The virus infects mainly blood mononuclear cells and displays specific tropism for vascular endothelia, reproductive and fetal tissues. Epidemiological studies suggest its impact on reproductive performance, and its presence in various sites in the reproductive tract highlights its potential transmission in transfer-stage embryos. This work describes the biological and genetic characterization of BoHV-4 strains isolated from an in vitro bovine embryo production system. BoHV-4 strains were isolated in 2011 and 2013 from granulosa cells and bovine oocytes from ovary batches collected at a local abattoir, used as "starting material" for in vitro production of bovine embryos. Compatible BoHV-4-CPE was observed in the co-culture of granulosa cells and oocytes with MDBK cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR assays targeting three ORFs of the viral genome. The phylogenetic analyses of the strains suggest that they were evolutionary unlinked. Therefore it is possible that BoHV-4 ovary infections occurred regularly along the evolution of the virus, at least in Argentina, which can have implications in the systems of in vitro embryo production. Thus, although BoHV-4 does not appear to be a frequent risk factor for in vitro embryo production, data are still limited. This study reveals the potential of BoHV-4 transmission via embryo transfer. Moreover, the high variability among the BoHV-4 strains isolated from aborted cows in Argentina highlights the importance of further research on the role of this virus as an agent with the potential to cause reproductive disease in cattle. The genetic characterization of the isolated strains provides data to better understand the pathogenesis of BoHV-4 infections. Furthermore, it will lead to fundamental insights into the molecular aspects of the virus and the means by which these strains circulate in

  3. Experimental risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission via in vitro embryo production using somatic cell nucleus transfer.

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Chen, S H; Sadeghieh, S; Guerra, T; Xiang, T; Meredith, J; Polejaeva, I

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive risk assessment on infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production via somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) technology using bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model. The risks of BVDV transmission in each step of the SCNT embryo production procedure, from donor cells to preimplantation SCNT embryo culture, were carefully examined using a sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The identified primary source of BVDV transmission in SCNT embryo production was donor cell infection, most likely caused by contaminated fetal bovine serum in the culture medium. The risk of disease transmission through contaminated oocytes from an abattoir was relatively low, and it can be greatly minimized by cumulus cell removal and adequate oocyte washing procedures. Of the 200 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and more than 1500 cumulus cell-free oocyte (CFO) samples collected from multiple sources over a course of 7 months, only 2.5% of the COCs were BVDV positive, and all of the CFOs (100%) were BVDV negative. To evaluate the risk of BVDV introduction during in vitro SCNT embryo culture, 324 SCNT embryos were produced from 18 different cell lines using oocytes from 26 different batches collected over a course of 9 months. The embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days and then tested for BVDV. All of the 324 SCNT embryos (100%) were negative, indicating that the embryo culture system is virtually risk-free for BVDV transmission. Based on these results, a standard operational protocol (SOP) for SCNT embryo production was proposed to greatly minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through the SCNT embryo production system. This SOP could be a starting point to produce a SCNT system that is virtually risk-free for disease transmission in general.

  4. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, p<0.05), compact morulae formation (60.83 vs. 51.30%, p<0.05), and the blastomere apoptosis index (3.70 ± 1.41 vs. 4.43% ± 1.65, p<0.05) of bovine SCNT embryos. However, vitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, p<0.05) on day 7 and the hatching blastocysts formation rate on day 9 (26.51 vs. 50.65%, p<0.05) compared with that of the untreated group. Vitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  5. Coagulansin-A has beneficial effects on the development of bovine embryos in vitro via HSP70 induction

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran; Lee, Kyeong-Lim; Fakruzzaman, Md.; Song, Seok-Hwan; Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra; Yan, Chang Guo; Kong, Il-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Coagulansin-A (withanolide) is the steroidal lactone obtained from Withania coagulans which belong to Solanaceae family. The present study investigated the effects of coagulansin-A on bovine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. All these oocytes were aspirated from the ovaries obtained from Korean Hanwoo cows at a local abattoir. To determine whether coagulansin-A has beneficial effects on bovine oocyte maturation in vitro, 355 oocytes per group (control and treated) in seven replicates were subjected with different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 μM) of coagulansin-A. The coagulansin-A was added in the in vitro maturation (IVM) media followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and then in vitro culture (IVC). Only treatment with 5 μM coagulansin-A remarkably (P<0.05) improved embryos development (Day 8 blastocyst) having 27.30 and 40.01% for control and coagulansin-A treated groups respectively. Treatment with 5 μM coagulansin-A significantly induced activation of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that 5 μM coagulansin-A treatment also significantly inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation during bovine embryo development in vitro by decreasing 8-oxoguanosine (8-OxoG) (P<0.05) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (P<0.05). The expressions of HSP70 and NF-κB were also conformed through real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Additionally, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay confirmed that coagulansin-A treatment significantly improved the embryo quality and reduced bovine embryo DNA damage (P<0.05). The present study provides new information regarding the mechanisms by which coagulansin-A promotes bovine embryo development in vitro. PMID:26831738

  6. Coagulansin-A has beneficial effects on the development of bovine embryos in vitro via HSP70 induction.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Lee, Kyeong-Lim; Fakruzzaman, Md; Song, Seok-Hwan; Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra; Yan, Chang Guo; Kong, Il-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Coagulansin-A (withanolide) is the steroidal lactone obtained from Withania coagulans which belong to Solanaceae family. The present study investigated the effects of coagulansin-A on bovine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro. All these oocytes were aspirated from the ovaries obtained from Korean Hanwoo cows at a local abattoir. To determine whether coagulansin-A has beneficial effects on bovine oocyte maturation in vitro, 355 oocytes per group (control and treated) in seven replicates were subjected with different concentrations (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 μM) of coagulansin-A. The coagulansin-A was added in the in vitro maturation (IVM) media followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and then in vitro culture (IVC). Only treatment with 5 μM coagulansin-A remarkably (P<0.05) improved embryos development (Day 8 blastocyst) having 27.30 and 40.01% for control and coagulansin-A treated groups respectively. Treatment with 5 μM coagulansin-A significantly induced activation of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that 5 μM coagulansin-A treatment also significantly inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation during bovine embryo development in vitro by decreasing 8-oxoguanosine (8-OxoG) (P<0.05) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (P<0.05). The expressions of HSP70 and NF-κB were also conformed through real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Additionally, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay confirmed that coagulansin-A treatment significantly improved the embryo quality and reduced bovine embryo DNA damage (P<0.05). The present study provides new information regarding the mechanisms by which coagulansin-A promotes bovine embryo development in vitro. PMID:26831738

  7. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  8. Large scale in vivo risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) transmission through transfer of bovine embryos produced via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Gosch, G; Guerra, T; Chen, S H; Xiang, T; Broek, D; Bruner, B; Polejaeva, I

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to use the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model to assess the risk of infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production and transfer via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The risks of BVDV transmission in the SCNT embryo production were previously evaluated. In that in vitro study, following standard operating procedures (SOP), including pre-nuclear transfer donor cell testing, oocyte decontamination and virus-free cell and embryo culture conditions, SCNT embryos produced were free of detectable viral RNA. The current study focused on the evaluation of the potential risk of disease transmission from SCNT embryos to recipients, and the risk of producing persistently infected animals via SCNT embryo transfer. Blood samples were collected from 553 recipients of SCNT embryos and 438 cloned calves and tested for the presence of BVDV viral RNA via a sensitive real time PCR method. All samples tested were negative. These results, in conjunction with the previous in vitro study, confirmed that the established SCNT embryo production and transfer system is safe and presents no detectable risk of disease transmission.

  9. The Effect of Culture Methods and Serum Supplementation on Developmental Competence of Bovine Embryos Cultured In Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the developmental competence of bovine in vitro fertilized embryos in three different culture methods; microdrop method (50 µl of medium under mineral oil in petri dishes) compared to tube methods (1 ml of medium in tubes) with or without oil overlay, and t...

  10. Differential gene expression in bovine elongated (Day 17) embryos produced by somatic cell nucleus transfer and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alvarez, Lleretny; Sharbati, Jutta; Sharbati, Soroush; Cox, José Francisco; Einspanier, Ralf; Castro, Fidel Ovidio

    2010-07-01

    Somatic cloning in cattle is associated with impaired embryo development, caused by inappropriate epigenetic reprogramming during embryogenesis; however, there is a paucity of data regarding gene expression at the critical elongation and peri-implantation stages. The objective of the present study was to identify genes differentially expressed in bovine cloned embryos at Day 17 of development (Day 0=day of nucleus transfer or IVF). Day 7 blastocysts (Hand Made Cloned or IVP) were transferred to recipient cattle and collected at Day 17. The efficiency of recovery of elongated embryos was similar, however cloned embryos elongated less than IVP embryos (91.8+/-45.8 vs. 174+/-50mm) and fewer had embryonic discs (63 vs. 83%). Qualitative and quantitative PCR detected expression of OCT4, NANOG, IFNtau, EOMES, FGF4, SOX2, and CDX2 in all IVP embryos. In most cloned embryos, NANOG and FGF4 were absent (verified by qPCR); NANOG, EOMES, and FGF4 were underexpressed, whereas IFNtau was overexpressed in cloned embryos. Based on qPCRs, other genes, i.e., SPARC, SNRB1, and CBPP22, were down-regulated in cloned embryos, whereas HSP70 and TDKP1 were overexpressed. In bovine microarrays, 47 genes (3.6%) were deregulated in cloned embryos, including several involved in trophoblast growth and differentiation. In conclusion, we inferred that these data were indicative of incomplete epigenetic reprogramming after cloning; this could lead to aberrant gene expression and subsequently early pregnancy loss. There was an apparent association between incomplete morphological elongation and aberrant reprogramming of a subset of genes critical for early embryonic development.

  11. In vitro development of bovine one-cell embryos: Influence of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; First, N L

    1992-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of nutrient substrates on embryo development, in vitro fertilized bovine one-cell embryos were cultured in a medium similar to synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) but without glucose and containing 3.3 mM lactate, 0.3 mM pyruvate and 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 39 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air. Results indicated that addition of glucose was not only unnecessary, but it also had a deleterious effect on embryo development to the morula stage. Lactate supported embryo development up to the morula stage as well as pyruvate. Supplementation with 20 amino acids contained in basal medium Eagle's (BME) and minimum essential medium (MEM) improved development to the morula stage dramatically and increased the cell number compared with that of the controls. Addition of the vitamins from MEM to SOF had no beneficial effect. The SOF with amino acids did not increase the frequency of blastocysts 7 days after in-vitro fertilization but did increase the total number of cells compared with that of the controls. Frequency of blastocysts at Day 7 in SOF with amino acids was equivalent to that of co-culture although the total cell number was lower. These results demonstrate that a semi-chemically defined medium can successfully support the development of bovine embryos to the morula stage to a limited extent, but the medium lacks some nutrients or growth factors to fully support development through the blastocyst stage. PMID:16727096

  12. In vitro development of bovine one-cell embryos: Influence of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; First, N L

    1992-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of nutrient substrates on embryo development, in vitro fertilized bovine one-cell embryos were cultured in a medium similar to synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) but without glucose and containing 3.3 mM lactate, 0.3 mM pyruvate and 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 39 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air. Results indicated that addition of glucose was not only unnecessary, but it also had a deleterious effect on embryo development to the morula stage. Lactate supported embryo development up to the morula stage as well as pyruvate. Supplementation with 20 amino acids contained in basal medium Eagle's (BME) and minimum essential medium (MEM) improved development to the morula stage dramatically and increased the cell number compared with that of the controls. Addition of the vitamins from MEM to SOF had no beneficial effect. The SOF with amino acids did not increase the frequency of blastocysts 7 days after in-vitro fertilization but did increase the total number of cells compared with that of the controls. Frequency of blastocysts at Day 7 in SOF with amino acids was equivalent to that of co-culture although the total cell number was lower. These results demonstrate that a semi-chemically defined medium can successfully support the development of bovine embryos to the morula stage to a limited extent, but the medium lacks some nutrients or growth factors to fully support development through the blastocyst stage.

  13. Storage lipid biosynthesis in microspore-derived Brassica napus embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.C.; Underhill, E.W.; Weber, N. ); Pomeroy, M.K. ); Edwards, L. )

    1989-04-01

    Erucic acid, a fatty acid which is confined to the neutral lipids in developing seed cotyledons or rape, was chosen as a marker to study triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis in a Brassica napus L. cv Reston microspore-derived embryo culture system. Accumulation and changes in acyl composition of TAGs during embryogenesis strongly paralleled that observed during seed development. Homogenates of 29-day cultured embryos were examined for the ability to incorporate erucoyl moieties into storage lipids. In the presence of {sup 14}C erucoyl CoA and various acceptors, including glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), {sup 14}C erucic acid was rapidly incorporated into the TAG fraction. However, in contrast to studies with {sup 14}C oleoyl CoA, there was no measurable radioactivity in any Kennedy Pathway intermediates or within membrane lipid components. Analysis of the radiolabelled TAG species suggested that erucoyl moieties were incorporated into the sn-3 position by a highly active diacylglyercol acyltransferase.

  14. Regulation of pluripotency of inner cell mass and growth and differentiation of trophectoderm of the bovine embryo by colony stimulating factor 2.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Kyle B; Khan, Firdous A; Sakatani, Miki; Moss, James I; Ozawa, Manabu; Ealy, Alan D; Hansen, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) enhances competence of the bovine embryo to establish and maintain pregnancy after the embryo is transferred into a recipient. Mechanisms involved could include regulation of lineage commitment, growth, or differentiation of the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE). Experiments were conducted to evaluate regulation by CSF2 of pluripotency of the ICM and differentiation and growth of the TE. Embryos were cultured with 10 ng/ml recombinant bovine CSF2 or a vehicle control from Days 5 to 7 or 6 to 8 postinsemination. CSF2 increased the number of putative zygotes that developed to blastocysts when the percent of embryos becoming blastocysts in the control group was low but decreased blastocyst yield when blastocyst development in controls was high. ICM isolated from blastocysts by lysing the trophectoderm using antibody and complement via immunosurgery were more likely to survive passage when cultured on mitomycin C-treated fetal fibroblasts if derived from blastocysts treated with CSF2 than if from control blastocysts. There was little effect of CSF2 on characteristics of TE outgrowths from blastocysts. The exception was a decrease in outgrowth size for embryos treated with CSF2 from Days 5 to 7 and an increase in expression of CDX2 when treatment was from Days 6 to 8. Expression of the receptor subunit gene CSF2RA increased from the zygote stage to the 9-16 cell stage before decreasing to the blastocyst stage. In contrast, CSF2RB was undetectable at all stages. In conclusion, CSF2 improves competence of the ICM to survive in a pluripotent state and alters TE outgrowths. Actions of CSF2 occur through a signaling pathway that is likely to be independent of CSF2RB.

  15. Aberrant placenta gene expression pattern in bovine pregnancies established after transfer of cloned or in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Tesfaye, Dawit; Hossain, Munir; Held, Eva; Rings, Franca; Tholen, Ernst; Looft, Christian; Cinar, Ulas; Schellander, Karl; Hoelker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we used the global transcriptome profile approach to identify dysregulated genes, molecular pathways, and molecular functional alterations in bovine placentas derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and in vitro embryo production (IVP) pregnancies compared with their artificial insemination (AI) counterparts at day 50 of gestation. For this, day 7 blastocysts derived from AI, IVP, or SCNT were transferred to oestrus-synchronized cows. The pregnant animals were slaughtered at day 50 of gestation, and the placentas were then recovered and used for transcriptome analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip bovine genome array. Results showed the SCNT placenta to be different from its AI counterpart in the expression of 1,196 transcripts. These genes were found to be associated with alterations in key biological processes and molecular pathways in SCNT placenta, and the dysregulation of 9% (n = 110) of these genes was due to transcriptional reprogramming error. IVP placenta also displayed alterations in the expression of 72 genes, of which 58 were common to SCNT placenta. Gene enrichment analysis revealed that the expression of genes involved in organ development, blood vessel development, extracellular matrix organization, and the immune system was affected in both SCNT and IVP placentas. However, 96% of the affected genes in SCNT were not significantly altered in IVP groups. Thus, the higher transcriptome dysregulation in SCNT placenta followed by IVP would reflect the degree of placental abnormality in SCNT and IVP pregnancies at day 50 of the gestation, which may have a profound effect on subsequent fetal development and health of the offspring.

  16. Fine mapping of genome activation in bovine embryos by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Schwalb, Björn; Blum, Helmut; Wolf, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    During maternal-to-embryonic transition control of embryonic development gradually switches from maternal RNAs and proteins stored in the oocyte to gene products generated after embryonic genome activation (EGA). Detailed insight into the onset of embryonic transcription is obscured by the presence of maternal transcripts. Using the bovine model system, we established by RNA sequencing a comprehensive catalogue of transcripts in germinal vesicle and metaphase II oocytes, and in embryos at the four-cell, eight-cell, 16-cell, and blastocyst stages. These were produced by in vitro fertilization of Bos taurus taurus oocytes with sperm from a Bos taurus indicus bull to facilitate parent-specific transcriptome analysis. Transcripts from 12.4 to 13.7 × 103 different genes were detected in the various developmental stages. EGA was analyzed by (i) detection of embryonic transcripts, which are not present in oocytes; (ii) detection of transcripts from the paternal allele; and (iii) detection of primary transcripts with intronic sequences. These strategies revealed (i) 220, (ii) 937, and (iii) 6,848 genes to be activated from the four-cell to the blastocyst stage. The largest proportion of gene activation [i.e., (i) 59%, (ii) 42%, and (iii) 58%] was found in eight-cell embryos, indicating major EGA at this stage. Gene ontology analysis of genes activated at the four-cell stage identified categories related to RNA processing, translation, and transport, consistent with preparation for major EGA. Our study provides the largest transcriptome data set of bovine oocyte maturation and early embryonic development and detailed insight into the timing of embryonic activation of specific genes. PMID:24591639

  17. Development of a single bovine embryo improved by co-culture with trophoblastic vesicles in vitamin-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miyuki; Kasa, Shojiro; Hattori, Masa-aki; Ueda, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    To improve the development of singly cultured bovine embryos, we developed a co-culture method with trophoblastic vesicles. The growth of trophoblastic cells was markedly increased in vitamin-supplemented medium 199 compared with medium 199. Upon co-culture of a single embryo with trophoblastic vesicles in vitamin-supplemented medium 199, embryo development to the blastocyst stage was significantly higher than in embryos co-cultured with trophoblastic vesicles in RPMI 1640 or with cumulus cells in medium 199 (control). In the absence of the vitamin cocktail, co-culture with trophoblastic vesicles in medium 199 did not improve embryo development compared with that of the control. The vitamin cocktail was effective in embryo development when co-cultured with trophoblastic vesicles, but not with cumulus cells. Embryo development was not improved in the absence of co-cultured trophoblastic vesicles, even in the presence of vitamin cocktail. In conclusion, the co-culture system with trophoblastic vesicles in vitamin-supplemented medium 199 efficiently enhances the development of singly cultured embryos. PMID:22878867

  18. Effect of body condition and season on yield and quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Chrenek, Peter; Kubovičová, Elena; Olexíková, Lucia; Makarevich, Alexander V; Toporcerová, Silvia; Ostró, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the effects of cow's body condition score (BCS; scale 1-5) and season on the quality of bovine in vitro produced embryos. The proportion of good quality oocytes (Q1 and Q2) was higher (P < 0.05) in the BCS 2 (57.60%) and BCS 3 (60.90%) groups compared with the BCS 1 (43.60%) group. There were no statistical differences in embryo cleavage and blastocyst rate among the BCS groups. The highest total cell number (TCN, DAPI stain) of blastocysts (P < 0.05), recorded in BCS 1 (122.27 ± 6.90) in comparison with BCS 2 (101.8 ± 3.60) or BCS 3 (105.44 ± 3.70) groups, was related to higher dead cell (DCI, TUNEL) index in this group (7.07%) when compared with BCS 2 (6.54%) or BCS 3 (6.06%), respectively. The yield of good quality oocytes during spring was lower (P < 0.05) compared with the summer season. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in maturation and cleavage rates between autumn and summer (73.42%, 76.2% vs. 85.0%, 41.8%, respectively). The highest (P < 0.01) blastocyst rate was noted during spring and summer months. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in the TCN among spring (99.38 ± 3.90), autumn (110.1 ± 4.58) or summer (108.96 ± 3.52) was observed. The highest proportion of embryos with the best (grade I) actin cytoskeleton (phalloidin-TRITC) quality was noted during the summer months. Our results indicate that body condition affects the initial quality of oocytes, but does not affect embryo cleavage, blastocyst rate and actin quality. This finding may suggest that development in vitro can mask the influence of BCS. The season affects yield and quality of blastocysts in the way that the autumn period is more favorable for embryo development.

  19. Timing of meiotic progression in bovine oocytes and its effect on early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Dominko, T; First, N L

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of the kinetics of nuclear maturation in bovine oocytes on early embryo development and to examine whether the time of insemination of mature oocytes affects the oocytes' ability to support events of early embryo development. The time required for completion of nuclear maturation was influenced by gonadotropins used to supplement the maturation medium. Luteinizing hormone (LH) enhanced the speed of nuclear maturation when compared to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Oocytes completing their nuclear maturation early (by 16 hours after the initiation of culture) were more likely to complete the first embryonic cell cycle (78% in LH vs. 43% in FSH) and develop to the blastocyst stage (47% in LH vs. 34% in FSH). As the age of the oocytes at the time of MII arrest increased (extrusion of the polar body by 20 or 24 hours), a decrease in their ability to cleave and develop to the blastocyst stage was observed. Differences in the oocyte's ability to decondense chromatin and form pronuclei were also observed. Early maturing oocytes started forming pronuclei earlier than their later maturing counterparts. The time of insemination of mature oocytes played an equally important role. Generally, when insemination of mature oocytes was delayed for 8 hours, higher proportions of fertilized oocytes developed to advanced preimplantation stages than did the oocytes inseminated immediately after metaphase II arrest. PMID:9211431

  20. Timing of meiotic progression in bovine oocytes and its effect on early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Dominko, T; First, N L

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of the kinetics of nuclear maturation in bovine oocytes on early embryo development and to examine whether the time of insemination of mature oocytes affects the oocytes' ability to support events of early embryo development. The time required for completion of nuclear maturation was influenced by gonadotropins used to supplement the maturation medium. Luteinizing hormone (LH) enhanced the speed of nuclear maturation when compared to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Oocytes completing their nuclear maturation early (by 16 hours after the initiation of culture) were more likely to complete the first embryonic cell cycle (78% in LH vs. 43% in FSH) and develop to the blastocyst stage (47% in LH vs. 34% in FSH). As the age of the oocytes at the time of MII arrest increased (extrusion of the polar body by 20 or 24 hours), a decrease in their ability to cleave and develop to the blastocyst stage was observed. Differences in the oocyte's ability to decondense chromatin and form pronuclei were also observed. Early maturing oocytes started forming pronuclei earlier than their later maturing counterparts. The time of insemination of mature oocytes played an equally important role. Generally, when insemination of mature oocytes was delayed for 8 hours, higher proportions of fertilized oocytes developed to advanced preimplantation stages than did the oocytes inseminated immediately after metaphase II arrest.

  1. Exploring the function of long non-coding RNA in the development of bovine early embryos.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Julieta; Gilbert, Isabelle; Fournier, Eric; Gagné, Dominic; Scantland, Sara; Macaulay, Angus; Robert, Claude

    2014-12-01

    Now recognised as part of the cellular transcriptome, the function of long non-coding (lnc) RNA remains unclear. Previously, we found that some lncRNA molecules in bovine embryos are highly responsive to culture conditions. In view of a recent demonstration that lncRNA may play a role in regulating important functions, such as maintenance of pluripotency, modification of epigenetic marks and activation of transcription, we sought evidence of its involvement in embryogenesis. Among the numerous catalogued lncRNA molecules found in oocytes and early embryos of cattle, three candidates chosen for further characterisation were found unexpectedly in the cytoplasmic compartment rather than in the nucleus. Transcriptomic survey of subcellular fractions found these candidates also associated with polyribosomes and one of them spanning transzonal projections between cumulus cells and the oocyte. Knocking down this transcript in matured oocytes increased developmental rates, leading to larger blastocysts. Transcriptome and methylome analyses of these blastocysts showed concordant data for a subset of four genes, including at least one known to be important for blastocyst survival. Functional characterisation of the roles played by lncRNA in supporting early development remains elusive. Our results suggest that some lncRNAs play a role in translation control of target mRNA. This would be important for managing the maternal reserves within which is embedded the embryonic program, especially before embryonic genome activation.

  2. Low oxygen tension and relative defined culture medium with 3, 4-dihydroxyflavone are beneficial for yak-bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo.

    PubMed

    Xiong, X; Li, J; Wang, L; Zhong, J; Zi, X; Wang, Y

    2014-02-01

    With an aim to improve the efficiency of yak-bovine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT), this study investigated the effect of different culture systems on the development, quality and gene expression profile of yak-bovine iSCNT embryo. Reconstructed embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF) or relative defined culture medium (RDCM) with 5% or 20% oxygen tension. Relative mRNA abundance of Oct-4, IFNT, IGF-2, Bax, GPX-1, SOD-1, CAT and GSS was analysed in blastocysts with qRT-PCR. The blastocyst formation rate in RDCM under 5% oxygen tension was significantly higher than that under 20% oxygen tension (P < 0.05). The total cell number of blastocyst derived from RDCM with 20% oxygen tension was lower than that of other groups, whereas the group of RDCM with 5% oxygen tension showed a beneficial effect on apoptosis index and tolerance to cryopreservation (P < 0.05). However, under the same oxygen tension, the mRNA abundance of IFNT of RDCM groups was higher than that of the mSOF groups. In addition, high oxygen tension during in vitro culture (IVC) with RDCM significantly increases the mRNA expression of oxidative stress-related genes (GPX-1, SOD-1, CAT and GSS) (P < 0.05). 3, 4-Dihydroxyflavone (DHF) during high oxygen tension was able to improve the cloned blastocyst formation rate in RDCM (P < 0.05). These results for the first time showed that low oxygen tension and RDCM could improve the developmental competence and quality and alleviate the oxidative stress for yak-bovine iSCNT embryo during IVC.

  3. Molecular Characterization of the First Bovine Herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) Strains Isolated from In Vitro Bovine Embryos production in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    González Altamiranda, Erika; Manrique, Julieta M.; Pérez, Sandra E.; Ríos, Glenda L.; Odeón, Anselmo C.; Leunda, María R.; Jones, Leandro R.; Verna, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) is increasingly considered as responsible for various problems of the reproductive tract. The virus infects mainly blood mononuclear cells and displays specific tropism for vascular endothelia, reproductive and fetal tissues. Epidemiological studies suggest its impact on reproductive performance, and its presence in various sites in the reproductive tract highlights its potential transmission in transfer-stage embryos. This work describes the biological and genetic characterization of BoHV-4 strains isolated from an in vitro bovine embryo production system. BoHV-4 strains were isolated in 2011 and 2013 from granulosa cells and bovine oocytes from ovary batches collected at a local abattoir, used as “starting material” for in vitro production of bovine embryos. Compatible BoHV-4-CPE was observed in the co-culture of granulosa cells and oocytes with MDBK cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR assays targeting three ORFs of the viral genome. The phylogenetic analyses of the strains suggest that they were evolutionary unlinked. Therefore it is possible that BoHV-4 ovary infections occurred regularly along the evolution of the virus, at least in Argentina, which can have implications in the systems of in vitro embryo production. Thus, although BoHV-4 does not appear to be a frequent risk factor for in vitro embryo production, data are still limited. This study reveals the potential of BoHV-4 transmission via embryo transfer. Moreover, the high variability among the BoHV-4 strains isolated from aborted cows in Argentina highlights the importance of further research on the role of this virus as an agent with the potential to cause reproductive disease in cattle. The genetic characterization of the isolated strains provides data to better understand the pathogenesis of BoHV-4 infections. Furthermore, it will lead to fundamental insights into the molecular aspects of the virus and the means by which these strains circulate

  4. Susceptibility of zona-intact and zona-free in vitro-produced bovine embryos at different stages of development to infection with bovine herpesvirus-1.

    PubMed

    Vanroose, G; Nauwynck, H; Van Soom, A; Vanopdenbosch, E; de Kruif, A

    1997-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if BHV-1 is able to replicate within in vitro produced embryos and to investigate the degree to which the zona pellucida (ZP) is able to protect in vitro produced embryos against infection with BHV-1. Both ZP-intact and ZP-free matured oocytes, zygotes (1 d post insemination; 1dpi), 8-cell stage embryos (3 dpi), morulae (6 dpi) were incubated for 1 h in 1 ml of MEM containing 10(7.7) TCID(50)/ml BHV-1 (Cooper strain). Three titers (10(5.7), 10(6.7) and 10(7.7) TCID(50)/ml) of the Cooper strain were used for incubation of hatched blastocysts (9 dpi). Bovine embryonic lung cells (BEL) on microcarriers were inoculated following the same protocol as for the embryos. At 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h post inoculation (hpi), groups of embryos and BEL cells were collected for virus titration and for the determination of the percentage of viral antigen positive cells by immunofluorescence. For the 3 developmental stages in ZP-free embryos, similar maximal intracellular virus progeny titers were obtained at 24 to 48 hpi ranging from 10(1.32) to 10(1.43) TCID(50)/ 100 embryonic cells. The intracellular virus titer in the BEL cells peaked at 10(3.08) TCID(50)/ 100 BEL cells. The percentage of cells which expressed viral antigens was 13% in ZP-free hatched blastocysts, 17% in ZP-free morulae and 100% in BEL cells. In ZP-intact embryos, no replication of BHV-1 was detected. These results clearly show that only after removal of the zona pellucida, BHV-1 is able to replicate within the in vitro produced embryos, with only a subset of embryonic cells being fully susceptible.

  5. Reprogramming of fibroblast nuclei in cloned bovine embryos involves major structural remodeling with both striking similarities and differences to nuclear phenotypes of in vitro fertilized embryos.

    PubMed

    Popken, Jens; Brero, Alessandro; Koehler, Daniela; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Wuensch, Annegret; Guengoer, Tuna; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wolf, Eckhard; Cremer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear landscapes were studied during preimplantation development of bovine embryos, generated either by in vitro fertilization (IVF), or generated as cloned embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of bovine fetal fibroblasts, using 3-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy (3D-CLSM) and structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM). Nuclear landscapes of IVF and SCNT embryonic nuclei were compared with each other and with fibroblast nuclei. We demonstrate that reprogramming of fibroblast nuclei in cloned embryos requires changes of their landscapes similar to nuclei of IVF embryos. On the way toward the 8-cell stage, where major genome activation occurs, a major lacuna, enriched with splicing factors, was formed in the nuclear interior and chromosome territories (CTs) were shifted toward the nuclear periphery. During further development the major lacuna disappeared and CTs were redistributed throughout the nuclear interior forming a contiguous higher order chromatin network. At all stages of development CTs of IVF and SCNT embryonic nuclei were built up from chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) pervaded by interchromatin compartment (IC) channels. Quantitative analyses revealed a highly significant enrichment of RNA polymerase II and H3K4me3, a marker for transcriptionally competent chromatin, at the periphery of CDCs. In contrast, H3K9me3, a marker for silent chromatin, was enriched in the more compacted interior of CDCs. Despite these striking similarities, we also detected major differences between nuclear landscapes of IVF and cloned embryos. Possible implications of these differences for the developmental potential of cloned animals remain to be investigated. We present a model, which integrates generally applicable structural and functional features of the nuclear landscape.

  6. Reprogramming of fibroblast nuclei in cloned bovine embryos involves major structural remodeling with both striking similarities and differences to nuclear phenotypes of in vitro fertilized embryos

    PubMed Central

    Popken, Jens; Brero, Alessandro; Koehler, Daniela; Schmid, Volker J; Strauss, Axel; Wuensch, Annegret; Guengoer, Tuna; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wolf, Eckhard; Cremer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear landscapes were studied during preimplantation development of bovine embryos, generated either by in vitro fertilization (IVF), or generated as cloned embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of bovine fetal fibroblasts, using 3-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy (3D-CLSM) and structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM). Nuclear landscapes of IVF and SCNT embryonic nuclei were compared with each other and with fibroblast nuclei. We demonstrate that reprogramming of fibroblast nuclei in cloned embryos requires changes of their landscapes similar to nuclei of IVF embryos. On the way toward the 8-cell stage, where major genome activation occurs, a major lacuna, enriched with splicing factors, was formed in the nuclear interior and chromosome territories (CTs) were shifted toward the nuclear periphery. During further development the major lacuna disappeared and CTs were redistributed throughout the nuclear interior forming a contiguous higher order chromatin network. At all stages of development CTs of IVF and SCNT embryonic nuclei were built up from chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) pervaded by interchromatin compartment (IC) channels. Quantitative analyses revealed a highly significant enrichment of RNA polymerase II and H3K4me3, a marker for transcriptionally competent chromatin, at the periphery of CDCs. In contrast, H3K9me3, a marker for silent chromatin, was enriched in the more compacted interior of CDCs. Despite these striking similarities, we also detected major differences between nuclear landscapes of IVF and cloned embryos. Possible implications of these differences for the developmental potential of cloned animals remain to be investigated. We present a model, which integrates generally applicable structural and functional features of the nuclear landscape. PMID:25482066

  7. Expression Profile of Genes as Indicators of Developmental Competence and Quality of In Vitro Fertilization and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Monteleone, Melisa Carolina; Mucci, Nicolas; Kaiser, German Gustavo; Brocco, Marcela; Mutto, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biotechnologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enable improved reproductive efficiency of animals. However, the birth rate of in vitro-derived embryos still lags behind that of their in vivo counterparts. Thus, it is critical to develop an accurate evaluation and prediction system of embryo competence, both for commercial purposes and for scientific research. Previous works have demonstrated that in vitro culture systems induce alterations in the relative abundance (RA) of diverse transcripts and thus compromise embryo quality. The aim of this work was to analyze the RA of a set of genes involved in cellular stress (heat shock protein 70-kDa, HSP70), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, Bip; proteasome subunit β5, PSMB5) and apoptosis (BCL-2 associated X protein, Bax; cysteine aspartate protease-3, Caspase-3) in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF or SCNT and compare it with that of their in vivo counterparts. Poly (A) + mRNA was isolated from three pools of 10 blastocysts per treatment and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The RA of three of the stress indicators analyzed (Bax, PSMB5 and Bip) was significantly increased in SCNT embryos as compared with that of in vivo-derived blastocysts. No significant differences were found in the RA of HSP70 and Caspase-3 gene transcripts. This study could potentially complement morphological analyses in the development of an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis of embryo quality, ultimately aiding to improve the efficiency of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). PMID:25269019

  8. Developmental failure of hybrid embryos generated by in vitro fertilization of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocyte with bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Shekhar; Totey, Satish

    2003-03-01

    The developmental potential of inter-species hybrid embryos produced by in vitro fertilization of in vitro matured buffalo oocytes with bovine spermatozoa was studied with a view to investigate pre-implantation embryo development and its gross morphology, early embryonic gene expression, and embryonic genome activation. Fertilization events with both buffalo and cattle spermatozoa were almost similar. Overall fertilization rate with cattle spermatozoa was 78.4% was not significantly different from that of buffalo spermatozoa (80.2%). Initial cleavage rate between buffalo and hybrid embryo was also similar, and there was no significant difference in their developmental rate till 8-cell stage (26.0 +/- 4.1 vs. 24.3 +/- 4.8). However, only 5.3% of hybrid embryos developed into blastocyst stage compared to 21.7% in buffalo. mRNA phenotyping of insulin-like growth factor family (Insulin, insulin receptor, IGF-I, IGF-I receptor, IGF-II, and IGF-II receptor) and glucose transporter isoforms (GLUT-I, II, III, IV) in hybrid embryos clearly showed that these molecules were not expressed after 8-cell stage onward. Similarly, as observed in buffalo embryos, incorporation of (35)S-methionine and (3)H-uridine could not be observed in hybrid embryos from 8-cell stage onward. This suggests that the maternal-zygotic genome activation did not occur in hybrid embryos. Differential staining also showed that the blastomere stopped dividing after 8-cell stage. Collectively, these parameters clearly showed that there was developmental failure of hybrid embryos.

  9. Production of female bovine embryos with sex-sorted sperm using intracytoplasmic sperm injection: efficiency and in vitro developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyun-Tae; Bang, Jae-Il; Kim, Seong-Su; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Jin, Jong-In; Kim, Heyng-Lyool; Jung, In-Suk; Suh, Tae-Kwang; Ghanem, Nasser; Wang, Zhongde; Kong, Il-Keun

    2014-03-15

    The production of embryos with a preselected sex sperm is important in the livestock industry. In this study, we examined the efficiency of producing female embryos by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with flow cytometry sorted (ssICSI) and unsorted (usICSI) bovine sperm, and their developmental competence in vitro. For comparison, bovine embryos were also produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) with sorted (ssIVF) and unsorted (usIVF) bovine sperm. The semen used in this study was from a bull selected for its high fertility and blastocyst developmental competence among four bulls. We first examined and compared pronuclear (PN) formation and cleavage rates of the produced embryos among the treatment groups. Our results demonstrated that PN formation rates (judged by two pronucleus [2PN]) and cleavage rates in ssIVF group (23.1% and 43.6%) were lower than those in the usIVF (71.1% and 71.6%), usICSI (73.1% and 92.8%) and ssICSI (75% and 79.1%) groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, the blastocyst formation rate in the ssIVF group was less than those in the usIVF, usICSI, and ssICSI groups (2.7% vs. 30.2%, 28.7% and 24.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). Importantly, we reported that the blastocyst formation rate in the ssICSI group was similar to that in the usICSI group, which indicated that ICSI can rescue the damage introduced to sperm by flow cytometry-mediated sex-sorting. Of note, we achieved a blastocyst formation rate in the ssICSI group to be comparable with the usIVF group. We then examined embryo quality by counting the number of normal and apoptotic cells in blastocysts. It was found that, despite the fact that blastocyst formation rate in the ssIVF group was significantly lower than those in the usIVF, usICSI and ssICSI groups, there was no difference in total and apoptotic cell numbers among these groups (P > 0.05). Finally, karyotyping analysis demonstrated that the proportion of female embryos in the ssICSI and ssIVF groups was 100%, whereas it

  10. Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.

    PubMed

    Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2012-10-01

    The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2α), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2α) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed.

  11. Development of a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos.

    PubMed

    Batista, M; Torres, A; Diniz, P; Mateus, L; Lopes-da-Costa, L

    2012-10-01

    The cross talk between the corpus luteum (CL) and the early embryo, potentially relevant to pregnancy establishment, is difficult to evaluate in the in vivo bovine model. In vitro co-culture of bovine luteal cells and early embryos (days 2-8 post in vitro fertilization) may allow the deciphering of this poorly understood cross talk. However, early embryos and somatic cells require different in vitro culture conditions. The objective of this study was to develop a bovine luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for co-culture with early embryos in order to evaluate their putative steroidogenic and prostanoid interactions. The corpora lutea of the different stages of the estrous cycle (early, mid, and late) were recovered postmortem and enriched luteal cell populations were obtained. In experiments 1 and 2, the effects of CL stage, culture medium (TCM, DMEM-F12, or SOF), serum concentration (5 or 10%), atmosphere oxygen tension (5 or 20%), and refreshment of the medium on the ability of luteal cells to produce progesterone (P(4)) were evaluated. The production of P(4) was significantly increased in early CL cultures, and luteal cells adapted well to simple media (SOF), low serum concentrations (5%), and oxygen tensions (5%). In experiment 3, previous luteal cell cryopreservation did not affect the production of P(4), PGF(2α), and PGE(2) compared to fresh cell cultures. This enables the use of pools of frozen-thawed cells to decrease the variation in cell function associated with primary cell cultures. In experiment 4, mineral oil overlaying culture wells resulted in a 50-fold decrease of the P(4) quantified in the medium, but had no effect on PGF(2α) and PGE(2) quantification. In conclusion, a luteal cell in vitro culture system suitable for the 5-d-long co-culture with early embryos was developed. PMID:23054443

  12. Bisphenol A affects early bovine embryo development and metabolism that is negated by an oestrogen receptor inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bom-Ie; Harvey, Alexandra J.; Green, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports an association between exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA), a commonly used plasticiser, and the developmental programming of offspring health. To date however animal studies to investigate a direct causal have mainly focussed on supra-environmental BPA concentrations, without investigating the effect on the early embryo. In this study we investigated the effect of acute BPA exposure (days 3.5 to 7.5 post-fertilisation) at environmentally relevant concentrations (1 and 10 ng/mL) on in vitro bovine embryo development, quality and metabolism. We then examined whether culturing embryos in the presence of the oestrogen receptor inhibitor fulvestrant could negate effects of BPA and 17β-oestradiol (E2). Exposure to BPA or E2 (10 ng/mL) decreased blastocyst rate and the percentage of transferrable quality embryos, without affecting cell number, lineage allocation or metabolic gene expression compared to untreated embryos. Notably, blastocysts exposed to BPA and E2 (10 ng/mL) displayed an increase in glucose consumption. The presence of fulvestrant however negated the adverse developmental and metabolic effects, suggesting BPA elicits its effects via oestrogen-mediated pathways. This study demonstrates that even acute exposure to an environmentally relevant BPA concentration can affect early embryo development and metabolism. These may have long-term health consequences on an individual. PMID:27384909

  13. Bisphenol A affects early bovine embryo development and metabolism that is negated by an oestrogen receptor inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bom-Ie; Harvey, Alexandra J; Green, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports an association between exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA), a commonly used plasticiser, and the developmental programming of offspring health. To date however animal studies to investigate a direct causal have mainly focussed on supra-environmental BPA concentrations, without investigating the effect on the early embryo. In this study we investigated the effect of acute BPA exposure (days 3.5 to 7.5 post-fertilisation) at environmentally relevant concentrations (1 and 10 ng/mL) on in vitro bovine embryo development, quality and metabolism. We then examined whether culturing embryos in the presence of the oestrogen receptor inhibitor fulvestrant could negate effects of BPA and 17β-oestradiol (E2). Exposure to BPA or E2 (10 ng/mL) decreased blastocyst rate and the percentage of transferrable quality embryos, without affecting cell number, lineage allocation or metabolic gene expression compared to untreated embryos. Notably, blastocysts exposed to BPA and E2 (10 ng/mL) displayed an increase in glucose consumption. The presence of fulvestrant however negated the adverse developmental and metabolic effects, suggesting BPA elicits its effects via oestrogen-mediated pathways. This study demonstrates that even acute exposure to an environmentally relevant BPA concentration can affect early embryo development and metabolism. These may have long-term health consequences on an individual. PMID:27384909

  14. Biological components in a standardized derivative of bovine colostrum.

    PubMed

    Sacerdote, P; Mussano, F; Franchi, S; Panerai, A E; Bussolati, G; Carossa, S; Bartorelli, A; Bussolati, B

    2013-03-01

    Products of different origin, time of collection, and activities fall under the general term of colostrum and, therefore, great variability in composition as well as in the concentration of its components has been reported in the literature. In the present study, we describe the standardization of a bovine colostrum derivative and the characterization of its bioactive components. Evaluation of the most representative agents (lactoferrin, transferrin, IL-2, IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor, IgG, and IgA) showed that a marked decrease in active components occurs after the first few hours. Bovine colostrum was, therefore, collected up to the fifth hour after delivery from Holstein cows, in the presence of preservatives, and immediately frozen. A protocol of centrifugation, filtration, and lyophilization was then applied to pools of colostrum from at least 30 cows to obtain a stable, sterile, standardized product. Preservatives were removed by dialysis. Evaluation of the active biological components of colostrum showed that the final product of colostrums contained significant and reproducible amounts of bioactive factors, including cytokines, immunomodulating factors, growth factors, and immunoglobulins. The final product appeared, therefore, as a sterile, pyrogen-free, standardized derivative of bovine colostrum with a high concentration of bioactive components. PMID:23332842

  15. Positional changes of a pluripotency marker gene during structural reorganization of fibroblast nuclei in cloned early bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Popken, Jens; Koehler, Daniela; Brero, Alessandro; Wuensch, Annegret; Guengoer, Tuna; Thormeyer, Tobias; Wolf, Eckhard; Cremer, Thomas; Zakhartchenko, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    Cloned bovine preimplantation embryos were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of bovine fetal fibroblasts with a silent copy of the pluripotency reporter gene GOF, integrated at a single site of a chromosome 13. GOF combines the regulatory Oct4/Pou5f1 sequence with the coding sequence for EGFP. EGFP expression served as a marker for pluripotency gene activation and was consistently detected in preimplantation embryos with 9 and more cells. Three-dimensional radial nuclear positions of GOF, its carrier chromosome territory and non-carrier homolog were measured in nuclei of fibroblasts, and of day 2 and day 4 embryos, carrying 2 to 9 and 15 to 22 cells, respectively. We tested, whether transcriptional activation was correlated with repositioning of GOF toward the nuclear interior either with a corresponding movement of its carrier chromosome territory 13 or via the formation of a giant chromatin loop. A significant shift of GOF away from the nuclear periphery was observed in day 2 embryos together with both carrier and non-carrier chromosome territories. At day 4, GOF, its carrier chromosome territory 13 and the non-carrier homolog had moved back toward the nuclear periphery. Similar movements of both chromosome territories ruled out a specific GOF effect. Pluripotency gene activation was preceded by a transient, radial shift of GOF toward the nuclear interior. The persistent co-localization of GOF with its carrier chromosome territory rules out the formation of a giant chromatin loop during GOF activation.

  16. In vitro protective effect of bacteria-derived bovine alpha interferon I1 against selected bovine viruses.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, J H; Robson, D S; Scott, F W; Schiff, E I

    1985-12-01

    We used bacteria-derived bovine alpha-interferon I1 (Bo IFN-alpha I1) to study its antiviral effect in a bovine turbinate cell line on bovine diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parainfluenza 3 virus, and pseudorabies virus. We based our study upon replicate tests for each strain by using a block titration system with various concentrations of Bo IFN-alpha I1 against various concentrations of virus. The data were compiled in two-axis tables (replicate X concentration) and were statistically analyzed by the Spearman-Kärber method. An increase in the concentration of Bo IFN-alpha I1 enhanced its protective effect against every test virus strain. Bo IFN-alpha I1 had a marked in vitro effect on the bovine diarrhea viral strains. It demonstrated less protection against the pseudorabies and parainfluenza 3 viruses. Its effectiveness against the two infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viral strains was lesser and of a low order.

  17. Effects of Two Types of Melatonin-Loaded Nanocapsules with Distinct Supramolecular Structures: Polymeric (NC) and Lipid-Core Nanocapsules (LNC) on Bovine Embryo Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Deschamps, João Carlos; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Bordignon, Vilceu; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been used as a supplement in culture medium to improve the efficiency of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. Through its ability to scavenge toxic oxygen derivatives and regulate cellular mRNA levels for antioxidant enzymes, this molecule has been shown to play a protective role against damage by free radicals, to which in vitro cultured embryos are exposed during early development. In vivo and in vitro studies have been performed showing that the use of nanocapsules as active substances carriers increases stability, bioavailability and biodistribution of drugs, such as melatonin, to the cells and tissues, improving their antioxidant properties. These properties can be modulated through the manipulation of formula composition, especially in relation to the supramolecular structures of the nanocapsule core and the surface area that greatly influences drug release mechanisms in biological environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two types of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules with distinct supramolecular structures, polymeric (NC) and lipid-core (LNC) nanocapsules, on in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Embryonic development, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA levels of genes involved in cell apoptosis, ROS and cell pluripotency were evaluated after supplementation of culture medium with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (Mel-NC) and melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC) at 10−6, 10−9, and 10−12 M drug concentrations. The highest hatching rate was observed in embryos treated with 10−9 M Mel-LNC. When compared to Mel and Mel-NC treatments at the same concentration (10−9 M), Mel-LNC increased embryo cell number, decreased cell apoptosis and ROS levels, down-regulated mRNA levels of BAX, CASP3, and SHC1 genes, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT and SOD2 genes. These findings indicate that nanoencapsulation with LNC increases the protective effects of

  18. Effects of Two Types of Melatonin-Loaded Nanocapsules with Distinct Supramolecular Structures: Polymeric (NC) and Lipid-Core Nanocapsules (LNC) on Bovine Embryo Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Komninou, Eliza Rossi; Remião, Mariana Härter; Lucas, Caroline Gomes; Domingues, William Borges; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Jornada, Denise Soledade; Deschamps, João Carlos; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Bordignon, Vilceu; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Guterres, Silvia Stanisçuaski; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin has been used as a supplement in culture medium to improve the efficiency of in vitro produced mammalian embryos. Through its ability to scavenge toxic oxygen derivatives and regulate cellular mRNA levels for antioxidant enzymes, this molecule has been shown to play a protective role against damage by free radicals, to which in vitro cultured embryos are exposed during early development. In vivo and in vitro studies have been performed showing that the use of nanocapsules as active substances carriers increases stability, bioavailability and biodistribution of drugs, such as melatonin, to the cells and tissues, improving their antioxidant properties. These properties can be modulated through the manipulation of formula composition, especially in relation to the supramolecular structures of the nanocapsule core and the surface area that greatly influences drug release mechanisms in biological environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two types of melatonin-loaded nanocapsules with distinct supramolecular structures, polymeric (NC) and lipid-core (LNC) nanocapsules, on in vitro cultured bovine embryos. Embryonic development, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA levels of genes involved in cell apoptosis, ROS and cell pluripotency were evaluated after supplementation of culture medium with non-encapsulated melatonin (Mel), melatonin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (Mel-NC) and melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (Mel-LNC) at 10-6, 10-9, and 10-12 M drug concentrations. The highest hatching rate was observed in embryos treated with 10-9 M Mel-LNC. When compared to Mel and Mel-NC treatments at the same concentration (10-9 M), Mel-LNC increased embryo cell number, decreased cell apoptosis and ROS levels, down-regulated mRNA levels of BAX, CASP3, and SHC1 genes, and up-regulated mRNA levels of CAT and SOD2 genes. These findings indicate that nanoencapsulation with LNC increases the protective effects of melatonin

  19. Effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal-stem-cell bioactive materials on porcine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Choi, Hyun-Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min-Jee; Son, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Jun-Beom; Jeong, Chang-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sun; Riu, Key-Jung; Park, Se-Pill

    2013-12-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) secrete bioactive materials that are beneficial for tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, we characterized human hAT-MSC bioactive material (hAT-MSC-BM), and examined the effect of hAT-MSC-BM on porcine embryo development. hAT-MSC-BM was enriched with several growth factors and cytokines, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Among the various concentrations and days of treatment tested, 10% hAT-MSC-BM treatment beginning on culture Day 4 provided the best environment for the in vitro growth of parthenogenetic porcine embryos. While the addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) increased the hatching rate and the total cell number of parthenogenetic porcine embryos compared with the control and hAT-MSC culture medium group, the best results were from the group cultured with 10% hAT-MSC-BM. Mitochondrial activity was also higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group. Moreover, the relative mRNA expression levels of development and anti-apoptosis genes were significantly higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group than in control, hAT-MSC culture medium, or 10% FBS groups, whereas the transcript abundance of an apoptosis gene was slightly lower. Treatment with 10% hAT-MSC-BM starting on Day 4 also improved the development rate and the total cell number of in vitro-fertilized embryos. This is the first report on the benefits of hAT-MSC-BM in a porcine embryo in vitro culture system. We conclude that hAT-MSC-BM is a new, alternative supplement that can improve the development of porcine embryos during both parthenogenesis and fertilization in vitro.

  20. Kinetics of fertilization and development, and sex ratio of bovine embryos produced using the semen of different bulls.

