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Sample records for bow direction reversal

  1. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    PubMed Central

    Verrel, Julius; Woollacott, Marjorie; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel “freezing” analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19–32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at (“freezing”) individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts’ bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance. PMID:25191284

  2. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Eom, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Yunsik; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM) simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch.

  3. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Yunsik; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM) simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch. PMID:26690443

  4. Violin bow vibrations.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin E

    2012-05-01

    The modal frequencies and bending mode shapes of a freely supported tapered violin bow are investigated by finite element analysis and direct measurement, with and without tensioned bow hair. Such computations are used with analytic models to model the admittance presented to the stretched bow hairs at the ends of the bow and to the string at the point of contact with the bow. Finite element computations are also used to demonstrate the influence of the lowest stick mode vibrations on the low frequency bouncing modes, when the hand-held bow is pressed against the string. The possible influence of the dynamic stick modes on the sound of the bowed instrument is briefly discussed.

  5. Coordination in fast repetitive violin-bowing patterns.

    PubMed

    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of coordination behavior in complex violin-bowing patterns involving simultaneous bow changes (reversal of bowing direction) and string crossings (changing from one string to another). Twenty-two violinists (8 advanced amateurs, 8 students with violin as major subject, and 6 elite professionals) participated in the experiment. We investigated the influence of a variety of performance conditions (specific bowing patterns, dynamic level, tempo, and transposition) and level of expertise on coordination behavior (a.o., relative phase and amplitude) and stability. It was found that the general coordination behavior was highly consistent, characterized by a systematic phase lead of bow inclination over bow velocity of about 15° (i.e., string crossings were consistently timed earlier than bow changes). Within similar conditions, a high individual consistency was found, whereas the inter-individual agreement was considerably less. Furthermore, systematic influences of performance conditions on coordination behavior and stability were found, which could be partly explained in terms of particular performance constraints. Concerning level of expertise, only subtle differences were found, the student and professional groups (higher level of expertise) showing a slightly higher stability than the amateur group (lower level of expertise). The general coordination behavior as observed in the current study showed a high agreement with perceptual preferences reported in an earlier study to similar bowing patterns, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction.

  6. Coordination in Fast Repetitive Violin-Bowing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of coordination behavior in complex violin-bowing patterns involving simultaneous bow changes (reversal of bowing direction) and string crossings (changing from one string to another). Twenty-two violinists (8 advanced amateurs, 8 students with violin as major subject, and 6 elite professionals) participated in the experiment. We investigated the influence of a variety of performance conditions (specific bowing patterns, dynamic level, tempo, and transposition) and level of expertise on coordination behavior (a.o., relative phase and amplitude) and stability. It was found that the general coordination behavior was highly consistent, characterized by a systematic phase lead of bow inclination over bow velocity of about 15° (i.e., string crossings were consistently timed earlier than bow changes). Within similar conditions, a high individual consistency was found, whereas the inter-individual agreement was considerably less. Furthermore, systematic influences of performance conditions on coordination behavior and stability were found, which could be partly explained in terms of particular performance constraints. Concerning level of expertise, only subtle differences were found, the student and professional groups (higher level of expertise) showing a slightly higher stability than the amateur group (lower level of expertise). The general coordination behavior as observed in the current study showed a high agreement with perceptual preferences reported in an earlier study to similar bowing patterns, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction. PMID:25207542

  7. Bowed Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  8. 29 GHz directly modulated 980 nm vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers with bow-tie shape transverse coupled cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalir, Hamed; Koyama, Fumio

    2013-08-01

    A concept for the bandwidth enhancement of directly modulated vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) using a transverse-coupled-cavity (TCC) scheme is proposed, which enables us to tailor the modulation-transfer function. A bow-tie shaped oxide aperture forms the transverse-coupled cavity resulting in optical feedback to boost the modulation speed. While the bandwidth of conventional VCSELs is 9-10 GHz, the 3 dB-bandwidth of the TCC VCSEL is increased by a factor of 3 far beyond the relaxation-oscillation frequency. The maximum bandwidth is currently limited by the photo-detector used in the experiment. Clear 36 Gbps eye opening was attained with an extinction ratio of 4 dB.

  9. Efficacy of a reverse cardioid directional microphone.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Francis; Keenan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Directional microphones have been shown to improve a listener's ability to communicate in noise by improving the signal to noise ratio. However, their efficacy may be questioned in situations where the listener needs to understand speech originating from the back. The goal of the study was to examine the performance of a directional microphone mode that has an automatic reverse cardioid polar pattern. A single-blinded, factorial repeated-measures design was used to study the effect of microphone modes (reverse cardioid, omnidirectional, and front hypercardioid) and stimulus azimuths (front and back) on three outcome variables (aided thresholds, nonsense syllable identification in quiet, and sentence recognition in noise). Twenty adults with a mild-to-severe bilaterally symmetrical (±5 dB) sensorineural hearing loss participated. Audibility in quiet was evaluated by obtaining aided sound field thresholds and speech identification at an input level of 50 dB SPL presented at 0 and 180° azimuths. In addition, speech understanding in noise was also assessed with the Hearing In Noise Test (HINT) sentences presented at both azimuths (0 and 180°) with a diffuse noise. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to examine the effects of microphone mode (omnidirectional, front hypercardioid, reverse cardioid) and stimulus azimuth (0°, 180°) on aided thresholds, nonsense syllable identification, and HINT performance. Results with the reverse cardioid directional microphone in both quiet conditions were similar to the omnidirectional microphone. The results of the reverse cardioid microphone in noise were significantly better than the omnidirectional microphone and front hypercardioid microphone when speech was presented from the back (p < 0.001). These results support the possible benefits of a reverse cardioid directional microphone when used in specific listening situations. American Academy of Audiology.

  10. Extraction of bowing parameters from violin performance combining motion capture and sensors.

    PubMed

    Schoonderwaldt, E; Demoucron, M

    2009-11-01

    A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bow velocity, bow acceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.

  11. Mapping the Structure of Directed Networks: Beyond the Bow-Tie Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timár, G.; Goltsev, A. V.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2017-02-01

    We reveal a hierarchical, multilayer organization of finite components—i.e., tendrils and tubes—around the giant connected components in directed networks and propose efficient algorithms allowing one to uncover the entire organization of key real-world directed networks, such as the World Wide Web, the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, and others. With increasing damage, the giant components decrease in size while the number and size of tendril layers increase, enhancing the susceptibility of the networks to damage.

  12. Direct observation of time reversal violation

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabeu, J.

    2013-06-12

    A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of 'in' and 'out' states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

  13. Direct observation of time reversal violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, J.

    2013-06-01

    A direct evidence for Time Reversal Violation (TRV) means an experiment that, considered by itself, clearly shows TRV independent of, and unconnected to, the results for CP Violation. No existing result before the recent BABAR experiment with entangled neutral B mesons had demonstrated TRV in this sense. There is a unique opportunity for a search of TRV with unstable particles thanks to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Entanglement between the two neutral mesons in B, and PHI, Factories. The two quantum effects of the first decay as a filtering measurement and the transfer of information to the still living partner allow performing a genuine TRV asymmetry with the exchange of "in" and "out" states. With four independent TRV asymmetries, BABAR observes a large deviation of T-invariance with a statistical significance of 14 standard deviations, far more than needed to declare the result as a discovery. This is the first direct observation of TRV in the time evolution of any system.

  14. Bow shock: Power aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedykh, P. A.

    2014-07-01

    It is clear that the primary energy source for magnetospheric processes is the solar wind, but the process of energy transfer from the solar wind into the magnetosphere, or rather, to convecting magnetospheric plasma, appears to be rather complicated. Bow shock is a powerful transformer of the solar wind kinetic energy into the gas dynamic and electromagnetic energy. A jump of the magnetic field tangential component at front crossing means that the front carries an electric current. The solar wind kinetic energy partly transforms to gas kinetic and electromagnetic energy during its passage through the bow shock front. The transition layer (magnetosheath) can use part of this energy for accelerating of plasma, but can conversely spend part its kinetic energy on the electric power generation, which afterwards may be used by the magnetosphere. Thereby, transition layer can be both consumer (sink) and generator (source) of electric power depending upon special conditions. The direction of the current behind the bow shock front depends on the sign of the IMF Bz-component. It is this electric current which sets convection of plasma in motion.

  15. The supernumerary bows of the rainbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Peter; Ricard, Jean; Barckicke, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Everyone appreciate the mysterious beauty of a Rainbow picture. The primary bow shows red on the outer part and violet on the inner side. It is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water, then reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it. The secondaty bow is seen outside the primary arc, and has the order of its colours reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc. The supernumerary bows are alternating faint bows on the inner side of the primary rainbow (and also outside the secondary rainbow). In this presentation, we will describe the present knowledge and the future perspectives A fully funded PhD Scholarship on this topic is open at the University of Granada. Picture = Contrast-enhanced photograph of a primary bow picture (prepared by Andrew Dunn).

  16. Nystagmus intensity and direction in bow and lean test: an aid to diagnosis of lateral semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    Marcelli, V

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate nystagmus intensity and direction (NID) during bow and lean test (BLT) in subjects suffering from idiopathic lateral semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (LSC-BPPV), in order to differentiate between the geotropic and the apogeotropic form and to determine the affected ear before using classic diagnostic procedures. The BLT was performed in 32 subjects affected by LSC-BPPV. "Nystagmus intensity" evaluation allows distinguishing the geotropic variant from the apogeotropic one, while the "nystagmus direction" allows identification of the side. In particular, a more intense nystagmus in the bow position compared to the lean position indicates an ampullipetal flow caused by the presence of free-floating particles in the non-ampullary arm, and is suggestive of geotropic form. In this case, if the nystagmus in the bow position is left beating, the free-floating particles necessarily occupy the left LSC non-ampullary arm, while a right-beating nystagmus indicates the right LSC involvement. In contrast, a more intense nystagmus in the lean position compared to the bow position indicates an ampullifugal flow due to the presence of particles adherent to the cupula (cupulolithiasis) or free-floating in the ampullary arm (canalolithiasis), suggesting an apogeotropic form. In this situation, if the nystagmus in the lean position is left beating, the particles are in the left LSC ampullar arm or are coated on the left LSC cupula; vice versa, a right-beating nystagmus in the lean position is suggestive of the involvement of the right LSC. As a general rule, in both forms the direction of the more intense nystagmus points to the affected side. "NID-BLT" was effective in identifying the form and the side in 22/28 subjects (79% of the study population). The proper execution and interpretation of the "NID-BLT" helps to establish the form (geotropic versus apogeotropic) and side (right versus left) in most cases of LSC-BPPV. Unlike

  17. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; Lin, Naiguo; Wilber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  18. Accuracy of an earpiece face-bow.

    PubMed

    Palik, J F; Nelson, D R; White, J T

    1985-06-01

    The validity of the Hanau ear-bow to transfer an arbitrary hinge axis to a Hanau articulator was clinically compared with a Hanau kinematic face-bow. The study was conducted with 18 randomly selected patients. This investigation demonstrated a significant statistical difference between the arbitrary axis located with an ear-bow and the terminal hinge axis. This discrepancy was significant in the anteroposterior direction but not in the superior-inferior direction. Only 50% of the arbitrary hinge axes were within a 5 mm radius of the terminal hinge axis, while 89% were within a 6 mm radius. Furthermore, the ear-bow method was not repeatable statistically. Additional study is needed to determine the practical value of the arbitrary face-bow and to pursue modifications to improve its accuracy.

  19. The Modern Compound Bow.

    PubMed

    Sung, LokMan; Kesha, Kilak; Avedschmidt, Sarah; Root, Kelly; Hlavaty, Leigh

    2017-06-12

    Bows and arrows are ancient weapons that have risen and fallen as the preeminent armaments used by man. Because of the ubiquity of firearms, fatalities from archery injuries in the United States have radically declined. However, when deaths involving this weapon do present themselves, the paucity of reference materials can be a hurdle for forensic pathologists and other forensic scientists. This article will provide a brief history of the origins of the bow and the inception of the compound bow. Comparing and contrasting the structures comprising a traditional bow to those of the modern compound bow will provide insight into how these components function in unison to propel arrows. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Bow and arrow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlow, W. C.

    1981-04-01

    Past analyses of bow and arrow dynamics have assumed the string to be inextensible. This results in predictions of efficiencies that are significantly higher than measured values (efficiencies over 90% are predicted versus 70% to 85% for measurements, circa 1960). The present analysis allows for an elastic string. It is found that arrow exit then takes place when the string and bow limbs still have substantial kinetic energy, and therefore this energy is unavailable for kinetic energy of the arrow. Moreover, the potential energy remaining in the string and bow limb system can also reduce the amount of energy available for the arrow. For the Hickman model of a long bow used in this study, the elastic string prediction of efficiency is 78%, whereas the inelastic prediction is 92%. The analysis utilizes a Lagrangian distributed mass formulation to develop the governing equations of motion and to generate an equivalent point mass model. The equations of motion were numerically integrated to obtain efficiency, arrow velocity, virtual masses, string tension, string extension, arrow exit time, string and limb potential energies, system momentum, and the dynamic force required to hold the bow handle stationary. Estimates of the effect of air resistance were made and found to be less than 2% of the total system energy. The vibratory dynamics of the string and bow limbs subsequent to arrow exit was analyzed. The results of the elastic string considerations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data and negate the usual explanation for the long-standing discrepancy between theory and experiment as due to air resistance and hysteresis losses in the string and bow limbs.

  1. Measurement and reversal of the direct oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, Bethany T; Cuker, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) offer noninferior efficacy and improved safety compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Unlike VKAs, DOACs do not require routine laboratory monitoring of anticoagulant effect and dose adjustment. In certain situations, however, laboratory assessment of anticoagulant effect may be desirable. Here we review the utility of currently available assays for assessment of DOAC effect and recommend an optimal assessment strategy for each drug, including calibrated dilute thrombin time or ecarin-based assays for dabigatran and calibrated anti-Xa activity assays for the factor Xa inhibitors. We also discuss reversal strategies, both specific and nonspecific, for each drug, including the preferential use of idarucizumab for the reversal of dabigatran and two agents, andexanet and ciraparantag, currently under development for the reversal of rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 43. Bow thruster room. Bow thruster engine not used for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Bow thruster room. Bow thruster engine not used for powering hydraulics to boom as in some other tenders in same class. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter BRAMBLE, Waterfront at Lincoln Avenue, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  3. Neptune inbound bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam; Lepping, Ronald P.

    1995-01-01

    Voyager 2 crossed the inbound or upstream Neptunian bow shock at 1430 spacecraft event time on August 24 in 1989 (Belcher et al., 1989). The plasma and magnetic field measurements allow us to study the solar wind interaction with the outermost gas giant. To fully utilize all of the spacecraft observations, an improved nonlinear least squares, 'Rankine-Hugoniot' magnetohydrodynamic shock-fitting technique has been developed (Szabo, 1994). This technique is applied to the Neptunian data set. We find that the upstream bow shock normal points nearly exactly toward the Sun consistent with any reasonable large-scale model of the bow shock for a near subsolar crossing. The shock was moving outward with a speed of 14 +/- 12 km/s. The shock can be characterized as a low beta, high Mach number, strong quasi-perpendicular shock. Finally, the shock microstructure features are resolved and found to scale well with theoretical expectations.

  4. The effect of transducer directivity on time reversal focusing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Clemens, Miles; Willardson, Matthew L

    2017-07-01

    This letter explores the effect of the directivity of a source on time reversal acoustic focusing of energy. A single loudspeaker produces an airborne focus of sound in a reverberation chamber and in a classroom. Individual foci are created at microphone positions that surround the loudspeaker. The primary axis of the loudspeaker is then rotated and experiments are repeated to average out the room response. Focal amplitude, temporal quality of the foci, and spatial focusing quality are compared to determine the optimal angle to aim a directional source axis relative to the desired focal position.

  5. Demographic noise can reverse the direction of deterministic selection

    PubMed Central

    Constable, George W. A.; Rogers, Tim; McKane, Alan J.; Tarnita, Corina E.

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic evolutionary theory robustly predicts that populations displaying altruistic behaviors will be driven to extinction by mutant cheats that absorb common benefits but do not themselves contribute. Here we show that when demographic stochasticity is accounted for, selection can in fact act in the reverse direction to that predicted deterministically, instead favoring cooperative behaviors that appreciably increase the carrying capacity of the population. Populations that exist in larger numbers experience a selective advantage by being more stochastically robust to invasions than smaller populations, and this advantage can persist even in the presence of reproductive costs. We investigate this general effect in the specific context of public goods production and find conditions for stochastic selection reversal leading to the success of public good producers. This insight, developed here analytically, is missed by the deterministic analysis as well as by standard game theoretic models that enforce a fixed population size. The effect is found to be amplified by space; in this scenario we find that selection reversal occurs within biologically reasonable parameter regimes for microbial populations. Beyond the public good problem, we formulate a general mathematical framework for models that may exhibit stochastic selection reversal. In this context, we describe a stochastic analog to r−K theory, by which small populations can evolve to higher densities in the absence of disturbance. PMID:27450085

  6. Bow Shocks in Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-05

    Bow shocks thought to mark the paths of massive, speeding stars are highlighted in these images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. Cosmic bow shocks occur when massive stars zip through space, pushing material ahead of them in the same way that water piles up in front of a race boat. The stars also produce high-speed winds that smack into this compressed material. The end result is pile-up of heated material that glows in infrared light. In these images, infrared light has been assigned the colored red. Green shows wispy dust in the region and blue shows stars. The two images at left are from Spitzer, and the one on the right is from WISE. The speeding stars thought to be creating the bow shocks can be seen at the center of each arc-shaped feature. The image at right actually consists of two bow shocks and two speeding stars. All the speeding stars are massive, ranging from about 8 to 30 times the mass of our sun. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20062

  7. Differential Binding Models for Direct and Reverse Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Isaac; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2016-03-10

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a technique to measure the stoichiometry and thermodynamics from binding experiments. Identifying an appropriate mathematical model to evaluate titration curves of receptors with multiple sites is challenging, particularly when the stoichiometry or binding mechanism is not available. In a recent theoretical study, we presented a differential binding model (DBM) to study calorimetry titrations independently of the interaction among the binding sites (Herrera, I.; Winnik, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 8659-8672). Here, we build upon our DBM and show its practical application to evaluate calorimetry titrations of receptors with multiple sites independently of the titration direction. Specifically, we present a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the general form d[S]/dV that can be integrated numerically to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of free and bound species S at every injection step and, subsequently, to evaluate the volume-normalized heat signal (δQ(V) = δq/dV) of direct and reverse calorimetry titrations. Additionally, we identify factors that influence the shape of the titration curve and can be used to optimize the initial concentrations of titrant and analyte. We demonstrate the flexibility of our updated DBM by applying these differentials and a global regression analysis to direct and reverse calorimetric titrations of gadolinium ions with multidentate ligands of increasing denticity, namely, diglycolic acid (DGA), citric acid (CIT), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and use statistical tests to validate the stoichiometries for the metal-ligand pairs studied.

  8. The foreshock region upstream from the Comet Halley bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, K. A.; Balsiger, H.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E. G.

    1987-01-01

    A few hours prior to the crossing of the Comet Halley bow shock, the Giotto spacecraft intermittently encountered an electron foreshock region. The electron foreshock is characterized by magnetic connection to the cometary bow shock and increased field aligned electron heat flux directed away from the bow shock. A similar region was intermittently encountered by the ICE spacecraft prior to its crossing of the Giacobini-Zinner bow wave. During periods of magnetic connection with the Halley bow shock, enhanced magnetic field fluctuations were observed. These enhancements are interpreted as indirect evidence of an ion foreshock in the electron foreshock. No clearly identifiable backstreaming protons are observed during these periods of magnetic connection, however, because it may be difficult to separate a backstreaming population from the cometary pick-up proton population already present in the upstream region.

  9. The foreshock region upstream from the Comet Halley bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Anderson, K. A.; Balsiger, H.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E. G.

    1987-01-01

    A few hours prior to the crossing of the Comet Halley bow shock, the Giotto spacecraft intermittently encountered an electron foreshock region. The electron foreshock is characterized by magnetic connection to the cometary bow shock and increased field aligned electron heat flux directed away from the bow shock. A similar region was intermittently encountered by the ICE spacecraft prior to its crossing of the Giacobini-Zinner bow wave. During periods of magnetic connection with the Halley bow shock, enhanced magnetic field fluctuations were observed. These enhancements are interpreted as indirect evidence of an ion foreshock in the electron foreshock. No clearly identifiable backstreaming protons are observed during these periods of magnetic connection, however, because it may be difficult to separate a backstreaming population from the cometary pick-up proton population already present in the upstream region.

  10. The static response of a bowed inclined hot wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smits, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    The directional sensitivity of a bowed, inclined hot wire is investigated using a simple model for the convective heat transfer. The static response is analyzed for subsonic and supersonic flows. It is shown that the effects of both end conduction and wire bowing are greater in supersonic flow. Regardless of the Mach number, however, these two phenomena have distinctly different effects; end conduction appears to be responsible for reducing the nonlinearity of the response, whereas bowing increases the directional sensitivity. Comparison with the available data suggests that the analysis is useful for interpreting the experimental results.

  11. Marble bowing: comparative studies of three different public building facades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegesmund, S.; Ruedrich, J.; Koch, A.

    2008-12-01

    The veneer cladding of the Oeconomicum (OEC, Göttingen), the State Theatre of Darmstadt (STD, Darmstadt) and of the State and University Library (SUB, Göttingen) is characterised by pronounced bowing after a short time of exposure. Direct comparison of bowing data related to measurements from 2000 to 2003 at the SUB clearly show that the amplitude in bowing had significantly increased. The bowing is different in intensity and orientation (concave, convex). The cladding material (Peccia marble, Rosa Estremoz marble and Carrara marble) are different in lattice preferred orientation, grain size distribution and grain interlocking. Depending on the bowing, panels may show cracks mostly initiated at the dowels. The percentage of visible cracks and breakouts increases with the amplitude of bowing except for the STD. Repetitive heating-cooling under dry conditions leads to considerable inelastic residual strain only after the first or second thermal cycle. The residual strain continuously increases again if water is present, whereby the moisture content after a thermal cycle has a certain impact on the decay rate. The water-enhanced thermal dilatation strongly correlates with the deterioration rate obtained from the laboratory bow test. Detailed petrophysical investigations provide evidence that with increasing bowing a decrease of mechanical properties (flexural strength or breaking load at dowel hole) occur. Marble degradation is also connected with the increase in porosity and a general shift of the maximum pore radii to larger pore sizes. On-site damage analyses were combined with laboratory tests of the bowing potential to constrain factors that may influence the risk failure. The experimental bowing data clearly demonstrate that after 40 heating cycles combined with the effect of moisture a certain impact on the decay rate is observed. In the case of demounted panels the bowing tests show that already strongly deformed panels from the building exhibit a lower

  12. Martian bow shock - Phobos observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Lichtenegger, H.; Eroshenko, E.; Sauer, K.

    1990-01-01

    Data obtained with the Magma magnetometer on the subsolar passes of the Phobos spacecraft during its 3 elliptic orbits reveals a turbulent bow shock with a strong foot consistent with the reflection of solar wind protons. The bow shock lies at a subsolar distance of 1.47 + or - .03 R(M). The circular orbit phase of the mission reveals a bow shock with a highly varying location. The median terminator crossing lies at 2.72 Mars radii. The location of the bow shock in the terminator plane is sensitive to neither the EUV flux nor to planetary longitude.

  13. Martian bow shock: Phobos observations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Lichtenegger, H. ); Yeroshenko, Ye. ); Sauer, K. ); Luhmann, J.G.; Ong, M.; Russell, C.T. )

    1990-05-01

    Data obtained with the MAGMA magnetometer on the subsolar passes of the Phobos spacecraft during its 3 elliptic orbits reveals a turbulent bow shock with a strong foot consistent with the reflection of solar wind protons. The bow shock lies at a subsolar distance of 1.47 {plus minus} .03 R{sub M}. The circular orbit phase of the mission reveals a bow shock with a highly varying location. The median terminator crossing lies at 2.72 Mars radii. The location of the bow shock in the terminator plane is sensitive to neither the EUV flux nor to planetary longitude.

  14. Martian bow shock - PHOBOS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Lichtenegger, H.; Yeroshenko, Ye.; Sauer, K.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ong, M.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-05-01

    Data obtained with the Magma magnetometer on the subsolar passes of the Phobos spacecraft during its 3 elliptic orbits reveals a turbulent bow shock with a strong foot consistent with the reflection of solar wind protons. The bow shock lies at a subsolar distance of 1.47 + or - .03 R(M). The circular orbit phase of the mission reveals a bow shock with a highly varying location. The median terminator crossing lies at 2.72 Mars radii. The location of the bow shock in the terminator plane is sensitive to neither the EUV flux nor to planetary longitude.

  15. AOTV bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desautel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hypersonic bow-shock location and geometry are of central importance to the aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs), but they are difficult to predict for a given vehicle configuration. This paper reports experimental measurements of shock standoff distance for the 70 deg cone AOTV configuration in shock-tunnel-test flows at Mach numbers of 3.8 to 7.9 and for angles of attack from 0 deg to 20 deg. The controlling parameter for hypersonic bow-shock standoff distance (for a given forebody shape) is the mean normal-shock density ratio. Values for this parameter in the tests reported are in the same range as those of the drag-brake AOTV perigee regime. Results for standoff distance are compared with those previously reported in the literature for this AOTV configuration. It is concluded that the AOTV shock standoff distance for the conical configuration, based on frustrum (base) radius, is equivalent to that of a sphere with a radius about 35 percent greater than that of the cone; the distance is, therefore, much less than reported in previous studies. Some reasons for the discrepancies between the present and previous are advanced. The smaller standoff distance determined here implies there will be less radiative heat transfer than was previously expected.

  16. Coordination of bowing and fingering in violin playing.

    PubMed

    Baader, Andreas P; Kazennikov, Oleg; Wiesendanger, Mario

    2005-05-01

    Playing string instruments implies motor skills including asymmetrical interlimb coordination. How special is musical skill as compared to other bimanually coordinated, non-musical skillful performances? We succeeded for the first time to measure quantitatively bimanual coordination in violinists playing repeatedly a simple tone sequence. A motion analysis system was used to record finger and bow trajectories for assessing the temporal structure of finger-press, finger-lift (left hand), and bow stroke reversals (right arm). The main results were: (1) fingering consisted of serial and parallel (anticipatory) mechanisms; (2) synchronization between finger and bow actions varied from -12 ms to 60 ms, but these 'errors' were not perceived. The results suggest that (1) bow-finger synchronization varied by about 50 ms from perfect simultaneity, but without impairing auditory perception; (2) the temporal structure depends on a number of combinatorial mechanisms of bowing and fingering. These basic mechanisms were observed in all players, including all amateurs. The successful biomechanical measures of fingering and bowing open a vast practical field of assessing motor skills. Thus, objective assessment of larger groups of string players with varying musical proficiency, or of professional string players developing movement disorders, may be helpful in music education.

  17. Character Reversal in Children: The Prominent Role of Writing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has established that 5- to 6-year-old typically developing children in a left-right writing culture spontaneously reverse left-oriented characters (e.g., they write a [reversed J] instead of J) when they write single characters. Thus, children seem to implicitly apply a right-writing rule (RWR: see Fischer & Koch, 2016a). In…

  18. Character Reversal in Children: The Prominent Role of Writing Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has established that 5- to 6-year-old typically developing children in a left-right writing culture spontaneously reverse left-oriented characters (e.g., they write a [reversed J] instead of J) when they write single characters. Thus, children seem to implicitly apply a right-writing rule (RWR: see Fischer & Koch, 2016a). In…

  19. The earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies directly pertaining to the earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath are reviewed, and some comparisons are made with data on other planets. Topics considered in detail include the electron foreshock, the ion foreshock, the quasi-parallel shock, the quasi-perpendicular shock, and the magnetosheath. Information discussed spans a broad range of disciplines, from large-scale macroscopic plasma phenomena to small-scale microphysical interactions. 184 refs.

  20. Analysis of the Giacobini-Zinner bow wave

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Bame, S.J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Richardson, I.G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F.M.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Coplan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cometary bow wave of P/Giacobini-Zinner has been analyzed using the complete set of ICE field and particle observations to determine if it is a shock. Changes in the magnetic field and plasma flow velocities from upstream to downstream have been analyzed to determine the direction of the normal and the propagation velocity of the bow wave. The velocity has then been compared with the fast magnetosonic wave speed upstream to derive the Mach number and establish whether it is ''supersonic'', i.e., a shock, or ''subsonic,'' i.e., a large amplitude wave. The various measurements have also been compared with values derived from a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis. The results indicate that, inbound, the bow wave is a shock with M = 1.5. Outbound, a subsonic mach number is obtained, however, arguments are presented that the bow wave is also likely to be a shock at this location. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A comparative review of bow shocks and magnetopauses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Bow shock and magnetopauses formation is discussed. Plasma and magnetic field environments of all the planets from Mercury to Saturn were measured. It was found that all the planets have bow shocks and almost all have a magnetopause. Venus is the only planet with no measurable intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind interacts directly with Venus' ionosphere. The bow shock characteristics depend on the changing solar wind conditions. The shape of a magnetopause or any obstacle to flow depends on the three dimensional pressure profile that it presents to the solar wind. Jupiter is unusual because of the considerable amount of plasma which is contained in its magnetosphere. Magnetopause boundaries in ecliptic plane projection are modelled by segments of ellipses, matched to straight lines for the magnetotool boundaries or parabolas. Specific properties of known planetary bow shocks and magnetopauses are reviewed.

  2. Analysis of the Giacobini-Zinner bow wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Slavin, J. A.; Bame, S. J.; Thomsen, M. F.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Richardson, I. G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Coplan, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The cometary bow wave of P/Giacobini-Zinner has been analyzed using the complete set of ICE field and particle observations to determine if it is a shock. Changes in the magnetic field and plasma flow velocities from upstream to downstream have been analyzed to determine the direction of the normal and the propagation velocity of the bow wave. The velocity has then been compared with the fast magnetosonic wave speed upstream to derive the Mach number and establish whether it is supersonic, i.e., a shock, or subsonic, i.e., a large amplitude wave. The various measurements have also been compared with values derived from a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis. The results indicate that, inbound, the bow wave is a shock with M = 1.5. Outbound, a subsonic Mach number is obtained, however, arguments are presented that the bow wave is also likely to be a shock at this location.

  3. The influence of IMF clock angle on the cross section of the tail bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Lu, J. Y.; Kabin, K.; Yuan, H. Z.; Ma, X.; Liu, Z.-Q.; Yang, Y. F.; Zhao, J. S.; Li, G.

    2016-11-01

    We study effects of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation on the terrestrial tail bow shock location and shape by using global MHD magnetosphere model and empirical bow shock models. It is shown that the tail bow shock cross section is well approximated by an ellipse with the direction of the major axis roughly perpendicular to the IMF clock angle direction. With the increasing IMF clock angle, the eccentricity of the bow shock cross section increases for northward IMF but decreases for southward IMF.

  4. How we broke the BOWS watermark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craver, Scott; Atakli, Idris; Yu, Jun

    2007-02-01

    From December 2005 to March of 2006, the Break Our Watermarking System (BOWS) contest challenged researchers to break an image watermark of unknown design. The attacked images had to possess a minimum quality level of 30 dB PSNR, and the winners would be those of highest average quality over three images. Our research team won this challenge, employing the strategy of reverse-engineering the watermark before any attempts to attack it in earnest. We determined the frequency transform, sub-band, and an exploitable quirk in the detector that made it sensitive to noise spikes. Of interest is our overall methodology of reverse-engineering through severe false alarms, and we introduce a new concept, "superrobustness," which despite its positive name is a security flaw.

  5. Direct observation of DNA overwinding by reverse gyrase

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Taisaku; Yogo, Katsunori; Furuike, Shou; Sutoh, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Reverse gyrase, found in hyperthermophiles, is the only enzyme known to overwind (introduce positive supercoils into) DNA. The ATP-dependent activity, detected at >70 °C, has so far been studied solely by gel electrophoresis; thus, the reaction dynamics remain obscure. Here, we image the overwinding reaction at 71 °C under a microscope, using DNA containing consecutive 30 mismatched base pairs that serve as a well-defined substrate site. A single reverse gyrase molecule processively winds the DNA for >100 turns. Bound enzyme shows moderate temperature dependence, retaining significant activity down to 50 °C. The unloaded reaction rate at 71 °C exceeds five turns per second, which is >102-fold higher than hitherto indicated but lower than the measured ATPase rate of 20 s−1, indicating loose coupling. The overwinding reaction sharply slows down as the torsional stress accumulates in DNA and ceases at stress of mere ∼5 pN⋅nm, where one more turn would cost only sixfold the thermal energy. The enzyme would thus keep DNA in a slightly overwound state to protect, but not overprotect, the genome of hyperthermophiles against thermal melting. Overwinding activity is also highly sensitive to DNA tension, with an effective interaction length exceeding the size of reverse gyrase, implying requirement for slack DNA. All results point to the mechanism where strand passage relying on thermal motions, as in topoisomerase IA, is actively but loosely biased toward overwinding. PMID:26023188

  6. Magnetic Fields and Bow Shocks Illustration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-19

    This illustration shows quasi-parallel top and quasi-perpendicular bottom magnetic field conditions at a planetary bow shock. Bow shocks are shockwaves created when the solar wind blows on a planet magnetic field.

  7. Rare Etiology of Bow Hunter’s Syndrome and Systematic Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Rawls, Ashley; Moore, Omar; Victorica, Benjamin; Khan, Sheema; Saravanapavan, Pradeepan; Midivelli, Sunitha; Raviraj, Prathap; Khanna, Anna; Bidari, Sharathchandra; Hedna, Vishnumurthy S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bow Hunter’s Syndrome is a mechanical occlusion of the vertebral artery which leads to a reduction in blood flow in posterior cerebral circulation resulting in transient reversible symptomatic vertebrobasilar insufficiency. CASE DESCRIPTION We present a case of Bow Hunter’s syndrome in a 53-year-old male that occurred after the patient underwent surgical correction of a proximal left subclavian artery aneurysm. Shortly after the surgery, the patient began to complain of transient visual changes, presyncopal spells, and dizziness upon turning his head to the left. A transcranial doppler ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of Bow Hunter’s syndrome. SYSTEMIC REVIEW We analyzed the data on 153 patients with Bow Hunter’s syndrome from the literature. An osteophyte was the most common cause of vertebral artery occlusion, and left vertebral artery was more commonly involved in patients with Bow Hunter’s syndrome. Dynamic angiography was the definitive imaging modality to confirm the diagnosis, and surgery was most successful in alleviating symptoms. CONCLUSION We believe that this is the first case of iatrogenic Bow Hunter’s syndrome after surgical intervention for an aneurysm repair, and the largest review of literature of Bow Hunter’s syndrome. Dynamic angiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of Bow Hunter’s syndrome. Surgery should be considered as the primary treatment approach in these patients, especially those who have bony compression as the etiology. PMID:26301025

  8. Direct Measurement of Impurity Transport in a Field Reversed Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, T.; Bolte, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; McWilliams, R.; Wessel, F.

    2011-10-01

    An optical tomography system has been developed and implemented in the Flux Coil Generated Field Reversed Configuration (FCG-FRC) at Tri Alpha Energy. Sixteen chords view ~ 35 % of the FRC at the mid-plane. The chords are arranged in two identical fans of eight chords each. To measure transport of an impurity species, argon, an FRC is generated using either Nitrogen or Deuterium as the primary species. A puff valve is activated prior to the shot such that the argon begins to bleed in to the vacuum chamber as the FRC is formed. The gas is puffed at the optimal location for tomographic reconstruction. Each chord is collimated to illuminate a fiber optic cable which is fed to an array of photomultiplier tubes which are fitted with neutral density and band pass filters to allow the appropriate amount of light from the emitting, singly ionized, argon at 434 . 8 nm to be measured. Using a preliminary assumption that density of argon is proportional to light intensity gathered data have been used to reconstruct density profiles. These profiles often peak near the field null. The data are being analyzed to determine diffusive and convective transport coefficients.

  9. Reversed scan direction reduces electron beam damage in EBSD maps.

    PubMed

    Kidder, S; Prior, D

    2014-08-01

    The deleterious effects of electron beam damage on high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps of undeformed quartz are significantly reduced by scanning in the direction opposite to that dictated by widely used EBSD acquisition software. Higher quality electron backscatter patterns are produced when the electron beam moves progressively down the sample (the apparent 'up' direction in the resulting maps) for all step sizes where beam damage affects EBSD map quality (≤ ∼0.4 μm in this study). The relative improvement associated with downward scanning increases as step size is reduced. A comparison of high-resolution maps made in experimentally deformed quartz demonstrates that downward scanning reduces by a factor of ∼2 the lower limit in step size relative to maps scanned in the conventional direction. The electron beam damages quartz at its point of entry, forming ∼0.1-μm diameter bumps visible in Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Downward scanning produces better results because it minimizes the flux of electrons through these loci of damaged crystal. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Featured Image: A Search for Stellar Bow Shock Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    These dynamic infrared images (click for the full view!) reveal what are known as bow shock nebulae nebulae that form at the interface between the interstellar medium and the stellar wind from a high-speed star zipping through the galaxy (the arrows show the direction of motion of the star). When the relative speed between the two is supersonic, an arc-shaped bow shock forms ahead of the star, like the six prototypical ones pictured here. A team of scientists led by Henry Kobulnicky (University of Wyoming) has recently searched through survey data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WISE) to build a catalog of more than 700 such bow-shock nebula candidates, the vast majority of which are new discoveries. To find out more about their sample, check out the paper below!CitationHenry A. Kobulnicky et al 2016 ApJS 227 18. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/227/2/18

  11. Foreshock ions observed behind the Martian bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, R. A.; Yamauchi, M.; Winningham, J. D.; Lundin, R.; Sharber, J. R.; Nilsson, H.; Coates, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Express Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms experiment contains ion and electron instruments for conducting plasma measurements. On January 23, 2012, during in-bound travel of Mars Express in the southern hemisphere of Mars from its dawn side toward periapsis at dusk, the plasma instruments measured foreshock-like ion beams extending from outside the bow shock and into the magnetosphere, continuing to a distance of about a proton gyroradius from the bow shock. These ion beams were mostly protons, were observed to have energies greater than solar wind protons, and were not gyrating, in agreement with reflections of the solar wind proton beam. Furthermore, in the foreshock region the ion energy gradually decreased toward the magnetosheath, in agreement with an acceleration by outward-directed electric field in the bowshock. The observations also suggest that this electric field exists even inside the magnetosheath within the distance of a proton gyroradius from the bow shock.

  12. Recognising faces: effects of lighting direction, inversion, and brightness reversal.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alan; Hill, Harold; Carman, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    When information about three-dimensional shape obtained from shading and shadows is ambiguous, the visual system favours an interpretation of surface geometry which is consistent with illumination from above. If pictures of top-lit faces are rotated the resulting stimulus is both figurally inverted and illuminated from below. In this study the question of whether the effects of figural inversion and lighting orientation on face recognition are independent or interactive is addressed. Although there was a clear inversion effect for faces illuminated from the front and above, the inversion effect was found to be reduced or eliminated for faces illuminated from below. A strong inversion effect for photographic negatives was also found but in this case the effect was not dependent on the direction of illumination. These findings are interpreted as evidence to suggest that lighting faces from below disrupts the formation of surface-based representations of facial shape.

  13. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, André

    2014-12-11

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  14. The player and the bowed string: coordination of bowing parameters in violin and viola performance.

    PubMed

    Schoonderwaldt, E

    2009-11-01

    An experiment was conducted with four violin and viola players, measuring their bowing performance using an optical motion capture system and sensors on the bow. The measurements allowed for a detailed analysis of the use and coordination of the main bowing parameters bow velocity, bow force, and bow-bridge distance. An analysis of bowing strategies in detache playing of notes of three durations (0.2, 2, and 4 s) at three dynamic levels (pp, mf, and f) on all four strings is presented, focusing on the "steady" part of the notes. The results revealed clear trends in the coordinated variations of the bowing parameters depending on the constraints of the task, reflecting a common behavior as well as individual strategies. Furthermore, there were clear indications that the players adapted the bowing parameters to the physical properties of the string and the instrument, respecting the limits of the playable control parameter space.

  15. Orion Nebula and Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found a bow shock around a very young star in the nearby Orion nebula, an intense star-forming region of gas and dust.

    A picture, from the Hubble Heritage team, is available at http://heritage.stsci.edu or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/05 or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . It was taken in February 1995 as part of the Hubble Orion Nebula mosaic by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Named for the crescent-shaped wave a ship makes as it moves through water, a bow shock can form in space when two gas streams collide. In this case, the young star, LL Ori, emits a vigorous wind, a stream of charged particles moving rapidly outward from the star. Our own Sun has a less energetic version of this wind that is responsible for auroral displays on the Earth.

    The material spewed from LL Ori collides with slow-moving gas evaporating away from the center of the Orion nebula, located to the lower right of the image. The surface where the two winds collide is seen as the crescent-shaped bow shock.

    Unlike a water wave from a ship, this interstellar bow shock is three-dimensional. The filamentary emission has a distinct boundary on the side facing away from LL Ori, but is diffuse on the side closest to the star, a trait common to many bow shocks.

    A second, fainter bow shock can be seen around a star near the upper right-hand corner of the image. Astronomers have identified numerous shock fronts in this complex star-forming region and are using this data to understand the complex phenomena associated with star birth.

    The Orion nebula is a close neighbor in our Milky Way galaxy, at only 1,500 light-years from Earth. The filters used in this color composite represent oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen emissions.

  16. [Homicide by bow and arrow].

    PubMed

    Germerott, Tanja; Jänisch, Stefanie; Tröger, Hans Dieter; Günther, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Since the invention of firearms, arrow wounds represent a rarity in the daily routine of forensic pathologists. In the present paper, we describe a homicide by a broadhead arrow shot from a compound bow in a domestic environment. Based on this homicide, we discuss the characteristics of the lesion caused by broadhead arrows and field-tip arrows. We look critically at the free saleability of this equipment mostly used for sport shooting in Germany.

  17. Effects of bowing on perception of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Takayuki; Kawahara, Jun I

    2015-07-01

    Bowing is a greeting behavior. The present study examined the modulation effect of bowing on perception of attractiveness. In each trial, a portrait digitized from university yearbooks was presented on a computer screen. The portrait was mildly tilted toward participants to simulate a greeting bow (25-degree angle). Participants evaluated the subjective attractiveness of the face using a visual analog scale (0-100). The mean attractiveness judgment of the bowing portrait was significantly higher relative to that of the bending-backward or standing-still control conditions (Experiment 1). Additional control experiments revealed that alternative accounts relying on apparent spatial proximity and physical characteristics could not solely explain the effect of bowing (Experiment 2) and indicated that the effect was specific to objects perceived as faces (Experiment 3). Furthermore, observers' in-return bowing behavior did not reduce the bowing effect (Experiment 4), and bowing motion increased the ratings of subjective politeness and submissiveness (Experiment 5). Finally, tilting the 3D faces elicited the same effect from observers as did tilting the still photos (Experiment 6). These results suggest that a tilting motion of portraits (or images of face-like objects) mimicking bowing enhances perceived attractiveness, at least as measured in a culture familiar with greeting by bowing.

  18. Reversing the direction of space and inverse Doppler effect in positive refraction index media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    A negative refractive index medium, in which all spatial coordinates are reversed (i.e. a left-hand triplet is formed) by a spatial folding transformation, can create many novel electromagnetic phenomena, e.g. backward wave propagation, and inversed Doppler effect (IDE). In this study, we use coordinate rotation transformation to reverse only two spatial coordinates (e.g. x‧ and y‧), while keeping z‧ unchanged. In this case, some novel phenomena, e.g. radiation-direction-reversing illusions and IDE, can be achieved in a free space region wrapped by the proposed shell without any negative refractive index medium, which is easier for experimental realization and future applications.

  19. Reversals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers nine materials for remediating reversals in handicapped students at the early childhood and elementary levels. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession…

  20. Results from cascade thrust reverser noise and suppression experiments. [sound power level directivity and spectral characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, O. A.; Stone, J. R.; Friedman, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results from experimental work on model scale cascade reversers with cold airflow are presented. Sound power level directivity and spectral characteristics for cascade reversers are reported. Effect of cascade exit area ratio, vane profile shape, and emission arc are discussed. Model equivalent diameters varied from 3 to 5 inches, pressure ratios range from 1.15 to 3.0. Depending on the reverser type, acoustic power was proportional to the 4 1/2 to 6th power of ideal jet velocity. Reverser noise peaked at higher frequency and was more omnidirectional than nozzle-alone jet noise. Appreciable reduction in sideline noise was obtained from plane shields. Airfoil-vaned cascades were the most aerodynamically efficient and least noisy reversers. Scaling of cascade reverser data to example aircraft engines showed all cascades above the 95 PNdB sideline goal from STOL aircraft. However, the airfoil-vaned reverser has a good potential for meeting this goal for high-bypass (low pressure ratio) exhausts.

  1. Search for systemic mass loss in Algols with bow shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Deschamps, R.; Jorissen, A.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Various studies indicate that interacting binary stars of Algol type evolve non-conservatively. However, direct detections of systemic mass loss in Algols have been scarce so far. We study the systemic mass loss in Algols by looking for the presence of infrared excesses originating from the thermal emission of dust grains, which is linked to the presence of a stellar wind. Methods: In contrast to previous studies, we make use of the fact that stellar and interstellar material is piled up at the edge of the astrosphere where the stellar wind interacts with the interstellar medium. We analyse WISE W3 12 μm and WISE W4 22 μm data of Algol-type binary Be and B[e] stars and the properties of their bow shocks. From the stand-off distance of the bow shock we are able to determine the mass-loss rate of the binary system. Results: Although the velocities of the stars with respect to the interstellar medium are quite low, we find bow shocks present in two systems, namely π Aqr, and ϕ Per; a third system, CX Dra, shows a more irregular circumstellar environment morphology which might somehow be related to systemic mass loss. The properties of the two bow shocks point to mass-loss rates and wind velocities typical of single B stars, which do not support an enhanced systemic mass loss.

  2. The occurrence of convective systems with a bow echo in warm season in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Palarz, Angelika

    2017-09-01

    The characteristics of occurrence of convective systems with a bow echo in Poland in the warm season between 2007 and 2014 were presented. Using the identification criteria proposed by Fujita (1978), Burke and Schultz (2004), Klimowski et al. (2000, 2004), and supplemented by Gatzen (2013), 91 bow echo cases were identified in the analysed period. Depending on the year, the maximum number of cases usually occurred in July or August. From the multi-annual perspective, 28 and 30 cases occurred in those months. The diurnal variation of bow echo occurrences showed that it developed, or entered the Polish territory, usually between the hours of 13:00 UTC and 21:00 UTC, while it disappeared or receded beyond the country border in the hours between 15:00 UTC and 23:00 UTC. The areas most exposed to the occurrence of bow echo included the northern part of Lubuskie and Wielkopolska provinces, the southern part of West Pomerania province, Łódź province and Silesia province. In the period studied, the south-western direction of movement of convective systems with a bow echo was prevalent. This direction changed, however, depending on the region and the month of occurrence. The type and development mode of a bow echo, as well as synoptic conditions conducive to its occurrence were defined for selected cases. The results showed that BECs (bow-echo complex) and BEs (classic bow echo) were the predominant types (respectively 43 and 29 cases). Bow echoes developed most frequently from a squall line, or from a combination of a few, often weakly organized convective cells.

  3. The violin bow: taper, camber and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Gough, Colin

    2011-12-01

    An analytic, small-deflection, simplified model of the modern violin bow is introduced to describe the bending profiles and related strengths of an initially straight, uniform cross-section, stick as a function of bow hair tension. A number of illustrative bending profiles (cambers) of the bow are considered, which demonstrate the strong dependence of the flexibility of the bow on longitudinal forces across the ends of the bent stick. Such forces are shown to be comparable in strength to critical buckling loads causing excessive sideways buckling unless the stick is very straight. Non-linear, large deformation, finite element computations extend the analysis to bow hair tensions comparable with and above the critical buckling strength of the straight stick. The geometric model assumes an expression for the taper of Tourte bows introduced by Vuillaume, which is re-examined and generalized to describe violin, viola and cello bows. A comparison is made with recently published measurements of the taper and bending profiles of a particularly fine bow by Kittel.