    PubMed

    Alomar, M; Tasiaux, H; Remacle, S; George, F; Paul, D; Donnay, I

    2008-08-01

    The between bulls variation in in vitro fertility and the shift of sex ratio towards male embryos are two problems affecting the in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos. Our objective was to evaluate the kinetics of fertilization, embryo development and the sex ratio of the resulting embryos using the frozen/thawed semen of four different bulls. In a first experiment, the kinetics of pronucleus (PN) formation was evaluated at 8, 12 and 18 h post-insemination (hpi). Based upon the pronuclei sizes and the distance between the two pronuclei, inseminated oocytes were classified in three PN stages. Differences between bulls were observed at each time point, but were more important at 12 hpi. At 8 and 12 hpi bull III showed a significantly faster PN evolution by comparison with the three other bulls (P<0.05), while at 18 hpi, the proportion of the three PN stages was similar to those of bulls I and IV, bull II being delayed. In a second experiment, the kinetics of in vitro embryo development was compared using time-lapse cinematography. The analysis of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage revealed significant differences in the mean time of first cleavage (range of 22.7-25.6h, P<0.05), while the lengths of the subsequent three cell cycles did not differ between bulls. The early mean time of first cleavage with bull III was associated with an early blastulation and a high blastocyst rate at Day 7, in opposition to what was observed with bull II showing a later timing of first cleavage (first cleavage 22.1 hpi versus 25.5 hpi; blastulation 140.4 hpi versus 152.5 hpi; D7 blastocyst rates: 31.3% versus 21.9%; P<0.05). In a third experiment, 65-76 Day 8 blastocysts per bull were sexed by PCR. Only blastocysts obtained with bull III showed a shift in sex ratio towards male embryos (76% male embryos; P<0.05). Such shift was already observed at the 2-cell and morula stages. In conclusion, the bull influences the kinetics of PN formation, of embryo development and the sex

  1. Astaxanthin Normalizes Epigenetic Modifications of Bovine Somatic Cell Cloned Embryos and Decreases the Generation of Lipid Peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Li, R; Wu, H; Zhuo, W W; Mao, Q F; Lan, H; Zhang, Y; Hua, S

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is an extremely common antioxidant scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocking lipid peroxidation. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of astaxanthin supplementation on oocyte maturation, and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in maturation medium with astaxanthin (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/l), respectively. We found that 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased the proportion of oocyte maturation. Oocytes cultured in 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin supplementation were used to construct SCNT embryos and further cultured with 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/l astaxanthin. The results showed that the supplementation of 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin significantly improved the proportions of cleavage and blastulation, as well as the total cell number in blastocysts compared with the control group, yet this influence was not concentration dependent. Chromosomal analyses revealed that more blastomeres showed a normal chromosomal complement in 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin treatment group, which was similar to that in IVF embryos. The methylation levels located on the exon 1 of the imprinted gene H19 and IGF2, pluripotent gene OCT4 were normalized, and global DNA methylation, H3K9 and H4K12 acetylation were also improved significantly, which was comparable to that in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Moreover, we also found that astaxanthin supplementation significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation. Our findings showed that the supplementation of 0.5 mg/l astaxanthin to oocyte maturation medium and embryo culture medium improved oocyte maturation, SCNT embryo development, increased chromosomal stability and normalized the epigenetic modifications, as well as inhibited overproduction of lipid peroxidation.

  2. Post-hatching development of bovine embryos in vitro: the effects of tunnel preparation and gender.

    PubMed

    Machado, Grazieli Marinheiro; Caixeta, Ester Siqueira; Lucci, Carolina Madeira; Rumpf, Rodolfo; Franco, Maurício Machaim; Dode, Margot Alves Nunes

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare morphological characteristics, kinetics of development, and gene expression of male and female IVP embryos that were cultured until day (D)15 (fertilization = D0), using either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Milli-Q water (MQW) to dilute the agarose gel used for tunnel construction. On D11, embryos (n = 286) were placed in agarose gel tunnels diluted in PBS and MQW. Embryos were evaluated for morphology, and embryo size was recorded on D11, D12.5, D14 and D15. Then, embryos were sexed and used for gene expression analyses (G6PD, GLUT1, GLUT3, PGK1, PLAC8, KRT8, HSF1 and IFNT). The percentage of elongated embryos at D15 was higher (p < 0.05) in the PBS (54%) than in the MQW (42%) gel. However, embryos produced in MQW were bigger (p < 0.05) and had a lower expression of GLUT1 (p = 0.08) than those cultured in PBS. There was a higher proportion of male than female embryos at D15 in both treatments, MQW (65% vs. 35%; p < 0.05) and PBS (67% vs. 33%; p < 0.05); however, embryo size was not significantly different between genders. Moreover, D15 female embryos had greater expression of G6PD (p = 0.05) and KRT8 (p = 0.03) than male embryos. In conclusion, the diluent used for tunnel construction affected embryo development in the post-hatching development (PHD) system, and the use of MQW was the most indicative measure for the evaluation of embryo quality. Male and female embryos cultured from D11 to D15, either in an MQW or PBS agarose gel, demonstrated similar development but different gene expression.

  3. Application of hollow fiber vitrification for cryopreservation of bovine early cleavage stage embryos and porcine morula-blastomeres

    PubMed Central

    UCHIKURA, Ayuko; MATSUNARI, Hitomi; NAKANO, Kazuaki; HATAE, Shota; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A novel hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method was applied to materials that have previously been difficult to cryopreserve, thereby expanding the potential application of this method. The results showed that zona-free porcine morulae and their isolated blastomeres remained viable even after vitrification. The rate of development to blastocysts after vitrification was similar for zona-free and zona-intact morulae (21/23, 91.3% for both). Vitrified blastomeres had a developmental potential equal to that of non-vitrified blastomeres (blastocyst formation rate after reaggregation: 16/17, 94.1% for both). The HFV method was also effective for the cryopreservation of in vitro matured/fertilized bovine embryos at the 2- to 4-cell, 8- to 16-cell and morula stages. The blastocyst formation rates of vitrified embryos (66.1–82.5%) were similar to those of non-vitrified embryos (74.5–82.5%). These results indicate that this novel HFV method is an effective tool for embryo cryopreservation that can enhance current practices in reproductive biology. PMID:26875691

  4. Derivation of a continuous myogenic cell culture from an embryo of common killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Sarah J; Vo, Nguyen T K; Mikhaeil, Michael S; Alexander, J Andrew N; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Schulte, Patricia M; Lee, Lucy E J

    2014-09-01

    The common killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an estuarine teleost increasingly used in comparative physiology, toxicology and embryology. Their ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions and ease of maintenance has made them popular aquatic research organisms. Scientific advances with most popular model organisms have been assisted with the availability of continuous cell lines; however, cell lines from F. heteroclitus appear to be unavailable. The development of a killifish cell line, KFE-5, derived from the mid trunk region of a late stage embryo is described here. KFE-5 grows well in Leibovitz's L-15 media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been passaged over 60 times in a span of three years, and cells at various passages have been successfully cryopreserved and thawed. The cells are mostly fibroblastic but contain myogenic cells that differentiate into mono-, bi- and multi-nucleated striated myocytes. Immunofluorescence detection of muscle specific antigens such as α-actinin, desmin, and myosin confirms KFE-5 as a myogenic cell line. KFE-5 has a temperature preference for 26-28°C and has been shown to withstand temperatures up to 37°C. The cell line responds to chemical signals including growth factors, hormones and extracellular matrix components. KFE-5 could thus be useful not only for mummichog's thermobiology but also for studies in fish muscle physiology and development. PMID:24836542

  5. Developmental dynamics of IMSI-derived embryos: a time-lapse prospective study.

    PubMed

    Knez, Katja; Tomazevic, Tomaz; Vrtacnik-Bokal, Eda; Virant-Klun, Irma

    2013-08-01

    Because sperm vacuoles were marked as zones without chromatin in the sperm nucleus, which may reflect underlying chromosomal or DNA defects, this study considered whether they influence the morphology and dynamics of early developmental events in preimplantation embryos. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa of four classes, according to the number and size of vacuoles at ×6000 magnification, and derived embryos were observed under time-lapse microscopy. For each embryo, the times of pronuclei appearance and disappearance and the first, second and third divisions were determined and related to its respective class of injected spermatozoa and its developmental stage. Embryos arising from normal class-I spermatozoa (without vacuoles) reached the 4-cell stage significantly earlier than embryos developed from class-IV spermatozoa (with large vacuoles and other abnormalities) (P=0.012). Blastocysts from class-I spermatozoa required the shortest mean time for all developmental events in comparison with blastocysts from spermatozoa of other classes (with vacuoles). Blastocysts also showed significantly earlier first division than arrested embryos in embryos arising from class-I spermatozoa (P=0.033). An insight into the developmental dynamics of embryo development according to morphology and head vacuoles of injected spermatozoa in morphologically selected sperm-derived embryos was observed for the first time.

  6. P53-Mediated Repression of the Reprogramming in Cloned Bovine Embryos Through Direct Interaction with HDAC1 and Indirect Interaction with DNMT3A.

    PubMed

    Ma, P J; Zhang, H; Li, R; Wang, Y S; Zhang, Y; Hua, S

    2015-06-01

    P53 is a transcriptional activator, regulating growth arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. We found that the expression level of P53 and the epigenetic profiles were significantly different in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos from those in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. So we inferred that abnormally expression of P53 might contribute to the incomplete reprogramming. Using bovine foetal fibroblasts, we constructed and screened a highly efficient shRNA vector targeting bovine P53 gene and then reconstituted somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos (RNAi-SCNT). The results indicated that expression levels of P53 were downregulated significantly in RNAi-SCNT embryos, and the blastulation rate and the total number of cell increased significantly. Moreover, methylation levels of CpG islands located 5' region of OCT4, NANOG, H19 and IGF2R in RNAi -SCNT embryos were significantly normalized to that IVF embryos, and the methylation levels of genome DNA, H3K9 and H4K5 acetylation levels were also returned to levels similar to the IVF embryos. Differentially expressed genes were identified by microarray, and 28 transcripts were found to be significantly different (> twofolds) in RNAi-SCNT embryos compared to the control nuclear transfer embryos (SCNT). Among the 28 differentially expressed transcripts, just HDAC1 and DNMT3A were closely associated with the epigenetic modifications. Finally, ChIP further showed that P53 might repress the epigenetic reprogramming by regulating HDAC1 directly and DNMT3A indirectly. These findings offer significant references to further elucidate the mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming in SCNT embryos.

  7. In vitro development of cloned bovine embryos produced by handmade cloning using somatic cells from distinct levels of cell culture confluence.

    PubMed

    Gerger, R P C; Ribeiro, E S; Forell, F; Bertolini, L R; Rodrigues, J L; Ambrósio, C E; Miglino, M A; Mezzalira, A; Bertolini, M

    2010-02-18

    The relationship between the level of cell confluence near the plateau phase of growth and blastocyst yield following somatic cell cloning is not well understood. We examined the effect of distinct cell culture confluence levels on in vitro development of cloned bovine embryos. In vitro-matured bovine oocytes were manually bisected and selected by DNA staining. One or two enucleated hemi-cytoplasts were paired and fused with an adult skin somatic cell. Cultured skin cells from an adult Nellore cow harvested at three distinct culture confluence levels (70-80, 80-90, and >95%) were used for construction of embryos and hemi-embryos. After activation, structures were cultured in vitro as one embryo (1 x 100%) or as aggregates of two hemi-embryos (2 x 50%) per microwell. Fusion, cleavage and blastocyst rates were compared using the chi(2) test. The fusion rate for hemi-embryos (51.4%) was lower than for embryos (67.6%), with no influence of degree of cell confluence. However, blastocyst rates improved linearly (7.0, 17.5, and 29.4%) with increases in cell confluence. We conclude that degree of cell culture confluence significantly influences subsequent embryo development; use of a cell population in high confluence (>90%) for nuclear transfer significantly improved blastocyst yield after cloning.

  8. Rapidly cleaving bovine two-cell embryos have better developmental potential and a distinctive mRNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Lucero, Ernesto; Dufort, Isabelle; Robert, Claude; Sirard, Marc-André

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian embryos that rapidly reach the two-cell stage in culture have a higher probability of becoming viable blastocysts. Our goal was to separate two-cell bovine embryos based on their zygotic cleavage timing, and to assess their global mRNA levels. Following in vitro fertilization, all embryos that cleaved by 29.5 hpi (early) were cultured separately from those that divided at 46 hpi (late). The blastocyst rates were 46.1 ± 3.7% and 6.1 ± 3.4% for early- and late-cleavers, respectively (P < 0.01). Seven replicates of selected two-cell embryos were collected at each time point for microarray characterization (n = 4) and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (n = 3); the rest were left in culture for blastocyst evaluation. A total of 774 and 594 probes were preferentially present in early- and late-cleaving embryos, respectively (fold change ± 1.5, P < 0.05), with important contrasts related to cell cycle, gene expression, RNA processing, and protein degradation functions. A total of 12 transcripts were assessed by quantitative PCR, of which ATM, ATR, CTNNB1, MSH6, MRE11A, PCNA, APC, CENPE, and GRB2 were in agreement with the hybridization results. Since most of these molecules are directly or indirectly associated with cell-cycle regulation, DNA damage response, and transcription control, our results strongly suggest key roles for those biological functions in mammalian preimplantation development.

  9. Transcriptomic Features of Bovine Blastocysts Derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungkuk; Cho, Sunwha; Park, Jung Sun; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Kim, Namshin; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2015-09-03

    Reprogramming incompletely occurs in most somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, which results in misregulation of developmentally important genes and subsequent embryonic malfunction and lethality. Here we examined transcriptome profiles in single bovine blastocysts derived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Different types of donor cells, cumulus cell and ear-skin fibroblast, were used to derive cSCNT and fSCNT blastocysts, respectively. SCNT blastocysts expressed 13,606 genes on average, similar to IVF (13,542). Correlation analysis found that both cSCNT and fSCNT blastocyst groups had transcriptomic features distinctive from the IVF group, with the cSCNT transcriptomes closer to the IVF ones than the fSCNT. Gene expression analysis identified 56 underrepresented and 78 overrepresented differentially expressed genes in both SCNT groups. A 400-kb locus harboring zinc-finger protein family genes in chromosome 18 were found coordinately down-regulated in fSCNT blastocysts, showing a feature of reprogramming-resistant regions. Probing into different categories of genes important for blastocyst development revealed that genes involved in trophectoderm development frequently were underrepresented, and those encoding epigenetic modifiers tended to be overrepresented in SCNT blastocysts. Our effort to identify reprogramming-resistant, differentially expressed genes can help map reprogramming error-prone loci onto the genome and elucidate how to handle the stochastic events of reprogramming to improve cloning efficiency.

  10. Transcriptomic Features of Bovine Blastocysts Derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byungkuk; Cho, Sunwha; Park, Jung Sun; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Kim, Namshin; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming incompletely occurs in most somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, which results in misregulation of developmentally important genes and subsequent embryonic malfunction and lethality. Here we examined transcriptome profiles in single bovine blastocysts derived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. Different types of donor cells, cumulus cell and ear-skin fibroblast, were used to derive cSCNT and fSCNT blastocysts, respectively. SCNT blastocysts expressed 13,606 genes on average, similar to IVF (13,542). Correlation analysis found that both cSCNT and fSCNT blastocyst groups had transcriptomic features distinctive from the IVF group, with the cSCNT transcriptomes closer to the IVF ones than the fSCNT. Gene expression analysis identified 56 underrepresented and 78 overrepresented differentially expressed genes in both SCNT groups. A 400-kb locus harboring zinc-finger protein family genes in chromosome 18 were found coordinately down-regulated in fSCNT blastocysts, showing a feature of reprogramming-resistant regions. Probing into different categories of genes important for blastocyst development revealed that genes involved in trophectoderm development frequently were underrepresented, and those encoding epigenetic modifiers tended to be overrepresented in SCNT blastocysts. Our effort to identify reprogramming-resistant, differentially expressed genes can help map reprogramming error-prone loci onto the genome and elucidate how to handle the stochastic events of reprogramming to improve cloning efficiency. PMID:26342001

  11. Improving in vitro development of cloned bovine embryos with hybrid (Holstein-Chinese Yellow) recipient oocytes recovered by ovum pick up.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Li, Hua-Wei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hai-Feng; Huang, Shu-Zhen; Zeng, Yi-Tao

    2005-10-01

    In the present study, oocytes from F1 hybrid cattle, as well as their parental lines, were recovered by ovum pick up (OPU) and used as recipient cytoplasm for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Four F1 hybrid (Holstein dam x Chinese Yellow sire), 10 Holstein and four Chinese Yellow cattle were subjected to OPU once weekly. There were no significant differences among breeds for number of recovered oocytes per session (overall average, 7.8+/-0.5; mean+/-S.E.M.), quality of the recovered oocytes, or oocyte maturation rate (72-73%). Matured oocytes were all used as recipient cytoplasm (without selection) and a single batch of cumulus cells collected from a Holstein cow were used as donor cells. Although reconstructed embryos initiated cleavage sooner when the recipient cytoplasm was from hybrid cattle versus the two parental breeds, the overall cleavage rate was indistinguishable among breeds. At Day 8, the blastocyst rate from the cleaved embryos (51% versus 37% and 27%), the total number of cells per blastocyst (135+/-4.1 versus 116+/-3.6 and 101+/-4.2), and the percentage of Grade-A (excellent quality) blastocysts (54% versus 42% and 29%) in the hybrid group were all higher than that of Holstein and Yellow groups. Furthermore, the proportion of blastocysts obtained at Day 7 (as a percentage of the total number of blastocysts) was greater in the hybrid group than in Holstein and Yellow groups (89% versus 71% and 63%). In conclusion, the use of F1 hybrid oocytes as recipient cytoplasm significantly improved in vitro development of cloned bovine embryos relative to oocytes derived from the parental lines.

  12. Quality improvement of transgenic cloned bovine embryos using an aggregation method: Effects on cell number, cell ratio, embryo perimeter, mitochondrial distribution, and gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Bang, J I; Jin, J I; Ghanem, N; Choi, B H; Fakruzzaman, M; Ha, A N; Lee, K L; Uhm, S J; Ko, D H; Koo, B C; Lee, J G; Kong, I K

    2015-09-01

    The production of cloned embryos using conventional methods has extremely low success rates owing to low embryo quality. To improve the quality of cloned bovine embryos expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), we applied an aggregation culture method. The EGFP gene was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts using a retroviral vector system. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was performed using these cells, and the resulting embryos were cultured in aggregates or individually. Gene expression was analyzed by a microarray, and differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The total number of cells per blastocyst and the ratio of inner cell mass cells to trophectoderm cells were higher in aggregated transgenic cloned blastocysts (agBL; 368.7 ± 109.6 and 1:4.8, respectively) than in in vitro-fertilized blastocysts (ivfBL; 189.8 ± 65.8 and 1:2.6, respectively) and nonaggregated transgenic cloned blastocysts (sBL; 113.1 ± 36.3 and 1:1.5, respectively; P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, the blastocyst perimeter was larger in the agBL group than in the ivfBL and sBL groups (1168.8 ± 200.23 vs. 887.33 ± 187.62 and 678 ± 226.1 μm; P < 0.05). In addition, mitochondrial fluorescence intensity was higher in the agBL group than in the ivfBL and sBL groups (P < 0.05). The number of apoptotic cells per blastocyst was lower in the ivfBL and agBL groups than in the sBL group (3.7 ± 2.2 and 3.4 ± 2.1 vs. 6.7 ± 6.8; P < 0.05). The genes identified in the microarray belonged to 18 categories. Expression of the Krüppel-like factor 4 gene, which is associated with cell proliferation, development, and transcription, was 7.2-fold higher in the agBL group than in the ivfBL group (P < 0.05) but did not differ between the sBL and ivfBL groups (P > 0.05). Expression of the heat shock 70-kDa protein 1A gene, which is associated with apoptosis, was 12-fold higher in the s

  13. Production of IVF transgene-expressing bovine embryos using a novel strategy based on cell cycle inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, R J; Pereyra-Bonnet, F; Olivera, R; Hiriart, M I; Sipowicz, P; Fernandez-Martín, R; Radrizzani, M; Salamone, D F

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of cell cycle inhibitors (6-dimethylaminopurine [DMAP], and dehydroleukodine [DhL]) on transgene expression efficiency and on mosaic expression patterns of IVF bovine zygotes cytoplasmically injected with oolema vesicles coincubated with transgene. The DNA damage induced by the transgene or cell cycle inhibitors was measured by detection of phosphorylated histone H2AX foci presence (marker of DNA double-stranded breaks). Cloning of egfp blastomeres was included to determine continuity of expression after additional rounds of cellular division. The pCX-EGFP [enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP) under the chimeric cytomegalovirus IE-chicken-β-actin enhancer promoter control] gene plasmid (50 ng/μL) was injected alone (linear or circular exogenous DNA, leDNA and ceDNA, respectively) or associated with ooplasmic vesicles (leDNA-v or ceDNA-v). The effects of 2 mm DMAP or 1 μm DhL for 6 h (from 15 to 21 h post IVF) was evaluated for groups injected with vesicles. The DMAP increased (P < 0.05) egfp homogenous expression relative to transgene alone (21%, 18%, and 11% for leDNA-v + DMAP, leDNA-v, and leDNA, respectively) and also increased (P < 0.05) the phosphorylated histone H2AX foci area. Expression of egfp was higher (P < 0.05) for linear than for circular pCX-EGFP, and egfp blastocyst rates were higher (P < 0.05) for groups injected with linear transgene coincubated with vesicles than for linear transgene alone (95%, 77%, 84%, and 52% for leDNA-v + DMAP, leDNA-v + DhL, leDNA-v, and leDNA, respectively). Moreover, DMAP tended to improve egfp blastocysts rates for both circular and linear transgenes. Based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, there was evidence of integration in egfp embryos. Finally, clones derived from leDNA-v + DMAP had the highest egfp expression rates (96%, 65%, and 65% for leDNA-v + DMAP, leDNA-v, and leDNA, respectively). Transgenesis by cytoplasmic injection of le

  14. mRNA levels of imprinted genes in bovine in vivo oocytes, embryos and cross species comparisons in humans, mice and pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-six confirmed imprinted genes in the bovine were quantified in in vivo produced oocytes and embryos. Eighteen were detectable and their transcriptional abundance were categorized into five patterns: largely decreased (MEST and PLAGL1); first decreased and then increased (CDKN1C and IGF2R); p...

  15. Effect of cryopreservation and in vitro culture of bovine fibroblasts on histone acetylation levels and in vitro development of hand-made cloned embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relative acetylation levels of histone 3 in lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in cultured and cryopreserved bovine fibroblasts was measured and we determined the influence of the epigenetic status of three cultured (C1, C2 and C3) donor cell lines on the in vitro development of reconstructed bovine embryos. Results showed that cryopreservation did not alter the overall acetylation levels of H3K9 in bovine fibroblasts analysed immediately after thawing (frozen/thawed) compared with fibroblasts cultured for a period of time after thawing. However, reduced cleavage rates were noted in embryos reconstructed with fibroblasts used immediately after thawing. Cell passage affects the levels of H3K9ac in bovine fibroblasts, decreasing after P1 and donor cells with lower H3K9ac produced a greater frequency of embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Cryopreservation did not influence the total cell and ICM numbers, or the ICM/TPD ratios of reconstructed embryos. However, the genetic source of donor cells did influence the total number of cells and the trophectoderm cell numbers, and the cell passage influenced the total ICM cell numbers. ?? Copyright Cambridge University Press 2010.

  16. Establishment of mouse embryonic stem cells from isolated blastomeres and whole embryos using three derivation methods

    PubMed Central

    González, Sheyla; Ibáñez, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study is to compare three previously described mouse embryonic stem cell derivation methods to evaluate the influence of culture conditions, number of isolated blastomeres and embryonic stage in the derivation process. Methods Three embryonic stem cell derivation methods: standard, pre-adhesion and defined culture medium method, were compared in the derivation from isolated blastomeres and whole embryos at 4- and 8-cell stages. Results A total of 200 embryonic stem cell lines were obtained with an efficiency ranging from 1.9% to 72%. Conclusions Using either isolated blastomeres or whole embryos, the highest rates of mouse embryonic stem cell establishment were achieved with the defined culture medium method and efficiencies increased as development progressed. Using isolated blastomeres, efficiencies increased in parallel to the proportion of the embryo volume used to start the derivation process. PMID:20862536

  17. Green tea polyphenols added to IVM and IVC media affect transcript abundance, apoptosis, and pregnancy rates in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengguang; Fu, Chunquan; Yu, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) during IVM and IVC on apoptosis and relative transcript abundance (RA) of three genes controlling antioxidant enzymes, as well as subsequent pregnancy rates. In experiment 1, oocytes were matured in the presence of 0, 10, 15, or 25 μM GTP for 24 hours. The GTP dose applied to IVM medium was followed by the same dose supplemented to IVC medium, so oocytes and embryos of a given group were cultured in similar conditions. This resulted in a total of four groups (three experimental groups and the control). After IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in medium containing 0 to 25 μM GTP for 8 days. The addition of 15 μM GTP during IVM and IVC increased RA of SOD1, CAT, and GPX genes in blastocysts compared with the control (P < 0.05). Increase in GTP doses from 15 to 25 μM did not further increase the transcript level. In experiment 2, effects of GTP doses on apoptosis were investigated in bovine blastocysts. Two of the applied GTP doses (10 and 15 μM) decreased the apoptotic index (AI) in blastocysts (7.4% and 6.2% respectively) compared with the control (9.3%; P < 0.05). However, the highest GTP dose used (25 μM) caused an increase in AI compared with a dose of 15 μM (P < 0.05). Considering the results of experiment 1 and 2, the effects of 15 μM GTP treatment during IVM and IVC on pregnancy rate was evaluated after embryo transfer in experiment 3. Cows receiving embryos treated with 15 μM GTP had higher pregnancy rates on Day 30 (34.8% vs. 28.6%) and Day 60 (34.8% vs. 23.9%) than those receiving control embryos (P < 0.05). In conclusion, addition of 15 μM GTP during IVM and IVC improved pregnancy rates; this improvement seemed to be associated with the increase of RA of antioxidant enzyme genes and the decrease in AI in bovine blastocysts.

  18. Genetic parameters for oocyte number and embryo production within a bovine ovum pick-up-in vitro production embryo-production program.

    PubMed

    Merton, J S; Ask, B; Onkundi, D C; Mullaart, E; Colenbrander, B; Nielen, M

    2009-10-15

    Genetic factors influencing the outcome of bovine ovum pick-up-in vitro production (OPU-IVP) and its relation to female fertility were investigated. For the first time, genetic parameters were estimated for the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (Ncoc), quality of cumulus-oocyte complexes (Qcoc), number and proportion of cleaved embryos at Day 4 (Ncleav(D4), Pcleav(D4)), and number and proportion of total and transferable embryos at Day 7 of culture (Nemb(D7), Pemb(D7) and NTemb(D7), PTemb(D7), respectively). Data were recorded by CRV (formally Holland Genetics) from the OPU-IVP program from January 1995 to March 2006. Data were collected from 1508 Holstein female donors, both cows and pregnant virgin heifers, with a total of 18,702 OPU sessions. Data were analyzed with repeated-measure sire models with permanent environment effect using ASREML (Holstein Friesian). Estimates of heritability were 0.25 for Ncoc, 0.09 for Qcoc, 0.19 for Ncleav(D4), 0.21 for Nemb(D7), 0.16 for NTemb(D7), 0.07 for Pcleav(D4), 0.12 for Pemb(D7), and 0.10 for PTemb(D7). Genetic correlation between Ncoc and Qcoc was close to zero, whereas genetic correlations between Ncoc and the number of embryos were positive and moderate to high for Nemb(D7) (0.47), NTemb(D7) (0.52), and Ncleav(D4) (0.85). Genetic correlations between Ncoc and percentages of embryos (Pcleav(D4), Pemb(D7), and PTemb(D7)) were all close to zero. Phenotypic correlations were in line with genetic correlations. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between Qcoc and all other traits were not significant except for the phenotypic correlations between Qcoc and number of embryos, which were negative and low to moderate for Nemb(D7) (-0.20), NTemb(D7) (-0.24), and Ncleav(D4) (-0.43). Results suggest that cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) quality, based on cumulus investment, is independent from the total number of COCs collected via OPU and that in general, a higher number of COCs will lead to a higher number of embryos produced. The

  19. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres of two 4-cell stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    Geens, Mieke; Mateizel, Ileana; Sermon, Karen; De Rycke, Martine; Spits, Claudia; Cauffman, Greet; Devroey, Paul; Tournaye, Herman; Liebaers, Inge; Van de Velde, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, we demonstrated that single blastomeres of a 4-cell stage human embryo are able to develop into blastocysts with inner cell mass and trophectoderm. To further investigate potency at the 4-cell stage, we aimed to derive pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) from single blastomeres. METHODS Four 4-cell stage embryos were split on Day 2 of preimplantation development and the 16 blastomeres were individually cultured in sequential medium. On Day 3 or 4, the blastomere-derived embryos were plated on inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). RESULTS Ten out of sixteen blastomere-derived morulae attached to the MEFs, and two produced an outgrowth. They were mechanically passaged onto fresh MEFs as described for blastocyst ICM-derived hESC, and shown to express the typical stemness markers by immunocytochemistry and/or RT–PCR. In vivo pluripotency was confirmed by the presence of all three germ layers in the teratoma obtained after injection in immunodeficient mice. The first hESC line displays a mosaic normal/abnormal 46, XX, dup(7)(q33qter), del(18)(q23qter) karyotype. The second hESC line displays a normal 46, XY karyotype. CONCLUSION We report the successful derivation and characterization of two hESC lines from single blastomeres of four split 4-cell stage human embryos. These two hESC lines were derived from distinct embryos, proving that at least one of the 4-cell stage blastomeres is pluripotent. PMID:19633307

  20. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin derived from milk: production and applications.

    PubMed

    Tomita, M; Wakabayashi, H; Yamauchi, K; Teraguchi, S; Hayasawa, H

    2002-01-01

    Bovine lactoferrin is produced on an industrial scale from cheese whey or skim milk. The safety of purified lactoferrin has been confirmed from the results of a reverse mutation test using bacteria, a 13-week oral repeated-dose toxicity study in rats, and clinical studies. In order to apply active lactoferrin to various products, a process for its pasteurization was developed. Subsequently, lactoferrin has been used in a wide variety of products since it was first added to infant formula in 1986. A pepsin hydrolysate of lactoferrin is also used in infant formula. This hydrolysate contains a potent antimicrobial peptide named lactoferricin that is derived from the lactoferrin molecule by pepsin digestion. Semilarge-scale purification of lactoferricin can be performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Lactoferricin also exhibits several biological actions and appears to be the functional domain of lactoferrin. Recent studies have demonstrated that oral administration of lactoferrin or lactoferricin exerts a host-protective effect in various animals and in humans. The results of these studies strongly suggest that the effects of oral lactoferrin are mediated by modulation of the immune system. Further elucidation of the clinical efficacy and mechanism of action of lactoferrin will increase the value of lactoferrin-containing products.

  1. The influence of early embryo traits on human embryonic stem cell derivation efficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Thomas; Heindryckx, Björn; Lierman, Sylvie; Van der Jeught, Margot; Menten, Björn; Deforce, Dieter; Cornelissen, Ria; de Sousa Lopes, Susana Chuva; De Sutter, Petra

    2011-05-01

    Despite its prognostic value in in vitro fertilization, early embryo morphology is not reported on in the derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. Standard hESC derivation does rely on blastocyst development and its efficiency is highly correlated to inner cell mass (ICM) quality. Poor-quality embryos (PQEs) donated for hESC derivation may have a range of cleavage-stage abnormalities that are known to compromise further development. This study was implemented to determine whether specific PQEs traits influence the efficiency of good-quality ICMs to derive new hESC lines. We found that although the types of PQEs investigated were all able to make blastocysts with good-quality ICMs, the ICMs were unequal in their ability to derive hESCs. Good-quality ICMs from embryos with multiple poor-quality traits were unable to generate hESC lines, in contrast to good-quality ICMs from embryos with a single poor-quality trait. In addition, our data suggest a direct correlation between the number of ICM cells present in the blastocyst and its capacity to derive new hESC lines. This study is the first to demonstrate that ICM quality alone is an incomplete indicator of hESC derivation and that application of in vitro fertilization-based early embryo scoring can help predict hESC derivation efficiency. Experiments aiming to quantify, improve upon, or compare hESC derivation efficiency should thus take into consideration early embryo morphology scoring for the comparison of groups with equal developmental competence.

  2. Improved development of somatic cell cloned bovine embryos by a mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-bing; He, Xiao-ning; Si, Wan-tong; Zheng, Yue-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have established a bovine mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model by the adenovirus-mediated telomerase (hTERT-bMGEs). The present study was conducted to confirm whether hTERT-bMGEs were effective target cells to improve the efficiency of transgenic expression and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). To accomplish this, a mammary-specific vector encoding human lysozyme and green fluorescent protein was used to verify the transgenic efficiency of hTERT-bMGEs, and untreated bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (bMGEs) were used as a control group. The results showed that the hTERT-bMGEs group had much higher transgenic efficiency and protein expression than the bMGEs group. Furthermore, the nontransgenic and transgenic hTERT-bMGEs were used as donor cells to evaluate the efficiency of SCNT. There were no significant differences in rates of cleavage or blastocysts or hatched blastocysts of cloned embryos from nontransgenic hTERT-bMGEs at passage 18 and 28 groups (82.8% vs. 81.9%, 28.6% vs. 24.8%, 58.6% vs. 55.3%, respectively) and the transgenic group (80.8%, 26.5% and 53.4%); however, they were significantly higher than the bMGEs group (71.2%, 12.8% and 14.8%), (p < 0.05). We confirmed that hTERT-bMGEs could serve as effective target cells for improving development of somatic cell cloned cattle embryos. PMID:26243608

  3. Improved development of somatic cell cloned bovine embryos by a mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Ying; Ma, Li-Bing; He, Xiao-Ning; Si, Wan-Tong; Zheng, Yue-Mao

    2016-06-30

    Previous studies have established a bovine mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model by the adenovirus-mediated telomerase (hTERT-bMGEs). The present study was conducted to confirm whether hTERT-bMGEs were effective target cells to improve the efficiency of transgenic expression and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). To accomplish this, a mammary-specific vector encoding human lysozyme and green fluorescent protein was used to verify the transgenic efficiency of hTERT-bMGEs, and untreated bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (bMGEs) were used as a control group. The results showed that the hTERT-bMGEs group had much higher transgenic efficiency and protein expression than the bMGEs group. Furthermore, the nontransgenic and transgenic hTERT-bMGEs were used as donor cells to evaluate the efficiency of SCNT. There were no significant differences in rates of cleavage or blastocysts or hatched blastocysts of cloned embryos from nontransgenic hTERT-bMGEs at passage 18 and 28 groups (82.8% vs. 81.9%, 28.6% vs. 24.8%, 58.6% vs. 55.3%, respectively) and the transgenic group (80.8%, 26.5% and 53.4%); however, they were significantly higher than the bMGEs group (71.2%, 12.8% and 14.8%), (p < 0.05). We confirmed that hTERT-bMGEs could serve as effective target cells for improving development of somatic cell cloned cattle embryos. PMID:26243608

  4. Improved development of somatic cell cloned bovine embryos by a mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Ying; Ma, Li-Bing; He, Xiao-Ning; Si, Wan-Tong; Zheng, Yue-Mao

    2016-06-30

    Previous studies have established a bovine mammary gland epithelia cells in vitro model by the adenovirus-mediated telomerase (hTERT-bMGEs). The present study was conducted to confirm whether hTERT-bMGEs were effective target cells to improve the efficiency of transgenic expression and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). To accomplish this, a mammary-specific vector encoding human lysozyme and green fluorescent protein was used to verify the transgenic efficiency of hTERT-bMGEs, and untreated bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (bMGEs) were used as a control group. The results showed that the hTERT-bMGEs group had much higher transgenic efficiency and protein expression than the bMGEs group. Furthermore, the nontransgenic and transgenic hTERT-bMGEs were used as donor cells to evaluate the efficiency of SCNT. There were no significant differences in rates of cleavage or blastocysts or hatched blastocysts of cloned embryos from nontransgenic hTERT-bMGEs at passage 18 and 28 groups (82.8% vs. 81.9%, 28.6% vs. 24.8%, 58.6% vs. 55.3%, respectively) and the transgenic group (80.8%, 26.5% and 53.4%); however, they were significantly higher than the bMGEs group (71.2%, 12.8% and 14.8%), (p < 0.05). We confirmed that hTERT-bMGEs could serve as effective target cells for improving development of somatic cell cloned cattle embryos.

  5. Invited review: Genetic contributions underlying the development of preimplantation bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Kropp, J; Peñagaricano, F; Salih, S M; Khatib, H

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, it has become evident that genetic selection to improve milk production has resulted in a decline in dairy cattle fertility. Growing evidence suggests that the greatest loss occurs early in pregnancy around the time of embryo implantation. As a means to make genetic improvements and to assist in reproductive performance, use of artificial reproductive technologies such as artificial insemination and in vitro production of embryos have been widely used. Both of these technologies rely on the competence and quality of gametes for successful development of embryos. Often, selection of animals is based on the genetic merit of the animal, although specific fertility markers are relatively underdeveloped compared with markers for production traits. Similarly, current in vitro fertilization systems could benefit from a uniform method for selection of the best quality embryos to transfer into recipients for successful implantation and delivery of healthy offspring. As genetics underlie biological processes such as fertility, the need exists to further identify and characterize genes that affect fertility and development within both the parental gametes and the embryo. Furthermore, the magnitude of the contribution of each parental genome to the success of embryo development and pregnancy is not clear. As such, the objective of this review is to provide an overview of studies relating to genetic markers at the DNA level, parental and embryonic gene expression, and the effects of epigenetics on embryonic development. Future studies should exploit advances in molecular technologies to identify and classify genes underlying fertility and development to establish biomarkers and predictors for improved genetic selection. PMID:24377798

  6. Deriving cell lines from zebrafish embryos and tumors.

    PubMed

    Choorapoikayil, Suma; Overvoorde, John; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2013-09-01

    Over the last two decades the zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism in science. The experimental accessibility, the broad range of zebrafish mutants, and the highly conserved genetic and biochemical pathways between zebrafish and mammals lifted zebrafish to become one of the most attractive vertebrate models to study gene function and to model human diseases. Zebrafish cell lines are highly attractive to investigate cell biology and zebrafish cell lines complement the experimental tools that are available already. We established a straightforward method to culture cells from a single zebrafish embryo or a single tumor. Here we describe the generation of fibroblast-like cell lines from wild-type and ptenb(-/-) embryos and an endothelial-like cell line from a tumor of an adult ptena(+/-)ptenb(-/-) zebrafish. This protocol can easily be adapted to establish stable cell lines from any mutant or transgenic zebrafish line and the average time to obtain a pro-stable cell line is 3-5 months.

  7. Production of bovine cloned embryos with donor cells frozen at a slow cooling rate in a conventional freezer (20 C)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chacon, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Jenkins, J.A.; Leibo, S.P.; Wirtu, G.; Dresser, B.L.; Pope, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Usually, fibroblasts are frozen in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO, 10% v/v) at a cooling rate of 1 C/min in a low-temperature (80 C) freezer (LTF) before storage in liquid nitrogen (LN2); however, a LTF is not always available. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate apoptosis and viability of bovine fibroblasts frozen in a LTF or conventional freezer (CF; 20 C) and their subsequent ability for development to blastocyst stage after fusion with enucleated bovine oocytes. Percentages of live cells frozen in LTF (49.5%) and CF (50.6%) were similar, but significantly less than non-frozen control (88%). In both CF and LTF, percentages of live apoptotic cells exposed to LN2 after freezing were lower (4% and 5%, respectively) as compared with unexposed cells (10% and 18%, respectively). Cells frozen in a CF had fewer cell doublings/24 h (0.45) and required more days (9.1) to reach 100% confluence at the first passage (P) after thawing and plating as compared with cells frozen in a LTF (0.96 and 4.0 days, respectively). Hypoploidy at P12 was higher than at P4 in cells frozen in either a CF (37.5% vs. 19.2%) or in a LTF (30.0% vs. 15.4%). A second-generation cryo-solution reduced the incidence of necrosis (29.4%) at 0 h after thawing as compared with that of a first generation cryo-solution (DMEM + DMSO, 60.2%). The percentage of apoptosis in live cells was affected by cooling rate (CF = 1.9% vs. LFT = 0.7%). Development of bovine cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage was not affected by cooling rate or freezer type. ?? 2009 Cambridge University Press.

  8. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor and Cysteamine on in vitro bovine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development.

    PubMed

    Anchordoquy, Juan Mateo; Anchordoquy, Juan Patricio; Testa, Juan Alberto; Sirini, Matías Ángel; Furnus, Cecilia C

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of VEGF and Cysteamine during in vitro maturation (IVM) of bovine oocytes on GSH content and developmental competence. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of 0, 100, 300, and 500 ng/mL VEGF in IVM medium on: GSH content in oocytes and cumulus cells (Exp. 1) and subsequent embryo development (Exp. 2). Also, influence of adding 500 ng/mL VEGF and 100 μM Cysteamine to IVM medium on GSH content in oocytes and cumulus cells (Exp. 3) and oocyte developmental capacity (Exp. 4) were evaluated. Oocytes were matured in: a) Control; b) VEGF 0-3 h; c) Cysteamine 4-24 h; d) VEGF 0-3 h + Cysteamine 4-24 h; and e) VEGF + Cysteamine 24 h. The results showed that: i) VEGF did not alter GSH content in oocytes and cumulus cells; (ii) supplementation of 300 and 500 ng/mL VEGF increased blastocyst yield; (iii) the presence of VEGF + Cysteamine simultaneously during 24 h improved GSH content but not embryo development; and (iv) the presence of VEGF during the first 3 h + Cysteamine from 4 to 24 h increased GSH concentrations and subsequent embryo development. In conclusion, the addition of VEGF and Cysteamine in two sequential steps to maturation medium result in an improvement of cytoplasmic maturation, with a positive impact on oocyte developmental capacity by increasing the efficiency of in vitro blastocyst production. However, the effect was detrimental when both VEGF and Cysteamine were present during 24 of IVM.

  9. Effect of temporary meiosis block during prematuration of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes on pregnancy rates in a commercial setting for in vitro embryo production.

    PubMed

    Guemra, Samuel; da Silva Santo, Eriko; Zanin, Renato; Monzani, Paulo Sergio; Sovernigo, Tobias Canan; Ohashi, Otávio Mitio; Verde Leal, Cláudia Lima; Adona, Paulo Roberto

    2014-04-15

    Ovum pick up (OPU) associated with in vitro production (IVP) of embryos has been shown as an important tool in cattle breeding to increase the number of descendants from animals of high genetic value. In herds maintained distant from the laboratory, collecting cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and transporting them to the laboratory may take several hours and decrease COCs viability, representing a challenge for commercial settings. In this study, a prematuration culture to induce temporary meiosis block was evaluated in a commercial scale IVP setting as a strategy to transport bovine OPU-derived COCs from Nelore and Brangus donors. Effects on embryo yield and pregnancy rates were assessed. Viable COCs from each donor were destined to one of the experimental groups (control, blocks 1 and 2). Control group COCs were placed in cryotubes with 1 mL TCM199-HEPES. In block groups (1 and 2), COCs were placed in cryotubes with 300 μL TCM 199 + 12 μM butyrolactone I (block medium). All groups were gassed and kept in a thermos bottle for 4 hours at 36 °C. Next, COCs in the control group were transferred to IVM medium and block 1 group to block medium, and cultured for 22 hours and 15 hours, respectively, at 38.5 °C and 5% CO2 in air. Block 2 COCs were kept in the cryotubes and in the thermos bottle for another 15 hours at 36 °C to simulate long-term transport conditions. After meiosis block in prematuration culture, blocks 1 and 2 COCs were matured in vitro for 22 hours as for the control group. After IVM, COCs in all groups were submitted to IVF and IVC, and blastocyst rates were evaluated on day 7. Embryos were transferred and pregnancy rates evaluated at 60 days of gestation. The mean total number of COCs retrieved by OPU did not differ between Nelore and Brangus donors (16.8 and 17.2, respectively, P > 0.05), but Nelore donors produced more viable COCs than Brangus (10.1 and 7.6, respectively, P < 0.05) and more embryos/cow (3.8 and 2.7, respectively, P

  10. No Relationship between Embryo Morphology and Successful Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ström, Susanne; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny; Holm, Frida; Bergström, Rosita; Eklund, Linda; Strömberg, Anne-Marie; Hovatta, Outi

    2010-01-01

    Background The large number (30) of permanent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and additional 29 which did not continue growing, in our laboratory at Karolinska Institutet have given us a possibility to analyse the relationship between embryo morphology and the success of derivation of hESC lines. The derivation method has been improved during the period 2002–2009, towards fewer xeno-components. Embryo quality is important as regards the likelihood of pregnancy, but there is little information regarding likelihood of stem cell derivation. Methods We evaluated the relationship of pronuclear zygote stage, the score based on embryo morphology and developmental rate at cleavage state, and the morphology of the blastocyst at the time of donation to stem cell research, to see how they correlated to successful establishment of new hESC lines. Results Derivation of hESC lines succeeded from poor quality and good quality embryos in the same extent. In several blastocysts, no real inner cell mass (ICM) was seen, but permanent well growing hESC lines could be established. One tripronuclear (3PN) zygote, which developed to blastocyst stage, gave origin to a karyotypically normal hESC line. Conclusion Even very poor quality embryos with few cells in the ICM can give origin to hESC lines. PMID:21217828

  11. Simulated Microgravity Influences Bovine Oocyte In Vitro Fertilization and Preimplantation Embryo Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in vitro fertilization and preimplantation embryos exposed to a simulated microgravity environment in vitro would improve, or be deleterious to, their fertilization and embryonic development. A Rotating Cell Culture System™ (RCCS) bioreactor with a Hi...

  12. Bovine Oviduct Epithelial Cells Dedifferentiate Partly in Culture, While Maintaining their Ability to Improve Early Embryo Development Rate and Quality.

    PubMed

    Schmaltz-Panneau, B; Locatelli, Y; Uzbekova, S; Perreau, C; Mermillod, P

    2015-10-01

    There are convincing arguments to suggest that the success of early reproductive events is reliant on a satisfactory dialogue between gametes-embryo and the oviduct epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize an in vitro model to study these interactions. Cattle zygotes produced in vitro were cultured in either SOF or TCM-199 in the presence or absence of bovine oviduct cell monolayers (BOEC), under 20% or 5% O2 . The embryonic development rate and its quality (cell numbers, cryosurvival) were evaluated, as were the BOEC contents in 11 candidate transcripts (real-time PCR) at different time points. A BOEC co-culture did indeed increase the rate of development in both media under 5% O2 (41 vs 27% and 28 vs 10% of Day 8 blastocysts in SOF and TCM-199, respectively; p < 0.05). The effect of BOEC on the developmental rate was more pronounced under 20% O2 (35 vs 6% and 27 vs 4% of Day 8 blastocysts in SOF and TCM-199, respectively; p < 0.05). BOEC significantly increased the embryonic cell count in TCM-199 (122.5 ± 11.1 vs 70.3 ± 9.6; p < 0.05) and embryonic cryosurvival in both media. The expression levels of SOD, FGF2 and TGF-β1 in BOEC remained steady during culture, although mRNA levels of OGP, C3, PGR and ESR2 were clearly reduced, suggesting a dedifferentiation of BOEC during culture. However, SSP1 and GPX4 transcripts were slightly increased during culture, this rise becoming significant by the end of the culture period. In conclusion, our co-culture system with bovine oviduct epithelial cells used for the development of bovine zygotes produced in vitro enhanced blastocyst formation and above all the quality of the resulting embryos, which was associated with specific transcriptomic changes.

  13. Gender incidence of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection-derived embryos: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Setti, Amanda S; Figueira, Rita C S; Braga, Daniela P A F; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized study was to determine if the use of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) is associated with gender incidence. Couples who underwent IVF-preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles, as a result of advanced maternal age, were randomly allocated into two groups: intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI; n=80) or intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI; n=80). The incidences of genders were compared between ICSI- and IMSI-derived embryos. Considering all the biopsied embryos were characterized as normal for sex chromosome, the results showed that IMSI results in a significantly higher incidence of female embryos as compared with ICSI (65.1% versus 54.0%, respectively, P=0.0277). After analysing only euploid embryos for the eight selected chromosomes, a significantly higher incidence of XX embryos derived from IMSI was also observed compared with ICSI cycles (66.9% versus 52.5%, respectively, P=0.0322). This result was confirmed by logistic regression, which demonstrated a nearly 2-fold increase in euploid XX embryos derived from spermatozoa selected by high magnification (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.05-3.35, P=0.032). A higher proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa analysed under high magnification seem to carry the X chromosome. The aim of this study was to determine if the use of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) is associated with gender incidence. Couples who underwent IVF with preimplantation genetic screening, as a result of advanced maternal age, were randomly allocated into two groups: intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI; n=80) or intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI; n=80). The incidences of genders were compared between ICSI- and IMSI-derived embryos. Our results showed that a significantly higher incidence of female embryos derived from IMSI compared with ICSI cycles (66.9% versus 52.5%, respectively, P=0

  14. Ethical issues in deriving stem cells from embryos and eggs.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Glenda

    Human embryonic stem cell (ESC) research has attracted wide media coverage. It has been headline news for the past several months, revealing the complex case of Professor Hwang Woo-Suk and the scientific fraud where he purported to have created the first human patient-specific stem cell lines generated by cell nucleus replacement (CNR). To ethically obtain the raw materials (eggs, sperm and embryos) for human ESC research is an enormous challenge, yet essential if this research is to proceed in its quest to try to deliver some of the expectations placed upon it: developing treatments and possible cures for a range of serious diseases. This article examines some of the ethical issues surrounding human ESC research using the four principles frequently applied to healthcare and medical research; autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The author strives to ask questions throughout which will encourage debate and discussion.

  15. Short communication: Bovine-derived proteins activate STAT3 in human skeletal muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Caldow, M K; Digby, M R; Cameron-Smith, D

    2015-05-01

    Bovine milk contains biologically active peptides that may modulate growth and development within humans. In this study, targeted bovine-derived proteins were evaluated for their effects on signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle cells. Following an acute exposure, bovine-derived acidic fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) activated STAT3 in differentiating myotubes. Chronic exposure to FGF and LIF during the proliferative phase reduced myoblast proliferation and elevated MyoD and creatine kinase (CKM) mRNA expression without altering apoptotic genes. In mature myotubes, neither FGF nor LIF elicited any action. Together, these data indicate that a reduction in proliferation in the presence of bovine-derived FGF or LIF may stimulate early maturation of myoblasts. PMID:25726111

  16. Mitochondria-targeted DsRed2 protein expression during the early stage of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo development.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Min, Sung-Hun; Choi, Hoonsung; Park, Junghyung; Kim, Sun-Uk; Lee, Seunghoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2016-09-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been widely used as an efficient tool in biomedical research for the generation of transgenic animals from somatic cells with genetic modifications. Although remarkable advances in SCNT techniques have been reported in a variety of mammals, the cloning efficiency in domestic animals is still low due to the developmental defects of SCNT embryos. In particular, recent evidence has revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction is detected during the early development of SCNT embryos. However, there have been relatively few or no studies regarding the development of a system for evaluating mitochondrial behavior or dynamics. For the first time, in mitochondria of bovine SCNT embryos, we developed a method for the visualization of mitochondria and expression of fluorescence proteins. To express red fluorescence in mitochondria of cloned embryos, bovine ear skin fibroblasts, nuclear donor, were stably transfected with a vector carrying mitochondria-targeting DsRed2 gene tagged with V5 epitope (mito-DsRed2-V5 tag) using lentivirus-mediated gene transfer because of its ability to integrate in the cell genome and the potential for long-term transgene expression in the transduced cells and their dividing cells. From western blotting analysis of V5 tag protein using mitochondrial fraction and confocal microscopy of red fluorescence using SCNT embryos, we found that the mitochondrial expression of the mito-DsRed2 protein was detected until the blastocyst stage. In addition, according to image analysis, it may be suggested possible use of the system for visualization of mitochondrial localization and evaluation of mitochondrial behaviors or dynamics in early development of bovine SCNT embryos. PMID:27287919

  17. Weight gain potential affects pregnancy rates in bovine embryo recipients raised under pasture conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos Antonio de Carvalho; Palhao, Miller Pereira; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Josiane Rossi; Fonseca e Silva, Fabyano; Viana, Joao Henrique Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of differences in body weight gain after embryo transfer on the pregnancy rates of crossbred heifers used as recipients and raised under a grazing system. The study was performed during the dry (April to September) and the rainy (October to March) seasons. The embryos transferred were produced by in vitro fertilization. The body weight of each recipient was measured immediately before the embryo transfer and 23 to 25 days later, when the diagnosis of pregnancy was performed by ultrasonography. The associations among initial body weight (IBW), daily body weight gain (DWG), season, and pregnancy rate were evaluated using a logistic procedure that included the effect of the IBW, season, and linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. Altogether, there was no effect of season and pregnancy rates did not change between the dry and rainy seasons (42.3 vs. 45.8%, respectively; P > 0.05). However, the pregnancy rate was greater in the recipients with daily body weight gains over 250 g/day, regardless of the season. In addition, the pregnancy rate of the recipients was better (P < 0.04) explained by a logistic regression model that included the linear and quadratic effects of the DWG. The probability of each heifer to become pregnant according to DWG is explained by the follow equation: P(y = 1) = (Exp((-1.06703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2)))/(1 + Exp((-1.6703 + 0.0108 * DWG - 0.00002 * DWG ^ 2))). In conclusion, body weight gain potential is a critical factor for the pregnancy rates of in vitro embryo recipients managed under grazing systems. PMID:26431710

  18. Cloned endangered species takin (Budorcas taxicolor) by inter-species nuclear transfer and comparison of the blastocyst development with yak (Bos grunniens) and bovine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxin; Dai, Yunping; Du, Weihua; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Haiping; Wang, Lili; Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Wan, Rong; Li, Ning

    2006-02-01

    Interspecies cloning might be used as an effective method to conserve endangered species and to support the study of nuclear-cytoplasm interaction. In this study, we describe the development of takin-bovine embryos in vitro produced by fusing takin ear fibroblasts with enucleated bovine oocytes and examine the fate of mitochondrial DNA in these embryos. We also compare the blastocyst development of takin-bovine embryos with yak-bovine and bovine-bovine embryos and compare the cell numbers of the blastocyst. Our results indicate that: (1) takin-bovine cloned embryos can develop to the blastocyst stage in vitro (5%), (2) blastocyst mitochondria DNA are derived primarily from bovine oocytes in spite of a little takin donor cell mitochondrial DNA, (3) using the same cloned protocol, development efficiency is significantly different between bovine-bovine cloning, yak-bovine, and takin-bovine cloning (48 vs. 28% vs. 5%, P < 0.01), and (4) cell numbers in the blastocysts of the three species of embryos were not different. These results suggest that the bovine oocytes can reprogram the takin, yak, and bovine fibroblast nuclei. However, the development efficiency of intra-species cloning tends to be higher than inter-species cloning; the more close the species of the donor cell is to the recipient oocyte (yak versus takin), the greater the blastocyst development in vitro.

  19. Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves.

    PubMed Central

    Coria, M F; McClurkin, A W

    1978-01-01

    Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus was studied in 14 calves. Five calves born with actively induced antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus retained high titers during the year of observation. Colostrum-derived antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in nine calves declined at an expected rate for the first four to six months of age. However, titers of six of these calves increased at five to eight months of age and either remained constant or increased through one year of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody titers of the other three calves declined at a constant rate to less than 1:4 by nine to 12 months of age. PMID:208738

  20. Teratogenicity of benzoic acid derivatives of retinoic acid in cultured mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Goulding, E H; Jetten, A M; Abbott, B D; Pratt, R M

    1988-01-01

    Isotretinoin (13-cis-RA) is a human teratogen and mouse embryos exposed to 13-cis-RA in vivo exhibit many of the same defects as humans. Early postimplantation mouse embryos exposed to 13-cis-RA in culture exhibit developmental alterations of the visceral arches, similar to those seen after in vivo exposure. Certain benzoic acid derivatives of retinoic acid have been shown to possess activity equal to or greater than retinoic acid in several in vitro systems. This study examines the teratogenic effects of some of these retinoids on mouse embryos in vitro. Day 8 CD-1 mouse embryos were cultured for 48 hours in the presence of these benzoic acid derivatives. With the exception of Ro-15-0778, all compounds produced visceral arch malformations similar to those seen in embryos exposed to 13-cis-RA, but at dramatically different effective concentrations. Extremely low concentrations of the retinoic acid-related compounds tested appear to have detrimental effects on embryonic development and these compounds may be poor candidates for therapeutic use.

  1. Genetic variation in resistance of the preimplantation bovine embryo to heat shock.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Reproduction is among the physiological functions in mammals most susceptible to disruption by hyperthermia. Many of the effects of heat stress on function of the oocyte and embryo involve direct effects of elevated temperature (i.e. heat shock) on cellular function. Mammals limit the effects of heat shock by tightly regulating body temperature. This ability is genetically controlled: lines of domestic animals have been developed with superior ability to regulate body temperature during heat stress. Through experimentation in cattle, it is also evident that there is genetic variation in the resistance of cells to the deleterious effects of elevated temperature. Several breeds that were developed in hot climates, including Bos indicus (Brahman, Gir, Nelore and Sahiwal) and Bos taurus (Romosinuano and Senepol) are more resistant to the effects of elevated temperature on cellular function than breeds that evolved in cooler climates (Angus, Holstein and Jersey). Genetic differences are expressed in the preimplantation embryo by Day 4-5 of development (after embryonic genome activation). It is not clear whether genetic differences are expressed in cells in which transcription is repressed (oocytes >100 µm in diameter or embryos at stages before embryonic genome activation). The molecular basis for cellular thermotolerance has also not been established, although there is some suggestion for involvement of heat shock protein 90 and the insulin-like growth factor 1 system. Given the availability of genomic tools for genetic selection, identification of genes controlling cellular resistance to elevated temperature could be followed by progress in selection for those genes within the populations in which they exist. It could also be possible to introduce genes from thermotolerant breeds into thermally sensitive breeds. The ability to edit the genome makes it possible to design new genes that confer protection of cells from stresses like heat shock. PMID:25472041

  2. Derivation and characterization of putative embryonic stem cells from cloned rabbit embryos.

    PubMed

    Intawicha, Payungsuk; Siriboon, Chawalit; Chen, Chien-Hong; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Lin, Tzu-An; Kere, Michel; Lo, Neng-Wen; Lee, Kun-Hsiung; Chang, Li-Yung; Chiang, Hsing-I; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2016-10-15

    The present study aimed to establish embryonic stem (ES) cell lines, i.e., ntES cells, using rabbit blastocyst stage embryos cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer. First, we investigated the development of cloned rabbit embryos reconstructed with normal fibroblasts and fibroblasts transfected with enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP). Blastocyst rates were 27.4% and 23.9%, respectively, for the embryos reconstructed with normal fibroblasts and fibroblasts transfected with eGFP compared with that from the parthenogenetic group (43.1%). One ntES cell line was established from embryos reconstructed with eGFP-transfected fibroblasts (1 of 17, 5.9%), and three ntES cell lines were derived from those with normal fibroblasts (3 of 17, 17.6%). All the ntES cell lines retained alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed ES cell-specific markers SSEA-4, Oct-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81. The pluripotency was further confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses of Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox-2 expressions in ntES cell lines. The differentiation capacity of ntES cells was also examined in vitro and in vivo, by which these ntES cell lines were able to differentiate into all three germ layers through embryoid bodies and teratomas. In conclusion, it is apparent that the efficiency of ntES cells derived using eGFP-transfected donor cells is lower than that with nontransfected, normal fibroblasts donor cells. Similar to those from parthenogenetic embryos, all ntES cell lines derived from cloned rabbit embryos are able to express pluripotency markers and retain their capability to differentiate into various cell lineages both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27395085

  3. Early development of cloned bovine embryos produced from oocytes enucleated by fluorescence metaphase II imaging using a conventional halogen-lamp microscope.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Daisaku; Yamagata, Kazuo; Kishi, Masao; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Saeki, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Enucleation of a recipient oocyte is one of the key processes in the procedure of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, especially in bovine species, lipid droplets spreading in the ooplasm hamper identification and enucleation of metaphase II (MII) chromosomes, and thereby the success rate of the cloning remains low. In this study we used a new experimental system that enables fluorescent observation of chromosomes in living oocytes without any damage. We succeeded in visualizing and removing the MII chromosome in matured bovine oocytes. This experimental system consists of injecting fluorescence-labeled antibody conjugates that bind to chromosomes and fluorescent observation using a conventional halogen-lamp microscope. The cleavage rates and blastocyst rates of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) decreased as the concentration of the antibody increased (p<0.05). The enucleation rate of the conventional method (blind enucleation) was 86%, whereas all oocytes injected with the antibody conjugates were enucleated successfully. Fusion rates and developmental rates of SCNT embryos produced with the enucleated oocytes were the same as those of the blind enucleation group (p>0.05). For the production of SCNT embryos, the new system can be used as a reliable predictor of the location of metaphase plates in opaque oocytes, such as those in ruminant animals.

  4. Early Development of Cloned Bovine Embryos Produced from Oocytes Enucleated by Fluorescence Metaphase II Imaging Using a Conventional Halogen-Lamp Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Daisaku; Yamagata, Kazuo; Kishi, Masao; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enucleation of a recipient oocyte is one of the key processes in the procedure of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, especially in bovine species, lipid droplets spreading in the ooplasm hamper identification and enucleation of metaphase II (MII) chromosomes, and thereby the success rate of the cloning remains low. In this study we used a new experimental system that enables fluorescent observation of chromosomes in living oocytes without any damage. We succeeded in visualizing and removing the MII chromosome in matured bovine oocytes. This experimental system consists of injecting fluorescence-labeled antibody conjugates that bind to chromosomes and fluorescent observation using a conventional halogen-lamp microscope. The cleavage rates and blastocyst rates of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) decreased as the concentration of the antibody increased (p<0.05). The enucleation rate of the conventional method (blind enucleation) was 86%, whereas all oocytes injected with the antibody conjugates were enucleated successfully. Fusion rates and developmental rates of SCNT embryos produced with the enucleated oocytes were the same as those of the blind enucleation group (p>0.05). For the production of SCNT embryos, the new system can be used as a reliable predictor of the location of metaphase plates in opaque oocytes, such as those in ruminant animals. PMID:25826723

  5. Early development of cloned bovine embryos produced from oocytes enucleated by fluorescence metaphase II imaging using a conventional halogen-lamp microscope.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Daisaku; Yamagata, Kazuo; Kishi, Masao; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Saeki, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Enucleation of a recipient oocyte is one of the key processes in the procedure of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, especially in bovine species, lipid droplets spreading in the ooplasm hamper identification and enucleation of metaphase II (MII) chromosomes, and thereby the success rate of the cloning remains low. In this study we used a new experimental system that enables fluorescent observation of chromosomes in living oocytes without any damage. We succeeded in visualizing and removing the MII chromosome in matured bovine oocytes. This experimental system consists of injecting fluorescence-labeled antibody conjugates that bind to chromosomes and fluorescent observation using a conventional halogen-lamp microscope. The cleavage rates and blastocyst rates of bovine embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) decreased as the concentration of the antibody increased (p<0.05). The enucleation rate of the conventional method (blind enucleation) was 86%, whereas all oocytes injected with the antibody conjugates were enucleated successfully. Fusion rates and developmental rates of SCNT embryos produced with the enucleated oocytes were the same as those of the blind enucleation group (p>0.05). For the production of SCNT embryos, the new system can be used as a reliable predictor of the location of metaphase plates in opaque oocytes, such as those in ruminant animals. PMID:25826723

  6. Relationship between the length of cell cycles, cleavage pattern and developmental competence in bovine embryos generated by in vitro fertilization or parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to study the kinetics of initial cell divisions in relation with the cleavage patterns in viable (with the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage) and non-viable bovine embryos and parthenotes. The kinetics of in vitro development and cleavage patterns were observed by time lapse cinematography. The length of the first and second but not third cell cycle differed significantly between the viable and non-viable embryos after IVF or parthenogenesis. Viable embryos had significantly shorter first and second cell cycles than non-viable ones. The presence of fragments, protrusions and unequally-sized blastomeres was associated with an extended one-cell stage and reduced ability to develop to the blastocyst stage; however, the lengths of the second and third cell cycles were not altered. Oocytes showing direct division from one cell to 3 or 4 blastomeres showed similar developmental ability and embryonic cell numbers to those showing normal division, although, with a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities. Our results suggest that the differences in the first cell cycles between viable and non-viable embryos were not sperm-related, whereas direct cleavage of 1-cell embryos to 3 or more blastomeres and protrusion formation are related to sperm-driven factors. The length of the first and second cell cycles and the cleavage pattern should be examined simultaneously to predict developmental competence of embryos at early cleavage stages. PMID:20035110

  7. DNA fragmentation, transgene expression and embryo development after intracytoplasmic injection of DNA-liposome complexes in IVF bovine zygotes.

    PubMed

    Vichera, G; Moro, L N; Buemo, C; Salamone, D

    2014-05-01

    Summary This study was designed to evaluate the quality and viability of bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF), after intracytoplasmic injection of pCX-EGFP-liposome complexes or pBCKIP2.8-liposome complexes (plasmids that codify the human insulin gene). Cleavage, blastocysts and expanded blastocysts rates of these both groups were not different from that of controls (IVF or IVF embryos injected with liposomes alone; IVF-L). The percentage of EGFP-positive (EGFP+) blastocysts was 41.8%. In Experiment 2, the blastocysts obtained after injection of pCX-EGFP-liposome complexes that did or did not express the transgene, were analyzed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling) assay at days 6, 7 and 8 of culture in vitro(Bd6, Bd7 and Bd8), in order to evaluate DNA fragmentation. The EGFP+ blastocysts showed different proportions of TUNEL-positive cells (T+) at Bd6, Bd7 and Bd8 (91, 73.7 and 99.5%, respectively) while blastocysts without EGFP expression (EGFP-) showed statistically lower numbers of fragmented nuclei (0, 44.6 and 85%, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no evidence of DNA fragmentation in either Bd6 or Bd7 IVF and IVF-L control blastocysts, but T+ nuclei were detected at Bd8 in both groups (66.4 and 85.8% respectively). Finally, IVF blastocysts (n = 21) injected with insulin-liposome complexes, cultured for 6, 7 and 8 days, were transferred to recipient cows. Pregnancy rates of 18.2% (2/11) and 40% (2/5) resulted from the transfer of Bd6 and Bd7 cells, respectively. Two pregnancies developed to term but they were not transgenic for the insulin gene. In conclusion, EGFP expression affects DNA integrity but not embryo development. Moreover, additional transfers are required in order to overcome the drawbacks generated by in vitro culture length and transgene expression.

  8. Application of a novel population of multipotent stem cells derived from skin fibroblasts as donor cells in bovine SCNT.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shaohui; Chen, Wuju; Liu, Xu; Xiao, Jiajia; Wang, Yanqin; Liu, Jun; Du, Yue; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated stem cells are better donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), resulting in more offspring than more differentiated cells. While various stem cell populations have been confirmed to exist in the skin, progress has been restricted due to the lack of a suitable marker for their prospective isolation. To address this fundamental issue, a marker is required that could unambiguously prove the differentiation state of the donor cells. We therefore utilized magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) to separate a homogeneous population of small SSEA-4(+) cells from a heterogeneous population of bovine embryonic skin fibroblasts (BEF). SSEA-4(+) cells were 8-10 μm in diameter and positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP). The percentage of SSEA-4(+) cells within the cultured BEF population was low (2-3%). Immunocytochemistry and PCR analyses revealed that SSEA-4(+) cells expressed pluripotency-related markers, and could differentiate into cells comprising all three germ layers in vitro. They remained undifferentiated over 20 passages in suspension culture. In addition, cloned embryos derived from SSEA-4 cells showed significant differences in cleavage rate and blastocyst development when compared with those from BEF and SSEA-4(-) cells. Moreover, blastocysts derived from SSEA-4(+) cells showed a higher total cell number and lower apoptotic index as compared to BEF and SSEA-4(-) derived cells. It is well known that nuclei from pluripotent stem cells yield a higher cloning efficiency than those from adult somatic cells, however, pluripotent stem cells are relatively difficult to obtain from bovine. The SSEA-4(+) cells described in the current study provide an attractive candidate for SCNT and a promising platform for the generation of transgenic cattle.

  9. A quantitative assessment of the risk of introducing foot and mouth disease virus into the United States via cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Asseged, B; Tameru, B; Nganwa, D; Fite, R; Habtemariam, T

    2012-12-01

    The trade of livestock or their products between nations requires information on the risk of introducing infectious agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Although transmission pathways for FMDV vary, a recent concern in the United States (USA) is that it might enter via cloned embryos. A quantitative risk assessment model was developed to determine the scenarios (with mathematical probabilities) that could lead to the introduction and maintenance of FMDV via the importation of cloned bovine embryos. Using @RISK software with Monte Carlo simulation involving 50,000 iterations, the probability of introducing FMDV via cloned embryos was estimated to be 3.1 x 10(-7). Given the current cloning protocol, and assuming the annual importation of 250 to 1,700 (mean = 520) cloned embryos, the expected number of infected embryos ranges from 1.1 x 10(-7) to 4.4 x 10(-3) (mean = 1.6 x 10(-4)) per year. Critical pathway analysis showed that the risk of FMDV entering the USA by this route is extremely low.

  10. Protein kinase C (PKC) role in bovine oocyte maturation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Mondadori, R G; Neves, J P; Gonçalves, P B D

    2008-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine the role of protein kinase C (PKC) on meiotic resumption and its effects on pronuclear formation and cleavage in the bovine. Oocytes were matured in the presence of 0, 1, 10 and 100 nM of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), to evaluate the percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown. To study pronuclear formation and cleavage, oocytes were randomly distributed in four groups and matured in modified TCM-199 with LH and FSH (negative control); 10% of estrous cow serum (positive control); 100 nM of PMA (treatment); 100 nM of 4alpha-PDD (phorbol ester control). Oocytes were also matured in positive control medium, fertilized and transferred to KSOM with increasing concentrations of a PKC inhibitor. The protein profile and the presence of PKC at the end of maturation period were determined by SDS-PAGE followed by Silver Stain and Western blot, respectively. PMA stimulated meiotic resumption in a concentration-dependent manner. PKC stimulation during oocyte maturation caused an increase in pronuclear formation and did not cause parthenogenetic activation. Inhibitor of PKC (MyrPKC) inhibited cleavage in a dose-dependent and irreversible manner. A protein band around 74 kDa was not detected in PMA-treated oocytes and PKC was not detected by Western blot at the end of the maturation period. In conclusion, meiotic resumption was accelerated and the rate of oocytes with two pronuclei was increased when PKC was activated during oocyte maturation. Moreover, cleavage was inhibited in the presence of PMA. PMID:17646065

  11. Enhanced adipogenic differentiation of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until now, the isolation and characterization of bovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (bBM-MSCs) have not been established, which prompted us to optimize the differentiation protocol for bBM-MSCs. In this study, bBM-MSCs were freshly isolated from three 6-month-old cattle and used for p...

  12. Virus-host interactions in persistently FMDV-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus. Here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (PBPT)...

  13. Depletion of cellular brassinolide decreases embryo production and disrupts the architecture of the apical meristems in Brassica napus microspore-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Mark; Elhiti, Mohamed; Waldner, Blaine; Stasolla, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Exogenous applications of brassinolide (BL) increased the number and quality of microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) whereas treatments with brassinazole (BrZ), a BL biosynthetic inhibitor, had the opposite effect. At the optimal concentration (4x10(-6) M) BrZ decreased both embryo yield and conversion to less than half the value of control embryos. Metabolic studies revealed that BL levels had profound effects on glutathione and ascorbate metabolism by altering the amounts of their reduced forms (ASC and GSH) and oxidized forms [dehydroascorbate (DHA), ascorbate free radicals (AFRs), and GSSG]. Applications of BL switched the glutathione and ascorbate pools towards the oxidized forms, thereby lowering the ASC/ASC+DHA+AFR and GSH/GSH+GSSG ratios. These changes were ascribed to the ability of BL to increase the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and decrease that of glutathione reductase (GR). This trend was reversed in a BL-depleted environment, effected by BrZ applications. These metabolic alterations were associated with changes in embryo structure and performance. BL-treated MDEs developed zygotic-like shoot apical meristems (SAMs) whereas embryos treated with BrZ developed abnormal meristems. In the presence of BrZ, embryos either lacked a visible SAM, or formed SAMs in which the meristematic cells showed signs of differentiation, such as vacuolation and storage product accumulation. These abnormalities were accompanied by the lack or misexpression of three meristem marker genes isolated from Brassica napus (denoted as BnSTM, BnCLV1, and BnZLL-1) homologous to the Arabidopsis SHOOTMERISTEMLESS (STM), CLAVATA 1 (CLV1), and ZWILLE (ZLL). The expression of BnSTM and BnCLV1 increased after a few days in cultures in embryos treated with BL whereas an opposite tendency was observed with applications of BrZ. Compared with control embryos where these two genes exhibited abnormal localization patterns, BnSTM and BnCLV1 always localized throughout the subapical domains

  14. Assessment of Difference in Gene Expression Profile Between Embryos of Different Derivations

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sujin; Jeong, Sangkyun; Jeong, Young Sun; Park, Jung Sun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Researchers have exerted sustained efforts to improve the viability of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, testing their experimental designs and probing the resultant embryos. However, the lack of a reliable method to estimate the efficacy of these experimental attempts is a chief hindrance to tackling the low-viability problem in SCNT. Here, we introduce a procedure that assesses the degree of difference in gene expression profiles (GEPs) of blastocysts from each other as a representative control of good quality. We first adapted a multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction strategy to obtain GEPs for 15 reprogramming-related genes from single mouse blastocysts. GEPs of individual blastocysts displayed a broad range of variations, the extent of which was calculated using a weighted root mean square deviation (wRMSD). wRMSD-based quantitation of GEP difference (qGEP) found that GEP difference between in vivo–derived blastocysts (in vivo) and SCNT blastocysts was greater than the difference between in vivo blastocysts and in vitro–produced (IVP) blastocysts, demonstrating that the SCNT group was more distantly related to the in vivo group than the IVP group. Our qGEP approach for grading individual blastocysts would be useful for selecting a better protocol to derive embryos of better quality prior to field applications. PMID:25549061

  15. Evaluation of Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD) Teratogenicity on the Rat Embryo Neural Crest Culture

    PubMed Central

    Mamashli, Maliheh; Ramezani, Mina; Parsa, Maliheh; Ostad, Seyyed Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Enamel matrix derivative Emdogain (EMD) is widely used in periodontal treatment in spite of the fact that its effect on the developing embryo has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the teratogenic effect of EMD on the rat embryo neural crest cells. The neural crest is a unique population of cells that migrates from the dorsal neural tube along defined pathways and produces various cell types including the melanocytes, neuronal and glial cells of the sensory, autonomic and enteric nervous system as well as the chromaffin cells of the adrenal gland. These cells have been used extensively for in-vitro studies of neurogenesis. Cultured cells by micromass culture method derived from midbrain of six embryos (13 day postcoitum; 34-36 smites) and exposed to various concentrations of EMD for 5 days at 37°C and differentiated foci were counted. Retinoic Acid (20 μg/mL) was used as standard positive control. These cells were stained using Mayer’s hematoxylin which is specific for staining differentiated cell nucleus. Neutral red staining determines cell viability rather than related cell differentiation but is used for normalization of Mayer’s hematoxylin results. At the concentration as low as 8 μg/mL of EMD, no toxic effect on fetal cells was observed and it is suggested that EMD has no teratogenic effect at studied concentrations. PMID:24250425

  16. Bovine milk-derived exosomes for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Munagala, Radha; Aqil, Farrukh; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2016-02-01

    Exosomes are biological nanovesicles that are involved in cell-cell communication via the functionally-active cargo (such as miRNA, mRNA, DNA and proteins). Because of their nanosize, exosomes are explored as nanodevices for the development of new therapeutic applications. However, bulk, safe and cost-effective production of exosomes is not available. Here, we show that bovine milk can serve as a scalable source of exosomes that can act as a carrier for chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Drug-loaded exosomes showed significantly higher efficacy compared to free drug in cell culture studies and against lung tumor xenografts in vivo. Moreover, tumor targeting ligands such as folate increased cancer-cell targeting of the exosomes resulting in enhanced tumor reduction. Milk exosomes exhibited cross-species tolerance with no adverse immune and inflammatory response. Thus, we show the versatility of milk exosomes with respect to the cargo it can carry and ability to achieve tumor targetability. This is the first report to identify a biocompatible and cost-effective means of exosomes to enhance oral bioavailability, improve efficacy and safety of drugs.

  17. N-acetyl-L-cysteine pre-treatment protects cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa from reactive oxygen species without compromising the in vitro developmental potential of intracytoplasmic sperm injection embryos.

    PubMed

    Pérez, L; Arias, M E; Sánchez, R; Felmer, R

    2015-12-01

    Excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on in vitro embryo production systems negatively affects the quality and developmental potential of embryos, as result of a decreased sperm quality and increased DNA fragmentation. This issue is of major importance in assisted fertilisation procedures such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), because this technique does not allow the natural selection of competent spermatozoa, and therefore, DNA-damaged spermatozoa might be used to fertilise an egg. The aim of this study was to investigate a new strategy to prevent the potential deleterious effect of ROS on cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. We evaluated the effect of a sperm pre-treatment with different concentrations of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on ROS production, viability and DNA fragmentation and assessed the effect of this treatment on the in vitro developmental potential and quality of embryos generated by ICSI. The results show a strong scavenging effect of 1 and 10 mm NAC after exposure of spermatozoa to a ROS inducer, without compromising the viability and DNA integrity. Importantly, in vitro developmental potential and quality of embryos generated by ICSI with spermatozoa treated with NAC were not affected, confirming the feasibility of using this treatment before an ICSI cycle.

  18. Different intervals of ovum pick-up affect the competence of oocytes to support the preimplantation development of cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-Jun; Tian, Hai-Bin; Wang, Jing-Jun; Chen, Juan; Sha, Hong-Ying; Chen, Jian-Quan; Cheng, Guo-Xiang

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different frequencies of transvaginal ovum pick-up (OPU) on the quantity of recovered cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and subsequently the competence of matured oocytes to support the preimplantation development of cloned bovine embryos. The COCs were aspirated from the ovaries of 6 Chinese Holstein cows by transvaginal follicle aspiration twice a week (every 3 or 4 days) (Group I), every 5 days (Group II), once a week (every 7 days) (Group III), every 10 days (Group IV), and once every 2 weeks (every 14 days) (Group V). The developmental stages of the follicles were confirmed by the diameter of the dominant follicle (DF) and harvested COCs, and the dynamics of the follicular wave were clarified. In addition, extrusions of the first polar body (PB I) from the oocytes were observed at different time intervals after the initiation of in vitro maturation (IVM) to identify the appropriate culture time window for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Matured oocytes were used to produce cloned bovine embryos that were subsequently cultured in the goat oviduct. After 7 days, the embryos were flushed out, and the developmental rates of the blastocysts were compared among the five groups. The results showed that the aspirations of all follicles >or=3 mm in diameter (D1) induced and synchronized the dynamics of the follicular wave, and the subordinate follicles became atretic after 4 days (D5). Another follicular wave started between D7 and D10, and atresia in the subordinate follicles in the second follicular wave began on D14. The timing of meiotic progression (from the initiation of IVM to the extrusion of PB I) in the oocytes obtained by OPU was later than that of the oocytes obtained from the abattoir. Between 20 and 24 hr after the initiation of IVM, 20% of the oocytes extruded their PB I. Further, 80% (520/650) of the harvested COCs were arrested at metaphase II (MII) by 22 hr of the initiation of IVM and were used

  19. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12 on in vitro bovine embryo production and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Absalón-Medina, V A; Bedford-Guaus, S J; Gilbert, R O; Siqueira, L C; Esposito, G; Schneider, A; Cheong, S H; Butler, W R

    2014-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers can affect the lipid profile and signaling of cells and thereby alter their function. A total of 5,700 bovine oocytes were used in a structured series of experiments to test the effects of CLA cis-9,trans-11 and CLA trans-10,cis-12 in vitro. In experiment 1, high doses of each CLA isomer during in vitro maturation (IVM) were compared with high or low doses during the entire in vitro culture (IVC) of parthenogenetic embryos. High doses of the CLA isomers ranged from 50 to 200 μM and low doses were 15 and 25 μM. In experiment 2, the low doses of each CLA isomer were tested during IVM/IVC on embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF). Experiment 3 compared the effects of 15 μM doses of each CLA isomer during IVM or IVC of IVF embryos. In experiment 4, post-rewarming survival rates and blastomere counts were assessed for embryos supplemented with each CLA isomer during IVM or for 36 h before vitrification. In experiment 1, when either CLA isomer was provided only during IVM, we observed no effects on overall rates of maturation, cleavage, or blastocysts (92.2 ± 1.6%, 78.3 ± 4.1%, and 28.9 ± 5.1%, respectively). However, high doses of each CLA isomer, but not low doses, during the entire embryo culture period decreased blastocyst rates (5-20%) in a dose-dependent manner. Cleavage rates improved with 15 or 50 μM CLA trans-10,cis-12. Progesterone concentrations in maturation media were significantly increased by high doses of each CLA isomer compared with control, but low doses of CLA isomers had no effect. In experiment 2 with IVF embryos, low doses of each CLA isomer did not alter cleavage rates (average 84.9 ± 1.9%) and only 25 μM CLA trans-10,cis-12 during IVC reduced blastocyst rates below those of controls (25.5 ± 2.1 vs. 38.2 ± 2.3%). The lipid content of embryos was increased and relative expression of the BIRC5 (baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5) gene was depressed by CLA trans-10,cis-12. In experiment 3

  20. Derivation and characterization of bovine induced pluripotent stem cells by transposon-mediated reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Talluri, Thirumala R; Kumar, Dharmendra; Glage, Silke; Garrels, Wiebke; Ivics, Zoltan; Debowski, Katharina; Behr, Rüdiger; Niemann, Heiner; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a seminal breakthrough in stem cell research and are promising tools for advanced regenerative therapies in humans and reproductive biotechnology in farm animals. iPSCs are particularly valuable in species in which authentic embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are yet not available. Here, we describe a nonviral method for the derivation of bovine iPSCs employing Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposon systems encoding different combinations of reprogramming factors, each separated by self-cleaving peptide sequences and driven by the chimeric CAGGS promoter. One bovine iPSC line (biPS-1) generated by a PB vector containing six reprogramming genes was analyzed in detail, including morphology, alkaline phosphatase expression, and typical hallmarks of pluripotency, such as expression of pluripotency markers and formation of mature teratomas in immunodeficient mice. Moreover, the biPS-1 line allowed a second round of SB transposon-mediated gene transfer. These results are promising for derivation of germ line-competent bovine iPSCs and will facilitate genetic modification of the bovine genome. PMID:25826726

  1. Derivation and Characterization of Bovine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Transposon-Mediated Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Talluri, Thirumala R.; Kumar, Dharmendra; Glage, Silke; Garrels, Wiebke; Ivics, Zoltan; Debowski, Katharina; Behr, Rüdiger; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a seminal breakthrough in stem cell research and are promising tools for advanced regenerative therapies in humans and reproductive biotechnology in farm animals. iPSCs are particularly valuable in species in which authentic embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines are yet not available. Here, we describe a nonviral method for the derivation of bovine iPSCs employing Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposon systems encoding different combinations of reprogramming factors, each separated by self-cleaving peptide sequences and driven by the chimeric CAGGS promoter. One bovine iPSC line (biPS-1) generated by a PB vector containing six reprogramming genes was analyzed in detail, including morphology, alkaline phosphatase expression, and typical hallmarks of pluripotency, such as expression of pluripotency markers and formation of mature teratomas in immunodeficient mice. Moreover, the biPS-1 line allowed a second round of SB transposon-mediated gene transfer. These results are promising for derivation of germ line–competent bovine iPSCs and will facilitate genetic modification of the bovine genome. PMID:25826726

  2. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  3. Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis identifies pathways and markers associated with the establishment of rapeseed microspore-derived embryo development.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Ronny; Cordewener, Jan; Supena, Ence Darmo Jaya; Vorst, Oscar; Lammers, Michiel; Maliepaard, Chris; Zeilmaker, Tieme; Miki, Brian; America, Twan; Custers, Jan; Boutilier, Kim

    2007-05-01

    Microspore-derived embryo (MDE) cultures are used as a model system to study plant cell totipotency and as an in vitro system to study embryo development. We characterized and compared the transcriptome and proteome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) MDEs from the few-celled stage to the globular/heart stage using two MDE culture systems: conventional cultures in which MDEs initially develop as unorganized clusters that usually lack a suspensor, and a novel suspensor-bearing embryo culture system in which the embryo proper originates from the distal cell of a suspensor-like structure and undergoes the same ordered cell divisions as the zygotic embryo. Improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing MDEs suggests a new role for the suspensor in driving embryo cell identity and patterning. An MDE culture cDNA array and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein sequencing were used to compile global and specific expression profiles for the two types of MDE cultures. Analysis of the identities of 220 candidate embryo markers, as well as the identities of 32 sequenced embryo up-regulated protein spots, indicate general roles for protein synthesis, glycolysis, and ascorbate metabolism in the establishment of MDE development. A collection of 135 robust markers for the transition to MDE development was identified, a number of which may be coregulated at the gene and protein expression level. Comparison of the expression profiles of preglobular-stage conventional MDEs and suspensor-bearing MDEs identified genes whose differential expression may reflect improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing embryos. This collection of early embryo-expressed genes and proteins serves as a starting point for future marker development and gene function studies aimed at understanding the molecular regulation of cell totipotency and early embryo development in plants.

  4. Combined transcriptome and proteome analysis identifies pathways and markers associated with the establishment of rapeseed microspore-derived embryo development.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Ronny; Cordewener, Jan; Supena, Ence Darmo Jaya; Vorst, Oscar; Lammers, Michiel; Maliepaard, Chris; Zeilmaker, Tieme; Miki, Brian; America, Twan; Custers, Jan; Boutilier, Kim

    2007-05-01

    Microspore-derived embryo (MDE) cultures are used as a model system to study plant cell totipotency and as an in vitro system to study embryo development. We characterized and compared the transcriptome and proteome of rapeseed (Brassica napus) MDEs from the few-celled stage to the globular/heart stage using two MDE culture systems: conventional cultures in which MDEs initially develop as unorganized clusters that usually lack a suspensor, and a novel suspensor-bearing embryo culture system in which the embryo proper originates from the distal cell of a suspensor-like structure and undergoes the same ordered cell divisions as the zygotic embryo. Improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing MDEs suggests a new role for the suspensor in driving embryo cell identity and patterning. An MDE culture cDNA array and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein sequencing were used to compile global and specific expression profiles for the two types of MDE cultures. Analysis of the identities of 220 candidate embryo markers, as well as the identities of 32 sequenced embryo up-regulated protein spots, indicate general roles for protein synthesis, glycolysis, and ascorbate metabolism in the establishment of MDE development. A collection of 135 robust markers for the transition to MDE development was identified, a number of which may be coregulated at the gene and protein expression level. Comparison of the expression profiles of preglobular-stage conventional MDEs and suspensor-bearing MDEs identified genes whose differential expression may reflect improved histodifferentiation of suspensor-bearing embryos. This collection of early embryo-expressed genes and proteins serves as a starting point for future marker development and gene function studies aimed at understanding the molecular regulation of cell totipotency and early embryo development in plants. PMID:17384159

  5. Forskolin improves the cryosurvival of in vivo-derived porcine embryos at very early stages using two vitrification methods.

    PubMed

    Gomis, J; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gil, M A; Parrilla, I; Angel, M A; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of forskolin on the viability of in vivo-derived porcine embryos vitrified by the superfine open pulled straw (SOPS) or solid surface vitrification (SSV) methods at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and blastocyst stages. Zygotes, 2- to 4-cell embryos, and morulae were obtained from superovulated sows. After collection, embryos were cultured for 24h with 0 or 10 μM forskolin and then vitrified using the SOPS and SSV method, or not vitrified (fresh controls). Fresh and vitrified-warmed 2-cells, 4-cells, and blastocysts were cultured for additional 96 h, 72 h and 24 h, respectively. At the end of the culture, embryos were evaluated for progression to the blastocyst stage and total cell number. The vitrification method did not affect any of the parameters evaluated for any embryo stage. Forskolin increased (P<0.01) the blastocyst formation and the final developmental stage of vitrified 2- and 4-cell embryos. However, these embryos exhibited lower (P<0.003) blastocyst formation rates than their fresh counterparts. The total cell number and hatching rate were similar in both groups (vitrified and fresh) of 2- and 4-cell embryos. Vitrified blastocysts exhibited viabilities, final developmental stages, hatching rates, and total cell numbers that were similar to those of their fresh counterparts, regardless of the addition of forskolin. In conclusion, the SOPS and SSV methods are suitable for the cryopreservation of in vivo-derived 2- to 4-cell porcine embryos. Pre-treatment with forskolin for 24h before vitrification improves the cryotolerance of 2- and 4-cell porcine embryos.

  6. MicroRNA-34c Expression in Donor Cells Influences the Early Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Yongsheng; Zhang, Man; Du, Yue; Zhang, Yijun; Xing, Xupeng; Zhang, Lei; Su, JianMin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The essence of the reprogramming activity of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos is to produce normal fertilized embryos. However, reprogramming of somatic cells is not as efficient as the reprogramming of sperm. In this report, we describe the effect of an inducible, specific miR-34 microRNA expression in donor cells that enables a similar level of sperm:transgene expression on the early development of SCNT embryos. Our results showed that donor cells with doxycycline (dox)-induced miR-34c expression for the preparation of SCNT embryos resulted in altered developmental rates, histone modification (H3K9ac and H3K4me3), and extent of apoptosis. The cleavage rate and blastocyst formation of the induced nuclear transfer (NT) group were significantly increased. The immunofluorescence signal of H3K9ac in embryos in the induced NT group significantly increased in two-cell- and eight-cell-stage embryos; that of H3K4me3 increased significantly in eight-cell-stage embryos. Although significant differences in staining signals of apoptosis were not detected between groups, lower apoptosis levels were observed in the induced NT group. In conclusion, miR-34c expression induced by dox treatment enhances the developmental potential of SCNT embryos, modifies the epigenetic status, and changes blastocyst quality. PMID:25437869

  7. Human amniotic epithelial cells as feeder layer to derive and maintain human embryonic stem cells from poor-quality embryos.

    PubMed

    Ávila-González, Daniela; Vega-Hernández, Eva; Regalado-Hernández, Juan Carlos; De la Jara-Díaz, Julio Francisco; García-Castro, Irma Lydia; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Moreno-Verduzco, Elsa Romelia; Razo-Aguilera, Guadalupe; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Portillo, Wendy; Díaz-Martínez, Néstor Emmanuel; García-López, Guadalupe; Díaz, Néstor Fabián

    2015-09-01

    Data from the literature suggest that human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines used in research do not genetically represent all human populations. The derivation of hESC through conventional methods involve the destruction of viable human embryos, as well the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts as a feeder layer, which has several drawbacks. We obtained the hESC line (Amicqui-1) from poor-quality (PQ) embryos derived and maintained on human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC). This line displays a battery of markers of pluripotency and we demonstrated the capacity of these cells to produce derivates of the three germ layers.

  8. Post-hatching development of in vitro bovine embryos from day 7 to 14 in vivo versus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Machado, G M; Ferreira, A R; Pivato, I; Fidelis, A; Spricigo, J F; Paulini, F; Lucci, C M; Franco, M M; Dode, M A

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates the post-hatching development of in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos until Day 14. On Day 7, IVP embryos were either transferred to recipient uteruses or placed in a post-hatching development (PHD) system. As a control group, in vivo-produced (IVV), Day-7 embryos were also transferred to recipient uteruses. All groups were collected on Day 14 and were morphologically evaluated. Day-7 and Day-14 IVV and IVP embryos were used for quantification of eight genes (PLAC8, CD9, SLC2A1, SLC2A3, KRT8, SOD2, HSP1A1, and IFNT2) by reverse transcriptase qPCR. Day-14 embryos from the PHD system were smaller (2.92 ± 0.45 mm) and had a lower embryonic disk diameter (0.14 ± 0.00 mm) than those produced by IVV (24.18 ± 3.71; 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, respectively) or IVP (19.06 ± 2.43; 0.28 ± 0.01 mm) culture and transferred to the uterus (P > 0.05). Day-7 IVP embryos had a higher expression of the HSP1A1, SCL2A1, and SCL2A3 genes than IVV embryos. When these embryos were cultured in the uterus, no differences in gene expression were observed on Day 14. Conversely, Day-14 IVP embryos cultured in the PHD system showed a higher expression of PLAC8, SOD2, and SLC2A3 genes. It is concluded that Day-7 IVP embryos are different from IVV embryos in regards to gene expression, although exposure to the uterine environment during the elongation period allowed the IVP embryos to overcome this difference. In contrast, IVP embryos cultured in the PHD system were morphologically and molecularly different, being of poorer quality than those cultured in the uterus.

  9. Colloidal Properties of Nanoerythrosomes Derived from Bovine Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuan-Chia; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Hoang, Dao; Bentley, William E; D'Souza, Warren D; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2016-01-12

    Liposomes are nanoscale containers that are typically synthesized from lipids using a high-shear process such as extrusion or sonication. While liposomes are extensively used in drug delivery, they do suffer from certain problems including limited colloidal stability and short circulation times in the body. As an alternative to liposomes, we explore a class of container structures derived from erythrocytes (red blood cells). The procedure involves emptying the inner contents of these cells (specifically hemoglobin) and resuspending the empty structures in buffer, followed by sonication. The resulting structures are termed nanoerythrosomes (NERs), i.e., they are membrane-covered nanoscale containers, much like liposomes. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are employed for the first time to study these NERs. The results reveal that the NERs are discrete spheres (∼110 nm diameter) with a unilamellar membrane of thickness ∼4.5 nm. Remarkably, the biconcave disc-like shape of erythrocytes is also exhibited by the NERs under hypertonic conditions. Moreover, unlike typical liposomes, NERs show excellent colloidal stability in both buffer as well as in serum at room temperature, and are also able to withstand freeze-thaw cycling. We have explored the potential for using NERs as colloidal vehicles for targeted delivery. Much like conventional liposomes, NER membranes can be decorated with fluorescent or other markers, solutes can be encapsulated in the cores of the NERs, and NERs can be targeted to specifically bind to mammalian cells. Our study shows that NERs are a promising and versatile class of nanostructures. NERs that are harvested from a patient's own blood and reconfigured for nanomedicine can potentially offer several benefits including biocompatibility, minimization of immune response, and extended circulation time in the body. PMID:26684218

  10. Characterization of microRNA in bovine in vitro culture media associated with embryo quality and development.

    PubMed

    Kropp, Jenna; Khatib, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    Dairy cattle fertility has declined over time due to factors including reduced fertilization and early embryonic loss. To counter fertility problems and better study preimplantation embryonic development, in vitro production systems have been developed. These systems largely assess embryos based on their morphology, which is not a strong indicator of developmental potential. Currently, no biomarkers can be used to noninvasively survey an embryo's potential in terms of its development and ability to establish a pregnancy. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and identify microRNA (miRNA) in culture media of embryos of differing developmental competence for future development as noninvasive biomarkers of embryo quality. The MiRNA sequencing of media conditioned by blastocyst and degenerate (those that failed to develop from the morula to blastocyst stage) embryos, revealed 11 differentially expressed miRNA; all were higher in concentration in degenerate conditioned media. Differential expression of mature microRNA (miR)-24, miR-191, and miR-148a was further validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Functional analysis of miR-24 revealed that addition of a mimic miRNA to culture media of morulae embryos resulted in a 27.3% decrease in development to the blastocyst stage. Furthermore, expression of miR-24 was 44.29-fold higher in blastocysts cultured with a miR-24 mimic compared with control blastocysts. Interestingly, the expression of CDKN1b, a target gene of miR-24 was repressed in embryos grown in the presence of the miRNA mimic. Mimic supplementation experiments suggest that miRNA are taken up by the embryo and that extracellular miRNA affect embryonic development. Overall, identification of a rich extracellular milieu in conditioned media sets the framework for future studies to determine the long-term predictive ability of embryo-based miRNA biomarkers on pregnancy outcome.

  11. Maternal serum progesterone concentration and early conceptus development of bovine embryos produced in vivo or in vitro.

    PubMed

    Barnwell, C V; Farin, P W; Whisnant, C S; Alexander, J E; Farin, C E

    2015-07-01

    The hormone progesterone is essential for proper embryonic development. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between recipient serum concentrations of progesterone, at the time of embryo transfer and at conceptus recovery, on conceptus development from in vivo- or in vitro-produced embryos. Embryos were produced in vivo by superovulation of Holstein cows (IVO; n = 17) or in vitro with either serum-containing (IVPS; n = 27) or serum-restricted medium (IVPSR; n = 34). Single grade I blastocysts from each embryo production system were transferred into heifers on day 7 of development. Conceptuses were recovered on day 17 of gestation and classified as complete, degenerated, or no conceptus. Compared with the IVO group, in vitro-produced embryos had more (P = 0.055) degenerated conceptuses (IVO, 0%; IVPS, 18.5%; and IVPSR, 20.6%). There were no differences in progesterone concentrations at the time of transfer when recipients received either male or female embryos (P > 0.05). Progesterone concentrations in recipients receiving in vivo-produced embryos were higher (P < 0.05; 3.74 ± 0.4 ng/mL; least-squares mean ± standard error of the mean) on day 7 compared with those receiving in vitro-produced embryos (IVPS, 2.4 ± 0.2; IVPSR, 2.58 ± 0.3 ng/mL). However, there was no difference in progesterone concentration on day 7 between treatment groups for heifers from which short conceptuses (≤194 mm) were recovered on day 17. In contrast, when longer (>194 mm) conceptuses were recovered on day 17, heifers receiving in vitro-produced embryos had lower (P = 0.05) serum concentrations of progesterone on day 7 compared with those receiving in vivo-produced embryos (IVPS, 2.2 ± 0.5; IVPSR, 2.3 ± 0.5; IVO, 3.9 ± 0.5 ng/mL). In conclusion, differences in autonomy may exist between in vitro- and in vivo-produced embryos during the period of conceptus elongation with in vitro-produced embryos relying more on intrinsic factors to influence elongation.

  12. Foetal bovine serum-derived exosomes affect yield and phenotype of human cardiac progenitor cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Francesco; Ionta, Vittoria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Miraldi, Fabio; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) represent a powerful tool in cardiac regenerative medicine. Pre-clinical studies suggest that most of the beneficial effects promoted by the injected cells are due to their paracrine activity exerted on endogenous cells and tissue. Exosomes are candidate mediators of this paracrine effects. According to their potential, many researchers have focused on characterizing exosomes derived from specific cell types, but, up until now, only few studies have analyzed the possible in vitro effects of bovine serum-derived exosomes on cell proliferation or differentiation. Methods: The aim of this study was to analyse, from a qualitative and quantitative point of view, the in vitro effects of bovine serum exosomes on human CPCs cultured either as cardiospheres or as monolayers of cardiosphere-forming cells. Results: Effects on proliferation, yield and molecular patterning were detected. We show, for the first time, that exogenous bovine exosomes support the proliferation and migration of human cardiosphere-forming cells, and that their depletion affects cardiospheres formation, in terms of size, yield and extra-cellular matrix production. Conclusion: These results stress the importance of considering differential biological effects of exogenous cell culture supplements on the final phenotype of primary human cell cultures. PMID:27340620

  13. Transcript profiling of individual twin blastomeres derived by splitting two-cell stage murine embryos.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R Michael; Katayama, Mika; Magnuson, Scott R; Falduto, Michael T; Torres, Karen E O

    2011-03-01

    In invertebrates and amphibians, informational macromolecules in egg cytoplasm are organized to provide direction to the formation of embryonic lineages, but it is unclear whether vestiges of such prepatterning exist in mammals. Here we examined whether twin blastomeres from 2-cell stage mouse embryos differ in mRNA content. mRNA from 26 blastomeres derived from 13 embryos approximately mid-way through their second cell cycle was subjected to amplification. Twenty amplified samples were hybridized to arrays. Of those samples that hybridized successfully, 12 samples in six pairs were used in the final analysis. Probes displaying normalized values >0.25 (n = 4573) were examined for consistent bias in expression within blastomere pairs. Although transcript content varied between both individual embryos and twin blastomeres, no consistent asymmetries were observed for the majority of genes, with only 178 genes displaying a >1.4-fold difference in expression across all six pairs. Although class discovery clustering showed that blastomere pairs separated into two distinct groups in terms of their differentially expressed genes, when the data were tested for significance of asymmetrical expression, only 39 genes with >1.4-fold change ratios in six of six blastomere pairs passed the two-sample t-test (P < 0.05). Transcripts encoding proteins implicated in RNA processing and cytoskeletal organization were among the most abundant, differentially distributed mRNA, suggesting that a stochastically based lack of synchrony in cell cycle progression between the two cells might explain at least some and possibly all of the asymmetries in transcript composition.

  14. Effects of chemically defined medium on early development of porcine embryos derived from parthenogenetic activation and cloning.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zubing; Sui, Liucai; Li, Yunsheng; Ji, Suofei; Zhang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yunhai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was to investigate if a completely chemically defined medium (PZM-4) could support the early development of porcine embryos derived from parthenogenetic activation (PA) and cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT), and to lay the foundation for determining the physiological roles of certain supplements in this medium. Porcine embryos derived from PA and SCNT were cultured in media: PZM-3 (a chemically semi-defined medium), PZM-4 (a fully defined medium), and PZM-5 (an undefined medium). Early embryo development was observed. We found that the three medium groups (PZM-3, PZM-4 and PZM-5) exhibited no significant differences in cleavage rates of PA embryos (p > 0.05), while the blastocyst rate in PZM-3 was significantly higher than in PZM-4 and PZM-5 (78.9% vs. 36.0% and 52.3%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, total cell number per blastocyst in PZM-3 was clearly higher than in PZM-5 but similar to that in PZM-4. As for SCNT embryos, no significant differences were observed for the cleavage rates or the blastocyst rates among the three groups (p > 0.05). However, total cell number per blastocyst in PZM-3 was notably higher than in PZM-5, but was similar to that in PZM-4. In conclusion, our results suggested that the completely chemically defined medium PZM-4 can be used to efficiently support the early development of porcine PA and SCNT embryos.