  4. Direct Observation of the Controlled Magnetization Reversal Processes in Py/Al/Py Assymmetric Ring Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Schofield, M.A.; Zhu, Y.

    2009-07-27

    Electron holographic experiments were performed to study the magnetization reversal process of patterned Py/Al/Py (20nm/20nm/10nm) asymmetric ring stacks. By changing the in-plane field applied perpendicular to the ring's symmetric axis, we directly observed the vortex-based magnetization reversal process through controlled domain wall motion and annihilation. The two magnetic layers were found to switch at different critical fields, leading to the existence of various distinct domain state combinations. Quantitative agreement was obtained between measured phase shifts and those derived from micromagnetic calculations, which allows us to resolve the layer-by-layer magnetic behavior as a function of applied external field.

  5. Bowing of marble panels: On-site damage analysis from the oeconomicum building at Goettingen (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; Siegesmund, S.

    2003-04-01

    The use of natural stone panels or cladding material for building facades has led to some durability problems, especially with marble slabs. To examine the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on bowing a very detailed study was performed on the Oeconomicum Building at the University of Goettingen. In total 1556 panels from the whole building were measured with respect to the bowing using a bow-meter. The variation of bowing ranges from concave (up to 23 mm/m) to convex (up to -11 mm/m). The variation is not controlled by the position with respect to the geographical coordinates, height above ground, shadows, temperature etc.. On the north facade the different rock structures visible on the panel surfaces are a result of the marble slabs being cut in different directions. The different degree in bowing is associated with the structure of the marble since all other influencing factors are relatively constant (position, temperature, moisture content, building physics). Experimental data on the expansion behaviour under dry and/or wet conditions reveal a different degree in bowing with respect to the rock fabric and may help to explain the observed differences in bowing. The effect of the rock fabric especially of the lattice preferred orientation in this case clearly controls the deterioration of the marble and the degree of bowing. The bowing is also characterized by an increase in the porosity, decreasing values of ultrasonic wave velocities and flexural strength. The loss of cohesion in the strongly deteriorated panels is clearly visible in the microstructure by the open grain boundaries which are interconnected to intergranular microcracks.

  6. Direct and reverse pollen-mediated gene flow between GM rice and red rice weed

    PubMed Central

    Serrat, X.; Esteban, R.; Peñas, G.; Català, M. M.; Melé, E.; Messeguer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Potential risks of genetically modified (GM) crops must be identified before their commercialization, as happens with all new technologies. One of the major concerns is the proper risk assessment of adventitious presence of transgenic material in rice fields due to cross-pollination. Several studies have been conducted in order to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow from transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) to both conventional rice and red rice weed (O. sativa f. spontanea) under field conditions. Some of these studies reported GM pollen-donor rice transferring GM traits to red rice. However, gene flow also occurs in the opposite direction, in a phenomenon that we have called reverse gene flow, resulting in transgenic seeds that have incorporated the traits of wild red rice. We quantified reverse gene flow using material from two field trials. A molecular analysis based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms was carried out, being complemented with a phenotypic identification of red rice traits. In both field trials, the reverse gene flow detected was greater than the direct gene flow. The rate of direct gene flow varied according to the relative proportions of the donor (GM rice) and receptor (red rice) plants and was influenced by wind direction. The ecological impact of reverse gene flow is limited in comparison with that of direct gene flow because non-shattered and non-dormant seeds would be obtained in the first generation. Hybrid seed would remain in the spike and therefore most of it would be removed during harvesting. Nevertheless, this phenomenon must be considered in fields used for elite seed production and in developing countries where farmers often keep some seed for planting the following year. In these cases, there is a higher risk of GM red rice weed infestation increasing from year to year and therefore a proper monitoring plan needs to be established.

  7. A variable cross-section model of the bow shock of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, Krishan K.; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) parameters like the Alfvenic and the sonic Mach numbers and the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field profoundly affect the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetized conducting objects like Venus. The size of the bow shock depends on the two Mach numbers, whereas asymmetries in its shape are governed by the direction of the magnetic field. This paper introduces a new class of bow shock models in which both the shape and the size are controlled by the upstream plasma and field conditions. We use insights from the MHD theory of shocks for point objects and empirical information from actual bow shock crossings to obtain a semiempirical, semitheoretical model of the Cytherean bow shock. The model was developed from a limited data set obtained from the Galileo flyby of Venus but is also in substantial agreement with Pioneer Venus Orbiter observations. It is shown that the dozen bow shock crossing observed by Galileo under steady conditions of solar wind flow and density were caused by changes in the cross section of the bow shock induced by the changing direction of the interplanetary magnetic field.

  8. Reversible self-assembly and directed assembly of DNA-linked micrometer-sized colloids.

    PubMed

    Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Theodoly, Olivier; Crocker, John C; Russel, William B; Chaikin, Paul M

    2005-03-22

    We present a technique for the directed assembly and self-assembly of micrometer-scale structures based on the control of specific DNA linkages between colloidal particles. The use of DNA links combined with polymer brushes provides an effective way to regulate the range and magnitude of addressable forces between pairs (and further combinations) of different particles. We demonstrate that the autoassembly of alternate microbeads as well as their directed assembly, by using laser tweezers, is reversible. The key to reversibility is preventing the particles from falling into their van der Waals well at close distances. This goal is achieved by the use of adsorbed polymers that limit the number of DNA bridges to one to three between adjacent particles.

  9. Modeling nonthermal emission from stellar bow shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, V.; López-Santiago, J.; Miceli, M.; Bonito, R.; de Castro, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Runaway O- and early B-type stars passing through the interstellar medium at supersonic velocities and characterized by strong stellar winds may produce bow shocks that can serve as particle acceleration sites. Previous theoretical models predict the production of high-energy photons by nonthermal radiative processes, but their efficiency is still debated. Aims: We aim to test and explain the possibility of emission from the bow shocks formed by runaway stars traveling through the interstellar medium by using previous theoretical models. Methods: We applied our model to AE Aurigae, the first reported star with an X-ray detected bow shock, to BD+43 3654, in which the observations failed in detecting high-energy emission, and to the transition phase of a supergiant star in the late stages of its life. Results: From our analysis, we confirm that the X-ray emission from the bow shock produced by AE Aurigae can be explained by inverse Compton processes involving the infrared photons of the heated dust. We also predict low high-energy flux emission from the bow shock produced by BD+43 3654, and the possibility of high-energy emission from the bow shock formed by a supergiant star during the transition phase from blue to red supergiant. Conclusions: Bow shocks formed by different types of runaway stars are revealed as a new possible source of high-energy photons in our neighborhood.

  10. Direct Observation of Reversible Magnesium Ion Intercalation into a Spinel Oxide Host

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chunjoong; Phillips, Patrick J.; Key, Baris; Yi, Tanghong; Nordlund, Dennis; Yu, Young-Sang; Bayliss, Ryan D.; Han, Sang-Don; He, Meinan; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Burrell, Anthony K.; Klie, Robert F.; Cabana, Jordi

    2015-06-10

    Direct evidence of Mg2+ intercalation into a spinel-type Mn2O4 is provided. By com­bining tools with different sensitivities, from atomic-resolution X-ray spectro­scopy to bulk X-ray diffraction, it is demonstrated that Mg2+ reversibly occupies the tetrahedral sites of the spinel structure through the reduction of Mn when the electrochemical reaction is performed.

  11. Viols and Other Historic Bowed String Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray; Campbell, Patsy

    While plucked strings have been used for musical purposes since at least the third millennium BCE, the idea of sounding a string by bowing it is a much more recent development. Bowed string instruments seem to have originated in Asia toward the end of the first millennium CE, and were in widespread use in Western Europe by the end of the eleventh century. For the next three centuries many different types of bowed instrument, with a bewildering variety of names, were in common use throughout Europe.

  12. Oxygen foreshock of Mars and its implication on ion acceleration in the bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Lundin, Rickard; Frahm, Rudy; Sauvaud, Jean-Andre; Holmstrom, Mats; Barabash, Stas

    2016-04-01

    Ion acceleration inside the bow shock is one of the poorly understood phenomena that has been observed for more than 30 years as the foreshock phenomena. While the Fermi-acceleration mechanism explains the diffuse component of foreshock ions, we still do not know the detailed mechanism that produces the discrete intense ions flowing along the local magnetic field direction (with and without gyration). One of the reasons for such difficulty is that majority of the bow shock study was performed for the Earth's case where Oxygen ions cannot be used to understand the acceleration mechanisms. The planetary oxygen ions that reach the Earth's bow shock have already been significantly accelerated, and are not adequate for such a study. In this sense the Martian bow shock is an ideal place to study the acceleration mechanisms leading to foreshock ions, although the nature of the bow shock is slightly different between the Earth and Mars (Yamauchi et al., 2011). On 21 September 2008, the Mars Express (MEX) Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) detected foreshock-like discrete distributions of oxygen ions at around 1 keV in the solar wind attached to the bow shock. This was the first time that a substantial amount of planetary oxygen was observed upstream of the bow shock. The oxygen energy increased from low energy (< 300 keV) inside the magnetosheath (or it should be called an extended bow shock) to nearly 2 keV at more than 2000 km from the bow shock. Foreshock-like protons are also observed but at a shifted location from the oxygen by about 1000 km, at a slightly higher energy, and flowing in a slightly different direction than the oxygen ions. Both protons and oxygen ions are flowing anti-sunward at different angles with respect to the solar wind direction. The observation is consistent with an electric potential barrier at the bow shock that simultaneously accelerates the planetary oxygen ions outward (to form the foreshock oxygen ions) and reflects a portion of the solar wind (to

  13. 46 CFR 42.20-70 - Minimum bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum bow height. 42.20-70 Section 42.20-70 Shipping... Freeboards § 42.20-70 Minimum bow height. (a) The bow height defined as the vertical distance at the forward....68. (b) Where the bow height required in paragraph (a) of this section is obtained by sheer, the...

  14. 46 CFR 42.20-70 - Minimum bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum bow height. 42.20-70 Section 42.20-70 Shipping... Freeboards § 42.20-70 Minimum bow height. (a) The bow height defined as the vertical distance at the forward....68. (b) Where the bow height required in paragraph (a) of this section is obtained by sheer, the...

  15. Cassini Observations of Saturn's High-Mach Number Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A.; Sulaiman, A.; Sergis, N.; Stawarz, L.; Fujimoto, M.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we review the most recent published work based on Cassini data taken at Saturn's bow shock. We then present an interpretation and discussion of the sum of the Cassini findings to date, with emphasis on the implications for shock-acceleration of charged particles. Future directions for work in this area are outlined.

  16. The Neural Substrates for Letter String Readings in The Normal and Reverse Directions: An fMRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Sheng; Saito, Takashi; Wu, Jing-Long; Ogasawara, Jun-Ichi; Yamauchi, Shuichi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Iramina, Keiji

    In order to investigate the difference in cortical activations between reading letter strings in the normal direction and the reverse direction, an fMRI study was conducted. In this study, the cortical activations elicited by Japanese letter string reading and Chinese letter string reading were investigated. The subjects performed the normal direction reading task (read letter strings from left to right), and the reverse direction reading task (read letter strings from right to left). According to the experimental results, the activated brain regions during the normal and the reverse direction reading tasks were compared. It was found that visuospatial transformation was involved in the reverse direction reading task, while this function was not significant during the normal direction reading task. Furthermore, we found that there was no significant difference in cortical activation between Japanese and Chinese letter string readings.

  17. Bow-shaped toroidal field coils

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanos, P.

    1981-05-01

    Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case.

  18. Acetylene is an active-site-directed, slow-binding, reversible inhibitor of Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, M.R.; Arp, D.J.

    1987-10-06

    The inhibition of purified and membrane-bound hydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii by dihydrogen-free acetylene was investigated. The inhibition was a time-dependent process which exhibited first-order kinetics. Both H/sub 2/ and CO protected against the inhibition by acetylene. K/sub protect(app)/ values of 0.41 and 24 ..mu..M were derived for these gases, respectively. Both H/sub 2/-oxidizing activity and the tritium exchange capacity of the purified enzyme were inhibited at the same rate by acetylene. Removal of acetylene reversed the inhibition for both the purified and the membrane-associated form of the enzyme. The purified hydrogenases from both Rhizobium japonicum and Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 were also inhibited by acetylene in a time-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that acetylene is an active-site-directed, slow-binding, reversible inhibitor of some membrane-bound hydrogenases from aerobic bacteria.

  19. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) μm³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.

  20. Extended red objects and stellar-wind bow shocks in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Remington O.; Povich, Matthew S.; Smith, Nathan; Babler, Brian L.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of infrared photometry on 39 extended red objects (EROs) in the Carina Nebula, observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Most EROs are identified by bright, extended 8.0 μm emission, which ranges from 10 arcsec to 40 arcsec in size, but our sample also includes four EROs identified by extended 24 μm emission. Of particular interest are nine EROs associated with late O- or early B-type stars and characterized by arc-shaped morphology, suggesting dusty, stellar-wind bow shocks. These objects are preferentially oriented towards the central regions of the Carina Nebula, suggesting that these bow shocks are generally produced by the interactions of OB winds with the bulk expansion of the H II region rather than high proper motion. We identify preferred regions of mid-infrared colour space occupied by our bow shock candidates, which also contain bow shock candidates in M17 and RCW 49 but are well separated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission or circumstellar discs. Colour cuts identify an additional 12 marginally resolved bow shock candidates, 10 of which are also associated with known late O or early B stars. H II region expansion velocities derived from bow shock candidate standoff distances are ˜10 km s-1, assuming typical H II region gas densities, comparable to expansion velocities derived from bow shocks in M17 and RCW 49. One candidate bow shock provides direct evidence of physical interaction between the massive stellar winds originating in the Trumpler 15 and Trumpler 14 clusters, supporting the conclusion that both clusters are at similar heliocentric distances.

  1. Observations of bow shocks of runaway stars with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, A.; Haupt, M.; Klepser, S.; Ohm, S.

    2017-01-01

    Runaway stars form bow shocks by sweeping up interstellar matter in their direction of motion. Theoretical models predict a spectrally wide non-thermal component reaching up to gamma-ray energies at a flux level detectable with current instruments. They were motivated by a detection of non-thermal radio emission from the bow shock of BD+43°3654 and a possible detection of non-thermal X-rays from AE Aurigae. A search in the high-energy regime using data from Fermi-LAT resulted in flux upper limits for 27 candidates listed in the first E-BOSS catalogue. We perform the first systematic search for TeV emission from bow shocks of runaway stars. Using all available archival H.E.S.S. I data we search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission at the positions of bow shock candidates listed in the second E-BOSS catalogue. This catalogue comprises 73 bow shock candidates, 32 of which have been observed with the H.E.S.S. telescopes. None of the observed bow shock candidates shows significant emission in the H.E.S.S. energy range. The resulting upper limits are used to constrain current models for non-thermal emission from these objects.

  2. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  3. Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks as a Mechanism for Chondrule Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.

    2016-02-01

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s-1 are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  4. Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks as a Mechanism for Chondrule Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Christopher; Boley, Aaron C.; Morris, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the plausibility of a planetary embryo bow shock as a mechanism for chondrule formation in the early solar system. A Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty early environment of the solar system will experience supersonic velocities relative to the circularly orbiting gas and dust. The resulting bow shock can thermally process solids that pass through it, with a wide range of possible conditions depending on impact radius. Volatile outgassing by the embryo along with some gas capture from the surrounding nebula can produce temporary atmospheres. We use radiation hydrodynamics simulations with direct particle integration to model the consequences of solids that encounter a bow shock produced by a 3000 km embryo with relative speeds to the gas of 5, 6, and 7 km/s. The embryos are envisaged to be surrounded by low- and high-mass atmospheres (0.75 and 6.25 Martian-mass atmospheres, respectively), and we explore different opacities for the gas. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and low dust opacity can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are most consistent with constraints set by chondrule furnace studies for plausible shock speeds.

  5. Reversal of the bicycle drawing direction in Parkinson's disease by AC pulsed electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R

    1998-09-01

    The Draw-a-Bicycle Test is employed in neuropsychological testing of cognitive skills since the bicycle design is widely known and also because of its complex structure. The Draw-a-Bicycle Test has been administered routinely to patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative disorders to evaluate the effect of transcranial applications of AC pulsed electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the picotesla flux density on visuoconstructional skills. A seminal observation is reported in 5 medicated PD patients who demonstrated reversal of spontaneous drawing direction of the bicycle after they received a series of transcranial treatments with AC pulsed EMFs. In 3 patients reversal of the bicycle drawing direction was observed shortly after the administration of pulsed EMFs while in 2 patients these changes were observed within a time lag ranging from several weeks to months. All patients also demonstrated a dramatic clinical response to the administration of EMFs. These findings are intriguing because changes in drawing direction do not occur spontaneously in normal individuals as a result of relateralization of cognitive functions. This report suggests that administration of AC pulsed EMFs may induce in some PD patients changes in hemispheric dominance during processing of a visuoconstructional task and that these changes may be predictive of a particularly favourable response to AC pulsed EMFs therapy.

  6. The features of microstructure and mechanical properties of austenitic steel after direct and reverse martensitic transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Akkuzin, S. A.; Polekhina, N. A.; Tyumentsev, A. N.; Naiden, E. P.

    2015-10-01

    The features of structural states of metastable austenitic steel after thermomechanical treatments, including low-temperature deformation, warm deformation and subsequent annealing are investigated. It is shown that under these conditions the direct (γ → α') and reverse (α' → γ) martensitic transformations occur and submicrocrystalline structural states are formed. The proposed thermomechanical treatment allows varying the strength and plastic properties of austenitic steel in a wide range. The strength of steel in submicrocrystalline state is 4-6 times higher than its original value.

  7. Light-Directed Reversible Assembly of Plasmonic Nanoparticles Using Plasmon-Enhanced Thermophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linhan; Peng, Xiaolei; Wang, Mingsong; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Mao, Zhangming; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Becker, Michael F; Zheng, Yuebing

    2016-09-21

    Reversible assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles can be used to modulate their structural, electrical, and optical properties. Common and versatile tools in nanoparticle manipulation and assembly are optical tweezers, but these require tightly focused and high-power (10-100 mW/μm(2)) laser beams with precise optical alignment, which significantly hinders their applications. Here we present light-directed reversible assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles with a power intensity below 0.1 mW/μm(2). Our experiments and simulations reveal that such a low-power assembly is enabled by thermophoretic migration of nanoparticles due to the plasmon-enhanced photothermal effect and the associated enhanced local electric field over a plasmonic substrate. With software-controlled laser beams, we demonstrate parallel and dynamic manipulation of multiple nanoparticle assemblies. Interestingly, the assemblies formed over plasmonic substrates can be subsequently transported to nonplasmonic substrates. As an example application, we selected surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy, with tunable sensitivity. The advantages provided by plasmonic assembly of nanoparticles are the following: (1) low-power, reversible nanoparticle assembly, (2) applicability to nanoparticles with arbitrary morphology, and (3) use of simple optics. Our plasmon-enhanced thermophoretic technique will facilitate further development and application of dynamic nanoparticle assemblies, including biomolecular analyses in their native environment and smart drug delivery.

  8. Direct real-space observation of nearly stochastic behavior in magnetization reversal process on a nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Im, M.-Y.; Kim, D.-H.; Lee, K.-D.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2007-06-01

    We report a non-deterministic nature in the magnetization reversal of nanograins of CoCrPt alloy film. Magnetization reversal process of CoCrPt alloy film is investigated using high resolution soft X-ray microscopy which provides real space images with a spatial resolution of 15 nm. Domain nucleation sites mostly appear stochastically distributed within repeated hysteretic cycles, where the correlation increases as the strength of the applied magnetic field increases in the descending and ascending branches of the major hysteresis loop. In addition, domain configuration is mostly asymmetric with inversion of an applied magnetic field in the hysteretic cycle. Nanomagnetic simulation considering thermal fluctuations of the magnetic moments of the grains explains the nearly stochastic nature of the domain nucleation behavior observed in CoCrPt alloy film. With the bit size in high-density magnetic recording media approaching nanometer length scale, one of the fundamental and crucial issues is whether the domain nucleation during magnetization reversal process exhibits a deterministic behavior. Repeatability of local domain nucleation and deterministic switching behavior are basic and essential factors for achieving high performance in high-density magnetic recording [1-3]. Most experimental studies on this issue reported so far have been mainly performed by indirect probes through macroscopic hysteresis loop and Barkhausen pattern measurements, which provide the ensemble-average magnetization. Thus, they are inadequate to gain insight into the domain-nucleation behavior on a nanometer length scale during the magnetization reversal process [4-6]. Very recently, coherent X-ray speckle metrology, where the speckle pattern observed in reciprocal space acts as a fingerprint of the domain configurations, was adopted to investigate stochastic behavior in the magnetization reversal of a Co/Pt multilayer film [7,8]. However, no direct observation on the stochastic behavior of

  9. Direction-Reversing Traveling Waves in the Even Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink

    2002-10-01

    This paper considers the famous Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice with periodic boundary conditions and quartic nonlinearities. Due to special resonances and discrete symmetries, the Birkhoff normal form of this Hamiltonian system is Liouville integrable. The normal form equations can easily be solved if the number of particles in the lattice is odd, but if the number of particles is even, several nontrivial phenomena occur. In the latter case we observe that the phase space of the normal form is decomposed in invariant subspaces that describe the interaction between the Fourier modes with wave number j and the Fourier modes with wave number n / 2-j . We study how the level sets of the integrals of the normal form foliate these invariant subspaces. The integrable foliations turn out to be singular and the method of singular reduction shows that the normal form has invariant pinched tori and monodromy. Monodromy is an obstruction to the existence of global action-angle variables. The pinched tori are interpreted as homoclinic and heteroclinic connections between traveling waves. Thus we discover a class of solutions of the normal form which can be described as direction-reversing traveling waves. The relation between the FPU lattice and its Birkhoff normal form can be understood from KAM theory and approximation theory. This explains why we observe the impact of the direction-reversing traveling waves numerically as a relaxation oscillation in the original FPU system.

  10. Direct Measurements of the Plasma Velocity During Intervals of Reverse Convection in the Southern Polar Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Observations of the plasma convection near the dayside throat region, including resolution of reverse convection cells during intervals of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), often involve assimilation of data from multiple sources such as the map potential technique utilized by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN). In this study, we also examine direct measurements of the plasma convection velocity by the SuperDARN Dome Concordia East and McMurdo radars which for >4 hours a day directly observe convection flows along the magnetic noon-midnight meridian. Solar wind control of these flows is examined by conducting a statistical analysis of the average and peak plasma velocities for various solar wind conditions. It is shown that signatures of reverse convection appear above a certain threshold in IMF Bz. The threshold appears to depend on IMF By and is, on average, 2 nT. Noticeable cross-polar-cap (CPC) convection asymmetry with respect to IMF By is also observed. The CPC convection dependence on IMF Bz or interplanetary electric field (IEF) is mostly linear, with some evidence of saturation for both northward and southward IMF at most extreme values. The implications for the high-altitude reconnection efficiency for different IMF conditions are discussed.

  11. Specific and reversible DNA-directed self-assembly of oil-in-water emulsion droplets

    PubMed Central

    Hadorn, Maik; Boenzli, Eva; Sørensen, Kristian T.; Fellermann, Harold; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter; Hanczyc, Martin M.

    2012-01-01

    Higher-order structures that originate from the specific and reversible DNA-directed self-assembly of microscopic building blocks hold great promise for future technologies. Here, we functionalized biotinylated soft colloid oil-in-water emulsion droplets with biotinylated single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides using streptavidin as an intermediary linker. We show the components of this modular linking system to be stable and to induce sequence-specific aggregation of binary mixtures of emulsion droplets. Three length scales were thereby involved: nanoscale DNA base pairing linking microscopic building blocks resulted in macroscopic aggregates visible to the naked eye. The aggregation process was reversible by changing the temperature and electrolyte concentration and by the addition of competing oligonucleotides. The system was reset and reused by subsequent refunctionalization of the emulsion droplets. DNA-directed self-assembly of oil-in-water emulsion droplets, therefore, offers a solid basis for programmable and recyclable soft materials that undergo structural rearrangements on demand and that range in application from information technology to medicine. PMID:23175791

  12. The reverse-direction method links mass experimental data to human diseases.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Hideki; Atsumi, Toru; Bando, Hidenori; Sabharwal, Lavannya; Yamada, Moe; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Nakamura, Akihiro; Arima, Yasunobu; Kamimura, Daisuke; Murakami, Masaaki

    2014-02-01

    Genome-wide analyses such as DNA microarray, RNA sequencing and RNA interference-based high-throughput screening are prevalent to decipher a biological process of interest, and provide a large quantity of data to be processed. An ultimate goal for researchers must be extrapolation of their data to human diseases. We have conducted functional genome-wide screenings to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the inflammation amplifier, a NFκB/STAT3-dependent machinery that potently drives recruitment of immune cells to promote inflammation. Using a public database of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we recently reported the reverse-direction method by which our mass screening data were successfully linked to many human diseases. As an example, the epiregulin-epidermal growth factor receptor pathway was identified as a regulator of the inflammation amplifier, and associated with human diseases by GWAS. In fact, serum epiregulin levels were higher in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders. The reverse-direction method can be a useful tool to narrow mass data down to focus on human disease-related genes.

  13. Specific and reversible DNA-directed self-assembly of oil-in-water emulsion droplets.

    PubMed

    Hadorn, Maik; Boenzli, Eva; Sørensen, Kristian T; Fellermann, Harold; Eggenberger Hotz, Peter; Hanczyc, Martin M

    2012-12-11

    Higher-order structures that originate from the specific and reversible DNA-directed self-assembly of microscopic building blocks hold great promise for future technologies. Here, we functionalized biotinylated soft colloid oil-in-water emulsion droplets with biotinylated single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides using streptavidin as an intermediary linker. We show the components of this modular linking system to be stable and to induce sequence-specific aggregation of binary mixtures of emulsion droplets. Three length scales were thereby involved: nanoscale DNA base pairing linking microscopic building blocks resulted in macroscopic aggregates visible to the naked eye. The aggregation process was reversible by changing the temperature and electrolyte concentration and by the addition of competing oligonucleotides. The system was reset and reused by subsequent refunctionalization of the emulsion droplets. DNA-directed self-assembly of oil-in-water emulsion droplets, therefore, offers a solid basis for programmable and recyclable soft materials that undergo structural rearrangements on demand and that range in application from information technology to medicine.

  14. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Futaana, Y.; Fedorov, A.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Dubinin, E.; Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Holmström, M.; Mazelle, C.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Coates, A. J.; Fraenz, M.

    2011-03-01

    Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy) that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and effects of cold ion

  15. Bow-arrow interaction in archery.

    PubMed

    Kooi, B W

    1998-11-01

    A mathematical model of the flight of the arrow during its discharge from a bow was proposed by Pekalski (1990). His description of the model was incomplete. In this paper, I give a full description of the model. Furthermore, I propose some improvements that make his model more consistent with reality. One achievement is the modelling of contact of the arrow and grip; the pressure button is modelled as a unilateral elastic support. The acceleration force acting upon the arrow during the launch is predicted by an advanced mathematical model of bow dynamics. There is a satisfactory conformity of the simulation and experimental results. The new model predicts that the arrow leaves the pressure button before it leaves the string, as reported previously. The ability to model arrow dynamics can be used to improve the adjustment of the bow-arrow system for optimal performance.

  16. Suicide using a compound bow and arrow.

    PubMed

    Cina, S J; Radentz, S S; Smialek, J E

    1998-03-01

    Accidental, suicidal, and homicidal injuries have been caused by arrows fired from crossbows. To our knowledge, a case of suicide using a full-size compound bow to fire a projectile has not been reported in the English literature. Described is a case of a 17-year-old man who shot himself in the chest with a broadhead hunting arrow fired from a compound bow. Examination of the footwear suggests that the decedent drew the bowstring with his left foot while holding the bow in his hands. The mechanism of injury is discussed. When dealing with a longbow-related fatality, examination of the weaponry used and reenactment of the fatal methodology are critical in determining whether self-inflicted injury is a probability.

  17. Direct current electric field assembly of colloidal crystals displaying reversible structural color.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aayush A; Ganesan, Mahesh; Jocz, Jennifer; Solomon, Michael J

    2014-08-26

    We report the application of low-voltage direct current (dc) electric fields to self-assemble close-packed colloidal crystals in nonaqueous solvents from colloidal spheres that vary in size from as large as 1.2 μm to as small as 0.1 μm. The assemblies are created rapidly (∼2 min) from an initially low volume fraction colloidal particle suspension using a simple capacitor-like electric field device that applies a steady dc electric voltage. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the ordering that is produced by the assembly method. This spatial evidence for ordering is consistent with the 6-fold diffraction patterns identified by light scattering. Red, green, and blue structural color is observed for the ordered assemblies of colloids with diameters of 0.50, 0.40, and 0.29 μm, respectively, consistent with spectroscopic measurements of reflectance. The diffraction and spectrophotometry results were found to be consistent with the theoretical Bragg's scattering expected for closed-packed crystals. By switching the dc electric field from on to off, we demonstrate reversibility of the structural color response on times scales ∼60 s. The dc electric field assembly method therefore represents a simple method to produce reversible structural color in colloidal soft matter.

  18. Accuracy details in realistic CFD modeling of an industrial centrifugal pump in direct and reverse modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páscoa, J. C.; Silva, F. J.; Pinheiro, J. S.; Martins, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Numerical computation of the flowfield inside a pump is herein used as a numerical laboratory, subject to the limitations of modeling assumptions and to experimental verification. A numerical computation of the flow inside a real industrial centrifugal pump is performed that includes a very sophisticated geometry. Conversely to other computations, in this test case no simplification of the geometry was introduced. Numerical computations are obtained using Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. A detailed analysis of the turbulent flowstructure is performed for the design point and two off design conditions. Additional computations were performed in order to compare the numerical and experimental pump characteristics; these were obtained under normalized testing conditions. Further computations are presented for the pump working in reverse turbine mode (PAT). Detailed analyses of the flow allow a comparison of the internal flow losses when the pump is operating in direct and reverse mode. This is also useful to help in the selection of an adequate pump geometry that can work in both modes with best efficiency.

  19. The Reversal of Time Sequence and abrupt direction change of Astrophysical Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Biping

    2015-08-01

    The discrepancy in the propagation times from different parts of a moving source can result in an apparent transverse velocity exceeding the speed of light, which is the well known scenario of superluminal motion.This work shows that the same effect of time delay can even reverse the time sequence of appearance of components in a parsec-scale jets of active galactic nuclei like 3C 279. At such a scale, a component, reproduced somewhere in jet earlier but more distant from the observer, travels longer time to the observer, so that it can emerge later than those ones with shorter distance to the observer which actually generated later.Interestingly, this scenario well explains the increasing samples of abrupt change of jet direction exhibited by the long base line observation of jets of active galactic nuclei.Revealing such an effect of time reversal is of importance in the understanding of the nature of jets in different systems from active galactic nuclei to X-ray binaries.

  20. Coupling between muscle activities and muscle torques during horizontal-planar arm movements with direction reversal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, G L; Freitas, S M S F; Marconi, N F

    2006-06-01

    In this study we investigated the hypothesis that the simple set of rules used to explain the modulation of muscle activities during single-joint movements could also be applied for reversal movements of the shoulder and elbow joints. The muscle torques of both joints were characterized by a triphasic impulse. The first impulse of each joint accelerated the limb to the target and was generated by an initial burst of the muscles activated first (primary mover). The second impulse decelerated the limb to the target, reversed movement direction and accelerated the limb back to the initial position, and was generated by an initial burst of the muscles activated second (secondary movers). A third impulse, in each joint, decelerated the limb to the initial position due to the generation of a second burst of the primary movers. The first burst of the primary mover decreased abruptly, and the latency between the activation of the primary and secondary movers varied in proportion with target distances for the elbow, but not for the shoulder muscles. All impulses and bursts increased with target distances and were well coupled. Therefore, as predicted, the bursts of muscle activities were modulated to generate the appropriate level of muscle torque.

  1. Direct observation of microcontact behaviours in pattern-generation step of reverse offset printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Kanazawa, Shusuke; Yamamoto, Noritaka; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the nip formed during roll-to-sheet-type reverse offset printing. First, we show that several modes of roof collapses (bottom contact defects) could be formed depending on the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blanket thickness and pattern size. We regulate the manifestation of the defect modes driven by the local pile-up of the incompressible PDMS, as modelled by the contact mechanics formulation, together with a complementary numerical simulation. In dynamics, we first differentiate between the static nip and dynamic nip during printing, where the width is extended by the kinetically controlled adhesion of the blanket PDMS. Further, we observe that depending on the pattern structure, there was spatial deviation of the microscopic contact and subsequent separation behaviours of the cliché from a macroscopically recognizable nip, and consequently, local detachment rates were heterogeneous in the pattern-generation process of the reverse offset printing, even with a constant machine speed. In addition, we found that the parts of a pattern where the ink transfer fails in a high-speed patterning condition corresponded to the region of the locally enhanced detachment rates found during direct observation.

  2. In situ bow change of Al-alloy MEMS micromirrors during 248-nm laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Alexander; Bunce, Christopher; Hübner, Rene; Pahner, Daniel; Dauderstädt, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    Micromirror based spatial light modulators (SLMs) developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems are well established in microlithography applications. Serving, e.g., as reflective, programmable photomasks in deep-UV mask writers, they enable highly flexible pattern generation. During operation, the micromirror bow significantly impacts contrast and the resolvable feature size of generated patterns. In some situations, MEMS micromirrors tend to change their bow during laser irradiation. A test regime including a characterization unit for the in situ analysis of MEMS micromirror topology has been developed to measure the bow change under various irradiation conditions. Experiments in which SLMs were irradiated by a 1-kHz, 248-nm pulse laser revealed that mirror bowing can occur in both directions (concave and convex). The bowing direction is dependent upon the applied irradiation parameters such as pulse-energy density, pulse number, and the deposited energy. Sustained irradiation at energy densities exceeding a certain limit can potentially become a limiting factor for the resolvable feature sizes of the patterns generated and, therefore, for the usable SLM lifespan.

  3. Solar cycle variations in the neutral exosphere inferred from the location of the Venus bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Chou, E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Brace, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    Solar UV and EUV varies significantly during the solar cycle. Pioneer Venus can measure this variation both directly and indirectly. A direct measure of the EUV is obtained from the photoelectron current of the Langmuir probe when the spacecraft is in the solar wind. The indirect measure is by monitoring the location of the Venus bow shock. The UV and EUV both heat the upper atmosphere and ionize it. When solar activity is high, the upper atmosphere should be ionized more rapidly. This effect adds a greater number of planetary ions to the magnetosheath plasma as it flows by Venus. It is this increase in mass flow that causes the Venus bow shock to move away from its solar minimum location. Pioneer Venus has now monitored the location of the bow shock for an entire solar cycle. The bow shock location is well correlated with the variation in EUV flux as measured by the Langmuir probe. The bow shock is farther from Venus than expected from the sunspot number or 10.7 cm solar radio flux, indicating that solar UV radiation may be even stronger at the present time than would be predicted from the relationships determined during the previous solar cycle.

  4. A precursor to the Venus bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brace, L. H.; Theis, R. F.; Curtis, S. A.; Parker, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the observations by the Pioneer-Venus-Orbiter Langmuir probe of the low-density Venus bow shock precursor, i.e., a region of electron and ion-current enhancements just upstream from the Venus bow shock. It is suggested that the precursor signatures represent the effects of a small population of energetic ions in this region. Several possible planetary sources of these ions are considered. The paper also discusses the Langmuir probe measurement technique itself as it applies to the very low densities of the precursor.

  5. 1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking south on Montana Street. The Silver Bow County Courthouse (1910-1912) is on the left. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  6. 2. VIEW NORTH OF BOW OF JFK IN DRYDOCK NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTH OF BOW OF JFK IN DRYDOCK NO. 5; NOTE BOW ANCHOR AT TOP CENTER. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Butte-Silver Bow County Monthly Progress Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Last three monthly progress reports submitted by Butte-Silver Bow County on cleanup activities at the Silver Bow Creek/Butte Area Superfund Site, as required by the Butte Priority Soils UAO, Docket No. CERCLA 08-2011-0011.

  8. Energetic interplanetary nucleon flux anisotropies - The effect of earth's bow shock and magnetosheath on sunward flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the combined, average effects of the bow shock and magnetosheath on the diffusive flow of interplanetary nuclei. The observations presented show that differences between 'connected' and 'unconnected' data subsets are apparent from the beginning of the analysis. Through an investigation of the mean unconnected diffusive anisotropy (those fluxes least affected by the earth's bow shock and magnetosheath) it is confirmed that the cross-field transport of MeV energy nuclei in interplanetary space is statistically significant and in the direction expected from the large-scale particle flux gradients. The direction of particle flow relative to the IMF is then used to show that nucleon flow characteristics on connected IMF differ from those on unconnected IMF. A scenario for producing this difference is then presented. It is concluded that the inclusion of the bow shock connected information biases measurements of the flux anisotropies of MeV energy H.

  9. Large amplitude MHD waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Smith, C. W.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of large amplitude magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves upstream of Jupiter's bow shock are analyzed. The waves are found to be right circularly polarized in the solar wind frame which suggests that they are propagating in the fast magnetosonic mode. A complete spectral and minimum variance eigenvalue analysis of the data was performed. The power spectrum of the magnetic fluctuations contains several peaks. The fluctuations at 2.3 mHz have a direction of minimum variance along the direction of the average magnetic field. The direction of minimum variance of these fluctuations lies at approximately 40 deg. to the magnetic field and is parallel to the radial direction. We argue that these fluctuations are waves excited by protons reflected off the Jovian bow shock. The inferred speed of the reflected protons is about two times the solar wind speed in the plasma rest frame. A linear instability analysis is presented which suggests an explanation for many of the observed features of the observations.

  10. Reversal of direct oral anticoagulants in hemophilia treatment: ASH meeting 2015.

    PubMed

    Feistritzer, Clemens; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    During the 57(th) annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology 2015 in Orlando, Florida, various aspects in the field of hemostaseology were presented. The Choosing Wisely® campaign pointed out the importance of the critical use of diagnostic tools to rule out pulmonary embolism and questioned the relevance of thrombophilia testing in women undergoing routine infertility evaluation. Furthermore, the approval of idarucizumab, a specific antidote for the reversal of the anticoagulant effects of the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, was highlighted. Finally, hemophilia specialists awaited the results of the SIPPET Trial, which were presented for the first time during the plenary session. Replacement therapy of previously untreated hemophilia A patients with plasma-derived factor VIII containing von Willebrand factor resulted in a lower incidence of inhibitors compared with patients treated with recombinant factor VIII.

  11. Direct reversal of glucocorticoid resistance by AKT inhibition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tosello, Valeria; Herranz, Daniel; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Da Silva, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Rigo, Isaura; Castillo, Mireia; Indraccolo, Stefano; Cross, Justin R; de Stanchina, Elisa; Paietta, Elisabeth; Racevskis, Janis; Rowe, Jacob M; Tallman, Martin S; Basso, Giuseppe; Meijerink, Jules P; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Califano, Andrea; Ferrando, Adolfo A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Glucocorticoid resistance is a major driver of therapeutic failure in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we identify the AKT1 kinase as a major negative regulator of the NR3C1 glucocorticoid receptor protein activity driving glucocorticoid resistance in T-ALL. Mechanistically, AKT1 impairs glucocorticoid-induced gene expression by direct phosphorylation of NR3C1 at position S134 and blocking glucocorticoid-induced NR3C1 translocation to the nucleus. Moreover, we demonstrate that loss of PTEN and consequent AKT1 activation can effectively block glucocorticoid induced apoptosis and induce resistance to glucocorticoid therapy. Conversely, pharmacologic inhibition of AKT with MK2206 effectively restores glucocorticoid-induced NR3C1 translocation to the nucleus, increases the response of T-ALL cells to glucocorticoid therapy and effectively reverses glucocorticoid resistance in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24291004

  12. A specific antidote for reversal of anticoagulation by direct and indirect inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Lu, Genmin; DeGuzman, Francis R; Hollenbach, Stanley J; Karbarz, Mark J; Abe, Keith; Lee, Gail; Luan, Peng; Hutchaleelaha, Athiwat; Inagaki, Mayuko; Conley, Pamela B; Phillips, David R; Sinha, Uma

    2013-04-01

    Inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa (fXa) have emerged as a new class of antithrombotics but lack effective antidotes for patients experiencing serious bleeding. We designed and expressed a modified form of fXa as an antidote for fXa inhibitors. This recombinant protein (r-Antidote, PRT064445) is catalytically inactive and lacks the membrane-binding γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain of native fXa but retains the ability of native fXa to bind direct fXa inhibitors as well as low molecular weight heparin-activated antithrombin III (ATIII). r-Antidote dose-dependently reversed the inhibition of fXa by direct fXa inhibitors and corrected the prolongation of ex vivo clotting times by such inhibitors. In rabbits treated with the direct fXa inhibitor rivaroxaban, r-Antidote restored hemostasis in a liver laceration model. The effect of r-Antidote was mediated by reducing plasma anti-fXa activity and the non-protein bound fraction of the fXa inhibitor in plasma. In rats, r-Antidote administration dose-dependently and completely corrected increases in blood loss resulting from ATIII-dependent anticoagulation by enoxaparin or fondaparinux. r-Antidote has the potential to be used as a universal antidote for a broad range of fXa inhibitors.

  13. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    anterolateral bowing of the lower leg prior to fracture in neurofibromatosis type 1. J Pediatr Orthop 2009;29:385-92. 3. Stevenson DA, Yan J, He Y, Li H...neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), typically identified in infancy. The majority of NF1 individuals with tibial bowing will sustain a fracture that will not...not fracture and the bowing improves over time. Clinical predictors to help drive management are lacking, and the pathophysiology of tibial bowing

  14. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310...

  15. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310...

  16. Reverse transcriptase directs viral evolution in a deep ocean methane seep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, B. G.; Bagby, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Deep ocean methane seeps are sites of intense microbial activity, with complex communities fueled by aerobic and anaerobic methanotrophy. Methane consumption in these communities has a substantial impact on the global carbon cycle, yet little is known about their evolutionary history or their likely evolutionary trajectories in a warming ocean. As in other marine systems, viral predation and virally mediated horizontal gene transfer are expected to be major drivers of evolutionary change in these communities; however, the host cells' resistance to cultivation has impeded direct study of the viral population. We conducted a metagenomic study of viruses in the anoxic sediments of a deep methane seep in the Santa Monica Basin in the Southern California Bight. We retrieved 1660 partial viral genomes, tentatively assigning 1232 to bacterial hosts and 428 to archaea. One abundant viral genome, likely hosted by Clostridia species present in the sediment, was found to encode a diversity-generating retroelement (DGR), a module for reverse transcriptase-mediated directed mutagenesis of a distal tail fiber protein. While DGRs have previously been described in the viruses of human pathogens, where diversification of viral tail fibers permits infection of a range of host cell types, to our knowledge this is the first description of such an element in a marine virus. By providing a mechanism for massively broadening potential host range, the presence of DGRs in these systems may have a major impact on the prevalence of virally mediated horizontal gene transfer, and even on the phylogenetic distances across which genes are moved.

  17. Direct imaging of the magnetization reversal in microwires using all-MOKE microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupakiewicz, A.; Chizhik, A.; Tekielak, M.; Zhukov, A.; Gonzalez, J.; Maziewski, A.

    2014-10-01

    We report a method of imaging of the magnetization reversal process using analysis of real-time images of magnetic domain structures in cylindrically shaped microwires. This method uses wide-field polarizing optical microscopy and is based on the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). The aperture diaphragm in MOKE microscope was used to control the incident angles of the light rays that reached the non-planar surface of the microwire and also determined the MOKE geometries. The movement of the non-central position of the hole in this diaphragm leads to a change in the orientation of the plane of incidence of the light along the perpendicular or the parallel direction to the axial direction of the wire. The visualization of the surface magnetic domain structures is obtained using polar and longitudinal MOKE geometries. The hysteresis loops were obtained by plotting the averaged image contrast as a function of the external magnetic field. The separation of the all-magnetization components is performed using different MOKE geometries in a microscope. We demonstrate the use of vector magnetometry to analyze the orientation of the magnetization in a cylindrically shaped microwire under the influence of an external magnetic field.

  18. BOWS (bioinformatics open web services) to centralize bioinformatics tools in web services.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Henrique; Vialle, Ricardo A; Ortega, J Miguel

    2015-06-02

    Bioinformaticians face a range of difficulties to get locally-installed tools running and producing results; they would greatly benefit from a system that could centralize most of the tools, using an easy interface for input and output. Web services, due to their universal nature and widely known interface, constitute a very good option to achieve this goal. Bioinformatics open web services (BOWS) is a system based on generic web services produced to allow programmatic access to applications running on high-performance computing (HPC) clusters. BOWS intermediates the access to registered tools by providing front-end and back-end web services. Programmers can install applications in HPC clusters in any programming language and use the back-end service to check for new jobs and their parameters, and then to send the results to BOWS. Programs running in simple computers consume the BOWS front-end service to submit new processes and read results. BOWS compiles Java clients, which encapsulate the front-end web service requisitions, and automatically creates a web page that disposes the registered applications and clients. Bioinformatics open web services registered applications can be accessed from virtually any programming language through web services, or using standard java clients. The back-end can run in HPC clusters, allowing bioinformaticians to remotely run high-processing demand applications directly from their machines.

  19. Perseveration on a reversal-learning task correlates with rates of self-directed behavior in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Judge, Peter G; Evans, David W; Schroepfer, Kara K; Gross, Alyssa C

    2011-09-12

    In humans and several nonhuman animals, repetitive behavior is associated with deficits on executive function tasks involving response inhibition. We tested for this relationship in nonhuman primates by correlating rates of normative behavior to performance on a reversal-learning task in which animals were required to inhibit a previously learned rule. We focused on rates of self-directed behavior (scratch, autogroom, self touch and manipulation) because these responses are known indicators of arousal or anxiety in primates, however, we also examined rates of other categories of behavior (e.g., locomotion). Behavior rates were obtained from 14 animals representing three nonhuman primate species (Macaca silenus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella) living in separate social groups. The same animals were tested on a reversal-learning task in which they were presented with a black and a grey square on a touch screen and were trained to touch the black square. Once animals learned to select the black square, reward contingencies were reversed and animals were rewarded for selecting the grey square. Performance on the reversal-learning task was positively correlated to self-directed behavior in that animals that exhibited higher rates of self-directed behavior required more trials to achieve reversal. Reversal learning was not correlated to rates of any other category of behavior. Results indicate that rates of behavior associated with anxiety and arousal provide an indicator of executive function in nonhuman primates. The relationship suggests continuity between nonhuman primates and humans in the link between executive functioning and repetitive behavior.

  20. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules.

    PubMed

    McDonald, James E; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J; Allison, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, 'universal' SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by 'universal' primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology.

  1. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, James E.; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J.; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J.; Allison, Heather E.

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, ‘universal’ SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by ‘universal’ primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology. PMID:27276347

  2. Swimming direction reversal of flagella through ciliary motion of mastigonemes 1

    PubMed Central

    Namdeo, S.; Khaderi, S. N.; den Toonder, J. M. J.; Onck, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-inspired designs can provide an answer to engineering problems such as swimming strategies at the micron or nano-scale. Scientists are now designing artificial micro-swimmers that can mimic flagella-powered swimming of micro-organisms. In an application such as lab-on-a-chip in which micro-object manipulation in small flow geometries could be achieved by micro-swimmers, control of the swimming direction becomes an important aspect for retrieval and control of the micro-swimmer. A bio-inspired approach for swimming direction reversal (a flagellum bearing mastigonemes) can be used to design such a system and is being explored in the present work. We analyze the system using a computational framework in which the equations of solid mechanics and fluid dynamics are solved simultaneously. The fluid dynamics of Stokes flow is represented by a 2D Stokeslets approach while the solid mechanics behavior is realized using Euler-Bernoulli beam elements. The working principle of a flagellum bearing mastigonemes can be broken up into two parts: (1) the contribution of the base flagellum and (2) the contribution of mastigonemes, which act like cilia. These contributions are counteractive, and the net motion (velocity and direction) is a superposition of the two. In the present work, we also perform a dimensional analysis to understand the underlying physics associated with the system parameters such as the height of the mastigonemes, the number of mastigonemes, the flagellar wave length and amplitude, the flagellum length, and mastigonemes rigidity. Our results provide fundamental physical insight on the swimming of a flagellum with mastigonemes, and it provides guidelines for the design of artificial flagellar systems. PMID:21918678

  3. Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scardia, Giancarlo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.