  15. Post-natal growth and development of Simmental calves derived from in vivo or in vitro embryos.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, T G; Sinclair, K D; Broadbent, P J; Goodhand, K L; Robinson, J J

    1998-01-01

    Large fetuses arising from embryos produced in vitro have been shown to exhibit altered organ development in utero, but it is not known whether this persists post natally. Post-natal growth and development was examined in 18 Simmental bulls derived from in vivo frozen-thawed (n = 6), in vitro frozen-thawed (n = 6) or in vitro fresh (n = 6) embryos and reared together post weaning on an ad libitum diet until slaughter at approximately 13 months old. Calves weighing less than 60 kg at birth (n = 11) were classified as normal, and heavier calves (n = 7; all from in vitro embryos) as oversize. Lifetime growth rates and slaughter weights apparently were unaffected by embryo source or birthweight. Mean (+/- s.e.m.) post mortem liver and kidney weights were unaffected by embryo source, but hearts of bulls from in vitro frozen embryos were heavier than those of bulls from in vivo frozen embryos (2.7 +/- 0.04 v 2.3 +/- 0.07 kg, P<0.025). Heart weight per kilogram body weight at slaughter for the 7 perinatally oversize males (4.01 +/- 0.08 g) exceeded that of the other 5 bulls from in vitro embryos (3.60 +/- 0.10 g kg(-1); P<0.04) and the 6 in vivo males (3.56 +/- 0.12 g kg(-1); P<0.02). Overall, one-third of the variation in heart weight at slaughter (r2 = 0.35; P = 0.01) was due to variation in birthweight. This is the first study to demonstrate birthweight-related developmental effects on post-natal organ weight following the transfer of embryos produced in vitro. PMID:10588375

  16. Aberrant expression of Xist in aborted porcine fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Anfeng; Yao, Chaogang; Huang, Yongye; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Wang, Dongxu; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP). q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:25429426

  17. Transcriptional regulators TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are aberrantly expressed in porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in comparison to in vivo- and somatic-cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jennifer; Tessanne, Kim; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2014-06-01

    In vitro embryo production is important for research in animal reproduction, embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning. Yet, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos are generally developmentally delayed and are inferior to in vivo-derived (IVV) embryos; this discrepancy is likely a result of aberrant gene expression. Transcription of three genes implicated to be important in normal preimplantation embryo development, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53, was determined by quanitative PCR in IVF, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), parthenogenetic, and IVV porcine oocytes and embryos. There was no difference in TRIM28 or SETDB1 abundance between oocytes matured in vitro versus in vivo (P > 0.05), whereas TP53 levels were higher in in vitro-matured oocytes. TRIM28 increased from metaphase-II oocytes to the 4-cell and blastocyst stages in IVF embryos, whereas IVV embryos showed a reduction in TRIM28 abundance from maturation throughout development. The relative abundance of TP53 increased by the blastocyst stage in all treatment groups, but was higher in IVF embryos compared to IVV and SCNT embryos. In contrast, SETDB1 transcript levels decreased from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage in all treatments. For each gene analyzed, SCNT embryos of both hard-to-clone and easy-to-clone cell lines were more comparable to IVV than IVF embryos. Knockdown of TRIM28 also had no effect on blastocyst development or expression of SETDB1 or TP53. Thus, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are dynamically expressed in porcine oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, TRIM28 and TP53 abundances in IVV and SCNT embryos are similar, but different from quantities in IVF embryos. PMID:24659575

  18. Transcriptional regulators TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are aberrantly expressed in porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in comparison to in vivo- and somatic-cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jennifer; Tessanne, Kim; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro embryo production is important for research in animal reproduction, embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning. Yet, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos are generally developmentally delayed and are inferior to in vivo-derived (IVV) embryos; this discrepancy is likely a result of aberrant gene expression. Transcription of three genes implicated to be important in normal preimplantation embryo development, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53, was determined by quanitative PCR in IVF, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), parthenogenetic, and IVV porcine oocytes and embryos. There was no difference in TRIM28 or SETDB1 abundance between oocytes matured in vitro versus in vivo (P > 0.05), whereas TP53 levels were higher in in vitro-matured oocytes. TRIM28 increased from metaphase-II oocytes to the 4-cell and blastocyst stages in IVF embryos, whereas IVV embryos showed a reduction in TRIM28 abundance from maturation throughout development. The relative abundance of TP53 increased by the blastocyst stage in all treatment groups, but was higher in IVF embryos compared to IVV and SCNT embryos. In contrast, SETDB1 transcript levels decreased from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage in all treatments. For each gene analyzed, SCNT embryos of both hard-to-clone and easy-to-clone cell lines were more comparable to IVV than IVF embryos. Knockdown of TRIM28 also had no effect on blastocyst development or expression of SETDB1 or TP53. Thus, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are dynamically expressed in porcine oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, TRIM28 and TP53 abundances in IVV and SCNT embryos are similar, but different from quantities in IVF embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81: 552–556, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24659575

  19. Inheritance of resistance of bovine preimplantation embryos to heat shock: relative importance of the maternal versus paternal contribution.

    PubMed

    Block, J; Chase, C C; Hansen, P J

    2002-09-01

    Brahman preimplantation embryos are less affected by exposure to heat shock than Holstein embryos. Two experiments were conducted to test whether the ability of Brahman embryos to resist the deleterious effects of heat shock was a result of the genetic and cellular contributions from the oocyte, spermatozoa, or a combination of both. In the first experiment, Brahman and Holstein oocytes were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and fertilized with spermatozoa from an Angus bull. A different bull was used for each replicate to eliminate bull effects. On day 4 after fertilization, embryos >or= 9 cells were collected and randomly assigned to control (38.5 degrees C) or heat shock (41 degrees C for 6 hr) treatments. The proportion of embryos developing to the blastocyst (BL) and advanced blastocyst (ABL; expanded and hatched) stages was recorded on day 8. Heat shock reduced the number of embryos produced from Holstein oocytes that developed to BL (P < 0.001, 55.6 +/- 4.2% vs. 29.8 +/- 4.2%) and ABL (P < 0.01, 37.7 +/- 3.6% vs. 12.2 +/- 3.6%) on day 8 as compared to controls. In contrast, heat shock did not reduce development of embryos produced from Brahman oocytes (BL = 42.1 +/- 4.8% vs. 55.6 +/- 4.8% for 38.5 and 41 degrees C, respectively; ABL = 17.6 +/- 4.2% vs. 32.4 +/- 4.2%). In the second experiment, oocytes from Holstein cows were fertilized with semen from bulls of either Brahman or Angus breeds. Heat shock of embryos >or= 9 cells reduced development to BL (P < 0.002) and ABL (P < 0.005) for embryos sired by both Brahman (BL = 54.3 +/- 7.7% vs. 23.4 +/- 7.7%; ABL = 43. +/- 7.4% vs. 7.9 +/- 7.4%, for 38.5 and 41 degrees C, respectively) and Angus bulls (BL = 57.9 +/- 7.7% vs. 31.0 +/- 7.7%; ABL = 33.6 +/- 7.4% vs. 18.4 +/- 7.4%, for 38.5 and 41 degrees C, respectively). There were no breed x temperature interactions. Results suggest that the oocyte plays a more significant role in the resistance of Brahman embryos to the deleterious effects of heat shock than

  20. Antibody-independent identification of bovine milk-derived peptides in breast-milk.

    PubMed

    Picariello, Gianluca; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Nocerino, Rita; Paparo, Lorella; Passariello, Annalisa; Dallas, David C; Robinson, Randall C; Barile, Daniela; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2016-08-10

    Exclusively breast-fed infants can exhibit clear signs of IgE or non IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. However, the definite characterization of dietary cow's milk proteins (CMP) that survive the maternal digestive tract to be absorbed into the bloodstream and secreted into breast milk remains missing. Herein, we aimed at assessing possible CMP-derived peptides in breast milk. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS), we compared the peptide fraction of breast milk from 12 donors, among which 6 drank a cup of milk daily and 6 were on a strict dairy-free diet. We identified two bovine β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg, 2 out 6 samples) and one αs1-casein (1 out 6 samples) fragments in breast milk from mothers receiving a cup of bovine milk daily. These CMP-derived fragments, namely β-Lg (f42-54), (f42-57) and αs1-casein (f180-197), were absent in milk from mothers on dairy-free diet. In contrast, neither intact nor hydrolyzed β-Lg was detected by western blot and competitive ELISA in any breast milk sample. Eight additional bovine milk-derived peptides identified by software-assisted MS were most likely false positive. The results of this study demonstrate that CMP-derived peptides rather than intact CMP may sensitize or elicit allergic responses in the neonate through mother's milk. Immunologically active peptides from the maternal diet could be involved in priming the newborn's immune system, driving a tolerogenic response. PMID:27396729

  1. Breed influences on in vitro development of abattoir-derived bovine oocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a discrepancy in the reproductive performance between different cattle breeds. Using abattoir-derived ovaries and data base information we studied the effects of breed on in vitro fertilization and early embryo development. Methods The in vitro developmental competence of oocytes from cattle (n = 202) of Swedish Red (SR), Swedish Holstein (SH) and mixed beef breeds was compared, retrospectively tracing donors of abattoir-derived ovaries using a combination of the national animal databases and abattoir information. Age was significantly lower and carcass conformation score was higher in the beef breeds than in the dairy breeds. Cumulus oocyte complexes (n = 1351) were aspirated from abattoir-derived ovaries from animals of known breed (visual inspection confirmed through databases), age (databases), and abattoir information. Oocytes were matured, fertilized (frozen semen from two dairy bulls) and cultured according to conventional protocols. On day 8, blastocysts were graded and the number of nuclei determined. Results Cleavage rate was not different between the breeds but was significantly different between bulls. The percentage of blastocysts on day 8 was significantly higher when the oocyte donor’s breed was beef or SR than SH. There was no significant difference in blastocyst grades or stages between the breeds, but the number of nuclei in day 8 blastocysts was significantly lower in SH compared to the beef. Conclusions The use of abattoir-derived ovaries from animals whose background is traceable can be a valuable tool for research. Using this approach in the present study, oocyte donor breed was seen to affect early embryo development during in vitro embryo production, which may be a contributing factor to the declining fertility in some dairy breeds seen today. PMID:22682104

  2. How microspores transform into haploid embryos: changes associated with embryogenesis induction and microspore-derived embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Seguí-Simarro, José M; Nuez, Fernando

    2008-09-01

    Microspore embryogenesis is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce haploid and doubled haploid plants. To deviate a microspore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the microspore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of microspore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. In this review, we compile the most recent advances in the understanding of the changes undergone by the induced microspore to readapt to the new developmental scenario. We devote special attention to the efforts made to uncover changes in the transcriptome of the induced microspore and microspore-derived embryo (MDE). Finally, we discuss the influence that an in vitro environment exerts over the MDE, as compared with its zygotic counterpart.

  3. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  4. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  5. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  6. Prediction of pregnancy viability in bovine in vitro-produced embryos and recipient plasma with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, M.; Uyar, A.; Correia, E.; Díez, C.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, A.; Caamaño, J. N.; Martínez-Bello, D.; Trigal, B.; Humblot, P.; Ponsart, C.; Guyader-Joly, C.; Carrocera, S.; Martin, D.; Marquant Le Guienne, B.; Seli, E.; Gomez, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed embryo culture medium (CM) and recipient blood plasma using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) metabolomics to predict pregnancy outcome. Individually cultured, in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts were transferred to recipients as fresh and vitrified-warmed. Spent CM and plasma samples were evaluated using FTIR. The discrimination capability of the classifiers was assessed for accuracy, sensitivity (pregnancy), specificity (nonpregnancy), and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Within all IVP fresh embryos (birth rate = 52%), high AUC were obtained at birth, especially with expanded blastocysts (CM: 0.80 ± 0.053; plasma: 0.89 ± 0.034). The AUC of vitrified IVP embryos (birth rate = 31%) were 0.607 ± 0.038 (CM, expanded blastocysts) and 0.672 ± 0.023 (plasma, all stages). Recipient plasma generally predicted pregnancy outcome better than did embryo CM. Embryos and recipients with improved pregnancy viability were identified, which could increase the economic benefit to the breeding industry. PMID:24997663

  7. Efficient edition of the bovine PRNP prion gene in somatic cells and IVF embryos using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, R J; Fernandez-Martín, R; Savy, V; Canel, N G; Gismondi, M I; Kues, W A; Carlson, D F; Fahrenkrug, S C; Niemann, H; Taboga, O A; Ferraris, S; Salamone, D F

    2016-11-01

    The recently developed engineered nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas) 9, provide new opportunities for gene editing in a straightforward manner. However, few reports are available regarding CRISPR application and efficiency in cattle. Here, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used with the aim of inducing knockout and knock-in alleles of the bovine PRNP gene, responsible for mad cow disease, both in bovine fetal fibroblasts and in IVF embryos. Five single-guide RNAs were designed to target 875 bp of PRNP exon 3, and all five were codelivered with Cas9. The feasibility of inducing homologous recombination (HR) was evaluated with a reporter vector carrying EGFP flanked by 1 kbp PRNP regions (pHRegfp). For somatic cells, plasmids coding for Cas9 and for each of the five single-guide RNAs (pCMVCas9 and pSPgRNAs) were transfected under two different conditions (1X and 2X). For IVF zygotes, cytoplasmic injection was conducted with either plasmids or mRNA. For plasmid injection groups, 1 pg pCMVCas9 + 0.1 pg of each pSPgRNA (DNA2X) was used per zygote. In the case of RNA, two amounts (RNA1X and RNA2X) were compared. To assess the occurrence of HR, a group additionally cotransfected or coinjected with pHRegfp plasmid was included. Somatic cell lysates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and surveyor assay. In the case of embryos, the in vitro development and the genotype of blastocysts were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. In somatic cells, 2X transfection resulted in indels and large deletions of the targeted PRNP region. Regarding embryo injection, higher blastocyst rates were obtained for RNA injected groups (46/103 [44.6%] and 55/116 [47.4%] for RNA1X and RNA2X) than for the DNA2X group (26/140 [18.6%], P < 0.05). In 46% (26/56) of the total sequenced blastocysts, specific gene editing was

  8. Efficient edition of the bovine PRNP prion gene in somatic cells and IVF embryos using the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Bevacqua, R J; Fernandez-Martín, R; Savy, V; Canel, N G; Gismondi, M I; Kues, W A; Carlson, D F; Fahrenkrug, S C; Niemann, H; Taboga, O A; Ferraris, S; Salamone, D F

    2016-11-01

    The recently developed engineered nucleases, such as zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas) 9, provide new opportunities for gene editing in a straightforward manner. However, few reports are available regarding CRISPR application and efficiency in cattle. Here, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used with the aim of inducing knockout and knock-in alleles of the bovine PRNP gene, responsible for mad cow disease, both in bovine fetal fibroblasts and in IVF embryos. Five single-guide RNAs were designed to target 875 bp of PRNP exon 3, and all five were codelivered with Cas9. The feasibility of inducing homologous recombination (HR) was evaluated with a reporter vector carrying EGFP flanked by 1 kbp PRNP regions (pHRegfp). For somatic cells, plasmids coding for Cas9 and for each of the five single-guide RNAs (pCMVCas9 and pSPgRNAs) were transfected under two different conditions (1X and 2X). For IVF zygotes, cytoplasmic injection was conducted with either plasmids or mRNA. For plasmid injection groups, 1 pg pCMVCas9 + 0.1 pg of each pSPgRNA (DNA2X) was used per zygote. In the case of RNA, two amounts (RNA1X and RNA2X) were compared. To assess the occurrence of HR, a group additionally cotransfected or coinjected with pHRegfp plasmid was included. Somatic cell lysates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and surveyor assay. In the case of embryos, the in vitro development and the genotype of blastocysts were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. In somatic cells, 2X transfection resulted in indels and large deletions of the targeted PRNP region. Regarding embryo injection, higher blastocyst rates were obtained for RNA injected groups (46/103 [44.6%] and 55/116 [47.4%] for RNA1X and RNA2X) than for the DNA2X group (26/140 [18.6%], P < 0.05). In 46% (26/56) of the total sequenced blastocysts, specific gene editing was

  9. Maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes using the S-enantiomer of roscovitine: effects on maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coy, Pilar; Romar, Raquel; Payton, Rebecca R; McCann, Lisa; Saxton, Arnold M; Edwards, J Lannett

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the S-enantiomer of roscovitine (inhibitor of p34cdc2/cyclin B kinase) to maintain bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage for extended times after removal from antral follicles without compromising subsequent maturation, fertilization and embryo development. Oocytes were cultured in 0, 12.5, 25 or 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 24 h. Hoechst staining showed that 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine maintained >90% of oocytes at the GV stage and inhibited gonadotropin-induced cumulus expansion. Fewer oocytes underwent nuclear maturation after in vitro maturation (Hoechst staining) when cultured in 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 66 versus 21 or 42 h. Zona pellucida (ZP) hardening (pronase resistance), cortical granule types (lens culinaris agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate), nuclear maturation and fertilization with frozen-thawed spermatozoa (Hoechst staining) were assessed after culture of oocytes in 50 micromol/l S-roscovitine for 0, 24 or 48 h. Neither ZP hardening, nor nuclear maturation nor fertilization were altered by roscovitine culture for 48 h. A higher proportion of oocytes had a type III cortical granule pattern (premature translocation to the oolemma) after roscovitine culture for 48 h. However, embryo development was not compromised as cleavage, development to 8-16 cell and blastocyst stages were at least comparable in control and roscovitine-treated oocytes. In conclusion, the studies have shown that S-roscovitine reversibly maintained bovine oocytes at the GV stage for 48 h. However, maintenance of oocytes in static culture for 48 h was not sufficient to improve development above non-treated controls. PMID:15615895

  10. Activity Prediction and Molecular Mechanism of Bovine Blood Derived Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Nie, Shaoping; Liu, Boqun; Yu, Yiding; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Development of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) inhibitory peptides from food protein is under extensive research as alternative for the prevention of hypertension. However, it is difficult to identify peptides released from food sources. To accelerate the progress of peptide identification, a three layer back propagation neural network model was established to predict the ACE-inhibitory activity of pentapeptides derived from bovine hemoglobin by simulated enzyme digestion. The pentapeptide WTQRF has the best predicted value with experimental IC50 23.93 μM. The potential molecular mechanism of the WTQRF / ACE interaction was investigated by flexible docking. PMID:25768442

  11. Activity prediction and molecular mechanism of bovine blood derived angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Nie, Shaoping; Liu, Boqun; Yu, Yiding; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jingbo

    2015-01-01

    Development of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE, EC 3.4.15.1) inhibitory peptides from food protein is under extensive research as alternative for the prevention of hypertension. However, it is difficult to identify peptides released from food sources. To accelerate the progress of peptide identification, a three layer back propagation neural network model was established to predict the ACE-inhibitory activity of pentapeptides derived from bovine hemoglobin by simulated enzyme digestion. The pentapeptide WTQRF has the best predicted value with experimental IC50 23.93 μM. The potential molecular mechanism of the WTQRF / ACE interaction was investigated by flexible docking. PMID:25768442

  12. Combined anticalcification treatment of bovine pericardium with decellularization and hyaluronic acid derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deyi; Jin, Liqiang; Wang, Xuemei; Xu, Li; Liu, Tianqi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of decellularization and hyaluronic acid derivative on the improvement of anticalcification of glutaraldehyde fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) using a rat subcutaneous implantation model A cell extraction process was employed to remove the cells and cellular components from bovine pericardium (BP), leaving a framework of largely insoluble collagen. Then acellular BP was cross-linked by glutaraldehyde solution and treated with hyaluronic acid derivative (HA-ADH) which was obtained by coupling adipic dihydrazide (ADH) on-COOH of hyaluronic acid (HA). The results of in vivo calcification tests showed that the calcium content was decreased dramatically by decellularization alone (from 28.07 ± 18.87 to 2.44 ± 0.55 μg Ca/mg dry tissue after 8 weeks' implantation), and even less concentration was shown by the combination of HA derivative treatment and decellularization (GFaBP-HA group) (0.25 ± 0.08 μg Ca/mg dry tissue after 8 weeks' implantation). In addition, GFaBP-HA group not only presented a lower degree of calcification, but also showed lower ratios of Ca/P molar, which corresponded to amorphous calcium phosphates. The obtained results indicated that GFaBP-HA was a potential candidate for the manufacture of anticalcification bioprostheses. PMID:24211959

  13. Hollow fiber vitrification provides a novel method for cryopreserving in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Miki; Matsunari, Hitomi; Honda, Kasumi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Kanai, Takahiro; Matsuda, Taisuke; Matsumura, Yukina; Hagiwara, Yui; Sasayama, Norihisa; Shirasu, Akio; Takahashi, Masashi; Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes have been used to create genetically modified pigs for various biomedical purposes. However, porcine embryos derived from IVM oocytes are very cryosensitive. Developing improved cryopreservation methods would facilitate the production of genetically modified pigs and also accelerate the conservation of genetic resources. We recently developed a novel hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method; the present study was initiated to determine whether this new method permits the cryopreservation of IVM oocyte-derived porcine embryos. Embryos were created from the in vitro fertilization of IVM oocytes with frozen-thawed sperm derived from a transgenic pig carrying a humanized Kusabira-Orange (huKO) gene. Morula-stage embryos were assigned to vitrification and nonvitrification groups to compare their in vitro and in vivo developmental abilities. Vitrified morulae developed to the blastocyst stage at a rate similar to that of nonvitrified embryos (66/85, 77.6% vs. 67/84, 79.8%). Eighty-eight blastocysts that developed from vitrified morulae were transferred into the uteri of three recipient gilts. All three became pregnant and produced a total of 17 piglets (19.3%). This piglet production was slightly lower, albeit not significantly, than that of the nonvitrification group (27/88, 30.7%). Approximately half of the piglets in the vitrification (10/17, 58.8%) and nonvitrification (15/27, 55.6%) groups were transgenic. There was no significant difference in the growth rates among the piglets in the two groups. These results indicate that the HFV method is an extremely effective method for preserving cryosensitive embryos such as porcine in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived morulae.

  14. Improved preimplantation development of bovine ICSI embryos generated with spermatozoa pretreated with membrane-destabilizing agents lysolecithin and Triton X-100.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Fabiola; Aguila, Luis; Arias, María E; Sánchez, Raúl; Felmer, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    In cattle, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has a low efficiency. The acrosome content may be responsible for this effect because of the large amount of hydrolytic enzymes that are released within the oocyte. With the aim of removing the acrosome and destabilize the membranes, cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa were treated with lysolecithin (LL) and Triton X-100 (TX) at different concentrations. We evaluated the membrane integrity, the acrosome integrity, DNA integrity, and the variation of phospholipase C zeta. The rates of development (cleavage and blastocysts) were also evaluated along with pronuclear formation and the embryo quality. Spermatozoa incubated with LL and TX (0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03%, and 0.04%) decreased (P < 0.0001) sperm viability in a dose-dependent manner. The acrosome reaction was also increased (P < 0.0001) in all tested concentrations of LL and TX achieving 100% at 0.05% concentration in both treatments. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay reported an increase (P < 0.05) in DNA fragmentation only with the highest concentration of LL (0.06%), whereas all concentrations assessed of TX reported an increased respect to the control. Phospholipase C zeta expression decreased (P < 0.05) in spermatozoa treated with LL and TX at all concentrations tested. A higher cleavage rate was observed in ICSI-TX (66%) and ICSI-LL (65%) groups compared with the untreated control group (51%) and the blastocyst formation rate significantly increased in the ICSI-LL group (29%) compared with the control (21%). No differences were observed in the pronuclear formation and quality of the embryos. In conclusion, the destabilization of the plasma membrane and the release of the acrosomal content with LL and TX before ICSI improve the rate of embryonic development, without affecting the quality of the embryos produced by this technique. PMID:27325573

  15. 9 CFR 94.21 - Importation of meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products derived from bovines from regions of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defined by FSIS in 9 CFR 301.2-except that those terms as applied to bison shall have a meaning comparable to those provided in 9 CFR 301.2 with regard to cattle, and other than boneless skeletal meat that... meal or greaves derived from ruminants. (b) The commodities were derived from bovines that passed...

  16. Bovine OPU-derived oocytes can be matured in vitro for 16-28 h with similar developmental capacity.

    PubMed

    Merton, J S; de Roos, A P W; Koenen, E P C; Roelen, B A J; Vos, P L A M; Mullaart, E; Knijn, H M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal maturation culture period of ovum pick up (OPU)-derived cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) in relation to their developmental capacity. Embryo production, embryo cryotolerance, post-transfer embryonic survival and calf characteristics such as gestation length, birthweight and sex ratio were investigated. This retrospective study covers the analyses of ovum pick up -in vitro production and calving results from a commercial programme that took place between March 1994 and September 2004. Donors were both heifers (of which approximately 90% pregnant) and cows (of which approximately 10% pregnant). Embryo production analyses were based on 7800 OPU sessions conducted from January 1995 until January 1999. Analyses of calving rate were based on 13 468 embryo transfers performed during January 1995 until May 2002. Analyses on calf characteristics were based on 2162 calves born between March 1994 and September 2004. The in vitro maturation culture period ranged from 16 to 28 h. The mean production rate of transferable embryos was 16.5% (1.2 embryos per OPU session). Length of maturation culture period did not affect the production of transferable embryos. Mean calving rate was 40.9% and 38.7% for fresh and frozen/thawed embryos, respectively. Calving rate was not affected by the maturation culture period. Mean birthweight, gestation length and proportion of male calves were 46 kg, 281.9 days and 52.8%, respectively. Maturation culture period did not affect these variables. In conclusion, this study shows that the in vitro maturation culture period within the range of 16-28 h does not affect in vitro embryo production, embryo cryotolerance, post-transfer embryonic survival and calf characteristics, suggesting that all COC batches collected by OPU on the same day, can be fertilized in one IVF session without a significant loss in the production from oocyte to calf.

  17. Proteomic Profiling of Rabbit Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from Parthenotes and Fertilized Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ya-Chen; Lo, Neng-Wen; Lee, Kun-Hsiung; Huang, San-Yuan; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit embryonic stem (rES) cells can be derived from various sources of embryos. However, understanding of the gene expression profile, which distincts embryonic stem (ES) cells from other cell types, is still extremely limited. In this study, we compared the protein profiles of three independent lines of rabbit cells, i.e., fibroblasts, fertilized embryo-derived stem (f-rES) cells, and parthenote-derived ES (p-rES) cells. Proteomic analyses were performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Collectively, the expression levels of 100 out of 284 protein spots differed significantly among these three cell types (p<0.05). Of those differentially expressed spots, 91% were identified in the protein database and represented 63 distinct proteins. Proteins with known identities are mainly localized in the cytoplasmic compartments (48%), nucleus (14%), and cytoskeletal machineries (13%). These proteins were majorly involved in biological functions of energy and metabolic pathways (25%), cell growth and maintenance (25%), signal transduction (14%), and protein metabolisms (10%). When protein expression levels among cell types were compared, six proteins associated with a variety of cellular activities, including structural constituents of the cytoskeleton (tubulins), structural molecule (KRT8), catalytic molecules (α-enolase), receptor complex scaffold (14-3-3 protein sigma), microfilament motor proteins (Myosin-9), and heat shock protein (HSP60), were found highly expressed in p-rES cells. Two proteins related to HSP activity and structural constituent of cytoskeleton in f-rES cells, and one structural molecule activity protein in fibroblasts showed significantly higher expression levels (p<0.05). Marker protein expressions in f-rES and p-rES cells were further confirmed by Western blotting and immunocytochemical staining. This study demonstrated unique proteomic profiles of the three rabbit cell types and revealed some novel proteins

  18. Post-warming hatching and birth of live calves following transfer of in vitro-derived vitrified water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Hufana-Duran, Danilda; Pedro, Prudencio B; Venturina, Hernando V; Hufana, Rogelio D; Salazar, Apolinario L; Duran, Peregrino G; Cruz, Libertado C

    2004-05-01

    Viability of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed preimplantation stage buffalo embryos were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Oocytes were collected from ovaries of slaughtered riverine buffaloes, matured and fertilized in vitro with frozen semen from riverine buffalo bull and cultured on cumulus cell monolayers. Resultant preimplantation stage embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification with ethylene glycol, ficoll and sucrose. Seventy-one frozen embryos were warmed in 0.5M sucrose and were further cultured in vitro for 72 h to assess hatching rate. On the other hand, 95 embryos were transferred non-surgically to riverine buffalo recipients to assess development competence in vivo through detection of pregnancy and birth of live calves. Hatching rate of 83.10% (59/71) was noted among embryos cultured in vitro. Pregnancy rate was 16.36% (9/55) while calving rate was 10.91% (6/55) after transfer of in vitro-derived vitrified-warmed embryos to recipient animals. Six healthy and normal calves with average birth weight of 38.75+/-3.55 kg were born from the transferred embryos. These results indicate the viability of vitrified in vitro-derived buffalo embryos and the potential application of in vitro embryo production and vitrification techniques for production and transport of buffalo embryos from germplasm-rich sources to guarantee genetic improvement in many parts of the world.

  19. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M; Holm, P; Greve, T; Callesen, H

    2002-03-15

    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show an altered macromolecule absorption (immunoglobulin G (IgG) and porcine serum albumin (PSA)) compared with AI calves and whether the macromolecule absorption could be related to the degree of acidosis or to the cortisol secretion around birth. Hence, IgG and PSA absorption in control AI calves (n=7) was compared with that in two groups of IVP calves (IVP-defined: SOFaa embryo culture with polyvinyl alcohol, n=6; IVP-serum: SOFaa embryo culture with serum and co-culture, n=8). The calves were fed colostrum (40ml/kg) at 2, 6 and 12h after birth. At 24h after birth, both AI and IVP calves had achieved a level of plasma IgG sufficient to provide passive immunization (>15mg/ml). When the values were adjusted for the varying colostral IgG contents and the degree of acidosis, the IVP-defined calves had significantly lower peak plasma IgG concentrations than the AI calves at 18-24h after birth (P<0.04). However, when the macromolecule marker (PSA), was fed to all calves at 2 and 12h after birth the resulting plasma PSA levels were significantly lower in the AI calves compared with the IVP calves during the whole observation period (P<0.0001). Calves with a moderate neonatal acidosis (mean pH<7.2 during the first 30min after birth) had reduced peak plasma IgG concentration at 18-24h after birth (P<0.02) compared to calves without acidosis. The basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol levels were lower in the newborn IVP-defined calves than in the AI calves (P<0.05) and the IVP-serum calves (P<0.002). Cortisol levels shortly after birth correlated positively with birth weight (r=0.60, P<0.0001) and with gestation length (r=0.34, P<0.04). Since, the IVP calves absorbed sufficient amounts of Ig

  20. Efficient derivation of Chinese human embryonic stem cell lines from frozen embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunliang; Yang, Ying; Lu, Xiaowei; Sun, Yijuan; Gu, Junjie; Feng, Yun; Jin, Ying

    2010-04-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Their unique properties of self-renewal and pluripotency make them an attractive tool for basic research as well as a potential cell resource for therapy. However, each hES cell line demonstrates different identity. It is desirable to obtain more fully characterized hES cell lines with newly developed technologies associated with hES cell culture. Here, we report our experience of efficient derivation of three new Chinese hES cell lines (SHhES2, SHhES3, and SHhES4) from in vitro fertilization discarded embryos donated by women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These cell lines were derived under conditions minimizing exposure to animal components and maintained at an undifferentiated state for long-term culture. They retained a normal karyotype and expressed ALP, OCT4, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. RT-PCR analysis also revealed high expression levels of pluripotency markers such as OCT4, LEFTY A, SOX2, TDGF-1, THY1, FGF4, NANOG, and REX1. When suspended in low-attachment culture dishes, embryoid bodies formed and were comprised of various differentiated cell types from all three embryonic germ layers. However, well-shaped teratomas were only harvested from line SHhES2, not from SHhES3 and SHhES4, indicating that the differentiation ability in vivo differs among the three cell lines. Collectively, the three new hES cell lines were established and fully characterized. The effort paves the way toward generating hES cell lines without contamination by animal components. All of these cell lines are available by contact Ying Jin at yjin@sibs.ac.cn. PMID:20186511

  1. Fetal Bovine Serum RNA Interferes with the Cell Culture derived Extracellular RNA

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiyun; Batagov, Arsen O.; Carter, David R. F.; Krichevsky, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been used in eukaryotic cell cultures for decades. However, little attention has been paid to the biological effects associated with RNA content of FBS on cell cultures. Here, using RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that FBS contains a diverse repertoire of protein-coding and regulatory RNA species, including mRNA, miRNA, rRNA, and snoRNA. The majority of them (>70%) are retained even after extended ultracentrifugation in the preparations of vesicle-depleted FBS (vdFBS) commonly utilized in the studies of extracellular vesicles (EV) and intercellular communication. FBS-associated RNA is co-isolated with cell-culture derived extracellular RNA (exRNA) and interferes with the downstream RNA analysis. Many evolutionally conserved FBS-derived RNA species can be falsely annotated as human or mouse transcripts. Notably, specific miRNAs abundant in FBS, such as miR-122, miR-451a and miR-1246, have been previously reported as enriched in cell-culture derived EVs, possibly due to the confounding effect of the FBS. Analysis of publically available exRNA datasets supports the notion of FBS contamination. Furthermore, FBS transcripts can be taken up by cultured cells and affect the results of highly sensitive gene expression profiling technologies. Therefore, precautions for experimental design are warranted to minimize the interference and misinterpretations caused by FBS-derived RNA. PMID:27503761

  2. Fetal Bovine Serum RNA Interferes with the Cell Culture derived Extracellular RNA.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhiyun; Batagov, Arsen O; Carter, David R F; Krichevsky, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has been used in eukaryotic cell cultures for decades. However, little attention has been paid to the biological effects associated with RNA content of FBS on cell cultures. Here, using RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that FBS contains a diverse repertoire of protein-coding and regulatory RNA species, including mRNA, miRNA, rRNA, and snoRNA. The majority of them (>70%) are retained even after extended ultracentrifugation in the preparations of vesicle-depleted FBS (vdFBS) commonly utilized in the studies of extracellular vesicles (EV) and intercellular communication. FBS-associated RNA is co-isolated with cell-culture derived extracellular RNA (exRNA) and interferes with the downstream RNA analysis. Many evolutionally conserved FBS-derived RNA species can be falsely annotated as human or mouse transcripts. Notably, specific miRNAs abundant in FBS, such as miR-122, miR-451a and miR-1246, have been previously reported as enriched in cell-culture derived EVs, possibly due to the confounding effect of the FBS. Analysis of publically available exRNA datasets supports the notion of FBS contamination. Furthermore, FBS transcripts can be taken up by cultured cells and affect the results of highly sensitive gene expression profiling technologies. Therefore, precautions for experimental design are warranted to minimize the interference and misinterpretations caused by FBS-derived RNA. PMID:27503761

  3. Putative porcine embryonic stem cell lines derived from aggregated four-celled cloned embryos produced by oocyte bisection cloning.

    PubMed

    Siriboon, Chawalit; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kere, Michel; Chen, Chun-Da; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chien-Hong; Tu, Ching-Fu; Lo, Neng-Wen; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to isolate ES cell lines using inner cell masses from high-quality cloned porcine blastocysts. After being seeded onto feeders, embryos had better (P < 0.05) attachment, outgrowth formation and primary colonization in both 2× and 3× aggregated cloned embryos (62.8, 42.6 and 12.8% vs. 76.2, 55.2 and 26.2%, respectively) compared to the non-aggregated group (41.6, 23.4 and 3.9%). Effects of feeder types (STO vs. MEF) and serum sources (FBS vs. KSR) on extraction of cloned embryo-derived porcine ES cells were examined. More (17.1%) ntES cell lines over Passage 3 were generated in the MEF/KSR group. However, ntES cells cultured in KSR-supplemented medium had a low proliferation rate with defective morphology, and eventually underwent differentiation or apoptosis subsequently. Approximately 26.1, 22.7 and 35.7% of primary colonies were formed after plating embryos in DMEM, DMEM/F12 and α-MEM media, respectively. Survival rates of ntES cells cultured in α-MEM, DMEM and DMEM/F12 were 16.7, 4.3 and 6.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). We further examined the beneficial effect of TSA treatment of 3× aggregated cloned embryos on establishment of ntES cell lines. Primary colony numbers and survival rates of ntES cells beyond passage 3 were higher (P < 0.05) in those derived from TSA-treated 3× blastocysts (36.7 and 26.7%) than from the non-treated aggregated group (23.1 and 11.5%). These cells, remaining undifferentiated over 25 passages, had alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed ES specific markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex01. Moreover, these ntES cells successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs) that expressed specific genes of all three germ layers after being cultured in LIF-free medium. In conclusion, we have successfully derived putative porcine ntES cells with high efficiency from quality cloned embryos produced by embryo aggregation, and optimized the ES cell culture system suitable for establishing and maintaining ntES cell lines in

  4. Effects of co-culture of cumulus oocyte complexes with denuded oocytes during in vitro maturation on the developmental competence of cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Ha, A-N; Fakruzzaman, M; Lee, K-L; Bang, J-I; Deb, G-K; Wang, Z; Kong, I-K

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of co-culture of immature cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded immature oocytes (DO) during in vitro maturation on the developmental competence and quality of cloned bovine embryos. We demonstrated that developmental competence, judged by the blastocyst formation rate, was significantly higher in the co-cultured somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT+DO, 37.1 ± 1.1%) group than that in the non-co-cultured somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT-DO, 25.1 ± 0.9%) group and was very similar to that in the control IVF (IVF, 38.8 ± 2.8%) group. Moreover, the total cell number per blastocyst in the SCNT+DO group (101.7 ± 6.2) was higher than that in the SCNT-DO group (81.7 ± 4.3), while still less than that in the IVF group (133.3 ± 6.0). Furthermore, our data showed that mRNA levels of the methylation-related genes DNMT1 and DNMT3a in the SCNT+DO group were similar to that in the IVF group, while they were significantly higher in the SCNT-DO group. Similarly, while the mRNA levels of the deacetylation-related genes HDAC2 and HDAC3 were significantly higher in the SCNT-DO group, they were comparable between the IVF and SCNT+DO groups. However, the mRNA levels of HDAC1 and DNMT3B were significantly higher in the SCNT+DO group than in the other groups. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that co-culture of COCs with DO improves the in vitro developmental competence and quality of cloned embryos, as evidenced by increased total cell number.

  5. Virus-host interactions in persistently FMDV-infected cells derived from bovine pharynx.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, V; Pacheco, J M; Larocco, Michael; Gladue, D P; Pauszek, S J; Smoliga, G; Krug, P W; Baxt, B; Borca, M V; Rodriguez, L

    2014-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) produces a disease in cattle characterized by vesicular lesions and a persistent infection with asymptomatic low-level production of virus in pharyngeal tissues. Here we describe the establishment of a persistently infected primary cell culture derived from bovine pharynx tissue (PBPT) infected with FMDV serotype O1 Manisa, where surviving cells were serially passed until a persistently infected culture was generated. Characterization of the persistent virus demonstrated changes in its plaque size, ability to grow in different cell lines, and change in the use of integrins as receptors, when compared with the parental virus. These results demonstrate the establishment of persistently infected PBPT cell cultures where co-adaptation has taken place between the virus and host cells. This in vitro model for FMDV persistence may help further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the cattle carrier state.

  6. [Bovine progressive degenerative myeloencephalopathy ("Weaver syndrome") in brown Swiss x Braunvieh cattle: reproductive occurrences, results of embryo transfer].

    PubMed

    Tenhumberg, H; Trela, T; Matzke, P; Averdunk, G; Dirksen, G

    1994-12-01

    In the time between 1989 and 1991 seven Brown Swiss heifers, which had clinical signs of the Weaver syndrome were kept at the Bavarian Institute of Animal Breeding in Grub. This was in order to investigate this hereditary trait further. The number of animals carrying this genetic defect was increased by means of embryo transfer. Both cycle observations and ovary controls by means of rectal palpation resulted largely in physiological data and findings. All seven animals responded to superovulation treatment which was induced by sequential doses of p-FSH (32 mg) or of a single dose of 2,000 IU PMSG. The donors were flushed a total of 32 times without problem. On average 5.3 ova were recovered, 2.8 of which were viable and suitable for transfer. These are statistically only 50% of the normal value in a routine ET programme. Following the transfer of fresh and frozen embryos the pregnancy rate was 53%. There was only one abortion observed from 48 pregnancies.

  7. Citrus-derived oil inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and alters its interactions with bovine mammary cells.

    PubMed

    Federman, C; Joo, J; Almario, J A; Salaheen, S; Biswas, D

    2016-05-01

    This experiment examined the effects of cold-pressed, terpeneless citrus-derived oil (CDO) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, which a major cause of contagious bovine mastitis, and invasion of bovine mammary cells (MAC-T). To determine minimum inhibitory concentration, we used the broth dilution method, using CDO concentrations range from 0.0125 to 0.4% with 2-fold dilutions. Growth inhibition was examined by adding 0.00, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625% CDO to 10(5) cfu/mL S. aureus in nutrient broth and enumerating colonies after serial dilution. In a 96-well plate, S. aureus (10(7) cfu/mL) was allowed to form a biofilm, treated with 0, 0.025, 0.5, or 1% CDO, and then was measured using a spectrophotometer. Cytotoxic effect on immortalized MAC-T cells was also examined at various concentrations of CDO using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. We observed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of CDO to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in vitro was 0.025% CDO. A time kill curve for CDO action on S. aureus over 4h was generated. The CDO completely eliminated S. aureus after 3h of incubation at a concentration of 0.25%, or after 2h of incubation at concentrations of 0.05%. It was also observed that CDO had no effect on preformed biofilms except at a concentration of 0.05%, in which a significant reduction in the measured absorbance was noted. In addition, the association and invasion of S. aureus to MAC-T cells were significantly inhibited after 1h of treatment with CDO. Citrus-derived oil was also able to increase cellular proliferation of MAC-T cells at concentrations up 0.05% and had no effect at a concentration of 0.1% after 1 h. Our data suggests that CDO should be considered for further research as a preventive and therapeutic against bovine mastitis. PMID:26947297

  8. Estimation of the optimal timing of fertilization for embryo development of in vitro-matured bovine oocytes based on the times of nuclear maturation and sperm penetration.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Keisuke; Kang, Sung-Sik; Huang, Weiping; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the optimal timing for fertilization to achieve proper embryonic development of in vitro-matured bovine oocytes. First, cumulus-oocyte complexes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) for 14-22 hr. The timing when 50% of oocytes reached metaphase II stage was estimated to be 17.5 hr after IVM start. Next, using oocytes subjected to IVM for 12-30 hr, sperm penetration was examined after 4-18 hr of in vitro fertilization (IVF). A significant negative correlation between IVM duration and the timing when 50% of oocytes were penetrated by sperm after IVF start was observed (P<0.01). Finally, oocytes subjected to 12-30 hr of IVM were inseminated and cultured for 6 days to examine embryonic development. In the group with 22 hr of IVM, the percentages of cleaved embryos and blastocysts were the highest values in all groups. According to the regression equation describing the time from nuclear maturation to sperm penetration (x) and the percentage of blastocysts (y) (y=7.23x - 0.297x(2), P<0.01), the blastocyst rate peaked when sperm penetration occurred at 12.2 hr after achieving nuclear maturation. In conclusion, under the present IVM/IVF conditions, it was estimated that oocytes acquired their highest developmental competence at about 30 hr after IVM start, and thus, the optimal IVM duration was calculated to be about 21 hr.

  9. Derivation and characterization of pluripotent cell lines from pig embryos of different origins.

    PubMed

    Brevini, Tiziana A L; Tosetti, Valentina; Crestan, Mattia; Antonini, Stefania; Gandolfi, Fulvio

    2007-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold great promise for therapeutic use and represent a unique tool for investigating the process of self-renewal and differentiation. The properties that make ESCs unique are their capacity of unlimited self-renewal coupled with the property of re-entering the developmental process if returned inside a blastocyst. Such plasticity enable ESCs to form all embryonic tissues including germ cells. However, these remarkable properties, at present, have been demonstrated only for mouse ESCs even if cells with somehow more limited capacities have been derived in many different species including humans. The isolation of pluripotent embryonic cells lines from human embryos marked a crucial change of perspective in evaluating the properties defining an embryonic stem cell lines moving the focus from the generation of a germ-line chimera, obviously not feasible nor desirable in human, to the capacity of these cells to differentiate both in vivo and in vitro in fully mature and functional cell types of all kinds. Therefore, ESCs properties in species different from the mouse are being reassessed and re-evaluated, in view of their potential use as experimental models for the development of clinical applications. Among the species that may play a useful role in this field, the pig has a long-standing history as a prime animal model for pre-clinical biomedical applications and therefore, pig ESCs are attracting renewed interest. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on this topic and will contrast the relatively limited data available in this species with the much larger wealth of information available for mouse and human ESCs, in an attempt to assess whether or not pig ESCs can actually become a useful tool in the fast growing field of cell therapy. PMID:17055567

  10. Differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells into Schwann-like cells: fetal bovine serum or human serum?

    PubMed Central

    Younesi, Elham; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Azandeh, Seyyed Saeed; Bijannejad, Dariush; Bahreini, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Access to autologous Schwann cells is limited due to lack of donor site and its difficult isolation and culture. Therefore, one of the possible ways to obtain to Schwann cells is to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into glial pathway using various materials and protocols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fetal bovine serum and human serum on Schwann cell differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells to choose the best serum for use in future research. For this purpose, after isolation of human adipose-derived stem cells, it was characterized and differentiated into Schwann cell lineage using two protocols which one of them contained fetal bovine serum and the other human serum. At the end, morphological evaluation declared an increased detachment of cells in response to human serum. On the other side, immunocytochemistry showed that there was a significant increase in the number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic proteins and S100 in fetal bovine serum-treated group when compared to human serum-treated one (P<0.05). It was concluded that fetal bovine serum was more effective than allogeneic human serum in Schwann cell differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. PMID:26417476

  11. Derivation of an equation to estimate marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Gebault, R A; Field, R A; Means, W J; Russell, W C

    1998-08-01

    Marrow content of bovine cervical vertebrae from Choice- and Select-grade carcasses weighing 294 to 343 kg was determined so that a method to monitor the amount of marrow in meat from advanced meat/bone separation machinery and recovery (AMR) systems could be developed. The marrow determination requires cleaning and then ashing bones. Because a large difference in ash content of bone and bone marrow exists and because cartilage content of cervical vertebrae in Choice and Select beef is relatively constant, it was possible to derive the following equation: Weight of marrow = [weight of cartilage (% ash in cartilage - % ash in bone) + % ash in bone (total weight) - (total ash)]/[(% ash in bone - % ash in marrow)]. Constants for ash in fresh bone, marrow, and cartilage were 58.51, .57, and 2.14% with SD of 2.23, .15, and .30%, respectively. A cartilage content of 9.5% along with cervical vertebrae weight and total ash weight were also used to calculate 33.9% marrow in cervical vertebrae. Means for marrow pressed or centrifuged from bovine cervical vertebrae were lower than those obtained from the equation. Therefore, pressing and centrifuging left some marrow in spongy bone. Our ashing method for determining the amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae should be useful for determining marrow remaining in cervical vertebrae of bone cakes from AMR systems. Percentage ash in pressed bones is higher and the calculated marrow content is lower when pressed bones are compared to cervical vertebrae that are not pressed. The amount of marrow in whole cervical vertebrae minus the amount left in cervical vertebrae from bone cakes equals the amount in meat from AMR systems.

  12. In vitro development of porcine transgenic nuclear-transferred embryos derived from newborn Guangxi Bama mini-pig kidney fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Lv, Peiru; Zhu, Xiangxing; Wang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Zuo, Erwei; Lu, Yangqing; Lu, Shengsheng; Lu, Kehuan

    2014-10-01

    Porcine transgenic cloning has potential applications for improving production traits and for biomedical research purposes. To produce a transgenic clone, kidney fibroblasts from a newborn Guangxi Bama mini-pig were isolated, cultured, and then transfected with red and green fluorescent protein genes using lipofectamine for nuclear transfer. The results of the present study show that the kidney fibroblasts exhibited excellent proliferative capacity and clone-like morphology, and were adequate for generation of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived embryos, which was confirmed by their cleavage activity and blastocyst formation rate of 70.3% and 7.9%, respectively. Cells transfected with red fluorescent protein genes could be passed more than 35 times. Transgenic embryos cloned with fluorescent or blind enucleation methods were not significantly different with respect to cleavage rates (92.5% vs. 86.8%, p > 0.05) and blastocyst-morula rates (26.9% vs. 34.0%, p > 0.05), but were significantly different with respect to blastocyst rates (3.0% vs. 13.2%, p < 0.05). Cleavage (75.3%, 78.5% vs. 78.0%, p > 0.05), blastocyst (14.1%, 16.1% vs. 23.1%, p > 0.05) and morula/blastocyst rates (43.5%, 47.0% vs. 57.6%, p > 0.05) were not significantly different between the groups of transgenic cloned embryos, cloned embryos, and parthenogenetic embryos. This indicates that long-time screening by G418 caused no significant damage to kidney fibroblasts. Thus, kidney fibroblasts represent a promising new source for transgenic SCNT, and this work lays the foundation for the production of genetically transformed cloned Guangxi Bama mini-pigs. PMID:24879084

  13. Can Chlamydia abortus be transmitted by embryo transfer in goats?

    PubMed

    Oseikria, M; Pellerin, J L; Rodolakis, A; Vorimore, F; Laroucau, K; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Michaud, S; Larrat, M; Fieni, F

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether Chlamydia abortus would adhere to or penetrate the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early in vivo-derived caprine embryos, after in vitro infection; and (ii) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol for bovine embryos. Fifty-two ZP-intact embryos (8-16 cells), obtained from 14 donors were used in this experiment. The embryos were randomly divided into 12 batches. Nine batches (ZP-intact) of five embryos were incubated in a medium containing 4 × 10(7)Chlamydia/mL of AB7 strain. After incubation for 18 hours at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, the embryos were washed in batches in 10 successive baths of a phosphate buffer saline and 5% fetal calf serum solution in accordance with IETS guidelines. In parallel, three batches of ZP-intact embryos were used as controls by being subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. abortus. The 10 wash baths were collected separately and centrifuged for 1 hour at 13,000 × g. The washed embryos and the pellets of the 10 centrifuged wash baths were frozen at -20 °C before examination for evidence of C. abortus using polymerase chain reaction. C. abortus DNA was found in all of the infected batches of ZP-intact embryos (9/9) after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the 10th wash fluid for seven batches of embryos, whereas for the two other batches, the last positive wash bath was the eighth and the ninth, respectively. In contrast, none of the embryos or their washing fluids in the control batches were DNA positive. These results report that C. abortus adheres to and/or penetrates the ZP of in vivo caprine embryos after in vitro infection, and that the standard washing protocol recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos, failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria after washing makes the embryo a potential means of transmission of the bacterium during embryo transfer from

  14. Trichostatin A alters the expression of cell cycle controlling genes and microRNAs in donor cells and subsequently improves the yield and quality of cloned bovine embryos in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Selokar, N L; Revey, T; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S; Palta, P; Madan, P

    2014-10-15

    Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been used to improve nuclear reprogramming in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. However, the molecular mechanism of TSA for the improvement of the pre- and postimplantation embryonic development is unknown. In the present study, we investigated mechanism of cell cycle arrest caused by TSA and also determined embryo quality and gene expression in cloned bovine embryos produced from TSA-treated donor cells compared with embryos produced by in vitro fertilization or parthenogenetic activation. We observed that, 50 nM TSA-treated cells were synchronized at G0/G1 stage with concomitant decrease in the proportion of these cells in the S stage of the cell cycle, which was also supported by significant changes in cell morphology and decreased proliferation (P<0.05). Measurement of relative expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction of a some cell cycle-related genes and microRNAs in treated donor cells showed decreased expression of HDAC1, DNMT1, P53, CYC E1, and CDK4 and increased expression of DNMT3a, CDKN1A, CDK2, CDK3, miR-15a, miR-16, and miR-34a (P<0.05). No change in the relative expression of miR-449a was noticed. Trichostatin A treatment of donor cells significantly improved both cleavage and blastocyst rate (P<0.05) compared with the control embryos, also apoptotic index in treated cloned blastocysts was significantly decreased compared with the nontreated blastocysts (P<0.05) and was at the level of IVF counterpart. Relative expression of HDAC1 and DNMT3a was significantly lower in treated cloned and parthenogenetic embryos than that of nontreated and IVF counterpart, whereas in case of P53, expression level between treated and IVF embryos was similar, which was significantly lower than nontreated cloned and parthenogenetic embryos. In conclusion, our data suggested that TSA improves yield and quality of cloned bovine embryos by modulating the expression of G0/G1 cell cycle stage

  15. Making the Switch: Alternatives to Fetal Bovine Serum for Adipose-Derived Stromal Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Dessels, Carla; Potgieter, Marnie; Pepper, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are being used extensively in clinical trials. These trials require that ASCs are prepared using good manufacturing practices (GMPs) and are safe for use in humans. The majority of clinical trials in which ASCs are expanded make use of fetal bovine serum (FBS). While FBS is used traditionally in the research setting for in vitro expansion, it does carry the risk of xenoimmunization and zoonotic transmission when used for expanding cells destined for therapeutic purposes. In order to ensure a GMP quality product for cellular therapy, in vitro expansion of ASCs has been undertaken using xeno-free (XF), chemically-defined, and human blood-derived alternatives. These investigations usually include the criteria proposed by the International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) and International Fat Applied Technology Society (IFATS). The majority of studies use these criteria to compare plastic-adherence, morphology, the immunophenotype and the trilineage differentiation of ASCs under the different medium supplemented conditions. Based on these studies, all of the alternatives to FBS seem to be suitable replacements; however, each has its own advantages and drawbacks. Very few studies have investigated the effects of the supplements on the immunomodulation of ASCs; the transcriptome, proteome and secretome; and the ultimate effects in appropriate animal models. The selection of medium supplementation will depend on the downstream application of the ASCs and their efficacy and safety in preclinical studies. PMID:27800478

  16. Polyvinyl alcohol and amino acids as substitutes for bovine serum albumin in culture media for mouse preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Biggers, J D; Summers, M C; McGinnis, L K

    1997-01-01

    The effect of replacing bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a simple defined medium (KSOM) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and/or amino acids on the percentages of mouse zygotes that develop to at least the blastocyst stage and that hatch at least partially or completely is reported. Blastocysts could form when BSA was replaced with only PVA, but at a moderately reduced rate; however, partial hatching, and hence complete hatching, were severely impaired when BSA was replaced with only PVA. The substitution of BSA with amino acids alone resulted in a high rate of blastocyst formation and moderate impairment of hatching. The addition of PVA to BSA-free KSOM supplemented with amino acids had no extra effect. BSA had significant effects when added to BSA-free KSOM supplemented with amino acids. The BSA caused a significant increase in the rate of partial hatching, and may even have had a small effect on the rate of blastocyst formation. The results also showed that glucose, at a high concentration of 5.56 mM, does not inhibit the development of mouse zygotes to hatched blastocysts when cultured in KSOM supplemented with amino acids. PMID:9286737

  17. Susceptibility of neuron-like cells derived from bovine Wharton’s jelly to bovine herpesvirus type 5 infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), frequently lethal in cattle, is associated with significant agricultural economic losses due to neurological disease. Cattle and rabbits are frequently used as models to study the biology and pathogenesis of BoHV-5 infection. In particular, neural invasion and proliferation are two of the factors important in BoHV-5 infection. The present study investigated the potential of bovine Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (bWJ-MSCs) to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype and support robust BoHV-5 replication. Results Upon inducing differentiation within a defined neuronal specific medium, most bWJ-MSCs acquired the distinctive neuronal morphological features and stained positively for the neuronal/glial markers MAP2 (neuronal microtubule associated protein 2), N200 (neurofilament 200), NT3 (neutrophin 3), tau and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein). Expression of nestin, N200, β-tubulin III (TuJI) and GFAP was further demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Following BoHV-5 inoculation, there were low rates of cell detachment, good cell viability at 96 h post-infection (p.i.), and small vesicles developed along neuronal branches. Levels of BoHV-5 antigens and DNA were associated with the peak in viral titres at 72 h p.i. BoHV-5 glycoprotein C mRNA expression was significantly correlated with production of progeny virus at 72 h p.i. (p < 0.05). Conclusion The results demonstrated the ability of bWJ-MSCs to differentiate into a neuronal phenotype in vitro and support productive BoHV-5 replication. These findings constitute a remarkable contribution to the in vitro study of neurotropic viruses. This work may pave the way for bWJ-MSCs to be used as an alternative to animal models in the study of BoHV-5 biology. PMID:23227933

  18. Paradoxical effects of bovine somatotropin treatment on the ovarian follicular population and in vitro embryo production of lactating buffalo donors submitted to ovum pick-up.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M L; Sá Filho, M F; Batista, E O S; Watanabe, Y F; Watanabe, M R; Dayan, A; Joaquim, D C; Accorsi, M R; Gimenes, L U; Vieira, L M; Baruselli, P S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (bST; 500mg) administration on lactating buffalo donors submitted to two different ovum pick-up (OPU) and in vitro embryo production schemes with a 7 or 14d intersession OPU interval. A total of 16 lactating buffalo cows were randomly assigned into one of four experimental groups according to the bST treatment (bST or No-bST) and the OPU intersession interval (7 or 14d) in a 2×2 factorial design (16 weeks of OPU sessions). The females submitted to OPU every 14d had a larger (P<0.001) number of ovarian follicles suitable for puncture (15.6±0.7 vs. 12.8±0.4) and an increased (P=0.004) number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered (10.0±0.5 vs. 8.5±0.3) compared to the 7d interval group. However, a 7 or 14d interval between OPU sessions had no effect (P=0.34) on the number of blastocysts produced per OPU (1.0±0.1 vs. 1.3±0.2, respectively). In addition, bST treatment increased (P<0.001) the number of ovarian follicles suitable for puncture (15.3±0.5 vs. 12.1±0.4) but reduced the percentage (18.9% vs. 10.9%; P=0.009) and the number (1.4±0.2 vs. 0.8±0.1; P=0.003) of blastocysts produced per OPU session compared with the non-bST-treated buffaloes. In conclusion, the 14d interval between OPU sessions and bST treatment efficiently increased the number of ovarian follicles suitable for puncture. However, the OPU session interval had no effect on embryo production, and bST treatment reduced the in vitro blastocyst outcomes in lactating buffalo donors.

  19. Storage of bovine isolated follicles: a new alternative way to improve the recovery rate of viable embryos from ovarian follicles of slaughtered cows.

    PubMed

    Pavlok, A; Cech, S; Kubelka, M; Lopatárová, M; Holý, L; Jindra, M

    2006-11-01

    The vitality of bovine oocytes stored in isolated follicles was examined. The aim of this work was to prolong the time of in vitro manipulation of oocytes before their maturation and develop a new alternative of oocyte "capacitation" to improve the quality of in vitro produced embryos. Follicles were dissected from the ovaries of slaughtered cows; subsequently, follicles were divided according to their diameter into three categories (2-3, 3-4 and 4-6 mm), and stored at 17-18 degrees C for 24 or 48 h in a modified tissue culture medium-199 (TCM-199) with reduced pH. After that time, the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated, matured, fertilized, and embryos cultured in vitro for a total of 9 days. The percentage of total blastocysts, and hatched blastocysts developed from oocytes, initially kept ("capacitated") for 24h at 17-18 degrees C, within follicles of 3-6mm size categories, were significantly higher than that oocytes of the control [of control oocytes] (44.9 and 30.3% versus 36.2 and 20.4%, respectively). The oocytes of follicles stored for 48 h at 17-18 degrees C already had decreased developmental capacity. Interesting data were obtained when COCs of the 3-4 and 4-6 categories were additionally divided into two subgroups according to their presumed developmental history (originating from the supposed growing "fit" in contrast to the supposed regressing "unfit" follicles). The higher improvement in the rate of hatched blastocysts from 24h stored oocytes was observed only in the subgroup originated from "fit" COCs (15.3 versus 25.0%, and 20.0 versus 34.4%, in the 3-4 and 4-6mm categories, respectively). The transfer of 26 blastocysts (developed of follicles kept for 24h at 17-18 degrees C) to 26 recipient heifers resulted in 18 pregnancies. Storage of follicles at 17-18 degrees C in vitro resulted not only in recovery of higher numbers of blastocysts of better quality but also facilitated the safe transport of follicles for a long distance. The

  20. Equivalency of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L; Singh, Karn P; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K; Shah, Riaz A; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singla, Suresh K; Palta, Prabhat; Manik, Radheysham

    2012-06-01

    This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (p<0.05) in HMC-derived ESCs (6.897±2.3) compared to that in parthenogenesis- and IVF-derived cells (1.603±0.315 and 1±0, respectively). Pluripotent, stable buffalo ESC lines derived from IVF, parthenogenesis, and HMC embryos may be genetically manipulated to provide a powerful tool for studies involving embryonic development, genomic imprinting, gene targeting, cloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production.

  1. Improving the cytoplasmic maturation of bovine oocytes matured in vitro with intracellular and/or extracellular antioxidants is not associated with increased rates of embryo development.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália A S; Leão, Beatriz C S; Dall'Acqua, Priscila Chediek; Mingoti, Gisele Z

    2016-11-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a normal process that occurs in the cellular mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, an increase in ROS levels during in vitro production of bovine embryos induces oxidative stress, leading to failed embryonic development. Therefore, we investigated whether supplementation of IVM medium with intracellular (cysteine and cysteamine; C + C) and/or extracellular (catalase; CAT) antioxidants improves the culture system, affects the mitochondrial membrane potential, affects the intracellular levels of ROS and glutathione (GSH) in the bovine oocytes at the end of maturation, and thereby affects the subsequent embryonic development. At the end of IVM, the metaphase II rates were unaffected by the treatments (76.7 ± 1.7% to 80.6 ± 5.2%; P > 0.05). The intracellular ROS levels, expressed in arbitrary fluorescence units, found in the oocytes treated with intracellular antioxidants (C + C and C + C + CAT groups; 1.06, averaged) were as low as those observed in immature oocytes (0 hour: 1.00 ± 0.12). Among mature oocytes, higher (P < 0.05) ROS levels were found in the control group (1.91 ± 0.10) when compared to the ROS levels found in oocytes treated with antioxidants. Intracellular GSH levels in all groups were lower (0.17 ± 0.09 to 0.51 ± 0.05; P < 0.05) than those in immature oocytes (1.00 ± 0.08), although GSH levels in the C + C group (0.51 ± 0.05) were greater (P < 0.05) than in the control, CAT, and C + C + CAT groups (0.23; averaged). The mitochondrial membrane potential in all groups was improved (1.6; averaged; P < 0.05) compared to the membrane potential observed in the immature oocytes (1.00 ± 0.05), with the exception of the C + C group (0.94 ± 0.03). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of antioxidant supplementation on embryonic development to the blastocyst stage (36.1%; averaged); however, there was an increased tendency (P = 0.0689) to obtain a higher

  2. Purification of binder of sperm protein 1 (BSP1) and its effects on bovine in vitro embryo development after fertilization with ejaculated and epididymal sperm.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Villamil, P; Hoyos-Marulanda, V; Martins, J A M; Oliveira, A N; Aguiar, L H; Moreno, F B; Velho, A L M C S; Monteiro-Moreira, A C; Moreira, R A; Vasconcelos, I M; Bertolini, M; Moura, A A

    2016-02-01

    The present study evaluated functional aspects of binder of sperm 1 (BSP1) in the bovine species. In a first experiment, cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 1274) were incubated with frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm (18 hours) in Fert-TALP medium containing: heparin, 10, 20, or 40 μg/mL BSP1. Heparin followed by gelatin affinity chromatography was used for purification of BSP1 from bovine seminal vesicle fluid. With ejaculated sperm, cleavage rates were similar when Fert-TALP medium was incubated with heparin (74.1 ± 2.7%), 10 μg/mL BSP1 (77.8 ± 3.1%), or 20 μg/mL BSP1 (74 ± 2.0%). Day-7 blastocyst rates were equivalent after incubations with heparin (40.8 ± 5.0%) and 10 μg/mL BSP1 (34.1 ± 4.4%), but reduced after 20 μg/mL BSP1 (22.4 ± 2.9%) and 40 μg/mL BSP1 (19.3 ± 4.1%; P < 0.05). In the second experiment, cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 1213) were incubated with frozen-thawed cauda epididymal sperm (18 hours) in Fert-TALP medium containing: no heparin, heparin, 10, 20, or 40 μg/mL. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were similar after treatments with heparin (68.5 ± 1.3% and 24.7 ± 3.2%, respectively) or without heparin (65.5 ± 1.8% and 27.3 ± 1.6%, respectively). Cleavage was higher after treatment with any BSP1 concentrations (74.2 ± 2.7%-79.0 ± 1.1%) than without heparin (P < 0.05). Also, cleavage was better after Fert-TALP medium incubation with 40 μg/mL BSP1 (79.0 ± 1.1%) than with heparin (68.5 ± 1.3%; P < 0.05). Embryo development was higher (P < 0.05) after treatment with 20 μg/mL BSP1 (35.6 ± 2.5%) and 40 μg/mL (41.1 ± 2%) than after incubations with heparin (24.7 ± 3.2%) or without heparin (27.3 ± 1.6%). Interestingly, BSP1 did not cause reductions in blastocyst rates after fertilization with epididymal sperm, as observed with ejaculated sperm. On the basis of immunocytochemistry, there was BSP1 binding to frozen-thawed ejaculated but not to epididymal sperm. Also, anti-BSP1 reaction remained on ejaculated sperm (as expected) and

  3. The influence of heat stress on auxin distribution in transgenic B. napus microspores and microspore-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Dubas, Ewa; Moravčíková, Jana; Libantová, Jana; Matušíková, Ildikó; Benková, Eva; Zur, Iwona; Krzewska, Monika

    2014-09-01

    Plant embryogenesis is regulated by differential distribution of the plant hormone auxin. However, the cells establishing these gradients during microspore embryogenesis remain to be identified. For the first time, we describe, using the DR5 or DR5rev reporter gene systems, the GFP- and GUS-based auxin biosensors to monitor auxin during Brassica napus androgenesis at cellular resolution in the initial stages. Our study provides evidence that the distribution of auxin changes during embryo development and depends on the temperature-inducible in vitro culture conditions. For this, microspores (mcs) were induced to embryogenesis by heat treatment and then subjected to genetic modification via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The duration of high temperature treatment had a significant influence on auxin distribution in isolated and in vitro-cultured microspores and on microspore-derived embryo development. In the "mild" heat-treated (1 day at 32 °C) mcs, auxin localized in a polar way already at the uni-nucleate microspore, which was critical for the initiation of embryos with suspensor-like structure. Assuming a mean mcs radius of 20 μm, endogenous auxin content in a single cell corresponded to concentration of 1.01 μM. In mcs subjected to a prolonged heat (5 days at 32 °C), although auxin concentration increased dozen times, auxin polarization was set up at a few-celled pro-embryos without suspensor. Those embryos were enclosed in the outer wall called the exine. The exine rupture was accompanied by the auxin gradient polarization. Relative quantitative estimation of auxin, using time-lapse imaging, revealed that primordia possess up to 1.3-fold higher amounts than those found in the root apices of transgenic MDEs in the presence of exogenous auxin. Our results show, for the first time, which concentration of endogenous auxin coincides with the first cell division and how the high temperature interplays with auxin, by what affects delay early establishing

  4. Evaluation of bovine (Bos indicus) ovarian potential for in vitro embryo production in the Adamawa plateau (Cameroon)

    PubMed Central

    Kouamo, J.; Dawaye, S.M.; Zoli, A.P.; Bah, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    An abattoir study was conducted to evaluate the ovarian potential of 201 local zebu cattle from Ngaoundere, Adamawa region (Cameroon) for in vitro embryo production (IVEP). The ovaries were excised, submerged in normal saline solution (0.9%) and transported to the laboratory for a detailed evaluation. Follicles on each ovary were counted, their diameters (Φ) measured and were grouped into 3 categories: small (Φ < 3 mm), medium (3 ≥ Φ ≤ 8 mm) and large (Φ > 8 mm). Each ovary was then sliced into a petri dish; the oocytes were recovered in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline, examined under a stereoscope (x10) and graded into four groups based on the morphology of cumulus oophorus cells and cytoplasmic changes of the oocytes. Grade I (GI): oocytes with more than 4 layers of bunch of compact cumulus cells mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade II (GII): oocyte with at least 2-4 layers of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade III (GIII): oocyte with at least one layer of compact cumulus cell mass with evenly granulated cytoplasm; grade IV (GIV): denuded oocyte with no cumulus cells or incomplete layer of cumulus cell or expanded cells and having dark or unevenly granulated cytoplasm. The effects of both ovarian (ovarian localization, corpus luteum, size and weight of ovary) and non-ovarian factors (breed, age, body condition score (BCS) and pregnancy status of cow) on the follicular population and oocyte recovery rate were determined. There were an average of 16.75±0.83 follicles per ovary. The small, medium and large follicles were 8.39±0.60, 8.14±0.43 and 0.21±0.02 respectively. Oocyte recovery was 10.97±0.43 per ovary (65%). Oocytes graded I, II, III and IV were 3.53±0.19 (32.21%), 2.72±0.15 (24.82%), 2.24±0.15 (20.43%) and 2.47±0.20 (22.54%) respectively. The oocyte quality index was 2.26. Younger non pregnant cows having BCS of 3 and large ovaries presented higher number of follicles and oocyte quality (P < 0

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of horns derived from three domestic bovines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-bin; Li, Chun; Pan, Yan-ting; Shan, Guang-hua; Cao, Ping; He, Jia; Lin, Zhong-shi; Ao, Ning-jian; Huang, Yao-xiong

    2013-12-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of horns derived from three domestic bovines (buffalo, cattle and sheep) were examined. The effects of water content, sampling position and orientation of three bovid horns on mechanical properties were systematically investigated by uniaxial tension and micron indentation tests. Meanwhile, the material composition and metal element contents were determined by Raman spectroscopy and elemental analysis respectively, and the microstructures of the horns were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the mechanical properties of horns have negative correlation with water contents and depend on sampling position and orientation. The spatial variations of the mechanical properties in horns are attributed to the different keratinization degrees in the proximal, middle and distal parts. And the mechanical properties of horns in the longitudinal direction are better than those in transverse. Among the three kinds of horns, the mechanical properties of buffalo horn are the best, followed by cattle horn, and those in sheep horn are the worst. This is due to the differences in material composition, metal element, and the microstructures of the horns. But the mechanical properties of buffalo horns are not dependent on the source of the buffalo. Therefore, regular engineered buffalo keratinous materials with standard mechanical properties can be obtained from different buffalo horns by using proper preparation methods.

  6. Maize (Zea mays)-derived bovine trypsin: characterization of the first large-scale, commercial protein product from transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Susan L; Mayor, Jocelyne M; Bailey, Michele R; Barker, Donna K; Love, Robert T; Lane, Jeffrey R; Delaney, Donna E; McComas-Wagner, Janet M; Mallubhotla, Hanuman D; Hood, Elizabeth E; Dangott, Lawrence J; Tichy, Shane E; Howard, John A

    2003-10-01

    Bovine trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) is an enzyme that is widely used for commercial purposes to digest or process other proteins, including some therapeutic proteins. The biopharmaceutical industry is trying to eliminate animal-derived proteins from manufacturing processes due to the possible contamination of these products by human pathogens. Recombinant trypsin has been produced in a number of systems, including cell culture, bacteria and yeast. To date, these expression systems have not produced trypsin on a scale sufficient to fulfill the need of biopharmaceutical manufacturers where kilogram quantities are often required. The present paper describes commercial-level production of trypsin in transgenic maize (Zea mays) and its physical and functional characterization. This protease, the first enzyme to be produced on a large-scale using transgenic plant technology, is functionally equivalent to native bovine pancreatic trypsin. The availability of this reagent should allow for the replacement of animal-derived trypsin in the processing of pharmaceutical proteins.

  7. Data on acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT4) during murine embryogenesis and in embryo-derived cultured primary neurons and glia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ryan M; Mardian, Emily B; Marvyn, Phillip M; Vasefi, Maryam S; Beazely, Michael A; Mielke, John G; Duncan, Robin E

    2016-03-01

    Whole mouse embryos at three developmental timepoints, embryonic (E) day E10.5, E14.5, and E18.5, were analyzed for Agpat4 mRNA expression. Primary cortical mouse cultures prepared from E18.5 mouse brains were used for immunohistochemistry. Our data show that Agpat4 is differentially expressed at three timepoints in murine embryogenesis and is immunodetectable in both neurons and glial cells derived from the developing mouse brain. This paper contains data related to research concurrently published in Bradley et al. (2015) [1].

  8. Cytotoxicity Testing of Temporary Luting Cements with Two- and Three-Dimensional Cultures of Bovine Dental Pulp-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ülker, Hayriye Esra; Ülker, Mustafa; Gümüş, Hasan Önder; Yalçın, Muhammet; Şengün, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of eugenol-containing and eugenol-free temporary luting cements. For cytotoxicity testing, bovine pulp-derived cells transfected with Simian virus 40 Large T antigen were exposed to extracts of eugenol-containing (Rely X Temp E) and eugenol-free (Provicol, PreVISION CEM, and Rely X Temp NE) temporary luting cements for 24 h. The cytotoxicity of the same materials was also evaluated in a dentin barrier test device using three-dimensional cell cultures of bovine pulp-derived cells. The results of the cytotoxicity studies with two-dimensional cultures of bovine dental pulp-derived cells revealed that cell survival with the extracts of Rely X Temp E, Provicol, PreVISION CEM, and Rely X Temp NE was 89.1%, 84.9%, 92.3%, and 66.8%, respectively. Rely X Temp NE and Provicol showed cytotoxic effects on bovine dental pulp-derived cells (P < 0.05). The results of the dentin barrier test revealed that cell survival with the above-mentioned temporary cement was 101.5%, 91.9%, 93.5%, and 90.6%, respectively. None of the temporary luting cements significantly reduced cell survival compared with the negative control in the dentin barrier test (P > 0.05). Biologically active materials released from temporary luting cements may not influence the dentine-pulp complex if the residual dentine layer is at least 0.5 mm thick. PMID:23984419

  9. State-of-the-art embryo technologies in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, P

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, basic and applied studies on classical and advanced embryo technologies have generated a vast literature on factors regulating oocyte and embryo development and quality. In addition, over this period, commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. It is well recognised that bovine embryos derived in vivo are of superior quality to those derived from in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture. Relatively little has changed in the techniques of producing embryos in vivo although there is increasing evidence of the importance of, for example, peripheral and follicular endocrine profiles for the subsequent developmental competence of the embryo. The in vitro production of ruminant embryos is a three-step process involving oocyte maturation, oocyte fertilization and in vitro culture. Only 30-40% of such oocytes reach the blastocyst stage, at which they can be transferred to a recipient or frozen for future use. We know now that the quality of the oocyte is crucial in determining the proportion of immature oocytes that form blastocysts while the post-fertilization culture environment has a major influence on the quality of the blastocyst. Use of sexed-sorted sperm in conjunction with in vitro embryo production is a potentially efficient means of obtaining offspring of the desired sex. Concerns regarding the use of sexed semen technology include the apparent lower fertility of sorted sperm, the lower survival of sorted sperm after cryopreservation and the reduced number of sperm that could be separated in a specified time period. Assessment of embryo quality is a challenge. Morphological assessment is at present the most popular method for embryo selection prior to transfer. Other non-invasive assessment methods include the timing of the first cleavage division which has been linked to developmental ability. Quantitative examination of gene expression is an additional valuable tool to assess the viability of

  10. The efficacy of the well of the well (WOW) culture system on development of bovine embryos in a small group and the effect of number of adjacent embryos on their development.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Sik; Ofuji, Sosuke; Imai, Kei; Huang, Weiping; Koyama, Keisuke; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of the well of the well (WOW) culture system for a small number of embryos and the effect of number of adjacent embryos in a WOW dish on blastocyst development. In conventional droplet culture, embryos in the small-number group (5-6 embryos/droplet) showed low blastocyst development compared with a control group (25-26 embryos/droplet). However, small and large numbers of embryos (5-6 and 25 embryos, respectively) in a WOW dish showed no significant differences in cleavage, blastocyst rates, and mean cell number in blastocysts compared with the control group (25-30 embryos/droplet). In addition, the number of adjacent embryos in a WOW dish did not affect the development to blastocysts and cell number in blastocysts. In conclusion, a WOW dish can provide high and stable blastocyst development in small group culture wherever embryos are placed in microwells of the WOW dish. PMID:24598303

  11. Gene Expression Profiling of Shoot-Derived Calli from Adult Radiata Pine and Zygotic Embryo-Derived Embryonal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mendiguren, O.; Montalbán, I. A.; Stewart, D.; Moncaleán, P.; Klimaszewska, K.; Rutledge, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although somatic embryogenesis has an unprecedented potential for large-scale clonal propagation of conifers, the ability to efficiently induce the embryonal cultures required for somatic embryo production has long been a challenge. Furthermore, because early stage zygotic embryos remain the only responsive explants for pines, it is not possible to clone individual trees from vegetative explants at a commercial scale. This is of particular interest for adult trees because many elite characteristics only become apparent following sexual maturation. Findings Shoot explants collected from adult radiata pine trees were cultured on four induction media differing in plant growth regulator composition, either directly after collection or from in vitro-generated axillary shoots. Six callus lines were selected for microscopic examination, which failed to reveal any embryonal masses (EM). qPCR expression profiling of five of these lines indicated that explant type influenced the absolute level of gene expression, but not the type of genes that were expressed. The analysis, which also included three EM lines induced from immature zygotic embryos, encompassed five categories of genes reflective of metabolic, mitotic and meristematic activity, along with putative markers of embryogenicity. Culture medium was found to have no significant impact on gene expression, although differences specific to the explant’s origin were apparent. Expression of transcriptional factors associated with vegetative meristems further suggested that all of the callus lines possessed a substantive vegetative character. Most notable, however, was that they all also expressed a putative embryogenic marker (LEC1). Conclusions While limited in scope, these results illustrate the utility of expression profiling for characterizing tissues in culture. For example, although the biological significance of LEC1 expression is unclear, it does present the possibility that these callus lines possess

  12. Hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from abattoir-derived bovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent progenitor cells characterized by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesodermal origin. The plasticity or transdifferentiation potential of MSC is not limited to mesodermal derivatives, since under appropriate cell culture conditions and stimulation by bioactive factors, MSC have also been differentiated into endodermal (hepatocytes) and neuroectodermal (neurons) cells. The potential of MSC for hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation has been well documented in different animal models; however, few reports are currently available on large animal models. In the present study we sought to characterize the hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation and multipotent potential of bovine MSC (bMSC) isolated from bone marrow (BM) of abattoir-derived fetuses. Results Plastic-adherent bMSC isolated from fetal BM maintained a fibroblast-like morphology under monolayer culture conditions. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that bMSC populations were positive for MSC markers CD29 and CD73 and pluripotency markers OCT4 and NANOG; whereas, were negative for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. Levels of mRNA of hepatic genes α-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB), alpha1 antitrypsin (α1AT), connexin 32 (CNX32), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) were up-regulated in bMSC during a 28-Day period of hepatogenic differentiation. Functional analyses in differentiated bMSC cultures evidenced an increase (P < 0.05) in albumin and urea production and glycogen storage. bMSC cultured under neurogenic conditions expressed NESTIN and MAP2 proteins at 24 h of culture; whereas, at 144 h also expressed TRKA and PrPC. Levels of MAP2 and TRKA mRNA were up-regulated at the end of the differentiation period. Conversely, bMSC expressed lower levels of NANOG mRNA during both hepatogenic and neurogenic differentiation processes. Conclusion The expression patterns of linage

  13. Probing deep into the interaction of a fluorescent chalcone derivative and bovine serum albumin (BSA): an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Alvim, Haline G O; Fagg, Emma L; de Oliveira, Aline L; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B; Freitas, Sonia M; Xavier, Mary-Ann E; Soares, Thereza A; Gomes, Alexandre F; Gozzo, Fabio C; Silva, Wender A; Neto, Brenno A D

    2013-08-01

    In the present manuscript, a novel fluorescent chalcone derivative is synthesized and its photophysical properties are fully characterized. The designed fluorophore is applied as a probe to study protein-dye interactions with bovine serum albumin. Circular dichroism gave interesting results on the thermodynamics of the interaction. NMR spectroscopy, especially relaxation measurements, revealed the atoms in the chalcone derivative that interacts with the protein upon binding. Molecular docking calculations indicate that the most favourable binding sites are near the two tryptophan residues. Furthermore, ab initio and DFT calculations offer insights into the reactivity and physicochemical properties of this novel fluorophore. PMID:23680860

  14. Generation of bovine (Bos indicus) and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) adipose tissue derived stem cells: isolation, characterization, and multipotentiality.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, R V; Chiaratti, M R; Santos, D C N; Bressan, F F; Sangalli, J R; Sá, A L A; Silva, T V G; Costa, N N; Cordeiro, M S; Santos, S S D; Ambrosio, C E; Adona, P R; Meirelles, F V; Miranda, M S; Ohashi, O M

    2015-01-15

    Adult stem cells are known for their plasticity and their potential to differentiate into several different cell types; these characteristics have implications for cell therapy and reproductive biotechnologies. In this study, we report on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from bovine and buffalo adipose tissue. Cells isolated using enzymatic digestion of bovine and buffalo adipose-tissue biopsy samples were grown in vitro for at least 15 passages, verifying their capacity to proliferate. These cells were also subjected to immunophenotypic characterization for the presence of CD90, CD105, and CD79, and the absence of CD45, CD34, and CD73, which are positive and negative markers of MSC, respectively. To prove their multipotency, the cells were induced to differentiate into three different cell types, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes, which were stained with tissue-specific dyes (Chondrogenic-Alcian Blue, Osteogenic-Alizarin Red, and Adipogenic-Oil-Red O, respectively) to confirm differentiation. Gene expression analysis of pluripotency-related genes was also conducted. Our results suggest that adipose tissue from bovines and buffalos can be used as a source of MSC, making adipose tissue-derived cells an interesting option for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. Additionally, these findings have implications for reproductive biotechnology because the use of MSC as nuclear donors has been linked to an increase in the efficiency of nuclear transfer.

  15. Isolation and characterization of trophoblast-derived stem-like cells from peri-implantation porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Suasnavas, Edison A; Heywood, Sierra; Ward, Anika; Cox, Lindsay; O'Grady, Merecedes; Zhao, Yuanfeng; Gilbert, Lacey; Isom, S Clay

    2015-03-01

    In mammals, the trophoblast lineage of the embryo is specified before attachment/implantation to become the fetal portion of the placenta. Trophoblast-derived cells were isolated and cultured from day 10 and day 13 porcine embryos and were grown in vitro in a defined, serum-free culture medium for over 2 years without showing any signs of senescence. However, trophoblast-derived cells placed into serum-containing medium rapidly senesce and fail to proliferate. Semiquantitative and quantitative gene expression analyses of cells in culture from 0 to 30 days confirmed the presence (and relative abundance) of mRNA transcripts from genes involved in trophoblast function (CDX2, TEAD4, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, FGFR2, PLET, HAND1) as well as some genes known to mediate pluripotency (POU5F1, KLF4, CMYC). Protein immunolocalization demonstrated expression of both trophoblast and mesenchymal cell markers. DNA methylation patterns in promoters of three critical developmental genes (HAND1, KLF4, TEAD4) did not change appreciably over 4 months of culture in vitro. It was demonstrated that these trophoblast-derived cells are easily stably transfected with an exogenous transgene (eGFP) by a variety of methods, and show the ability to survive and to be passaged repeatedly after transfection. In summary, early embryonic porcine trophoblast-derived cells have demonstrated unique characteristics, which means they could be used as valuable tools for laboratory work. Anticipated applications include the study of trophoblast physiology as well as possible solutions for improving efficiency of transgenesis by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for pluripotency reprogramming of cells. PMID:25660622

  16. Isolation and characterization of trophoblast-derived stem-like cells from peri-implantation porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Suasnavas, Edison A; Heywood, Sierra; Ward, Anika; Cox, Lindsay; O'Grady, Merecedes; Zhao, Yuanfeng; Gilbert, Lacey; Isom, S Clay

    2015-03-01

    In mammals, the trophoblast lineage of the embryo is specified before attachment/implantation to become the fetal portion of the placenta. Trophoblast-derived cells were isolated and cultured from day 10 and day 13 porcine embryos and were grown in vitro in a defined, serum-free culture medium for over 2 years without showing any signs of senescence. However, trophoblast-derived cells placed into serum-containing medium rapidly senesce and fail to proliferate. Semiquantitative and quantitative gene expression analyses of cells in culture from 0 to 30 days confirmed the presence (and relative abundance) of mRNA transcripts from genes involved in trophoblast function (CDX2, TEAD4, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, FGFR2, PLET, HAND1) as well as some genes known to mediate pluripotency (POU5F1, KLF4, CMYC). Protein immunolocalization demonstrated expression of both trophoblast and mesenchymal cell markers. DNA methylation patterns in promoters of three critical developmental genes (HAND1, KLF4, TEAD4) did not change appreciably over 4 months of culture in vitro. It was demonstrated that these trophoblast-derived cells are easily stably transfected with an exogenous transgene (eGFP) by a variety of methods, and show the ability to survive and to be passaged repeatedly after transfection. In summary, early embryonic porcine trophoblast-derived cells have demonstrated unique characteristics, which means they could be used as valuable tools for laboratory work. Anticipated applications include the study of trophoblast physiology as well as possible solutions for improving efficiency of transgenesis by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for pluripotency reprogramming of cells.

  17. Electrothermal branding for embryo labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Beebe, D J; Williams, A R; Easley, K D

    1997-11-01

    A novel embryo labeling technique based on electrothermal branding is developed. Two types of micro branding irons are fabricated and tested. One utilizes 25 microns tungsten wire as the heating element. The other utilizes surface micromachining techniques to fabricate polysilicon branding irons. The thermal behavior of the branding irons and the heat distributions in the embryos are analytically modeled. Micron-scale labels on unfertilized bovine embryos are achieved.

  18. Germline-derived DNA methylation and early embryo epigenetic reprogramming: The selected survival of imprints.

    PubMed

    Monk, David

    2015-10-01

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mechanism involved in many essential cellular processes. During development epigenetic reprograming takes place during gametogenesis and then again in the pre-implantation embryo. These two reprograming windows ensure genome-wide removal of methylation in the primordial germ cells so that sex-specific signatures can be acquired in the sperm and oocyte. Following fertilization the majority of this epigenetic information is erased to give the developing embryo an epigenetic profile coherent with pluripotency. It is estimated that ∼65% of the genome is differentially methylated between the gametes, however following embryonic reprogramming only parent-of-origin methylation at known imprinted loci remains. This suggests that trans-acting factors such as Zfp57 can discriminate imprinted differentially methylated regions (DMRs) from the thousands of CpG rich regions that are differentially marked in the gametes. Recently transient imprinted DMRs have been identified suggesting that these loci are also protected from pre-implantation reprograming but succumb to de novo remethylation at the implantation stage. This highlights that "ubiquitous" imprinted loci are also resilient to gaining methylation by protecting their unmethylated alleles. In this review I examine the processes involved in epigenetic reprograming and the mechanisms that ensure allelic methylation at imprinted loci is retained throughout the life of the organism, discussing the critical differences between mouse and humans. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Epigenetics Dynamics in development and disease.

  19. Analysis of Heparins Derived From Bovine Tissues and Comparison to Porcine Intestinal Heparins.

    PubMed

    St Ange, Kalib; Onishi, Akihiro; Fu, Li; Sun, Xiaojun; Lin, Lei; Mori, Daisuke; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Jeske, Walter; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant. It is also a linear glycosaminoglycan with an average mass between 10 and 20 kDa and is primarily made up of trisulfated disaccharides comprised of 1,4-linked iduronic acid and glucosamine residues containing some glucuronic acid residues. Heparin is biosynthesized in the Golgi of mast cells commonly found in the liver, intestines, and lungs. Pharmaceutical heparin currently used in the United States is primarily extracted from porcine intestines. Other sources of heparin including bovine intestine and bovine lung are being examined as potential substitutes for porcine intestinal heparin. These additional sources are intended to serve to diversify the heparin supply, making this lifesaving drug more secure. The current study examines bovine heparins prepared from both intestines and lung and compares these to porcine intestinal heparin. The structural properties of these heparins are examined using nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, and disaccharide analysis of heparinase-catalyzed depolymerized heparin. The in vitro functional activities of these heparins have also been determined. The goal of this study is to establish the structural and functional similarities and potential differences between bovine and porcine heparins. Porcine and bovine heparins have structural and compositional similarities and differences. PMID:27084870

  20. The Effect of Media Supplementation with Angiotensin on Developmental Competence of Ovine Embryos Derived from Vitrified-warmed Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Borjian Boroujeni, Sara; Sarvari, Ali; Heidari, Banafsheh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Shirazi, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to assess the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) supplementation to the In Vitro Maturation (IVM) and In Vitro Culture (IVC) media of vitrified-warmed ovine oocytes on their developmental competence and expression of Na+/K+/ATPase in resulting embryos. Methods: The slaughterhouse-derived immature oocytes (n=1069) were randomly distributed into four experimental groups: groups I and II) IVM/IVF and IVC of fresh and vitrified oocytes without angiotensin supplementation (Control-Fresh and Control-Vit groups, respectively); group III) IVM of vitrified oocytes in the presence of Ang II followed by IVF/IVC (Vit-IVM group); and group IV) IVM/IVF of vitrified oocytes followed by IVC wherein the embryos were exposed to Ang II on day 4 of IVC (Vit-D4 group). The embryos were immunostained with primary antibodies against Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits. Results: In Vit-IVM and Vit-D4 groups, the rates of expanded and total blastocysts on day 7 as well as the proportion of blastocysts on day 8 were increased. The expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits were positively influenced by the addition of Ang II on day 4 (Vit-D4 group). Conclusion: The addition of Ang II to the IVM and IVC media could improve blastocysts formation in vitrified sheep oocytes. This improvement might be related to the greater expression of Na+/K+/ATPase α1 and β1 subunits when Ang II was added during IVC. PMID:27563427

  1. Effect of postactivation treatment with latrunculin A on in vitro and in vivo development of cloned embryos derived from kidney fibroblasts of an aged Clawn miniature boar.

    PubMed

    Himaki, Takehiro; Mizobe, Yamato; Tsuda, Kenichirou; Suetomo, Masashi; Yamakuchi, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Kazuchika; Takao, Sonshin; Yoshida, Mitsutoshi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of postactivation treatment with latrunculin A (LatA), an actin polymerization inhibitor, on in vitro and in vivo development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos derived from kidney fibroblasts of an aged Clawn miniature boar (12 years old). After electric activation, SCNT embryos were treated with 0, 0.5 or 1 μM LatA and cultured in vitro. The rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher (P<0.05) in SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM LatA (38%) than those in control (14%). When cloned embryos treated with 0.5 μM LatA were transferred into the oviducts of two recipient miniature gilts to assess their development in vivo, both recipients became pregnant; one maintained pregnancy to term, and a live piglet (weighing 220 g) was delivered by Caesarean section. The results of this study indicated that the postactivation treatment with LatA was effective in improving in vitro developmental capacity of SCNT miniature pig embryos derived from kidney fibroblasts of an aged animal and that miniature pig cloned embryos treated with LatA had the ability to develop to term. PMID:22498812

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant-derived diterpenes against bovine mastitis bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ariana P; Estrela, Fernanda T; Moraes, Thaís S; Carneiro, Luiza J; Bastos, Jairo K; dos Santos, Raquel A; Ambrósio, Sérgio R; Martins, Carlos H G; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the antibacterial activity of three diterpenes isolated from natural sources against a panel of microorganisms responsible for bovine mastitis. ent-Copalic acid (CA) was the most active metabolite, with promising MIC values (from 1.56 to 6.25 µg mL-1) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC and clinical isolate), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. We conducted time-kill assays of CA against S. aureus, a commensal organism considered to be a ubiquitous etiological agent of bovine mastitis in dairy farms worldwide. In the first 12 h, CA only inhibited the growth of the inoculums (bacteriostatic effect), but its bactericidal effect was clearly noted thereafter (between 12 and 24 h). In conclusion, CA should be considered for the control of several Gram-positive bacteria related to bovine mastitis. PMID:23884123

  3. High frequency production of rapeseed transgenic plants via combination of microprojectile bombardment and secondary embryogenesis of microspore-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Moieni, A; Mousavi, A; Salmanian, A H

    2011-02-01

    Transgenic doubled haploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L. cvs. Global and PF(704)) plants were obtained from microspore-derived embryo (MDE) hypocotyls using the microprojectile bombardment. The binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing the gus and bar genes under control of CaMV 35S promoter was used for bombardment experiments. Transformed plantlets were selected and continuously maintained on selective medium containing 10 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin (PPT) and transgenic plants were obtained by selecting transformed secondary embryos. The presence, copy numbers and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, RT-PCR and histochemical GUS analyses. In progeny test, three out of four primary transformants for bar gene produced homozygous lines. The ploidy level of transformed plants was confirmed by flow cytometery analysis before colchicine treatment. All of the regenerated plants were haploid except one that was spontaneous diploid. High frequency of transgenic doubled haploid rapeseeds (about 15.55% for bar gene and 11.11% for gus gene) were considerably produced after colchicines treatment of the haploid plantlets. This result show a remarkable increase in production of transgenic doubled haploid rapeseed plants compared to previous studies.

  4. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  5. High frequency production of rapeseed transgenic plants via combination of microprojectile bombardment and secondary embryogenesis of microspore-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Moieni, A; Mousavi, A; Salmanian, A H

    2011-02-01

    Transgenic doubled haploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L. cvs. Global and PF(704)) plants were obtained from microspore-derived embryo (MDE) hypocotyls using the microprojectile bombardment. The binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing the gus and bar genes under control of CaMV 35S promoter was used for bombardment experiments. Transformed plantlets were selected and continuously maintained on selective medium containing 10 mg l(-1) phosphinothricin (PPT) and transgenic plants were obtained by selecting transformed secondary embryos. The presence, copy numbers and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, RT-PCR and histochemical GUS analyses. In progeny test, three out of four primary transformants for bar gene produced homozygous lines. The ploidy level of transformed plants was confirmed by flow cytometery analysis before colchicine treatment. All of the regenerated plants were haploid except one that was spontaneous diploid. High frequency of transgenic doubled haploid rapeseeds (about 15.55% for bar gene and 11.11% for gus gene) were considerably produced after colchicines treatment of the haploid plantlets. This result show a remarkable increase in production of transgenic doubled haploid rapeseed plants compared to previous studies. PMID:20419350

  6. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  7. Cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation of slaughterhouse- and opu-derived bovine oocytes improves embryonic development without affecting cryotolerance, pregnancy rate, and calf characteristics.

    PubMed

    Merton, J S; Knijn, H M; Flapper, H; Dotinga, F; Roelen, B A J; Vos, P L A M; Mullaart, E

    2013-09-01

    Optimization of ovum pick up (OPU) followed by in vitro embryo production (IVP) is strongly driven by the needs of both beef and dairy cattle breeders to enhance genetic improvement. The rapidly growing use of genomic selection in cattle has increased the interest in using OPU-IVP technology to increase the number of embryos and offspring per donor, thus allowing enhanced selection intensity for the next generation. The aim of this study was to optimize embryo production through supplementation of cysteamine during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) of both slaughterhouse- and OPU-derived oocytes. The effects on embryo production and on embryo cryotolerance, post-transfer embryo survival, and calf characteristics, including gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex ratio were studied. In study 1, immature slaughterhouse-derived cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in IVM medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine, fertilized and cultured for 7 days in 0.5 ml SOFaaBSA. In study 2, cysteamine was present during both IVM (0.1 mM) and IVC (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mM) from Days 1 to 4. In study 3, OPU-derived COCs were matured in medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine in a 2 × 2 factorial design (OPU week and cysteamine treatment). Embryos were evaluated for stage and grade on Day 7 and, depending on the number of transferable embryos and recipients available, the embryos were transferred either fresh or frozen-thawed at a later date. The presence of cysteamine during IVM significantly increased the embryo production rate with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (24.0% vs. 19.4%). The higher number of embryos at Day 7 was due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas the distribution of embryos among different quality grades and cryotolerance was not affected. Embryo production rate was negatively affected when cysteamine was present during both the processes of IVM and IVC during Days 1 to 4 of culture (13

  8. The embryo rescue derived intergeneric hybrid between chrysanthemum and Ajania przewalskii shows enhanced cold tolerance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanming; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Fei

    2011-12-01

    Five intergeneric hybrids between the chrysanthemum cultivar 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and Ajania przewalskii (as male) were obtained with the help of embryo culture. While 'Zhongshanjingui' bears a standard anemone type flower and A. przewalskii a non-anemone type one, the inflorescence type of the hybrids varied. The diameter of the hybrids' flowers was intermediate between those of the parents. The chromosome number of the hybrids was 2n = 45, of which GISH analysis was able to establish that 27 were inherited from 'Zhongshanjingui' and the other 18 from A. przewalskii. A combination of various assays was used to show that the cold tolerance of the hybrids was equivalent to that of the highly tolerant A. przewalskii parent. Enhanced cold tolerance was correlated with an increase in free proline and a decrease in malondialdehyde content.

  9. Transcriptional Response of Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages after the Infection with Different Argentinean Mycobacterium bovis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Caimi, Karina; Blanco, Federico; Soria, Marcelo; Bigi, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    Infection of bovines with Mycobacterium bovis causes important financial hardship in many countries presenting also a risk for humans. M. bovis is known to be adapted to survive and thrive within the intramacrophage environment. In spite of its relevance, at present the information about macrophage expression patterns is scarce, particularly regarding the bovine host. In this study, transcriptomic analysis was used to detect genes differentially expressed in macrophages derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells at early stages of infection with two Argentinean strains of M. bovis, a virulent and an attenuated strains. The results showed that the number of differentially expressed genes in the cells infected with the virulent strain (5) was significantly lower than those in the cells infected with the attenuated strain (172). Several genes were more strongly expressed in infected macrophages. Among them, we detected encoding transcription factors, anthrax toxin receptor, cell division and apoptosis regulator, ankyrin proteins, cytoskeleton proteins, protein of cell differentiation, and regulators of endocytic traffic of membrane. Quantitative real-time PCR of a selected group of differentially expressed genes confirmed the microarrays results. Altogether, the present results contribute to understanding the mechanisms involved in the early interaction of M. bovis with the bovine macrophage. PMID:23484118

  10. New therapeutic option for irritable bowel syndrome: Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Good, Larry; Rosario, Roxanne; Panas, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Oral prescription medical foods have long been used in hospital settings but are also appropriate therapies for gastrointestinal disorders in outpatient medical practice. Oral serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce loose stools and improve stool consistency as well as other symptoms (i.e., abdominal pain, bloating, and urgency) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) and human immunodeficiency virus-associated enteropathy. This case series reports the outcomes of 14 IBS patients who received SBI as an addition to standard of care at an individual physician’s clinical practice. The patients: 2 IBS with constipation (IBS-C), 7 IBS-D, 2 mixed diarrhea and constipation IBS (IBS-M) and 3 undefined IBS (IBS-U; also described by some physicians as IBS-Bloating), ranged in age from 22-87 years. SBI (5 g or 10 g daily dose) was added to the patient’s current standard care and followed for several weeks to determine if symptoms were improved with the addition of SBI. Overall, 12 of the 14 patients indicated some level of improvement through direct questioning of the patients regarding changes from the prior visit. One IBS-Bloating patient had a resolution of symptoms and two patients (1 IBS-Bloating and 1 IBS-C) discontinued therapy because of insufficient relief. The 12 patients who continued on therapy reported an overall improvement in symptoms with better stool consistency, decreased frequency as well as reductions in abdominal pain, bloating, distention, and incontinence. In most cases, therapeutic effects of SBI were seen within the first four weeks of therapy with continued improvements at subsequent visits. SBI has a multifaceted mechanism of action and may help to manage IBS by providing a distinct protein source required to normalize bowel function, gastrointestinal microbiota, and nutritionally enhance tight junction protein expression between intestinal epithelial cells

  11. Management of inflammatory bowel disease with oral serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Shafran, Ira; Burgunder, Patricia; Wei, David; Young, Hayley E.; Klein, Gerald; Burnett, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The clinical effect of oral serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) on symptom and disease management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is reported in this retrospective case series. Methods: A single-center, retrospective chart review of IBD patients [N = 45; Crohn’s disease (CD), n = 38 and ulcerative colitis (UC), n = 7] with limited to no response to traditional pharmaceutical therapies in controlling symptoms was performed after providing SBI (5 g/day) for nutritional support. Patients were contacted at least monthly to assess response to SBI for symptom management measured by a Likert scale (0 = none; 1 = minimal; 2 = moderate; 3 = significant; 4 = complete). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on response to therapy based on patient characteristics (age, gender, race) and IBD diagnosis. A multivariate ordered logistical regression model was performed to determine the odds ratio in overall disease management between week 1 and week 12. Finally, the overall group response and percent improvement to SBI was determined over 12 weeks. Results: The odds ratio from the regression model demonstrated that IBD patients were 2.8 times more likely to report clinical improvement in symptom scores with the addition of SBI to their therapeutic regimens [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.266–6.016, p = 0.011]. Disease management was not significantly associated with age, gender, race or disease state. The percentage of patients reporting a response to SBI therapy at week 1 was 49% which increased to 76% after 12 weeks with the fraction of responders gaining significant symptom improvement doubling during the same time period (9% versus 20%). Overall, this group of IBD patients showed increased, steady response to SBI therapy between week 1 and 12 with no reported side effects. Conclusion: These results suggest that SBI improves clinical management of IBD patients who are not fully managed on traditional therapies. SBI

  12. High-resolution melt analysis for species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci derived from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Ajitkumar, Praseeda; Barkema, Herman W; Zadoks, Ruth N; Morck, Douglas W; van der Meer, Frank J U M; De Buck, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens isolated from bovine milk. In this study, we report a rapid assay for species identification of CNS using high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) of 16S rDNA sequences. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment, spanning the variable region V1 and V2, was performed with a resulting amplicon of 215 bp. A library of distinct melt curves of reference strains of 13 common CNS species was created using HRMA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and, when needed, tuf gene, of 100 CNS isolates obtained from Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network was done to determine their species identity, allowing for subsequent evaluation of the performance of HRMA for field isolates of bovine CNS. A combination of HRMA and sequencing revealed that Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. xylosus, S. simulans, and S. sciuri had multiple genotypes, complicating their resolution by HRMA. As the 3 genotypes of S. chromogenes had distinct melt curves, the 3 distinct genotypes were employed as reference strains in a blinded trial of 156 CNS isolates to identify S. chromogenes. HRMA correctly identified all S. chromogenes isolates which were later confirmed by sequencing. Staphylococcus chromogenes (68%) was most frequently found among the CNS isolates, followed by S. haemolyticus (10%) and S. xylosus (6%). The present study revealed that HRMA of 16S rRNA gene (V1-V2) could be used as a rapid, efficient, low-cost, and minimally cumbersome technique for S. chromogenes identification, the most common CNS derived from bovine milk. PMID:23273337

  13. Stromal fibroblasts derived from mammary gland of bovine with mastitis display inflammation-specific changes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; He, Guiliang; Zhang, Wenyao; Xu, Tong; Qi, Hongliang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yong; Gao, Ming-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblasts are predominant components of mammary stromal cells and play crucial roles in the development and involution of bovine mammary gland; however, whether these cells contribute to mastitis has not been demonstrated. Thus, we have undertaken biological and molecular characterization of inflammation-associated fibroblasts (INFs) extracted from bovine mammary glands with clinical mastitis and normal fibroblasts (NFs) from slaughtered dairy cows because of fractured legs during lactation. The functional contributions of INFs to normal epithelial cells were also investigated by using an in vitro co-culture model. We present evidence that the INFs were activated fibroblasts and showed inflammation-related features. Moreover, INFs significantly inhibited the proliferation and β-casein secretion of epithelial cells, as well as upregulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in epithelial cells. These findings indicate that functional alterations can occur in stromal fibroblasts within the bovine mammary gland during mastitis, demonstrating the importance of stromal fibroblasts in bovine mastitis and its treatment. PMID:27272504

  14. Development and Gene Expression of Porcine Cloned Embryos Derived from Bone Marrow Stem Cells with Overexpressing Oct4 and Sox2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Hyeon; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Sung-Lim; Jeon, Byung-Geun; Ock, Sun-A; King, W. Allen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study compared the potential of porcine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (pBMSCs) at different passages as nuclear transfer (NT) donors and the developmental efficiency of NT embryos from donor cells transfected with/without Oct4 and Sox2. Early-passage pBMSCs showed higher proliferation and expression of Oct4 and Sox2 and differentiation potential into mesenchymal lineages than middle- and late-passage pBMSCs. Cleavage rate did not differ among pBMSCs at different passages, but NT embryos with early-passage pBMSCs and middle-passage pBMSCs transfected with Oct4 (Oct4-pBMSCs) had significantly (p<0.05) higher blastocyst development than those with middle-passage pBMSCs. The incidence of apoptotic bodies in NT blastocysts from late-passage pBMSCs and Sox2-transfected middle-passage pBMSCs (Sox2-pBMSCs) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than others. The transcriptional levels of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Cdx2, Dnmt3a, and Igf2r genes were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Oct4- and Sox2-pBMSCs NT embryos. Middle-passage pBMSCs NT embryos revealed lower transcriptional levels of Bcl2 than others, except Sox2-pBMSCs NT embryos. The transcriptional level of Bax increased gradually in NT embryos derived from pBMSCs following extended passages and was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Sox2-pBMSCs NT embryos. Our results demonstrated that early-passage pBMSCs are more potent in expressing transcription factors and displayed higher differentiation ability, and middle-passage pBMSCs transfected with Oct4 improved the developmental efficiency of NT embryos, suggesting that high Oct4 expression cells are more efficient as NT donors. PMID:25437870

  15. Early embryo and larval development of inviable intergeneric hybrids derived from Crassostrea angulata and Saccostrea cucullata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jiaqi; Wang, Zhaoping; Zhang, Yuehuan; Yan, Xiwu; Li, Qiongzhen; Yu, Ruihai

    2016-06-01

    To detect the intergeneric hybridization between the oyster Crassostrea angulata and Saccostrea cucullata coexisting along the southern coast of China, reciprocal crosses were conducted between the two species. Barriers for sperm recognizing, binding, penetrating the egg, and forming the pronucleus were detected by fluorescence staining. From the results, although fertilization success was observed in hybrid crosses, the overall fertilization rate was lower than that of intraspecific crosses. A large number of hybrid larvae died at 6-8 d after hatching, and those survived could not complete metamorphosis. C. angulata ♀× S. cucullata ♂ larvae had a growth rate similar to that of the maternal species, whereas S. cucullata ♀ × C. angulata ♂ larvae grew the slowest among all crosses. Molecular genetics analysis revealed that hybrid progeny were amphimixis hybrids. This study demonstrated that hybrid embryos generated by crossing C. angulata and S. cucullata could develop normally to the larval state, but could not complete metamorphosis and then develop to the spat stage. Thus, there is a post-reproductive isolation between C. angulata and S. cucullata.