    2014-11-01

    We report a palaeomagnetic investigation of the last full geomagnetic field reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition, as preserved in a continuous sequence of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Apennines of Central Italy. The palaeomagnetic record provides the most direct evidence for the tempo of transitional field behaviour yet obtained for the M-B transition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephra layers bracketing the M-B transition provides high-accuracy age constraints and indicates a mean sediment accumulation rate of about 0.2 mm yr-1 during the transition. Two relative palaeointensity (RPI) minima are present in the M-B transition. During the terminus of the upper RPI minimum, a directional change of about 180 ° occurred at an extremely fast rate, estimated to be less than 2 ° per year, with no intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) documented during the transit from the southern to northern hemisphere. Thus, the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron as represented by the palaeomagnetic directions and VGPs developed in a time interval comparable to the duration of an average human life, which is an order of magnitude more rapid than suggested by current models. The reported investigation therefore provides high-resolution integrated palaeomagnetic and radioisotopic data that document the fine details of the anatomy and tempo of the M-B transition in Central Italy that in turn are crucial for a better understanding of Earth's magnetic field, and for the development of more sophisticated models that are able to describe its global structure and behaviour.

  4. An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buren, David Van

    1995-01-01

    We searched for bow shock-like objects like those known around Oph and a Cam near the positions of 183 runaway stars. Based primarily on the presence and morphology of excess 60 micron emission we identify 56 new candidate bow shocks, for which we determine photometric and morphological parameters. Previously only a dozen or so were known. Well resolved structures are present around 25 stars. A comparison of the distribution of symmetry axes of the infrared nebulae with that of their proper motion vectors indicates that these two directions are very significantly aligned. The observed alignment strongly suggests that the structures we see arise from the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium, justifying the identification of these far-infrared objects as stellar wind bow shocks.

  5. An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Buren, Dave; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Dgani, Ruth

    1995-12-01

    We searched the IRAS data for bow shock-like objects like those known around ζ Oph and α Cam near the positions of 188 runaway stars. Based primarily on the presence and morphology of excess 60 μm emission we identify 58 candidate bow shocks, for which we determine photometric and morphological parameters. Previously only a dozen or so were known. Well-resolved structures are present around 25 stars. A comparison of the distribution of symmetry axes of the infrared nebulae with the proper motions of the stars indicate the two directions are very significantly aligned. The observed alignment strongly suggests that the structures we see arise from the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium, justifying the identification of these far-infrared objects as stellar wind bow shocks.

  6. Effects of the bow on social organization in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    The bow more than doubled, likely tripled, the success of individuals bent on killing animal or human targets (Box ). The advent of this revolutionary technology generated different responses in western North America depending on subsistence and sociopolitical organization at the time of its arrival, roughly 2300 - 1300 B.P. Its effect was substantial in California and the Great Basin, particularly on group size, which in many places diminished as a consequence of the bow's reliability. The counter-intuitive result was to increase within group-relatedness enough to encourage intensification of plant resources, previously considered too costly. The bow rose to greatest direct economic importance with the arrival of the horse, and was put to most effective use by former Great Basin groups who maintained the family band system that had developed around intensive Great Basin plant procurement, adapting the same organization to a lifestyle centered on the equestrian pursuit of buffalo and warfare. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buren, David Van

    1995-01-01

    We searched for bow shock-like objects like those known around Oph and a Cam near the positions of 183 runaway stars. Based primarily on the presence and morphology of excess 60 micron emission we identify 56 new candidate bow shocks, for which we determine photometric and morphological parameters. Previously only a dozen or so were known. Well resolved structures are present around 25 stars. A comparison of the distribution of symmetry axes of the infrared nebulae with that of their proper motion vectors indicates that these two directions are very significantly aligned. The observed alignment strongly suggests that the structures we see arise from the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium, justifying the identification of these far-infrared objects as stellar wind bow shocks.

  8. Observations of low-energy electrons upstream of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasoner, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of electron fluxes with a lunar-based electron spectrometer when the moon was upstream of the earth have shown that a subset of observed fluxes are strongly controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field direction. The fluxes occur only when the IMF lines connect back to the earth's bow shock. Observed densities and temperatures were in the ranges 2-4 x 0,001/cu cm and 1.7-2.8 x 1,000,000 K. It is shown that these electrons can account for increases in effective solar wind electron temperatures on bow-shock connected field lines which have been observed previously by other investigators. It is further shown that if a model of the bow shock with an electrostatic potential barrier is assumed, the potential can be estimated to be 500 volts.

  9. Comparison of cast positions by using four face-bows.

    PubMed

    Goska, J R; Christensen, L V

    1988-01-01

    The positions that the maxillary right and left first molars occupy when a maxillary cast is mounted in the three-dimensional space of a semiadjustable articulator (Hanau H2) were studied. Mountings were made by using four face-bows, the Hanau Kinematic Face-bow, the Hanau Facia-bow, the Hanau 159 Earpiece Face-bow, and the Hanau Twirl Earpiece Face-bow. A kinematically determined hinge-axis was used arbitrarily as the baseline for comparisons among the three other bows. Deviations from the baseline were measured along the X, Y, and Z axes by using a contour meter (Fig. 1). The deviations showed great variability (Table I), and because maxillary casts are mounted in relation to anatomic landmarks that differ from subject to subject, it was not possible to establish clinical superiority of one face-bow over another.

  10. Proper motions of five OB stars with candidate dusty bow shocks in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiminki, Megan M.; Smith, Nathan; Reiter, Megan; Bally, John

    2017-06-01

    We constrain the proper motions of five OB stars associated with candidate stellar wind bow shocks in the Carina Nebula using Hubble Space Telescope ACS imaging over 9-10 yr baselines. These proper motions allow us to directly compare each star's motion to the orientation of its candidate bow shock. Although these stars are saturated in our imaging, we assess their motion by the shifts required to minimize residuals in their airy rings. The results limit the direction of each star's motion to sectors less than 90° wide. None of the five stars are moving away from the Carina Nebula's central clusters as runaway stars would be, confirming that a candidate bow shock is not necessarily indicative of a runaway star. Two of the five stars are moving tangentially relative to the orientation of their candidate bow shocks, both of which point at the OB cluster Trumpler 14. In these cases, the large-scale flow of the interstellar medium, powered by feedback from the cluster, appears to dominate over the motion of the star in producing the observed candidate bow shock. The remaining three stars all have some component of motion towards the central clusters, meaning that we cannot distinguish whether their candidate bow shocks are indicators of stellar motion, of the flow of ambient gas or of density gradients in their surroundings. In addition, these stars' lack of outward motion hints that the distributed massive-star population in Carina's South Pillars region formed in place, rather than migrating out from the association's central clusters.

  11. Direction-Controlled Chemical Doping for Reversible G-Phonon Mixing in ABC Trilayer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwanghee; Ryu, Sunmin

    2015-01-01

    Not only the apparent atomic arrangement but the charge distribution also defines the crystalline symmetry that dictates the electronic and vibrational structures. In this work, we report reversible and direction-controlled chemical doping that modifies the inversion symmetry of AB-bilayer and ABC-trilayer graphene. For the “top-down” and “bottom-up” hole injection into graphene sheets, we employed molecular adsorption of electronegative I2 and annealing-induced interfacial hole doping, respectively. The chemical breakdown of the inversion symmetry led to the mixing of the G phonons, Raman active Eg and Raman-inactive Eu modes, which was manifested as the two split G peaks, G− and G+. The broken inversion symmetry could be recovered by removing the hole dopants by simple rinsing or interfacial molecular replacement. Alternatively, the symmetry could be regained by double-side charge injection, which eliminated G− and formed an additional peak, Go, originating from the barely doped interior layer. Chemical modification of crystalline symmetry as demonstrated in the current study can be applied to other low dimensional crystals in tuning their various material properties. PMID:25746467

  12. Direction-Controlled Chemical Doping for Reversible G-Phonon Mixing in ABC Trilayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwanghee; Ryu, Sunmin

    2015-03-01

    Not only the apparent atomic arrangement but the charge distribution also defines the crystalline symmetry that dictates the electronic and vibrational structures. In this work, we report reversible and direction-controlled chemical doping that modifies the inversion symmetry of AB-bilayer and ABC-trilayer graphene. For the ``top-down'' and ``bottom-up'' hole injection into graphene sheets, we employed molecular adsorption of electronegative I2 and annealing-induced interfacial hole doping, respectively. The chemical breakdown of the inversion symmetry led to the mixing of the G phonons, Raman active Eg and Raman-inactive Eu modes, which was manifested as the two split G peaks, G- and G+. The broken inversion symmetry could be recovered by removing the hole dopants by simple rinsing or interfacial molecular replacement. Alternatively, the symmetry could be regained by double-side charge injection, which eliminated G- and formed an additional peak, Go, originating from the barely doped interior layer. Chemical modification of crystalline symmetry as demonstrated in the current study can be applied to other low dimensional crystals in tuning their various material properties.

  13. Data Recorded as Juno Crossed Jovian Bow Shock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-30

    This chart presents data that the Waves investigation on NASA's Juno spacecraft recorded as the spacecraft crossed the bow shock just outside of Jupiter's magnetosphere on June 24, 2016, while approaching Jupiter. Audio accompanies the animation, with volume and pitch correlated to the amplitude and frequency of the recorded waves. The graph is a frequency-time spectrogram with color coding to indicate wave amplitudes as a function of wave frequency (vertical axis, in hertz) and time (horizontal axis, with a total elapsed time of two hours). During the hour before Juno reached the bow shock, the Waves instrument was detecting mainly plasma oscillations just below 10,000 hertz (10 kilohertz). The frequency of these oscillations is related to the local density of electrons; the data yield an estimate of approximately one electron per cubic centimeter (about 16 per cubic inch) in this region just outside Jupiter's bow shock. The broadband burst of noise marked "Bow Shock" is the region of turbulence where the supersonic solar wind is heated and slowed by encountering the Jovian magnetosphere. The shock is analogous to a sonic boom generated in Earth's atmosphere by a supersonic aircraft. The region after the shock is called the magnetosheath. The vertical bar to the right of the chart indicates the color coding of wave amplitude, in decibels (dB) above the background level detected by the Waves instrument. Each step of 10 decibels marks a tenfold increase in wave power. When Juno collected these data, the distance from the spacecraft to Jupiter was about 5.56 million miles (8.95 million kilometers), indicated on the chart as 128 times the radius of Jupiter. Jupiter's magnetic field is tilted about 10 degrees from the planet's axis of rotation. The note of 22 degrees on the chart indicates that at the time these data were recorded, the spacecraft was 22 degrees north of the magnetic-field equator. The "LT" notation is local time on Jupiter at the longitude of the

  14. Properties of bow-shock sources at the Galactic center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Schödel, R.; Alberdi, A.; Muzić, K.; Hummel, C. A.; Pott, J.-U.

    2014-07-01

    Context. There exists an enigmatic population of massive stars around the Galactic center (GC) that were formed some Myr ago. A fraction of these stars has been found to orbit the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, in a projected clockwise disk-like structure, which suggests that they were formed in a formerly existing dense disk around Sgr A*. Aims: We focus on a subgroup of objects, the extended, near-infrared (NIR) bright sources IRS 1W, IRS 5, IRS 10W, and IRS 21, that have been suggested to be young, massive stars that form bow shocks through their interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM). Their nature has impeded accurate determinations of their orbital parameters. We aim at establishing their nature and kinematics to test whether they form part of the clockwise disk. Methods: We performed NIR multiwavelength imaging with NACO/VLT using direct adaptive optics (AO) and AO-assisted sparse aperture masking (SAM). We introduce a new method for self-calibration of the SAM point spread function in dense stellar fields. The emission mechanism, morphology, and kinematics of the targets were examined via 3D models, combined with existing models of the gas flow in the central parsec. Results: We confirm previous findings that IRS 21, IRS 1W, and IRS 5 are bow-shocks created by the interaction between mass-losing stars and the interstellar gas. The nature of IRS 10W remains unclear. Our modeling shows that the bow-shock emission is caused by thermal emission, while the scattering of stellar light does not play a significant role. IRS 1W shows a morphology that is consistent with a bow shock produced by an anisotropic stellar wind or by locally inhomogeneous ISM density. Our best-fit models provide estimates of the local proper motion of the ISM in the Northern Arm that agree with previously published models that were based on radio interferometry and NIR spectroscopy. Assuming that all of the sources are gravitationally tied to Sagittarius A*, their orbital planes

  15. Power aspects of processes in the bow shock region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedykh, Pavel

    Bow shock is a powerful transformer of the solar wind kinetic energy into the gas dynamic and electromagnetic energy. The solar wind energy also feeds the ion acceleration process, the generation of waves in the region of bow shock, and the energy necessary to build up the foreshock. A jump of the magnetic field tangential component at front crossing means that the front carries an electric current. The solar wind kinetic energy partly transforms to gas kinetic and electromagnetic energy during its passage through the bow shock front. The transition layer (magnetosheath) can use part of this energy for accelerating of plasma, but can conversely spend part its kinetic energy on the electric power generation, which afterwards may be used by the magnetosphere. Thereby, transition layer can be both consumer (sink) and generator (source) of electric power depending upon special conditions. The direction of the current behind the bow shock front depends on the sign of the IMF B _{z}-component. It is this electric current which sets convection of plasma in motion. The process of current penetration into the magnetosphere is two-step. First, a polarization field is formed that penetrates layer-by-layer into the magnetosphere. More exactly, a pulse corresponding to this field penetrates into the plasma. Then, if the system is inhomogeneous, the flow may redistribute the pressure so that gradients appearing in the plasma induce an electric current. In power terms, this electric current is required to maintain convection in the inhomogeneous system. Any change in the external current through the magnetosphere causes a convection restructuring within a time on the order of travel time of the magnetosonic wave from the magnetopause to the center of the system, because the restructuring wave comes from both flanks. Using the expressions obtained in this paper for normal components of the electric current, the flow of matter brought into the magnetosphere can be estimated. A

  16. A BOW SHOCK NEAR A YOUNG STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope continues to reveal various stunning and intricate treasures that reside within the nearby, intense star-forming region known as the Great Nebula in Orion. One such jewel is the bow shock around the very young star, LL Ori, featured in this Hubble Heritage image. Named for the crescent-shaped wave made by a ship as it moves through water, a bow shock can be created in space when two streams of gas collide. LL Ori emits a vigorous solar wind, a stream of charged particles moving rapidly outward from the star. Our own Sun has a less energetic version of this wind that is responsible for auroral displays on the Earth. The material in the fast wind from LL Ori collides with slow-moving gas evaporating away from the center of the Orion Nebula, which is located to the lower right in this Heritage image. The surface where the two winds collide is the crescent-shaped bow shock seen in the image. Unlike a water wave made by a ship, this interstellar bow shock is a three-dimensional structure. The filamentary emission has a very distinct boundary on the side facing away from LL Ori, but is diffuse on the side closest to the star, a characteristic common to many bow shocks. A second, fainter bow shock can be seen around a star near the upper right-hand corner of the Heritage image. Astronomers have identified numerous shock fronts in this complex star-forming region and are using this data to understand the many complex phenomena associated with the birth of stars. This image was taken in February 1995 as part of the Hubble Orion Nebula mosaic. A close visitor in our Milky Way galaxy, the nebula is only 1,500 light-years from Earth. The filters used in this color composite represent oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen emissions. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C. R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University)

  17. A BOW SHOCK NEAR A YOUNG STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope continues to reveal various stunning and intricate treasures that reside within the nearby, intense star-forming region known as the Great Nebula in Orion. One such jewel is the bow shock around the very young star, LL Ori, featured in this Hubble Heritage image. Named for the crescent-shaped wave made by a ship as it moves through water, a bow shock can be created in space when two streams of gas collide. LL Ori emits a vigorous solar wind, a stream of charged particles moving rapidly outward from the star. Our own Sun has a less energetic version of this wind that is responsible for auroral displays on the Earth. The material in the fast wind from LL Ori collides with slow-moving gas evaporating away from the center of the Orion Nebula, which is located to the lower right in this Heritage image. The surface where the two winds collide is the crescent-shaped bow shock seen in the image. Unlike a water wave made by a ship, this interstellar bow shock is a three-dimensional structure. The filamentary emission has a very distinct boundary on the side facing away from LL Ori, but is diffuse on the side closest to the star, a characteristic common to many bow shocks. A second, fainter bow shock can be seen around a star near the upper right-hand corner of the Heritage image. Astronomers have identified numerous shock fronts in this complex star-forming region and are using this data to understand the many complex phenomena associated with the birth of stars. This image was taken in February 1995 as part of the Hubble Orion Nebula mosaic. A close visitor in our Milky Way galaxy, the nebula is only 1,500 light-years from Earth. The filters used in this color composite represent oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen emissions. Image Credit: NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Acknowledgment: C. R. O'Dell (Vanderbilt University)

  18. Bow shock and magnetosheath waves at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Behannon, K. W.

    1975-01-01

    Mariner 10 measurements at the Mercury bow shock provide examples where the magnetic field is approximately parallel or perpendicular to the bow shock normal. Upstream of a broad irregular parallel shock, left hand circularly polarized waves are observed which cut off very sharply at approximately 4 Hz. Upstream of a perpendicular shock, right hand circularly polarized waves are observed which persist up to the Nyquist frequency of 12 Ha. Determination of the wave propagation vector as a function of frequency helps conclusively identify the waves as whistler mode waves propagating from the shock. The magnetosheath downstream of the parallel shock is disturbed more than that downstream of the perpendicular shock particularly below 1 Hz. In the latter case regular left hand polarized waves observed slightly above the proton gyrofrequency are identified as ion cyclotron waves with wavelength approximately 300 km which are Doppler shifted up to their observed frequency.

  19. Model Simulations For a Potential Bow Shock at Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarreal, M. N.; Russell, C.; Jia, Y. D.; Prettyman, T. H.; Yamashita, N.; Chi, P. J.; Joy, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    The Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) of the Dawn spacecraft observed bursts of energetic particles in its exterior scintillators during Survey orbit when Dawn was at a distance of 10 Ceres radii from the planet. Despite being coincident with a solar proton event, the particles do not come from the solar direction. Instead, they are due to electron bursts occurring when Ceres is within the field of view of the detectors indicating that the electrons are streaming away from the planet. The electrons have high energies between 20-100 keV and last for 20 minutes in restricted regions that appear to be controlled by the solar wind interaction with the body. The Dawn spacecraft crossing an electron foreshock could explain the temporal behavior, flux, and energy of the electrons. Here we hypothesize that the solar proton event caused enhanced sputtering at the surface creating a temporary bow shock via mass loading as the sputtered atoms were ionized and picked up by the solar wind. We use a single fluid magnetohydrodynamic model to test the transient atmospheric density and bow shock size that would be needed to replicate the geometry of the electrons.

  20. A survey for Hα pulsar bow shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Brownsberger, Sasha; Romani, Roger W. E-mail: sashab@stanford.edu

    2014-04-01

    We report on a survey for Hα bow shock emission around nearby γ-detected energetic pulsars. This survey adds three Balmer-dominated neutron star bow shocks to the six previously confirmed examples. In addition to the shock around Fermi pulsar PSR J1741–2054, we now report Hα structures around two additional γ-ray pulsars, PSR J2030+4415 and PSR J1509–5850. These are the first known examples of Hα nebulae with pre-ionization halos. With new measurements, we show that a simple analytic model can account for the angular size and flux of the bow shocks' apices. The latter, in particular, provides a new pulsar probe and indicates large moments of inertia and smaller distances than previously assumed in several cases. In particular, we show that the re-measured PSR J0437–4715 shock flux implies I = (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup 45}/(f {sub HI}sin i) g cm{sup 2}. We also derive a distance d ≈ 0.72 kpc for the γ-ray only pulsar PSR J2030+4415 and revised distances for PSRs J1959+2048 (1.4 kpc) and J2555+6535 (∼1 kpc), smaller than the conventional DM-estimated values. Finally, we report upper limits for 94 additional LAT pulsars. An estimate of the survey sensitivity indicates that for a warm neutral medium filling factor φ{sub WNM} ∼ 0.3 there should be a total of approximately nine Hα bow shocks in our LAT-targeted survey; given that seven such objects are now known, a much larger φ{sub WNM} seems problematic.

  1. A Survey for Hα Pulsar Bow Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownsberger, Sasha; Romani, Roger W.

    2014-04-01

    We report on a survey for Hα bow shock emission around nearby γ-detected energetic pulsars. This survey adds three Balmer-dominated neutron star bow shocks to the six previously confirmed examples. In addition to the shock around Fermi pulsar PSR J1741-2054, we now report Hα structures around two additional γ-ray pulsars, PSR J2030+4415 and PSR J1509-5850. These are the first known examples of Hα nebulae with pre-ionization halos. With new measurements, we show that a simple analytic model can account for the angular size and flux of the bow shocks' apices. The latter, in particular, provides a new pulsar probe and indicates large moments of inertia and smaller distances than previously assumed in several cases. In particular, we show that the re-measured PSR J0437-4715 shock flux implies I = (1.7 ± 0.2) × 1045/(f H I sin i) g cm2. We also derive a distance d ≈ 0.72 kpc for the γ-ray only pulsar PSR J2030+4415 and revised distances for PSRs J1959+2048 (1.4 kpc) and J2555+6535 (~1 kpc), smaller than the conventional DM-estimated values. Finally, we report upper limits for 94 additional LAT pulsars. An estimate of the survey sensitivity indicates that for a warm neutral medium filling factor phiWNM ~ 0.3 there should be a total of approximately nine Hα bow shocks in our LAT-targeted survey; given that seven such objects are now known, a much larger phiWNM seems problematic.

  2. Bow Shock in the Great Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The nearby intense star-forming region known as the Great Nebula in the Orion constellation reveals a bow shock around a very young star as seen by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Named for the crescent-shaped wave made by a ship as it moves through the water, a bow shock can be created in space where two streams of gas collide. LL Ori emits a vigorous solar wind, a stream of charged particles moving rapidly outward from the star. Our own sun has a less energetic version of this wind. The material in the fast wind from LL Ori collides with slow moving gas evaporating away form the center of the Orion Nebula, which is located in the lower right of this image, producing the crescent shaped bow shock seen in the image. Astronomers have identified numerous shock fronts in this complex star-forming region and are using this data to understand the many complex phenomena associated with the birth of stars. A close visitor in our Milky Way Galaxy, the nebula is only 1,500 light years away from Earth. The filters used in this color composite represent oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen emissions.

  3. The Enzyme-Mediated Direct Reversal of a Dithymine Photoproduct in Germinating Endospores

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Linlin; Li, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Spore photoproduct lyase (SPL) repairs a special thymine dimer, 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, which is commonly called spore photoproduct, or SP, in germinating endospores. SP is the exclusive DNA photo-damaging product found in endospores; its generation and swift repair by SPL are responsible for the spores’ extremely high UV resistance. Early in vivo studies suggested that SPL utilizes a direct reversal strategy to repair SP in the absence of light. Recently, it has been established that SPL belongs to the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily. The enzymes in this superfamily utilize a tri-cysteine CXXXCXXC motif to bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster. The cluster provides an electron to the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to reductively cleave its C5′-S bond, generating a reactive 5′-deoxyadenosyl (5′-dA) radical. This 5′-dA radical abstracts the proR hydrogen atom from the C6 carbon of SP to initiate the repair process; the resulting SP radical subsequently fragments to generate a putative thymine methyl radical, which accepts a back-donated H atom to yield the repaired TpT. The H atom donor is suggested to be a conserved cysteine141 in B. subtilis SPL; the resulting thiyl radical likely interacts with a neighboring tyrosine99 before oxidizing the 5′-dA to 5′-dA radical and, subsequently, regenerating SAM. These findings suggest SPL to be the first enzyme in the large radical SAM superfamily (>44,000 members) to utilize a radical transfer pathway for catalysis; its study should shed light on the mechanistic understanding of the SAM regeneration process in other members of the superfamily. PMID:23799365

  4. On the kinematics and thickness of the terrestrial bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruparova, Oksana; Krupar, Vratislav; Santolik, Ondrej; Soucek, Jan; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Nemec, Frantisek; Maksimovic, Milan

    2017-04-01

    The bow shock (BS) is formed due to the continuous interaction between the supersonic solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere ahead of the magnetopause. Thanks to its proximity, BS is a perfect object to study a wide range of phenomena related to collisionless shocks and wave-particle interactions. We have analyzed more than 500 quasi-perpendicular BS crossings between 2001 and 2015 using data retrieved by the magnetometers aboard the four Cluster spacecraft. Applying a simple timing method to four-point measurement, we estimated the BS normal direction and velocity along this direction case by case. Next, we applied the Butterworth filter to numerical derivations of time-intensity profiles to estimate temporal sizes of BS magnetic ramps, and consequently spatial ones using obtained velocities. We have found that BS ramp scales are statistically around 50 km. We discuss relation between the BS ramp scales and both Alfven and magnetosonic Mach numbers.

  5. Efficacy and safety of the drugs used to reverse direct oral anticoagulants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Luis Teodoro; Marchand, Mylene; Nascimento, Bartolomeu; Tien, Homer; Nathens, Avery; Shah, Prakesh

    2017-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are effective and safe for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic phenomena. However, managing DOACs during bleeding emergencies is challenging. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on studies addressing efficacy and safety of the drugs used for reversal of DOACs. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched up to September 2016. Studies that examined clinical and laboratory effects of drugs used to reverse DOACs were included. Risk of bias was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa scale and Cochrane Collaboration tool. Primary and secondary outcomes assessed were reversal of clinical bleeding, clotting assays, and safety, respectively. Overall effect estimates were pooled, and clinical and statistical heterogeneity were assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted using random-effects model. Four cohort studies in bleeding patients (n = 230) and eight randomized controlled trials in healthy volunteers (n = 381) were included, both with moderate risk of bias. Reversal of clotting assays in healthy volunteers was frequently reported, demonstrating that prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) reversed prothrombin time (PT) and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) substantially. For PT, pooled mean difference was 1.68 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.33 to 3.70 sec; p < 0.01; I(2)  = 97%). For ETP, pooled mean difference was 2.16 seconds (95% CI, 0.57 to 3.75 sec; p < 0.01; I(2)  =( ) 98%). Andexanet alfa and idarucizumab both reverse clotting assays. No important safety concerns were identified. Clotting assays are partially reversed by PCC in healthy volunteers. Idarucizumab and andexanet alfa have solid laboratory reversal effect and potential to be clinically efficacious and safe. However, clinical evidence is still lacking for all agents. © 2017 AABB.

  6. Reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection with thermal stability enabled by a self-organized helical superstructure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yannian; Urbas, Augustine; Li, Quan

    2012-06-13

    Adding external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired properties is an important leap necessary in leveraging the fascinating molecular subsystems for employment in applications. Here two novel light-driven dithienylethene chiral molecular switches possessing remarkable changes in helical twisting power during photoisomerization as well as very high helical twisting powers were found to experience photochemically reversible isomerization with thermal stability in both isotropic organic solvents and anisotropic liquid crystal media. When doped into a commercially available achiral liquid crystal host, the chiral switch was able to either immediately induce an optically tunable helical superstructure or retain an achiral photoresponsive liquid crystal phase whose helical superstructure was induced and tuned reversibly upon light irradiation. Moreover, reversible light-directed red, green, and blue reflection colors with thermal stability in a single thin film were demonstrated.

  7. Structuration in the Interface of Direct and Reversed Micelles of Sucrose Esters, Studied by Fluorescent Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Catalina; Ortega, Anakenna; Sanchez, Susana A.; Morales, Javier; Gunther, German

    2015-01-01

    Background Reactors found in nature can be described as micro-heterogeneous systems, where media involved in each micro-environment can behave in a markedly different way compared with the properties of the bulk solution. The presence of water molecules in micro-organized assemblies is of paramount importance for many chemical processes, ranging from biology to environmental science. Self-organized molecular assembled systems are frequently used to study dynamics of water molecules because are the simplest models mimicking biological membranes. The hydrogen bonds between sucrose and water molecules are described to be stronger (or more extensive) than the ones between water molecules themselves. In this work, we studied the capability of sucrose moiety, attached to alkyl chains of different length, as a surface blocking agent at the water-interface and we compared its properties with those of polyethylenglycol, a well-known agent used for this purposes. Published studies in this topic mainly refer to the micellization process and the stability of mixed surfactant systems using glycosides. We are interested in the effect induced by the presence of sucrose monoesters at the interface (direct and reverse micelles) and at the palisade (mixtures with Triton X-100). We believe that the different functional group (ester), the position of alkyl chain (6-O) and the huge capability of sucrose to interact with water will dramatically change the water structuration at the interface and at the palisade, generating new possibilities for technological applications of these systems. Results Our time resolved and steady state fluorescence experiments in pure SEs micelles show that sucrose moieties are able to interact with a high number of water molecules promoting water structuration and increased viscosity. These results also indicate that the barrier formed by sucrose moieties on the surface of pure micelles is more effective than the polyoxyethylene palisade of Triton X-100

  8. Direct integration of MEMS, dielectric pumping and cell manipulation with reversibly bonded gecko adhesive microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnat, S.; King, H.; Wasay, A.; Sameoto, D.; Hubbard, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present an approach to form a microfluidic environment on top of MEMS dies using reversibly bonded microfluidics. The reversible polymeric microfluidics moulds bond to the MEMS die using a gecko-inspired gasket architecture. In this study the formed microchannels are demonstrated in conjunction with a MEMS mechanical single cell testing environment for BioMEMS applications. A reversible microfluidics placement technique with an x-y and rotational accuracy of  ±2 µm and 1° respectively on a MEMS die was developed. No leaks were observed during pneumatic pumping of common cell media (PBS, sorbitol, water, seawater) through the fluidic channels. Thermal chevron actuators were successful operated inside this fluidic environment and a performance deviation of ~15% was measured compared to an open MEMS configuration. Latex micro-spheres were pumped using traveling wave di-electrophoresis and compared to an open (no-microfluidics) configuration with velocities of 24 µm s-1 and 20 µm s-1.

  9. Direct CRISPR spacer acquisition from RNA by a natural reverse-transcriptase-Cas1 fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sidote, David J.; Markham, Laura M.; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Bhaya, Devaki; Lambowitz, Alan M.; Fire, Andrew Z.

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat) systems mediate adaptive immunity in diverse prokaryotes. CRISPR-associated Cas1 and Cas2 proteins have been shown to enable adaptation to new threats in Type I and II CRISPR systems by the acquisition of short segments of DNA (“spacers”) from invasive elements. In several Type III CRISPR systems, Cas1 is naturally fused to a reverse transcriptase (RT). In the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea (MMB-1), we show that an RT-Cas1 fusion enables the acquisition of RNA spacers in vivo in an RT-dependent manner. In vitro, the MMB-1 RT-Cas1 and Cas2 proteins catalyze ligation of RNA segments into the CRISPR array, followed by reverse transcription. These observations outline a host-mediated mechanism for reverse information flow from RNA to DNA. PMID:26917774

  10. Possible Ceres bow shock surfaces based on fluid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y.-D.; Villarreal, M. N.; Russell, C. T.

    2017-05-01

    The hot electron beams that Dawn detected at Ceres can be explained by fast-Fermi acceleration at a temporary bow shock. A shock forms when the solar wind encounters a temporary atmosphere, similar to a cometary coma. We use a magnetohydrodynamic model to quantitatively reproduce the 3-D shock surface at Ceres and deduce the atmosphere characteristics that are required to create such a shock. Our most simple model requires about 1.8 kg/s, or 6 × 1025/s water vapor production rate to form such a shock. Such an estimate relies on characteristics of the solar wind-Ceres interaction. We present several case studies to show how these conditions affect our estimate. In addition, we contrast these cases with the smaller and narrower shock caused by a subsurface induction. Our multifluid model reveals the asymmetry introduced by the large gyroradius of the heavy pickup ions and further constrains the IMF direction during the events.

  11. A Parsec-Size Bow Shock around Betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; van Buren, Dave; Cao, Yu; Dgani, Ruth

    1997-08-01

    We present new High Resolution IRAS (HiRes) images at 60 and 100 \\mum of a bow shock or shell with a mean radius of 6arcmin surrounding Betelgeuse (alpha Orionis). The outermost section of this structure is at ~ 7arcmin which corresponds to a physical scale of 0.8 pc at a distance of 400 pc. The images were made by applying a relative Burg entropy maximization algorithm to suppress the ringing around bright sources and allow the detection of nearby low surface brightness features. The shell is relatively narrow at 60 \\mum (at the 1arcmin HiRes resolution), asymmetric and oriented along the star's direction of motion. We propose that the shell is confined by the ram pressure of the interstellar medium. Using a shell flux of 110 Jy (at 60 \\mum) within a radius of 7.arcmin5 we estimate mass of 0.14 \\msol for the shell.

  12. Astrophysical bow shocks: an analytical solution for the hypersonic blunt body problem in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulreich, M. M.; Breitschwerdt, D.

    2011-07-01

    Aims: Bow shock waves are a common feature of groups and clusters of galaxies since they are generated as a result of supersonic motion of galaxies through the intergalactic medium. The goal of this work is to present an analytical solution technique for such astrophysical hypersonic blunt body problems. Methods: A method, developed by Schneider (1968, JFM, 31, 397) in the context of aeronautics, allows calculation of the galaxy's shape as long as the shape of the bow shock wave is known (so-called inverse method). In contrast to other analytical models, the solution is valid in the whole flow region (from the stagnation point up to the bow shock wings) and in particular takes into account velocity gradients along the streamlines. We compare our analytical results with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations carried out with an extended version of the VH-1 hydrocode which is based on the piecewise parabolic method with a Lagrangian remap. Results: It is shown that the applied method accurately predicts the galaxy's shape and the fluid variables in the post-shock flow, thus saving a tremendous amount of computing time for future interpretations of similar objects. We also find that the method can be applied to arbitrary angles between the direction of the incoming flow and the axis of symmetry of the body. We emphasize that it is general enough to be applied to other astrophysical bow shocks, such as those on stellar and galactic scales.

  13. Observed Foreshock Ions which are Actually Behind the Martian Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, Rudy A.; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Winningham, J. David; Lundin, Rickard; Sharber, James R.; Nilsson, Hans; Coates, Andrew J.; Mukherjee, Joey

    2016-04-01

    The Mars Express (MEx) Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) experiment contains ion and electron instruments for conducting plasma measurements. On January 23, 2012, during in-bound travel of MEx in the southern hemisphere of Mars traveling from its dawn side toward periapsis at dusk, the plasma instruments measured foreshock-like ion beams extending from outside the bow shock and into the magnetosphere, continuing to a distance of about a proton gyroradius from the bow shock. These ion beams were mostly protons, were observed to have energies greater than solar wind protons, and were not gyrating, in agreement with reflections of the solar wind proton beam. Furthermore, in the foreshock region, the ion energy gradually decreased toward the magnetosheath, in agreement with an acceleration by an outward-directed electric field in the bow shock. The observations also suggest that this electric field exists even inside the magnetosheath, within the distance of a proton gyroradius from the bow shock.

  14. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, S.; Bieli, R.; Bergmann, U. C.

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  15. Measurement of Force of Bow Holding and Contact Force between Bow Hair and String in Violin Playing by Pressure Measuring Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2001-09-01

    The force of bow holding and the contact force between bow hair and string in violin playing were measured by a pressure measuring film for the first time. It was scientifically identified that relaxed bowing was important for achieving a good violin tone. The proposed measurement manner may be helpful for objective evaluation of the bowing skill of amateur violinists.

  16. Influence of Additive and Multiplicative Structure and Direction of Comparison on the Reversal Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Calero, José Antonio; Arnau, David; Laserna-Belenguer, Belén

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of word order matching and static comparison as explanatory models of reversal error. Data was collected from 214 undergraduate students who translated a set of additive and multiplicative comparisons expressed in Spanish into algebraic language. In these multiplicative comparisons…

  17. Influence of Additive and Multiplicative Structure and Direction of Comparison on the Reversal Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Calero, José Antonio; Arnau, David; Laserna-Belenguer, Belén

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study has been carried out to evaluate the potential of word order matching and static comparison as explanatory models of reversal error. Data was collected from 214 undergraduate students who translated a set of additive and multiplicative comparisons expressed in Spanish into algebraic language. In these multiplicative comparisons…

  18. Directional climate change and potential reversal of desertification in arid and semiarid ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine if long-term increases in precipitation can maintain grasslands susceptible to desertification, and initiate a reversal of historic regime shifts on desertified shrublands. Long-term trends in desertification were documented using vegetation maps beginning in 1858. The...

  19. On the mechanics of the modern working-recurve bow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, B. W.

    1991-09-01

    Characteristic for the bow are the slender elastic arms or limbs. The bow is braced by putting a string shorter than the bow between the tips of the limbs. Additional deformation energy is stored in the elastic limbs by drawing the bow into the fully drawn position. Part of this amount of energy is transformed into kinetic energy of a light arrow. In the 1930's the design of the bow became a subject of scientific research. Experiments were performed in which design parameters were changed more or less systematically. However, the mathematical models were rather simple. Because fast computers are now available the presented model in this paper can be much more advanced. The resulting set of partial differential equations with known initial values and moving boundaries is solved numberically using a finite-difference method. In this paper the design parameters associated with the developed model are charted accurately. Bows used in the past and nowadays on shooting meetings such as the Olympic Games are compared. It turns out that the application of better materials which can store more deformation energy per unit of mass and that this material is used to a larger extent, contribute most to the improvement of the bow. The parameters which fix the mechanical performance of the bow appear to be less important as is often claimed.

  20. 75 FR 39201 - MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Forest Service MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The MedBow-Routt Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Steamboat Springs, Colorado... Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act. The purpose of the...

  1. Muscular activation patterns of the bow arm in recurve archery.

    PubMed

    Ertan, Hayri

    2009-05-01

    In archery shooting, the archer should hold the bow in place using only the pressure produced through drawing back the bowstring. Most coaches discourage the archer from gripping the bow as this is believed to produce a sideways deflecting torque on the bow and arrow during the release. The purpose of this study was to compare the bow hand forearm muscular activation patterns of elite archers with beginners to define the muscular contraction-relaxation strategies in the bow hand forearm muscles during archery shooting and investigate the effects of performance level on these strategies. Electromyographic activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum of 10 elite and 10 beginner archers were recorded together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap. Raw electromyographic records as 1s before and after the clicker pulse were rectified, integrated, and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for both groups of archers. The main difference between the elite and beginner archers was that the elite archers had a greater activation of the M. extensor digitorum, which indicates that they avoid gripping the bow-handle not only relaxing the flexor muscles, but also contracting the extensor muscle groups. This muscular contraction strategy secures the archer to not interfere with the forward movement of the bow, which is the forward acceleration of the bow caused by the pushing power of the bowstring.

  2. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310; (2) Be installed in an area away from the accommodation, service, or control space on type IG hulls; (3) Be clearly marked; (4) Be segregated from the cargo piping by a removable spool piece in the...

  3. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must...

  4. 46 CFR 45.69 - Correction for bow height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Correction for bow height. 45.69 Section 45.69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.69 Correction for bow height. (a) The minimum summer freeboard of all manned vessels must...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1870 - Bow and stern loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... loading. (a) When the bow or stern loading piping is not in use, the master shall lock closed the shut-off... cargo transfer shall ensure that after the bow or stern loading piping is used it is purged of cargo...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1870 - Bow and stern loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... loading. (a) When the bow or stern loading piping is not in use, the master shall lock closed the shut-off... cargo transfer shall ensure that after the bow or stern loading piping is used it is purged of cargo...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1870 - Bow and stern loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... loading. (a) When the bow or stern loading piping is not in use, the master shall lock closed the shut-off... cargo transfer shall ensure that after the bow or stern loading piping is used it is purged of cargo...

  8. Evolution of Bow-Tie Architectures in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network—that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  9. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved.

  10. Auditory perception of note transitions in simulated complex bowing patterns.

    PubMed

    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Demoucron, Matthias; Altenmüller, Eckart; Leman, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Recent motion-capture measurements of violin bowing revealed an interesting coordination behavior in fast repetitive bowing patterns involving bow changes and string crossings; bow changes were consistently lagging behind string crossings, and the relative timing appeared to be an integral part of the bow-movement patterns. The aim of the current study was to investigate if there might be a perceptual explanation for the observed coordination behavior. For this purpose a virtual violin was used, controlled by simulated bowing gestures. A simplified coordination model is presented, which was implemented to allow real-time control of complex bowing patterns. This synthesis approach was employed in a perceptual experiment in which the participants were asked to optimize the sound by adjusting a slider controlling the main coordination parameters. It was found that the resulting coordination patterns were similar to those observed in performance, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction. Further analysis of the responses shed light on temporal and spatial constraints of the simulated gestures associated with the note transitions. The results raise interesting questions with regard to auditory-motor interaction in complex instrumental control gestures.

  11. Mach 5 bow shock control by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, M.; Takashima, K.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2011-06-01

    Bow shock perturbations in a Mach 5 air flow, produced by low-temperature, nanosecond pulse, and surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), are detected by phase-locked schlieren imaging. A diffuse nanosecond pulse discharge is generated in a DBD plasma actuator on a surface of a cylinder model placed in air flow in a small scale blow-down supersonic wind tunnel. Discharge energy coupled to the actuator is 7.3-7.8 mJ/pulse. Plasma temperature inferred from nitrogen emission spectra is a few tens of degrees higher than flow stagnation temperature, T = 340 ± 30 K. Phase-locked Schlieren images are used to detect compression waves generated by individual nanosecond discharge pulses near the actuator surface. The compression wave propagates upstream toward the baseline bow shock standing in front of the cylinder model. Interaction of the compression wave and the bow shock causes its displacement in the upstream direction, increasing shock stand-off distance by up to 25%. The compression wave speed behind the bow shock and the perturbed bow shock velocity are inferred from the Schlieren images. The effect of compression waves generated by nanosecond discharge pulses on shock stand-off distance is demonstrated in a single-pulse regime (at pulse repetition rates of a few hundred Hz) and in a quasi-continuous mode (using a two-pulse sequence at a pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz). The results demonstrate feasibility of hypersonic flow control by low-temperature, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges.

  12. Mach 5 bow shock control by a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihara, M.; Takashima, K.; Rich, J. W.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2011-06-15

    Bow shock perturbations in a Mach 5 air flow, produced by low-temperature, nanosecond pulse, and surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), are detected by phase-locked schlieren imaging. A diffuse nanosecond pulse discharge is generated in a DBD plasma actuator on a surface of a cylinder model placed in air flow in a small scale blow-down supersonic wind tunnel. Discharge energy coupled to the actuator is 7.3-7.8 mJ/pulse. Plasma temperature inferred from nitrogen emission spectra is a few tens of degrees higher than flow stagnation temperature, T = 340 {+-} 30 K. Phase-locked Schlieren images are used to detect compression waves generated by individual nanosecond discharge pulses near the actuator surface. The compression wave propagates upstream toward the baseline bow shock standing in front of the cylinder model. Interaction of the compression wave and the bow shock causes its displacement in the upstream direction, increasing shock stand-off distance by up to 25%. The compression wave speed behind the bow shock and the perturbed bow shock velocity are inferred from the Schlieren images. The effect of compression waves generated by nanosecond discharge pulses on shock stand-off distance is demonstrated in a single-pulse regime (at pulse repetition rates of a few hundred Hz) and in a quasi-continuous mode (using a two-pulse sequence at a pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz). The results demonstrate feasibility of hypersonic flow control by low-temperature, repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges.

  13. The bow and cultural complexity of the Canadian Plains.

    PubMed

    Walde, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The timing and circumstances of the introduction of the bow and arrow into past North American economic and social lifeways have been sources of interest and controversy among archeologists for a very long time. Initial interpretations of the adoption of the bow and arrow generally seem to have been based on the rather straightforward assumption of functional superiority as a hunting tool. That is, the bow and arrow was simply a better instrument than the atlatl-dart technology it replaced. More recently, however, researchers exploring the effectiveness of the atlatl as a hunting tool have responded with studies that challenge the assumed universal functional superiority of the bow and arrow as a hunting device. Social coercion and warfare theory presents an alternative perspective on the adoption of the bow and arrow.

  14. Horizontal-plane arm movements with direction reversals performed by normal individuals and individuals with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Almeida, G L; Corcos, D M; Hasan, Z

    2000-10-01

    We examined the systematic variation in shoulder and elbow torque, as well as movement kinematics, for horizontal-plane arm movements with direction reversals performed by normal individuals and individuals with Down syndrome. Eight neurologically normal individuals and eight individuals with Down syndrome performed horizontal, planar reversal movements to four different target locations. The four locations of the targets were chosen such that there is a systematic increase in elbow interaction torque for each of the four different target locations. This systematic increase in interaction torque has previously been shown to lead to progressively larger movement reversal errors, and trajectories that do not show a sharp reversal of direction, for movements to and from the target in patients who have proprioceptive abnormalities. We computed joint torques at the elbow and shoulder and found a high correlation between elbow and shoulder torque for the neurologically normal subjects. The ratio of joint torques varied systematically with target location. These findings extend previously reported findings of a linear synergy between shoulder and elbow joints for a variety of point-to-point movements. There was also a correlation between elbow and shoulder torque in individuals with Down syndrome, but the magnitude of the correlation was less. The ratio of joint torques changed systematically with target direction in individuals with Down syndrome but was slightly different from the ratio observed for neurologically normal individuals. The difference in the ratio was caused by the generation of proportionately more elbow torque than shoulder torque. The fingertip path of individuals with Down syndrome showed a sharp reversal in moving toward and then away from the target. In this respect, they were similar to neurologically normal individuals but dissimilar to individuals with proprioceptive deficits. Finally, we observed that individuals with Down syndrome spend

  15. A biodifferential system of face-bow mechanics.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, H L; Beazley, W W

    1976-11-01

    A review of the literature, both scientific and commercial, did not demonstrate the separation of the inner and outer bows into a biodifferential interchangeable system. The prime design idea, to separate the inner and outer bows, increased versatility and yielded a multiple appliance with a greater range of use and safety. The joint couple systems could be adapted to fulfill the criteria cited in the literature during preliminary treatment (deciduous dentition), partial treatment, full-banded treatment, and retention. The biodifferential design was compatible with most mechanical orthodontic appliances and systems currently used. The three joint designs presented and the three inner bow lock devices fulfilled the parameters expected from the normal use of the present face-bow in necessary strength, stability, and use. Further, the use of a joint couple between the inner and outer bows expanded the versatility of the face-bow into a biodifferential system and allowed for an easily manageable and orderly change of forces, vectors, sizes, and shapes requiring little chair time and minimum instruction to the patient. The inner bow could be used as an intraoral appliance for bumpers, shields, and oral screens. These easily made, preformed, interlocking parts could be marked or color coded as to type and size and keyed, grooved, and designed to prevent inverted interlocking of parts. The inner bow could be tied in, as an aid in patient cooperation, or the inner and outer bows could be pinned or ligated together to prevent separation. One of the most important factors of the biodifferential system is protection of the patient from severe trauma to the eyes, face, and mouth due to misuse or accident, as has occurred in the one-piece face-bow. The biodifferential system fulfills the five criteria of the investigation: (1) a system of interchangeable, interlocking joint parts, (2) safety and dependability, (3) easy changes in force, vectors, and moments, (4) enhanced

  16. Image reversal for direct electron beam patterning of protein coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pesen, Devrim; Erlandsson, Anna; Ulfendahl, Mats; Haviland, David B

    2007-11-01

    Electron beam lithography (EBL) is used to create surfaces with protein patterns, which are characterized by immunofluorescence and atomic force microscopies. Both negative and positive image processes are realized by electron beam irradiation of proteins absorbed on a silicon surface, where image reversal is achieved by selectively binding a second species of protein to the electron beam exposed areas on the first protein layer. Biofunctionality at the cellular level was established by culturing cortical cells on patterned lines of fibronectin adsorbed on a bovine serum albumin background for 7 days in culture.