  16. Quantitative expression of pluripotency-related genes in parthenogenetically produced buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos and in putative embryonic stem cells derived from them.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Kaushik, R; Mohapatra, S K; Garg, V; Rameshbabu, K; Singh, M K; Palta, P; Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Chauhan, M S

    2014-09-01

    Parthenogenetically produced embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from them offer a unique model for investigating the role of transcription factors in embryonic genome activation (EGA), pluripotent lineage specification and in pluripotency and self-renewal of ES cells because of the unique nature of these embryos. There is little information on the quantitative expression of important genes in parthenogenetically produced embryos and in ES cells derived from them. The present study examined the quantitative expression of some important genes in parthenogenetically produced buffalo embryos and in putative parthenogenetic ES cells (pES) cells. The quantitative expression of OCT-4, SOX-2, NANOG, REX-1, FOXD-3 and NUCLEOSTEMIN, which is very low in immature and mature oocytes, and in embryos at 2-, 4- and 8- to 16-cell stage, increases significantly at morula and blastocyst stage. The expression level of TELOMERASE, c-MYC and STAT-3, which is high in immature oocytes decreases during embryonic development followed by either an increase at the morula stage (TELOMERASE) or a low expression level maintained throughout development till blastocyst stage (c-MYC and STAT-3). There is a progressive decline in the expression level of OCT-4, SOX-2, c-MYC, REX-1, NUCLEOSTEMIN, TELOMERASE and STAT-3 during long term culture of pES cells. PMID:25077841

  17. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P < 0.05). When electrofusion was induced 27 h after the onset of oocyte maturation, the cleavage rate (78.0%) was higher than that of electrofusion induced at 28 h (67.2%, P < 0.05), and the blastocyst yield (18.1%) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of electrofusion induced at 25 or 26 h (7.4 and 8.5%, respectively). A higher proportion of NT embryos activated at 3 h after electrofusion developed to the blastocyst stage (18.6%) in comparison with NT embryos activated at 1 h (6.0%), 2 h (8.3%), or 4 h (10.6%) after fusion (P < 0.05). No recipient was pregnant 60 d after transfer of blastocysts developed from NT embryos activated at 1 h (0/8), 2 h (0/10), or 4 h (0/9) after fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation.

  18. Early embryonic death-associated changes in genome-wide gene expression profiles in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear-derived cloned embryo.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Masahito; Gohma, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Taniguchi, Yukio; Yasue, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Seiya; Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2006-04-01

    Successful somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloning has been reported in cattle; however, the cloned embryo is highly susceptible to death around day 60 of gestation leading to early embryonic loss. The early embryonic death is postulated to possibly arise in part from an atypical placentation. We have performed cDNA macroarray analysis using 3,353 of the previously cataloged 4,165 genes, in order to characterize the early embryonic death-associated changes in genome-wide gene expression profiles in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloned embryo. A more marked difference in the expression profiles was observed between the fetal placentas of the cows with the cloned immotile embryo (CD) and with the cloned motile embryo (CL) or artificial insemination-derived motile embryo (AI), as compared to between the CL and AI placentas, suggesting an aberration of the expression profile in the CD placenta among the three placentas. Further, 291 and 77 genes showed more than twofold elevation and less than 50% reduction, respectively, in either or both of two CD (CD1 and CD2) placentas in comparison with the CL placenta, but no differential expression between the CL and AI placentas. The expression patterns of six genes in the AI, CL, and CD placentas were confirmed in an experiment with an additional sample for each of the three placentas. Among the placental genes showing the early embryonic death-associated changes of expression in the cow with the cloned embryo, IGF2 (elevated gene), and HBA1, HBA2, SPTB, and SPTBN1 genes (reduced gene) are intriguing in that the changes of expression in these genes were observed in an additional sample of CD placenta as well as the CD1 and CD2 placentas, and in that overexpression (for IGF2) and dysfunction or deficiency (for HBA1, HBA2, SPTB, and SPTBN1) result in embryonic lethality.

  19. Proteomic analysis of the major cellular proteins of bovine trophectoderm cell lines derived from IVP, parthenogenetic, and nuclear transfer embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear cloning of cattle is currently very inefficient in terms of the production and survival of nuclear cloned calves. Because of the great promise of using nuclear cloning technology in farm animals to genetically improve their production and quality traits, nuclear cloning in cattle, and other...

  20. Bovine leukaemia: facts and hypotheses derived from the study of an infectious cancer.

    PubMed

    Burny, A; Cleuter, Y; Kettmann, R; Mammerickx, M; Marbaix, G; Portetelle, D; van den Broeke, A; Willems, L; Thomas, R

    1988-07-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the etiological agent of chronic lymphatic leukaemia/lymphoma in cows, sheep and goats. Infection without neoplastic transformation was also obtained in pigs, rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees, rabbits and observed in capybaras and water-buffaloes. Structurally and functionally, BLV is a relative of human T lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) In humans, HTLV-I induces a T-cell leukaemia and its type 2 counterpart has been found in dermatopathic lymphadenopathy, hairy T-cell leukaemia and prolymphocytic leukaemia cases. At variance with HTLV-I, BLV has not been associated with neurological diseases of the degenerative type. Bovine leukaemia virus, HTLV-I and HTLV-II show clearcut sequence homologies. The pathology of the BLV-induced disease, most notably the absence of chronic viraemia, a long latency period and lack of preferred proviral integration sites in tumours, is similar to that of adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma induced by HTLV-I. The most striking feature of these three naturally transmitted leukaemia viruses is the X region located between the env gene and the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence. The X region contains several overlapping long open reading frames. One of them, designated XBL-I, encodes a trans-activator function capable of increasing the level of gene expression directed by BLV-LTR and most probably is involved in "genetic instability" of BLV-infected cells of the B cell lineage. The "genetic instability" renders the infected cell susceptible to move, along a number of stages, towards full malignancy. Little is known about these events and their causes; we present some theoretical possibilities. Bovine leukaemia virus infection has a worldwide distribution. In temperate climates, the virus spreads mostly via iatrogenic transfer of infected lymphocytes. In warm climates and in areas heavily populated by haematophagous insects, there are indications of insect-borne propagation of the virus.

  1. A Euploid Line of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 Embryo.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Costas, Roberta Montero; Morato-Marques, Mariana; Costa, Silvia; Alegretti, Jose Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; da Motta, Eduardo Leme Alves; Serafini, Paulo C; Pereira, Lygia V

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploid embryos diagnosed by FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) have been shown to yield euploid lines of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with a relatively high frequency. Given that the diagnostic procedure is usually based on the analysis of 1-2 blastomeres of 5 to 10-cell cleavage-stage embryos, mosaicism has been a likely explanation for the phenomena. However, FISH-based PGS can have a significant rate of misdiagnosis, and therefore some of those lines may have been derived from euploid embryos misdiagnosed as aneuploid. More recently, coupling of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy at the blastocyst stage and array-CGH lead to a more informative form of PGS. Here we describe the establishment of a new line of hESCs from an embryo with a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 chromosomal content based on array-CGH of TE biopsy. We show that, despite the complex chromosomal abnormality, the corresponding hESC line BR-6 is euploid (46,XX). Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that the embryo's missing chromosomes were not duplicated in BR-6, suggesting the existence of extensive mosaicism in the TE lineage.

  2. Small RNA profiling of Xenopus embryos reveals novel miRNAs and a new class of small RNAs derived from intronic transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Joanne L.; Horswell, Stuart; Heliot, Claire; Armisen, Javier; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Miska, Eric A.; Hill, Caroline S.

    2014-01-01

    Small RNA control of gene expression is critical for developmental processes in vertebrate embryos. To determine the dynamics of small RNA expression and to uncover novel small RNAs in the early vertebrate embryo, we performed high-throughput sequencing of all small RNAs in Xenopus tropicalis embryos at three developmental time points and in dissected halves of gastrula embryos. This analysis allowed us to identify novel microRNAs and we show that microRNA expression is highly dynamic and spatially localized in early embryos. In addition, we have developed a microRNA prediction pipeline and demonstrate that it has the power to predict new miRNAs that are experimentally detectable in frogs, mice, and humans. By combining the small RNA sequencing with mRNA profiling at the different developmental stages, we identify a new class of small noncoding RNAs that we name siteRNAs, which align in clusters to introns of protein-coding genes. We show that siteRNAs are derived from remnants of transposable elements present in the introns. We find that genes containing clusters of siteRNAs are transcriptionally repressed as compared with all genes. Furthermore, we show that this is true for individual genes containing siteRNA clusters, and that these genes are enriched in specific repressive histone modifications. Our data thus suggest a new mechanism of siteRNA-mediated gene silencing in vertebrates, and provide an example of how mobile elements can affect gene regulation. PMID:24065776

  3. A Euploid Line of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Simone Aparecida Siqueira; Costas, Roberta Montero; Morato-Marques, Mariana; Costa, Silvia; Alegretti, Jose Roberto; Rosenberg, Carla; da Motta, Eduardo Leme Alves; Serafini, Paulo C.; Pereira, Lygia V.

    2015-01-01

    Aneuploid embryos diagnosed by FISH-based preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) have been shown to yield euploid lines of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with a relatively high frequency. Given that the diagnostic procedure is usually based on the analysis of 1–2 blastomeres of 5 to 10-cell cleavage-stage embryos, mosaicism has been a likely explanation for the phenomena. However, FISH-based PGS can have a significant rate of misdiagnosis, and therefore some of those lines may have been derived from euploid embryos misdiagnosed as aneuploid. More recently, coupling of trophectoderm (TE) biopsy at the blastocyst stage and array-CGH lead to a more informative form of PGS. Here we describe the establishment of a new line of hESCs from an embryo with a 43,XX,dup(9q),+12,-14,-15,-18,-21 chromosomal content based on array-CGH of TE biopsy. We show that, despite the complex chromosomal abnormality, the corresponding hESC line BR-6 is euploid (46,XX). Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that the embryo´s missing chromosomes were not duplicated in BR-6, suggesting the existence of extensive mosaicism in the TE lineage. PMID:26540511

  4. [Study on pluripotency and cultivation of ES-like cells derived from male germ stem cells of bovine fetuses].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wu-Zi; Shen, Wen-Zheng; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2007-07-01

    Male germ stem cells (mGSCs), which is in testis after sex differentiation, derive from primordial germ cells. In this study, bovine mGSCs were isolated from testis of 20 weeks fetuses. Number of CD9 positive cells of the cells through two-steps adhering plates velocity different was 95.8% by flow cytometer. The carina-type cells clones and the plane-type cells clones appeared in co-cultured system. One cells lines had been successively maintained for 4 passages, and the cells clusters showed AKP positive staining. The cells clusters showed nest-shape in third passage showed SSEA1 and Oct-4 positive staining. These cells can also spontaneously differentiate into c-kit positive staining germ cells, and the cells were directional induced to formaactin positive staining cardiac-like cells cluster and NF positive staining neuron-like cells. The conclusion showed that male germ stem cells from 20 weeks bovine fetuses could be in vitro formed like embryonic stem cells. PMID:17822057

  5. [Study on pluripotency and cultivation of ES-like cells derived from male germ stem cells of bovine fetuses].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wu-Zi; Shen, Wen-Zheng; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2007-07-01

    Male germ stem cells (mGSCs), which is in testis after sex differentiation, derive from primordial germ cells. In this study, bovine mGSCs were isolated from testis of 20 weeks fetuses. Number of CD9 positive cells of the cells through two-steps adhering plates velocity different was 95.8% by flow cytometer. The carina-type cells clones and the plane-type cells clones appeared in co-cultured system. One cells lines had been successively maintained for 4 passages, and the cells clusters showed AKP positive staining. The cells clusters showed nest-shape in third passage showed SSEA1 and Oct-4 positive staining. These cells can also spontaneously differentiate into c-kit positive staining germ cells, and the cells were directional induced to formaactin positive staining cardiac-like cells cluster and NF positive staining neuron-like cells. The conclusion showed that male germ stem cells from 20 weeks bovine fetuses could be in vitro formed like embryonic stem cells.

  6. Nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility in interorder rhesus monkey-cow embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Daekee; Koo, Ok-Jae; Kim, Min-Jung; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-10-01

    Monkey interorder somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) using enucleated cow oocytes yielded poor blastocysts development and contradictory results among research groups. Determining the reason for this low blastocyst development is a prerequisite for optimizing iSCNT in rhesus monkeys. The aim of this study was to elucidate nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility of rhesus monkey-cow iSCNT embryos and its relationship to low blastocyst development. Cytochrome b is a protein of complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC). According to meta-analysis of amino acid sequences, the homology of cytochrome b is 75 % between rhesus monkeys and cattle. To maintain the function of ETC after iSCNT, 4n iSCNT embryos were produced by fusion of non-enucleated cow oocytes and rhesus monkey somatic cells. The blastocyst development rate of 4n iSCNT embryos was higher than that of 2n embryos (P < 0.01). Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an indirect indicator of ETC activity of cells. The ROS levels of 4n iSCNT embryos was higher than that of 2n embryos (P < 0.01). Collectively, rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos reconstructed with cow oocytes have nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility due to fundamental species differences between rhesus monkeys and cattle. Nuclear-mitochondrial incompatibility seems to correlate with low ETC activity and extremely low blastocyst development of rhesus monkey-cow iSCNT embryos.

  7. Gene expression, oocyte nuclear maturation and developmental competence of bovine oocytes and embryos produced after in vivo and in vitro heat shock.

    PubMed

    Pavani, Krishna C; Baron, Erica; Correia, Pedro; Lourenço, Joana; Bettencourt, Bruno Filipe; Sousa, Madalena; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2016-10-01

    Three assays were performed. In assay 1, oocytes harvested during the winter months were subjected to kinetic heat shock by stressing the oocytes at 39.5°C (HS1) or at 40.5°C (HS2) for either 6, 12, 18 or 24 h and then matured at control temperature (38.5°C). The nuclear maturation rates (NMR) of all oocytes were recorded after 24 h. In assay 2, oocytes collected year-round maturated, were implanted via in vitro fertilization (IVF) and developed for 9 days. Gene expression analysis was performed on target genes (Cx43, CDH1, DNMT1, HSPA14) with reference to the two housekeeping genes (GAPDH and SDHA) in embryos. Similarly, in assay 3, genetic analysis was performed on the embryos produced from heat-stressed oocytes (from HS1 and HS2). In assay 1, the duration of heat stress resulted in a significant decline in NMR (P < 0.05) with HS1 for maturated oocytes at 86.4 ± 4.3; 65.5 ± 0.7; 51.3 ± 0.9; 38.1 ± 1.9 and 36.3 ± 0.9, for control, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h and 24 h, respectively. For assays 2 and 3, results demonstrated that DNMT1, Cx43 and HSPA14 were down-regulated in the embryos produced in the warm with respect to the cold months (P < 0.05). A constant up- and down-regulation of DNMT1 and HSPA14 genes were observed in both HS-treated samples. Also, an inconsistent pattern of gene expression was observed in Cx43 and CDH1 genes (P < 0.05). Targeted gene expression was aberrant in embryo development, which can provide evidence on early embryo arrest and slowed embryo development.

  8. Increased circulating cell-derived microparticle count is associated with recurrent implantation failure after IVF and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zamora, M Angeles; Tàssies, Dolors; Reverter, Juan Carlos; Creus, Montserrat; Casals, Gemma; Cívico, Salvadora; Carmona, Francisco; Balasch, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) are small membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. Elevated cMP counts have been found in almost all thrombotic diseases and pregnancy wastage, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion and in a number of conditions associated with inflammation, cellular activation and angiogenesis. cMP count was investigated in patients experiencing unexplained recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The study group was composed of 30 women diagnosed with RIF (RIF group). The first control group (IVF group) (n = 30) comprised patients undergoing a first successful IVF cycle. The second control group (FER group) included 30 healthy women who had at least one child born at term and no history of infertility or obstetric complications. cMP count was significantly higher in the RIF group compared with the IVF and FER groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) (RIF group: 15.8 ± 6.2 nM phosphatidylserine equivalent [PS eq]; IVF group: 10.9 ± 5.3 nM PS eq; FER group: 9.6 ± 4.0 nM PS eq). No statistical difference was found in cMP count between the IVF and FER groups. Increased cMP count is, therefore, associated with RIF after IVF and embryo transfer.

  9. Receptor-mediated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and prostacyclin from bovine aortic endothelial cells is coupled

    SciTech Connect

    De Nucci, G.; Gryglewski, R.J.; Warner, T.D.; Vane, J.R. )

    1988-04-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown on microcarrier beads and were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) was bioassayed on a cascade of four strips of rabbit aorta, and prostacyclin was analyzed by RIA of 6-oxo-prostaglandin F{sub 1{alpha}}. The endothelial cells released EDRF and prostacyclin when stimulated with bradykinin and its analogues, or with ADP, ATP, arachidonic acid, and phospholipase C. The detection of EDRF was potentiated by superoxide dismutase, and the relaxation of rabbit aortic strips induced by EDRF was antagonized by methylene blue. The release of EDRF and prostacyclin was inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate, R59022 (a diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor), and gentamycin. The authors suggest that the release of EDRF and prostacyclin is coupled and the initial common step is activation of a phospholipase C.

  10. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z. . E-mail: hzsheng2003@yahoo.com

    2006-11-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines.

  11. Association between mitochondrial DNA haplotype compatibility and increased efficiency of bovine intersubspecies cloning.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Yan, Zhonghai; Ma, Qingwen; Jiao, Fei; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Fanyi; Zeng, Yitao

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructed embryos derived from intersubspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) have poorer developmental potential than those from intrasubspecies SCNT. Based on our previous study that Holstein dairy bovine (HD) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype compatibility between donor karyoplast and recipient cytoplast is crucial for SCNT embryo development, we performed intersubspecies SCNT using HD as donor karyoplast and Luxi yellow heifer (LY) as recipient cytoplast according to mtDNA haplotypes determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. The results demonstrated that intersubspecies mtDNA homotype SCNT embryos had higher pre- and post-implantation developmental competence than intrasubspecies mtDNA heterotype embryos as well as improved blastocyst reprogramming status, including normal H3K9 dimethylation pattern and promoter hypomethylation of pluripotent genes such as Oct4 and Sox2, suggesting that intersubspecies SCNT using LY oocytes maintains HD cloning efficiency and may reprogram HD nuclei to develop into a normal cloned animal ultimately. Our results indicated that karyoplast-cytoplast interactions and mtDNA haplotype compatibility may affect bovine intersubspecies SCNT efficiency. This study on bovine intersubspecies SCNT is valuable for understanding the mechanisms of mtDNA haplotype compatibility between karyoplast and cytoplast impacting the bovine SCNT efficiency, and provides an alternative and economic resource for HD cloning.

  12. In vitro embryo production in goats: Slaughterhouse and laparoscopic ovum pick up-derived oocytes have different kinetics and requirements regarding maturation media.

    PubMed

    Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria G; Locatelli, Yann; Duffard, Nicolas; Corbin, Emilie; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Perreau, Christine; Beckers, Jean François; Freitas, Vicente José F; Mermillod, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    oocytes (P > 0.05). Therefore, slaughterhouse oocytes developed a greater proportion of blastocysts than LOPU ones, expressed as the percentage of total cumulus oocyte complexes entering to IVM. Vitrified-thawed blastocysts presented similar survival and hatching rates between the oocyte origin, media, or method of activation. In conclusion, slaughterhouse and LOPU derived oocytes may have different IVM kinetics and require different IVM and IVF conditions. Although the IVM and IVF systems still need improvements to enhance embryo yield, the in vitro development step is able to generate good quality embryos from LOPU-derived oocytes.

  13. Forty years of embryo transfer in cattle: a review focusing on the journal Theriogenology, the growth of the industry in North America, and personal reminisces.

    PubMed

    Hasler, John F

    2014-01-01

    After the first successful transfer of mammalian embryos in 1890, it was approximately 60 years before significant progress was reported in the basic technology of embryo transfer (ET) in cattle. Starting in the early 1970s, technology had progressed sufficiently to support the founding of commercial ET programs in several countries. Today, well-established and reliable techniques involving superovulation, embryo recovery and transfer, cryopreservation, and IVF are utilized worldwide in hundreds, if not thousands, of commercial businesses located in many countries. The mean number of embryos produced via superovulation has changed little in 40 years, but there have been improvements in synchrony and hormonal protocols. Cryopreservation of in vivo-derived embryos is a reliable procedure, but improvements are needed for biopsied and in vitro-derived embryos. High pregnancy rates are achieved when good quality embryos are transferred into suitable recipients and low pregnancy rates are often owing to problems in recipient management and not technology per se. In the future, unanticipated disease outbreaks and the ever-changing economics of cattle and milk prices will continue to influence the ET industry. The issue of abnormal pregnancies involving in vitro embryos has not been satisfactorily resolved and the involvement of abnormal epigenetics associate with this technology merits continued research. Last, genomic testing of bovine embryos is likely to be available in the foreseeable future. This may markedly decrease the number of embryos that are actually transferred and stimulate the evolution of more sophisticated ET businesses.

  14. Analysis of the Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Response to Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Maura E.; Meade, Kieran G.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; Taraktsoglou, Maria; Browne, John A.; Killick, Kate E.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Gormley, Eamonn; Hokamp, Karsten; Magee, David A.; MacHugh, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Johne’s disease, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, (MAP), is a chronic intestinal disease of ruminants with serious economic consequences for cattle production in the United States and elsewhere. During infection, MAP bacilli are phagocytosed and subvert host macrophage processes, resulting in subclinical infections that can lead to immunopathology and dissemination of disease. Analysis of the host macrophage transcriptome during infection can therefore shed light on the molecular mechanisms and host-pathogen interplay associated with Johne’s disease. Here, we describe results of an in vitro study of the bovine monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) transcriptome response during MAP infection using RNA-seq. MDM were obtained from seven age- and sex-matched Holstein-Friesian cattle and were infected with MAP across a 6-h infection time course with non-infected controls. We observed 245 and 574 differentially expressed (DE) genes in MAP-infected versus non-infected control samples (adjusted P value ≤0.05) at 2 and 6 h post-infection, respectively. Functional analyses of these DE genes, including biological pathway enrichment, highlighted potential functional roles for genes that have not been previously described in the host response to infection with MAP bacilli. In addition, differential expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes, such as those associated with the IL-10 signaling pathway, and other immune-related genes that encode proteins involved in the bovine macrophage response to MAP infection emphasize the balance between protective host immunity and bacilli survival and proliferation. Systematic comparisons of RNA-seq gene expression results with Affymetrix® microarray data generated from the same experimental samples also demonstrated that RNA-seq represents a superior technology for studying host transcriptional responses to intracellular infection. PMID:25699042

  15. Binding characteristics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to its receptors on neurons from the chick embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Tebar, A.; Barde, Y.A.

    1988-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein known to support the survival of embryonic sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells, was derivatized with 125I-Bolton-Hunter reagent and obtained in a biologically active, radioactive form (125I-BDNF). Using dorsal root ganglion neurons from chick embryos at 9 d of development, the basic physicochemical parameters of the binding of 125I-BDNF with its receptors were established. Two different classes of receptors were found, with dissociation constants of 1.7 x 10(-11) M (high-affinity receptors) and 1.3 x 10(-9) M (low-affinity receptors). Unlabeled BDNF competed with 125I-BDNF for binding to the high-affinity receptors with an inhibition constant essentially identical to the dissociation constant of the labeled protein: 1.2 x 10(-11) M. The association and dissociation rates from both types of receptors were also determined, and the dissociation constants calculated from these kinetic experiments were found to correspond to the results obtained from steady-state binding. The number of high-affinity receptors (a few hundred per cell soma) was 15 times lower than that of low-affinity receptors. No high-affinity receptors were found on sympathetic neurons, known not to respond to BDNF, although specific binding of 125I-BDNF to these cells was detected at a high concentration of the radioligand. These results are discussed and compared with those obtained with nerve growth factor on the same neuronal populations.

  16. Light Inhibition of Shoot Regeneration Is Regulated by Endogenous Abscisic Acid Level in Calli Derived from Immature Barley Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Rikiishi, Kazuhide; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Shoot regeneration in calli derived from immature barley embryos is regulated by light conditions during the callus-induction period. Barley cultivars Kanto Nijo-5 (KN5) and K-3 (K3) showed lower efficiency of shoot regeneration in a 16-h photoperiod during callus-induction than those in continuous darkness, whereas shoot regeneration was enhanced in cultures under a 16-h photoperiod in Golden Promise (GP) and Lenins (LN). These cultivars were classified as photo-inhibition type (KN5 and K3) or photo-induction type (GP and LN) according to their response to light. Contents of endogenous plant hormones were determined in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod and continuous darkness. In photo-inhibition type, higher accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) was detected in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod, whereas calli showed lower levels of endogenous ABA in continuous darkness. However, cultivars of photo-induction type showed lower levels of ABA in calli cultured under both light conditions, similarly to photo-inhibition type in continuous darkness. Exogenous ABA inhibited the callus growth and shoot regeneration independent of light conditions in all cultivars. In photo-inhibition type, lower levels of endogenous ABA induced by ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, reduced the photo-inhibition of shoot regeneration. Expression of ABA biosynthesis gene, HvNCED1, in calli was regulated by the light conditions. Higher expression was observed in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod. These results indicate that ABA biosynthesis could be activated through the higher expression of HvNCED1 in a 16-h photoperiod and that the higher accumulations of ABA inhibit shoot regeneration in the photo-inhibition type cultivars. PMID:26670930

  17. Light Inhibition of Shoot Regeneration Is Regulated by Endogenous Abscisic Acid Level in Calli Derived from Immature Barley Embryos.

    PubMed

    Rikiishi, Kazuhide; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Shoot regeneration in calli derived from immature barley embryos is regulated by light conditions during the callus-induction period. Barley cultivars Kanto Nijo-5 (KN5) and K-3 (K3) showed lower efficiency of shoot regeneration in a 16-h photoperiod during callus-induction than those in continuous darkness, whereas shoot regeneration was enhanced in cultures under a 16-h photoperiod in Golden Promise (GP) and Lenins (LN). These cultivars were classified as photo-inhibition type (KN5 and K3) or photo-induction type (GP and LN) according to their response to light. Contents of endogenous plant hormones were determined in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod and continuous darkness. In photo-inhibition type, higher accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) was detected in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod, whereas calli showed lower levels of endogenous ABA in continuous darkness. However, cultivars of photo-induction type showed lower levels of ABA in calli cultured under both light conditions, similarly to photo-inhibition type in continuous darkness. Exogenous ABA inhibited the callus growth and shoot regeneration independent of light conditions in all cultivars. In photo-inhibition type, lower levels of endogenous ABA induced by ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, reduced the photo-inhibition of shoot regeneration. Expression of ABA biosynthesis gene, HvNCED1, in calli was regulated by the light conditions. Higher expression was observed in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod. These results indicate that ABA biosynthesis could be activated through the higher expression of HvNCED1 in a 16-h photoperiod and that the higher accumulations of ABA inhibit shoot regeneration in the photo-inhibition type cultivars. PMID:26670930

  18. Characterization of a 60-kDa Thermally Stable Antigenic Protein as a Marker for the Immunodetection of Bovine Plasma-Derived Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2015-08-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (Bb3D6 and Bb6G12) that recognize a 60-kDa antigenic protein in bovine blood was previously developed for detecting bovine blood in animal feed for the prevention of mad cow disease. This study sought to establish the identity of this 60-kDa antigenic protein and consequently determine the suitability of the sELISA for detecting bovine plasma-derived food ingredients (BPFIs), which are widely used in dietary products without explicit labeling. Results from western blot confirmed the 60-kDa protein to be present in the plasma fraction of bovine blood. Further proteomic analyses involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) and amino acid sequencing revealed the 60-kDa protein to be bovine serum albumin (BSA). The sELISA proved capable of detecting BPFIs in all the commercial dietary supplements tested, including those that were formulated with hydrolyzed BPFIs. The assay could also detect 0.01% and 0.5% of different BPFIs in spiked raw and cooked ground beef, respectively. This assay based on the detection of BSA therefore has the potential to become a valuable analytical tool to protect consumers who avoid consuming BPFIs for religious, health, or ethical reasons. PMID:26172875

  19. Characterization of a 60-kDa Thermally Stable Antigenic Protein as a Marker for the Immunodetection of Bovine Plasma-Derived Food Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Jack A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2015-08-01

    A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) based on 2 monoclonal antibodies (Bb3D6 and Bb6G12) that recognize a 60-kDa antigenic protein in bovine blood was previously developed for detecting bovine blood in animal feed for the prevention of mad cow disease. This study sought to establish the identity of this 60-kDa antigenic protein and consequently determine the suitability of the sELISA for detecting bovine plasma-derived food ingredients (BPFIs), which are widely used in dietary products without explicit labeling. Results from western blot confirmed the 60-kDa protein to be present in the plasma fraction of bovine blood. Further proteomic analyses involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) and amino acid sequencing revealed the 60-kDa protein to be bovine serum albumin (BSA). The sELISA proved capable of detecting BPFIs in all the commercial dietary supplements tested, including those that were formulated with hydrolyzed BPFIs. The assay could also detect 0.01% and 0.5% of different BPFIs in spiked raw and cooked ground beef, respectively. This assay based on the detection of BSA therefore has the potential to become a valuable analytical tool to protect consumers who avoid consuming BPFIs for religious, health, or ethical reasons.

  20. Safety determination for the use of bovine milk-derived lactoferrin as a component of an antimicrobial beef carcass spray.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve; Brock, Jeremy; Kruger, Claire; Berner, Ted; Murphy, Mary

    2004-02-01

    Bovine milk-derived lactoferrin (BMDL), an iron-binding glycoprotein, is known to be an effective natural antimicrobial. It is used as a spray, applied electrostatically, to raw beef carcasses to detach bacteria adhering to the surface in order to reduce microbial contamination. The use of BMDL as a component (at not more than 2% by weight) of an antimicrobial spray was determined Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) (GRN 67) for three proposed uses (i.e., beef carcasses, subprimals, and finished cuts), provided that the ingredient statement of food products that contain milk-derived lactoferrin identifies the source of the protein. The use of BMDL spray on only beef carcasses (not subprimals or finished cuts) at a level not to exceed 0.20 ml of formulation per kg of beef was determined safe without the requirement of labeling of food products so treated. The two key components of the assessment are: (1) a determination that exogenous lactoferrin exposure (resulting from its application to beef carcasses) is in the range of existing background exposures of lactoferrin as a result of lactoferrin found naturally in beef, and (2) a determination that this potentially small incremental increase in lactoferrin is safe (i.e., there is no reasonable expectation that BMDL will become an allergen under the conditions of its intended use).

  1. Bovine leukaemia: facts and hypotheses derived from the study of an infectious cancer.

    PubMed

    Burny, A; Cleuter, Y; Kettmann, R; Mammerickx, M; Marbaix, G; Portetelle, D; Van den Broeke, A; Willems, L; Thomas, R

    1987-01-01

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the aetiological agent of a chronic lymphatic leukaemia/lymphoma in cows, sheep and goats. Infection without neoplastic transformation has also been demonstrated in pigs, rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees and rabbits and observed in capybaras and water buffaloes. Structurally and functionally, BLV is a relative of human T lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) since all three viruses show clear-cut sequence homologies. The pathology of the BLV-induced disease, most notably the absence of chronic viraemia, a long latency period and lack of preferred proviral integration sites in tumours, is similar to that of adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma induced by HTLV-I. The most striking feature of the three naturally transmitted leukaemia viruses is the X region located between the env gene and the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence. The X region contains several overlapping long open reading frames, one of which, designated XBL-1, encodes a trans-activator function capable of increasing the level of gene expression directed by BLV-LTR and is most probably involved in genetic instability of BLV-infected cells of the B-cell lineage. The 'genetic instability' may put the cell into a state of fragility, ready to move along a number of stages towards full malignancy. Little is known about these events and their causes and we present some theoretical possibilities. BLV infection has a worldwide distribution. In temperate climates the virus spreads mostly through iatrogenic transfer of infected lymphocytes. In warm climates and in areas heavily populated by haematophagous insects, there are indications of insect-borne propagation of the virus.

  2. Bovine leukemia: facts and hypotheses derived from the study of an infectious cancer.

    PubMed

    Burny, A; Cleuter, Y; Kettmann, R; Mammerickx, M; Marbaix, G; Portetelle, D; Van den Broeke, A; Willems, L; Thomas, R

    1988-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus is the etiological agent of a chronic lymphatic leukemia/lymphoma in cows, sheep, and goats. Infection without neoplastic transformation also was obtained in pigs, rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees, and rabbits, and was observed in capybaras and water buffaloes. Structurally and functionally, BLV is a relative of the human T lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-I and HTLV-II). HTLV-I induces in humans a T cell leukemia, and its type II counterpart has been found in dermatopathic lymphadenopathy, hairy T cell leukemia and prolymphocytic leukemia cases. At variance with HTLV-I, BLV has not been associated with neurological diseases of the degenerative type. BLV, HTLV-I, and HTLV-II show clearcut sequence homologies. The pathology of the BLV-induced disease, most notably, the absence of chronic viremia, a long latency period, and a lack of preferred proviral integration sites in tumors, is similar to that of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma induced by HTLV-I. The most striking feature of the three naturally transmitted leukemia viruses is the X region located between the env gene and the LTR sequence. The X region contains several overlapping long open reading frames. One of them designated XBL-I encodes a trans-activator function capable of increasing the level of gene expression directed by BLV-LTR and most probably involved in "genetic instability" of BLV-infected cells of the B cell lineage. The genetic instability puts the cell into a context of fragility and ready to move along a number of stages towards full malignancy. Little is known about these events and their causes; we have presented some theoretical possibilities. BLV infection has a worldwide distribution. In temperate climates the virus spreads mostly via iatrogenic transfer of infected lymphocytes. In warm climates and in areas heavily populated by hematophageous insects, there are indications of insect-born propagation of the virus.

  3. Efficiency of asynchronously in vitro-matured oocytes as recipients for nuclear transfer and of blind enucleation in zona-free bovine cloning.

    PubMed

    Malenko, Galina P; Stepanov, Oleg I; Komissarov, Andrey V; Antipova, Tatyana A; Pinyugina, Marina V; Prokofiev, Michael I

    2009-06-01

    We studied the dynamics of in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes, the efficiency of asynchronously matured oocytes as recipients for the generation of embryos produced by nuclear transfer, and the potential for using blind enucleation of zona-free bovine oocytes in bovine cloning. At 15 h after the initiation of maturation (hpm), oocytes were freed from both cumulus cells and the zona pellucida, and the dynamics of oocyte maturation were monitored every 30 min through the criterion of extrusion of the first polar body (PB1). More than 41% of bovine oocytes had extruded PB1 by 16.5 hpm, and were designated as representing a group of rapidly maturing oocytes. A second group, comprising about 25% of all oocytes, had extruded PB1 by 18.5-20.0 hpm. Examination of Hoechst 33342-stained samples demonstrated that PB1 on the surfaces of zona-free bovine oocytes were always located near the maternal chromosomes. Zona-free oocytes were enucleated by removing PB1 and about 3% of the adjacent oocyte cytoplasm without chromatin staining. Successful enucleation of zona-free bovine oocytes was achieved in 96.9% of cases. The rate of development to the blastocyst stage was significantly greater in embryos reconstructed from rapidly maturing oocytes (47.8%) than with oocytes maturing at 18.0-20.0 hpm (33.3%). Overall, two large groups of bovine oocytes could be distinguished during in vitro maturation by the time required to reach the second stage of metaphase. Bovine embryos reconstructed from rapidly maturing enucleated oocytes had a significantly greater rate of development to the blastocyst stage than did embryos derived from later-maturing oocytes. We conclude that blind enucleation is a simple and efficient method for preparing cytoplasts in zona-free bovine cloning.

  4. Individual bovine in vitro embryo production and cumulus cell transcriptomic analysis to distinguish cumulus-oocyte complexes with high or low developmental potential.

    PubMed

    Bunel, A; Jorssen, E P; Merckx, E; Leroy, J L; Bols, P E; Sirard, M A

    2015-01-15

    Studying cumulus cell (CC) transcriptome is of great interest as it could provide a noninvasive method to assess oocyte quality. In cattle, the search for quality markers has not been done with cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured individually from maturation to blastocyst stage. Here, differences between high- and low-potential COCs were examined by transcriptomic analysis of CC biopsies obtained from COCs of 2 to 6 mm follicles (n = 249; eight replicates) before individual in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture until Day 8 after fertilization. Each COC was individually tracked and categorized based on his fate: embryo at blastocyst stage (CC-Blast) or embryo arrested at 2- to 8-cell stage (CC-2-8-cells). Average blastocyst rates were 27.7% for individual culture and 31.2% for group control (not significantly different). For transcriptomic analysis, five cumulus biopsies per replicate were pooled for each fate. Three CC replicates underwent transcriptomic analysis using RNA microarray assay. Some clear differences in gene expression between the CC-Blast and the CC-2-8-cell groups were identified. Considering a 1.5-fold change (P < 0.05), 68 genes were differentially expressed between the CC-Blast and CC-2-8-cells. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction validations were performed for 12 selected genes: six upregulated genes for each COC fate. Higher expression of 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9 (AGPAT9) (lipid metabolism), Chloride intracellular channel 3 (CLIC3), Keratin 8 (KRT8), and Lumican (LUM) (molecular transport) was observed in CC-2-8-cells (P < 0.05). The CC-Blast fate analysis revealed a significantly higher expression of Glycine amidinotransferase (L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase) (GATM) (posttranslational modification, amino acid metabolism, and free radical scavenging). This newly identified set of genes could provide new markers to distinguish COCs associated with good quality embryos from COCs

  5. Phenotype and Function of CD209+ Bovine Blood Dendritic Cells, Monocyte-Derived-Dendritic Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bannantine, John P.; Mack, Victoria; Fry, Lindsay M.; Davis, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and monocyte derived DC (MoDC). DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants) can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC). Because of the high volume of blood collections required to study DC, cattle offer the best opportunity to further our understanding of bDC and MoDC function in an outbred large animal species. As reported here, phenotyping DC using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD209 revealed CD209 is expressed on the major myeloid population of DC present in blood and MoDC, providing a phenotypic link between these two subsets. Additionally, the present study demonstrates that CD209 is also expressed on monocyte derived macrophages (MoΦ). Functional analysis revealed each of these populations can take up and process antigens (Ags), present them to CD4 and CD8 T cells, and elicit a T-cell recall response. Thus, bDC, MoDC, and MoΦ pulsed with pathogens or candidate vaccine antigens can be used to study factors that modulate DC-driven T-cell priming and differentiation ex vivo. PMID:27764236

  6. Establishment of Trophectoderm Cell Lines from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos of Different Sources and Examination of In Vitro Developmental Competence, Quality, Epigenetic Status and Gene Expression in Cloned Embryos Derived from Them

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Sushil Kumar; Sandhu, Anjit; Singh, Karn Pratap; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Despite being successfully used to produce live offspring in many species, somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) has had a limited applicability due to very low (>1%) live birth rate because of a high incidence of pregnancy failure, which is mainly due to placental dysfunction. Since this may be due to abnormalities in the trophectoderm (TE) cell lineage, TE cells can be a model to understand the placental growth disorders seen after NT. We isolated and characterized buffalo TE cells from blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (TE-IVF) and Hand-made cloning (TE-HMC), and compared their growth characteristics and gene expression, and developed a feeder-free culture system for their long-term culture. The TE-IVF cells were then used as donor cells to produce HMC embryos following which their developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression were compared with those of HMC embryos produced using fetal or adult fibroblasts as donor cells. We found that although TE-HMC and TE-IVF cells have a similar capability to grow in culture, significant differences exist in gene expression levels between them and between IVF and HMC embryos from which they are derived, which may have a role in the placental abnormalities associated with NT pregnancies. Although TE cells can be used as donor cells for producing HMC blastocysts, their developmental competence and quality is lower than that of blastocysts produced from fetal or adult fibroblasts. The epigenetic status and expression level of many important genes is different in HMC blastocysts produced using TE cells or fetal or adult fibroblasts or those produced by IVF. PMID:26053554

  7. Single Particle Dynamic Imaging and Fe3+ Sensing with Bright Carbon Dots Derived from Bovine Serum Albumin Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingxiu; Wei, Lin; Zheng, Xuanfang; Xiao, Lehui

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent and water-soluble carbon dots (Cdots) by carbonizing carbon precursors, i.e., Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles, in water solution. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized Cdots exhibit fluorescence quantum yield (Q.Y.) as high as 34.8% and display superior colloidal stability not only in concentrated salt solutions (e.g. 2 M KCl) but also in a wide range of pH solutions. According to the FT-IR measurements, the Cdots contain many carboxyl groups, providing a versatile route for further chemical and biological functionalization. Through conjugation of Cdots with the transacting activator of transcription (TAT) peptide (a kind of cell penetration peptide (CPP)) derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is possible to directly monitor the dynamic interactions of CPP with living cell membrane at single particle level. Furthermore, these Cdots also exhibit a dosage-dependent selectivity toward Fe3+ among other metal ions, including K+, Na+, Mg2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Al3+. We believed that the Cdots prepared by this strategy would display promising applications in various areas, including analytical chemistry, nanomedicine, biochemistry and so on.

  8. Single Particle Dynamic Imaging and Fe3+ Sensing with Bright Carbon Dots Derived from Bovine Serum Albumin Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingxiu; Wei, Lin; Zheng, Xuanfang; Xiao, Lehui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated a convenient and green strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent and water-soluble carbon dots (Cdots) by carbonizing carbon precursors, i.e., Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles, in water solution. Without post surface modification, the as-synthesized Cdots exhibit fluorescence quantum yield (Q.Y.) as high as 34.8% and display superior colloidal stability not only in concentrated salt solutions (e.g. 2 M KCl) but also in a wide range of pH solutions. According to the FT-IR measurements, the Cdots contain many carboxyl groups, providing a versatile route for further chemical and biological functionalization. Through conjugation of Cdots with the transacting activator of transcription (TAT) peptide (a kind of cell penetration peptide (CPP)) derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), it is possible to directly monitor the dynamic interactions of CPP with living cell membrane at single particle level. Furthermore, these Cdots also exhibit a dosage-dependent selectivity toward Fe3+ among other metal ions, including K+, Na+, Mg2+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Al3+. We believed that the Cdots prepared by this strategy would display promising applications in various areas, including analytical chemistry, nanomedicine, biochemistry and so on. PMID:26634992

  9. Inhibitory effect of a new butadiene derivative on the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in cultured bovine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, A; Takagi, T; Hirano, A; Murakami, J; Sasaki, Y

    1996-12-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its physiological inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are known to be synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and to play important roles in regulating the fibrinolytic activity of plasma. We found that a new butadiene derivative, (3E, 4E)-3-benzylidene-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)pyrrolidine -2,5-dione (T-686), inhibits PAI-1 production without affecting plasminogen activator (PA) synthesis in cultured bovine endothelial cells. T-686 (1-10 microM) dose-dependently decreased the accumulation of PAI-1 in conditioned medium from the treated cells and elevated PA activity in the conditioned medium. Analysis of the conditioned medium by the zymography technique indicated that T-686 decreased the activities of PAI-1 with an M(r) of 55,000 and t-PA/PAI-1 complex with an M(r) of 99,000. Furthermore, T-686 attenuated the augmentation of PAI-1 antigen induced by lipopolysaccharide in the conditioned medium. The decrease of PAI-1 antigen was in parallel with the reduction of the PAI-1 mRNA level (Northern blots). These results suggest that T-686 can promote net fibrinolytic activity through suppression of PAI-1 production without affecting PA elaboration in endothelial cells.

  10. β-casein gene expression by in vitro cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells derived from developing mammary glands.

    PubMed

    Monzani, P S; Bressan, F F; Mesquita, L G; Sangalli, J R; Meirelles, F V

    2011-04-12

    Epithelial cells from mammary gland tissue that are cultured in vitro are able to maintain specific functions of this gland, such as cellular differentiation and milk protein synthesis. These characteristics make these cells a useful model to study mammary gland physiology, development and differentiation; they can also be used for production of exogenous proteins of pharmaceutical interest. Bovine mammary epithelial cells were cultured in vitro after isolation from mammary gland tissue of animals at different stages of development. The cells were plated on Petri dishes and isolated from fibroblasts using saline/EDTA treatment, followed by trypsinization. Cells isolated on plastic were capable of differentiating into alveolus-like structures; however, only cells derived from non-pregnant and non-lactating animals expressed β-casein. Real-time qPCR and epifluorescence microscopy analyses revealed that alveolus-like structures were competent at expressing Emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) driven by the β-casein promoter, independent of β-casein expression.

  11. Computational Study Exploring the Interaction Mechanism of Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potent Cattle Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2016-07-27

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections are prevailing in cattle populations on a worldwide scale. The BVDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as a promising target for new anti-BVDV drug development, has attracted increasing attention. To explore the interaction mechanism of 65 benzimidazole scaffold-based derivatives as BVDV inhibitors, presently, a computational study was performed based on a combination of 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The resultant optimum CoMFA and CoMSIA models present proper reliabilities and strong predictive abilities (with Q(2) = 0. 64, R(2)ncv = 0.93, R(2)pred = 0.80 and Q(2) = 0. 65, R(2)ncv = 0.98, R(2)pred = 0.86, respectively). In addition, there was good concordance between these models, molecular docking, and MD results. Moreover, the MM-PBSA energy analysis reveals that the major driving force for ligand binding is the polar solvation contribution term. Hopefully, these models and the obtained findings could offer better understanding of the interaction mechanism of BVDV inhibitors as well as benefit the new discovery of more potent BVDV inhibitors. PMID:27355875

  12. Factors affecting pregnancy rates after ovum pick up-derived embryo transfer in lactating Holstein recipients under tropical conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High milk production, heat, physiological status and management impair reproduction in Holstein cows. The use of in vivo-produced embryos has been reported as an alternative to enhance pregnancy outcome in the tropics; however there are several limitations for its production, especially from variati...

  13. Human histologic evaluation of anorganic bovine bone mineral combined with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB in maxillary sinus augmentation: case series study.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Myron; Garber, David; Hanratty, James J; McAllister, Bradley S; Nevins, Marc L; Salama, Maurice; Schupbach, Peter; Wallace, Steven; Bernstein, Simon M; Kim, David M

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to examine the potential for improved bone regenerative outcomes in maxillary sinus augmentation procedures when recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (0.3 mg/mL) is combined with particulate anorganic bovine bone mineral. The surgical outcomes in all treated sites were uneventful at 6 to 8 months, with sufficient regenerated bone present to allow successful placement of maxillary posterior implants. Large areas of dense, well-formed lamellar bone were seen throughout the intact core specimens in more than half of the grafted sites. Abundant numbers of osteoblasts were noted in concert with significant osteoid in all sites, indicating ongoing osteogenesis. A number of cores demonstrated efficient replacement of the normally slowly resorbing anorganic bovine bone mineral matrix particles with newly formed bone when the matrix was saturated with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB. PMID:20072735

  14. Protein profiles of bovine placenta derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Rye; Kang, Jae Ku; Yoon, Jong Taek; Seong, Hwan Hoo; Jung, Jin Kwan; Lee, Hong Mie; Sik Park, Chang; Jin, Dong Il

    2005-11-01

    Practical application of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been hampered by an extremely low success rate. To address whether placental dysfunction in SCNT causes fetal loss during pregnancy, we have used a global proteomics approach using 2-DE and MS to analyze the differential protein patterns of three placentae from the afterbirth of cases of postnatal death, derived from SCNT of Korean Native cattle, and three normal placentae obtained from the afterbirth of fetuses derived from artificial insemination. Proteins within a pI range of 4.0-7.0 and 6.0-9.0 were analyzed separately by 2-DE in triplicate. A total of approximately 2000 spots were detected in placental 2-DE gels stained with CBB. In the comparison of normal and SCNT samples, 60 spots were identified as differentially expressed proteins, of which 33 spots were up-regulated proteins in SCNT placentae, while 27 spots were down-regulated proteins. Most of the proteins identified in this analysis appeared to be related with protein repair or protection, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, immune system, metabolism, extracellular matrix and remodeling, transcription regulation, cell structure or differentiation and ion transport. One of up-regulated proteins in SCNT was TIMP-2 protein known to be related to extracellular matrix and remodeling during pregnancy. Western blot analysis showed an increased level of TIMP-2 in SCNT placenta compared to normal. Our results revealed composite profiles of key proteins involved in abnormal placenta derived from SCNT, and suggested expression abnormality of these genes in SCNT placenta, resulting in fetal losses following SCNT.