  17. Direct integration of vertical In2O3 nanowire arrays, nanosheet chains, and photoinduced reversible switching of wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Miao; Zheng, Maojun; Zeng, Ansheng; Ma, L.

    2008-03-01

    Large-scale In2O3 nanowire (NW) arrays and nanosheet chains are directly integrated on InP substrates via a simple chemical vapor deposition process, benefiting from the substrate-induced, self-assembly and self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Such particular structures could be expected to have potential applications such as gas sensors and field emission devices. Equally important, remarkable photoinduced wettability conversion between superhydrophobicity and high hydrophilicity has been observed on In2O3 NW arrays. This reversible behavior is ascribed to the photogenerated surface oxygen vacancies and the special nanostructures. Such reversibly switching surface will widen the applications of In2O3 films.

  18. Study of the relation between Pc 3 micropulsations and magnetosheath fluctuations and of the multisatellite, multimeasurement investigation of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The structure and direction of bow shock waves and the occurence of Pc 3, 4 micropulsations were investigated. An observational description is given of a quasi-parallel structure in a plasma parameter regime. The use of approximation to estimate the thickness of thin, nearly perpendicular bow shocks at supralaminar Mach numbers is discussed. The pattern of energies of backstreaming protons in the foreshock are predicted.

  19. Direct production of XYDMY− sex reversal female medaka (Oryzias latipes) by embryo microinjection of TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Daji; Liu, Yun; Chen, Ji; Xia, Xiaoqin; Cao, Mengxi; Cheng, Bin; Wang, Xuejuan; Gong, Wuming; Qiu, Chao; Zhang, Yunsheng; Ki Cheng, Christopher Hon; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Medaka is an ideal model for sex determination and sex reversal, such as XY phenotypically female patients in humans. Here, we assembled improved TALENs targeting the DMY gene and generated XYDMY− mutants to investigate gonadal dysgenesis in medaka. DMY-TALENs resulted in indel mutations at the targeted loci (46.8%). DMY-nanos3UTR-TALENs induced mutations were passed through the germline to F1 generation with efficiencies of up to 91.7%. XYDMY− mutants developed into females, laid eggs, and stably passed the YDMY− chromosome to next generation. RNA-seq generated 157 million raw reads from WT male (WT_M_TE), WT female (WT_F_OV) and XYDMY− female medaka (TA_F_OV) gonad libraries. Differential expression analysis identified 144 up- and 293 down-regulated genes in TA_F_OV compared with WT_F_OV, 387 up- and 338 down-regulated genes in TA_F_OV compared with WT_M_TE. According to genes annotation and functional prediction, such as Wnt1 and PRCK, it revealed that incomplete ovarian function and reduced fertility of XYDMY− mutant is closely related to the wnt signaling pathway. Our results provided the transcriptional profiles of XYDMY− mutants, revealed the mechanism between sex reversal and DMY in medaka, and suggested that XYDMY− medaka was a novel mutant that is useful for investigating gonadal dysgenesis in phenotypic female patients with the 46, XY karyotype. PMID:26365677

  20. Laboratory studies of stagnating plasma flows with applications to inner solar system and stellar bow shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    Supercritical magnetized collisionless shocks are thought to play a dominant role in the overall partition of energy throughout the universe by converting flow kinetic energy to other forms such as thermal and supra-thermal populations, magnetic field enhancement, turbulence, and energetic particles. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL creates conditions similar to those of inner solar system and stellar bow shocks by accelerating hot (100s of eV during translation) dense (1022 - 1023 m-3) Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids to 100s of km/s; resulting in β 1, collisionless plasma flows with Msonic and MAlfvén 10. The drifting FRC can be made to impinge upon a variety of static obstacles including: a strong mirror or cusp magnetic field (mimicking magnetically excited shocks such as the Earth's bow shock), plasma pileup from a solid obstacle (similar to the bow shocks of Mercury and the Moon), and a neural gas puff (bow shocks of Venus or the comets). Characteristic shock length and time scales that are both large enough to observe yet small enough to fit within the experiment, enabling study of the complex interplay of kinetic and fluid processes that mediate cosmic shocks and can generate non-thermal distributions, produce density and magnetic field enhancements much greater than predicted by fluid theory, and accelerate particles. An overview of the experimental program will be presented, including recent results. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  1. Observation of Motion of Bowed Strings and Resonant Strings in Violin Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    The motion of a bowed string and a resonant string of a violin were simultaneously observed for the first time. The results of the direct observation of string motion in double stops and harmonics are also presented. The importance of the resonance was experimentally demonstrated from these observations. It is suggested that players should take account of the resonance and ideal Helmholtz motion in violin performances.

  2. Distant Bow Shock Observations by Explorer 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalov, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Locations, orientations and magnetic field changes are given for 135 bow shock crossings at distances downstream from earth between 84 and 117 earth radii. The shock locations are dependent on the spacecraft trajectory and agree with locations calculated for the hypersonic analogue for a Mach number of 3.8. The shock normal vectors have been calculated using magnetic coplanarity. The average normal vectors have a greater inclination by approximately 17 + or - 5 deg from the symmetry axis than the Dryer and Heckman shock orientations for a 3.8 Mach number. Over a range of downstream distances from 60 to 115 earth radii, the median magnetic field magnitude jump across the shock changes from 1.90 to 1.70 times.

  3. Suprathermal Electrons at Saturn's Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, A.; Sulaiman, A. H.; Sergis, N.; Stawarz, L.; Fujimoto, M.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-07-01

    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we present the full picture of suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock revealed by Cassini. The downstream thermal electron distribution is resolved in all data taken by the low-energy electron detector (CAPS-ELS, <28 keV) during shock crossings, but the higher energy channels were at (or close to) background. The high-energy electron detector (MIMI-LEMMS, >18 keV) measured a suprathermal electron signature at 31 of 508 crossings, where typically only the lowest energy channels (<100 keV) were above background. We show that these results are consistent with the theory in which the “injection” of thermal electrons into an acceleration process involves interaction with whistler waves at the shock front, and becomes possible for all upstream magnetic field orientations at high Mach numbers like those of the strong shocks around young SNRs. A future dedicated study will analyze the rare crossings with evidence for relativistic electrons (up to ˜1 MeV).

  4. Femoral bow predicts postoperative malalignment in revision total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Arjun S; Wilke, Benjamin K; Taunton, Michael J; Trousdale, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Diaphyseal bowing may compromise axial alignment in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 277 patients undergoing revision TKA were evaluated for coronal bowing and hip-knee-ankle (HKA) axis. The mean femoral bow was 1.52° ± 0.18° varus (-10.1° to +8.4°). The mean tibial bow was 1.25° ± 0.13° valgus (-5.9° to +10°). HKA axis averaged 3.08° ± 0.35° varus preoperatively compared to 0.86° ± 0.25° varus postoperatively. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability was high. Femoral bow greater than 4° significantly correlated with postoperative HKA axis malalignment (r = 0.402, P = 0.008). 39.7% of patients deviated 3° or greater from a neutral mechanical axis with a significant difference in femoral bow (0.94° ± 0.31°, P = 0.003). Diaphyseal bowing clearly has an important effect on postoperative limb alignment in revision TKA.

  5. Optimization of bow shape for a non ballast water ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van He, Ngo; Ikeda, Yoshiho

    2013-09-01

    In this research, a commercial CFD code "Fluent" was applied to optimization of bulbous bow shape for a non ballast water ships (NBS). The ship was developed at the Laboratory of the authors in Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. At first, accuracy of the CFD code was validated by comparing the CFD results with experimental results at towing tank of Osaka Prefecture University. In the optimizing process, the resistances acting on ships in calm water and in regular head waves were defined as the object function. Following features of bulbous bow shapes were considered as design parameters: volume of bulbous bow, height of its volume center, angle of bow bottom, and length of bulbous bow. When referring to the computed results given by the CFD like resistance, pressure and wave pattern made by ships in calm water and in waves, an optimal bow shape for ships was discovered by comparing the results in the series of bow shapes. In the computation on waves, the ship is in fully captured condition because shorter waves, λ/ L pp <0.6, are assumed.

  6. Direct-current effects on magnetization reversal properties of submicron-size Permalloy patterns for radio-frequency devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hanqiao; Wang Pingshan; Hoffmann, Axel; Divan, Ralu

    2009-12-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy is used to measure direct-current (dc) effects on the magnetization reversal properties of submicron-sized lateral patterned magnetic material. The observed FMR frequency-field relationship shows that for both 240 and 550 nm wide Permalloy (Py) nanowires the coercivity is reduced by {approx}33% when a 50 mA dc passes through the transmission line where the nanowires are incorporated. The temperature dependence of the coercivity has a {radical}(T) relationship which suggests the coherent rotation mode tendency in such 100 nm thick Py nanowires.

  7. Direct-current effects on magnetization reversal properties of submicron-size permalloy patterns for radio-frequency devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Hoffmann, A.; Divan, R.; Wang, P.; Clemson Univ.

    2009-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy is used to measure direct-current (dc) effects on the magnetization reversal properties of submicron-sized lateral patterned magnetic material. The observed FMR frequency-field relationship shows that for both 240 and 550 nm wide Permalloy (Py) nanowires the coercivity is reduced by {approx}33% when a 50 mA dc passes through the transmission line where the nanowires are incorporated. The temperature dependence of the coercivity has a {radical}T relationship which suggests the coherent rotation mode tendency in such 100 nm thick Py nanowires.

  8. Direct observation of broken time-reversal symmetry on the surface of a magnetically doped topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Dhital, Chetan; Zhou, Wenwen; Huemiller, Erik D; Lin, Hsin; Basak, S; Bansil, A; Huang, Y-B; Ding, H; Wang, Z; Wilson, Stephen D; Madhavan, V

    2011-05-20

    We study interference patterns of a magnetically doped topological insulator Bi(2-x)Fe(x)Te(3+d) by using Fourier transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy and observe several new scattering channels. A comparison with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy allows us to unambiguously ascertain the momentum-space origin of distinct dispersing channels along high-symmetry directions and identify those originating from time-reversal symmetry breaking. Our analysis also reveals that the surface state survives far above the energy where angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy finds the onset of continuum bulk bands.

  9. The bow and arrow in northern North America.

    PubMed

    Maschner, Herbert; Mason, Owen K

    2013-01-01

    There were at least four waves of bow and arrow use in northern North America. These occurred at 12000, 4500, 2400, and after about 1300 years ago. But to understand the role of the bow and arrow in the north, one must begin in the eighteenth century, when the Russians first arrived in the Aleutian Islands. At that time, the Aleut were using both the atlatl and dart and the bow and arrow (Fig. ). This is significant for two particular and important reasons. First, there are few historic cases in which both technologies were used concurrently; second, the bow and arrow in the Aleutian Islands were used almost exclusively in warfare. The atlatl was a critical technology because the bow and arrow are useless for hunting sea mammals. One cannot launch an arrow from a kayak because it is too unstable and requires that both hands remain on a paddle. To use an atlatl, it is necessary only to stabilize the kayak with a paddle on one side and launch the atlatl dart with the opposite hand. The Aleut on the Alaska Peninsula did indeed use the bow and arrow to hunt caribou there. However, in the 1,400 km of the Aleutian Islands, there are no terrestrial mammals except humans and the bow was reserved almost exclusively for conflicts among them. The most significant event in the history of the bow and arrow is not its early introduction, but rather the Asian War Complex 1300 years ago, when the recurve and backed bows first entered the region, altering regional and hemispheric political dynamics forever. [Figure: see text].

  10. Heteroscedasticity as a Basis of Direction Dependence in Reversible Linear Regression Models.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; Artner, Richard; von Eye, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Heteroscedasticity is a well-known issue in linear regression modeling. When heteroscedasticity is observed, researchers are advised to remedy possible model misspecification of the explanatory part of the model (e.g., considering alternative functional forms and/or omitted variables). The present contribution discusses another source of heteroscedasticity in observational data: Directional model misspecifications in the case of nonnormal variables. Directional misspecification refers to situations where alternative models are equally likely to explain the data-generating process (e.g., x → y versus y → x). It is shown that the homoscedasticity assumption is likely to be violated in models that erroneously treat true nonnormal predictors as response variables. Recently, Direction Dependence Analysis (DDA) has been proposed as a framework to empirically evaluate the direction of effects in linear models. The present study links the phenomenon of heteroscedasticity with DDA and describes visual diagnostics and nine homoscedasticity tests that can be used to make decisions concerning the direction of effects in linear models. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation that demonstrate the adequacy of the approach are presented. An empirical example is provided, and applicability of the methodology in cases of violated assumptions is discussed.

  11. Structural changes in cuticles on violin bow hair caused by wear.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    A bow with horse tail hair is used to play the violin. New and worn-out bow hairs were observed by atomic force microscopy. The cuticles of the new bow hair were already damaged by bleach and delipidation, however the worn-out bow hairs were much more damaged and broken off by force, which relates to wearing out.

  12. Contaminants of emerging concern in reverse osmosis brine concentrate from indirect/direct water reuse applications.

    PubMed

    Romeyn, Travis R; Harijanto, Wesley; Sandoval, Sofia; Delagah, Saied; Sharbatmaleki, Mohamadali

    2016-01-01

    Water shortage is becoming more common due to droughts and global population increases resulting in the increasing popularity of water reuse to create new water sources. Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems are popular in these applications since they can produce drinking water quality effluent. Unfortunately, RO systems have the drawback of generating concentrate streams that contain contaminants rejected by the membrane including chemicals of emerging concern (CECs). CECs are chemicals such as hormones, steroids, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products that are used for their intended purpose and then released into wastewater. CECs are believed to be detrimental to aquatic wildlife health and pose an unknown human health risk. This research gathered the existing knowledge on CEC presence in concentrate, available proven concentrate treatment methods, their CEC removal abilities, and current CEC regulations. It was found that 127 CECs have been measured in RO concentrate with 100 being detected at least once. The most potent treatment process available is UV/H2O2 as it offers the highest removal rates for the widest range of chemicals. The less expensive process of ozone/biologically activated carbon offers slightly lower removal abilities. This comprehensive report will provide the groundwork for better understanding, regulating and treating concentrate stream CECs.

  13. Directing Stem Cell Differentiation via Electrochemical Reversible Switching between Nanotubes and Nanotips of Polypyrrole Array.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan; Mo, Xiaoju; Zhang, Pengchao; Li, Yingying; Liao, Jingwen; Li, Yongjun; Zhang, Jinxing; Ning, Chengyun; Wang, Shutao; Deng, Xuliang; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-27

    Control of stem cell behaviors at solid biointerfaces is critical for stem-cell-based regeneration and generally achieved by engineering chemical composition, topography, and stiffness. However, the influence of dynamic stimuli at the nanoscale from solid biointerfaces on stem cell fate remains unclear. Herein, we show that electrochemical switching of a polypyrrole (Ppy) array between nanotubes and nanotips can alter surface adhesion, which can strongly influence mechanotransduction activation and guide differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The Ppy array, prepared via template-free electrochemical polymerization, can be reversibly switched between highly adhesive hydrophobic nanotubes and poorly adhesive hydrophilic nanotips through an electrochemical oxidation/reduction process, resulting in dynamic attachment and detachment to MSCs at the nanoscale. Multicyclic attachment/detachment of the Ppy array to MSCs can activate intracellular mechanotransduction and osteogenic differentiation independent of surface stiffness and chemical induction. This smart surface, permitting transduction of nanoscaled dynamic physical inputs into biological outputs, provides an alternative to classical cell culture substrates for regulating stem cell fate commitment. This study represents a general strategy to explore nanoscaled interactions between stem cells and stimuli-responsive surfaces.

  14. The density of cometary protons upstream of Comet Halley's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balsiger, H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Schwenn, R.

    1989-01-01

    Cometary protons picked up by the solar wind were detected by the high energy range spectrometer of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer starting at a cometocentric distance of about 12 million km. On the average, the density of cometary protons varied approximately as the inverse square of the cometocentric distance, reaching a value of 0.11/cu cm just outside the bow shock. The data can be successfully fit to models that include substantial amounts of both slow (1 km/s) and fast (8 km/s or greater) H atoms beyond the bow shock. Large local variations in the density of picked-up protons can be explained on the basis of variations in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field in upstream regions where pitch angle scattering was weak.

  15. The density of cometary protons upstream of comet Halley's bow shock

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B.E. ); Balsiger, H. ); Neubauer, F.M. ); Schwenn, R. ); Shelley, E.G. )

    1989-02-01

    Cometary protons picked up by the solar wind were detected by the high energy range spectrometer of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer starting at a cometocentric distance of {approximately}12 {times} 10{sup 6} km. On the average, the density of cometary protons varied approximately as the inverse square of the cometocentric distance, reaching a value of 0.11 cm{sup {minus}3} just outside the bow shock. The data can be successfully fit to models that include substantial amounts of both slow ({approximately}1 km/s) and fast ({ge} 8 km/s) H atoms beyond the bow shock. Large local variations in the density of picked-up protons can be explained on the basis of variations in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field in upstream regions where pitch angle scattering was weak.

  16. High-Energy-Density Laboratory Astrophysics Studies of Jets and Bow Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. M.; Wilde, B. H.; Rosen, P. A.; Williams, R. J. R.; Blue, B. E.; Coker, R. F.; Drake, R. P.; Frank, A.; Keiter, P. A.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Knauer, J. P.; Perry, T. S.

    2005-11-01

    We present the first results from high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics experiments that explore the interaction of supersonic jets/outflows with an ambient medium. Our experiments were conducted on the Omega laser facility, a large Inertial Confinement Fusion facility. In our experiments, a laser pulse drives a supersonic jet into foam. High-resolution X-ray radiography reveals the resulting highly structured bow shock. These are the first laboratory astrophysics experiments to capture the behavior of both the jet and the bow shock. We discuss the astrophysical relevance of the flow processes that we observe in the experiments and in the accompanying numerical models. Scaling arguments suggest that our experiments are most directly relevant to active galactic nucleus jets and planetary nebula outflows, while future work may allow our experiments to extend into regimes relevant to radiative outflows from young stellar objects. Contains material © British Crown Copyright 2005/MOD, reprinted with permission.

  17. The density of cometary protons upstream of Comet Halley's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balsiger, H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Schwenn, R.

    1989-01-01

    Cometary protons picked up by the solar wind were detected by the high energy range spectrometer of the Giotto ion mass spectrometer starting at a cometocentric distance of about 12 million km. On the average, the density of cometary protons varied approximately as the inverse square of the cometocentric distance, reaching a value of 0.11/cu cm just outside the bow shock. The data can be successfully fit to models that include substantial amounts of both slow (1 km/s) and fast (8 km/s or greater) H atoms beyond the bow shock. Large local variations in the density of picked-up protons can be explained on the basis of variations in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field in upstream regions where pitch angle scattering was weak.

  18. Population genetic structure and direct observations reveal sex-reversed patterns of dispersal in a cooperative bird

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Xavier A; York, Jennifer E; Young, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Sex-biased dispersal is pervasive and has diverse evolutionary implications, but the fundamental drivers of dispersal sex biases remain unresolved. This is due in part to limited diversity within taxonomic groups in the direction of dispersal sex biases, which leaves hypothesis testing critically dependent upon identifying rare reversals of taxonomic norms. Here, we use a combination of observational and genetic data to demonstrate a rare reversal of the avian sex bias in dispersal in the cooperatively breeding white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali). Direct observations revealed that (i) natal philopatry was rare, with both sexes typically dispersing locally to breed, and (ii), unusually for birds, males bred at significantly greater distances from their natal group than females. Population genetic analyses confirmed these patterns, as (i) corrected Assignment index (AIc), FST tests and isolation-by-distance metrics were all indicative of longer dispersal distances among males than females, and (ii) spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated stronger within-group genetic structure among females than males. Examining the spatial scale of extra-group mating highlighted that the resulting ‘sperm dispersal’ could have acted in concert with individual dispersal to generate these genetic patterns, but gamete dispersal alone cannot account entirely for the sex differences in genetic structure observed. That leading hypotheses for the evolution of dispersal sex biases cannot readily account for these sex-reversed patterns of dispersal in white-browed sparrow weavers highlights the continued need for attention to alternative explanations for this enigmatic phenomenon. We highlight the potential importance of sex differences in the distances over which dispersal opportunities can be detected. PMID:25346189

  19. High-Energy-Density, Laboratory-Astrophysics Studies of Jets and Bow Shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J M; Wilde, B H; Rosen, P A; Perry, T S; Khokhlov, A M; Coker, R F; Frank, A; Keiter, P A; Blue, B E; Drake, R P; Knauer, J P; Williams, R R

    2005-01-24

    Large-scale directional outflows of supersonic plasma, also known as ''jets'', are ubiquitous phenomena in astrophysics [1]. The interaction of such jets with surrounding matter often results in spectacular bow shocks, and intense radiation from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The traditional approach to understanding such phenomena is through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. However, such numerical simulations have limited resolution, often assume axial symmetry, do not include all relevant physical processes, and fail to scale correctly in Reynolds number and perhaps other key dimensionless parameters. Additionally, they are frequently not tested by comparison with laboratory experiments. Recent advances in high-energy-density physics using large inertial-confinement-fusion devices now allow controlled laboratory experiments on macroscopic volumes of plasma of direct relevance relevant to astrophysics [2]. In this Letter we report the first results of experiments designed to study the evolution of supersonic plasma jets and the bow shocks they drive into a surrounding medium. Our experiments reveal both regular and highly complex flow patterns in the bow shock, thus opening a new window--complementary to computer simulations--into understanding the nature of three-dimensional astrophysical jets.

  20. Direct detection of infectious bursal disease virus from clinical samples by in situ reverse transcriptase-linked polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Tereza C; Rosa, Ana C G; Astolphi, Rafael D; Vincente, Rafael M; Novais, Juliana B; Hirata, Karina Y; Luvizotto, Maria Cecilia R

    2008-08-01

    The presence of the very virulent (vv) Brazilian strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) was determined in the bursa of Fabricius, thymus and liver of 2-week-old broilers from a flock with a higher than expected mortality. For this purpose, a direct in situ reverse transcriptase (RT)-linked polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed using specific primers for vvIBDV. Unlabelled forward and reverse biotinylated oligonucleotides were used for RT-PCR in a one-step method and the respective products were revealed by a direct enzymatic reaction. The results were compared with those obtained by standard RT-PCR using general primers for IBDV and virus isolation. The virus isolation, RT-PCR and in situ RT-PCR revealed positive results on the bursa of Fabricius in 86%, 80% and 100%, respectively. The in situ RT-PCR detected vvIBDV in all tested thymus and liver samples, whereas the standard RT-PCR detected virus in 80% and 90% of the samples, respectively. After three consecutive passages on chicken embryonated eggs, IBDV was isolated from 64% of the thymus samples and 30% of the liver samples. In the present study, no classical or antigenic variants of IBDV were detected. The developed in situ RT-PCR assay was able to detect the very virulent strain of IBDV with a higher sensitivity than the conventional RT-PCR and virus isolation.

  1. Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gren, Per; Tatar, Kourosh; Granström, Jan; Molin, N.-E.; Jansson, Erik V.

    2006-04-01

    Laser vibrometry measurements on a bowed violin are performed. A rotating disc apparatus, acting as a violin bow, is developed. It produces a continuous, long, repeatable, multi-frequency sound from the instrument that imitates the real bow-string interaction for a 'very long bow'. What mainly differs is that the back and forward motion of the real bow is replaced by the rotating motion with constant velocity of the disc and constant bowing force (bowing pressure). This procedure is repeatable. It is long lasting and allows laser vibrometry techniques to be used, which measure forced vibrations by bowing at all excited frequencies simultaneously. A chain of interacting parts of the played violin is studied: the string, the bridge and the plates as well as the emitted sound field. A description of the mechanics and the sound production of the bowed violin is given, i.e. the production chain from the bowed string to the produced tone.

  2. Direct and reversible hydrogenation of CO2 to formate by a bacterial carbon dioxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, K; Müller, V

    2013-12-13

    Storage and transportation of hydrogen is a major obstacle for its use as a fuel. An increasingly considered alternative for the direct handling of hydrogen is to use carbon dioxide (CO2) as an intermediate storage material. However, CO2 is thermodynamically stable, and developed chemical catalysts often require high temperatures, pressures, and/or additives for high catalytic rates. Here, we present the discovery of a bacterial hydrogen-dependent carbon dioxide reductase from Acetobacterium woodii directly catalyzing the hydrogenation of CO2. We also demonstrate a whole-cell system able to produce formate as the sole end product from dihydrogen (H2) and CO2 as well as syngas. This discovery opens biotechnological alternatives for efficient CO2 hydrogenation either by using the isolated enzyme or by employing whole-cell catalysis.

  3. 3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING BOW END OF VESSEL 37, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING BOW END OF VESSEL 37, STERN OF VESSEL 38 WITH COLLAPSING LIVING QUARTERS TO RIGHT Susan Kardas, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  4. Geology and sediment accumulation rates at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Hudson, J. Harold; Halley, Robert B.; Lidz, Barbara H.; Robbin, Daniel M.; Macintyre, Ian G.; Ruetzler, Klaus; Macintyre, Ian G.

    1982-01-01

    Two other rotary cores were drilled landward of the reef crest. One was drilled on the reef flat to a depth of 8.8 m, and the other was drilled on the southwest tip of Carrie Bow Cay to a depth of 17.7 m. Both cores encountered essentially uncemented carbonate reef sands with some coral rubble. Of the four rotary cores, only the Carrie Bow Cay core encountered Pleistocene bedrock. Radiocarbon dating of a large head of Siderastrea siderea, growing on bedrock from the Carrie Bow Cay core at a depth of 15.04 m below sea level, gave an age of 6960±110 years. The leached calcitic coralline bedrock, at a depth of 15.7 m below sea level in the Carrie Bow Cay core, contained root marks, and iron staining indicative of subaerial exposure.

  5. 3. VIEW NORTHEAST OF PORT BOW OF JFK IN DRYDOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHEAST OF PORT BOW OF JFK IN DRYDOCK NO. 5; PAINTERS WORKING APPLYING ANTI-FOULING PAINT BELOW WATER LINE. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 5, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CAP; CONICAL CAP HAS BOWED RAFTERS MORTISED INTO A BOSS; ALSO SEEN ARE THE BRAKE WHEEL, WINDSHAFT AND TOP BEARING OF THE UPRIGHT SHAFT - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  7. 46 CFR 154.1870 - Bow and stern loading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vapors with inert gas. (c) The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that entrances, forced or... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1870 Bow and...

  8. 15. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower, showing knee braces carried on stone ancons used to support eaves, view to northwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  9. 4. View of bow from port side, forward, vessel is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of bow from port side, forward, vessel is on marine railway. Hooper Strait Lighthouse beyond. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  10. 6. FORECASTLE DECK VIEW FROM PORT LOOKING FORWARD WITH BOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FORECASTLE DECK VIEW FROM PORT LOOKING FORWARD WITH BOW DETAILS, CATHEAD FOR ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND, BOWSPRIT IN BACKGROUND. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Sub-10 nm nanoimprint lithography by wafer bowing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Tong, William M; Bartman, Jonathan; Chen, Yufeng; Walmsley, Robert; Yu, Zhaoning; Xia, Qiangfei; Park, Inkyu; Picciotto, Carl; Gao, Jun; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Morecroft, Deborah; Yang, Joel; Berggren, Karl K; Williams, R Stanley

    2008-11-01

    We introduce the concept of wafer bowing to affect nanoimprinting. This approach allows a design that can fit the key imprinting mechanism into a compact module, which we have constructed and demonstrated with an overlay and resolution of <0.5 microm and <10 nm, respectively. In the short term, this wafer bowing approach makes nanoimprint lithography much more accessible to a broad range of researchers. More importantly, this approach eliminates machine movement other than wafer bowing and shortens the mechanical path; these will enable the achievement of excellent patterning and overlay at a much lower cost. In the long term, wafer bowing is extensible to step-and-repeat printing for volume manufacturing.

  12. 17. SAME ROOMVIEW SOUTH TOWARDS TWO SKIFFS UNDER CONSTRUCTION (BOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. SAME ROOM-VIEW SOUTH TOWARDS TWO SKIFFS UNDER CONSTRUCTION (BOW VIEW SHOWING CLAMPING JIG MOUNTED TO BEAMS ABOVE/PROFILE VIEW IN BACKGROUND SHOWING JIG). - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  13. 17. DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW AT DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW AT DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 18. DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, SHOWING DETAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, SHOWING DETAIL, OF MAST. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 15. PORT SIDE OF FLYBRIDGE WING, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. PORT SIDE OF FLYBRIDGE WING, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW AT SHIP'S CONTROLS AND IN BACKGROUND IS COMPASS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. VIEW EAST SHOWING THE WEST SIDE OF THE FORWARD (BOW) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST SHOWING THE WEST SIDE OF THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. VIEW SOUTH FROM WITHING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION Rosie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH FROM WITHING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING THE STRUCTURE REPRESENTING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH SHOWING THE STRUCTURE REPRESENTING THE FORWARD (BOW) SECTION OF A LIBERTY SHIP - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Off Regatta at Melville Square in Marina Park, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  19. Can Porphyritic Chondrules Form in Planetary Embryo Bow Shocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. M.; Desch, S. J.; Schrader, D. L.; Till, C. B.

    2017-05-01

    This work investigates the validity of planetary embryo bow shocks as a possible chondrule formation mechanism. We have conducted experiments to test whether cooling rates > 3000 K/hr can yield porphyritic textures.

  20. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF SKIFF BOW WITH OAK STEM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF SKIFF BOW WITH OAK STEM AND FRAMES PLANKED IN CEDAR USING COPPER CLINCH NAILS. TRANSOM OF SECOND SKIFF CAN BE SEEN BACKGROUND. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  1. 6. VIEW OF BOW OF VESSEL FROM STARBOARD SIDE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BOW OF VESSEL FROM STARBOARD SIDE, SHOWING DOCKING CREW PREPARING TO REMOVE FOREFOOT FROM VESSEL'S STEM IN ORDER TO DRAW VESSEL OFF LIFT DOCK - Bugeye "Louise Travers", Intersection of Routes 2 & 4, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  2. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Alp; Demirkan, Fahir; Sabir, Nuran; Oto, Murat; Yorukoglu, Cagdas; Kiter, Esat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP) is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21–84 years). Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA) and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA) along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA) in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78–102°). On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP); instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively). Combined correlation is perfect (R2 = 1) as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component positioning

  3. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 ( NF1 ), typically identified in infancy. The majority of NF1 individuals with tibial bowing...will sustain a fracture that will not heal (i.e. pseudarthrosis) resulting in multiple surgeries, poor limb function, and amputation. Some NF1 ...pseudarthrosis and better understand its pathophysiology. We have begun recruitment and assessed many individuals with NF1 with and with tibial bowing. QUS

  4. 76. The Silver Bow County Courthouse, 19101912, at West Granite ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. The Silver Bow County Courthouse, 1910-1912, at West Granite and Montana Streets, was designed by Link and Haire. The building has a dressed sandstone foundation, brick walls, and sandstone trim, parapet and columns. It was used as a barracks for the State militia when the city was placed under martial law following the dynamiting of the Old Miners' Union Hall in September, 1914. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  5. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    bowed tibia. We have extracted DNA from peripheral blood of all individuals with tibial bowing and will continue to monitor them for development of...to improve bone quality prior to fracture in a non-invasive and age specific manner • DNA extraction from peripheral blood for somatic mutation...Johnson B, Rauen KA. Peripheral muscle weakness in RASopathies. Oral presentation at the Western Society for Pediatric Research, Carmel, California

  6. Mesoscale Surface Pressure and Temperature Features Associated with Bow Echoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    contain several bowing segments. These multiple segments could occur at the same time and be located within the same bow, such as the serial derecho ...Examination of derecho environments using proximity soundings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 329–342. Fovell, R. G., 2002: Upstream influence of numerically...Se- vere Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4.6. Johns, R. H., and W. D. Hirt, 1987: Derechos : Widespread con- vectively induced

  7. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Xu, X. George

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the GEANT4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  8. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Xu, X George; Liu, Bob

    2015-11-01

    To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o'clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the geant4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80-140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization.

  9. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the geant4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization. PMID:26520720

  10. Geomorphic criteria to determine direction of lateral propagation of reverse faulting and folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, E. A.; Gurrola, Larry; Tierney, T. E.

    1999-06-01

    Fault-related folds develop above active faults, and as these faults propagate laterally so do the folds they produce. Geomorphic criteria useful in evaluating rates and direction of lateral propagation of active folds in the direction of propagation are: (1) decrease in drainage density and degree of dissection; (2) decrease in elevation of wind gaps; (3) decrease in relief of the topographic profile along the crest; (4) development of characteristic drainage patterns; (5) deformation of progressively younger deposits or landforms; and (6) decrease in rotation and inclination of forelimb. All these criteria are consistent with lateral propagation, but do not prove it. The presence of more than one wind or water gap formed by the same stream, however, is strong evidence of lateral propagation. Rates of lateral propagation of folding may be several times the rate of uplift and fault slip. Lateral propagation of anticlinal folds allows for a new explanation of how drainage may develop across active fold belts. Development of drainage across an active fold belt is probably a function of relatively long structurally controlled drainage diversion parallel to fold axes and development of relatively short antecedent stream reaches, around the nose (plunge panel) of a fold. Water and/or wind gaps form as uplift, drainage diversion, and stream capture associated with fold growth continue.

  11. 75 FR 40820 - City of Broken Bow, Oklahoma; Project No. 12470-001-Oklahoma Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Managing Properties Included in or Eligible for Inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places July... included in, or eligible for inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the Broken Bow Re...

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation reverses neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal inhibition of human pharyngeal motor cortex on swallowing.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Dipesh H; Mistry, Satish; Michou, Emilia; Jefferson, Samantha; Rothwell, John C; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2014-02-15

    The human cortical swallowing system exhibits bilateral but functionally asymmetric representation in health and disease as evidenced by both focal cortical inhibition (pre-conditioning with 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; rTMS) and unilateral stroke, where disruption of the stronger (dominant) pharyngeal projection alters swallowing neurophysiology and behaviour. Moreover, excitatory neurostimulation protocols capable of reversing the disruptive effects of focal cortical inhibition have demonstrated therapeutic promise in post-stroke dysphagia when applied contralaterally. In healthy participants (n = 15, 8 males, mean age (±SEM) 35 ± 9 years), optimal parameters of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (anodal, 1.5 mA, 10 min) were applied contralaterally after 1 Hz rTMS pre-conditioning to the strongest pharyngeal projection. Swallowing neurophysiology was assessed in both hemispheres by intraluminal recordings of pharyngeal motor-evoked responses (PMEPs) to single-pulse TMS as a measure of cortical excitability. Swallowing behaviour was examined using a pressure-based reaction time protocol. Measurements were made before and for up to 60 min post intervention. Subjects were randomised to active or sham tDCS after 1 Hz rTMS on separate days and data were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Active tDCS increased PMEPs bilaterally (F1,14 = 7.4, P = 0.017) reversing the inhibitory effects of 1 Hz rTMS in the pre-conditioned hemisphere (F1,14 = 10.1, P = 0.007). Active tDCS also enhanced swallowing behaviour, increasing the number of correctly timed challenge swallows compared to sham (F1,14 = 6.3, P = 0.025). Thus, tDCS to the contralateral pharyngeal motor cortex reverses the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal cortical inhibition on swallowing in healthy individuals and has therapeutic potential for dysphagia rehabilitation.

  13. Polarity reversal of the optical rotation signals with change in direction of impulse conduction along the lobster nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, A

    1993-01-01

    1. The optical rotation signal of nerve associated with excitation was recorded from peripheral nerve taken from a walking leg of a spiny lobster and its properties were analysed. 2. The polarity of the optical rotation signal was reversed when the site of stimulation was changed with reference to the site of optical recording, so that the direction of impulse conduction was reversed, in most of the preparations. 3. Apart from the main response, which is associated with the conducted impulse, a pre-response was found to exist, which manifested itself on anodic stimulation, in a tetrodotoxin-treated nerve, or during the refractory period of the nerve, when the site of stimulation was close to the site of optical recording. The polarity of the pre-response was also reversed when the site of stimulation was changed with reference to the site of optical recording. 4. When the nerve was inclined from the horizontal level, so that the angle of incidence of light to the nerve was changed, the main response changed its amplitude and sometimes its polarity, whereas the pre-response remained practically unchanged. Thus the dependence on the angle of incidence was different between the pre-response and the main response. 5. It is suggested that the dependence of amplitude and polarity of the main response on the angle of incidence of light cannot be explained by the change in molecular axes of the membrane macromolecules, but can only be explained by their conformational change; and therefore the main response can be used as a monitor for the molecular conformation. PMID:8410706

  14. CT analysis of bowed stringed instruments.

    PubMed

    Sirr, S A; Waddle, J R

    1997-06-01

    To determine the utility of computed tomography (CT) for the noninvasive evaluation of bowed stringed instruments. Thirty-seven instruments that ranged in quality from student instruments to exquisite Stradivarius violins were analyzed with CT. Accuracy of thickness measurements was determined from 24 measurements of cross-sectional pieces sawed from a student violin. Accuracy of density measurements was determined from 328 CT attenuation measurements of 16 woods used in stringed instruments. Substantial differences of normal structure were noted between the masterpieces crafted in Cremona, Italy, and factory-produced student instruments. Unexpected defects were detected in nine of 14 instruments older than 100 years and ranged from a few wormholes (eight instruments) to many wormholes and extensive repair (one violin). CT thickness and attenuation measurements correlated well to the line of identity with actual measurements (P < .0001). Two cellos and a viola have been constructed from CT-derived information. The viola was awarded a gold medal at a recent international competition. CT provides the modern luthier and acoustic scientist with a unique tool for characterization of normal structure, defects, and repair and for accurate measurements of wood thickness and density. CT-derived information aids in the replication of original masterpieces. CT evaluation may have an important role in the valuation, insurance, and identification of valuable stringed instruments.

  15. Magnetosheath filamentary structures formed by ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-04-01

    Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.

  16. Magnetosheath Filamentary Structures Formed by Ion Acceleration at the Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.

  17. Confirming Time-reversal Symmetry of a Directed Percolation Phase Transition in a Model of Neutral Evolutionary Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, Stephen; King, Dawn; Bahar, Sonya

    Reaction-diffusion processes, such as branching-coalescing random walks, can be used to describe the underlying dynamics of nonequilibrium phase transitions. In an agent-based, neutral model of evolutionary dynamics, we have previously shown that our system undergoes a continuous, nonequilibrium phase transition, from extinction to survival, as various system parameters were tuned. This model was shown to belong to the directed percolation (DP) universality class, by measuring the critical exponents corresponding to correlation length ξ⊥, correlation time ξ| |, and particle density β. The fourth critical exponent that defines the DP universality class is β', which measures the survival probability of growth from a single seed organism. Since DP universality is theorized to have time-reversal symmetry, it is assumed that β = β '. In order to confirm the existence of time-reversal symmetry in our model, we evaluate the system growth from a single asexually reproducing organism. Importantly, the critical exponent β' could be useful for comparison to experimental studies of phase transitions in biological systems, since observing growth of microbial populations is significantly easier than observing death. This research was supported by funding from the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  18. Direct Laser Writing-Based Programmable Transfer Printing via Bioinspired Shape Memory Reversible Adhesive.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin; Zheng, Ning; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Xie, Tao; Feng, Xue

    2016-12-28

    Flexible and stretchable electronics offer a wide range of unprecedented opportunities beyond conventional rigid electronics. Despite their vast promise, a significant bottleneck lies in the availability of a transfer printing technique to manufacture such devices in a highly controllable and scalable manner. Current technologies usually rely on manual stick-and-place and do not offer feasible mechanisms for precise and quantitative process control, especially when scalability is taken into account. Here, we demonstrate a spatioselective and programmable transfer strategy to print electronic microelements onto a soft substrate. The method takes advantage of automated direct laser writing to trigger localized heating of a micropatterned shape memory polymer adhesive stamp, allowing highly controlled and spatioselective switching of the interfacial adhesion. This, coupled to the proper tuning of the stamp properties, enables printing with perfect yield. The wide range adhesion switchability further allows printing of hybrid electronic elements, which is otherwise challenging given the complex interfacial manipulation involved. Our temperature-controlled transfer printing technique shows its critical importance and obvious advantages in the potential scale-up of device manufacturing. Our strategy opens a route to manufacturing flexible electronics with exceptional versatility and potential scalability.

  19. Direct observation of solid-state reversed transformation from crystals to quasicrystals in a Mg alloy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Fang; Yang, Zhi-Qing; Ye, Heng-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Phase transformation of quasicrystals is of interest in various fields of science and technology. Interestingly, we directly observed unexpected solid-state epitaxial nucleation and growth of Zn 6 Mg 3 Y icosahedral quasicrystals in a Mg alloy at about 573 K which is about 300 K below the melting point of Zn 6 Mg 3 Y, in contrast to formation of quasicrystals through solidification that was usually found in many alloys. Maximizing local packing density of atoms associated with segregation of Y and Zn in Mg adjacent to Mg/Zn 3 MgY interfaces triggered atomic rearrangement in Mg to form icosahedra coupled epitaxially with surface distorted icosahedra of Zn 3 MgY, which plays a critical role in the nucleation of icosahedral clusters. A local Zn:Mg:Y ratio close to 6:3:1, corresponding to a valence electron concentration of about 2.15, should have been reached to trigger the formation of quasicrystals at Mg/Zn 3 MgY interfaces. The solid-state icosahedral ordering in crystals opens a new window for growing quasicrystals and understanding their atomic origin mechanisms. Epitaxial growth of quasicrystals onto crystals can modify the surface/interface structures and properties of crystalline materials. PMID:26066096

  20. Controlled metal-semiconductor sintering/alloying by one-directional reverse illumination

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1993-01-01

    Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to create a primary hot zone with a temperature high enough to melt and alloy the metal layer with the bottom surface of the substrate. Secondary heat effects, including heat conducted through the substrate from the primary hot zone and heat created by infrared radiation reflected from the metal layer to the metal strips, as well as heat created from some primary absorption by the metal strips, combine to create secondary hot zones at the interfaces of the metal strips with the top surface of the substrate. These secondary hot zones are not as hot as the primary hot zone, but they are hot enough to sinter the metal strips to the substrate.

  1. Direct observation of solid-state reversed transformation from crystals to quasicrystals in a Mg alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Fang; Yang, Zhi-Qing; Ye, Heng-Qiang

    2015-06-12

    Phase transformation of quasicrystals is of interest in various fields of science and technology. Interestingly, we directly observed unexpected solid-state epitaxial nucleation and growth of Zn6Mg3Y icosahedral quasicrystals in a Mg alloy at about 573 K which is about 300 K below the melting point of Zn6Mg3Y, in contrast to formation of quasicrystals through solidification that was usually found in many alloys. Maximizing local packing density of atoms associated with segregation of Y and Zn in Mg adjacent to Mg/Zn3MgY interfaces triggered atomic rearrangement in Mg to form icosahedra coupled epitaxially with surface distorted icosahedra of Zn3MgY, which plays a critical role in the nucleation of icosahedral clusters. A local Zn:Mg:Y ratio close to 6:3:1, corresponding to a valence electron concentration of about 2.15, should have been reached to trigger the formation of quasicrystals at Mg/Zn3MgY interfaces. The solid-state icosahedral ordering in crystals opens a new window for growing quasicrystals and understanding their atomic origin mechanisms. Epitaxial growth of quasicrystals onto crystals can modify the surface/interface structures and properties of crystalline materials.

  2. Reversed Pressure Compaction: A Novel Method for Processing Composite Materials Directly from Polymer Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Yachin; Rein, Dmitry M.; Vaykhansky, Lev

    2002-03-01

    “Single component” composite materials are processed directly from oriented polymer fibers without extraneous matrix. Bonding is achieved by entanglement of macromolecules that emanate from the fiber by controlled surface melting. The key element in the processing scheme is control of the fibers’ melting temperature by hydrostatic pressure, using the following steps: a) compression to high pressure (Pu) at low temperature (To), which deforms the fiber cross-section without melting. b) raising temperature to a high level (Tu), which is below the melting point of the oriented crystals at Pu. c) pPressure reduction to an intermediate level (Pm) for controlled time. At this pressure, the fibers’ begin melting from their surface and are consolidated. d) increase of pressure back to Pu stops the melting process. e) return to ambient temperature and pressure provides the finished material. This process is applicable to a wide range of polymeric materials such as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), polypropylene, fluorinated polymers and liquid-crystalline polymers. The fact that the main processing steps occur at a constant temperature, whereby melting and crystallization are effected by control of pressure, allows enhanced homogeneity of the fabricated material. High-performance substrates for microwave antennae and circuitry have been fabricated with this manner, as will be described in the presentation.

  3. Direct 4D parametric imaging for linearized models of reversibly binding PET tracers using generalized AB-EM reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rahmim, Arman; Zhou, Yun; Tang, Jing; Lu, Lijun; Sossi, Vesna; Wong, Dean F.

    2012-01-01

    Due to high noise levels in the voxel kinetics, development of reliable parametric imaging algorithms remains as one of most active areas in dynamic brain PET imaging, which in the vast majority of cases involves receptor/transporter studies with reversibly binding tracers. As such, the focus of this work has been to develop a novel direct 4D parametric image reconstruction scheme for such tracers. Based on a relative equilibrium (RE) graphical analysis formulation (Zhou et al., 2009b), we developed a closed-form 4D EM algorithm to directly reconstruct distribution volume (DV) parametric images within a plasma input model, as well as DV ratio (DVR) images within a reference tissue model scheme (wherein an initial reconstruction was used to estimate the reference tissue time-activity-curves). A particular challenge with the direct 4D EM formulation is that the intercept parameters in graphical (linearized) analysis of reversible tracers (e.g. Logan or RE analysis) are commonly negative (unlike for irreversible tracers; e.g. using Patlak analysis). Subsequently, we focused our attention on the AB-EM algorithm, derived by Byrne (1998) to allow inclusion of prior information about the lower (A) and upper (B) bounds for image values. We then generalized this algorithm to the 4D EM framework thus allowing negative intercept parameters. Furthermore, our 4D AB-EM algorithm incorporated, and emphasized the use of spatially varying lower bounds to achieve enhanced performance. As validation, the means of parameters estimated from 55 human 11C-raclopride dynamic PET studies were used for extensive simulations using a mathematical brain phantom. Images were reconstructed using conventional indirect as well as proposed direct parametric imaging methods. Noise vs. bias quantitative measurements were performed in various regions of the brain. Direct 4D EM reconstruction resulted in notable qualitative and quantitative accuracy improvements (over 35% noise reduction, with matched

  4. Loco-regional cancer drug therapy: present approaches and rapidly reversible hydrophobization (RRH) of therapeutic agents as the future direction.

    PubMed

    Budker, Vladimir G; Monahan, Sean D; Subbotin, Vladimir M

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient drug uptake by solid tumors remains the major problem for systemic chemotherapy. Many studies have demonstrated anticancer drug effects to be dose-dependent, although dose-escalation studies have resulted in limited survival benefit with increased systemic toxicities. One solution to this has been the idea of loco-regional drug treatments, which offer dramatically higher drug concentrations in tumor tissues while minimizing systemic toxicity. Although loco-regional delivery has been most prominent in cancers of the liver, soft tissues and serosal peritoneal malignancies, survival benefits are very far from desirable. This review discusses the evolution of loco-regional treatments, the present approaches and offers rapidly reversible hydrophobization of drugs as the new future direction.

  5. Reversal of coenzyme specificity and improvement of catalytic efficiency of Pichia stipitis xylose reductase by rational site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qi-Kai; Du, Hong-Li; Wang, Jing-Fang; Wei, Dong-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Li, Yi-Xue; Lin, Ying

    2009-07-01

    A major problem when xylose is used for ethanol production is the intercellular redox imbalance arising from different coenzyme specificities of xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase. The residue Lys21 in XR from Pichia stipitis was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis to alter its coenzyme specificity. The N272D mutant exhibited improved catalytic efficiency when NADH was the coenzyme. Both K21A and K21A/N272D preferred NADH to NADPH, their catalytic efficiencies for NADPH were almost zero. The catalytic efficiency of K21A/N272D for NADH was almost 9-fold and 2-fold that of K21A and the wild-type enzyme, respectively. Complete reversal of coenzyme specificity toward NADH and improved catalytic efficiency were achieved.

  6. Direct measurement of oxygen consumption rates from attached and unattached cells in a reversibly sealed, diffusionally isolated sample chamber

    PubMed Central

    Strovas, Timothy J.; McQuaide, Sarah C.; Anderson, Judy B.; Nandakumar, Vivek; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G.; Burgess, Lloyd W.; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen consumption is a fundamental component of metabolic networks, mitochondrial function, and global carbon cycling. To date there is no method available that allows for replicate measurements on attached and unattached biological samples without compensation for extraneous oxygen leaking into the system. Here we present the Respiratory Detection System, which is compatible with virtually any biological sample. The RDS can be used to measure oxygen uptake in microliter-scale volumes with a reversibly sealed sample chamber, which contains a porphyrin-based oxygen sensor. With the RDS, one can maintain a diffusional seal for up to three hours, allowing for the direct measurement of respiratory function of samples with fast or slow metabolic rates. The ability to easily measure oxygen uptake in small volumes with small populations or dilute samples has implications in cell biology, environmental biology, and clinical diagnostics. PMID:21546993

  7. Stable, polymer-directed and SPION-nucleated magnetic amphiphilic block copolymer nanoprecipitates with readily reversible assembly in magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardiello, Marco; Hatton, Fiona L.; Slater, Rebecca A.; Chambon, Pierre; North, Jocelyn; Peacock, Anita K.; He, Tao; McDonald, Tom O.; Owen, Andrew; Rannard, Steve P.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of inorganic-organic magnetic nanocomposites using reactive chemistry often leads to a loss of super-paramagnetisim when conducted in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. We present here a low energy and chemically-mild process of co-nanoprecipitation using SPIONs and homopolymers or amphiphilic block copolymers, of varying architecture and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, which efficiently generates near monodisperse SPION-containing polymer nanoparticles with complete retention of magnetism, and highly reversible aggregation and redispersion behaviour. When linear and branched block copolymers with inherent water-solubility are used, a SPION-directed nanoprecipitation mechanism appears to dominate the nanoparticle formation presenting new opportunities for tailoring and scaling highly functional systems for a range of applications.The formation of inorganic-organic magnetic nanocomposites using reactive chemistry often leads to a loss of super-paramagnetisim when conducted in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles. We present here a low energy and chemically-mild process of co-nanoprecipitation using SPIONs and homopolymers or amphiphilic block copolymers, of varying architecture and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, which efficiently generates near monodisperse SPION-containing polymer nanoparticles with complete retention of magnetism, and highly reversible aggregation and redispersion behaviour. When linear and branched block copolymers with inherent water-solubility are used, a SPION-directed nanoprecipitation mechanism appears to dominate the nanoparticle formation presenting new opportunities for tailoring and scaling highly functional systems for a range of applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental details, NMR spectra, GPC chromatograms, kinetics experiments, graphs of nanopreciptate aggregation and cycling studies and SPION characterisation. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00788k

  8. Direct observations of polarization reversal process in ferroelectric thin films using high speed piezoresponse force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premnath, Ramesh Nath

    Ferroelectric thin films have been widely implicated for use in future ultra-high-density memory devices, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) related techniques for the read/write operations of ferroelectric memory media where formation of a single domain structure with a defined polarization direction acts as a distinct memory bit. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms and kinetics involved in the polarization switching process, which includes the nucleation and growth of ferroelectric domains at the nanoscale. In recent years, the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) technique has been widely been used to image, characterize and modify the domain structures in ferroelectric films with this spatial resolution. However, operating speeds for PFM (and AFM in general) remain a continuing limitation for imaging dynamic processes such as domain switching and read/write operations. A simple method to increase PFM characterization speeds by several orders of magnitude is presented here based on standard commercial equipment and AFM probes. Essentially, an AC voltage at a high resonance frequency is applied to a conducting AFM tip, which is in contact with a ferroelectric surface. The tip is rapidly rastered across a surface without force feedback, while the amplitude and phase of the high frequency resonances are detected with a lock-in amplifier. Although the topography is not reliably recorded, stable contrast related to ferroelectric properties is accurately mapped due to the relative insensitivity of many dynamic AFM contrast mechanisms to variations in repulsive contact forces. Images with nanoscale contrast of ferroelectric domains are presented, acquired at complete frame rates as low as 6 seconds per 256x256 pixel image. The mechanism and kinetics involved in the dynamic domain switching process of PZT thin films are therefore uniquely presented with nanoscale and nanosecond resolution. It was found that domain dynamics processes are governed by

  9. Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using a real-time dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Politte, David G.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Several areas of computed tomography (CT) research require knowledge about the intensity profile of the x-ray fan beam that is introduced by a bow tie filter. This information is considered proprietary by CT manufacturers, so noninvasive measurement methods are required. One method using real-time dosimeters has been proposed in the literature. A commercially available dosimeter was used to apply that method, and analysis techniques were developed to extract fan beam profiles from measurements. Methods: A real-time ion chamber was placed near the periphery of an empty CT gantry and the dose rate versus time waveform was recorded as the x-ray source rotated about the isocenter. In contrast to previously proposed analysis methods that assumed a pointlike detector, the finite-size ion chamber received varying amounts of coverage by the collimated x-ray beam during rotation, precluding a simple relationship between the source intensity as a function of fan beam angle and measured intensity. A two-parameter model for measurement intensity was developed that included both effective collimation width and source-to-detector distance, which then was iteratively solved to minimize the error between duplicate measurements at corresponding fan beam angles, allowing determination of the fan beam profile from measured dose-rate waveforms. Measurements were performed on five different scanner systems while varying parameters such as collimation, kVp, and bow tie filters. On one system, direct measurements of the bow tie profile were collected for comparison with the real-time dosimeter technique. Results: The data analysis method for a finite-size detector was found to produce a fan beam profile estimate with a relative error between duplicate measurement intensities of <5%. It was robust over a wide range of collimation widths (e.g., 1–40 mm), producing fan beam profiles that agreed with a relative error of 1%–5%. Comparison with a direct measurement technique on

  10. Direct observation of λ-DNA molecule reversal movement within microfluidic channels under electric field with single molecule imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengyun, Yang; Kaige, Wang; Dan, Sun; Wei, Zhao; Hai-qing, Wang; Xin, He; Gui-ren, Wang; Jin-tao, Bai

    2016-07-01

    The electrodynamic characteristics of single DNA molecules moving within micro-/nano-fluidic channels are important in the design of biomedical chips and bimolecular sensors. In this study, the dynamic properties of λ-DNA molecules transferring along the microchannels driven by the external electrickinetic force were systemically investigated with the single molecule fluorescence imaging technique. The experimental results indicated that the velocity of DNA molecules was strictly dependent on the value of the applied electric field and the diameter of the channel. The larger the external electric field, the larger the velocity, and the more significant deformation of DNA molecules. More meaningfully, it was found that the moving directions of DNA molecules had two completely different directions: (i) along the direction of the external electric field, when the electric field intensity was smaller than a certain threshold value; (ii) opposite to the direction of the external electric field, when the electric field intensity was greater than the threshold electric field intensity. The reversal movement of DNA molecules was mainly determined by the competition between the electrophoresis force and the influence of electro-osmosis flow. These new findings will theoretically guide the practical application of fluidic channel sensors and lab-on-chips for precisely manipulating single DNA molecules. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61378083), the International Cooperation Foundation of the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2011DFA12220), the Major Research Plan of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91123030), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province of China (Grant Nos. 2010JS110 and 2013SZS03-Z01).

  11. Linear modal stability analysis of bowed-strings.

    PubMed

    Debut, V; Antunes, J; Inácio, O

    2017-03-01

    Linearised models are often invoked as a starting point to study complex dynamical systems. Besides their attractive mathematical simplicity, they have a central role for determining the stability properties of static or dynamical states, and can often shed light on the influence of the control parameters on the system dynamical behaviour. While the bowed string dynamics has been thoroughly studied from a number of points of view, mainly by time-domain computer simulations, this paper proposes to explore its dynamical behaviour adopting a linear framework, linearising the friction force near an equilibrium state in steady sliding conditions, and using a modal representation of the string dynamics. Starting from the simplest idealisation of the friction force given by Coulomb's law with a velocity-dependent friction coefficient, the linearised modal equations of the bowed string are presented, and the dynamical changes of the system as a function of the bowing parameters are studied using linear stability analysis. From the computed complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors, several plots of the evolution of the modal frequencies, damping values, and modeshapes with the bowing parameters are produced, as well as stability charts for each system mode. By systematically exploring the influence of the parameters, this approach appears as a preliminary numerical characterisation of the bifurcations of the bowed string dynamics, with the advantage of being very simple compared to sophisticated numerical approaches which demand the regularisation of the nonlinear interaction force. To fix the idea about the potential of the proposed approach, the classic one-degree-of-freedom friction-excited oscillator is first considered, and then the case of the bowed string. Even if the actual stick-slip behaviour is rather far from the linear description adopted here, the results show that essential musical features of bowed string vibrations can be interpreted from this simple approach

  12. Hybrid organic/inorganic interfaces as reversible label-free platform for direct monitoring of biochemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Vello, Tatiana P; da Silva, Larissa M B; Silva, Gustavo O; de Camargo, Davi H S; Corrêa, Cátia C; Bof Bufon, Carlos C

    2017-01-15

    The combination of organic and inorganic materials to create hybrid nanostructures is an effective approach to develop label-free platforms for biosensing as well as to overcome eventual leakage current-related problems in capacitive sensors operating in liquid. In this work, we combine an ultra-thin high-k dielectric layer (Al2O3) with a nanostructured organic functional tail to create a platform capable of monitoring biospecific interactions directly in liquid at very low analyte concentrations. As a proof of concept, a reversible label-free glutathione-S-transferase (GST) biosensor is demonstrated. The sensor can quantify the GST enzyme concentration through its biospecific interaction with tripeptide reduced glutathione (GSH) bioreceptor directly immobilized on the dielectric surface. The enzymatic reaction is monitored by electrical impedance measurements, evaluating variations on the overall capacitance values according to the GST concentration. The biosensor surface can be easily regenerated, allowing the detection of GST with the very same device. The biosensor shows a linear response in the range of 200pmolL(-1) to 2µmolL(-1), the largest reported in the literature along with the lowest detectable GST concentration (200pmolL(-1)) for GST label-free sensors. Such a nanostructured hybrid organic-inorganic system represents a powerful tool for the monitoring of biochemical reactions, such as protein-protein interactions, for biosensing and biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Processive steps in the reverse direction require uncoupling of the lead head lever arm of myosin VI.

    PubMed

    Ménétrey, Julie; Isabet, Tatiana; Ropars, Virginie; Mukherjea, Monalisa; Pylypenko, Olena; Liu, Xiaoyan; Perez, Javier; Vachette, Patrice; Sweeney, H Lee; Houdusse, Anne M

    2012-10-12

    Myosin VI is the only known reverse-direction myosin motor. It has an unprecedented means of amplifying movements within the motor involving rearrangements of the converter subdomain at the C terminus of the motor and an unusual lever arm projecting from the converter. While the average step size of a myosin VI dimer is 30-36 nm, the step size is highly variable, presenting a challenge to the lever arm mechanism by which all myosins are thought to move. Herein, we present structures of myosin VI that reveal regions of compliance that allow an uncoupling of the lead head when movement is modeled on actin. The location of the compliance restricts the possible actin binding sites and predicts the observed stepping behavior. The model reveals that myosin VI, unlike plus-end directed myosins, does not use a pure lever arm mechanism, but instead steps with a mechanism analogous to the kinesin neck-linker uncoupling model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct investigation of silver photodissolution dynamics and reversibility in arsenic trisulphide thin films by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Vincent P.; Kovalskiy, Andriy; Jain, Himanshu; Huey, Bryan D.

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics and reversibility of Ag nanoparticle photodissolution into As2S3 chalcogenide thin films have uniquely been directly measured by continuous AFM imaging during patterned optical illumination. The surface morphology, roughness and particle size distribution have thus been spatially and statistically monitored as a function of time, both during and following optical exposure. Photodissolution was observed to proceed via two mechanisms. In one case, nanoparticles abruptly and nearly completely disappeared along a sharp dissolution front traveling laterally at ˜0.19 μm s-1. Following illumination, similarly sized nanoparticles uniformly reformed on the surface. A more inhomogeneous photodissolution process was separately recorded, clearing irregular ˜1-2 μm patches that grew with time until most of the surface was free of nanoparticles. Post-illumination, surface nanoparticle development and coverage were similarly inhomogeneous, with larger but 50% fewer particles in the final distribution. In every experiment, an initial roughening was detected before the nanoparticle surface coverage visually diminished, indicating the onset of photodissolution at widely distributed energetically and kinetically favored sites which temporarily enhances nanoscale roughness. Such direct studies of surface dynamics are crucial to understanding and ultimately optimizing chalcogenide film applications such as photomasks, optoelectronics media and bio-chemical sensors.

  15. Numerical simulations of Mach stem formation via intersecting bow shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, E. C.; Frank, A.; Hartigan, P.; Yirak, K.

    2015-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations show bright knots of Hα emission within outflowing young stellar jets. Velocity variations in the flow create secondary bow shocks that may intersect and lead to enhanced emission. When the bow shocks intersect at or above a certain critical angle, a planar shock called a Mach stem is formed. These shocks could produce brighter Hα emission since the incoming flow to the Mach stem is parallel to the shock normal. In this paper we report first results of a study using 2-D numerical simulations designed to explore Mach stem formation at the intersection of bow shocks formed by hypersonic ;bullets; or ;clumps;. Our 2-D simulations show how the bow shock shapes and intersection angles change as the adiabatic index γ changes. We show that the formation or lack of a Mach stem in our simulations is consistent with the steady-state Mach stem formation theory. Our ultimate goal, which is part of an ongoing research effort, is to characterize the physical and observational consequences of bow shock intersections including the formation of Mach stems.

  16. Social complexity and the bow in the Eastern Woodlands.

    PubMed

    Blitz, John H; Porth, Erik S

    2013-01-01

    Bingham and Souza have presented an evolutionary theory that specifies a causal relationship between the advent of powerful projectile weapons such as the bow and radical rearrangements in social relations and histories. They propose that the acquisition of weapons that permitted humans to kill at ever-increasing distances provided the coercive means to suppress conflicts of interest among nonkin, self-interested individuals in social groups, thus paving the way for greater social complexity. An unprecedented reduction in projectile point size identifies the arrival of the bow ca. A.D. 300 in the Eastern Woodlands of North America, which initiated a causal chain of cultural changes. In the Midwest, the bow, combined with food production, precipitated the decline of Hopewell by conferring household autonomy and dispersal, which at first suppressed social complexity, but later created conditions favorable to maize intensification. In the lower Southeast, where food production was unimportant, populations aggregated at concentrated wild-food sources, and the bow did not confer household autonomy. The relationship between the bow and social complexity varied under different environmental, social, and historical conditions.

  17. Bow-tie diagrams for risk management in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Culwick, M D; Merry, A F; Clarke, D M; Taraporewalla, K J; Gibbs, N M

    2016-11-01

    Bow-tie analysis is a risk analysis and management tool that has been readily adopted into routine practice in many high reliability industries such as engineering, aviation and emergency services. However, it has received little exposure so far in healthcare. Nevertheless, its simplicity, versatility, and pictorial display may have benefits for the analysis of a range of healthcare risks, including complex and multiple risks and their interactions. Bow-tie diagrams are a combination of a fault tree and an event tree, which when combined take the shape of a bow tie. Central to bow-tie methodology is the concept of an undesired or 'Top Event', which occurs if a hazard progresses past all prevention controls. Top Events may also occasionally occur idiosyncratically. Irrespective of the cause of a Top Event, mitigation and recovery controls may influence the outcome. Hence the relationship of hazard to outcome can be viewed in one diagram along with possible causal sequences or accident trajectories. Potential uses for bow-tie diagrams in anaesthesia risk management include improved understanding of anaesthesia hazards and risks, pre-emptive identification of absent or inadequate hazard controls, investigation of clinical incidents, teaching anaesthesia risk management, and demonstrating risk management strategies to third parties when required.

  18. Large scale motions of Neptune's bow shock: Evidence for control of the shock position by the rotation phase of Neptune's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Smith, Charles W.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Moses, Stewart L.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 spacecraft observed high levels of Langmuir waves before the inbound crossing of Neptune's bow shock, thereby signifying magnetic connection of the bow shock. The Langmuir waves occurred in multiple bursts throughout two distinct periods separated by an 85 minute absence of wave activity. The times of onsets, peaks, and disappearances of the waves were used together with the magnetic field directions and spacecraft position, to perform a 'remote-sensing' analysis of the shape and location of Neptune's bow shock prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. The bow shock is assumed to have a parabolidal shape with a nose location and flaring parameter determined independently for each wave event. The remote-sensing analysis give a shock position consistent with the time of the inbound shock crossing. The flaring parameter of the shock remains approximately constant throughout each period of wave activity but differs by a factor of 10 between the two periods. The absence of waves between two periods of wave activity coincides with a large rotation of the magnetic field and a large increase in the solar wind ram pressure' both these effects lead to magnetic disconnection of the spacecraft from shock. The planetwards motion of the shock's nose from 38.5 R(sub N) to 34.5 R(sub N) during the second time period occurred while the solar wind ram pressure remained constant to within 15 percent. This second period of planetwards motion of the shock is therefore strong evidence for Neptune's bow shock moving in response to the rotation of Neptune's oblique, tilted magnetic dipole. Normalizing the ram pressure, the remotely-sensed shock moves sunwards during the first wave period and planetwards in the second wave period. The maximum standoff distance occurs while the dipole axis is close to being perpendicular to the Sun-Neptune direction. The remote-sensing analysis provides strong evidence that the location of Neptune's bow shock is controlled by Neptune's rotation

  19. Synaptic facilitation by reflected action potentials: Enhancement of transmission when nerve impulses reverse direction at axon branch points

    PubMed Central

    Baccus, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid, reversible enhancement of synaptic transmission from a sensory neuron is reported and explained by impulses that reverse direction, or reflect, at axon branch points. In leech mechanosensory neurons, where one can detect reflection because it is possible simultaneously to study electrical activity in separate branches, action potentials reflected from branch points within the central nervous system under physiological conditions. Synapses adjacent to these branch points were activated twice in rapid succession, first by an impulse arriving from the periphery and then by its reflection. This fast double-firing facilitated synaptic transmission, increasing it to more than twice its normal level. Reflection occurred within a range of resting membrane potentials, and electrical activity produced by mechanical stimulation changed membrane potential so as to produce and cease reflection. A compartmental model was used to investigate how branch-point morphology and electrical activity contribute to produce reflection. The model shows that mechanisms that hyperpolarize the membrane so as to impair action potential propagation can increase the range of structures that can produce reflection. This suggests that reflection is more likely to occur in other structures where impulses fail, such as in axons and dendrites in the mammalian brain. In leech sensory neurons, reflection increased transmission from central synapses only in those axon branches that innervate the edges of the receptive field in the skin, thereby sharpening spatial contrast. Reflection thus allows a neuron to amplify synaptic transmission from a selected group of its branches in a way that can be regulated by electrical activity. PMID:9653189

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation reverses neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal inhibition of human pharyngeal motor cortex on swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Dipesh H; Mistry, Satish; Michou, Emilia; Jefferson, Samantha; Rothwell, John C; Hamdy, Shaheen

    2014-01-01

    The human cortical swallowing system exhibits bilateral but functionally asymmetric representation in health and disease as evidenced by both focal cortical inhibition (pre-conditioning with 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; rTMS) and unilateral stroke, where disruption of the stronger (dominant) pharyngeal projection alters swallowing neurophysiology and behaviour. Moreover, excitatory neurostimulation protocols capable of reversing the disruptive effects of focal cortical inhibition have demonstrated therapeutic promise in post-stroke dysphagia when applied contralaterally. In healthy participants (n = 15, 8 males, mean age (±SEM) 35 ± 9 years), optimal parameters of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) (anodal, 1.5 mA, 10 min) were applied contralaterally after 1 Hz rTMS pre-conditioning to the strongest pharyngeal projection. Swallowing neurophysiology was assessed in both hemispheres by intraluminal recordings of pharyngeal motor-evoked responses (PMEPs) to single-pulse TMS as a measure of cortical excitability. Swallowing behaviour was examined using a pressure-based reaction time protocol. Measurements were made before and for up to 60 min post intervention. Subjects were randomised to active or sham tDCS after 1 Hz rTMS on separate days and data were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Active tDCS increased PMEPs bilaterally (F1,14 = 7.4, P = 0.017) reversing the inhibitory effects of 1 Hz rTMS in the pre-conditioned hemisphere (F1,14 = 10.1, P = 0.007). Active tDCS also enhanced swallowing behaviour, increasing the number of correctly timed challenge swallows compared to sham (F1,14 = 6.3, P = 0.025). Thus, tDCS to the contralateral pharyngeal motor cortex reverses the neurophysiological and behavioural effects of focal cortical inhibition on swallowing in healthy individuals and has therapeutic potential for dysphagia rehabilitation. PMID:24247983

  1. The existence and nature of the interstellar bow shock

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Strumik, M.; Ratkiewicz, R.; Grygorczuk, J.

    2013-12-20

    We report a new diagnosis of two different states of the local interstellar medium (LISM) near our solar system by using a sensitivity study constrained by several distinct and complementary observations of the LISM, solar wind, and inner heliosphere. Assuming the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) He flow parameters for the LISM, we obtain a strength of ∼2.7 ± 0.2 μG and a direction pointing away from galactic coordinates (28, 52) ± 3° for the interstellar magnetic field as a result of fitting Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 in situ plasma measurements and IBEX energetic neutral atoms ribbon. When using Ulysses parameters for the LISM He flow, we recently reported the same direction but with a strength of 2.2 ± 0.1 μG. First, we notice that with Ulysses He flow, our solution is in the expected hydrogen deflection plane (HDP). In contrast, for the IBEX He flow, the solution is ∼20° away from the corresponding HDP plane. Second, the long-term monitoring of the interplanetary H I flow speed shows a value of ∼26 km s{sup –1} measured upwind from the Doppler shift in the strong Lyα sky background emission line. All elements of the diagnosis seem therefore to support Ulysses He flow parameters for the interstellar state. In that frame, we argue that reliable discrimination between superfast, subfast, or superslow states of the interstellar flow should be based on most existing in situ and remote observations used together with global modeling of the heliosphere. For commonly accepted LISM ionization rates, we show that a fast interstellar bow shock should be standing off upstream of the heliopause.

  2. Electrostatic waves in the bow shock at Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, S.L.; Coroniti, F.V.; Kennel, C.F.; Scarf, F.L. ); Bagenal, F. ); Lepping, R.P. ); Quest, K.B. ); Kurth, W.S. )

    1989-10-01

    Electrostatic emissions measured by the Voyager 2 plasma wave detector (PWS) during the inbound crossing of the Uranian bow shock are shown to differ in some aspects from the waves measured during bow shock crossings at Jupiter and Saturn. The wave amplitudes in the foot of the bow shock at Uranus are in general much lower than those detected at the other out planets due to the unusually enhanced solar wind ion temperature during the crossing. This reduces the effectiveness of wave-particle interactions in heating the incoming electrons. Strong wave emissions are observed in the shock ramp that possibly arise from currents producing a Buneman mode instability. Plasma instrument (PLS) and magnetometer (MAG) measurements reveal a complicated shock structure reminiscent of computer simulations of high-Mach number shocks when the effects of anomalous resistivity are reduced, and are consistent with high ion temperatures restricting the growth of electrostatic waves.

  3. [Correction of bowing in Paget's disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Postel, M; Senly, G

    1978-12-01

    Thirteen tibiae and seven femora suffering from bowing due to Paget's disease have been streightened operatively. In the tibiae, the deformities were of metaphysial genu varum with bowing in the sagittal plane of an average of 30 degrees combined with some medial rotation. In the femora, the main curve was anterolateral with some medial rotation and coxa vara. Seventeen cases united uneventfully after osteotomy. In three cases, there were septic complications, union occurred after removal of the internal fixation. Bowing recurred in three cases. The recurrence appeared to be related to incomplete correction leading to persistent mechanical strain on bones affected by rapid bone turnover. Inadequate internal fixation may also be a factor. All other cases were functionally improved by correction. Oblique osteotomy is indicated for the correction of tibial deformity when there is moderate medial rotation. Transverse osteotomy with fixation by intramedullary nailing is indicated for correction of femoral deformities.

  4. Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.

  5. EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Miura, Hitoshi; Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2013-02-20

    We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

  6. Polarization Signatures of Bow Shocks in Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, M.; Hoffman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Bow shocks around massive stars provide important information regarding the motion of the star, the stellar wind properties, and the density of the surrounding interstellar medium. We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to investigate the polarization created when photons from a central star scatter from electrons or dust grains in a surrounding bow shock. We discuss the behavior of the polarization with respect to viewing angle as a function of parameters such as optical depth and scattering medium in both the resolved and unresolved cases.

  7. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... Solutions Management Division, Engineering Quality Assurance, Shelton, Connecticut. The Department's Notice... Employment and Training Administration Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering... firm worker group should read: Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global...

  8. Formation of ion acoustic solitary waves upstream of the earth's bow shock. [in solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pangia, M. J.; Lee, N. C.; Parks, G. K.

    1985-01-01

    The turbulent plasma development of Lee and Parks is applied to the solar wind approaching the earth's bow shock region. The ponderomotive force contribution is due to ion acoustic waves propagating in the direction of the ambient magnetic field. In this case, the envelope of the ion acoustic wave is shown to satisfy the cubic Schroedinger equation. Modulational instabilities exist for waves in the solar wind, thereby predicting the generation of solitary waves. This analysis further identifies that the ion acoustic waves which exhibit this instability have short wavelengths.

  9. Interplanetary magnetic field control of the Venus magnetosheath field and bow shock location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Alexander, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Six Venus years of Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) data are analyzed in a coordinate system which isolates magnetic effects. The field draping pattern features two lobes easily identifiable even in the near planet region. The magnetosheath magnetic magnitude has a hemispherical asymmetry controlled by the IMF orientation in a manner suggesting preferrential ion pickup in one hemisphere. This result complements recent findings that the bow shock position is responsive to IMF direction. Examination of the ionopause position to evaluate ionospheric effects on the overall asymmetry of thfe Venus-solar wind interaction produces negative but not conclusive results.

  10. Ultra-high resolution steady-state micro-thermometry using a bipolar direct current reversal technique.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason Yingzhi; Wu, Wei; Pettes, Michael Thompson

    2016-09-01

    The suspended micro-thermometry measurement technique is one of the most prominent methods for probing the in-plane thermal conductance of low dimensional materials, where a suspended microdevice containing two built-in platinum resistors that serve as both heater and thermometer is used to measure the temperature and heat flow across a sample. The presence of temperature fluctuations in the sample chamber and background thermal conductance through the device, residual gases, and radiation are dominant sources of error when the sample thermal conductance is comparable to or smaller than the background thermal conductance, on the order of 300 pW/K at room temperature. In this work, we present a high resolution thermal conductance measurement scheme in which a bipolar direct current reversal technique is adopted to replace the lock-in technique. We have demonstrated temperature resolution of 1.0-2.6 mK and thermal conductance resolution of 1.7-26 pW/K over a temperature range of 30-375 K. The background thermal conductance of the suspended microdevice is determined accurately by our method and allows for straightforward isolation of this parasitic signal. This simple and high-throughput measurement technique yields an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over similarly configured lock-in amplifier techniques, allowing for more accurate investigation of fundamental phonon transport mechanisms in individual nanomaterials.

  11. Optical Properties of Titania Coatings Prepared by Inkjet Direct Patterning of a Reverse Micelles Sol-Gel Composition.

    PubMed

    Schmiedova, Veronika; Dzik, Petr; Vesely, Michal; Zmeskal, Oldrich; Morozova, Magdalena; Kluson, Petr

    2015-08-12

    Thin layers of titanium dioxide were fabricated by direct inkjet patterning of a reverse micelles sol-gel composition onto soda-lime glass plates. Several series of variable thickness samples were produced by repeated overprinting and these were further calcined at different temperatures. The resulting layers were inspected by optical and scanning electronic microscopy and their optical properties were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range of 200-1000 nm. Thus the influence of the calcination temperature on material as well as optical properties of the patterned micellar titania was studied. The additive nature of the deposition process was demonstrated by a linear dependence of total thickness on the number of printed layers without being significantly affected by the calcination temperature. The micellar imprints structure of the titania layer resulted into significant deviation of measured optical constants from the values reported for bulk titania. The introduction of a void layer into the ellipsometric model was found necessary for this particular type of titania and enabled correct ellipsometric determination of layer thickness, well matching the thickness values from mechanical profilometry.

  12. Ultra-high resolution steady-state micro-thermometry using a bipolar direct current reversal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jason Yingzhi; Wu, Wei; Pettes, Michael Thompson

    2016-09-01

    The suspended micro-thermometry measurement technique is one of the most prominent methods for probing the in-plane thermal conductance of low dimensional materials, where a suspended microdevice containing two built-in platinum resistors that serve as both heater and thermometer is used to measure the temperature and heat flow across a sample. The presence of temperature fluctuations in the sample chamber and background thermal conductance through the device, residual gases, and radiation are dominant sources of error when the sample thermal conductance is comparable to or smaller than the background thermal conductance, on the order of 300 pW/K at room temperature. In this work, we present a high resolution thermal conductance measurement scheme in which a bipolar direct current reversal technique is adopted to replace the lock-in technique. We have demonstrated temperature resolution of 1.0-2.6 mK and thermal conductance resolution of 1.7-26 pW/K over a temperature range of 30-375 K. The background thermal conductance of the suspended microdevice is determined accurately by our method and allows for straightforward isolation of this parasitic signal. This simple and high-throughput measurement technique yields an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over similarly configured lock-in amplifier techniques, allowing for more accurate investigation of fundamental phonon transport mechanisms in individual nanomaterials.

  13. Enhancing Autophagy with Drugs or Lung-directed Gene Therapy Reverses the Pathological Effects of Respiratory Epithelial Cell Proteinopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Hidvegi, Tunda; Stolz, Donna B.; Alcorn, John F.; Yousem, Samuel A.; Wang, Jieru; Leme, Adriana S.; Houghton, A. McGarry; Hale, Pamela; Ewing, Michael; Cai, Houming; Garchar, Evelyn Akpadock; Pastore, Nunzia; Annunziata, Patrizia; Kaminski, Naftali; Pilewski, Joseph; Shapiro, Steven D.; Pak, Stephen C.; Silverman, Gary A.; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Perlmutter, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that autophagy mitigates the pathological effects of proteinopathies in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle but this has not been investigated for proteinopathies that affect the lung. This may be due at least in part to the lack of an animal model robust enough for spontaneous pathological effects from proteinopathies even though several rare proteinopathies, surfactant protein A and C deficiencies, cause severe pulmonary fibrosis. In this report we show that the PiZ mouse, transgenic for the common misfolded variant α1-antitrypsin Z, is a model of respiratory epithelial cell proteinopathy with spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis. Intracellular accumulation of misfolded α1-antitrypsin Z in respiratory epithelial cells of the PiZ model resulted in activation of autophagy, leukocyte infiltration, and spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis severe enough to elicit functional restrictive deficits. Treatment with autophagy enhancer drugs or lung-directed gene transfer of TFEB, a master transcriptional activator of the autophagolysosomal system, reversed these proteotoxic consequences. We conclude that this mouse is an excellent model of respiratory epithelial proteinopathy with spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis and that autophagy is an important endogenous proteostasis mechanism and an attractive target for therapy. PMID:26494620

  14. A Stable but Reversible Integrated Surrogate Reporter for Assaying CRISPR/Cas9-Stimulated Homology-directed Repair.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yahong; Liao, Grace; Pritchard, Thomas; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Connelly, Jon P; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Blanc, Valerie; Davidson, Nicholas O; Madison, Blair B

    2017-02-22

    The discovery and application of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for genome editing has greatly accelerated targeted mutagenesis in a variety of organisms. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated site-specific cleavage is typically exploited for the generation of insertions or deletions (indels) following aberrant dsDNA repair via the endogenous non-homology end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, or alternatively, for enhancing homology directed repair (HDR) to facilitate the generation of a specific mutation (or knock-in). However, there is a need for efficient cellular assays that can measure Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) activity. Reliable methods for enriching and identifying desired mutants are also lacking. Here we describe a method using the Piggybac transposon for stable genomic integration of an H2B-GFP reporter or a hygromycin resistance gene for assaying Cas9 target cleavage and homology-directed repair (HDR). The H2B-GFP fusion protein provides increased stability and an obvious pattern of nuclear localization. This method, called SRIRACCHA (i.e., a stable, but reversible, integrated reporter for assaying CRISPR/Cas-stimulated HDR activity), enables the enrichment of mutants via selection of GFP-positive or hygromycin-resistant mammalian cells (immortalized or non-immortalized) as a surrogate for the modification of the endogenous target site. Currently available hyperactive Piggybac transposase mutants allow both delivery and removal of the surrogate reporters, with minimal risk of generating undesirable mutations. This assay permits rapid screening for efficient gRNAs, and the accelerated identification of mutant clones, and is applicable to many cell types. We foresee the utility of this approach in contexts in which the maintenance of genomic integrity is essential, for example, when engineering cells for therapeutic purposes.

  15. HIGH-TEMPERATURE PROCESSING OF SOLIDS THROUGH SOLAR NEBULAR BOW SHOCKS: 3D RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS WITH PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Desch, S. J.

    2013-10-20

    A fundamental, unsolved problem in solar system formation is explaining the melting and crystallization of chondrules found in chondritic meteorites. Theoretical models of chondrule melting in nebular shocks have been shown to be consistent with many aspects of thermal histories inferred for chondrules from laboratory experiments; but, the mechanism driving these shocks is unknown. Planetesimals and planetary embryos on eccentric orbits can produce bow shocks as they move supersonically through the disk gas, and are one possible source of chondrule-melting shocks. We investigate chondrule formation in bow shocks around planetoids through three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. A new radiation transport algorithm that combines elements of flux-limited diffusion and Monte Carlo methods is used to capture the complexity of radiative transport around bow shocks. An equation of state that includes the rotational, vibrational, and dissociation modes of H{sub 2} is also used. Solids are followed directly in the simulations and their thermal histories are recorded. Adiabatic expansion creates rapid cooling of the gas, and tail shocks behind the embryo can cause secondary heating events. Radiative transport is efficient, and bow shocks around planetoids can have luminosities ∼few× 10{sup –8} L{sub ☉}. While barred and radial chondrule textures could be produced in the radiative shocks explored here, porphyritic chondrules may only be possible in the adiabatic limit. We present a series of predicted cooling curves that merit investigation in laboratory experiments to determine whether the solids produced by bow shocks are represented in the meteoritic record by chondrules or other solids.

  16. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows... § 48.4161(b)-1 Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. (a) Imposition of tax. Section 4161(b...) Any bow that has a draw weight of 10 pounds or more; (2) Any arrow that measures 18 inches overall or...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows... § 48.4161(b)-1 Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. (a) Imposition of tax. Section 4161(b...) Any bow that has a draw weight of 10 pounds or more; (2) Any arrow that measures 18 inches overall or...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows... § 48.4161(b)-1 Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. (a) Imposition of tax. Section 4161(b...) Any bow that has a draw weight of 10 pounds or more; (2) Any arrow that measures 18 inches overall or...

  19. Forces and the Potential Energy Function for a Bow-and-Arrow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Ken; Coutant, Blaine; Crow, Tatum; James, Austin

    2008-03-01

    The experiments described here consist of a series of investigations into the dynamics of a bow as it is bent (and released) under the influence of a stretched string. The bow is ``student-friendly'' and has no pulleys for facilitating stretch. The presentation will discuss the various approaches to characterizing the bow, the string, and its energy efficiency.

  20. Statistical analysis of diffuse ion events upstream of the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trattner, K. J.; Mobius, E.; Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.; Hilchenbach, M.; Luehr, H.

    1994-01-01

    A statistical study of diffuse energetic ion events and their related waves upstream of the Earth's bow shock was performed using data from the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Ion Release Module (AMPTE/IRM) satellite over two 5-month periods in 1984 and 1985. The data set was used to test the assumption in the self-consistent model of the upstream wave and particle populations by Lee (1982) that the particle acceleration through hydromagnetic waves and the wave generation are directly coupled. The comparison between the observed wave power and the wave power predicted on the observed energetic particle energy density and solar wind parameters results in a high correlation coefficient of about 0.89. The intensity of diffuse ions falls off approximately exponentially with the distance upstream from the bow shock parallel to the magnetic field with e-folding distances which vary from approximately 3.3 R(sub E) to approximately 11.7 R(sub E) over the energy range from 10 keV/e to 67.3 keV/e for both protons and alpha particles. After normalizing the upstream particle densities to zero bow shock distance by using these exponential variations, a good correlation (0.7) of the density of the diffuse ions with the solar wind density was found. This supports the suggestion that the solar wind is the source of the diffuse ions. Furthermore, the spectral slope of the diffuse ions correlates well with the solar wind velocity component in the direction of the interplanetary magnetic field (0.68 and 0.66 for protons and alpha particles) which concurs with the notion that the solar wind plays an important role in the acceleration of the upstream particles.

  1. Understanding the Impact of Reverse Transfer Students on Community Colleges. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Barbara K., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This issue describes an enrollment pattern emerging in higher education--students who are matriculated at, or have graduated from, a four-year college who then transfer to a two-year school, a process labeled "reverse transfer." The following articles are included: (1) "What Do We Know about Reverse Transfer Students?" (Barbara K. Townsend and…

  2. Jupiter's magnetopause, bow shock, and 10-hour modulated magnetosheath: Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.

    1980-01-01

    Fine scale magnetic field data from the Voyager 1 and 2 magnetopause and bow shock crossings at Jupiter were analyzed. Explicit models of the dawnside magnetopause and bow shock in Jupiter's orbital plane employ an axisymmetric parabola and hyperbola, respectively, and are determined separately for the encounters. A new phenomenon was discovered in the magnetosheath. It is manifested as (5 or) 10 hour quasi-periodic modulation of the direction of the magnetic field in the outbound magnetosheath, predominantly in the northward (N) and southward (S) directions. It was seen to occur during both encounters and appears most evident in Voyager 2 outbound observations, probably due to the extreme tailward extent of the Voyager 2 trajectory through the magnetosheath. The durations of the N to and from S transitions range from tens of minutes to approximately 3 hours. The directional variation of the field during these transitions is fairly well restricted to a plane parallel to the local model magnetopause location. These signatures may be due to magnetosheath field line draping modulated by the large scale motion of the magnetospheric plasma disk.

  3. The Contemplative Bow in Teaching and Learning Pastoral Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    This article elucidates theoretical underpinnings for the use of one's self in the pastoral theological classroom. The contemplative bow is developed as a capacious metaphor to describe appropriate self use and its necessary importance in the teaching and learning of pastoral arts in a theological curriculum. Central to the argument is the…

  4. Threequarter view of port bow of White Holly (WLM 543) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three-quarter view of port bow of White Holly (WLM 543) on left, White Sage (WLM 544) on right. Note differences between the two. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  5. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, ACROSS HULL NEAR BOW END, TOP OF FORWARD STARBOARD CARGO HATCH IN FOREGROUND, OPENING FOR PORT HATCH BEYOND Edward Larrabee, photographer, November 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  6. 41. AUGUST 9, 1948 BOW STARBOARD VIEW. TAKEN SOON AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. AUGUST 9, 1948 BOW STARBOARD VIEW. TAKEN SOON AFTER COMMISSIONING INTO U.S. COAST GUARD. NOTE ORIGINAL CRANE AND HOISTING MECHANISM AND TWO ADDITIONAL PILES (SPUDS) THAT DROPPED INTO THE MUD BOTTOM TO STEADY THE VESSEL WHILE WORKING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  7. 18. FROM DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FROM DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, AT DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE AND BEYOND IS MAST. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  8. 20. FROM DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS THE BOW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. FROM DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS THE BOW, SHOWING WINCH FIDLY, STACK, AND UPPER DECKS. TO EITHER SIDE OF THE FIDLY IS A RHI (RIGID HULL INFLATABLE) AND CRANES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  9. A Study of Uranus' Bow Shock Motions Using Langmuir Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, S.; Cairns, I. H.; Smith, C. W.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, strong electron plasma oscillations (Langmuir waves) were detected by the plasma wave instrument in the 1.78-kHz channel on January 23-24, 1986, prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. Langmuir waves are excited by energetic electrons streaming away from the bow shock. The goal of this work is to estimate the location and motion of Uranus' bow shock using Langmuir wave data, together with the spacecraft positions and the measured interplanetary magnetic field. The following three remote sensing analyses were performed: the basic remote sensing method, the lag time method, and the trace-back method. Because the interplanetary magnetic field was highly variable, the first analysis encountered difficulties in obtaining a realistic estimation of Uranus' bow shock motion. In the lag time method developed here, time lags due to the solar wind's finite convection speed are taken into account when calculating the shock's standoff distance. In the new trace-back method, limits on the standoff distance are obtained as a function of time by reconstructing electron paths. Most of the results produced by the latter two analyses are consistent with predictions based on the standard theoretical model and the measured solar wind plasma parameters. Differences between our calculations and the theoretical model are discussed.

  10. 30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  11. 16. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail, northeast facade, operator's bow window and tower; note condition of slates on tower skirt roof, missing section of gutter at left side of skirt roof, missing window panes; note also knee braces carried on masonry ancons; view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Southern Pacific Depot, 559 El Camino Real, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  12. Forest resources of the Medicine Bow National Forest

    Treesearch

    Jim Steed

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of our National Forest System cooperative inventories, conducted a forest resource inventory on the Medicine Bow National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see "Inventory methods"...

  13. A Study of Uranus' Bow Shock Motions Using Langmuir Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, S.; Cairns, I. H.; Smith, C. W.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, strong electron plasma oscillations (Langmuir waves) were detected by the plasma wave instrument in the 1.78-kHz channel on January 23-24, 1986, prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. Langmuir waves are excited by energetic electrons streaming away from the bow shock. The goal of this work is to estimate the location and motion of Uranus' bow shock using Langmuir wave data, together with the spacecraft positions and the measured interplanetary magnetic field. The following three remote sensing analyses were performed: the basic remote sensing method, the lag time method, and the trace-back method. Because the interplanetary magnetic field was highly variable, the first analysis encountered difficulties in obtaining a realistic estimation of Uranus' bow shock motion. In the lag time method developed here, time lags due to the solar wind's finite convection speed are taken into account when calculating the shock's standoff distance. In the new trace-back method, limits on the standoff distance are obtained as a function of time by reconstructing electron paths. Most of the results produced by the latter two analyses are consistent with predictions based on the standard theoretical model and the measured solar wind plasma parameters. Differences between our calculations and the theoretical model are discussed.

  14. 126. AERIAL FORWARD VIEW OF ENCLOSED HURRICANE BOW WITH FLIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. AERIAL FORWARD VIEW OF ENCLOSED HURRICANE BOW WITH FLIGHT DECK GUN MOUNTS REMOVED AND ANGLED FLIGHT DECK. 1 OCTOBER 1956. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 80-G-1001445) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings.

  16. Hierarchical modularity of nested bow-ties in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Yu, Hong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Cao, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yi-Xue

    2006-08-18

    The exploration of the structural topology and the organizing principles of genome-based large-scale metabolic networks is essential for studying possible relations between structure and functionality of metabolic networks. Topological analysis of graph models has often been applied to study the structural characteristics of complex metabolic networks. In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. Network decomposition of three microbes (Escherichia coli, Aeropyrum pernix and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) shows that almost all of the sub-networks exhibit a highly modularized bow-tie topological pattern similar to that of the global metabolic networks. Moreover, these small bow-ties are hierarchically nested into larger ones and collectively integrated into a large metabolic network, and important features of this modularity are not observed in the random shuffled network. In addition, such a bow-tie pattern appears to be present in certain chemically isolated functional modules and spatially separated modules including carbohydrate metabolism, cytosol and mitochondrion respectively. The highly modularized bow-tie pattern is present at different levels and scales, and in different chemical and spatial modules of metabolic networks, which is likely the result of the evolutionary process rather than a random accident. Identification and analysis of such a pattern is helpful for understanding the design principles and facilitate the modelling of metabolic networks.

  17. 25. VIEW OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN) FROM OFF PORT BOW; VESSEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN) FROM OFF PORT BOW; VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  18. 23. VIEW FROM STARBOARD BOW OF ALABAMA AS 'ALABAMIAN.' Uncopyrighted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW FROM STARBOARD BOW OF ALABAMA AS 'ALABAMIAN.' Uncopyrighted 3-1/2'x5-5/8' postcard; image taken on station in Gulf of Mexico, c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  19. 41. BOW SPACES (YN OFFICES, AYN OFFICES & DECK SHOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. BOW SPACES (YN OFFICES, AYN OFFICES & DECK SHOP, LAUNDRY & BOS'N STORES), WITH HATCH TO PAINT LOCKER AT LEFT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 20. DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS THE BOW, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS THE BOW, SHOWING BOAT WINCH IN FOREGROUND, BEHIND IT IS THE FIDLY AND TO EITHER SIDE OF THE FIDLY IS A RHI (RIGID HULL INFLATABLE). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  1. Detail of bow showing new frames and planking on starboard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of bow showing new frames and planking on starboard side. Note oak trunnels used to fasten the planks to the frames. Frames are oak; planking is yellow pine. - Schooner ERNESTINA, New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park State Pier, New Bedford, Bristol County, MA

  2. Double tibial osteotomy for bow leg patients: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Khalilollah; Fouladi, Arash; Chinigarzadeh, Mozhdeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: High tibia osteotomy (HTO) is a common surgical operation for correction of genu varum deformity. In some patients, there are concurrent tibia vara and genu varum (bow leg). This study aimed to consider the possibility of better correction of bow leg deformity after double level tibial osteotomy (DLTO). Materials and Methods: A case series of 10 patients of genu varum in addition to tibia vara (bow leg) deformity who were referred to orthopedic ward of an academic hospital of Isfahan- Iran during 2009–2011 were included in the study. The mean age was 17.3 ± 3.1 years and all of them underwent DLTO. The results of treatment have been assessed based on clinical and radiological parameters before and after surgery. Results: The mean pre- and post operative values for Tibia-Femoral Angle, Medial Proximal of Tibia Angle (MPTA), and Lateral Distal of Tibia Angle (LDTA) were 18.13 ± 3.05° vs. 3.93 ± 0.66°, 79.13 ± 3.4° vs. 89.7 ± 1.8° and 96.40 ± 1.8° vs. 88.73 ± 3.0° respectively (P < 0.05). Improvement of all radiological parameters was meaningful. Seventy three percent of patients had normal mechanical axis of limb after surgery. The remaining cases had varus deformity in distal femur that was corrected by valgus supracondylar osteotomy in an additional operation. Limited range of motion (ROM) near knee and ankle was not observed. Conclusion: DLTO correct bow leg deformity in the point of alignment of limb and paralleling of knee and ankle joint more effectively. This method can be used in metabolic and congenital bow leg which deformities are present in throughout of the lower limb. We described this technique for the first time. PMID:24523802

  3. Global coagulation tests: their applicability for measuring direct factor Xa- and thrombin inhibition and reversal of anticoagulation by prothrombin complex concentrate.