  15. Extracellular Vesicles from BOEC in In Vitro Embryo Development and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lopera-Vásquez, Ricaurte; Hamdi, Meriem; Fernandez-Fuertes, Beatriz; Maillo, Verónica; Beltrán-Breña, Paula; Calle, Alexandra; Redruello, Alberto; López-Martín, Soraya; Gutierrez-Adán, Alfonso; Yañez-Mó, María

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of conditioned media (CM) and Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) derived from bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) lines on the developmental capacity of bovine zygotes and the quality of embryos produced in vitro, presumptive zygotes were cultured under specific conditions. In experiment 1, zygotes were cultured either on monolayers from BOEC extended culture (E), together with fresh BOEC suspension cells, or with BOEC-CM from fresh or E-monolayers. In experiment 2, EVs were isolated from BOEC-CM and characterized (150–200 nm) by Nanosight® and electron microscopy. Zygotes were cultured in the presence of 3x105EVs/mL, 1.5x105EVs/mL or 7.5x104EVs/mL of fresh or frozen BOEC-EVs. In experiment 3, zygotes were cultured in absence of FCS but with EVs from BOEC-E that had been cultured in different culture media. In experiment 4, zygotes were cultured in SOF+5% normal-FCS, or EV-depleted-FCS. In all cases, cleavage rate (Day 2) and blastocyst development (Day 7–9) was assessed. Blastocysts on Days 7/8 were used for quality evaluation through differential cell count, cryotolerance and gene expression patterns. No differences were found among all FCS-containing groups in cleavage rate or blastocyst yield. However, embryos derived from BOEC-CM had more trophectoderm cells, while embryos derived from BOEC-EVs, both fresh and frozen, has more trophectoderm and total cells. More embryos survived vitrification in the BOEC-CM and BOEC-EV groups. In contrast, more embryos survived in the EV-depleted-FCS than in normal-FCS group. Gene expression patterns were modified for PAG1 for embryos cultured with EVs in the presence of FCS and for IFN-T, PLAC8, PAG1, CX43, and GAPDH in the absence of FCS. In conclusion, EVs from FCS have a deleterious effect on embryo quality. BOEC-CM and EVs during in vitro culture had a positive effect on the quality of in vitro produced bovine embryos, suggesting that EVs have functional communication between the oviduct and the

  16. Bovine ooplasm partially remodels primate somatic nuclei following somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Beyhan, Zeki; Rodriguez, Ramon M; Ross, Pablo J; Iager, Amy E; Kaiser, German G; Chen, Ying; Cibelli, Jose B

    2009-03-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) has the potential to become a useful tool to address basic questions about the nucleus-cytoplasm interactions between species. It has also been proposed as an alternative for the preservation of endangered species and to derive autologous embryonic stem cells. Using chimpanzee/ bovine iSCNT as our experimental model we studied the early epigenetic events that take place soon after cell fusion until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Our analysis suggested partial EGA in iSCNT embryos at the eight-cell stage, as indicated by Br-UTP incorporation and expression of chimpanzee embryonic genes. Oct4, Stella, Crabp1, CCNE2, CXCL6, PTGER4, H2AFZ, c-MYC, KLF4, and GAPDH transcripts were expressed, while Nanog, Glut1, DSC2, USF2, Adrbk1, and Lin28 failed to be activated. Although development of iSCNT embryos did not progress beyond the 8- to 16-cell stage, chromatin remodeling events, monitored by H3K27 methylation, H4K5 acetylation, and global DNA methylation, were similar in both intra- and interspecies SCNT embryos. However, bisulfite sequencing indicated incomplete demethylation of Oct4 and Nanog promoters in eight-cell iSCNT embryos. ATP production levels were significantly higher in bovine SCNT embryos than in iSCNT embryos, TUNEL assays did not reveal any difference in the apoptotic status of the nuclei from both types of embryos. Collectively, our results suggest that bovine ooplasm can partially remodel chimpanzee somatic nuclei, and provides insight into some of the current barriers iSCNT must overcome if further embryonic development is to be expected. PMID:19196039

  17. Effect of mitotic inducers and retinoic acid blocker on expression of pluripotent genes in ES cells derived from early stage in vitro-produced embryos in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Kuldeep; Singh, Renu; Puri, Gopal; Ranjan, R; Yasotha, T; Singh, R K; Sarkar, M; Bag, Sadhan

    2012-12-01

    So far, it has been difficult to generate embryonic stem (ES) cell from early stage preimplantation embryos of buffalo. These ES cells will be more helpful for efficient embryo cloning and generation of body cells as they are more primitive than inner cell mass (ICM)-derived ES cells. The present study was conducted to find the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, a pineal gland product), and citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal and a retinoic acid synthesis blocker) on establishment of primary ES cell colonies, the comparative size of the ES cell colonies, and expression of pluripotent genes during extended period of culture in buffalo. Zona-free eight-cell stage in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos were cultured in ES cell medium supplemented with none (media I as control), LPS (media II), citral melatonin (media III), or melatonin (media IV). The multiplication of blastomere leading to ES cell colony formation and expression of pluripotent genes were assessed up to day 20 of culture. The primary colony formation, the comparative size of the ES cell colonies, and expression of pluripotent genes in these colonies were better in the medium supplemented with melatonin in all days of culture. Within melatonin supplementation, the colony size was comparatively larger on day 8 and day 12 of culture. Further, with this supplementation, the Oct-4 and Nanog expression was comparatively higher on all days of culture. The results indicated that supplementation of melatonin helped in the formation of better primary ES cell colony as well as in the maintenance of pluripotency. The results also indicated that primary colonies developed on day 8 to day 12 of culture may be better for passaging them for establishment of ES cell line from early stage preimplantation IVF embryos of in buffalo.

  18. Effect of mitotic inducers and retinoic acid blocker on expression of pluripotent genes in ES cells derived from early stage in vitro-produced embryos in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Kuldeep; Singh, Renu; Puri, Gopal; Ranjan, R; Yasotha, T; Singh, R K; Sarkar, M; Bag, Sadhan

    2012-12-01

    So far, it has been difficult to generate embryonic stem (ES) cell from early stage preimplantation embryos of buffalo. These ES cells will be more helpful for efficient embryo cloning and generation of body cells as they are more primitive than inner cell mass (ICM)-derived ES cells. The present study was conducted to find the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, a pineal gland product), and citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal and a retinoic acid synthesis blocker) on establishment of primary ES cell colonies, the comparative size of the ES cell colonies, and expression of pluripotent genes during extended period of culture in buffalo. Zona-free eight-cell stage in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos were cultured in ES cell medium supplemented with none (media I as control), LPS (media II), citral melatonin (media III), or melatonin (media IV). The multiplication of blastomere leading to ES cell colony formation and expression of pluripotent genes were assessed up to day 20 of culture. The primary colony formation, the comparative size of the ES cell colonies, and expression of pluripotent genes in these colonies were better in the medium supplemented with melatonin in all days of culture. Within melatonin supplementation, the colony size was comparatively larger on day 8 and day 12 of culture. Further, with this supplementation, the Oct-4 and Nanog expression was comparatively higher on all days of culture. The results indicated that supplementation of melatonin helped in the formation of better primary ES cell colony as well as in the maintenance of pluripotency. The results also indicated that primary colonies developed on day 8 to day 12 of culture may be better for passaging them for establishment of ES cell line from early stage preimplantation IVF embryos of in buffalo. PMID:23093464

  19. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions.

  20. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infects Monocyte-Derived Bovine Dendritic Cells by an E2-Glycoprotein-Mediated Mechanism and Transiently Impairs Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nancy; Franco-Mahecha, Olga Lucía; Czepluch, Wenzel; Quintana, María Eugenia; Malacari, Darío Amílcar; Trotta, Myrian Vanesa; Mansilla, Florencia Celeste; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Infection of professional antigen presenting cells by viruses can have a marked effect on these cells and important consequences for the generation of subsequent immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that different strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect bovine dendritic cells differentiated from nonadherent peripheral monocytes (moDCs). BVDV did not cause apoptosis in these cells. Infection of moDC was prevented by incubating the virus with anti-E2 antibodies or by pretreating the cells with recombinant E2 protein before BVDV contact, suggesting that BVDV infects moDC through an E2-mediated mechanism. Virus entry was not reduced by incubating moDC with Mannan or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) before infection, suggesting that Ca(2+) and mannose receptor-dependent pathways are not mediating BVDV entry to moDC. Infected moDC did not completely upregulate maturation surface markers. Infection, but not treatment with inactivated virus, prevented moDC to present a third-party antigen to primed CD4(+) T cells within the first 24 hours postinfection (hpi). Antigen-presenting capacity was recovered when viral replication diminished at 48 hpi, suggesting that active infection may interfere with moDC maturation. Altogether, our results suggest an important role of infected DCs in BVDV-induced immunopathogenesis.

  1. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infects Monocyte-Derived Bovine Dendritic Cells by an E2-Glycoprotein-Mediated Mechanism and Transiently Impairs Antigen Presentation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nancy; Franco-Mahecha, Olga Lucía; Czepluch, Wenzel; Quintana, María Eugenia; Malacari, Darío Amílcar; Trotta, Myrian Vanesa; Mansilla, Florencia Celeste; Capozzo, Alejandra Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Infection of professional antigen presenting cells by viruses can have a marked effect on these cells and important consequences for the generation of subsequent immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that different strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infect bovine dendritic cells differentiated from nonadherent peripheral monocytes (moDCs). BVDV did not cause apoptosis in these cells. Infection of moDC was prevented by incubating the virus with anti-E2 antibodies or by pretreating the cells with recombinant E2 protein before BVDV contact, suggesting that BVDV infects moDC through an E2-mediated mechanism. Virus entry was not reduced by incubating moDC with Mannan or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) before infection, suggesting that Ca(2+) and mannose receptor-dependent pathways are not mediating BVDV entry to moDC. Infected moDC did not completely upregulate maturation surface markers. Infection, but not treatment with inactivated virus, prevented moDC to present a third-party antigen to primed CD4(+) T cells within the first 24 hours postinfection (hpi). Antigen-presenting capacity was recovered when viral replication diminished at 48 hpi, suggesting that active infection may interfere with moDC maturation. Altogether, our results suggest an important role of infected DCs in BVDV-induced immunopathogenesis. PMID:27529119

  2. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments.

  3. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments. PMID:27130972

  4. Fast isoelectric focusing and antipeptide antibodies for detecting bovine casein in adulterated water buffalo milk and derived mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Addeo, Francesco; Pizzano, Rosa; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Caira, Simonetta; Chianese, Lina

    2009-11-11

    Plasmin hydrolysis of water buffalo casein (CN) can liberate a peptide comigrating with bovine gamma(2)-CN. Occurrence of this peptide may lead to false-positive detection of cow's milk for a genuine water buffalo cheese when it is analyzed by applying a fast version of the European official method for detecting bovine casein in water buffalo cheese. After isoelectric focusing of CN plasminolysates, performed according to the official method, immunoblot analysis with antipeptide antibodies was assayed to distinguish between gamma(2)-CN and the interfering bovine gamma(2)-CN-like peptide. Small, synthetic peptides containing partial sequences of bovine gamma(2)-CN were used as immunogens for antipeptide antibodies raised in rabbits. The antibody preparation directed toward the synthetic peptide containing the first five amino acid residues of gamma(2)-CN cross-reacted with native and in vitro generated gamma(2)-CN from bovine and water buffalo CN, but it did not recognize the bovine gamma(2)-CN-like band in the electrophoretic profile of pure water buffalo CN.

  5. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs–scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 106 cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP. PMID:26253192

  6. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    PubMed

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  7. Vertical ridge augmentation with the use of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB and bovine bone mineral: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cardaropoli, Daniele

    2009-06-01

    The present paper reports on a patient who underwent vertical ridge augmentation using recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) in combination with a scaffold made of deproteinized bovine bone block. Forty-five days after the extraction of a mandibular central incisor, an NT (tapered profile) Osseotite implant was inserted into the extraction socket. A 9-mm vertical bone defect was present and treated with the use of a xenograft block infused with rhPDGF-BB. The soft tissues showed perfect healing after 2 weeks. After 6 months, reentry surgery was performed. At this time the clinical evaluation showed complete bone regeneration, with the presence of hard bonelike tissue all around the implant. Radiographic evaluation showed integration of the bovine xenograft with the residual basal bone, together with optimal bone-to-implant contact and a reorganization of the lamina dura on the interproximal sites of the adjacent teeth. The implant was then successfully restored with a metal-ceramic crown. This human report supports the use of rhPDGF-BB in combination with a bovine bone block for accomplishing challenging vertical ridge augmentation. PMID:19537468

  8. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... of the proposed rule would be applicable to domesticated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). The... disagrees with the commenter that the domesticated water buffalo should be included in the definition of bovines. Current trade in water buffalo products is primarily in semen and embryos and in dairy...

  9. Discovery of Quinoline-Derived Trifluoromethyl Alcohols, Determination of Their in vivo Toxicity and Anticancer Activity in a Zebrafish Embryo Model.

    PubMed

    Sittaramane, Vinoth; Padgett, Jihan; Salter, Philip; Williams, Ashley; Luke, Shauntelle; McCall, Rebecca; Arambula, Jonathan F; Graves, Vincent B; Blocker, Mark; Van Leuven, David; Bowe, Keturah; Heimberger, Julia; Cade, Hannah C; Immaneni, Supriya; Shaikh, Abid

    2015-11-01

    In this study the rational design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of quinoline-derived trifluoromethyl alcohols were evaluated. Members of this novel class of trifluoromethyl alcohols were identified as potent growth inhibitors in a zebrafish embryo model. Synthesis of these compounds was carried out with an sp(3) -C-H functionalization strategy of methyl quinolines with trifluoromethyl ketones. A zebrafish embryo model was also used to explore the toxicity of ethyl 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-hydroxy-3-(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)butanoate (1), 2-benzyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-(quinolin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (2), and trifluoro-3-(isoquinolin-1-yl)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-2-ol (3). Compounds 2 and 3 were found to be more toxic than compound 1; apoptotic staining assays indicated that compound 3 causes increased cell death. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that compound 2, with an LC50 value of 14.14 μm, has more potent anticancer activity than cisplatin. This novel class of inhibitors provides a new direction in the discovery of effective anticancer agents.

  10. Long-term live-cell imaging of mammalian preimplantation development and derivation process of pluripotent stem cells from the embryos.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kazuo; Ueda, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Mammalian fertilization is a process in which two highly specialized haploid gametes unite and endow totipotency to the resulting diploid zygote. This is followed by cell proliferation and the onset of differentiation during the brief period leading up to implantation. In these processes, a number of cellular components and structures are regulated spatially and temporally, as seen in repeated cell division, cell cycle progression, and epigenetic reprogramming. In mammals, the numbers of oocytes and embryos that can be collected are very limited. Therefore, analyses of molecular mechanisms are hampered because of difficulties in conducting biochemical analyses on such limited material. Furthermore, immunostaining methods require cell fixation and are insufficient for understanding ontogeny, because the processes observed in fertilization and early embryonic development progress in time-dependent manners and each phenomenon is connected with others by cause-and-effect relationships. Consequently, it is important to develop an experimental system that enables molecular imaging without affecting embryonic development. To achieve the above advantages, especially retrospective and prospective analyses, we have established a live-cell imaging system that enables observations under minimally invasive conditions. Using this approach, we have succeeded in visualizing and predicting the developmental potential of embryos after various perturbations. We also succeeded in imaging embryonic stem (ES) cell derivation in natural conditions. In this review, we describe a brief history of embryonic imaging and detailed protocols. We also discuss promising aspects of imaging in the fields of developmental and stem cell biology.

  11. High Aneuploidy Rates Observed in Embryos Derived from Donated Oocytes are Related to Male Aging and High Percentages of Sperm DNA Fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    García-Ferreyra, Javier; Luna, Daniel; Villegas, Lucy; Romero, Rocío; Zavala, Patricia; Hilario, Roly; Dueñas-Chacón, Julio

    2015-01-01

    CAPSULE Male aging effects on aneuploidy rates in embryos. OBJECTIVE Paternal age is associated with decreasing sperm quality; however, it is unknown if it influences chromosomal abnormalities in embryos. The objective of this study is to evaluate if the aneuploidy rates in embryos are affected by advanced paternal age. METHODS A total of 286 embryos, obtained from 32 in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with donated oocytes in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis, were allocated according to paternal age in three groups: Group A: ≤39 years (n = 44 embryos); Group B: 40–49 years (n = 154 embryos); and Group C: ≥50 years (n = 88 embryos). Fertilization rates, embryo quality at day 3, blastocyst development, and aneuploidy embryo rates were then compared. RESULTS There was no difference in the seminal parameters (volume, concentration, and motility) in the studied groups. Fertilization rate, percentages of zygotes underwent cleavage, and good quality embryos on day 3 were similar between the three evaluated groups. The group of men ≥50 years had significantly more sperm with damaged DNA, low blastocyst development rate, and higher aneuploidy rates in embryos compared to the other two evaluated groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that advanced paternal age increases the aneuploidy rates in embryos from donated oocytes, which suggests that genetic screening is necessary in those egg donor cycles with sperm from patients >50 years old. PMID:26604851

  12. Differences in Virulence Between Bovine-Derived Clinical Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A from the UK and the USA in a Model of Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis.

    PubMed

    Dagleish, M P; Bayne, C W; Moon, G G; Finlayson, J; Sales, J; Williams, J; Hodgson, J C

    2016-07-01

    The time of onset and subsequent degree and progression of clinical signs, bacterial colonization and tissue pathology during experimental disease induced by intratracheal inoculation of either a UK or USA isolate of Pasteurella multocida serotype A recovered from clinical cases of bovine pneumonia were determined. Calves aged 8 weeks were challenged with 300 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone (group 1, n = 3, negative control) or containing 7.1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of UK isolate (group 2, n = 8) or 5.8 × 10(8) cfu of USA isolate (group 3, n = 8). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 0, 1 and 4 days post challenge (dpc) and at the time of necropsy examination (7-8 dpc) showed no significant differences between groups 2 and 3 in bacterial numbers recovered. No P. multocida were recovered from group 1 animals. No clinical disease was present in group 1 calves and in group 3 was limited to scour in 1 calf at 1 dpc. All calves in group 2 had reduced food intake at 4-5 dpc, five had periods of dullness, three a mild nasal discharge at 1 dpc, four had mild to substantial respiratory stridor and one was killed at 6 dpc for humane reasons. Rectal temperatures remained about 39°C in group 1 calves, but increased in P. multocida-challenged calves to 40-41°C within 8-12 h of challenge. Significantly (P = 0.01) greater percentages of lung surface area were consolidated in group 2 (mean ± SD, 21 ± 10.1) compared with group 3 (7 ± 8.6) calves. Significantly more extensive and severe histological lesions were present in the lung lobes (P = 0.006) and lymph nodes (P = 0.02) of group 2 compared with group 3 calves. Pleurisy was present in group 2 calves only and no pathology was present in group 1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) produced 11 (group 2, UK isolate) or 10 (group 3, USA isolate) bands with differences in banding patterns. Results overall showed that two isolates, distinct geographically and genetically (by PFGE

  13. Differences in Virulence Between Bovine-Derived Clinical Isolates of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A from the UK and the USA in a Model of Bovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis.

    PubMed

    Dagleish, M P; Bayne, C W; Moon, G G; Finlayson, J; Sales, J; Williams, J; Hodgson, J C

    2016-07-01

    The time of onset and subsequent degree and progression of clinical signs, bacterial colonization and tissue pathology during experimental disease induced by intratracheal inoculation of either a UK or USA isolate of Pasteurella multocida serotype A recovered from clinical cases of bovine pneumonia were determined. Calves aged 8 weeks were challenged with 300 ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS) alone (group 1, n = 3, negative control) or containing 7.1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu) of UK isolate (group 2, n = 8) or 5.8 × 10(8) cfu of USA isolate (group 3, n = 8). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 0, 1 and 4 days post challenge (dpc) and at the time of necropsy examination (7-8 dpc) showed no significant differences between groups 2 and 3 in bacterial numbers recovered. No P. multocida were recovered from group 1 animals. No clinical disease was present in group 1 calves and in group 3 was limited to scour in 1 calf at 1 dpc. All calves in group 2 had reduced food intake at 4-5 dpc, five had periods of dullness, three a mild nasal discharge at 1 dpc, four had mild to substantial respiratory stridor and one was killed at 6 dpc for humane reasons. Rectal temperatures remained about 39°C in group 1 calves, but increased in P. multocida-challenged calves to 40-41°C within 8-12 h of challenge. Significantly (P = 0.01) greater percentages of lung surface area were consolidated in group 2 (mean ± SD, 21 ± 10.1) compared with group 3 (7 ± 8.6) calves. Significantly more extensive and severe histological lesions were present in the lung lobes (P = 0.006) and lymph nodes (P = 0.02) of group 2 compared with group 3 calves. Pleurisy was present in group 2 calves only and no pathology was present in group 1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) produced 11 (group 2, UK isolate) or 10 (group 3, USA isolate) bands with differences in banding patterns. Results overall showed that two isolates, distinct geographically and genetically (by PFGE

  14. Isolation and biological characterization of a novel type of pulmonary mesenchymal stem cells derived from Wuzhishan miniature pig embryo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Caiyun; Guo, Yu; Liu, Hao; Wang, Kunfu; Yang, Jinjuan; Li, Xiangchen; Liu, Changqing; Guan, Weijun

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) have great potential in lung tissue engineering and represent attractive candidates for disease treatment in human and veterinary research. However, a reliable method for isolation and localization of porcine PMSCs in situ is still uncertain. In this study, we successfully isolated PMSCs from Wuzhishan miniature pig embryos in vitro and also attempted to unravel its fundamental differentiation potential and biological characteristics. The isolated PMSCs, which could be cultured and passaged for at least 15 passages, exhibited a typical fibroblast-like morphology and high proliferative potential. Moreover, the PMSCs could express pluripotent marker genes (Oct4 and Nanog) and MSCs-related surface antigens (β-integrin, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, and CD105), while the expressions of CD34 and CD45 were negative. Cell cycle examination showed that the rate of G0/G1 was about 72.1-90.2%. Additionally, the PMSCs not only could be induced to transdifferentiate into mesoblastic cells such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro, but also the neural ectoderm and endoderm. Together, these data demonstrate the multiple differentiations potential of PMSCs in vitro, which confers potential use in serving as desirable cell types for lung injury regeneration. PMID:27425208

  15. Cell proliferation potency is independent of FGF4 signaling in trophoblast stem cells derived from androgenetic embryos

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, Hidehiko; TAKYU, Ryuichi; MORIMOTO, Hiromu; TOEI, Shuntaro; SAKON, Hiroshi; GOTO, Shiori; MORIYA, Shota; KONO, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    We previously established trophoblast stem cells from mouse androgenetic embryos (AGTS cells). In this study, to further characterize AGTS cells, we compared cell proliferation activity between trophoblast stem (TS) cells and AGTS cells under fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling. TS cells continued to proliferate and maintained mitotic cell division in the presence of FGF4. After FGF4 deprivation, the cell proliferation stopped, the rate of M-phase cells decreased, and trophoblast giant cells formed. In contrast, some of AGTS cells continued to proliferate, and the rate of M-phase cells did not decrease after FGF4 deprivation, although the other cells differentiated into giant cells. RO3306, an ATP competitor that selectively inhibits CDK1, inhibited the cell proliferation of both TS and AGTS cells. Under RO3306 treatment, cell death was induced in AGTS cells but not in TS cells. These results indicate that RO3306 caused TS cells to shift mitotic cell division to endoreduplication but that some of AGTS cells did not shift to endoreduplication and induced cell death. In conclusion, the paternal genome facilitated the proliferation of trophoblast cells without FGF4 signaling. PMID:26498204

  16. Development, Characterization, and Pluripotency Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from In Vitro–Fertilized, Hand-Guided Cloned, and Parthenogenetic Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Saini, Neha; Ashraf, Syma; Zandi, Mohammad; Manik, Radhey Sham; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present the derivation, characterization, and pluripotency analysis of three buffalo embryonic stem cell (buESC) lines, from in vitro–fertilized, somatic cell nuclear–transferred, and parthenogenetic blastocysts. These cell lines were developed for later differentiation into germ lineage cells and elucidation of the signaling pathways involved. The cell lines were established from inner cell masses (ICMs) that were isolated manually from the in vitro–produced blastocysts. Most of the ICMs (45–55%) resulted in formation of primary colonies that were subcultured after 8–10 days, leading subsequently to the formation of three buESC lines, one from each blastocyst type. All the cell lines expressed stem cell markers, such as Alkaline Phosphatase, OCT4, NANOG, SSEA1, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SOX2, REX1, CD-90, STAT3, and TELOMERASE. They differentiated into all three germ layers as determined by ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal RNA and protein markers. All of the cell lines showed equal expression of pluripotency markers as well as equivalent differentiation potential into all the three germ layers. The static suspension culture–derived embryoid bodies (EBs) showed greater expression of all the three germ layer markers as compared to hanging drop culture–derived EBs. When analyzed for germ layer marker expression, EBs derived from 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based spontaneous differentiation medium showed greater differentiation across all the three germ layers as compared to those derived from Knock-Out Serum Replacement (KoSR)-based differentiation medium. PMID:26168169

  17. Development, Characterization, and Pluripotency Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from In Vitro-Fertilized, Hand-Guided Cloned, and Parthenogenetic Embryos.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Saini, Neha; Ashraf, Syma; Zandi, Mohammad; Manik, Radhey Sham; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2015-08-01

    We present the derivation, characterization, and pluripotency analysis of three buffalo embryonic stem cell (buESC) lines, from in vitro-fertilized, somatic cell nuclear-transferred, and parthenogenetic blastocysts. These cell lines were developed for later differentiation into germ lineage cells and elucidation of the signaling pathways involved. The cell lines were established from inner cell masses (ICMs) that were isolated manually from the in vitro-produced blastocysts. Most of the ICMs (45-55%) resulted in formation of primary colonies that were subcultured after 8-10 days, leading subsequently to the formation of three buESC lines, one from each blastocyst type. All the cell lines expressed stem cell markers, such as Alkaline Phosphatase, OCT4, NANOG, SSEA1, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SOX2, REX1, CD-90, STAT3, and TELOMERASE. They differentiated into all three germ layers as determined by ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal RNA and protein markers. All of the cell lines showed equal expression of pluripotency markers as well as equivalent differentiation potential into all the three germ layers. The static suspension culture-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) showed greater expression of all the three germ layer markers as compared to hanging drop culture-derived EBs. When analyzed for germ layer marker expression, EBs derived from 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS)-based spontaneous differentiation medium showed greater differentiation across all the three germ layers as compared to those derived from Knock-Out Serum Replacement (KoSR)-based differentiation medium. PMID:26168169

  18. The platelet-derived growth factor signaling system in snapping turtle embryos, Chelydra serpentina: potential role in temperature-dependent sex determination and testis development.

    PubMed

    Rhen, Turk; Jangula, Adam; Schroeder, Anthony; Woodward-Bosh, Rikki

    2009-05-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf) signaling system is known to play a significant role during embryonic and postnatal development of testes in mammals and birds. In contrast, genes that comprise the Pdgf system in reptiles have never been cloned or studied in any tissue, let alone developing gonads. To explore the potential role of PDGF ligands and their receptors during embryogenesis, we cloned cDNA fragments of Pdgf-A, Pdgf-B, and receptors PdgfR-alpha and PdgfR-beta in the snapping turtle, a reptile with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). We then compared gene expression profiles in gonads from embryos incubated at a male-producing temperature to those from embryos at a female-producing temperature, as well as between hatchling testes and ovaries. Expression of Pdgf-B mRNA in embryonic gonads was significantly higher at a male temperature than at a female temperature, but there was no difference between hatchling testes and ovaries. This developmental pattern was reversed for Pdgf-A and PdgfR-alpha mRNA: expression of these genes did not differ in embryos, but diverged in hatchling testes and ovaries. Levels of PdgfR-beta mRNA in embryonic gonads were not affected by temperature and did not differ between testes and ovaries. However, expression of both receptors increased at least an order of magnitude from the embryonic to the post-hatching period. Finally, we characterized expression of these genes in several other embryonic tissues. The brain, heart, and liver displayed unique expression patterns that distinguished these tissues from each other and from intestine, lung, and muscle. Incubation temperature had a significant effect on expression of PdgfR-alpha and PdgfR-beta in the heart but not other tissues. Together, these findings demonstrate that temperature has tissue specific effects on the Pdgf system and suggest that Pdgf signaling is involved in sex determination and the ensuing differentiation of testes in the snapping turtle. PMID

  19. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the IME and ME libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. Additionally, 171 novel and 41 candidate miRNAs were also identified, of the novel miRNA, 69, 67, and 37 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research. PMID:27625667

  20. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the IME and ME libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. Additionally, 171 novel and 41 candidate miRNAs were also identified, of the novel miRNA, 69, 67, and 37 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research. PMID:27625667

  1. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the IME and ME libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. Additionally, 171 novel and 41 candidate miRNAs were also identified, of the novel miRNA, 69, 67, and 37 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research.

  2. Differential gene expression profile in bovine blastocysts resulting from hyperglycemia exposure during early cleavage stages.

    PubMed

    Cagnone, Gaël L M; Dufort, Isabelle; Vigneault, Christian; Sirard, Marc-André

    2012-02-01

    To understand the compromised survival of embryos derived from assisted reproductive techniques, transcriptome survey of early embryonic development has shown the impact of in vitro culture environment on gene expression in bovine or other living species. However, how the differentially expressed genes translate into developmentally compromised embryos is unresolved. We therefore aimed to characterize transcriptomic markers expressed by bovine blastocysts cultured in conditions that are known to impair embryo development. As increasing glucose concentrations has been shown to be stressful for early cleavage stages of mammalian embryos and to decrease subsequent blastocyst survival, in vitro-matured/fertilized bovine zygotes were cultured in control (0.2 mM) or high-glucose (5 mM) conditions until the 8- to 16-cell stage, and then transferred to control media until they reached the blastocyst stage. The concentration of 5 mM glucose was chosen as a stress treatment because there was a significant effect on blastocyst rate without the treatment's being lethal as with 10 mM. Microarray analysis revealed gene expression differences unrelated to embryo sex or hatching. Overrepresented processes among differentially expressed genes in treated blastocysts were extracellular matrix signalling, calcium signaling, and energy metabolism. On a pathophysiological level, higher glucose treatment impacts pathways associated with diabetes and tumorigenesis through genes controlling the Warburg effect, i.e., emphasis on use of anaerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation. These results allowed us to conclude that disruption of in vitro preattachment development is concomitant with gene expression modifications involved in metabolic control.

  3. Comparison of mathematically-predicted toxic equivalents (TEQs) and bioassay-derived dioxin-equivalents (TCDD-EQs) in heron embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.; Hatfield, J.; Melancon, M.; Custer, T.; Tillitt, D. ||

    1995-12-31

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from an uncontaminated site (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic microsomal monooxygenases were induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, and was associated with concentrations of total PCBs and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the Ah receptor. TEQs [mathematically predicted; summed product of PCB congener concentrations using 5 different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)] were compared to TCDD-EQS [derived by bioassay; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells]. Although TEQs were up to 15-fold greater than TCDD-EQs, the pattern among sites was consistent and TEQs were highly correlated with TCDD-EQS. TEFs based on single congener mammalian studies yielded TEQs that greatly exceeded values from the H4IIE bioassay of field sample. TEFs generated from avian egg injection studies yielded TEQs that most closely approximated bioassay-derived TCDD-EQS. Cytochrome P450 parameters were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQS; adjusted r{sup 2} often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data document the general predictive value of TEQs and TCDD-EQs for P450 induction in field collected samples, but also indicate the need for development of TEFs for the species and biological end point of concern.

  4. Aggregating embryonic but not somatic nuclear transfer embryos increases cloning efficiency in cattle.

    PubMed

    Misica-Turner, Pavla M; Oback, Fleur C; Eichenlaub, Michael; Wells, David N; Oback, Björn

    2007-02-01

    Our objectives were to compare the cellular and molecular effects of aggregating bovine embryonic vs. somatic cell nuclear transfer (ECNT vs. SCNT) embryos and to determine whether aggregation can improve cattle cloning efficiency. We reconstructed cloned embryos from: 1) morula-derived blastomeres, 2) six adult male ear skin fibroblast lines, 3) one fetal female lung fibroblast line (BFF), and 4) two transgenic clonal strains derived from BFF. Embryos were cultured either singularly (1X) or as aggregates of three (3X). In vitro-fertilized (IVF) 1X and 3X embryos served as controls. After aggregation, the in vitro development of ECNT but not that of SCNT or IVF embryos was strongly compromised. The inner cell mass (ICM), total cell (TC) numbers, and ICM:TC ratios significantly increased for all the aggregates. The relative concentration of the key embryonic transcript POU5F1 (or OCT4) did not correlate with these increases, remaining unchanged in the ECNT and IVF aggregates and decreasing significantly in the SCNT aggregates. Overall, the IVF and 3X ECNT but not the 1X ECNT embryos had significantly higher relative POU5F1 levels than the SCNT embryos. High POU5F1 levels correlated with high in vivo survival, while no such correlation was noted for the ICM:TC ratios. Development to weaning was more than doubled in the ECNT aggregates (10/51 or 20% vs. 7/85 or 8% for 3X vs. 1X, respectively; P < 0.05). In contrast, the SCNT and IVF controls showed no improvement in survival. These data reveal striking biological differences between embryonic and somatic clones in response to aggregation.

  5. DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in bovine oocytes derived from prepubertal and adult donors.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Mike; Hansmann, Tamara; Heinzmann, Julia; Barg-Kues, Brigitte; Herrmann, Doris; Aldag, Patrick; Baulain, Ulrich; Reinhard, Richard; Kues, Wilfried; Weissgerber, Christian; Haaf, Thomas; Niemann, Heiner

    2012-09-01

    The developmental capacity of oocytes from prepubertal cattle is reduced compared with their adult counterparts, and epigenetic mechanisms are thought to be involved herein. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation in three developmentally important, nonimprinted genes (SLC2A1, PRDX1, ZAR1) and two satellite sequences, i.e. 'bovine testis satellite I' (BTS) and 'Bos taurus alpha satellite I' (BTαS). In parallel, mRNA expression of the genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Oocytes were retrieved from prepubertal calves and adult cows twice per week over a 3-week period by ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration after treatment with FSH and/or IGF1. Both immature and in vitro matured prepubertal and adult oocytes showed a distinct hypomethylation profile of the three genes without differences between the two types of donors. The methylation status of the BTS sequence changed according to the age and treatment while the methylation status of BTαS sequence remained largely unchanged across the different age and treatment groups. Relative transcript abundance of the selected genes was significantly different in immature and in vitro matured oocytes; only minor changes related to origin and treatment were observed. In conclusion, methylation levels of the investigated satellite sequences were high (>50%) in all groups and showed significant variation depending on the age, treatment, or in vitro maturation. To what extent this is involved in the acquisition of developmental competence of bovine oocytes needs further study. PMID:22733804

  6. ERas protein is overexpressed and binds to the activated platelet-derived growth factor β receptor in bovine urothelial tumour cells associated with papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Russo, Valeria; Roperto, Franco; Esposito, Iolanda; Ceccarelli, Dora Maria; Zizzo, Nicola; Leonardi, Leonardo; Capparelli, Rosanna; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Roperto, Sante

    2016-06-01

    Embryonic stem cell-expressed Ras (ERas) encodes a constitutively active form of guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that binds to and activates phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), which in turn phosphorylates and activates downstream targets such as Akt. The current study evaluated ERas regulation and expression in papillomavirus-associated urothelial tumours in cattle grazing on lands rich in bracken fern. ERas was found upregulated and overexpressed by PCR, real time PCR and Western blot. Furthermore, protein overexpression was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. ERas was found to interact physically and colocalise with the activated platelet derived growth factor β receptor (PDGFβR) by coimmunoprecipitation and laser scanning confocal investigations. Phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream effector both of ERas and PDGFβR, appeared to be increased in urothelial tumour cells. Altogether, these data indicate that ERas/PDGFβR complex could play a role in the pathogenesis of bovine papillomavirus-associated bladder neoplasia. PMID:27256024

  7. Fate of a Bovine-Derived Xenograft in Maxillary Sinus Floor Elevation After 14 Years: Histologic and Radiologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ayna, Mustafa; Açil, Yahya; Gulses, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    This report assesses the results following sinus floor augmentation performed 14 years previously in which bovine bone xenograft material was used without implant insertion. After sinus floor augmentation, using a 20:80 mixture of autogenous bone and inorganic bovine bone material (Bio-Oss), bone biopsy specimens were taken from the grafted site, processed with Donath's sawing and grinding technique, stained with toluidine blue, and mounted on high-sensitivity plates for histology and microradiography. Histologic and microradiographic analysis showed the ingrowth of newly formed bone into the graft with interspersed residual Bio-Oss granules. The percentage of Bio- Oss and newly formed bone was 10.18% and 9.32%, respectively, within a total surface area of 70.61 mm² at the site of the corresponding missing first molar, and the percentage of Bio-Oss and newly formed bone was 11.47% and 14.96%, respectively, within a total surface area of 63.92 mm² at the corresponding missing second molar. The newly formed bone was vital without signs of resorption. This study produced strong evidence that newly formed bone was distributed throughout the bone substitute material around all of its granules and that the grafted site consisted of vital bone even in its central parts. The differences in degradation rate and/or whether the effect of bone graft substitutes alone and/ or in combination with other types, shapes, and sizes of graft materials needs further clinical investigation, especially in regard to long-term changes. PMID:26133144

  8. Comparison of mathematically-predicted toxic equivalents (TEQs) and bioassay-derived dioxin-equivalents (TCDD-EQs) in heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.; Hatfield, J.; Melancon, M.; Custer, T.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from an uncontaminated site (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge,VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; Bair and West Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic microsomal monooxygenases were induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, and was associated with concentrations of total PCBs and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to concern.to express toxicity through the Ah receptor. TEQs [mathematically predicted; summed product of PCB congener concentrations using 5 different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs)] were compared to TCDD-EQs [derived by bioassay; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H411E rat hepatoma cells]. Although TEQs were up to 15-fold greater than TCDD-EQs, the pattern among sites was consistent and TEQs were highly correlated with TCDD-EQs. TEFs based on single congener mammalian studies yielded TEQs that greatly exceeded values from the H411E bioassay of field sample. TEFs generated from avian egg injection studies yielded TEQs that most closely approximated bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs. Cytochrome P450 parameters were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data document the general predictive value of TEQs and TCDD-EQs for P450 induction in field collected samples, but also indicate the need for development of TEFs for the species and biological end point of concern.

  9. Long-lived self-renewing bone marrow-derived macrophages displace embryo-derived cells to inhabit adult serous cavities

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Calum C.; Hawley, Catherine A.; Garner, Hannah; Scott, Charlotte L.; Schridde, Anika; Steers, Nicholas J.; Mack, Matthias; Joshi, Anagha; Guilliams, Martin; Mowat, Allan Mc I.; Geissmann, Frederic; Jenkins, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal macrophages are one of the most studied macrophage populations in the body, yet the composition, developmental origin and mechanisms governing the maintenance of this compartment are controversial. Here we show resident F4/80hiGATA6+ macrophages are long-lived, undergo non-stochastic self-renewal and retain cells of embryonic origin for at least 4 months in mice. However, Ly6C+ monocytes constitutively enter the peritoneal cavity in a CCR2-dependent manner, where they mature into short-lived F4/80loMHCII+ cells that act, in part, as precursors of F4/80hiGATA6+ macrophages. Notably, monocyte-derived F4/80hi macrophages eventually displace the embryonic population with age in a process that is highly gender dependent and not due to proliferative exhaustion of the incumbent embryonic population, despite the greater proliferative activity of newly recruited cells. Furthermore, although monocyte-derived cells acquire key characteristics of the embryonic population, expression of Tim4 was impaired, leading to cumulative changes in the population with age. PMID:27292029

  10. Long-lived self-renewing bone marrow-derived macrophages displace embryo-derived cells to inhabit adult serous cavities.

    PubMed

    Bain, Calum C; Hawley, Catherine A; Garner, Hannah; Scott, Charlotte L; Schridde, Anika; Steers, Nicholas J; Mack, Matthias; Joshi, Anagha; Guilliams, Martin; Mowat, Allan Mc I; Geissmann, Frederic; Jenkins, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal macrophages are one of the most studied macrophage populations in the body, yet the composition, developmental origin and mechanisms governing the maintenance of this compartment are controversial. Here we show resident F4/80(hi)GATA6(+) macrophages are long-lived, undergo non-stochastic self-renewal and retain cells of embryonic origin for at least 4 months in mice. However, Ly6C(+) monocytes constitutively enter the peritoneal cavity in a CCR2-dependent manner, where they mature into short-lived F4/80(lo)MHCII(+) cells that act, in part, as precursors of F4/80(hi)GATA6(+) macrophages. Notably, monocyte-derived F4/80(hi) macrophages eventually displace the embryonic population with age in a process that is highly gender dependent and not due to proliferative exhaustion of the incumbent embryonic population, despite the greater proliferative activity of newly recruited cells. Furthermore, although monocyte-derived cells acquire key characteristics of the embryonic population, expression of Tim4 was impaired, leading to cumulative changes in the population with age. PMID:27292029

  11. Risks of transmitting ruminant spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases) by semen and embryo transfer techniques.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, A E; Holyoak, G R; Parsonson, I M; Simmons, H A

    2008-09-15

    Early experiments suggested that scrapie transmission via sheep embryos was a possibility, and gave rise to much controversy. However, when account is taken of the complex genetic effects on ovine susceptibility to scrapie, and of the several different scrapie strains with different clinical and pathological effects, the overall conclusion now is that transmission of classical scrapie by embryo transfer is very unlikely if appropriate precautions are taken. Recent embryo transfer studies have confirmed this. Other studies in sheep have shown that from about the middle of pregnancy the placental trophoblast is liable to scrapie infection in genetically susceptible ewes if the fetus is also susceptible. Since the contrary is also true, use of resistant ewes as embryo recipients could add to the safety of the embryo transfer, at least for classical scrapie. There has been little recent research on scrapie transmission via semen in sheep, and, with hindsight, the early studies, though negative, were inadequate. There is scant information on scrapie transfer via goat semen or embryos, although one study did find that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was not transmitted via goat embryos. In cattle it has been shown that, if appropriate precautions are taken, the risks of transmitting BSE via semen and in vivo-derived embryos are negligible, and this conclusion has gained worldwide acceptance. Research on TSE transmission via reproductive technologies in deer has not yet been done, but information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, and on transmission risks in other species, provides optimism that transmission of CWD via semen and embryos of deer is unlikely. The presence of TSE infectivity in blood and various other tissues of infected animals, particularly sheep, gives rise to concerns that certain biological products currently used in reproductive technologies, e.g. pituitary gonadotrophins for superovulation, and

  12. Fabrication of a Hard Tissue Replacement Using Natural Hydroxyapatite Derived from Bovine Bones by Thermal Decomposition Method

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, E.; Davarpanah, M.; Hassanzadeh Nemati, N.; Tavakoli, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For the treatment of bone defects that exceed the critical size of the injury, several therapies have been investigated. Thermal decomposition method is suggested for extraction of natural hydroxyapatite bioceramic (HA). This technique in comparison with other methods of producing HA, has less complexity and greater economic efficiency. Objective: In the present study, a thermal decomposition method is suggested for extraction of natural HA from bovine femur bones. Methods: In this experiment, to extract the ceramic material, the bone samples were first de-fatted and ground to particles less than 420 μm, and also 420–500 μm, respectively. Prepared powders were heated at 170 °C for 24 h, and then divided into two groups for 6 h. The first group was heated at 750 °C; the second group was heated at 850 °C. The calcium phosphate compounds were obtained with complete elimination of the organic phase of the bone. These bioceramic compounds were characterized physiochemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: We found that the powder heated at 750 °C in two dimensional scales was rich in carbonated hydroxyapatite, and therefore, eminently suitable for using in hard tissue replacements. However, increasing the temperature up to 850 °C reduced the Ca/P ratio to 1.5 in the powder sample sizes less than 420 μm. Consequently, the obtained composition became rather similar to the chemical formula of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) that is appropriate in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Conclusion: The observations affirmed that by eliminating the collagen and other organic materials existing in the bovine bones, the mineral phase of the bone had the potential of transformation to nano-particles. To investigate the repair of critical-size bone defects and bone augmentation, cylindrical blocks were fabricated by applying

  13. Spectroscopic study of the interaction of styrylcyanine dyes Sbo, Sil and their derivatives with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Kurtaliev, Eldar N

    2011-07-01

    The spectral-luminescent characteristics of newly synthesized styrylcyanine dyes on the base of dyes Sbo ((E)-2-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-3-methylbenzo[d]oxazol-3-ium iodide) and Sil ((E)-2-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium perchlorate) in aqueous solutions without and in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied. It was established that the absorption spectra of dyes Tol-6, Dbo-10 and Dil-10 with increasing amount of BSA appear new bands with λ(max)=505 nm, λ(max)=512 nm and λ(max)=566 nm, respectively, whose intensity increases in proportion to the amount of albumin. The intensity of the glow of the main band of fluorescence in the presence of BSA sharply increases. The binding constant (K) and the number of binding sites (N) of studied dyes with BSA were determined. The dependence of binding constants with BSA on the dipole moment of dye molecules was determined, which indicates that besides electrostatic forces of attraction between molecules styrylcyanine dyes with BSA, hydrophobic interactions are essential.

  14. Effect of the inoculation site of bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) on the skin fold thickness increase in cattle from officially tuberculosis free and tuberculosis-infected herds.

    PubMed

    Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Bezos, Javier; Quick, Harrison; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Romero, Beatriz; Saez, Jose L; Liandris, Emmanouil; Navarro, Alejandro; Perez, Andrés; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2015-09-01

    The official technique for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) worldwide is the tuberculin skin test, based on the evaluation of the skin thickness increase after the intradermal inoculation of a purified protein derivative (PPD) in cattle. A number of studies performed on experimentally infected or sensitized cattle have suggested that the relative sensitivity of the cervical test (performed in the neck) may vary depending on the exact location in which the PPD is injected. However, quantitative evidence on the variation of the test accuracy associated to changes in the site of inoculation in naturally infected animals (the population in which performance of the test is most critical for disease eradication) is lacking. Here, the probability of obtaining a positive reaction (>2 or 4 millimeters and/or presence of local clinical signs) after multiple inoculations of bovine PPD in different cervical and scapular locations was assessed in animals from five bTB-infected herds (818 cattle receiving eight inoculations) using a hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression model and adjusting for the potential effect of age and sex. The effect of the inoculation site was also assessed qualitatively in animals from four officially tuberculosis free (OTF) herds (two inoculations in 210 animals and eight inoculations in 38 cattle). Although no differences in the qualitative outcome of the test were observed in cattle from OTF herds, a statistically important association between the test outcome and the inoculation site in animals from infected herds was observed, with higher probabilities of positive results when the test was performed in the neck anterior area. Our results suggest that test sensitivity may be maximized by considering the area of the neck in which the test is applied, although lack of effect of the inoculation site in the specificity of the test should be confirmed in a larger sample.

  15. [Effect of Genotype and Medium Culture Content on Microspore-Derived Embryo Formation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) Cv. Lastochka].

    PubMed

    Shumilina, D V; Shmykova, N A; Bondareva, L L; Suprunova, T P

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different factors on microspore embryogenesis in Chinese cabbage (B. rapa ssp. chinensis) was studied. A genotype dependence for embryo formation was observed. The majority of embryos and plants were obtained from microspores isolated from flower buds (2-2.9 mm in length) and cultured in the NLN liquid medium with 13% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 24-epibrassinolide and 1% activated charcoal. Embryos cultured on the 1/2 Murashige-Skoog culture medium with 2% sucrose (w/v), 0.1 mg/L benzylaminopurine, and 3g/L Phytagel stimulated the formation of secondary embryos that resulted in development of large number of doubled haploid plants.

  16. A comparative study on efficiency of adult fibroblasts and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells as donor cells for production of hand-made cloned buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos.

    PubMed

    Em, Sadeesh; Kataria, Meena; Shah, Fozia; Yadav, P S

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of two cell types, namely adult fibroblasts, and amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells as nuclear donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer by hand-made cloning in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was compared. The in vitro expanded buffalo adult fibroblast cells showed a typical "S" shape growth curve with a doubling time of 40.8 h and stained positive for vimentin. The in vitro cultured undifferentiated AFS cells showed a doubling time of 33.2 h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase, these cells were also found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem cell markers like OCT-4, NANOG and SOX-2, which accentuate their pluripotent property. Further, when AFS cells were exposed to corresponding induction conditions, these cells differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages which was confirmed through alizaran, oil red O and alcian blue staining, respectively. Cultured adult fibroblasts and AFS cells of passages 10-15 and 8-12, respectively, were used as nuclear donors. A total of 94 embryos were reconstructed using adult fibroblast as donor cells with cleavage and blastocyst production rate of 62.8 ± 1.8 and 19.1 ± 1.5, respectively. An overall cleavage and blastocyst formation rate of 71.1 ± 1.2 and 29.9 ± 2.2 was obtained when 97 embryos were reconstructed using AFS cells as donor cells. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in reconstructed efficiency between the cloned embryos derived from two donor cells, whereas the results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in cleavage and blastocyst rates between the cloned embryos derived from two donor cell groups. Average total cell numbers for blastocyst generated using AFS cells (172.4 ± 5.8) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than from adult fibroblasts (148.2 ± 6.1). This study suggests that the in vitro developmental potential of the cloned embryos derived from AFS cells were higher than that of the cloned embryos

  17. Contribution of oocyte source and culture conditions to phenotypic and transcriptomic variation in commercially produced bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Plourde, Dany; Vigneault, Christian; Lemay, Alexandra; Breton, Lévéke; Gagné, Dominic; Laflamme, Isabelle; Blondin, Patrick; Robert, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Bovine embryo production is practiced worldwide for commercial purposes. A major concern of embryo suppliers is the impact of in vitro production systems on embryo quality. In the present study, we compared Buffalo Rat Liver cell coculture with semidefined, medium-based culture, oocytes recovered postmortem with those obtained from live animals, and in vitro with in vivo embryo development. Gene expression levels in expanded blastocysts were measured using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR. The systems were similar in terms of blastocyst yield and rate of development, whereas embryo productivity was greater for immature oocytes collected in vivo. Although immature oocytes collected in vivo had greater developmental competence, they yielded blastocysts that were indistinguishable (in terms of level of gene expression) from embryos derived from immature oocytes recovered postmortem. Culture conditions had a significant impact on gene expression, particularly among genes involved in lipid metabolism. Numerous uncharacterized novel transcript regions were also influenced by in vitro treatments. In conclusion, ovum pick-up combined with in vitro culture in semidefined medium provided a high blastocyst yield, without the deleterious effects associated with coculture.

  18. Proprotein convertase 5/6 cleaves platelet-derived growth factor A in the human endometrium in preparation for embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Paule, Sarah; Nebl, Thomas; Webb, Andrew I; Vollenhoven, Beverley; Rombauts, Luk J F; Nie, Guiying

    2015-03-01

    Establishment of endometrial receptivity is vital for successful embryo implantation. Proprotein convertase 5/6 (referred to as PC6) is up-regulated in the human endometrium specifically at the time of epithelial receptivity. PC6, a serine protease of the proprotein convertase family, plays an important role in converting precursor proteins into their active forms through specific proteolysis. The proform of platelet-derived growth factor A (pro-PDGFA) requires PC cleavage to convert to the active-PDGFA. We investigated the PC6-mediated activation of PDGFA in the human endometrium during the establishment of receptivity. Proteomic analysis identified that the pro-PDGFA was increased in the conditioned medium of HEC1A cells in which PC6 was stably knocked down by small interfering RNA (PC6-siRNA). Western blot analysis demonstrated an accumulation of the pro-PDGFA but a reduction in the active-PDGFA in PC6-siRNA cell lysates and medium compared with control. PC6 cleavage of pro-PDGFA was further confirmed in vitro by incubation of recombinant pro-PDGFA with PC6. Immunohistochemistry revealed cycle-stage-specific localization of the active-PDGFA in the human endometrium. During the non-receptive phase, the active-PDGFA was barely detectable. In contrast, it was localized specifically to the apical surface of the luminal and glandular epithelium in the receptive phase. Furthermore, the active-PDGFA was detected in uterine lavage with levels being significantly higher in the receptive than the non-receptive phase. We thus identified that the secreted PDGFA may serve as a biomarker for endometrial receptivity. This is also the first study demonstrating that the active-PDGFA localizes to the apical surface of the endometrium during receptivity.