    PubMed

    Dinkelaar, Jasper; Patiwael, Sanne; Harenberg, Job; Leyte, Anja; Brinkman, Herm Jan M

    2014-11-01

    Specific mass spectrometry and direct activated factor X (Xa)- and thrombin inhibition assays do not allow determination of the reversal of anticoagulant effects of non-vitamin K direct oral anticoagulants (NOACs) by prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). The objective of this study was the evaluation of the applicability of a variety of commercially available global coagulation assays in analyzing the reversal of NOAC anticoagulation by PCC. Plasma and whole blood were spiked with apixaban or dabigatran and PCC was added to these samples. Prothrombin time (PT), modified PT (mPT), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombography (CAT method) and thromboelastography (ROTEM, TEG) were performed. Assays triggered by contact activation (APTT, INTEM) did not show inhibitor reversal by PCC. Assays triggered by tissue factor (TF) showed NOAC type and NOAC concentration dependent anticoagulation reversal effects of PCC ranging from partial normalization to overcorrection of the following parameters: clotting or reaction time (PT, mPT TEG-TF, EXTEM, FIBTEM); angle in thromboelastography (TEG-TF); thrombin generation (CAT) lag time, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and peak thrombin. Extent of reversal was assay reagent dependent. ETP (5 pM TF) was the only parameter showing complete reversal of anticoagulation by PCC for all NOACs ranging from 200 to 800 μg/L. ETP fits with the concept that reversal assessment of NOAC anticoagulation by PCC should be based on measurements on the clotting potential or thrombin generating potential of the plasma or whole blood patient sample. Low sensitivity of ETP for NOACs and its correlation with bleeding are issues that remain to be resolved.

  4. Static model of a violin bow: influence of camber and hair tension on mechanical behavior.

    PubMed

    Ablitzer, Frédéric; Dalmont, Jean-Pierre; Dauchez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Experienced bow makers empirically know the influence of wood, tapering, and camber on the playing and tonal qualities of a bow. However, the way each parameter affects the bow mechanical behavior is not clearly established. An in-plane finite element model is developed to highlight the link between the adjustable design parameters and the mechanical behavior of a bow. This model takes into account geometric nonlinearity as well as compliance of the hair. Its validity is discussed from measurements on a bow. Results from simulations are compared to experimental results from previous studies. The consequences of adjusting hair tension and camber are then investigated.

  5. 75 FR 33802 - City of Broken Bow, OK; Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam; Hydropower Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... in or Eligible for Inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places June 8, 2010. Rule 2010 of... eligible for inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the Broken Bow Re-Regulation Dam... list for the above-captioned proceeding may request inclusion on the restricted service list, or may...

  6. GYROSURFING ACCELERATION OF IONS IN FRONT OF EARTH's QUASI-PARALLEL BOW SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Kis, Arpad; Lemperger, Istvan; Wesztergom, Viktor; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Dandouras, Iannis E-mail: Kis.Arpad@csfk.mta.hu

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that shocks in space plasmas can accelerate particles to high energies. However, many details of the shock acceleration mechanism are still unknown. A critical element of shock acceleration is the injection problem; i.e., the presence of the so called seed particle population that is needed for the acceleration to work efficiently. In our case study, we present for the first time observational evidence of gyroresonant surfing acceleration in front of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock resulting in the appearance of the long-suspected seed particle population. For our analysis, we use simultaneous multi-spacecraft measurements provided by the Cluster spacecraft ion (CIS), magnetic (FGM), and electric field and wave instrument (EFW) during a time period of large inter-spacecraft separation distance. The spacecraft were moving toward the bow shock and were situated in the foreshock region. The results show that the gyroresonance surfing acceleration takes place as a consequence of interaction between circularly polarized monochromatic (or quasi-monochromatic) transversal electromagnetic plasma waves and short large amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMSs). The magnetic mirror force of the SLAMS provides the resonant conditions for the ions trapped by the waves and results in the acceleration of ions. Since wave packets with circular polarization and different kinds of magnetic structures are very commonly observed in front of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock, the gyroresonant surfing acceleration proves to be an important particle injection mechanism. We also show that seed ions are accelerated directly from the solar wind ion population.

  7. O+ ion beams reflected below the Martian bow shock: MAVEN observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunaga, K.; Seki, K.; Brain, D. A.; Fang, X.; Dong, Y.; Jakosky, B. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a generation mechanism of O+ ion beams observed above the Martian bow shock by analyzing ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) measured by the Suprathermal and Thermal Ion Composition instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft. In the solar wind near Mars, MAVEN often observes energetic O+ ion beams (~10 keV or higher). Accompanied with the O+ ion beam events, we sometimes observe characteristic ion VDFs in the magnetosheath: a partial ring distribution. The partial ring distribution corresponds to pickup ions with a finite initial velocity (i.e., not newborn pickup ions), and its phase space density is much smaller than that of local pickup O+ ions of the magnetosheath. Thus, the partial ring distribution is most likely produced by the reflection of pickup O+ ions precipitating from the upstream solar wind below the bow shock. After being injected into the magnetosheath from the solar wind, the precipitating O+ ions are subject to the significantly enhanced magnetic field in this region and start to gyrate around the guiding center of the plasma frame in the magnetosheath. Consequently, a part of precipitating O+ ions are reflected back to the solar wind, generating O+ beams in the solar wind. The beams direct quasi-sunward near the subsolar region but have large angle with respect to the sunward direction at high solar zenith angles (>50°). The reflected O+ beams are accelerated by the convection electric field of the solar wind and may escape Mars.

  8. Enhancement in wafer bow of free-standing GaN substrates due to high-dose hydrogen implantation: implications for GaN layer transfer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Radu, I.; Bruederl, G.; Eichler, C.; Haerle, V.; Gösele, U.; Christiansen, S. H.

    2007-04-01

    Two-inch free-standing GaN wafers were implanted by 100 keV H+2 ions with a dose of 1.3 × 1017 cm-2 at room temperature. The hydrogen implantation induced damage in GaN extends between 230 to 500 nm from the surface as measured by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The wafer bow of the free-standing GaN wafers was measured using a Tencor long range profilometer on a scan length of 48 mm before and after the hydrogen implantation. Before implantation the bow of two different free-standing GaN wafers (named A and B) with different thicknesses was 1.5 µm and 6 µm, respectively. Initially, both wafers were concave in shape. After implantation the bow changed to convex with a value of 36 µm for wafer A and a value of 32 µm for wafer B. High dose hydrogen implantation leads to an in-plane compressive stress in the top damaged layer of the GaN, which is responsible for the enhancement of wafer bow and change of bow direction. The high value of bow after implantation hinders the direct wafer bonding of the free-standing GaN wafers to sapphire or any other handle wafers. Tight bonding between hydrogen implanted GaN wafers and the handle wafers is a necessary requirement for the successful layer transfer of thin GaN layers onto other substrates based on wafer bonding and layer splitting (Smart-cut).

  9. Location Estimation of the Bow Shock and Theta angle (B, n) cuasiperpendicular magnetospheric, using data from 14 different events crossings shock recorded by THEMIS-C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amazo-Gomez, Eliana; Alvarado-Gomez, Julian David; Calvo Mozo, Benjamin

    In this Work we calculated the average position of the bow shock, through the eigenvalues ​​and corresponding eigenvectors of the covariance matrix for the magnetic field developed from 10 different crosses shock events recorded by THEMIS A, during the years 2009 and 2010. With data obtained from previous calibration and the propagation direction of the magnetic field of the plasma is able to find the interaction quasi perpendicular angle Theta (B,n) which depends on the direction normal shock and the direction of incidence of field magnetic plasma. The importance of this type of analysis is that the understanding of the phenomenology of the bow shock, which is vital for the characterization of processes such as magnetic reconnection between magnetospheric lines terrestrial and interplanetary field lines carrying a large contribution from the Sun apparently lines will also be important for the description of how to enter the plasma charged particles from impacting the bow shock to the internal field lines to these particles subsequently lead to the Earth's atmosphere, these initially enter through the polar region (Polar Cusp) and then disseminated depending on the conditions of the plasma into the Earth's atmosphere , and parameters such as the position of the bow shock, this variation and interaction angle Theta (B,n) are basic to reach a minimal representation of the phenomenon. In events of great magnitude can have undesirable effects on satellites, power lines, communications and air travel, the latter is the interest on discrimination of some parameters of the phenomenon presented in this work. The study of the Bow shock, bow shock and Magnetospheric has as its starting point a detailed description of Earth's magnetosphere and solar wind phenomena must be understood independently initially and then trying to relate in terms of their interaction and communion in their respective limits, parameters such as the balance between dynamic and magnetic pressure

  10. Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a

  11. Deceleration of the solar wind upstream from the earth's bow shock and the origin of diffuse upstream ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bame, S. J.; Asbridge, J. R.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Paschmann, G.; Skopke, N.

    1980-01-01

    Observations with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory/Max-Planck-Institut crossed-fan solar wind ion experiment on ISEE I reveal that the solar wind is decelerated and deflected away from the direction of the earth's bow shock as it enters that portion of the upstream region populated by diffuse bow shock ions and long-period (10-60 s) waves. Typically, the average directed velocity vector changes by 7-10 km/s as it enters the wave region. At times, average speed changes as large as 25-40 km/s are observed. Superposed upon these changes in average flow speed are large amplitude (+ or - 15) fluctuations in flow speed associated with the waves themselves. The observations suggest that the solar wind deceleration is the result of momentum transfer from reflected bow shock ions to the wind via the long-period waves as the reflected ion beams go unstable. The broad angular distributions of the diffuse ions thus appear to be produced as a consequence of the disruption of reflected ion beams.

  12. First simultaneous measurements of waves generated at the bow shock in the solar wind, the magnetosphere and on the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, L. B. N.; Yeoman, T. K.; Fear, R. C.; Behlke, R.; Lucek, E. A.; Engebretson, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    On 5 September 2002 the Geotail satellite observed the cone angle of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) change to values below 30° during a 56 min interval between 18:14 and 19:10 UT. This triggered the generation of upstream waves at the bow shock, 13 RE downstream of the position of Geotail. Upstream generated waves were subsequently observed by Geotail between 18:30 and 18:48 UT, during times the IMF cone angle dropped below values of 10°. At 18:24 UT all four Cluster satellites simultaneously observed a sudden increase in wave power in all three magnetic field components, independent of their position in the dayside magnetosphere. We show that the 10 min delay between the change in IMF direction as observed by Geotail and the increase in wave power observed by Cluster is consistent with the propagation of the IMF change from the Geotail position to the bow shock and the propagation of the generated waves through the bow shock, magnetosheath and magnetosphere towards the position of the Cluster satellites. We go on to show that the wave power recorded by the Cluster satellites in the component containing the poloidal and compressional pulsations was broadband and unstructured; the power in the component containing toroidal oscillations was structured and shows the existence of multi-harmonic Alfvénic continuum waves on field lines. Model predictions of these frequencies fit well with the observations. An increase in wave power associated with the change in IMF direction was also registered by ground based magnetometers which were magnetically conjunct with the Cluster satellites during the event. To the best of our knowledge we present the first simultaneous observations of waves created by backstreaming ions at the bow shock in the solar wind, the dayside magnetosphere and on the ground.

  13. Shock-Resistibility of MEMS-Based Inertial Microswitch under Reverse Directional Ultra-High g Acceleration for IoT Applications

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiu; Yang, Zhuoqing; Sun, Yunna; Lai, Liyan; Jin, Zhiyu; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Yao, Jinyuan; Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel MEMS-based inertial microswitch design with multi-directional compact constraint structures for improving the shock-resistibility. Its shock-resistibility in the reverse-sensitive direction to ultra-high g acceleration (~hunderds of thousands) is simulated and analyzed. The dynamic response process indicates that in the designed inertial microswitch the proof mass weight G, the whole system’s stiffness k and the gap x2 between the proof mass and reverse constraint blocks have significant effect on the shock-resistibility. The MEMS inertial microswitch micro-fabricated by surface micromachining has been evaluated using the drop hammer test. The maximum allowable reverse acceleration, which does not cause the spurious trigger, is defined as the reverse acceleration threshold (athr). Test results show that athr increases with the decrease of the gap x2, and the proposed microswitch tends to have a better shock-resistibility under smaller gap. The measured responses of the microswitches with and without constraint structure indicates that the device without constraint structure is prone to spurious trigger, while the designed constraint structures can effectively improve the shock-resistibility. In this paper, the method for improving the shock-resistibility and reducing the spurious trigger has been discussed. PMID:28361893

  14. Shock-Resistibility of MEMS-Based Inertial Microswitch under Reverse Directional Ultra-High g Acceleration for IoT Applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiu; Yang, Zhuoqing; Sun, Yunna; Lai, Liyan; Jin, Zhiyu; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Yao, Jinyuan; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-31

    This paper presents a novel MEMS-based inertial microswitch design with multi-directional compact constraint structures for improving the shock-resistibility. Its shock-resistibility in the reverse-sensitive direction to ultra-high g acceleration (~hunderds of thousands) is simulated and analyzed. The dynamic response process indicates that in the designed inertial microswitch the proof mass weight G, the whole system's stiffness k and the gap x2 between the proof mass and reverse constraint blocks have significant effect on the shock-resistibility. The MEMS inertial microswitch micro-fabricated by surface micromachining has been evaluated using the drop hammer test. The maximum allowable reverse acceleration, which does not cause the spurious trigger, is defined as the reverse acceleration threshold (athr). Test results show that athr increases with the decrease of the gap x2, and the proposed microswitch tends to have a better shock-resistibility under smaller gap. The measured responses of the microswitches with and without constraint structure indicates that the device without constraint structure is prone to spurious trigger, while the designed constraint structures can effectively improve the shock-resistibility. In this paper, the method for improving the shock-resistibility and reducing the spurious trigger has been discussed.

  15. Shock-Resistibility of MEMS-Based Inertial Microswitch under Reverse Directional Ultra-High g Acceleration for IoT Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiu; Yang, Zhuoqing; Sun, Yunna; Lai, Liyan; Jin, Zhiyu; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin; Yao, Jinyuan; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a novel MEMS-based inertial microswitch design with multi-directional compact constraint structures for improving the shock-resistibility. Its shock-resistibility in the reverse-sensitive direction to ultra-high g acceleration (~hunderds of thousands) is simulated and analyzed. The dynamic response process indicates that in the designed inertial microswitch the proof mass weight G, the whole system’s stiffness k and the gap x2 between the proof mass and reverse constraint blocks have significant effect on the shock-resistibility. The MEMS inertial microswitch micro-fabricated by surface micromachining has been evaluated using the drop hammer test. The maximum allowable reverse acceleration, which does not cause the spurious trigger, is defined as the reverse acceleration threshold (athr). Test results show that athr increases with the decrease of the gap x2, and the proposed microswitch tends to have a better shock-resistibility under smaller gap. The measured responses of the microswitches with and without constraint structure indicates that the device without constraint structure is prone to spurious trigger, while the designed constraint structures can effectively improve the shock-resistibility. In this paper, the method for improving the shock-resistibility and reducing the spurious trigger has been discussed.

  16. Hot flow anomaly observed at Jupiter's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valek, P. W.; Thomsen, M. F.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S.; Connerney, J.; Ebert, R. W.; Gladstone, R.; Kurth, W. S.; Levin, S.; Louarn, P.; Mauk, B.; McComas, D. J.; Pollock, C.; Reno, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    A Hot Flow Anomaly (HFA) is created when an interplanetary current sheet interacts with a planetary bow shock. Previous studies have reported observing HFAs at Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Saturn. During Juno's approach to Jupiter, a number of its instruments operated in the solar wind. Prior to crossing into Jupiter's magnetosphere, Juno observed an HFA at Jupiter for the first time. This Jovian HFA shares most of the characteristics of HFAs seen at other planets. The notable exception is that the Jovian HFA is significantly larger than any HFA seen before. With an apparent size greater than 2 × 106 km the Jovian HFA is orders of magnitude larger than those seen at the other planets. By comparing the size of the HFAs at the other planets with the Jovian HFA, we conclude that HFAs size scales with the size of planetary bow shocks that the interplanetary current sheet interacts with.

  17. Hot, diamagnetic cavities upstream from the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Fuselier, S. A.; Bame, S. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    On eight occasions the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft registered peculiar plasma structures upstream of the earth's bow shock. The events exhibit a temporary, strong reduction in the magnitude of the magnetic field and strong enhancements of the field strength bordering the reduction zone. The low field strength regions featured temperatures from 1-10 million k and pressure an order of magnitude greater than the solar wind. The pressure gradients exceeded the magnetic tension around the structures, although the field of the cavities may be a closed structure. A model is proposed of hot, expanding diamagnetic plasma cavities with scales on the order of a few earth radii. Speculations on the interaction and origin or impetus for the cavities within the bow shock, foreshock, the magnetosphere and the solar wind are discussed. Similarities between the phenomena detected and signatures obtained with the AMPTE releases of chemicals in the solar wind are noted.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic and gasdynamic theories for planetary bow waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    A bow wave was previously observed in the solar wind upstream of each of the first six planets. The observed properties of these bow waves and the associated plasma flows are outlined, and those features identified that can be described by a continuum magnetohydrodynamic flow theory. An account of the fundamental concepts and current status of the magnetohydrodynamic and gas dynamic theories for solar wind flow past planetary bodies is provided. This includes a critical examination of: (1) the fundamental assumptions of the theories; (2) the various simplifying approximations introduced to obtain tractable mathematical problems; (3) the limitations they impose on the results; and (4) the relationship between the results of the simpler gas dynamic-frozen field theory and the more accurate but less completely worked out magnetohydrodynamic theory. Representative results of the various theories are presented and compared.

  19. MESSENGER Observations of Mercury's Bow Shock and Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Sarantos, M.; Acuna, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Baker, D. N.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R. E.; Ho, G. C.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Livi, S. A.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Raines, J. M.; Schriver, D.; Solomon, S. C.; Travnicek, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    MESSENGER'S 14 January 2008 encounter with Mercury will provide the first new observations of the solar wind interaction with this planet since the Mariner 10 flybys that took place over 30 years ago. The closest approach distance for this first MESSENGER flyby is targeted for an altitude of 200 km as compared with the 707 km and 327 km attained by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 and 16 March 1975, respectively. The locations of the bow shock and magnetopause boundaries observed by MESSENGER will be examined and compared against those found in the earlier Mariner 10 measurements and the predictions of theoretical models and numerical simulations. The structure of the magnetopause will be investigated for the presence of flux transfer events or other evidence of magnetic reconnection as will the more general implications of these new MESSENGER bow shock and magnetopause observations for the global solar wind interaction with Mercury.

  20. Energy band bowing parameter in MgZnO alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xu; Saito, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Guo, Qixin; Nagaoka, Takashi; Arita, Makoto

    2015-07-13

    We report on bandgap bowing parameters for wurtzite and cubic MgZnO alloys from a study of high quality and single phase films in all Mg content range. The Mg contents in the MgZnO films were accurately determined using the energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The measurement of bandgap energies by examining the onset of inelastic energy loss in core-level atomic spectra from XPS is proved to be valid for determining the bandgap of MgZnO films. The dependence of the energy bandgap on Mg content is found to deviate downwards from linearity. Fitting of the bandgap data resulted in two bowing parameters of 2.01 ± 0.04 eV and 1.48 ± 0.11 eV corresponding to wurtzite and cubic MgZnO films, respectively.

  1. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Evans, Joshua D.; Politte, David G.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners. PMID:26127044

  2. Technical Note: Measurement of bow tie profiles in CT scanners using radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Bruce R.; Dohatcu, Andreea C.; Evans, Joshua D.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Politte, David G.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a noninvasive technique to measure the intensity profile of the fan beam in a computed tomography (CT) scanner that is cost effective and easily implemented without the need to access proprietary scanner information or service modes. Methods: The fabrication of an inexpensive aperture is described, which is used to expose radiochromic film in a rotating CT gantry. A series of exposures is made, each of which is digitized on a personal computer document scanner, and the resulting data set is analyzed to produce a self-consistent calibration of relative radiation exposure. The bow tie profiles were analyzed to determine the precision of the process and were compared to two other measurement techniques, direct measurements from CT gantry detectors and a dynamic dosimeter. Results: The radiochromic film method presented here can measure radiation exposures with a precision of ∼6% root-mean-square relative error. The intensity profiles have a maximum 25% root-mean-square relative error compared with existing techniques. Conclusions: The proposed radiochromic film method for measuring bow tie profiles is an inexpensive (∼$100 USD + film costs), noninvasive method to measure the fan beam intensity profile in CT scanners.

  3. Bow-corridor local integrated resource plan: Draft plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This plan presents the Government of Alberta's resource management policy for public lands and resources within the Bow Corridor. Resource potentials and opportunities for development are identified to assist in the economic progress of the province. The plan includes identification of its purpose and scope and the context in which it is presented; and resource management objectives and guidelines for ecological and aesthetic resources, fisheries, forests, historical resources, minerals, range land, settlement, tourism/recreation, water and watersheds and wildlife.

  4. Cold ions at the Martian bow shock - PHOBOS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, E.; Lundin, R.; Koskinen, H.; Norberg, O.

    1993-04-01

    Measurements carried out by the plasma spectrometer ASPERA aboard the Phobos 2 spacecraft show that the Martian bow shock is characterized by a sudden increase of ionization of the neutral corona. It acts as a source of new ions that can strongly modify the process of ion heating behind the shock front. The loss of momentum of solar wind protons due to their interaction with exospheric ions may lead to an increase in the effective scale of the obstacle.

  5. Mercury's magnetopause and bow shock from MESSENGER Magnetometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Anderson, Brian J.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Slavin, James A.; Korth, Haje; Purucker, Michael E.; Baker, Daniel N.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2013-05-01

    We have established the average shape and location of Mercury's magnetopause and bow shock from orbital observations by the MESSENGER Magnetometer. We fit empirical models to midpoints of boundary crossings and probability density maps of the magnetopause and bow shock positions. The magnetopause was fit by a surface for which the position R from the planetary dipole varies as [1 + cos(θ)]-α, where θ is the angle between R and the dipole-Sun line, the subsolar standoff distance Rss is 1.45 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius), and the flaring parameter α = 0.5. The average magnetopause shape and location were determined under a mean solar wind ram pressure PRam of 14.3 nPa. The best fit bow shock shape established under an average Alfvén Mach number (MA) of 6.6 is described by a hyperboloid having Rss = 1.96 RM and an eccentricity of 1.02. These boundaries move as PRam and MA vary, but their shapes remain unchanged. The magnetopause Rss varies from 1.55 to 1.35 RM for PRam in the range of 8.8-21.6 nPa. The bow shock Rss varies from 2.29 to 1.89 RM for MA in the range of 4.12-11.8. The boundaries are well approximated by figures of revolution. Additional quantifiable effects of the interplanetary magnetic field are masked by the large dynamic variability of these boundaries. The magnetotail surface is nearly cylindrical, with a radius of ~2.7 RM at a distance of 3 RM downstream of Mercury. By comparison, Earth's magnetotail flaring continues until a downstream distance of ~10 Rss.

  6. Latitudinal variability of the ionosphere and long-term prediction of the maximum usable frequency of the F region along direct and reverse paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Yu. K.; Khotenko, E. N.

    2012-05-01

    We present maximum usable frequency (MUF) calculation results when a radiowave, radiated at a zero angle, is reflected from the ionosphere along direct and reverse paths when the latitudinal variability of the medium is significant. As an example, we consider the Novorossiysk-California path. Calculations were carried out using a "two-point" method and data of the Monthly MUF Prediction for May 1980 and May 1991. The "two-point" method is validated based on a new way of approximated representation of the Watson integral, which is an exact solution of the benchmark problem related to the point source field in a spherically layered medium. It is shown that MUFs along a reverse path are several MHz higher than MUFs along a direct path during the whole day.

  7. Bow shocks and magnetotails of Venus and Mars - A comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Ong, M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.; Eroshenko, E.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the bow shock location and the structure of the magnetotail of Mars by the Phobos spacecraft and of Venus by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter reveal the solar wind interactions with these two planets to be quite similar. The subsolar bow shocks of both Venus and Mars lie at 1.47 planetary radii while at the terminator they are at 2.40 and 2.65 planetary radii, respectively. Both bow shocks have oval cross sections when viewed from the sun whose major axes are controlled by the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field. The tail lobes of both planets are similarly controlled by the IMF orientation. The strength of the solar/antisolar component of the magnetic field is 17 nT at Venus and 14 nT at Mars. The component perpendicular to the tail axis is about 1/2 the corresponding IMF component at Venus and 2 times this component at Mars. However, when these measurements are compared in terms of the distance down the tail at which each were taken, the data from the two planets are quite consistent. Hence both Venus and Mars have principally induced magnetospheres and magnetotails which stand off the solar wind flow.

  8. Maskless direct laser writing with visible light: Breaking through the optical resolving limit with cooperative manipulations of nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jingsong; Wang, Rui

    2014-03-28

    In this work, the resolving limit of maskless direct laser writing is overcome by cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion, where the nonlinear reverse saturation absorption can induce the formation of below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot, and the thermal diffusion manipulation can make the heat quantity at the central region of energy absorption spot propagate along the thin film thickness direction. The temperature at the central region of energy absorption spot transiently reaches up to melting point and realizes nanolithography. The sample “glass substrate/AgInSbTe” is prepared, where AgInSbTe is taken as nonlinear reverse saturation absorption thin film. The below diffraction-limited energy absorption spot is simulated theoretically and verified experimentally by near-field spot scanning method. The “glass substrate/Al/AgInSbTe” sample is prepared, where the Al is used as thermal conductive layer to manipulate the thermal diffusion channel because the thermal diffusivity coefficient of Al is much larger than that of AgInSbTe. The direct laser writing is conducted by a setup with a laser wavelength of 650 nm and a converging lens of NA=0.85, the lithographic marks with a size of about 100 nm are obtained, and the size is only about 1/10 the incident focused spot. The experimental results indicate that the cooperative manipulation from nonlinear reverse saturation absorption and thermal diffusion is a good method to realize nanolithography in maskless direct laser writing with visible light.

  9. Diffusive shock acceleration - Comparison of a unified shock model to bow shock observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Moebius, Eberhard

    1987-01-01

    A comparison is made between recent AMPTE/IRM observations of diffuse ions detected upstream of the earth's bow shock when the interplanetary magnetic field was nearly parallel to the solar wind direction and a known collisionless quasi-parallel shock model. These observations, which provide the proton spectrum for all of velocity space, give a direct measure of the shock acceleration efficiency and show how thermal solar winds are injected into the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. The model accurately describes the proton spectrum; moreover, it predicts the shock structure, the complete particle spectrum, the relative velocity distributions of different ion species in the down stream region, and the enhancement of heavy ions over protons relative to the unshocked solar wind.

  10. Method for measuring violin sound radiation based on bowed glissandi and its application to sound synthesis.

    PubMed

    Perez Carrillo, Alfonso; Bonada, Jordi; Patynen, Jukka; Valimaki, Vesa

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a method for measuring and computing violin-body directional frequency responses, which are used for violin sound synthesis. The approach is based on a frame-weighted deconvolution of excitation and response signals. The excitation, consisting of bowed glissandi, is measured with piezoelectric transducers built into the bridge. Radiation responses are recorded in an anechoic chamber with multiple microphones placed at different angles around the violin. The proposed deconvolution algorithm computes impulse responses that, when convolved with any source signal (captured with the same transducer), produce a highly realistic violin sound very similar to that of a microphone recording. The use of motion sensors allows for tracking violin movements. Combining this information with the directional responses and using a dynamic convolution algorithm, helps to improve the listening experience by incorporating the violinist motion effect in stereo.

  11. Diffusive shock acceleration - Comparison of a unified shock model to bow shock observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Moebius, Eberhard

    1987-01-01

    A comparison is made between recent AMPTE/IRM observations of diffuse ions detected upstream of the earth's bow shock when the interplanetary magnetic field was nearly parallel to the solar wind direction and a known collisionless quasi-parallel shock model. These observations, which provide the proton spectrum for all of velocity space, give a direct measure of the shock acceleration efficiency and show how thermal solar winds are injected into the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. The model accurately describes the proton spectrum; moreover, it predicts the shock structure, the complete particle spectrum, the relative velocity distributions of different ion species in the down stream region, and the enhancement of heavy ions over protons relative to the unshocked solar wind.

  12. Similarities and Differences between the Termination Foreshock/ Bow Shock and Planetary Bow Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Hill, M. E.

    2006-05-01

    It is now evident that Voyager 1 (V1) entered the termination foreshock (TFS) at ~~85 AU in mid-2002, exited this region in early 2003 and re-entered in the late 2003-early 2004 time frame, before finally crossing the termination shock (TS) at ~~94 AU on December 16, 2004. The TFS region is characterized by large intensities of tangentially outward-moving beams of energetic ions E > 40 keV, and generally isotropic electron intensity increases E > 350 keV (Krimigis et al, 2003; Decker et al, 2005). Elevated magnetic field intensities were observed throughout these periods (Burlaga et al, 2003, 2005) and comparison with particle pressures showed this region to be a high-beta plasma (Krimigis et al, 2004, 2005). Proximity of the TS was also evident from occasional electron plasma oscillations seen as early as 91 AU (Gurnett and Kurth, 2005). In this paper we examine the extent to which the TFS and TS exhibit properties seen in planetary bow shocks using data from Voyager?s flyby of the outer planets and Cassini data in the vicinity of Saturn. Magnetic field distributions in these high-beta regions appear to be Gaussian. A possible source for the TSF particles is the supertherma1 population residing in the heliosheath, similar to upstream ions observed leaking from planetary magnetospheres. Krimigis, S.M. et al, Nature, 426, pg 45-48, 2003. Decker, R. B. et al, Science, 309, 2020- 2024, 2005. Burlaga et al, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, NO. 20, 2072, doi:10.1029/2003GL018291, 2003. Burlaga, L. F, et al, Science, 309, 2027-2029, 2005 Krimigis S. M., et al, V. Florinski, N. V. Pogorelov, and G. P. Zank (eds) CP719, American Institute of Physics, 0-7354-0199-3/04, 133-138, 2004. Krimigis, S. M., et al, Proceedings of the Solar Wind 11 / SOHO 16 Conference,12-17 June 2005, Whistler, Canada, , B. Fleck & T.H. Zurbuchen (eds), (ESA SP-592, September 2005) Gurnett, D. A., and W. S. Kurth, Science, 309, 2025- 2027, 2005

  13. Investigation on Ring/Split-Ring Loaded Bow-Tie Antenna for Compactness and Notched-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lin; Xie, Ji-yang; Jiang, Xing; Li, Si-min

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a Bow-tie antenna with size reduction, impedance matching and radiation pattern improvement characteristics is designed with an encircling ring. Moreover, further size reduction is achieved by utilizing two symmetric split rings with more frequency tuning flexibility. Research found the ring loaded Bow-tie antenna (RLBA) shows better performance than the referenced Bow-tie antenna (RBA), and the mechanisms of performance improvements are also investigated and found to be the loading ring acts as two symmetric dipoles in the direction of the antenna's polarization. Then, using two symmetric split rings on the opposite side of the substrate as replacement of the encircling ring will prolong the length of the dipoles, and achieves further size reduction. The antenna is denoted as dual split ring loaded Bow-tie antenna (DSRBA). The low cutoff frequencies of RBA, RLBA and DSRBA with identical antenna size are 2.65 GHz, 2.27 GHz and 2.06 GHz, respectively. Then, the corresponding diameters of the antennas are 0.353 λc, 0.303 λc, and 0.275 λc, where λc are their corresponding wavelength of the lower cutoff frequencies. Furthermore, a notched-band is generated as a byproduct of the split rings, and it is owing to the new resonance of the overlap areas of the split rings. The notch can be used to alleviate interference of WiMAX band by carefully choosing the split rings' size. Radiation patterns of RLBA and DSRBA are also improved as current distributions of the high frequencies are trained in order by the ring/split-rings. Measurements are performed to verify the designs.

  14. ApoE-directed therapeutics rapidly clear β-amyloid and reverse deficits in AD mouse models.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Paige E; Cirrito, John R; Wesson, Daniel W; Lee, C Y Daniel; Karlo, J Colleen; Zinn, Adriana E; Casali, Brad T; Restivo, Jessica L; Goebel, Whitney D; James, Michael J; Brunden, Kurt R; Wilson, Donald A; Landreth, Gary E

    2012-03-23

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired clearance of β-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain, a process normally facilitated by apolipoprotein E (apoE). ApoE expression is transcriptionally induced through the action of the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and liver X receptors in coordination with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Oral administration of the RXR agonist bexarotene to a mouse model of AD resulted in enhanced clearance of soluble Aβ within hours in an apoE-dependent manner. Aβ plaque area was reduced more than 50% within just 72 hours. Furthermore, bexarotene stimulated the rapid reversal of cognitive, social, and olfactory deficits and improved neural circuit function. Thus, RXR activation stimulates physiological Aβ clearance mechanisms, resulting in the rapid reversal of a broad range of Aβ-induced deficits.

  15. Directly observed reversible shape changes and hemoglobin stratification during centrifugation of human and Amphiuma red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Joseph F; Inoué, Shinya

    2006-02-21

    This paper describes changes that occur in human and Amphiuma red blood cells observed during centrifugation with a special microscope. Dilute suspensions of cells were layered, in a centrifuge chamber, above an osmotically matched dense solution, containing Nycodenz, Ficoll, or Percoll (Pharmacia) that formed a density gradient that allowed the cells to slowly settle to an equilibrium position. Biconcave human red blood cells moved downward at low forces with minimum wobble. The cells oriented vertically when the force field was increased and Hb sedimented as the lower part of each cell became bulged and assumed a "bag-like" shape. The upper centripetal portion of the cell became thinner and remained biconcave. These changes occurred rapidly and were completely reversible upon lowering the centrifugal force. Bag-shaped cells, upon touching red cells in rouleau, immediately reverted to biconcave disks as they flipped onto a stack. Amphiuma red cells displayed a different type of reversible stratification and deformation at high force fields. Here the cells became stretched, with the nucleus now moving centrifugally, the Hb moving centripetally, and the bottom of the cells becoming thinner and clear. Nevertheless, the distribution of the marginal bands at the cells' rim was unchanged. We conclude that centrifugation, per se, while changing a red cell's shape and the distribution of its intracellular constituents, does so in a completely reversible manner. Centrifugation of red cells harboring altered or missing structural elements could provide information on shape determinants that are still unexplained.

  16. Reversible near-infrared light directed reflection in a self-organized helical superstructure loaded with upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Dong, Hao; Li, Yannian; Xue, Chenming; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua; Li, Quan

    2014-03-26

    Adding external, dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is an important leap necessary in leveraging the fascinating molecular systems for applications. Here, the new light-driven chiral molecular switch and upconversion nanoparticles, doped in a liquid crystal media, were able to self-organize into an optically tunable helical superstructure. The resulting nanoparticle impregnated helical superstructure was found to exhibit unprecedented reversible near-infrared (NIR) light-guided tunable behavior only by modulating the excitation power density of a continuous-wave NIR laser (980 nm). Upon irradiation by the NIR laser at the high power density, the reflection wavelength of the photonic superstructure red-shifted, whereas its reverse process occurred upon irradiation by the same laser but with the lower power density. Furthermore, reversible dynamic NIR-light-driven red, green, and blue reflections in a single thin film, achieved only by varying the power density of the NIR light, were for the first time demonstrated.

  17. Dependence of sound characteristics on the bowing position in a violin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, YuJi; Kim, Young H.

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative analysis of violin sounds produced for different bowing positions over the full length of a violin string has been carried out. An automated bowing machine was employed in order to keep the bowing parameters constant. A 3-dimensional profile of the frequency spectrum was introduced in order to characterize the violin's sound. We found that the fundamental frequency did not change for different bowing positions, whereas the frequencies of the higher harmonics were different. Bowing the string at 30 mm from the bridge produced musical sounds. The middle of the string was confirmed to be a dead zone, as reported in previous works. In addition, the quarter position was also found to be a dead zone. Bowing the string 90 mm from the bridge dominantly produces a fundamental frequency of 864 Hz and its harmonics.

  18. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].

    PubMed

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  19. Clocked Thrust Reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft includes a fuselage including a propulsion system supported within an aft portion. A thrust reverser is mounted proximate to the propulsion system for directing thrust in a direction to slow the aircraft. The thrust reverser directs thrust at an angle relative to a vertical plane to reduce interference on control surfaces and reduce generation of underbody lift.

  20. Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: Examining indirect band gap bowing

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkikh, Alexander A.; Eisenschmidt, Christian; Schmidt, Georg; Talalaev, Vadim G.; Zakharov, Nikolay D.; Werner, Peter; Schilling, Joerg

    2013-07-15

    A study of the bandgap character of compressively strained GeSn{sub 0.060-0.091}/Ge(001) quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The built-in strain in GeSn wells leads to an increased separation between L and {Gamma} conduction band minima. The prevalent indirect interband transitions in GeSn were probed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. As a result we could simulate the L-valley bowing parameter in GeSn alloys, b{sub L} = 0.80 {+-} 0.06 eV at 10 K. From this we conclude that even compressively strained GeSn/Ge(001) alloys could become direct band gap semiconductors at the Sn-fraction higher than 17.0 at. %.

  1. Discovery Of An Infrared Bow Shock Associated With Delta Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remage Evans, Nancy; Marengo, M.; Barmby, P.; Matthews, L. D.; Bono, G.; Welch, D. L.; Romaniello, M.; Huelsman, D.; Su, K. Y. L.; Fazio, G.

    2010-05-01

    We have obtained Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and Multiband Infrared Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) observations of a sample of classical Cepheids both to derive infrared Leavitt Laws (Period-Luminosity Relations) and to look for evidence of mass loss in the spectral energy distributions. The MIPS 24 and 70 micron images of Delta Cep were particularly striking, since they show an arc of emission offset about an arcmin from Delta Cep. The emission is shaped like a bow shock and is aligned with the space motion of the Cepheid, implying it is physically related to the star. Bow shock structures of this kind can be formed when ram pressure of the ambient ISM balances the wind from a mass-losing star, raising the intriguing possibility that delta Cep is undergoing mass-loss during the Cepheid phase. Circumstellar emission is not a general feature of our Cepheid observations, but 2 unusual circumstances may make it visible around Delta Cep. If the Cepheid was already surrounded by interstellar matter, mass loss from the star could have created the bow shock. Second, Delta Cep has a physical companion 40" to the South, HD 213317, itself a binary. This B7-8 III-IV star is hot enough that it may produce infrared emission by heating dust within the ejected material. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407. P. B. and D. W. both acknowledge research support through Discovery Grants from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. N. R. E. acknowledges support from the Chandra X-Ray Center grant NAS8-03060.

  2. Validation and scopolamine-reversal of latent learning in the water maze utilizing a revised direct platform placement procedure.

    PubMed

    Malin, David H; Schaar, Krystal L; Izygon, Jonathan J; Nghiem, Duyen M; Jabitta, Sikirat Y; Henceroth, Mallori M; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Daggett, Jenny M; Ward, Christopher P

    2015-08-01

    The Morris water maze is routinely used to explore neurobiological mechanisms of working memory. Humans can often acquire working memory relevant to performing a task by mere sensory observation, without having to actually perform the task followed by reinforcement. This can be modeled in the water maze through direct placement of a rat on the escape platform so that it can observe the location, and then assessing the subject's performance in swimming back to the platform. However, direct placement procedures have hardly been studied for two decades, reflecting a controversy about whether direct placement resulted in sufficiently rapid and direct swims back to the platform. In the present study, utilizing revised training methods, a more comprehensive measure of trajectory directness, a more rigorous sham-trained control procedure and an optimal placement-test interval, rats swam almost directly back to the platform in under 4s, significantly more quickly and directly than sham-trained subjects. Muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms, which are inactivated by scopolamine, are essential to memory for standard learning paradigms in the water maze. This experiment determined whether this would also be true for latent learning. ANOVA revealed significant negative effects of scopolamine on both speed and accuracy of trajectory, as well as significant positive effects of direct placement training vs. sham-training. In a probe trial, placement-trained animals without scopolamine spent significantly more time and path length in the target quadrant than trained rats with scopolamine and sham-trained rats without scopolamine. Scopolamine impairments are likely due to effects on memory, since the same dose had little effect on performance with a visible platform. The revised direct placement model offers a means of further comparing the neural mechanisms of latent learning with those of standard instrumental learning.

  3. Modal Analysis of Reflector Backed Hybrid Printed Bow Tie Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Dhiraj K.; Pande, D. C.; Bhattacharya, A.

    A reflector-backed hybrid of bow tie and elliptical antenna was designed and developed for UWB radar applications like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and through-wall imaging radar (TWIR). Radiation pattern bandwidth of the antenna is found to be lesser than measured impedance bandwidth of the antenna. This anomaly was analyzed using characteristics modes of the antenna. Method of moments (MOM) using RWG basis function was used to calculate impedance matrix at each spot; frequencies and eigencurrents found were used to establish the optimum bandwidth of the antenna.

  4. SIS quasiparticle mixers with bow-tie antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xizhi; Richards, P. L.; Lloyd, F. L.

    1988-02-01

    Planar lithographed W-band SIS mixers with bow-tie antennas and several different RF coupling structures have been designed. Single junctions with inductive microstrips and five-junction arrays with parallel wire inductors showed good coupling over bandwiths of about 5 and 25 percent, respectively. Good agreement is obtained between design calculations based on a simple equivalent circuit and measurements of the frequency dependence of the mixer gain. No systematic difference was noted in the performance of Pb-In-Au/Pb-Bi junctions and Nb/Pb-In-Au junctions with similar capacitance and resistance.

  5. Work-place homicide by bow and arrow.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A; Georén, B; Oström, M

    2000-07-01

    Arrow wounds represent an unusual class of wounds rarely seen by most forensic pathologists. In this paper we present a case of homicide by bow and arrow and the characteristics of such injuries. The essential characteristics of the lesions obtained from conically-tapered field points and from hunting broadhead tips are described and discussed in relation to injuries caused by firearm bullets. In the present case, three arrows struck the victim, and the order in which the injuries were sustained are analyzed. We also discuss the possibilities of localizing the shooter relative to the victim by analysis of the trajectories.

  6. Microinstabilities associated with a high Mach number, perpendicular bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Winske, D.; Tanaka, M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Akimoto, K.; Goodrich, C. C.; Zhou, Y. M.; Tsai, S. T.; Rodriguez, P.; Lin, C. S.

    1984-01-01

    Instability analyses incorporating insights gained through ISEE observations and hybrid simulations are used in an examination of the instabilities associated with a high Mach number perpendicular shock akin to the earth's bow shock. In the regions in front of, and at, the shock transition the cross-field instabilities are subdivided into the ion-ion streaming, kinetic cross-field streaming, and drift lower hybrid instability low frequency modes, as well as the electron cyclotron drift, ion sound, and electron whisker instability high frequency modes. Further downstream, ion ring-like and anisotropy-driven instabilities are considered. The implications of these results for wave signatures, plasma heating and acceleration are noted.

  7. Mercury's magnetopause and bow shock from MESSENGER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Johnson, C. L.; Slavin, J. A.; Korth, H.; Purucker, M. E.; Baker, D. N.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    We establish the time-averaged shape and location of Mercury's magnetopause and bow shock from orbital observations by the MESSENGER Magnetometer. We fit empirical models to the midpoints of boundary crossings as well as to probability density maps of the magnetopause and bow shock positions. The magnetopause is fit by two different surfaces: (1) a paraboloid, and (2) a surface for which the position R from the planetary dipole varies as [1+cos(θ)]-α, where θ is the angle between R and the dipole-Sun line, and α is a flaring parameter that governs whether the magnetotail is closed (α < 0.5) or open (α ≥ 0.5). The paraboloid magnetopause model is not able to fit simultaneously both the dayside and nightside magnetopause crossings, but the second surface gives the best-fit overall shape to the observations with a subsolar stand-off distance, Rss, of 1.45 RM (where RM is Mercury's radius), and a flaring parameter α = 0.5. The average magnetopause shape and location were determined under a mean solar wind ram pressure, PRam, of 14.3 nPa. The best-fit bow shock shape established under an average Alfvén Mach number (MA ) of 6.6 is described by a hyperboloid having Rss = 1.96 RM and an eccentricity of 1.02. These boundaries move as PRam and MA vary, but their shape remains unchanged. The magnetopause Rss varies from 1.55 RM to 1.35 RM for PRam in the range 8.8 to 21.6 nPa. The bow shock Rss varies from 2.29 RM to 1.89 RM for MA in the range 4.12 to 11.8. To first order, the boundaries are well approximated by figures of revolution. Additional effects of the interplanetary magnetic field are masked by the large dynamic variability of these boundaries. Despite the moderate average magnetic shear conditions at Mercury, the magnetotail surface is nearly cylindrical, with a radius of ~2.7 RM at a distance 3 RM downstream of Mercury. By comparison, Earth's magnetotail flaring continues until a downstream distance of ~10 Rss. This result may indicate that reconnection

  8. Anatomy of the internal bow shocks in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostellar jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.; Su, Y.-N.; Shang, H.; Johnstone, D.; Zhang, Q.; Santiago-García, J.; Lee, C.-F.; Hirano, N.; Wang, L.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Highly collimated jets and wide-angle outflows are two related components of the mass-ejection activity associated with stellar birth. Despite decades of research, the relation between these two components remains poorly understood. Aims: We study the relation between the jet and the outflow in the IRAS 04166+2706 protostar. This Taurus protostar drives a molecular jet that contains multiple emission peaks symmetrically located from the central source. The protostar also drives a wide-angle outflow consisting of two conical shells. Methods: We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) interferometer to observe two fields along the IRAS 04166+2706 jet. The fields were centered on a pair of emission peaks that correspond to the same ejection event. The observations were carried out in CO(2-1), SiO(5-4), and SO(JN = 65-54). Results: Both ALMA fields present spatial distributions that are approximately elliptical and have their minor axes aligned with the jet direction. As the velocity increases, the emission in each field moves gradually across the elliptical region. This systematic pattern indicates that the emitting gas in each field lies in a disk-like structure that is perpendicular to the jet axis and whose gas is expanding away from the jet. A small degree of curvature in the first-moment maps indicates that the disks are slightly curved in the manner expected for bow shocks moving away from the IRAS source. A simple geometrical model confirms that this scenario fits the main emission features. Conclusions: The emission peaks in the IRAS 04166+2706 jet likely represent internal bow shocks where material is being ejected laterally away from the jet axis. While the linear momentum of the ejected gas is dominated by the component in the jet direction, the sideways component is not negligible, and can potentially affect the distribution of gas in the surrounding outflow and core.

  9. Attitudes, personal evaluations, cognitive evaluation and interpersonal attraction: on the direct, indirect and reverse-causal effects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramadhar; Ho, Li Jen; Tan, Hui Lynn; Bell, Paul A

    2007-03-01

    The authors hypothesized that (1) attraction toward a stranger based on attitudinal similarity is automatic, but cognitive evaluation of the stranger's quality before the measurement of attraction can make attraction nonautomatic or controlled; (2) personal evaluations from the stranger activate automatic attraction and cognitive evaluation; (3) controlled attraction from attitudes and automatic attraction and cognitive evaluation from personal evaluations engender reverse-causal effects (i.e. they mediate each other); and (4) attraction and cognitive evaluation are distinct constructs. Attitudinal similarity between the participant and the stranger or personal evaluations of the former by the latter were varied in Experiment 1 (N=96), and were crossed with each other in Experiment 2 (N=240). Orders of response measurement were either cognitive evaluation followed by attraction or attraction followed by cognitive evaluation. Results confirmed the hypotheses. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Micro-fabrication by laser radiation forces: a direct route to reversible free-standing three-dimensional structures.

    PubMed

    Athanasekos, Loukas; Vasileiadis, Miltiadis; Mantzaridis, Christos; Karoutsos, Vagelis C; Koutselas, Ioannis; Pispas, Stergios; Vainos, Nikolaos A

    2012-10-22

    The origins and first demonstration of structurally stable solids formed by use of radiation forces are presented. By experimentally proving that radiation forces can indeed produce stable solid material forms, a novel method enabling two- and three-dimensional (2d and 3d) microfabrication is introduced: An optical, non-contact single-step physical operation, reversible with respect to materials nature, based on the sole use of radiation forces. The present innovation is elucidated by the formation of polyisoprene and polybutadiene micro-solids, as well as plasmonic and fluorescent hybrids, respectively comprising Au nanoparticles and CdS quantum dots, together with novel concepts of polymeric fiber-drawing by radiation forces.