  19. Prion Protein and Stage Specific Embryo Antigen 1 as Selection Markers to Enrich the Fraction of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nobuhito; Nakayama, Yuji; Nakazawa, Natsumi; Yoshida, Akio; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background The prion protein (PrP) might be useful as a tool to collect cardiac progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells. It is also possible that PrP+ cells include undifferentiated cells with a capacity to develop into tumors. Methods PrP+ cells isolated from embryoid bodies (EB) formed by mouse AB1 ES cells were examined using RT–PCR analysis and clonogeneic cell assay. To assess their potential to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, Nkx2.5GFP/+ (hcgp7) cells, another ES cell line that carries the GFP reporter gene in the Nkx2.5 loci, were used. Results PrP+ cells isolated from EB of day 7 and 14 did not express pluripotency markers, but expressed cardiac cell markers, while PrP+ cells isolated from EB of day 21 expressed pluripotency markers. Cultured PrP+ cells isolated from EB of day 21 expressed pluripotency markers to form colonies, whereas those isolated from EB of day 7 and 14 did not. To exclude proliferating cells from PrP+ cells, stage specific embryo antigen 1 (SSEA1) was employed as a second marker. PrP+/SSEA1– cells did not proliferate and expressed cardiac cell markers, while PrP+/SSEA1+ did proliferate. Conclusion PrP+ cells isolated from EB included undifferentiated cells in day 21. PrP+/SSEA1– cells included cardiomyoctes, suggesting PrP and SSEA1 may be useful as markers to enrich the fraction of cardiomyocytes. PMID:27493483

  20. Comparison of two approaches to nuclear transfer in the bovine: hand-made cloning with modifications and the conventional nuclear transfer technique.

    PubMed

    Tecirlioglu, R Tayfur; Cooney, Melissa A; Lewis, Ian M; Korfiatis, Natasha A; Hodgson, Renee; Ruddock, Nancy T; Vajta, Gábor; Downie, Shara; Trounson, Alan O; Holland, Michael K; French, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of hand-made cloning (HMC) embryos with the conventional nuclear transfer (NT) method using five somatic cell lines and in vitro-fertilised (IVF; control) embryos. Modifications to the HMC procedure included fusion efficiency optimisation, effect of cytoplasmic volume and cloned embryo aggregation. The developmental competence of blastocysts from each of the treatment groups and cell lines used was assessed following transfer to 345 recipients. Vitrification was also used to enable management of recipient resources and to assess the susceptibility of membranes to cryopreservation following zona removal. Increasing cytoplasmic volume to 150% or aggregating two embryos improved the blastocyst development rate and increased the total cell number. Although HMC embryo transfers established a significantly higher pregnancy rate on Day 30 than fresh IVF or NT embryo transfers, the overall outcome in terms of cloned live births derived from either fresh or vitrified/thawed HMC or NT embryo transfers across the five cell lines did not differ. The birth and continued survival of clones produced with HMC technology with equivalent efficiency to NT shows that it can be used as an alternative method for the generation of cloned offspring in the bovine.

  1. Multilineage potential research of bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhua; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC). The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos) was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy. PMID:24590129

  2. Multilineage potential research of bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuhua; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuhua; Hua, Jinlian; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2014-02-28

    The use of amnion and amniotic fluid (AF) are abundant sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that can be harvested at low cost and do not pose ethical conflicts. In human and veterinary research, stem cells derived from these tissues are promising candidates for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity, and high anti-inflammatory potential. This work aimed to obtain and characterize bovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC). The bovine AF from the amniotic cavity of pregnant gilts in the early stages of gestation (3- and 4-m-old bovine embryos) was collected. AFMSCs exhibit a fibroblastic-like morphology only starting from the fourth passage, being heterogeneous during the primary culture. Immunofluorescence results showed that AFMSCs were positive for β-integrin, CD44, CD73 and CD166, but negative for CD34, CD45. Meanwhile, AFMSCs expressed ES cell markers, such as Oct4, and when appropriately induced, are capable of differentiating into ectodermal and mesodermal lineages. This study reinforces the emerging importance of these cells as ideal tools in veterinary medicine; future studies aimed at a deeper evaluation of their immunological properties will allow a better understanding of their role in cellular therapy.

  3. Intrafollicular Oocyte Transfer (IFOT) of Abattoir-Derived and In Vitro-Matured Oocytes Results in Viable Blastocysts and Birth of Healthy Calves.

    PubMed

    Kassens, Ana; Held, Eva; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Sieme, Harald; Wrenzycki, Christine; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Hoelker, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There are still major differences between in vitro production (IVP)-derived and in vivo-derived bovine blastocysts. Therefore, intrafollicular oocyte transfer (IFOT) was used in the present study to allow early embryonic development within the physiological oviductal environment, in order to avoid subsequent harmful effects of the in vitro culture environment. Using modified ovum pickup equipment, in vitro-matured oocytes were transferred into the preovulatory follicle of synchronized heifers (follicular recipients), enabling subsequent ovulation, in vivo fertilization, and in vivo development. When 1646 in vitro-matured oocytes were transferred to 28 follicular recipients, a total of 583 embryos (35.2%) were recovered in excess after uterine flushing at Day 7. Although numbers of generated extra embryos were highly variable, preovulatory follicles with a diameter of 13-14 mm delivered significantly (P < 0.05) larger amounts of extra embryos (34.3 vs. 7.3), as well as extra morulae and blastocysts (8.3 vs. 0.8), compared with follicles with a diameter of 9-10 mm. Nevertheless, the developmental rate to the blastocyst stage was lower in IFOT compared with in vitro-derived control (Vitro) embryos at Day 7 (8.0% vs. 36.5%). Likewise, cumulative developmental rates to the morula or blastocyst stage until Day 7 were lower in IFOT-derived embryos when related to the number of transferred (8.4% vs. 51.7%) or flushed (22.8% vs. 51.7%) embryos. Of the latter, IFOT-derived embryos yielded significantly lower cleavage rates compared with the Vitro controls (63.2% vs. 88.8%), and developmental rate to the morula or blastocyst stage were lower even when related to the proportion of cleaved embryos (36.8% vs. 58.2%). In contrast, lipid content and cryotolerance did not differ between IFOT and fully IVP embryos; but IFOT-derived embryos showed significantly lower lipid content (P < 0.05) and significantly higher cryotolerance compared with IVP-derived embryos cultured in CR1aa

  4. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction between Pr(III) complex of an ofloxacin derivative and bovine serum albumin or DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; Ma, Zhao-Rong; Huang, Liang; Chen, Feng-Juan; Zeng, Zheng-zhi

    2011-01-01

    The binding properties on [PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2 (L = 9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperaziny)-7-oxo-7Hpyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carbaldehyde benzoyl hydrazone) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been studied for the first time using fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy. The results showed that [PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2 strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching procedure, and non-radiation energy transfer happened within molecules. The number of binding site was about 1, and the efficiency of Förster energy transfer provided a distance of 4.26 nm between tryptophan and [PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2 binding site. At 288, 298, 310 K, the quenching constants of BSA-[PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2 system were 5.11 × 10 4, 4.33 × 10 4 and 3.71 × 10 4 l M -1. Δ H, Δ S and Δ G were obtained based on the quenching constants and thermodynamic theory (Δ H < 0, Δ S > 0 and Δ G < 0). These results indicated that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are the mainly binding forces in the [PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2-BSA system. In addition, the CD spectra have proved that BSA secondary structure changed in the presence of [PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2 in aqueous solution. Moreover, the interaction between [PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2 and calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) was studied by spectroscopy and viscosity measurements, which showed that the binding mode of the [PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2 with DNA is intercalation. The DNA cleavage results show that in the absence of any reducing agent, the [PrL 2(NO 3)](NO 3) 2 can cleave plasmid pBR322 DNA and its hydrolytic mechanism was demonstrated with hydroxyl radical scavengers and singlet oxygen quenchers.

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and retinoic acid trigger bovine VASA homolog expression in differentiating bovine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Sumer, Huseyin; Jain, Kanika; Verma, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest identifiable and completely committed progenitors of female and male gametes. They are obvious targets for genome editing because they assure the transmission of desirable or introduced traits to future generations. PGCs are established at the earliest stages of embryo development and are difficult to propagate in vitro--two characteristics that pose a problem for their practical application. One alternative method to enrich for PGCs in vitro is to differentiate them from pluripotent stem cells derived from adult tissues. Here, we establish a reporter system for germ cell identification in bovine pluripotent stem cells based on green fluorescent protein expression driven by the minimal essential promoter of the bovine Vasa homolog (BVH) gene, whose regulatory elements were identified by orthologous modelling of regulatory units. We then evaluated the potential of bovine induced pluripotent stem cell (biPSC) lines carrying the reporter construct to differentiate toward the germ cell lineage. Our results showed that biPSCs undergo differentiation as embryoid bodies, and a fraction of the differentiating cells expressed BVH. The rate of differentiation towards BVH-positive cells increased up to tenfold in the presence of bone morphogenetic protein 4 or retinoic acid. Finally, we determined that the expression of key PGC genes, such as BVH or SOX2, can be modified by pre-differentiation cell culture conditions, although this increase is not necessarily mirrored by an increase in the rate of differentiation.

  6. A comparative study on expression profile of developmentally important genes during pre-implantation stages in buffalo hand-made cloned embryos derived from adult fibroblasts and amniotic fluid derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Em, Sadeesh; Shah, Fozia; Kataria, Meena; Yadav, P S

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal gene expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos due to aberrant epigenetic modifications of the donor nucleus may account for much of the observed diminished viability and developmental abnormalities. The present study compared the developmentally important gene expression pattern at 4-cell, 8- to 16-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos from adult fibroblasts (AFs) and amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs). In vitro fertilized embryos were used as control embryos. Alterations in the expression pattern of genes implicated in transcription and pluripotency (OCT4, STAT3, NANOG), DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A), histone deacetylation (HDAC2), growth factor signaling, and imprinting (IGF2, IGF2R), apoptosis (BAX, BCL2), oxidative stress (MnSOD), metabolism (GLUT1) regulation were observed in cloned embryos. The expression of transcripts in AFSC-NT embryos more closely followed that of the in vitro fertilized embryos compared with AF-NT embryos. It is concluded that AFSCs with a relatively undifferentiated genome may serve as suitable donors which could be reprogrammed more efficiently to reactivate expression of early embryonic genes in buffalo NT.

  7. Towards accurate structural characterization of metal centres in protein crystals: the structures of Ni and Cu T{sub 6} bovine insulin derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Frankaer, Christian Grundahl; Mossin, Susanne; Ståhl, Kenny; Harris, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The level of structural detail around the metal sites in Ni{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} T{sub 6} insulin derivatives was significantly improved by using a combination of single-crystal X-ray crystallography and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Photoreduction and subsequent radiation damage of the Cu{sup 2+} sites in Cu insulin was followed by XANES spectroscopy. Using synchrotron radiation (SR), the crystal structures of T{sub 6} bovine insulin complexed with Ni{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} were solved to 1.50 and 1.45 Å resolution, respectively. The level of detail around the metal centres in these structures was highly limited, and the coordination of water in Cu site II of the copper insulin derivative was deteriorated as a consequence of radiation damage. To provide more detail, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to improve the information level about metal coordination in each derivative. The nickel derivative contains hexacoordinated Ni{sup 2+} with trigonal symmetry, whereas the copper derivative contains tetragonally distorted hexacoordinated Cu{sup 2+} as a result of the Jahn–Teller effect, with a significantly longer coordination distance for one of the three water molecules in the coordination sphere. That the copper centre is of type II was further confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The coordination distances were refined from EXAFS with standard deviations within 0.01 Å. The insulin derivative containing Cu{sup 2+} is sensitive towards photoreduction when exposed to SR. During the reduction of Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup +}, the coordination geometry of copper changes towards lower coordination numbers. Primary damage, i.e. photoreduction, was followed directly by XANES as a function of radiation dose, while secondary damage in the form of structural changes around the Cu atoms after exposure to different radiation doses was studied by crystallography using a laboratory diffractometer. Protection against photoreduction and subsequent

  8. Morbidity-mortality and performance evaluation of Brahman calves from in vitro embryo production

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of bovine in vitro embryo production (IVP) increases the reproductive potential of genetically superior cows, enabling a larger scale of embryo production when compared with other biotechnologies. However, deleterious effects such as abnormal fetal growth, longer gestation period, increased birth weight, abortion, preterm birth and higher rates of neonatal mortality have been attributed to IVP. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of in vitro embryo production and artificial insemination (AI) on gestation length, complications with birth, birth weight, method of feeding colostrum, passive transfer of immunity, morbidity-mortality, and performance in Brahman calves. Results Whilst gestation length and birth weight were significantly increased in IVP-derived calves, no difference in weaning weight was observed between groups. The passive transfer of immunity (PT), was assessed in IVP (n = 80) and AI (n = 20) groups 24 hours after birth by determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and gammaglobulin activity as well as by quantification of the concentration of total protein in serum. No differences in passive transfer or incidences of dystocia and diseases at weaning were observed between groups. Birth weight, method of feeding colostrum and dystocia were not correlated with PT in either group. Conclusions In this study, in vitro embryo production did not affect the health status, development, or passive transfer of immunity in Brahman calves. PMID:22136315

  9. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages is not affected by host infection status but depends on the infecting bacterial genotype.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Nicole S; Mitchell, Rebecca M; Baumgart, Martin; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Schukken, Ynte H

    2007-12-15

    In this study we investigated the ability of different Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) strains to survive in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of cows naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis and control cows. We tested the hypotheses that infection status of cows affects macrophage killing ability and that survival of M. paratuberculosis in macrophages is dependent on the strain. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from Johne's disease-positive (n=3) and age and stage of lactation matched Johne's disease-negative (n=3) multiparious cows. Following differentiation, MDMs were challenged in vitro with four M. paratuberculosis strains of different host specificity (cattle and sheep). Two hours and 2, 4, and 7 days after infection, ingestion, and intracellular survival of M. paratuberculosis strains were determined by fluorescence microscopy. There was no effect of the origin of MDMs (Johne's disease-positive or control animals) on phagocytosis, survival of bacteria, or macrophage survival. In contrast, important strain differences were observed. These findings suggest that some M. paratuberculosis strains interfere more successfully than others with the ability of macrophages to kill intracellular pathogens which may make it important to include strain typing when designing control programs.

  10. Pretreatment of serum samples to reduce interference of colostrum-derived specific antibodies with detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by ELISA in young calves.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Reichel, Michael P

    2016-05-01

    Antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used for the detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus persistently infected (BVDV PI) cattle; however, colostrum-derived antibodies may interfere with antigen detection in serum from young PI calves. Our study aimed to assess serum pretreatment methods for reducing such interference. Dilution of PI serum with serum containing specific antibody showed that antibody levels equivalent to those observed in colostrum-fed calves were able to eliminate all antigen signals in a serum sample. Serum was treated with ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid at pH 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5, then boiled, centrifuged, and the supernatant-recovered. BVDV antibody was undetectable by ELISA in supernatants from treated samples, and the antigen ELISA signal was improved. Maximum antigen signal recovery of >90% was achieved at pH 5 ± 0.5. When this optimal treatment method was applied to field samples from 3 PI calves (which were negative in the antigen-capture ELISA without treatment), the antigen signal improved and gave a positive result in each case. Pretreatment may provide an improvement in the detection of young PI calves. PMID:27016723

  11. Proline modulates the effect of bisphosphonate on calcium levels and adenosine triphosphate production in cell lines derived from bovine Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, A G; Echeverría, C I; Pérez Rojo, F G; Prieto González, E A; Roldán, E J A

    2014-12-01

    Bisphosphonates have been proposed as pharmacological agents against parasite and cancer cell growth. The effect of these compounds on helminthic cell viability and acellular compartment morphology, however, has not yet been studied. The effects of different types of bisphosphonates, namely etidronate (EHDP), pamidronate (APD), alendronate (ABP), ibandronate (IB) and olpadronate (OPD), and their interaction with amiloride, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (D3) and proline were evaluated on a cell line derived from bovine Echinococcus granulousus protoscoleces (EGPE) that forms cystic colonies in agarose. The EGPE cell line allowed testing the effect of bisphosphonates alone and in association with other compounds that could modulate calcium apposition/deposition, and were useful in measuring the impact of these compounds on cell growth, cystic colony formation and calcium storage. Decreased cell growth and cystic colony formation were found with EHDP, IB and OPD, and increased calcium storage with EHDP only. Calcium storage in EGPE cells appeared to be sensitive to the effect of amiloride, D3 and proline. Proline decreased calcium storage and increased colony formation. Changes in calcium storage may be associated with degenerative changes of the cysts, as shown in the in vitro colony model and linked to an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) decrease. In conclusion, bisphosphonates could be suitable tempering drugs to treat cestode infections.

  12. In vitro T-cell activation of monocyte-derived macrophages by soluble messengers or cell-to-cell contact in bovine tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Liébana, E; Aranaz, A; Welsh, M; Neill, S D; Pollock, J M

    2000-01-01

    The macrophage plays a dual role in tuberculosis, promoting not only protection against mycobacteria, but also survival of the pathogen. Macrophages inhibit multiplication of mycobacteria but also act in concert with lymphocytes through presentation of antigens to T cells. Studies in animal and human infections have suggested a correlation of in vitro growth rates of mycobacteria with in vivo virulence, using uracil uptake to assess mycobacterial metabolism. This study found that blood-derived, non-activated bovine macrophages were capable of controlling Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guérin growth for up to 96 hr, but were permissive to intracellular growth of virulent M. bovis. The present investigation compared the in vitro modulation of these macrophage activities by cytokine-rich T-cell supernatants or cell-to-cell contact. On the one hand, treatment of cultured monocytes with mitogen-produced T-cell supernatants promoted morphological changes suggestive of an activation status, enhanced the antigen presentation capabilities of monocytes and up-regulated major histocompatibility complex class II expression. However, this activation was not associated with enhanced anti-M. bovis activity. On the other hand, incubation of infected monocytes with T-cell populations resulted in proportionally increased inhibition of M. bovis uracil uptake. This inhibition was also seen using cells from uninfected animals and indicated the necessity for cell-to-cell contact to promote antimycobacterial capability. PMID:10886395

  13. Evaluation of ion mobility-mass spectrometry for determining the isomeric heterogeneity of oligosaccharide-alditols derived from bovine submaxillary mucin.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongli; Bendiak, Brad; Kaplan, Kimberly; Davis, Eric; Siems, William F; Hill, Herbert H

    2013-10-15

    Rapid separation and independent analysis of isomeric species are needed for the structural characterization of carbohydrates in glycomics research. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry techniques were used to examine a series of isomeric neutral oligosaccharide-alditols derived from bovine submaxillary mucin. Several analytical techniques were employed: (1) off line separation of the oligosaccharide-alditol mixture by HPLC; (2) direct and rapid evaluation of isomeric heterogeneity of oligosaccharides by electrospray ionization-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometry; and (3) mobility-selected MS(2) and MS(3) to evaluate isomeric mobility peaks by dual gate ion mobility-tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple isomeric ion mobility peaks were observed for the majority of oligosaccharide-alditols, which was achieved on the millisecond time scale after LC separation. Fragmentation spectra obtained from the collision-induced dissociation of isomeric precursor ions could be essentially identical, or dramatically different for a given precursor m/z using the dual-gate ion mobility quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This further confirmed the need for rapid physical resolution of isomeric precursor species prior to their tandem mass spectral analysis.

  14. Data-derived reference profiles with corepresentation of progesterone, estradiol, LH, and FSH dynamics during the bovine estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Martin, O; Friggens, N C; Dupont, J; Salvetti, P; Freret, S; Rame, C; Elis, S; Gatien, J; Disenhaus, C; Blanc, F

    2013-01-15

    Subfertility in cows is often associated with alterations in the hormonal patterns involved in the regulation of the estrous cycle. Reference profiles are needed to ground modeling projects aimed at describing these alterations and to develop tools for detecting abnormal dynamics. Various schematic views of LH, FSH, progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) patterns have been published but with no clear indication of the extent to which they are derived from real data. The objective of this study was to generate standard profiles for the main reproductive hormones that can be proposed as reliable references to represent the normal dynamics of these hormones over the estrous cycle. A database of hormonal profiles was compiled with 40, 23, 33, and 34 profiles for LH, FSH, E2, and P4, respectively, derived from publications in which changes over time of at least three of these four hormones, including LH, were reported. These profiles were digitalized and standardized over the time throughout the estrous cycle, considering the interval between two successive LH surges to be 21 days. After this standardization on the x-axis, a transformation on the y-axis was performed to center the profiles around their common dynamics. For each hormone, the reference profile was then considered to be the median of the adjusted profiles. Quartiles were reported to account for the time evolution of the variability around each reference profile. The reference profiles obtained showed that the procedure used was satisfactory for extracting the overall changes over time of LH, P4, and E2. Results were less satisfactory for FSH, because of a higher variability observed between the original profiles in our database. The corepresentation of the reference profiles, i.e., when depicted together on the same scale, emphasizes the interplay between these hormones more precisely than most of the schematic views available in literature. These data-derived profiles can be considered to be generic and

  15. Zearalenone and Its Derivatives α-Zearalenol and β-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Luiz; Abrunhosa, Luís; Keller, Kelly; Rosa, Carlos Alberto; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Venâncio, Armando

    2015-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZOL and β-ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives α-ZOL and β-ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose medium supplemented with the mycotoxins and their elimination from medium was quantified over time by HPLC-FL. A significant effect on the concentration of ZEA was observed, as all the tested strains were able to eliminate more than 90% of the mycotoxin from the culture medium in two days. The observed elimination was mainly due to ZEA biotransformation into β-ZOL (53%) and α-ZOL (8%) rather than to its adsorption to yeast cells walls. Further, the biotransformation of α-ZOL was not observed but a small amount of β-ZOL (6%) disappeared from culture medium. ZEA biotransformation by yeasts may not be regarded as a full detoxification process because both main end-products are still estrogenic. Nonetheless, it was observed that the biotransformation favors the formation of β-ZOL which is less estrogenic than ZEA and α-ZOL. This metabolic effect is only possible if active strains are used as feed additives and may play a role in the detoxification performance of products with viable S. cerevisiae cells. PMID:26308051

  16. Zearalenone and Its Derivatives α-Zearalenol and β-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage.

    PubMed

    Keller, Luiz; Abrunhosa, Luís; Keller, Kelly; Rosa, Carlos Alberto; Cavaglieri, Lilia; Venâncio, Armando

    2015-08-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZOL and β-ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives α-ZOL and β-ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose medium supplemented with the mycotoxins and their elimination from medium was quantified over time by HPLC-FL. A significant effect on the concentration of ZEA was observed, as all the tested strains were able to eliminate more than 90% of the mycotoxin from the culture medium in two days. The observed elimination was mainly due to ZEA biotransformation into β-ZOL (53%) and α-ZOL (8%) rather than to its adsorption to yeast cells walls. Further, the biotransformation of α-ZOL was not observed but a small amount of β-ZOL (6%) disappeared from culture medium. ZEA biotransformation by yeasts may not be regarded as a full detoxification process because both main end-products are still estrogenic. Nonetheless, it was observed that the biotransformation favors the formation of β-ZOL which is less estrogenic than ZEA and α-ZOL. This metabolic effect is only possible if active strains are used as feed additives and may play a role in the detoxification performance of products with viable S. cerevisiae cells.

  17. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using DNA-Fragmented Sperm in Mice Negatively Affects Embryo-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells, Reduces the Fertility of Male Offspring and Induces Heritable Changes in Epialleles

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Raúl; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations. PMID:24743851

  18. Can Coxiella burnetii be transmitted by embryo transfer in goats?

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, A; Fieni, F; Rodolakis, A; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Larrat, M; Chatagnon, G; Pellerin, J L

    2013-10-01

    The detection of significant bacterial loads of Coxiella burnetii in flushing media and tissue samples from the genital tracts of nonpregnant goats represents a risk factor for in utero infection and transmission during embryo transfer. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) whether cells of early goat embryos isolated from in vivo-fertilized goats interact with C. burnetii in vitro, (2) whether the embryonic zona pellucida (ZP) protects early embryo cells from infection, and (3) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol for bovine embryos. The study was performed in triple replicate: 12 donor goats, certified negative by ELISA and polymerase chain reaction, were synchronized, superovulated, and subsequently inseminated by Q fever-negative males. Sixty-eight embryos were collected 4 days later by laparotomy. Two-thirds of the resulting ZP-intact and ZP-free 8- to 16-cell embryos (9-9, 11-11, and 4-4 in replicates 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were placed in 1 mL minimum essential medium containing 10(9)C. burnetii CBC1 (IASP, INRA Tours). After overnight incubation at 37 °C and 5% CO2, the embryos were washed according to the IETS procedure. In parallel, the remaining third ZP-intact and ZP-free uninfected embryos (3-3, 5-5, and 2-2 in replicates 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were subjected to the same procedures, but without C. burnetii, thus serving as controls. The 10 washing fluids for all batches of each replicate were collected and centrifuged for 1 hour at 13,000 × g. The washed embryos and pellets were tested by polymerase chain reaction. Coxiella burnetii DNA was found in all batches of ZP-intact and ZP-free infected embryos after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the first five washing fluids for ZP-intact embryos and in the first eight washing fluids for ZP-free embryos. None of the control batches (embryos and washing fluids) were found to contain bacterial DNA. These results clearly indicate that

  19. Oral Serum-Derived Bovine Immunoglobulin/Protein Isolate Has Immunomodulatory Effects on the Colon of Mice that Spontaneously Develop Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Maijó, Mònica; Polo, Javier; Campbell, Joy M.; Russell, Louis; Crenshaw, Joe D.; Weaver, Eric; Moretó, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Dietary immunoglobulin concentrates prepared from animal plasma can modulate the immune response of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Previous studies have revealed that supplementation with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) ameliorates colonic barrier alterations in the mdr1a-/- genetic mouse model of IBD. Here, we examine the effects of SBI on mucosal inflammation in mdr1a-/- mice that spontaneously develop colitis. Wild type (WT) mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO) were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% w/w) or milk proteins (Control diet), from day 21 (weaning) until day 56. Leucocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and in lamina propria were determined, as was mucosal cytokine production. Neutrophil recruitment and activation in MLN and lamina propria of KO mice were increased, but were significantly reduced in both by SBI supplementation (p < 0.05). The increased neutrophil recruitment and activation observed in KO mice correlated with increased colon oxidative stress (p < 0.05) and SBI supplementation reduced this variable (p < 0.05). The Tact/Treg lymphocyte ratios in MLN and lamina propria were also increased in KO animals, but SBI prevented these changes (both p < 0.05). In the colon of KO mice, there was an increased production of mucosal pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 (2-fold), IL-6 (26-fold) and IL-17 (19-fold), and of chemokines MIP-1β (4.5-fold) and MCP-1 (7.2-fold). These effects were significantly prevented by SBI (p < 0.05). SBI also significantly increased TGF-β secretion in the colon mucosa, suggesting a role of this anti-inflammatory cytokine in the modulation of GALT and the reduction of the severity of the inflammatory response during the onset of colitis. PMID:27139220

  20. Pan-genomic analysis of bovine monocyte-derived macrophage gene expression in response to in vitro infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, an intestinal disease of ruminants with major economic consequences. Infectious bacilli are phagocytosed by host macrophages upon exposure where they persist, resulting in lengthy subclinical phases of infection that can lead to immunopathology and disease dissemination. Consequently, analysis of the macrophage transcriptome in response to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection can provide valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie Johne’s disease. Here, we investigate pan-genomic gene expression in bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) purified from seven age-matched females, in response to in vitro infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (multiplicity of infection 2:1) at intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours post-infection (hpi). Differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of the infected MDM to the non-infected control MDM at each time point (adjusted P-value threshold ≤ 0.10). 1050 differentially expressed unique genes were identified 2 hpi, with 974 and 78 differentially expressed unique genes detected 6 and 24 hpi, respectively. Furthermore, in the infected MDM the number of upregulated genes exceeded the number of downregulated genes at each time point, with the fold-change in expression for the upregulated genes markedly higher than that for the downregulated genes. Inspection and systems biology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed an enrichment of genes involved in the inflammatory response, cell signalling pathways and apoptosis. The transcriptional changes associated with cellular signalling and the inflammatory response may reflect different immuno-modulatory mechanisms that underlie host-pathogen interactions during infection. PMID:22455317

  1. Cell Arrest and Cell Death in Mammalian Preimplantation Development: Lessons from the Bovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Leidenfrost, Sandra; Boelhauve, Marc; Reichenbach, Myriam; Güngör, Tuna; Reichenbach, Horst-Dieter; Sinowatz, Fred; Wolf, Eckhard; Habermann, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The causes, modes, biological role and prospective significance of cell death in preimplantation development in humans and other mammals are still poorly understood. Early bovine embryos represent a very attractive experimental model for the investigation of this fundamental and important issue. Methods and Findings To obtain reference data on the temporal and spatial occurrence of cell death in early bovine embryogenesis, three-dimensionally preserved embryos of different ages and stages of development up to hatched blastocysts were examined in toto by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In parallel, transcript abundance profiles for selected apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our study documents that in vitro as well as in vivo, the first four cleavage cycles are prone to a high failure rate including different types of permanent cell cycle arrest and subsequent non-apoptotic blastomere death. In vitro produced and in vivo derived blastocysts showed a significant incidence of cell death in the inner cell mass (ICM), but only in part with morphological features of apoptosis. Importantly, transcripts for CASP3, CASP9, CASP8 and FAS/FASLG were not detectable or found at very low abundances. Conclusions In vitro and in vivo, errors and failures of the first and the next three cleavage divisions frequently cause immediate embryo death or lead to aberrant subsequent development, and are the main source of developmental heterogeneity. A substantial occurrence of cell death in the ICM even in fast developing blastocysts strongly suggests a regular developmentally controlled elimination of cells, while the nature and mechanisms of ICM cell death are unclear. Morphological findings as well as transcript levels measured for important apoptosis-related genes are in conflict with the view that classical caspase-mediated apoptosis is the major cause of cell death in early bovine development. PMID

  2. Global transcriptome profiles of Italian Mediterranean buffalo embryos with normal and retarded growth.

    PubMed

    Strazzullo, Maria; Gasparrini, Bianca; Neglia, Gianluca; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Francioso, Romina; Rossetti, Cristina; Nassa, Giovanni; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Weisz, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Serena; Vecchio, Domenico; D'Esposito, Maurizio; D'Occhio, Michael John; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW)>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm) and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm) were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74%) transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26%) transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65%) of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium. PMID:24587197

  3. Global Transcriptome Profiles of Italian Mediterranean Buffalo Embryos with Normal and Retarded Growth

    PubMed Central

    Neglia, Gianluca; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Francioso, Romina; Rossetti, Cristina; Nassa, Giovanni; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Weisz, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Serena; Vecchio, Domenico; D'Esposito, Maurizio; D'Occhio, Michael John; Zicarelli, Luigi; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The transcriptome profiles were compared for buffalo embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating. Embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating have a reduced likelihood of undergoing attachment to the uterine endometrium and establishing a pregnancy. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes were mated by AI and on Day 25 underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to ascertain embryo development. Embryos with an embryonic width (EW)>2.7 mm were classed as normal embryos and embryos with an EW<2.7 mm were classed as retarded embryos. Three buffaloes with embryos of the largest EW (3.7, 3.7 and 3.9 mm) and three buffaloes with embryos of the smallest EW (1.5, 1.6 and 1.9 mm) were slaughtered on Day 27 to recover embryos for transcriptome analysis using a bovine custom designed oligo array. A total of 1,047 transcripts were differentially expressed between embryos with normal growth and embryos with retarded growth. Retarded embryos showed 773/1,047 (74%) transcripts that were down-regulated and 274/1,047 (26%) transcripts that were up-regulated relative to normal embryos; in silico analyses focused on 680/1,047 (65%) of the differentially expressed transcripts. The most altered transcripts observed in retarded embryos were associated with membrane structure and function and with metabolic and homeostasis maintenance functions. Other notable functions altered in retarded embryos were developmental processes and in particular nervous system differentiation and function. Specific biochemical pathways such as the complement cascade and coagulation were also altered in retarded embryos. It was concluded from the findings that buffalo embryos with retarded growth on Day 25 after mating show altered gene expression compared with normal embryos, and some de-regulated functions are associated with attachment to the uterine endometrium. PMID:24587197

  4. Identification of positional candidates for bovine placental genes responsible for early embryonic death during cloning-attempted pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takahisa; Muramatsu, Youji; Taniguchi, Yukio; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    Our previous study detected 291 and 77 genes showing early embryonic death-associated elevation and reduction of expression, respectively, in the fetal placenta of the cow carrying somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloned embryo. In this study, we mapped the 10 genes showing the elevation and the 10 genes doing the reduction most significantly, using somatic cell hybrid and bovine draft genome sequence. We then compared the mapped positions for these genes with the genomic locations of bovine quantitative trait loci for still-birth and/or abortion. Among the mapped genes, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), spectrin, beta, nonerythrocytic 1 (SPTBNI), and an unknown novel gene containing AU277832 expressed sequence tag were intriguing, in that the mapped positions were consistent with the genomic locations of bovine still-birth and/or abortion quantitative trait loci, and thus identified as positional candidates for bovine placental genes responsible for the early embryonic death during the pregnancy attempted by somatic nuclear transfer-derived cloning.

  5. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rajvi H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ‘discarded’ or ‘spare’ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ‘cryopreserve’ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ‘spare’ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ‘cryopreserved’ embryos then these also can be considered as ‘spare’. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, “what about ‘slightly’ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ‘discarded’ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ‘discarding’ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ‘use’ of ESC derived from the ‘abnormal appearing’ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material. PMID:25673530

  6. Identification of bovine-specific DNA in feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Krcmár, P; Rencová, E

    2001-01-01

    Considering the menace of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, feed components intended for cattle nutrition must be checked for the presence of bovine-derived materials. We have been using a method based on polymerase chain reaction for the identification of bovine-specific mitochondrial DNA sequences for this purpose. The specificity of the primers for polymerase chain reaction has been tested using samples of DNA of other vertebrate species, which may also be present in rendering plant products. The method allows the detection in concentrate mixtures of 0.125% of bovine-derived material. Bovine DNA at concentrations corresponding to less than 0.5% of bovine-derived material was detected in 3 of the 30 samples of concentrate mixtures collected from distributors' stores all over the Czech Republic. All 44 samples of fish meal collected from the same sources were free of bovine-derived material. PMID:11198432

  7. The ART of studying early embryo development: progress and challenges in ruminant embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee

    2014-01-01

    The study of preimplantation mammalian embryo development is challenging due to difficulties in accessing in vivo-derived embryos in large numbers at the early stages and the inability to culture embryos in vitro much beyond the blastocyst stage. Nonetheless, embryos exhibit an amazing plasticity and tolerance when it comes to adapting to the environment in which they are cultured. They are capable of developing in media ranging in composition from simple balanced salt solutions to complex systems involving serum and somatic cells. At least a proportion of the blastocysts that develop in culture are developmentally competent as evidenced by the fact that live offspring have resulted following transfer. However, several studies using animal models have shown that such embryos are sensitive to environmental conditions that can affect future pre- and post-natal growth and developmental potential. This review summarises some key aspects of early embryo development and the approaches taken to study this important window in early life.

  8. Embryo research: is disclosing commercial intent enough?

    PubMed

    de Lacey, Sheryl

    2006-07-01

    This article critically reviews legislative and ethical frameworks that regulate embryo research. Australian legislation for embryo research is currently being reviewed. It is a legal mandate that scientists disclose to embryo donors any intent to pursue commercial gain from altruistic donation. But scientists are also required to inform donors that, as donors, they too must not benefit financially. In the same political context, public subsidy for IVF treatment is under review. There is contradiction in values and indication of inequity in the Australian social context. IVF is undervalued, yet products derived from IVF embryos are imbued with public hope. Rather than regulate to balance this inequity, assumptions of altruism and attention to autonomy in legislative framework give it further scope. This article proposes that justice be addressed by acknowledging reproductive effort, and thereby embryo research be considered in terms of reciprocity. It further proposes regulation of commercial profit and the imposition of a redirected tax levy.

  9. Galactosyl-Lactose Sialylation Using Trypanosoma cruzi trans-Sialidase as the Biocatalyst and Bovine κ-Casein-Derived Glycomacropeptide as the Donor Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrink, Maarten H.; ten Kate, Geert A.; van Leeuwen, Sander S.; Sanders, Peter; Sallomons, Erik; Hage, Johannes A.; Kamerling, Johannis P.

    2014-01-01

    trans-Sialidase (TS) enzymes catalyze the transfer of sialyl (Sia) residues from Sia(α2-3)Gal(β1-x)-glycans (sialo-glycans) to Gal(β1-x)-glycans (asialo-glycans). Aiming to apply this concept for the sialylation of linear and branched (Gal)nGlc oligosaccharide mixtures (GOS) using bovine κ-casein-derived glycomacropeptide (GMP) as the sialic acid donor, a kinetic study has been carried out with three components of GOS, i.e., 3′-galactosyl-lactose (β3′-GL), 4′-galactosyl-lactose (β4′-GL), and 6′-galactosyl-lactose (β6′-GL). This prebiotic GOS is prepared from lactose by incubation with suitable β-galactosidases, whereas GMP is a side-stream product of the dairy industry. The trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcTS) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Its temperature and pH optima were determined to be 25°C and pH 5.0, respectively. GMP [sialic acid content, 3.6% (wt/wt); N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), >99%; (α2-3)-linked Neu5Ac, 59%] was found to be an efficient sialyl donor, and up to 95% of the (α2-3)-linked Neu5Ac could be transferred to lactose when a 10-fold excess of this acceptor substrate was used. The products of the TcTS-catalyzed sialylation of β3′-GL, β4′-GL, and β6′-GL, using GMP as the sialic acid donor, were purified, and their structures were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Monosialylated β3′-GL and β4′-GL contained Neu5Ac connected to the terminal Gal residue; however, in the case of β6′-GL, TcTS was shown to sialylate the 3 position of both the internal and terminal Gal moieties, yielding two different monosialylated products and a disialylated structure. Kinetic analyses showed that TcTS had higher affinity for the GL substrates than lactose, while the Vmax and kcat values were higher in the case of lactose. PMID:25063655

  10. Differential expression of IGF family members in heat-stressed embryos produced in vitro from OPU-derived oocytes of Nelore (Bos indicus) and Holstein (Bos taurus) cows.

    PubMed

    Satrapa, R A; Razza, E M; Castilho, A C S; Simões, R A L; Silva, C F; Nabhan, T; Pegorer, M F; Barros, C M

    2013-12-01

    The IGF system is related to embryo quality. We aim to determine the effect of the heat stress on the mRNA expression of IGF1 and IGF2, IGFR1 and IGFR2, IGFBP2 and IGFBP4, and PAPPA in in vitro production (IVP) blastocysts from Nelore and Holstein after ovum pick up (OPU) to better understand the differences between these breeds. Oocytes from four Nelore and seven Holstein were collected in six OPU sessions. Following in vitro maturation and fertilization using six Nelore or Holstein sires, embryos were divided into control (cultured at 39°C) and heat stress (HS; exposed to 41°C for 9 h). Blastocysts were submitted to RNA extraction. The IGF1 expression was higher in blastocysts under HS in both breeds, and the expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 was higher in Holstein blastocysts under HS. The high PAPPA expression and the low expression of IGFBP2 and IGFBP4 are associated with a more efficient degradation of IGFBPs, which results in greater IGF bioavailability in Nelore blastocysts and may contribute to the superior HS tolerance in Nelore, when compared to Holstein.

  11. Use of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to produce genetically engineered pigs from in vitro-derived oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Kristin M; Lee, Kiho; Benne, Joshua A; Beaton, Benjamin P; Spate, Lee D; Murphy, Stephanie L; Samuel, Melissa S; Mao, Jiude; O'Gorman, Chad; Walters, Eric M; Murphy, Clifton N; Driver, John; Mileham, Alan; McLaren, David; Wells, Kevin D; Prather, Randall S

    2014-09-01

    Targeted modification of the pig genome can be challenging. Recent applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system hold promise for improving the efficacy of genome editing. When a designed CRISPR/Cas9 system targeting CD163 or CD1D was introduced into somatic cells, it was highly efficient in inducing mutations. When these mutated cells were used with somatic cell nuclear transfer, offspring with these modifications were created. When the CRISPR/Cas9 system was delivered into in vitro produced presumptive porcine zygotes, the system was effective in creating mutations in eGFP, CD163, and CD1D (100% targeting efficiency in blastocyst stage embryos); however, it also presented some embryo toxicity. We could also induce deletions in CD163 or CD1D by introducing two types of CRISPRs with Cas9. The system could also disrupt two genes, CD163 and eGFP, simultaneously when two CRISPRs targeting two genes with Cas9 were delivered into zygotes. Direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 targeting CD163 or CD1D into zygotes resulted in piglets that have mutations on both alleles with only one CD1D pig having a mosaic genotype. We show here that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used by two methods. The system can be used to modify somatic cells followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer. System components can also be used in in vitro produced zygotes to generate pigs with specific genetic modifications. PMID:25100712

  12. A peptide derived from human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) exerts bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical cases of bovine mastitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for approximately one-third of the clinical cases of bovine mastitis and can elicit a life-threatening, systemic inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a membrane component of all Gram-negative bacteria and is largely responsible for evoking the de...

  13. Expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated and nuclear transfer derived bovine pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Ravelich, S R; Shelling, A N; Wells, D N; Peterson, A J; Lee, R S F; Ramachandran, A; Keelan, J A

    2006-01-01

    Bovine nuclear transfer pregnancies are characterized by a high incidence of placental abnormalities, notably, increased placentome size and deficiencies in trophoblast cell function and establishment of placental vasculature. Alterations in gene expression during placental growth and development may contribute to the appearance of large placentomes in pregnancies derived from nuclear transfer. The placenta synthesizes a number of cytokines and growth factors, including the transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) that are involved in the establishment, maintenance and/or regulation of pregnancy. All forms of TGF-beta and their receptors are present at the fetal-maternal interface of the bovine placentome, where they are thought to play an important role in regulating growth, differentiation, and function of the placenta. Using real-time RT-PCR, we have examined the expression of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3 and the receptors TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII in placentomes of artificially inseminated (AI) and nuclear transfer (NT)-derived bovine pregnancies at days 50, 100 and 150 of gestation. TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 mRNA expression increased by 2.0-2.8-fold, while TGF-betaRI and TGF-betaRII mRNA expression decreased by 1.7-2.0-fold in NT placentomes compared to AI controls at all gestational ages examined. These findings indicate that NT placentomes may be resistant to the growth suppressive effects of TGF-betas and could contribute to the placental proliferative abnormalities observed in NT-derived placentas. Alternatively, deficiencies in placentation may provide a mechanism whereby TGF-betas are dysregulated in NT pregnancies.

  14. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    PubMed

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence.

  15. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes. PMID:20336522

  16. Culture systems: embryo density.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Embryo density is defined as the embryo-to-volume ratio achieved during in vitro culture; in other words, it is the number of embryos in a defined volume of culture medium. The same density can be achieved by manipulating either the number of embryos in a given volume of medium, or manipulating the volume of the medium for a given number of embryos: for example, a microdrop with five embryos in a 50 μl volume under oil has the same embryo-to-volume ratio (1:10 μl) as a microdrop with one embryo in a 10 μl volume under oil (1:10 μl). Increased embryo density can improve mammalian embryo development in vitro; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect may be different with respect to which method is used to increase embryo density.Standard, flat sterile plastic petri dishes are the most common, traditional platform for embryo culture. Microdrops under a mineral oil overlay can be prepared to control embryo density, but it is critical that dish preparation is consistent, where appropriate techniques are applied to prevent microdrop dehydration during preparation, and results of any data collection are reliable, and repeatable. There are newer dishes available from several manufacturers that are specifically designed for embryo culture; most are readily available for use with human embryos. The concept behind these newer dishes relies on fabrication of conical and smaller volume wells into the dish design, so that embryos rest at the lowest point in the wells, and where putative embryotrophic factors may concentrate.Embryo density is not usually considered by the embryologist as a technique in and of itself; rather, the decision to culture embryos in groups or individually is protocol-driven, and is based more on convenience or the need to collect data on individual embryos. Embryo density can be controlled, and as such, it can be utilized as a simple, yet effective tool to improve in vitro development of human embryos. PMID:22829380

  17. Regional involvement of an endothelium-derived contractile factor in the vasoactive actions of neuropeptide Y in bovine isolated retinal arteries.

    PubMed

    Prieto, D; Simonsen, U; Nyborg, N C

    1995-11-01

    1. In vitro experiments in a microvascular myograph were designed in order to investigate the effects of human neuropeptide Y (NPY), its receptor subtype and the mechanisms underlying NPY actions in bovine isolated retinal proximal (PRA) and distal (DRA) arteries. 2. A single concentration of NPY (10 nM) induced a prompt and reproducible contraction which reached a plateau within 1-4 min, after which the response returned to baseline over the next 2-10 min. Cumulative addition of NPY induced concentration-dependent contractions of bovine retinal arteries, with an EC50[M] of 1.7 nM and a maximal response equal to 54 +/- 8% of Emax (absolute maximal contractile levels of vessels) and not different from that obtained by a single addition of the peptide. There were no significant differences in either sensitivity or maximal response to NPY between PRA and DRA. 3. Porcine NPY and the selective Y1-receptor agonist, [Pro34]NPY, also induced concentration-dependent contractions of the retinal arteries with a potency and maximal response not significantly different from those of human NPY; in contrast, the selective Y2-receptor agonist, NPY(13-36), caused only a 5% contraction at the highest concentration used. 4. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ or pretreatment with the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca(2+)-channel blocker, nifedipine (1 microM), reduced the contractile response of 10 nM NPY to 18.4 +/- 3.3% (n = 6) and 18.6 +/- 3.9% (n = 6); respectively, of the controls. 5. Mechanical removal of the endothelium depressed the maximal contraction elicited by NPY in PRA but did not affect either sensitivity or maximal response to the peptide in DRA. In endothelium-intact arteries, blockade of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway with 3 microM indomethacin increased resting tension in both PRA and DRA and significantly inhibited sensitivity and maximal contraction to NPY of PRA and DRA, respectively. The thromboxane A2 (TXA2)/prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) receptor antagonist, SQ30741, reduced both

  18. Regional involvement of an endothelium-derived contractile factor in the vasoactive actions of neuropeptide Y in bovine isolated retinal arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, D.; Simonsen, U.; Nyborg, N. C.

    1995-01-01

    1. In vitro experiments in a microvascular myograph were designed in order to investigate the effects of human neuropeptide Y (NPY), its receptor subtype and the mechanisms underlying NPY actions in bovine isolated retinal proximal (PRA) and distal (DRA) arteries. 2. A single concentration of NPY (10 nM) induced a prompt and reproducible contraction which reached a plateau within 1-4 min, after which the response returned to baseline over the next 2-10 min. Cumulative addition of NPY induced concentration-dependent contractions of bovine retinal arteries, with an EC50[M] of 1.7 nM and a maximal response equal to 54 +/- 8% of Emax (absolute maximal contractile levels of vessels) and not different from that obtained by a single addition of the peptide. There were no significant differences in either sensitivity or maximal response to NPY between PRA and DRA. 3. Porcine NPY and the selective Y1-receptor agonist, [Pro34]NPY, also induced concentration-dependent contractions of the retinal arteries with a potency and maximal response not significantly different from those of human NPY; in contrast, the selective Y2-receptor agonist, NPY(13-36), caused only a 5% contraction at the highest concentration used. 4. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ or pretreatment with the 1,4-dihydropyridine Ca(2+)-channel blocker, nifedipine (1 microM), reduced the contractile response of 10 nM NPY to 18.4 +/- 3.3% (n = 6) and 18.6 +/- 3.9% (n = 6); respectively, of the controls. 5. Mechanical removal of the endothelium depressed the maximal contraction elicited by NPY in PRA but did not affect either sensitivity or maximal response to the peptide in DRA. In endothelium-intact arteries, blockade of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway with 3 microM indomethacin increased resting tension in both PRA and DRA and significantly inhibited sensitivity and maximal contraction to NPY of PRA and DRA, respectively. The thromboxane A2 (TXA2)/prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) receptor antagonist, SQ30741, reduced both

  19. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers. PMID:26959529

  20. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers.

  1. The effect of amniotic membrane stem cells as donor nucleus on gene expression in reconstructed bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Hassan; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Shams-Esfandabadi, Naser; Afzali, Azita; Ahmadi, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming of a differentiated cell in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a major concern in cloning procedures. Indeed, the nucleus of the donor cell often fails to express the genes which are a prerequisite for normal early embryo development. This study was aimed to evaluate the developmental competence and the expression pattern of some reprogramming related genes in bovine cloned embryos reconstructed with amniotic membrane stem cells (AMSCs) in comparison with those reconstructed with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adult fibroblasts (AF) as well as with in vitro fertilized (IVF) oocytes. In vitro matured abattoir-derived oocytes were considered as recipients and a hand-made cloning technique was employed for oocyte enucleation and nuclear transfer (NT) procedures. The expression pattern of genes involved in self-renewal and pluripotency (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG), imprinting (IGF2, IGF2R), DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A), histone deacetylation (HDAC2), and apoptosis (BAX, BCL2) were evaluated in NT and IVF derived embryos. Despite the insignificant difference in cleavage rate between reconstructed and IVF oocytes, the blastocyst rate in the IVF group was higher than that of other groups. Among reconstructed oocytes, a higher blastocysts rate was observed in MSC-NT and AMSCs-NT derived embryos that were significantly higher than AF-NT derived ones. There were more similarities in the expression pattern of pluripotency and epigenetic modification genes between MSC-NT and IVF derived blastocysts compared with other groups. In conclusion, considering developmental competence, AMSCs, as alternative donors in SCNT procedure, like MSCs, were prone to have more advantage compared with AF. PMID:27389982

  2. Effects of growth hormone on nuclear maturation of ovine oocytes and subsequent embryo development.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, A; Shams-Esfandabadi, N; Ahmadi, E; Heidari, B

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the presence of recombinant ovine growth hormone either alone or together with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during ovine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear maturation and subsequent embryo development. Moreover, the effect of growth hormine (GH) on embryo development whether influenced by the presence of foetal bovine serum (FBS) was assessed. The abattoir-derived oocytes were randomly divided into four treatment groups and cultured in maturation medium supplemented with: (i) 0.05 IU/ml FSH; (ii) 300 ng/ml roGH; (iii) FSH + roGH; and (iv) no FSH and GH (control). The percentages of germinal vesicle-stage oocytes in GH-treated group after 8 h of culture was significantly higher than the FSH and FSH + GH groups and lower than control (22.4%, 8.7%, 9.1%, and 32% respectively). The percentage of MII-stage oocytes was significantly increased in the presence of GH after 16 and 24 h of culture compared to the control (44.7% and 83.1% vs 32.6% and 73.6% respectively). There was no significant synergism between GH and FSH in terms of nuclear maturation. The blastocyst rates in serum-supplemented groups were enhanced by the presence of FSH and GH compared to the control (35.4% and 31.3 vs 11.4% respectively). Compared with either GH or FSH alone, the subsequent embryo development (blastocyst rate), however, was negatively influenced by co-presence of both hormones (22.8%). In contrast, the corresponding values were not affected in the absence of serum. In conclusion, GH had positive effect on nuclear maturation of sheep oocytes. Moreover, the pattern of the effect of GH on embryo development was influenced by the presence of FBS during IVM.

  3. Demonstration of early functional compromise of bone marrow derived hematopoietic progenitor cells during bovine neonatal pancytopenia through in vitro culture of bone marrow biopsies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a syndrome characterised by thrombocytopenia associated with marked bone marrow destruction in calves, widely reported since 2007 in several European countries and since 2011 in New Zealand. The disease is epidemiologically associated with the use of an inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) vaccine and is currently considered to be caused by absorption of colostral antibody produced by some vaccinated cows (“BNP dams”). Alloantibodies capable of binding to the leukocyte surface have been detected in BNP dams and antibodies recognising bovine MHC class I and β-2-microglobulin have been detected in vaccinated cattle. In this study, calves were challenged with pooled colostrum collected from BNP dams or from non-BNP dams and their bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) cultured in vitro from sternal biopsies taken at 24 hours and 6 days post-challenge. Results Clonogenic assay demonstrated that CFU-GEMM (colony forming unit-granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte; pluripotential progenitor cell) colony development was compromised from HPCs harvested as early as 24 hour post-challenge. By 6 days post challenge, HPCs harvested from challenged calves failed to develop CFU-E (erythroid) colonies and the development of both CFU-GEMM and CFU-GM (granulocyte/macrophage) was markedly reduced. Conclusion This study suggests that the bone marrow pathology and clinical signs associated with BNP are related to an insult which compromises the pluripotential progenitor cell within the first 24 hours of life but that this does not initially include