  11. Direction reversal of the optical spin torque on a Rayleigh absorptive sphere in vector Bessel polarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruiping; Li, Renxian; Qin, Shitong; Ding, Chunying; Mitri, F. G.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of polarization on the optical spin torque (OST) exerted on an absorptive Rayleigh dielectric sphere by a vector Bessel beam is investigated using the dipole approximation method, with particular emphasis on the polarization of the plane wave component forming the beam. On the basis of the mathematical descriptions for the electric fields, which are derived using the angular spectrum decomposition method in plane waves, analytical formulas of the OST are established. The OSTs are numerically calculated, and the effects of polarization, beam-order, and half-cone angle are discussed in detail. Numerical results show that by choosing an appropriate polarization, order and half-cone angle, the transverse OST will manifest vortex-like behaviors, and the sphere will experience negative axial OSTs, i.e. OST sign reversal. Important applications in particle manipulation, rotation and handling using optical Bessel polarized beams would benefit from the results of the present investigation.

  12. Direct determination of s-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine in syrups by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Suntornsuk, L

    2001-04-01

    A simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of s-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine in syrup preparations. The experiments were performed without specific sample pre-treatment. The LC conditions used were acetonitrile-10 mM sodium dihydrogenphosphate buffer, pH 2.0 (1:99, v/v) on a C(18) Inersil column with a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. Ultraviolet detection was carried out at 240 nm. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2)>0.9998) over the concentration range tested (0.8-25.6 mg/ml) with good precision and accuracy (%R.S.D. 0.7%). Recoveries were good (>99%) with a limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 0.1 and 0.8 mg/ml. Other compositions in the syrup vehicle did not interfere the analysis of s-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine.

  13. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  14. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  15. Utilization of the heat of catalytic combustion of low-calorie gaseous fuel mixtures by reversing the direction of their input

    SciTech Connect

    Boreskov, G.K.; Ivanov, A.G.; Matros, Y.S.

    1986-05-01

    In the recovery and processing of various industrial raw materials, gas-air mixtures are formed which contain small quantities of carbon monoxide, methane, and other combustible substances. This paper proposes and discusses a method of obtaining high-level heat from these low concentration gases. A nonsteady-state method is proposed in which the reaction mixture is fed at low temperature into a reactor and onto an initially warmed-up stationary catalyst bed; the direction of the feed is periodically reversed. This process forms a slowly migrating front of an exothermic chemical reaction in the bed.

  16. Direct observation of magnetic phase coexistance and magnetization reversal in a Gd0.67Ca0.33MnO3 thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kim J.; Nazaretski E.; Haberkorn, N.; Civale, L.; Dowden, P.; Saxena, A.; Thompson, J.D. & Movshovich, R.

    2012-01-11

    We have investigated the ferrimagnetic domain structure in a Gd{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} thin film using magnetic force microscopy. We observe clear signs of phase separation, with magnetic islands embedded in a non-magnetic matrix. We also directly visualize the reversal of magnetization of ferrimagnetic domains as a function of temperature and attribute it to a change in the balance of magnetization of anti-aligned Mn and Gd sublattices.

  17. Pulsar Wind Nebulae with Bow Shocks: Non-thermal Radiation and Cosmic Ray Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Amato, E.; Petrov, A. E.; Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Levenfish, K. P.

    2017-07-01

    Pulsars with high spin-down power produce relativistic winds radiating a non-negligible fraction of this power over the whole electromagnetic range from radio to gamma-rays in the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The rest of the power is dissipated in the interactions of the PWNe with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). Some of the PWNe are moving relative to the ambient ISM with supersonic speeds producing bow shocks. In this case, the ultrarelativistic particles accelerated at the termination surface of the pulsar wind may undergo reacceleration in the converging flow system formed by the plasma outflowing from the wind termination shock and the plasma inflowing from the bow shock. The presence of magnetic perturbations in the flow, produced by instabilities induced by the accelerated particles themselves, is essential for the process to work. A generic outcome of this type of reacceleration is the creation of particle distributions with very hard spectra, such as are indeed required to explain the observed spectra of synchrotron radiation with photon indices Γ≲ 1.5. The presence of this hard spectral component is specific to PWNe with bow shocks (BSPWNe). The accelerated particles, mainly electrons and positrons, may end up containing a substantial fraction of the shock ram pressure. In addition, for typical ISM and pulsar parameters, the e+ released by these systems in the Galaxy are numerous enough to contribute a substantial fraction of the positrons detected as cosmic ray (CR) particles above few tens of GeV and up to several hundred GeV. The escape of ultrarelativistic particles from a BSPWN—and hence, its appearance in the far-UV and X-ray bands—is determined by the relative directions of the interstellar magnetic field, the velocity of the astrosphere and the pulsar rotation axis. In this respect we review the observed appearance and multiwavelength spectra of three different types of BSPWNe: PSR J0437-4715, the Guitar and Lighthouse nebulae, and

  18. Dissipation Mechanisms and Particle Acceleration at the Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; Burch, J. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Russell, C.; Wei, H.; Phan, T.; Giles, B. L.; Chen, L. J.; Mauk, B.

    2016-12-01

    Collisionless shocks are a major producer of suprathermal and energetic particles throughout space and astrophysical plasma environments. Theoretical studies combined with in-situ observations during the space age have significantly advanced our understanding of how such shocks are formed, the manner in which they evolve and dissipate their energy, and the physical mechanisms by which they heat the local plasma and accelerate the energetic particles. Launched in March 2015, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has four spacecraft separated between 10-40 km and equipped with identical state-of-the-art instruments that acquire magnetic and electric field, plasma wave, and particle data at unprecedented temporal resolution to study the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. Serendipitously, during Phase 1a, the MMS mission also encountered and crossed the Earth's bow shock more than 300 times. In this paper, we combine and analyze the highest available time resolution MMS burst data during 140 bow shock crossings from October 2015 through December 31, 2015 to shed new light on key open questions regarding the formation, evolution, dissipation, and particle injection and energization at collisionless shocks. In particular, we compare and contrast the differences in shock dissipation and particle acceleration mechanisms at quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks.

  19. Evidence for fast Fermi acceleration at the Martian bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazelle, Christian; Meziane, Karim; Romanelli, Norberto; Mitchell, David L.; Espley, Jared R.; Halekas, Jasper S.; McFadden, James P.

    2017-04-01

    Spikes of energetic electrons up to 1.5 keV are detected by the MAVEN orbiter around Mars. The spikes usually appear following a rotation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We show that they emanate from a narrow region at the tangency point of the IMF with Martian bow shock. The examination of the pitch angle distribution indicates that these spikes are associated with electrons moving sunward. The 3-dimensional angular measurements from MAVEN-SWEA detector show that for these spikes the values of phase-space density values are maximum on a ring centered about the IMF. There is no clear evidence that the radius of the ring is energy dependent. These features demonstrate for the first time that Mars acts as a fast magnetic mirror which can reflect solar wind electrons to produce high energy electron bursts. A quantitative analysis is carried out and a higher bound of the cross-shock potential of Mars bow shock is estimated.

  20. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  1. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  2. Jovian bow shock and magnetopause encounters by the Juno spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Bolton, S. J.; Allegrini, F.; Clark, G. B.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ebert, R. W.; Haggerty, D. K.; Levin, S.; McComas, D. J.; Paranicas, C.; Rymer, A. M.; Valek, P. W.

    2017-05-01

    The Juno spacecraft has crossed Jupiter's bow shock (BS) and magnetopause (MP) multiple times in the dawn sector (near 0600 local time), both during the approach to Jupiter and during the first three apojove periods. A survey of all of these crossings using the Juno field and particle instruments has been performed, with 51 bow shock and 97 magnetopause crossings being detected. The BS crossings ranged from 92 to 128 RJ with 1 encounter during the approach, 36 during the first apojove period, 0 on the second, and 14 during the third. The MP crossings ranged from 73 to 114 RJ, with 8 MP encounters during the approach, 40 encounters during the first apojove period, 24 encounters on the second, and 46 during the third. During the approach, Juno initially encountered an expanding magnetosphere resulting in a single BS and MP crossing, followed a few days later by a contracting magnetosphere, resulting in 7 more MP crossings and a BS crossing on the first outbound orbit at 92 RJ. The lack of BS crossings and the limited number of MP crossings during the second apojove period suggests a long period of an expanded magnetosphere, likely caused by a prolonged period of low solar wind dynamic pressure associated with a rarefaction region. The detection of BS crossings on the third apojove period suggests another period of a highly compressed magnetosphere.

  3. Low back pain related to bowing posture of greenhouse farmers.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Okazaki, F; Suenaga, T; Sakurai, T; Takamatsu, M

    1980-12-01

    Farming by means of greenhouses has spread in different parts of Japan during the past 20 years. Low back pain, an important health problem for farmers, affects those working inside a greenhouse as a result of their taking up particular postures. In order to analyze ergonomic problems of greenhouse farming relevant to low back pain, localized fatigue complaints and parts of the body where fatigue was felt during fruit picking were studied among 49 female farmers engaged in greenhouse strawberry culture and 53 female farmers engaged in greenhouse eggplant culture. Furthermore, the bowing posture for strawberry picking was compared with that of eggplant picking using newly devised posture-pattern recording equipment. More than 50% of strawberry or eggplant farmers complained of fatigue in the lower back and shoulders. The prevalence of low back pain was significantly higher among strawberry farmers than among eggplant farmers, probably due to the deep bowing posture of the farmer during picking work. The new posture-pattern recording equipment proved useful for investigating changes of work postures.

  4. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  5. Transonic flow past a wedge profile with detached bow wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincenti, Walter G; Wagoner, Cleo B

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the aerodynamic characteristics at zero angle of attack of a thin, doubly symmetrical double-wedge profile in the range of supersonic flight speed in which the bow wave is detached. The analysis utilizes the equations of the transonic small-disturbance theory and involves no assumptions beyond those implicit in this theory. The mixed flow about the front half of the profile is calculated by relaxation solution of boundary conditions along the shock polar and sonic line. The purely subsonic flow about the rear of the profile is found by means of the method of characteristics specialized to the transonic small-disturbance theory. Complete calculations were made for four values of the transonic similarity parameter. These were found sufficient to bridge the gap between the previous results of Guderley and Yoshihara at a Mach number of 1 and the results which are readily obtained when the bow wave is attached and the flow is completely supersonic.

  6. Smashing the Guitar: An Evolving Neutron Star Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The Guitar Nebula is a spectacular example of an Hα bow shock nebula produced by the interaction of a neutron star with its environment. The radio pulsar B2224+65 is traveling at ~800-1600 km s-1 (for a distance of 1-2 kpc), placing it on the high-velocity tail of the pulsar velocity distribution. Here we report time evolution in the shape of the Guitar Nebula, the first such observations for a bow shock nebula, as seen in Hα imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope. The morphology of the nebula provides no evidence for anisotropy in the pulsar wind nor for fluctuations in the pulsar wind luminosity. The nebula shows morphological changes over two epochs spaced by 7 years that imply the existence of significant gradients and inhomogeneities in the ambient interstellar medium. These observations offer astrophysically unique, in situ probes of length scales between 5×10-4 and 0.012 pc. Model fitting suggests that the nebula axis-and thus the three-dimensional velocity vector-lies within 20° of the plane of the sky and also jointly constrains the distance to the neutron star and the ambient density.

  7. DOUBLE BOW SHOCKS AROUND YOUNG, RUNAWAY RED SUPERGIANTS: APPLICATION TO BETELGEUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R.; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M.-A.

    2012-05-20

    A significant fraction of massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM), either due to disruption of a binary system or ejection from their parent star cluster. The interaction of their wind with the ISM produces a bow shock. In late evolutionary stages these stars may undergo rapid transitions from red to blue and vice versa on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, with accompanying rapid changes to their stellar winds and bow shocks. Recent three-dimensional simulations of the bow shock produced by the nearby runaway red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse, under the assumption of a constant wind, indicate that the bow shock is very young (<30, 000 years old), hence Betelgeuse may have only recently become an RSG. To test this possibility, we have calculated stellar evolution models for single stars which match the observed properties of Betelgeuse in the RSG phase. The resulting evolving stellar wind is incorporated into two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in which we model a runaway blue supergiant (BSG) as it undergoes the transition to an RSG near the end of its life. We find that the collapsing BSG wind bubble induces a bow shock-shaped inner shell around the RSG wind that resembles Betelgeuse's bow shock, and has a similar mass. Surrounding this is the larger-scale retreating bow shock generated by the now defunct BSG wind's interaction with the ISM. We suggest that this outer shell could explain the bar feature located (at least in projection) just in front of Betelgeuse's bow shock.

  8. Correlation of bow shock plasma wave turbulence with solar wind parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The r.m.s. field strengths of electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence in the earth's bow shock, measured in the frequency range 20 Hz to 200 kHz with IMP-6 satellite, are found to correlate with specific solar wind parameters measured upstream of the bow shock.

  9. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. 48... Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. (a) Imposition of tax. Section 4161(b) imposes a tax on the... a draw weight of 10 pounds or more; (2) Any arrow that measures 18 inches overall or more in length...

  10. The bowing potential of granitic rocks: rock fabrics, thermal properties and residual strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegesmund, S.; Mosch, S.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Nikolayev, D. I.

    2008-10-01

    The bowing of natural stone panels is especially known for marble slabs. The bowing of granite is mainly known from tombstones in subtropical humid climate. Field inspections in combination with laboratory investigations with respect to the thermal expansion and the bowing potential was performed on two different granitoids (Cezlak granodiorite and Flossenbürg granite) which differ in the composition and rock fabrics. In addition, to describe and explain the effect of bowing of granitoid facade panels, neutron time-of-flight diffraction was applied to determine residual macro- and microstrain. The measurements were combined with investigations of the crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz and biotite. Both samples show a significant bowing as a function of panel thickness and destination temperature. In comparison to marbles the effect of bowing is more pronounced in granitoids at temperatures of 120°C. The bowing as well as the thermal expansion of the Cezlak sample is also anisotropic with respect to the rock fabrics. A quantitative estimate was performed based on the observed textures. The effect of the locked-in stresses may also have a control on the bowing together with the thermal stresses related to the different volume expansion of the rock-forming minerals.

  11. Comparison of Global 3D Bow Shock Models with Different Controlling Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merka, J.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Interaction of the supersonic solar wind with Earth's magnetosphere creates fast mode magnetosonic waves that travel back upstream, combine and steepen to form the bow shock wave. The bow shock wave has been studied for more than four decades but existing models are still often inaccurate.Previous studies established that bow shock shape and position are primarily controlled by solar wind pressure, upstream Mach numbers, interplanetary magnetic field orientation and magnetopause shape and position.We have collected a total of 28,287 bow shock crossings identified in observations from the Cluster 1-4, Geotail, IMP-8, Interball-1, MAGION-4, THEMIS A-E and WIND spacecraft and use this database to predict bow shock position as a function of solar wind parameters.The database of bow shock crossings is fitted using a method similar to Peredo et al. [1995] which presumes a general 3D second-order bow shock shape parameterized by the upstream dynamic pressure and Alfven Mach number values. The use of a prescribed shock shape results in a model that provides accurate predictions for Alfven Mach numbers as low as 2 and can be used with confidence up to 40 Re along the magnetotail. For comparison, we apply the same method to create additional global 3D bow shock models parameterized by various parameters such as interplanetary magnetic field magnitude, solar wind proton density, bulk speed, etc. The best model is sought that would be most accurate for a wide range of upstream conditions.

  12. Bow Shock Leads the Way for a Speeding Hot Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    As hot Jupiters whip around their host stars, their speeds can exceed the speed of sound in the surrounding material, theoretically causing a shock to form ahead of them. Now, a study has reported the detection of such a shock ahead of transiting exoplanet HD 189733b, providing a potential indicator of the remarkably strong magnetic field of the planet.Rushing PlanetsDue to their proximity to their hosts, hot Jupiters move very quickly through the stellar wind and corona surrounding the star. When this motion is supersonic, the material ahead of the planet can be compressed by a bow shock and for a transiting hot Jupiter, this shock will cross the face of the host star in advance of the planets transit.In a recent study, a team of researchers by Wilson Cauley of Wesleyan University report evidence of just such a pre-transit. The teams target is exoplanet HD 189733b, one of the closest hot Jupiters to our solar system. When the authors examined high-resolution transmission spectra of this system, they found that prior to the optical transit of the planet, there was a large dip in the transmission of the first three hydrogen Balmer lines. This could well be the absorption of an optically-thick bow shock as it moves past the face of the star.Tremendous MagnetismOperating under this assumption, the authors create a model of the absorption expected from a hot Jupiter transiting with a bow shock ahead of it. Using this model, they show that a shock leading the planet at a distance of 12.75 times the planets radius reproduces the key features of the transmission spectrum.This stand-off distance is surprisingly large. Assuming that the location of the bow shock is set by the point where the planets magnetospheric pressure balances the pressure of the stellar wind or corona that it passes through, the planetary magnetic field would have to be at least 28 Gauss. This is seven times the strength of Jupiters magnetic field!Understanding the magnetic fields of exoplanets is

  13. Site-directed mutagenesis of α-L-rhamnosidase from Alternaria sp. L1 to enhance synthesis yield of reverse hydrolysis based on rational design.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Liu, Xiaohong; Yin, Zhenhao; Liu, Qian; Lu, Lili; Xiao, Min

    2016-12-01

    The α-L-rhamnosidase catalyzes the hydrolytic release of rhamnose from polysaccharides and glycosides and is widely used due to its applications in a variety of industrial processes. Our previous work reported that a wild-type α-L-rhamnosidase (RhaL1) from Alternaria sp. L1 could synthesize rhamnose-containing chemicals (RCCs) though reverse hydrolysis reaction with inexpensive rhamnose as glycosyl donor. To enhance the yield of reverse hydrolysis reaction and to determine the amino acid residues essential for the catalytic activity of RhaL1, site-directed mutagenesis of 11 residues was performed in this study. Through rationally designed mutations, the critical amino acid residues which may form direct or solvent-mediated hydrogen bonds with donor rhamnose (Asp(252), Asp(257), Asp(264), Glu(530), Arg(548), His(553), and Trp(555)) and may form the hydrophobic pocket in stabilizing donor (Trp(261), Tyr(302), Tyr(316), and Trp(369)) in active-site of RhaL1 were analyzed, and three positive mutants (W261Y, Y302F, and Y316F) with improved product yield stood out. From the three positive variants, mutant W261Y accelerated the reverse hydrolysis with a prominent increase (43.7 %) in relative yield compared to the wild-type enzyme. Based on the 3D structural modeling, we supposed that the improved yield of mutant W261Y is due to the adjustment of the spatial position of the putative catalytic acid residue Asp(257). Mutant W261Y also exhibited a shift in the pH-activity profile in hydrolysis reaction, indicating that introducing of a polar residue in the active site cavity may affect the catalysis behavior of the enzyme.

  14. Collision-induced photon echo at the transition 0{r_reversible}1 in ytterbium vapor: Direct proof of depolarizing collision anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Rubtsova, N. N.; Gol'dort, V. G.; Ishchenko, V. N.; Khvorostov, E. B.; Kochubei, S. A.; Reshetov, V. A.; Yevseyev, I. V.

    2011-09-15

    A collision-induced photon echo arising at the transition 0{r_reversible}1 of ytterbium in the presence of heavy atomic buffer is investigated. Collision-induced echo signal appears in the case of mutually orthogonal linear polarizations of exciting pulses and it is absent without buffer. Collision-induced echo power grows with buffer pressure up to the maximum value and decays exponentially at further buffer pressure growth. Collision-induced echo power is essentially less than that of the ordinary echo generated by pulses with parallel polarizations in the same mixture, and its polarization is linear with the polarization vector directed along that of the first exciting pulse. All the properties of collision-induced photon echo are explained on the basis of collision relaxation dependence on the direction of active atom velocity.

  15. Effect of Body Structure on Skill Formation in a Force Precision Task Mimicking Cello Bowing Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, Naomichi; Yamazaki, Nobutoshi

    To elucidate the skill formation mechanism in a complex force precision task mimicking cello bowing movements, three-dimensional joint orientations and changes in bowing force are measured for 2 novice and 2 expert subjects. A rigid link model of the human upper limb is constructed in order to calculate changes in joint moment, potential energy and structural inductivity of motion during bowing, and the motions are compared kinetically. Results show that the novices generate low-in-potential energy bowing motion, but not suitable for skillful control of the bow. In contrast, the experts can fulfill a task requirement by skillfully coordinating the musculo-skeletal system, but the motion is not easy as that of the novices. It is suggested that the transition from a novice to an expert may be difficult due to the ease in the initially generated motion, which obstructs the search for the optimal skillful motion.

  16. Evidence-based practice and barriers to compliance: Face bow transfer.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kumar; Koka, Sreenivas

    2016-01-01

    To recapitulate a 2003 study inquiring of US dental schools whether they teach the face bow transfer by means of a survey in order to determine if compliance with clinical evidence has improved. The same 54 dental schools surveyed in 2003 were asked the same question regarding whether they teach the use of the face bow transfer in the complete denture curriculum. Teaching of the face bow transfer has increased in prevalence from 84% of surveyed schools in 2003 to 93.75% of surveyed schools in 2015. This finding is especially interesting in light of the fact that there is no compelling evidence supporting the use of the face bow transfer with regard to improving patient outcomes. With respect to the continued unjustified teaching of the face bow transfer, some possible reasons for non-compliance with best available evidence are presented using the medical literature for reference. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of UV-LED curable printing material for applications in direct writing systems: Inkjet, reverse offset, and micro dispensing GPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Ada Judith Ortega

    The quality of a product fabricated by direct writing methods will depend greatly on the properties of the printing material and its compatibility with the printing process. Although multiple advances in developing printing inks and pastes with novel properties are being made, the potential those can bring to electronics is hindered by their stability and performance during the printing process. In this study a UV-LED curable acrylic material was used to test the optimization of inks and pastes for three of the most common direct writing systems: Piezo-type Inkjet, Reverse Offset Roll to Plate, and Micro Deposition. The viscosity of the photosensitive acrylic matrix was controlled by either the addition of diluents or electronically functional reinforcement material. The contact angle of the optimized solutions on 16 different Polyester, Polyimide, and Paper films was observed. Solutions with larger contact angles showed better line definition for the Inkjet and the Micro Dispense systems. In addition to the contact angle differential, the rheological properties showed to be a determinant factor for the feasibility of a solution to undergo the reverse offset printing process. The UV curable acrylic demonstrated electrical conductivity when 2% (wt.) MWCNT were ultrasonically mixed in the matrix and then cured with a 385nm wavelength for 3 seconds. Only the micro deposition system was capable of printing the acrylic-MWCNT paste and the relationship between the contact angle, pattern accuracy, substrate selection, and electrical conductivity, was determined.

  18. Direct determination of benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic systems by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, G; Takahashi, L T; Marty, P A

    1987-02-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography has been used to quantitate benzalkonium chloride (alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride) in complex ophthalmic formulations at or below concentration levels of 50 ppm. The method involves a one-step dilution for sample preparation and direct injection; therefore, recovery and/or conversion problems are nonexistent. The assay is quick, specific, reproducible, and simple. This new approach makes routine determinations far simpler than previous methods and is especially useful for product stability studies and quality control procedures.

  19. Unequal outer and inner bow configurations: comparing 2 asymmetric headgear systems.

    PubMed

    Brosh, Tamar; Portal, Schay; Sarne, Ofer; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2005-07-01

    Asymmetric headgear is used when different molar distalization forces (MDF) are needed on the right and left sides of the jaw to correct a Class II molar relationship. We investigated 2 asymmetric headgear configurations, the outer-bow and the inner-bow, on cervical-pull headgear. In the first configuration, 5 hooks were soldered on 1 side of the outer bow at 10-mm intervals, making this side shorter; in the other, 4 stops (1.5 mm) were added to 1 side of the inner bow, making this side longer. The right and left MDF and the extraoral force (EF) were measured simultaneously with 2 fork transducers and a testing machine, respectively. A 40-mm difference between the long and short outer bows resulted in a 2.17-fold greater MDF on the long-side molar (7:3 ratio). The 3-4 stop configuration provided the optimal inner-bow arrangement, with stop/no-stop MDF ratios of 7:3 and 10:0, respectively, at 10 N EF. At low-to-medium EF levels, a unilateral MDF developed on the stop side with zero MDF on the no-stop side. The sum of the right and left MDF nearly equaled the EF in the outer-bow asymmetry and was 60% in the inner-bow setting; this suggests strong lateral forces in the latter. Clinically, for a bilateral unequal Class II relationship, the system of choice is outer-bow asymmetric headgear. For a unilateral Class II relationship with 1 side in a Class I molar relationship (Class II subdivision), inner-bow asymmetric headgear is recommended.

  20. 76 FR 2710 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division Including On..., applicable to workers and former workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division... of workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., the Mailing Solutions Management Division, located in Shelton...

  1. Peptide YY directly inhibits ghrelin-activated neurons of the arcuate nucleus and reverses fasting-induced c-Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Thomas; Bothe, Christine; Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) monitors and integrates hormonal and metabolic signals involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The orexigenic peptide ghrelin is secreted from the stomach during negative status of energy intake and directly activates neurons of the medial arcuate nucleus (ArcM) in rats. In contrast to ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) is released postprandially from the gut and reduces food intake when applied peripherally. Neurons in the ArcM express ghrelin receptors and neuropeptide Y receptors. Thus, PYY may inhibit feeding by acting on ghrelin-sensitive Arc neurons. Using extracellular recordings, we (1) characterized the effects of PYY on the electrical activity of ghrelin-sensitive neurons in the ArcM of rats. In order to correlate the effect of PYY on neuronal activity with the energy status, we (2) investigated the ability of PYY to reverse fasting-induced c-Fos expression in Arc neurons of mice. In addition, we (3) sought to confirm that PYY reduces food intake under our experimental conditions. Superfusion of PYY reversibly inhibited 94% of all ArcM neurons by a direct postsynaptic mechanism. The PYY-induced inhibition was dose-dependent and occurred at a threshold concentration of 10(-8)M. Consistent with the opposite effects of ghrelin and PYY on food intake, a high percentage (50%) of Arc neurons was activated by ghrelin and inhibited by PYY. In line with this inhibitory action, peripherally injected PYY partly reversed the fasting-induced c-Fos expression in Arc neurons of mice. Similarly, refeeding of food-deprived mice reversed the fasting-induced activation in the Arc. Furthermore, peripherally injected PYY reduced food intake in 12-hour fasted mice. Thus the activity of Arc neurons correlated with the feeding status and was not only reduced by feeding but also by administration of PYY in non-refed mice. In conclusion, our current observations suggest that PYY may contribute to signaling a positive status of energy intake

  2. Lung deposition patterns of directly labelled salbutamol in normal subjects and in patients with reversible airflow obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Melchor, R; Biddiscombe, M F; Mak, V H; Short, M D; Spiro, S G

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Earlier studies of aerosol deposition in the lungs have relied on indirect labelling of Teflon spheres of a similar size distribution to the drug in question and have assumed similar aerodynamic properties. Using a modification of a new technique for directly labelling salbutamol, the deposition of salbutamol within the lungs of normal subjects and patients with asthma has been studied with the use of a metered dose inhaler (MDI) alone, an MDI with a spacer device, and a dry powder inhaler (DPI). METHOD--Salbutamol was directly labelled with technetium-99m and placed in an MDI or DPI. Ten normal subjects and 19 patients with asthma inhaled 200 micrograms of salbutamol by means of the MDI alone, the MDI with a spacer device attached, and by DPI on separate days. Deposition was assessed by a dual headed gamma camera after inhalation of the drug. RESULTS--The total mean (SD) percentage deposition of the drug in the normal subjects was 21.6% (8.9%) with the MDI alone, 20.9% (7.8%) with the MDI with spacer, and 12.4% (3.5%) with the DPI. For the patients, the mean percentage deposition was 18.2% (7.8%) with the MDI alone, 19.0% (8.9%) with the MDI and spacer, and 11.4% (5.0%) with the DPI. Bronchodilatation achieved by the patients was similar with all three techniques. Mean peripheral lung deposition was significantly greater with a spacer device than when the MDI was used alone in both normal subjects (49.4% (6.1%) v 44.1% (9.9%)) and patients (38.6% (11.1%) v 30.4% (9.4%)). CONCLUSIONS--The deposition of directly labelled salbutamol from an MDI is greater than previously estimated by indirect labelling techniques. The deposition of labelled salbutamol from a DPI, however, is little different from that measured by indirect techniques. PMID:8322237

  3. Drumlins in reverse gear: observations against the relationship between drumlin stoss and lee asymmetry and flow direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, M.; Clark, C. D.; Hughes, A. L.; Jordan, C.

    2008-12-01

    A well-known characteristic of drumlins is their longitudinal asymmetry in morphology with steep upstream slope angles (stoss) and more gentle downstream tails (lee). This characteristic is the main cue for deducing flow direction from drumlin fields. However, and although commonly accepted, few studies have actually quantified this drumlin property. How many drumlins in a field show this asymmetric form? Does it match with flow direction? Here we analyse drumlins from our mapping program of Great Britain, based on a high resolution DTM (5 m horizontal resolution, 0.7-1 m vertical accuracy) and yielding a GIS database of over 25,000 drumlins recorded as polygons, defined by their perimeter break-of-slope. Using GIS techniques we analysed long-profile asymmetry and compared this with the flow direction as derived from other information such as moraines, eskers, and spatial context within the ice sheet. Because drumlins may lie on a non- horizontal surface (i.e. hillslope), the first stage of analysis was to 'terrain correct' them. With all their bases adjusted to a horizontal plane, the highest point now also approximates the thickest part of the drumlin. We then computed a simple measure of asymmetry (Harry and Trenhaile, 1987) as the ratio of distances AB/(AB+BC), where A and C are the most upstream and downstream points respectively and B is the summit. In this paper we present the statistics of this analysis applied to the large sample of drumlins. The surprising result is that British drumlins are far from being "classically" asymmetrical. This is discussed in comparison to previous work and for its implication on drumlin formation theories.

  4. Negative mood reverses devaluation of goal-directed drug-seeking favouring an incentive learning account of drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee; He, Zhimin; Chase, Henry W; Wills, Andy J; Troisi, Joseph; Leventhal, Adam M; Mathew, Amanda R; Hitsman, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Two theories explain how negative mood primes smoking behaviour. The stimulus-response (S-R) account argues that in the negative mood state, smoking is experienced as more reinforcing, establishing a direct (automatic) association between the negative mood state and smoking behaviour. By contrast, the incentive learning account argues that in the negative mood state smoking is expected to be more reinforcing, which integrates with instrumental knowledge of the response required to produce that outcome. One differential prediction is that whereas the incentive learning account anticipates that negative mood induction could augment a novel tobacco-seeking response in an extinction test, the S-R account could not explain this effect because the extinction test prevents S-R learning by omitting experience of the reinforcer. To test this, overnight-deprived daily smokers (n = 44) acquired two instrumental responses for tobacco and chocolate points, respectively, before smoking to satiety. Half then received negative mood induction to raise the expected value of tobacco, opposing satiety, whilst the remainder received positive mood induction. Finally, a choice between tobacco and chocolate was measured in extinction to test whether negative mood could augment tobacco choice, opposing satiety, in the absence of direct experience of tobacco reinforcement. Negative mood induction not only abolished the devaluation of tobacco choice, but participants with a significant increase in negative mood increased their tobacco choice in extinction, despite satiety. These findings suggest that negative mood augments drug-seeking by raising the expected value of the drug through incentive learning, rather than through automatic S-R control.

  5. The earth's bow shock in an oblique interplanetary field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, W.-W.

    1972-01-01

    The pressure, magnetic field, temperature, particle density, and stream velocity throughout the magnetosheath have been calculated in the plane containing the interplanetary field and solar wind velocity vector for various orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field and various assumed ratios of specific heats of the compressed solar wind. Jump conditions at the bow shock gave initial conditions in the shocked plasma from which the appropriate hydromagnetic equations (for blunt bodies in the subsonic region near the subsolar point and for the method of characteristics in the supersonic region back in the tail) were integrated numerically back to the surface of the magnetosphere. Explicit consideration of the magnetic field shows that a net asymmetrical force on the magnetopause produces a side force, or 'lift' in addition to the well-known drag on the magnetosphere.

  6. Hybrid simulation techniques applied to the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Leroy, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The application of a hybrid simulation model, in which the ions are treated as discrete particles and the electrons as a massless charge-neutralizing fluid, to the study of the earth's bow shock is discussed. The essentials of the numerical methods are described in detail; movement of the ions, solution of the electromagnetic fields and electron fluid equations, and imposition of appropriate boundary and initial conditions. Examples of results of calculations for perpendicular shocks are presented which demonstrate the need for a kinetic treatment of the ions to reproduce the correct ion dynamics and the corresponding shock structure. Results for oblique shocks are also presented to show how the magnetic field and ion motion differ from the perpendicular case.

  7. CHONDRULE FORMATION IN BOW SHOCKS AROUND ECCENTRIC PLANETARY EMBRYOS

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Melissa A.; Desch, Steven J.; Athanassiadou, Themis; Boley, Aaron C.

    2012-06-10

    Recent isotopic studies of Martian meteorites by Dauphas and Pourmand have established that large ({approx}3000 km radius) planetary embryos existed in the solar nebula at the same time that chondrules-millimeter-sized igneous inclusions found in meteorites-were forming. We model the formation of chondrules by passage through bow shocks around such a planetary embryo on an eccentric orbit. We numerically model the hydrodynamics of the flow and find that such large bodies retain an atmosphere with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities allowing mixing of this atmosphere with the gas and particles flowing past the embryo. We calculate the trajectories of chondrules flowing past the body and find that they are not accreted by the protoplanet, but may instead flow through volatiles outgassed from the planet's magma ocean. In contrast, chondrules are accreted onto smaller planetesimals. We calculate the thermal histories of chondrules passing through the bow shock. We find that peak temperatures and cooling rates are consistent with the formation of the dominant, porphyritic texture of most chondrules, assuming a modest enhancement above the likely solar nebula average value of chondrule densities (by a factor of 10), attributable to settling of chondrule precursors to the midplane of the disk or turbulent concentration. We calculate the rate at which a planetary embryo's eccentricity is damped and conclude that a single planetary embryo scattered into an eccentric orbit can, over {approx}10{sup 5} years, produce {approx}10{sup 24} g of chondrules. In principle, a small number (1-10) of eccentric planetary embryos can melt the observed mass of chondrules in a manner consistent with all known constraints.

  8. Chondrule Formation in Bow Shocks around Eccentric Planetary Embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Melissa A.; Boley, Aaron C.; Desch, Steven J.; Athanassiadou, Themis

    2012-06-01

    Recent isotopic studies of Martian meteorites by Dauphas & Pourmand have established that large (~3000 km radius) planetary embryos existed in the solar nebula at the same time that chondrules—millimeter-sized igneous inclusions found in meteorites—were forming. We model the formation of chondrules by passage through bow shocks around such a planetary embryo on an eccentric orbit. We numerically model the hydrodynamics of the flow and find that such large bodies retain an atmosphere with Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities allowing mixing of this atmosphere with the gas and particles flowing past the embryo. We calculate the trajectories of chondrules flowing past the body and find that they are not accreted by the protoplanet, but may instead flow through volatiles outgassed from the planet's magma ocean. In contrast, chondrules are accreted onto smaller planetesimals. We calculate the thermal histories of chondrules passing through the bow shock. We find that peak temperatures and cooling rates are consistent with the formation of the dominant, porphyritic texture of most chondrules, assuming a modest enhancement above the likely solar nebula average value of chondrule densities (by a factor of 10), attributable to settling of chondrule precursors to the midplane of the disk or turbulent concentration. We calculate the rate at which a planetary embryo's eccentricity is damped and conclude that a single planetary embryo scattered into an eccentric orbit can, over ~105 years, produce ~1024 g of chondrules. In principle, a small number (1-10) of eccentric planetary embryos can melt the observed mass of chondrules in a manner consistent with all known constraints.

  9. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2012-01-10

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 {mu}m. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 {mu}m. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of {approx}3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s{sup -1} for the jet material gives an age of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  10. Violin Pedagogy and the Physics of the Bowed String

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Alexander Rhodes

    The paper describes the mechanics of violin tone production using non-specialist language, in order to present a scientific understanding of tone production accessible to a broad readership. As well as offering an objective understanding of tone production, this model provides a powerful tool for analyzing the technique of string playing. The interaction between the bow and the string is quite complex. Literature reviewed for this study reveals that scientific investigations have provided important insights into the mechanics of string playing, offering explanations for factors which both contribute to and limit the range of tone colours and dynamics that stringed instruments can produce. Also examined in the literature review are significant works of twentieth century violin pedagogy exploring tone production on the violin, based on the practical experience of generations of teachers and performers. Hermann von Helmholtz described the stick-slip cycle which drives the string in 1863, which replaced earlier ideas about the vibration of violin strings. Later, scientists such as John Schelleng and Lothar Cremer were able to demonstrate how the mechanics of the bow-string interaction can create different tone colours. Recent research by Anders Askenfelt, Knut Guettler, and Erwin Schoonderwaldt have continued to refine earlier research in this area. The writings of Lucien Capet, Leopold Auer, Carl Flesch, Paul Rolland, Kato Havas, Ivan Galamian, and Simon Fischer are examined and analyzed. Each author describes a different approach to tone production on the violin, representing a different understanding of the underlying mechanism. Analyzing these writings within the context of a scientific understanding of tone production makes it possible to compare these approaches more consistently, and to synthesize different concepts drawn from the diverse sources evaluated.

  11. Quantum Operation Time Reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Crooks, Gavin E.

    2008-03-25

    The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.

  12. Investigating the function of play bows in adult pet dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Byosiere, Sarah-Elizabeth; Espinosa, Julia; Smuts, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Play bows are a common, highly stereotyped canine behavior widely considered to be a 'play signal,' but only one study has researched their function. Bekoff (1995) found that play bows function as behavioral modifiers to help clarify playful intent before or after easily misinterpretable behaviors, such as bite-shakes. To further examine the function of play bows, the current study analyzed five types of behaviors displayed by the bower and the partner immediately before and after a play bow during dyadic play. We found that play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play. Synchronous behaviors by the bower and the partner, or vulnerable/escape behaviors by the bower (such as running away) and complementary offensive behaviors by the partner (such as chasing) occurred most often after the play bow. These results indicate that during adult dog dyadic play, play bows function to reinitiate play after a pause rather than to mediate offensive or ambiguous actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using numerical models of bow shocks to investigate the circumstellar medium of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Marle, A. J.; Decin, L.; Cox, N. L. J.; Meliani, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Many massive stars travel through the interstellar medium at supersonic speeds. As a result they form bow shocks at the interface between the stellar wind. We use numerical hydrodynamics to reproduce such bow shocks numerically, creating models that can be compared to observations. In this paper we discuss the influence of two physical phenomena, interstellar magnetic fields and the presence of interstellar dust grains on the observable shape of the bow shocks of massive stars. We find that the interstellar magnetic field, though too weak to restrict the general shape of the bow shock, reduces the size of the instabilities that would otherwise be observed in the bow shock of a red supergiant. The interstellar dust grains, due to their inertia can penetrate deep into the bow shock structure of a main sequence O-supergiant, crossing over from the ISM into the stellar wind. Therefore, the dust distribution may not always reflect the morphology of the gas. This is an important consideration for infrared observations, which are dominated by dust emission. Our models clearly show, that the bow shocks of massive stars are useful diagnostic tools that can used to investigate the properties of both the stellar wind as well as the interstellar medium.

  14. Bow Shocks from Neutron Stars: Scaling Laws and Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Guitar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.

    2002-08-01

    The interaction of high-velocity neutron stars with the interstellar medium produces bow shock nebulae, in which the relativistic neutron star wind is confined by ram pressure. We present multiwavelength observations of the Guitar Nebula, including narrowband Hα imaging with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2, which resolves the head of the bow shock. The HST observations are used to fit for the inclination of the pulsar velocity vector to the line of sight and to determine the combination of spin-down energy loss, velocity, and ambient density that sets the scale of the bow shock. We find that the velocity vector is most likely in the plane of the sky. We use the Guitar Nebula and other observed neutron star bow shocks to test scaling laws for their size and Hα emission, discuss their prevalence, and present criteria for their detectability in targeted searches. The set of Hα bow shocks shows remarkable consistency, in spite of the expected variation in ambient densities and orientations. Together, they support the assumption that a pulsar's spin-down energy losses are carried away by a relativistic wind that is indistinguishable from being isotropic. Comparison of Hα bow shocks with X-ray and nonthermal radio-synchrotron bow shocks produced by neutron stars indicates that the overall shape and scaling is consistent with the same physics. It also appears that nonthermal radio emission and Hα emission are mutually exclusive in the known objects and perhaps in all objects.

  15. Rif1 controls DNA replication by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 to reverse Cdc7-mediated phosphorylation of the MCM complex.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Shin-Ichiro; Alvino, Gina M; Chang, Fujung; Lian, Hui-Yong; Sridhar, Akila; Kubota, Takashi; Brewer, Bonita J; Weinreich, Michael; Raghuraman, M K; Donaldson, Anne D

    2014-02-15

    Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires phosphorylation of the MCM complex by Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), composed of Cdc7 kinase and its activator, Dbf4. We report here that budding yeast Rif1 (Rap1-interacting factor 1) controls DNA replication genome-wide and describe how Rif1 opposes DDK function by directing Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1)-mediated dephosphorylation of the MCM complex. Deleting RIF1 partially compensates for the limited DDK activity in a cdc7-1 mutant strain by allowing increased, premature phosphorylation of Mcm4. PP1 interaction motifs within the Rif1 N-terminal domain are critical for its repressive effect on replication. We confirm that Rif1 interacts with PP1 and that PP1 prevents premature Mcm4 phosphorylation. Remarkably, our results suggest that replication repression by Rif1 is itself also DDK-regulated through phosphorylation near the PP1-interacting motifs. Based on our findings, we propose that Rif1 is a novel PP1 substrate targeting subunit that counteracts DDK-mediated phosphorylation during replication. Fission yeast and mammalian Rif1 proteins have also been implicated in regulating DNA replication. Since PP1 interaction sites are evolutionarily conserved within the Rif1 sequence, it is likely that replication control by Rif1 through PP1 is a conserved mechanism.

  16. STEREO and Wind observations of intense cyclotron harmonic waves at the Earth's bow shock and inside the magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breneman, A. W.; Cattell, C. A.; Kersten, K.; Paradise, A.; Schreiner, S.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Wilson, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first observations of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the Earth's bow shock from STEREO and Wind burst waveform captures. These waves are observed at magnetic field gradients at a variety of shock geometries ranging from quasi-parallel to nearly perpendicular along with whistler mode waves, ion acoustic waves, and electrostatic solitary waves. Large amplitude cyclotron harmonic waveforms are also observed in the magnetosheath in association with magnetic field gradients convected past the bow shock. Amplitudes of the cyclotron harmonic waves range from a few tens to more than 500 mV/m peak-peak. A comparison between the short (15 m) and long (100 m) Wind spin plane antennas shows a similar response at low harmonics and a stronger response on the short antenna at higher harmonics. This indicates that wavelengths are not significantly larger than 100 m, consistent with the electron cyclotron radius. Waveforms are broadband and polarizations are distinctively comma-shaped with significant power both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Harmonics tend to be more prominent in the perpendicular directions. These observations indicate that the waves consist of a combination of perpendicular Bernstein waves and field-aligned waves without harmonics. A likely source is the electron cyclotron drift instability which is a coupling between Bernstein and ion acoustic waves. These waves are the most common type of high-frequency wave seen by STEREO during bow shock crossings and magnetosheath traversals and our observations suggest that they are an important component of the high-frequency turbulent spectrum in these regions.

  17. STEREO and Wind Observations of Intense Cyclotron Harmonic Waves at the Earth's Bow Shock and Inside the Magnetosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, A. W.; Cattell, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the Earth's bow shock from STEREO and Wind burst waveform captures. These waves are observed at magnetic field gradients at a variety of shock geometries ranging from quasi-parallel to nearly perpendicular along with whistler mode waves, ion acoustic waves, and electrostatic solitary waves. Large amplitude cyclotron harmonic waveforms are also observed in the magnetosheath in association with magnetic field gradients convected past the bow shock. Amplitudes of the cyclotron harmonic waves range from a few tens to more than 500 millivolts/meter peak-peak. A comparison between the short (15 meters) and long (100 meters) Wind spin plane antennas shows a similar response at low harmonics and a stronger response on the short antenna at higher harmonics. This indicates that wavelengths are not significantly larger than 100 meters, consistent with the electron cyclotron radius. Waveforms are broadband and polarizations are distinctively comma-shaped with significant power both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Harmonics tend to be more prominent in the perpendicular directions. These observations indicate that the waves consist of a combination of perpendicular Bernstein waves and field-aligned waves without harmonics. A likely source is the electron cyclotron drift instability which is a coupling between Bernstein and ion acoustic waves. These waves are the most common type of high-frequency wave seen by STEREO during bow shock crossings and magnetosheath traversals and our observations suggest that they are an important component of the high-frequency turbulent spectrum in these regions.

  18. Systematic search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, A.; Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Mayer, M.; Klepser, S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the bow shocks of runaway stars are sources of high-energy gamma rays (E > 100 MeV). Theoretical models predicting high-energy gamma-ray emission from these sources were followed by the first detection of non-thermal radio emission from the bow shock of BD+43°3654 and non-thermal X-ray emission from the bow shock of AE Aurigae. Aims. We perform the first systematic search for MeV and GeV emission from 27 bow shocks of runaway stars using data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Methods. We analysed 57 months of Fermi-LAT data at the positions of 27 bow shocks of runaway stars extracted from the Extensive stellar BOw Shock Survey catalogue (E-BOSS). A likelihood analysis was performed to search for gamma-ray emission that is not compatible with diffuse background or emission from neighbouring sources and that could be associated with the bow shocks. Results. None of the bow shock candidates is detected significantly in the Fermi-LAT energy range. We therefore present upper limits on the high-energy emission in the energy range from 100MeV to 300 GeV for 27 bow shocks of runaway stars in four energy bands. For the three cases where models of the high-energy emission are published we compare our upper limits to the modelled spectra. Our limits exclude the model predictions for ζ Ophiuchi by a factor ≈ 5.

  19. Systematic search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars

    DOE PAGES

    Schulz, A.; Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; ...

    2014-05-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the bow shocks of runaway stars are sources of high-energy gamma rays (E > 100 MeV). Theoretical models predicting high-energy gamma-ray emission from these sources were followed by the first detection of non-thermal radio emission from the bow shock of BD+43°3654 and non-thermal X-ray emission from the bow shock of AE Aurigae. Aims. We perform the first systematic search for MeV and GeV emission from 27 bow shocks of runaway stars using data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Methods. We analysed 57 months of Fermi-LATmore » data at the positions of 27 bow shocks of runaway stars extracted from the Extensive stellar BOw Shock Survey catalogue (E-BOSS). A likelihood analysis was performed to search for gamma-ray emission that is not compatible with diffuse background or emission from neighbouring sources and that could be associated with the bow shocks. Results. None of the bow shock candidates is detected significantly in the Fermi-LAT energy range. We therefore present upper limits on the high-energy emission in the energy range from 100MeV to 300 GeV for 27 bow shocks of runaway stars in four energy bands. For the three cases where models of the high-energy emission are published we compare our upper limits to the modelled spectra. Our limits exclude the model predictions for ζ Ophiuchi by a factor ≈ 5.« less

  20. Effect of thrust reverser operation on the lateral-directional characteristics of a three-surface F-15 model at transonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bare, E. A.; Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics of a fully metric 0.04 scale model of the F-15 three surface configuration (canards, horizontal tails) with twin two dimensional nozzles and twin axisymmetric nozzles installed. The effects of two dimensional nozzle in flight thrust reversing and rudder deflection were also determined. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20 over an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 15 deg. Reynolds number varied from 2.6 million to 3.8 million. Angle of sideslip was set at approximately 0 deg and -5 deg for all configurations and at -10 deg for selected configurations.

  1. Template-dependent nucleotide addition in the reverse (3′-5′) direction by Thg1-like protein

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Shoko; Suzuki, Tateki; Chen, Meirong; Kato, Koji; Yu, Jian; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Thg1-like protein (TLP) catalyzes the addition of a nucleotide to the 5′-end of truncated transfer RNA (tRNA) species in a Watson-Crick template–dependent manner. The reaction proceeds in two steps: the activation of the 5′-end by adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)/guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP), followed by nucleotide addition. Structural analyses of the TLP and its reaction intermediates have revealed the atomic detail of the template-dependent elongation reaction in the 3′-5′ direction. The enzyme creates two substrate binding sites for the first- and second-step reactions in the vicinity of one reaction center consisting of two Mg2+ ions, and the two reactions are executed at the same reaction center in a stepwise fashion. When the incoming nucleotide is bound to the second binding site with Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds, the 3′-OH of the incoming nucleotide and the 5′-triphosphate of the tRNA are moved to the reaction center where the first reaction has occurred. That the 3′-5′ elongation enzyme performs this elaborate two-step reaction in one catalytic center suggests that these two reactions have been inseparable throughout the process of protein evolution. Although TLP and Thg1 have similar tetrameric organization, the tRNA binding mode of TLP is different from that of Thg1, a tRNAHis-specific G−1 addition enzyme. Each tRNAHis binds to three of the four Thg1 tetramer subunits, whereas in TLP, tRNA only binds to a dimer interface and the elongation reaction is terminated by measuring the accepter stem length through the flexible β-hairpin. Furthermore, mutational analyses show that tRNAHis is bound to TLP in a similar manner as Thg1, thus indicating that TLP has a dual binding mode. PMID:27051866

  2. Comparison of Automated Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR and Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Detection for Routine Rabies Diagnosis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis, Michelle; Brunt, Scott; Appler, Kim; Rudd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rabies virus found worldwide and prevalent throughout the United States continues to be a public health concern. Direct-fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection remains the gold standard for rabies virus diagnostics. Assessing the utility of a high-throughput molecular platform such as the QIAsymphony SP/AS, in conjunction with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), to augment or potentially replace the DFA test, was the focus of this project. Here we describe a triplex qRT-PCR assay, including assembly and evaluation for sensitivity, specificity, and ability to detect variants. Additionally, we compared the qRT-PCR assay to the gold standard direct fluorescent-antibody test. More than 1,000 specimens submitted for routine rabies diagnosis were tested to directly compare the two methods. All results were in agreement between the two methods, with one additional specimen detected by qRT-PCR below the limits of the DFA sensitivity. With the proper continued validation for variant detection, molecular methods have a place in routine rabies diagnostics within the United States. PMID:26179300

  3. EGCG reverses human neutrophil elastase-induced migration in A549 cells by directly binding to HNE and by regulating α1-AT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Wu, Haoming; Chen, Ya; Yang, Haopeng; Duan, Jianhui; Li, Xin; Pan, Yan; Tie, Lu; Zhang, Liangren; Li, Xuejun

    2015-07-01

    Lung carcinogenesis is a complex process that occurs in unregulated inflammatory environment. EGCG has been extensively investigated as a multi-targeting anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory compound. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGCG reverses the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. We found that neutrophil elastase directly triggered human adenocarcinoma A549 cell migration and that EGCG suppressed the elevation of tumor cell migration induced by neutrophil elastase. We observed that EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity based on the CDOCKER algorithm, MD stimulation by GROMACS, SPR assay and elastase enzymatic activity assay. As the natural inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, α1-antitrypsin is synthesized in tumor cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of α1-antitrypsin was up-regulated after EGCG treatment in neutrophil elastase-treated A549 cells. We preliminarily discovered that the EGCG-mediated induction of α1-antitrypsin expression might be correlated with the regulatory effect of EGCG on the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the neutrophil elastase-induced migration of A549 cells. The mechanism underlying this effect may include two processes: EGCG directly binds to neutrophil elastase and inhibits its enzymatic activity; EGCG enhances the expression of α1-antitrypsin by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  4. Determination of paraquat in human blood plasma using reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography with direct sample injection.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, M R; Morales, A R; Gallignani, M; Burguera, J L; Burguera, M

    2003-04-10

    This report describes the determination of paraquat (PQ) in human blood plasma samples by a direct-injection reversed-phase ion-pair chromatographic method. Blood plasma filtrate was injected directly into the LiChrospher(R) RP-18 alkyl-diol silica (ADS) precolumn integrated in a column switching system using a mixture of 3% 2-propanol and 10 mM sodium octane sulfonate (SOS) in a 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 2.8). After washing with this phase, the ADS precolumn was back-flushed with the analytical mobile phase consisting of 40% of methanol and 10 mM SOS in a 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 2.8) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min(-1), in order to carry the analyte to a conventional reversed-phase analytical column, where the separation of PQ was achieved and finally detected by UV at 258 nm. The recoveries of PQ from human blood plasma samples ranged between 95.0 and 99.5% at nine different concentrations (from 0.05 to 3.00 microg of PQ ml(-1)) with coefficients of variation <2.5% (n=3). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation was below 3.5% for between-day and below 4.3% for within-day measurements (n=5). The detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N>3) was 0.005 microg ml(-1) with an injection volume of 200 microl. The proposed method is promising for the identification and quantification of PQ at low concentration levels and is suitable for its analysis in human blood plasma samples from intentional or accidental poisonings cases with a sample throughput of 5 samples per hour.

  5. Square and bow-tie configurations in the cyclic evasion problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, M. D.; Golich, M.; Grim, A.; Vargas, L.; Zharnitsky, V.

    2017-05-01

    Cyclic evasion of four agents on the plane is considered. There are two stationary shapes of configurations: square and degenerate bow-tie. The bow-tie is asymptotically attracting while the square is of focus-center type. Normal form analysis shows that square is nonlinearly unstable. The stable manifold consists of parallelograms that all converge to the square configuration. Based on these observations and numerical simulations, it is conjectured that any non-parallelogram non-degenerate configuration converges to the bow-tie.

  6. Pioneer 8 plasma-wave measurements at distant bow-shock crossings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation of enhanced low-frequency plasma-wave levels detected near the Pioneer 8 multiple bow-shock crossings encountered beyond 120 earth radii (Bavassano et al., 1971) and of high-frequency plasma waves detected in the upstream region. It is suggested that the distant interaction of the solar wind and the magnetosheath produced nonthermal electrons of the type commonly found upstream from the subsolar shock. The bow-shock position is compared with fluid model predictions, and some distinctions between the standing bow shock and the propagating interplanetary shock are considered.

  7. Lower hybrid waves upstream of comets and their implications for the Comet Halley 'bow wave'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hizanidis, K.; Cargill, P. J.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1988-01-01

    Observed and theoretical features concerning the nature of so-called cometary 'bow shocks' or 'bow waves' are discussed. Collective plasma effects associated with the presence of pickup ring ions (protons and water ions) in the vicinity of the supermagnetosonic to submagnetosonic transition region in the quasi-perpendicular limit are considered; the linear and nonlinear evolution of instabilities around the lower hybrid frequency is emphasized. It is shown that lower hybrid waves can lead to heating and produce distributions with magnitudes in reasonable agreement with Giotto data. The implications to the existence and structure of cometary bow shocks are discussed.

  8. Bowing-reactivity trends in EBR-II assuming zero-swelling ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Meneghetti, D.

    1994-03-01

    Predicted trends of duct-bowing reactivities for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are correlated with predicted row-wise duct deflections assuming use of idealized zero-void-swelling subassembly ducts. These assume no irradiation induced swellings of ducts but include estimates of the effects of irradiation-creep relaxation of thermally induced bowing stresses. The results illustrate the manners in which at-power creeps may affect subsequent duct deflections at zero power and thereby the trends of the bowing component of a subsequent power reactivity decrement.

  9. Reversible logic for supercomputing.

    SciTech Connect

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.

    2005-05-01

    This paper is about making reversible logic a reality for supercomputing. Reversible logic offers a way to exceed certain basic limits on the performance of computers, yet a powerful case will have to be made to justify its substantial development expense. This paper explores the limits of current, irreversible logic for supercomputers, thus forming a threshold above which reversible logic is the only solution. Problems above this threshold are discussed, with the science and mitigation of global warming being discussed in detail. To further develop the idea of using reversible logic in supercomputing, a design for a 1 Zettaflops supercomputer as required for addressing global climate warming is presented. However, to create such a design requires deviations from the mainstream of both the software for climate simulation and research directions of reversible logic. These deviations provide direction on how to make reversible logic practical.

  10. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  11. Do the Jovian Bow Shock and Magnetopause Surfaces in the Joy et al. (2002) Model Predict Measured Boundary Normals Correctly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, S. P.; Kurth, W. S.; Kivelson, M. G.; Walker, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    Joy et al. (2002) provided probabilistic descriptions of the jovian bow shock and magnetopause by mapping spacecraft observations to the sub-solar point along model surfaces derived from the MHD simulation of Ogino et al. (1998). The resulting statistics are strongly affected by the surface models used in the mapping process. Here we analyze the quality of the surface models used in that mapping by comparing the normal directions of the observed boundary crossings to the normal directions predicted by the surface models. We have identified 116 magnetopause and 74 bow shock crossings in the Galileo data from orbits 0 through 34 using both the plasma wave (PWS) and magnetometer (MAG) data sets. We have determined the boundary normal directions for both these newly identified crossings and the previously published crossings of Galileo, Ulysses, Voyagers 1 and 2, and Pioneers 10 and 11. When possible, boundary normals were determined from the MAG data by using the minimum variance technique of Sonnerup and Cahill. Some boundary crossings could not be analyzed because of data gaps or inadequate sampling resolution. The boundary crossings are well distributed in local time ( ˜03:00 to 19:00) and are mostly near equatorial. Initial results indicate that the shape models used by Joy et al. (2002) are reasonable. We will examine the small non-zero mean difference between the observed and model boundary normal directions to determine whether the discrepancy is statistically significant. The large variance of the normal direction about the mean may imply that the normal directions fluctuate because of surface waves on the boundaries or that steady-state surface models do not apply in the presence of changing solar wind conditions.

  12. Earth’s bow shock dynamics and structure scales based on MMS multi-spacecraft data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefay, T. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Space plasmas studies on bow shock dynamics and structure scales continue to attract intense theoretical and experimental investigations. The Earth’s bow shock is the closest shock accessible to scientists through various satellite missions. These missions have enabled investigations on different physical phenomena associated with solar-terrestrial interaction. Access to the interplanetary medium through satellites has provided access to valuable spatial and temporal data on the Earth bow shock, and has furthered understanding on certain aspects of shock physics that were inaccessible until now. The main objective of this study is to quantify the dynamics and structure scales of the Earth’s bow shock using data obtained by the MMS multi-spacecraft during shock crossing.

  13. Energetic ions upstream of the earth's bow shock during an energetic storm particle event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of low-energy protons and alpha particles from ISEE 3 far upstream and from ISEE 1 close to the earth's bow shock during the passage of an interplanetary shock wave with its associated energetic storm particles are presented. Intensities, spectra, and anisotropies of the energetic storm particles are modified due to the interaction of these particles with the earth's bow shock. An intensity spike observed at ISEE 1 during the passage of the interplanetary shock is interpreted as being due to postacceleration of energetic storm particles at the bow shock by the first-order Fermi mechanism. The spikes observed at ISEE 1 after the passage of the interplanetary shock are most probably due to reflection of the energetic storm particles at the bow shock.

  14. Christmas bow pins: a potential inhaled foreign body made safer by industrial modifications.

    PubMed

    Siegel, L G; Mendenhall, H V; Liston, S L

    1981-01-01

    The 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company) has produced about three billion plastic Christmas bow pins over 20 years. When it was reported that inhalation of these pins had resulted in two deaths, the company sought otolaryngologic consultation to suggest design modifications which would decrease the risk of aspiration asphyxia. The circular base of the bow pin was modified into the form of a cross so that it would not completely obstruct the airway. Barium was added to render the bow pin radiopaque. When the unmodified bow pin was inserted into the larynx of ten cats, six died. The modified pin caused no deaths in nine cats. We regard this as an example of responsible cooperation between industry and medicine.

  15. Direct evidence in vivo of impaired macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport in ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Rotllan, Noemi; Palomer, Xavier; Ribas, Vicent; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

    2005-12-30

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key regulator of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. There is strong evidence that ABCA1 is a key regulator of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). However, this could not be proved in vivo since hepatobiliary cholesterol transport was unchanged in ABCA1-deficient mice (ABCA1-/-). We used ABCA1-/- mice to test the hypothesis that ABCA1 is a critical determinant of macrophage-specific RCT. Although this cell-specific RCT only accounts for a tiny part of total RCT, it is widely accepted that it may have a major impact on atherosclerosis susceptibility. [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled endogenous macrophages were injected intraperitoneally into wild-type ABCA1+/+, ABCA1+/- and ABCA1-/- mice maintained on a chow diet. A direct relationship was observed between ABCA1 gene dose and plasma [(3)H]cholesterol at 24 and 48 h after the injection of tracer into the mice. Forty-eight hours after this injection, ABCA1-/- mice had significantly reduced [(3)H]cholesterol in liver (2.8-fold), small intestine enterocytes (1.7-fold) and feces (2-fold). To our knowledge, this is the first direct in vivo quantitative evidence that ABCA1 is a critical determinant of macrophage-specific RCT.

  16. Prey fish escape by sensing the bow wave of a predator.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William J; Nair, Arjun; Jiang, Houshuo; McHenry, Matthew J

    2014-12-15

    Prey fish possess a remarkable ability to sense and evade an attack from a larger fish. Despite the importance of these events to the biology of fishes, it remains unclear how sensory cues stimulate an effective evasive maneuver. Here, we show that larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) evade predators using an escape response that is stimulated by the water flow generated by an approaching predator. Measurements of the high-speed responses of larvae in the dark to a robotic predator suggest that larvae respond to the subtle flows in front of the predator using the lateral line system. This flow, known as the bow wave, was visualized and modeled with computational fluid dynamics. According to the predictions of the model, larvae direct their escape away from the side of their body exposed to more rapid flow. This suggests that prey fish use a flow reflex that enables predator evasion by generating a directed maneuver at high speed. These findings demonstrate a sensory-motor mechanism that underlies a behavior that is crucial to the ecology and evolution of fishes.

  17. Fiber-Based Measurement of Bow-Shock Spectra for Reentry Flight Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, Timothy D.; Herring, Gregory C.; Munk, Michelle M.; Grinstead, Jay H.; Prabbu, Dinesh K.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated a fiber-based approach for obtaining optical spectra of a glowing bow shock in a high-enthalpy air flow. The work was performed in a ground test with the NASA Ames Aerodynamic Heating Facility (AHF) that is used for atmospheric reentry simulation. The method uses a commercial fiber optic that is embedded in the nose of an ablating bluntbody model and provides a line-of-sight view in the streamwise direction - directly upstream into the hot post-shock gas flow. Both phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) and phenolic carbon (PhenCarb 28) materials were used as thermal protection systems. Results show that the fibers survive the intense heat and operate sufficiently well during the first several seconds of a typical AHF run (20 MJ/kg). This approach allowed the acquisition of optical spectra, enabling a Boltzmann-based electronic excitation temperature measurement from Cu atom impurities (averaged over a line-of-sight through the gas cap, with a 0.04 sec integration time).

  18. Giotto magnetic field observations at the outbound quasi-parallel bow shock of Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, F. M.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Acuna, M. H.; Mariani, F.; Musmann, G.

    1990-01-01

    The investigation of the outbound bow shock of Comet Halley using Giotto magnetometer data leads to the following results: the shock is characterized by strong magnetic turbulence associated with an increasing background magnetic field and a change in direction by 60 deg as one goes inward. In HSE-coordinates, the observed normal turned out to be (0.544, - 0.801, 0.249). The thickness of the quasi-parallel shock was 120,000 km. The shock is shown to be a new type of shock transition called a 'draping shock'. In a draping shock with high beta in the transonic transition region, the transonic region is characterized by strong directional variations of the magnetic field. The magnetic turbulence ahead of the shock is characterized by k-vectors parallel or antiparallel to the average field (and, therefore, also to the normal of the quasi-parallel shock) and almost isotropic magnetic turbulence in the shock transition region. A model of the draping shock is proposed which also includes a hypothetical subshock in which the supersonic-subsonic transition is accomplished.

  19. Cluster observations of electrostatic solitary waves near the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobara, Y.; Walker, S. N.; Balikhin, M.; Pokhotelov, O. A.; Gedalin, M.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Hayakawa, M.; André, M.; Dunlop, M.; RèMe, H.; Fazakerley, A.

    2008-05-01

    Using a period of internal burst mode data from the Cluster Electric Field and Wave instrument a number of electrostatic solitary structures have been identified in the foot region of Earth's quasi-perpendicular bow shock. The four individual probe potential measurements are utilized to investigate the fundamental characteristics of the solitary wave structures such as wave propagation vector, propagation velocity, scale-size and potential amplitude. Two classes of waves are observed. Bipolar solitary waves typically propagate in the solar wind direction toward the shock but at a significant angle from the ambient magnetic field. Unipolar/tripolar solitary waves tend to propagate along the ambient magnetic field. The wave amplitude-scale size relation is similar to that obtained for similar structures observed in the auroral zone. The structures lie in the theoretically allowed region in width-amplitude space to be consistent with the BGK ion holes. Using a period of internal burst mode data from the Cluster Electric Field and Wave instrument a number of electrostatic solitary structures have been identified in the foot region of Earth's quasi-perpendicular bow shock. The four individual probe potential measurements are utilized to investigate the fundamental characteristics of the solitary wave structures such as wave propagation vector, propagation velocity, scale-size and potential amplitude. Two classes of waves are observed. Bipolar solitary waves typically propagate in the solar wind direction toward the shock but at a significant angle to the ambient magnetic field in contrast to most previous studies which assume parallel propagation to the ambient magnetic field. In contrast, unipolar/tripolar solitary waves tend to propagate along the ambient magnetic field. The wave amplitude-scale size relation is similar to that obtained for structures observed in the auroral zone. The structures lie in the theoretically allowed region in width-amplitude space to be

  20. MESSENGER observations of Mercury's bow shock and magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Acuña, M. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Benna, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Raines, J. M.; Schriver, D.; Trávníček, P.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The MESSENGER spacecraft made the first of three flybys of Mercury on January 14, 2008 (1). New observations of solar wind interaction with Mercury were made with MESSENGER's Magnetometer (MAG) (2,3) and Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer (EPPS) - composed of the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) (3,4). These MESSENGER observations show that Mercury's magnetosphere has a large-scale structure that is distinctly Earth-like, but it is immersed in a comet-like cloud of planetary ions [5]. Fig. 1 provides a schematic view of the coupled solar wind - magnetosphere - neutral atmosphere - solid planet system at Mercury. Here we present new models of bow shock and magnetopause shape and location that incorporate both the MESSENGER and earlier Mariner 10 measurements of these boundaries. A fast magnetosonic Mach number for the solar wind at Mercury's distance from the Sun of ~ 3 is derived from the shape of the bow shock. This value is consistent with earlier observations at these distances from the Sun by the Helios mission. The shape of Mercury's magnetopause and the thickness of the magnetosheath are found to be similar to that of the Earth, suggesting that the solar wind interaction is dominated by its dipolar magnetic field. MESSENGER measurements near the magnetopause do, however, indicate that internal plasma pressure does contribute to the pressure balance across this boundary. MAG and FIPS measurements are used to estimate the ratio of plasma thermal pressure to magnetic pressure at the dusk flank of the plasma sheet and dawn terminator regions, under the assumption that pressure is balanced across the inbound and outbound magnetopause crossings. To investigate the possible origins of the plasma ions in these regions, we utilize a combination of FIPS measurements and the results of 3-D hybrid [6] and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar wind interaction with Mercury for the upstream conditions

  1. On the observability of bow shocks of Galactic runaway OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; van Marle, A.-J.; Kuiper, R.; Kley, W.

    2016-06-01

    Massive stars that have been ejected from their parent cluster and supersonically sailing away through the interstellar medium (ISM) are classified as exiled. They generate circumstellar bow-shock nebulae that can be observed. We present two-dimensional, axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of a representative sample of stellar wind bow shocks from Galactic OB stars in an ambient medium of densities ranging from nISM = 0.01 up to 10.0 cm- 3. Independently of their location in the Galaxy, we confirm that the infrared is the most appropriated waveband to search for bow shocks from massive stars. Their spectral energy distribution is the convenient tool to analyse them since their emission does not depend on the temporary effects which could affect unstable, thin-shelled bow shocks. Our numerical models of Galactic bow shocks generated by high-mass ( ≈ 40 M⊙) runaway stars yield H α fluxes which could be observed by facilities such as the SuperCOSMOS H-Alpha Survey. The brightest bow-shock nebulae are produced in the denser regions of the ISM. We predict that bow shocks in the field observed at H α by means of Rayleigh-sensitive facilities are formed around stars of initial mass larger than about 20 M⊙. Our models of bow shocks from OB stars have the emission maximum in the wavelength range 3 ≤ λ ≤ 50 μm which can be up to several orders of magnitude brighter than the runaway stars themselves, particularly for stars of initial mass larger than 20 M⊙.

  2. The solar cycle dependence of the location and shape of the Venus bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, T.-L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    The Venus terminator bow shock position is monitored and it is shown that the shock radius increases as the solar cycle approaches a new maximum. It is also shown that the subsolar bow shock changes with the solar cycle, and that these positions are correlated with each other and with solar activity. It is hypothesized that, at solar minimum, the magnetic barrier is weak, and that some absorption of solar wind is to be expected.

  3. A Global 3D Bow Shock Model Valid for a Wide Range of Upstream Mach Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merka, Jan; Sibeck, David; Wang, Yongli

    2014-05-01

    Interaction of the supersonic solar wind with Earth's magnetosphere creates fast mode magnetosonic waves that travel back upstream, combine and steepen to form the bow shock wave. The bow shock wave has been studied for more than four decades but existing models are still often inaccurate. Previous studies established that bow shock shape and position are primarily controlled by solar wind pressure, upstream Mach numbers, interplanetary magnetic ?eld orientation and magnetopause shape and position. We have collected a total of 28,287 bow shock crossings identi?ed in observations from the Cluster 1-4, Geotail, IMP-8, Interball-1, MAGION-4, THEMIS A-E and WIND spacecraft and use this database to predict bow shock position as a function of solar wind parameters. The large dataset appeared sufficient for employing a modelling technique that does not assume a prescribed shock shape to eliminate a potential bias: The Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM) technique for mapping multi-dimensional data into a high- dimensional feature space via nonlinear mapping through a selected kernel function and performing a linear regression in this space. After a thorough study, we have concluded that even though the employed number of shock crossings is the largest used by at least an order of magnitude, the fitted data points are still unevenly distributed in the modeled phase space and that severely limits the validity and applicability of the SVRM-produced bow shock models. Therefore, the same database of bow shock crossings is fitted using a method similar to Peredo et al. [1995] which presumes a general 3D second-order bow shock shape parameterized by the upstream dynamic pressure and Alfven Mach number values. The use of a prescribed shock shape results in a model that provides accurate predictions for Alfven Mach numbers as low as 2 and can be used with confidence up to 40 Re along the magnetotail.

  4. Congenital tibial dysplasia with lateral bowing and duplication of hallux: case presentations.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jennifer J; Altiok, Haluk

    2013-05-01

    This article reports on two children with congenital unilateral tibial dysplasia with lateral bowing with no associated sagittal plane deformity. In both cases, it is associated with ipsilateral duplication of the hallux. Long-term follow-up of the patients showed spontaneous, almost complete resolution of the bowing without progressing into fracture or pseudoarthrosis. Leg length discrepancy appeared to be the only orthopedic sequela related to this phenomenon.

  5. 3D Bow Shock Modeling with and without Apriori Prescribed Shock Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merka, J.; Wang, Y.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    Interaction of the supersonic solar wind with Earth's magnetosphere creates fast mode magnetosonic waves that travel back upstream, combine and steepen to form the bow shock wave. The bow shock wave has been studied for more than four decades but existing models are still often inaccurate. Previous studies established that bow shock shape and position are primarily controlled by solar wind pressure PSW , upstream Mach numbers, interplanetary magnetic field orientation and magnetopause shape and position. Our study employs the Support Vector Regression Machine (SVRM) technique for mapping multi-dimensional data into a high- dimensional feature space via nonlinear mapping through a selected kernel function and performing a linear regression in this space. The use of SVRM means that there is no apriori prescribed shock shape. In addition to SVRM, the bootstrap technique is employed for error calculations in contrast to existing shock models that rarely provide any error estimates at all. We fit a total of 28,287 bow shock crossings identified in observations from the Cluster 1-4, Geotail, IMP-8, Interball-1, MAGION-4, THEMIS A-E and WIND spacecraft. Even thought the employed number of shock crossings is the largest used by at least an order of magnitude, the fitted data points are still unevenly distributed in the modeled phase space and that significantly limits the validity of the SVRM-produced bow shock models under certain upstream conditions. Therefore, the same database of bow shock crossings is fitted using a method similar to Peredo et al. [1995] which presumes a general 3D second-order bow shock shape parametrized by the upstream dynamic pressure and Alfven Mach number values. The use of a prescribed shock shape results in a model usable and more accurate even at the night-side magnetosphere as opposed to a SVRM-based model. We will further discuss in detail the advantages of either method and propose a bow shock model combining both approaches.

  6. Coupling of newborn ions to the solar wind by electromagnetic instabilities and their interaction with the bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Wu, C. S.; Li, Y. Y.; Mou, Z. Z.; Guo, S. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The process by which the solar wind assimilates newly ionized atoms is important for understanding the presence of planetary or interstellar helium in the solar wind, the dynamics of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) lithium releases in front of the earth's bow shock, and the formation of cometary tails. In this paper is examined how newborn ions can be coupled to the solar wind in the direction parallel to the magnetic field by means of electromagnetic instabilities driven by the distribution of newborn ions. The linear properties of three instabilities are analyzed and compared with numerical solutions of the linear dispersion equation, while their nonlinear behavior is followed by means of computer simulation to obtain the characteristic time for the pickup process. With a primary emphasis on the AMPTE lithiuim releases, various degrees of realism are introduced into the calculations to model the upstream conditions and the intersection of the lithium with the bow shock. It is shown that a time-dependent shock model is needed to correctly reproduce the amount of lithium which is transmitted through the shock and that the resulting lithium ion distribution is still likely to be subject to the same type of instabilities in the magnetosheath. Applications of these results to comets, in particular the artificial comet expected to be generated by the AMPTE barium release in the magnetosheath, is also briefly discussed.

  7. The dipole tilt angle dependence of the bow shock for southward IMF: MHD results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Lu, J. Y.; Yuan, H. Z.; Kabin, K.; Liu, Z.-Q.; Zhao, M. X.; Li, G.

    2015-02-01

    The location and shape of the Earth's bow shock depend on the properties of the upstream solar wind, as well as the size and shape of the downstream magnetopause. Many studies have suggested that the influence of the dipole tilt angle on the magnetopause is significant, especially at the high-latitude region, however, to date there is no bow shock model which depends on the dipole tilt angle. Using a physics-based global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), we investigate the effect of the dipole tilt angle on the location and shape of the bow shock, and our results show that (1) the subsolar standoff distance and the north-south asymmetry of bow shock increase with the increasing dipole tilt angle; (2) with the dipole tilt angle positively increasing, the flaring angle of the bow shock increases in the northern hemisphere but keeps almost unchanged in the southern hemisphere, and the rotational asymmetry slightly decreases in the northern hemisphere and rapidly decreases in the southern hemisphere; and (3) the influence of dipole tilt angle on the shape of the bow shock is north-south symmetric.

  8. Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars.III.The High Resolution Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; van Buren, Dave; Dgani, Ruth

    1997-02-01

    In a recent survey for bow shock structures around OB runaway stars using the ISSA/IRAS archival data and excess maps at 60 \\mum, 58 candidates were found. These objects are surrounded by extended infrared emission at 60 \\mum, characteristic of warm dust heated by ultraviolet photons, a signature of wind bow shocks. High resolution IRAS (HiRes) images have been produced for these 58 objects and some of those spatially resolved are presented in this study. The images were used to distinguish between multiple confused IR sources, possible artifacts and unambiguous bow shocks, as the sources of the extended 60 \\mum emission. Six new bow shocks have been identified using this method, and three have been rejected. Twenty two of the targets, however, remain spatially unresolved even at the nominal HiRes resolution of ~ 1arcmin . For the larger and better defined bow shocks some internal substructure is discernible. The length of these features suggest that they arise as the result of a subtle dynamical instability. It can not be ruled out, however, that some of the bow shock morphology could be imprinted by the surrounding medium.

  9. Bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae passing through density discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Doosoo; Heinz, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae are a subset of pulsar-wind nebulae that form when the pulsar has high velocity due to the natal kick during the supernova explosion. The interaction between the relativistic wind from the fast-moving pulsar and the interstellar medium produces a bow-shock and a trail, which are detectable in Hα emission. Among such bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae, the Guitar Nebula stands out for its peculiar morphology, which consists of a prominent bow-shock head and a series of bubbles further behind. We present a scenario in which multiple bubbles can be produced when the pulsar encounters a series of density discontinuities in the ISM. We tested the scenario using 2D and 3D hydrodynamic simulations. The shape of the Guitar Nebula can be reproduced if the pulsar traversed a region of declining low density. We also show that if a pulsar encounters an inclined density discontinuity, it produces an asymmetric bow-shock head, consistent with observations of the bow-shock of the millisecond pulsar J2124-3358.

  10. Primary bowing tremor: a task-specific movement disorder of string instrumentalists.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    Fear of a tremulous or unsteady bow is widespread among string instrumentalists. Faulty technique and performance anxiety have generally been blamed. The cases of 4 high-level violinists and 1 violist, 3 women and 2 men, with uncontrollable bow tremor are presented. Age at onset was from 16 to 75 years, and symptom duration 8 months to 20 years at the time of neurological evaluation. The degree of tremor varied with type of bow stroke and even the portion of the bow contacting the string. Only 1 patient had a slight postural tremor of the opposite limb. In 3 of 5 the tremor was task-specific; the other 2 had mild and nontroubling tremor with other activities. The tremor appeared to worsen over time but then seemed to stabilize. The characteristics of this tremor appear to be distinguishable from the features of both essential tremor and focal dystonia; comparison is made with representative string players afflicted by these other disorders. Analogy of this tremor is made with primary writing tremor, a well-defined task-specific movement disorder also sharing at least some features with both essential tremor and writers' cramp, a focal dystonia. Hence, it was decided to call this primary bowing tremor. Clinical features, family history, diagnostic studies, and responsiveness to treatment of primary writing tremor are discussed to emphasize the similarity to primary bowing tremor. This appears to represent a previously unreported form of task-specific movement disorder of string instrumentalists.

  11. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, A. L.; Dai, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved.

  12. Asymmetric Outer Bow Length and Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Geramy, Allahyar; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Emadian Razavi, Elham Sadat

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to assess distal and lateral forces and moments of asymmetric headgears by variable outer bow lengths. Four 3D finite element method (FEM) models of a cervical headgear attached to the maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 software and transferred to ANSYS Workbench ver. 11 software. Models contained the first molars, their periodontal ligament (PDL), cancellous and cortical bones, a mesiodistal slice of the maxillae and the headgear. Models were the same except for the outer bow length in headgears. The headgear was symmetric in model 1. In models 2 to 4, the headgears were asymmetric in length with differences of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm, respectively. A 2.5 N force in horizontal plane was applied and the loading manner of each side of the outer bow was calculated trigonometrically using data from a volunteer. The 15mm difference in outer bow length caused the greatest difference in lateral (=0.21 N) and distal (= 1.008 N) forces and also generated moments (5.044 N.mm). As the difference in outer bow length became greater, asymmetric effects increased. Greater distal force in the longer arm side was associated with greater lateral force towards the shorter arm side and more net yawing moment. A difference range of 1mm to 15 mm of length in cervical headgear can be considered as a safe length of outer bow shortening in clinical use.

  13. Asymmetric Outer Bow Length and Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Geramy, Allahyar; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Emadian Razavi, Elham sadat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to assess distal and lateral forces and moments of asymmetric headgears by variable outer bow lengths. Materials and Methods: Four 3D finite element method (FEM) models of a cervical headgear attached to the maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 software and transferred to ANSYS Workbench ver. 11 software. Models contained the first molars, their periodontal ligament (PDL), cancellous and cortical bones, a mesiodistal slice of the maxillae and the headgear. Models were the same except for the outer bow length in headgears. The headgear was symmetric in model 1. In models 2 to 4, the headgears were asymmetric in length with differences of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm, respectively. A 2.5 N force in horizontal plane was applied and the loading manner of each side of the outer bow was calculated trigonometrically using data from a volunteer. Results: The 15mm difference in outer bow length caused the greatest difference in lateral (=0.21 N) and distal (= 1.008 N) forces and also generated moments (5.044 N.mm). Conclusion: As the difference in outer bow length became greater, asymmetric effects increased. Greater distal force in the longer arm side was associated with greater lateral force towards the shorter arm side and more net yawing moment. Clinical Relevance: A difference range of 1mm to 15 mm of length in cervical headgear can be considered as a safe length of outer bow shortening in clinical use. PMID:26622275

  14. Effect of bow-type initial imperfection on reliability of minimum-weight, stiffened structural panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. Jefferson; Krishnamurthy, Thiagaraja; Sykes, Nancy P.; Elishakoff, Isaac

    1993-01-01

    Computations were performed to determine the effect of an overall bow-type imperfection on the reliability of structural panels under combined compression and shear loadings. A panel's reliability is the probability that it will perform the intended function - in this case, carry a given load without buckling or exceeding in-plane strain allowables. For a panel loaded in compression, a small initial bow can cause large bending stresses that reduce both the buckling load and the load at which strain allowables are exceeded; hence, the bow reduces the reliability of the panel. In this report, analytical studies on two stiffened panels quantified that effect. The bow is in the shape of a half-sine wave along the length of the panel. The size e of the bow at panel midlength is taken to be the single random variable. Several probability density distributions for e are examined to determine the sensitivity of the reliability to details of the bow statistics. In addition, the effects of quality control are explored with truncated distributions.

  15. Antisense directed against PS-1 gene decreases brain oxidative markers in aged senescence accelerated mice (SAMP8) and reverses learning and memory impairment: a proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Ada; Sultana, Rukhsana; Förster, Sarah; Perluigi, Marzia; Cenini, Giovanna; Cini, Chiara; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Farr, Susan A; Niehoff, Michael L; Morley, John E; Kumar, Vijaya B; Allan Butterfield, D

    2013-12-01

    Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) through the induction of oxidative stress. This peptide is produced by proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the action of β- and γ-secretases. Previous studies demonstrated that reduction of Aβ, using an antisense oligonucleotide (AO) directed against the Aβ region of APP, reduced oxidative stress-mediated damage and prevented or reverted cognitive deficits in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8), a useful animal model for investigating the events related to Aβ pathology and possibly to the early phase of AD. In the current study, aged SAMP8 were treated by AO directed against PS-1, a component of the γ-secretase complex, and tested for learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object recognition. Brain tissue was collected to identify the decrease of oxidative stress and to evaluate the proteins that are differently expressed and oxidized after the reduction in free radical levels induced by Aβ. We used both expression proteomics and redox proteomics approaches. In brain of AO-treated mice a decrease of oxidative stress markers was found, and the proteins identified by proteomics as expressed differently or nitrated are involved in processes known to be impaired in AD. Our results suggest that the treatment with AO directed against PS-1 in old SAMP8 mice reverses learning and memory deficits and reduces Aβ-mediated oxidative stress with restoration to the normal condition and identifies possible pharmacological targets to combat this devastating dementing disease.

  16. Antisense directed against PS-1 gene decreases brain oxidative markers in aged senescence accelerated mice (SAMP8) and reverses learning and memory impairment: a proteomics study

    PubMed Central

    Fiorini, Ada; Sultana, Rukhsana; Förster, Sarah; Perluigi, Marzia; Cenini, Giovanna; Cini, Chiara; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B.; Farr, Susan A.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Morley, John E.; Kumar, Vijaya B.; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plays a central role in pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) through the induction of oxidative stress. This peptide is produced by proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by the action of β- and γ-secretases. Previous studies demonstrated that reduction of Aβ, using an antisense oligonucleotide (AO) directed against the Aβ region of APP, reduced oxidative stress-mediated damage and prevented or reverted cognitive deficits in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8), a useful animal model to investigate the events related to Aβ pathology and possibly to the early phase of AD. In the current study, aged SAMP8 were treated by AO directed against PS-1, a component of the γ-secretase complex, and tested for learning and memory in T-maze foot shock avoidance and novel object recognition. Brain tissue was collected to identify the decrease of oxidative stress and to evaluate the proteins that are differently expressed and oxidized after the reduction in free radical levels induced by Aβ. We used both expression proteomics and redox proteomics approaches. In brain of AO-treated mice a decrease of oxidative stress markers was found, and the proteins identified by proteomics as expressed differently or nitrated are involved in processes known to be impaired in AD. Our results suggest that the treatment with AO directed against PS-1 in old SAMP8 mice reverses learning and memory deficits and reduces Aβ-mediated oxidative stress with restoration to the normal condition and identifies possible pharmacological targets to combat this devastating dementing disease. PMID:23777706

  17. Biomechanical research on bowed string musicians: a scoping study.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Leila K; Campbell, Kody R; Dickey, James P

    2013-12-01

    Performing arts biomechanics is concerned with quantifying the musculoskeletal demands of artistic tasks. The growing body of related research has prompted this scoping study, solely focused on quantitative research, to summarize the state of the science, identify knowledge gaps, and identify opportunities for future research. To identify, summarize, and categorize quantitative research on the biomechanics of violin, viola, cello, and double bass players, using scoping study methodology. Established scoping study methodology was used to identify and categorize existing research. We identified 74 articles for review. Of these, 34 met our scoping study criteria and were included in this study. Twenty-one of the 34 articles that met the scoping criteria were published since 2000. Investigations using electromyography (16 studies) and kinematics (15 studies) comprise the bulk of the research. Two studies employed force transducers for data collection. Violinists were the most frequently studied musicians (22 studies) and double bass players were the least (1 study). Fewer than half of the studies used solely professional musicians as their subjects (13 studies). This scoping study confirmed that quantitative biomechanical research into bowed string musicians has been performed with increasing frequency and that there are voids in the research, particularly in investigating mechanisms of injury and protective strategies. Currently, arts biomechanics research is largely descriptive in nature. There are few studies that investigate protective strategies, although it is expected that the field will progress to incorporate this type of research.

  18. Characterizing the Bow Shock of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setton, David; Besla, Gurtina; Hummels, Cameron

    2017-01-01

    The Circumgalactic Medium (CGM) surrounding our Milky Way plays an essential role in supplying the fuel needed to drive and sustain star formation in our Galaxy. However, the CGM is extremely diffuse (~10^28 g/cm^3), and therefore difficult to probe. Consequently, we know little about the structure, mass profile or evolution of the CGM. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we study the impact of the supersonic motions (Mach ~ 3) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the largest satellite galaxy of the Milky Way, on the structure of the CGM. We conclude that the LMC must induce a large bow shock in the CGM and use simulations to characterize its size, shape, temperature, and density structure. Using these properties, we propose possible observational signatures that could be used to confirm the existence of the shock, and illustrate how the shock may provide a tool to probe the CGM. These results illustrate that the CGM is a dynamic system, affected not only by outflows from the host galaxy, but also by the motions of the satellites that orbit within it.

  19. Electromyographic analysis of bow string release in highly skilled archers.

    PubMed

    Martin, P E; Siler, W L; Hoffman, D

    1990-01-01

    A predominant archery coaching tenet holds that the most effective means of releasing the bow string is by relaxation of the finger flexor muscles without activation of finger extensors. To evaluate the validity of this view, EMG patterns of the flexor digitorum superficialis and extensor digitorum muscles of the draw arm were examined using surface EMG electrodes in 15 highly skilled archers as each performed six shots. Each archer displayed consistent EMG patterns from shot-to-shot and two distinct flexor-extensor patterns were exhibited by the sample. The first, characterized by eight of the archers, supported the relaxation principle. For these archers, both flexor and extensor digitorum activity decreased markedly immediately prior to or at arrow release. The second pattern, characteristic of the remaining seven archers, contradicted the coaching tenet. While the flexor digitorum pattern was essentially the same as that described for the first pattern, the extensor digitorum displayed a marked increase in activity just prior to release, indicating that string release was facilitated by an active extension of the fingers. It was concluded that highly skilled archers do not predominantly reflect a release consistent with the coaching canon and that factors other than the string release mechanism discriminate the performances of skilled archers.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic and gasdynamic theories for planetary bow waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The observed properties of bow waves and the associated plasma flows are outlined, along with those features identified that can be described by a continuum magnetohydrodynamic flow theory as opposed to a more detailed multicomponent particle and field plasma theory. The primary objectives are to provide an account of the fundamental concepts and current status of the magnetohydrodynamic and gas dynamic theories for solar wind flow past planetary bodies. This includes a critical examination of: (1) the fundamental assumptions of the theories; (2) the various simplifying approximations introduced to obtain tractable mathematical problems; (3) the limitations they impose on the results; and (4) the relationship between the results of the simpler gas dynamic-frozen field theory and the more accurate but less completely worked out magnetohydrodynamic theory. Representative results of the various theories are presented and compared. A number of deficiencies, ambiguities, and suggestions for improvements are discussed, and several significant extensions of the theory required to provide comparable results for all planets, their satellites, and comets are noted.

  1. Electron plasma waves upstream of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacombe, C.; Mangeney, A.; Harvey, C. C.; Scudder, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Electrostatic waves are observed around the plasma frequency fpe in the electron foreshock, together with electrons backstreaming from the bow shock. Using data from the sounder aboard ISEE 1, it is shown that this noise, previously understood as narrow band Langmuir waves more or less widened by Doppler shift or nonlinear effects, is in fact composed of two distinct parts: one is a narrow band noise, emitted just above fpe, and observed at the upstream boundary of the electron foreshock. This component has been interpreted as Langmuir waves emitted by a beam-plasma instability. It is suggested that it is of sufficiently large amplitude and monochromatic enough to trap resonant electrons. The other is a broad band noise, more impulsive than the narrow band noise, observed well above and/or well below fpe, deeper in the electron foreshock. The broad band noise has an average spectrum with a typical bi-exponential shape; its peak frequency is not exactly equal to fpe and depends on the Deybe length. This peak frequency also depends on the velocity for which the electron distribution has maximum skew. An experimental determination of the dispersion relation of the broad band noise shows that this noise, as well as the narrow band noise, may be due to the instability of a hot beam in a plasma.

  2. Evolution of the Bow Shock in the Guitar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, James

    2001-07-01

    We propose WFPC2 observations of the Guitar Nebula, a bow shock produced by the high-velocity {V>1000 kms} pulsar B2224+65. By comparison with a previous observation in 1994, a new narrow-band H-alpha image will allow exploitation of the change in pulsar location { 1"}, in order to: {a} quantify ambient interstellar density variations on scales <=10^-3 pc that perturb the shape of the bowshock near the contact discontinuity {size 0.2"}; and {b} better model the bowshock to determine the orientation of the pulsar velocity vector. The results will be combined with a prior ROSAT image and a deep X-ray exposure {Chandra, October 2000} and ground based images from Palomar Observatory that constrain the shock heating and large scale structure of the nebula. PSR B2224+65 has the highest estimated space velocity of any pulsar: these results will also improve the pulsar distance and velocity estimates, which are important inputs for the study of pulsar kicks and supernovae asymmetry.

  3. Dispersion of low frequency plasma waves upstream of the quasi-perpendicular terrestrial bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimmock, A. P.; Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.; Pope, S. A.

    2013-08-01

    Low frequency waves in the foot of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock front have been observed since the very early in situ observations of the terrestrial bow shock (Guha et al., 1972). The great attention that has been devoted to these type of waves since the first observations is explained by the key role attributed to them in the processes of energy redistribution in the shock front by various theoretical models. In some models, these waves play the role of the intermediator between the ions and electrons. It is assumed that they are generated by plasma instability that exist due to the counter-streaming flows of incident and reflected ions. In the second type of models, these waves result from the evolution of the shock front itself in the quasi-periodic process of steepening and overturning of the magnetic ramp. However, the range of the observed frequencies in the spacecraft frame are not enough to distinguish the origin of the observed waves. It also requires the determination of the wave vectors and the plasma frame frequencies. Multipoint measurements within the wave coherence length are needed for an ambiguous determination of the wave vectors. In the main multi-point missions such as ISEE, AMPTE, Cluster and THEMIS, the spacecraft separation is too large for such a wave vector determination and therefore only very few case studies are published (mainly for AMPTE UKS AMPTE IRM pair). Here we present the observations of upstream low frequency waves by the Cluster spacecraft which took place on 19 February 2002. The spacecraft separation during the crossing of the bow shock was small enough to determine the wave vectors and allowed the identification of the plasma wave dispersion relation for the observed waves. Presented results are compared with whistler wave dispersion and it is shown that contrary to previous studies based on the AMPTE data, the phase velocity in the shock frame is directed downstream. The consequences of this finding for both

  4. Patterns and Controls of Cross-section Morphology for the Glaciated Bow River Valley, Canadian Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapuis, A.; Martin, Y.; Sjogren, D.

    2006-12-01

    Glaciers are powerful agents of erosion that can broaden and deepen valley floors, steepen valley sides and enhance local relief. The objective of this research is to analyze downvalley patterns in valley cross-section profiles in the Canadian Rocky Mountains to infer information about controls on glacial valley genesis. This study focuses on the Bow River valley, located on the east side of the Great Divide in the Canadian Rockies. The valley is mainly situated parallel to overall geologic structure, with some valley locations oriented perpendicular to structure. The last glacial advance to affect the area was late-Pleistocene. Eleven valley cross-sections along the Bow River valley were extracted from a 30m DEM for analysis. Cross- sections were analysed using different mathematical models: (i) power law; (ii) quadratic; and (iii) variable width/depth ratio. As the shape of the valley in the present day is influenced by post-glacial filling, we also defined best-fit equations that estimate the erosional form, rather than the present day valley, by fitting equations for cross-sections to data points restricted to the valley sides. Equations were thus extrapolated below the surface deposits of the valley floor to estimate the depth of valley fill. No strong downvalley trend in steepness for the valley sidewalls is visible in the data, although two groups are evident; one group for cross-sections with steep valley walls and one for those with less steep valley walls. There is a possible decreasing trend in valley width in the downvalley direction, although the signal is weak. When cross-section data were analyzed in relation to geological structure, cross-sections oriented perpendicular to structure are found to be steeper and narrower than those which are not. This finding suggests a strong preconditioning on the cross-section form by geological structure. When the best-fit equations were extrapolated below the surface deposits to estimate the depth of valley fill

  5. Electron temperature and de Hoffmann-Teller potential change across the Earth's bow shock: New results from ISEE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Scudder, J. D.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Newbury, J. A.; Russell, C. T.

    We present a survey of the trends between the electron temperature increase ΔTe and the de Hoffmann-Teller frame (HTF) electrostatic potential jump ΔΦHT and their correlation with other parameters that characterize the shock transition using a new ISEE 1 database of 129 Earth bow shock crossings. A fundamental understanding of the HTF potential is central to distinguishing the reversible and irreversible changes to electron temperature across collisionless shocks. The HTF potential is estimated using three different techniques: (1) integrating the steady state, electron fluid momentum equation across the shock layer using high time resolution plasma and field data from ISEE 1, (2) using the steady state, electron fluid energy equation, and (3) using an electron polytrope approximation. We find that ΔΦHT and ΔTe are strongly and positively correlated with |Δ(mpUn2/2)|, which is in good qualitative agreement with earlier experimental surveys [Thomsen et al., 1987b; Schwartz et al., 1988] that used bow shock model normals and used the flow in the spacecraft frame. There is a strong linear organization of the ΔTe with ΔΦHT, which suggests an average effective electron polytropic index of <γe>~2. In addition, ΔTe and ΔΦHT are organized by βe, although our results may be biased by our limited sampling of shock conditions. Comparisons indicate that the differentials in the HTF potential δΦHT are proportional to the differentials in the magnetic field intensity δB across the shock, with a proportionality constant κ that is a fixed constant for a given shock crossing.

  6. The Interaction of Solar wind Discontinuities with the Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2000-01-01

    Funding from NASA Grant No. NAG54679 was received in three installments. The first year's installment amounted to only one month of salary support and was used to prepare survey plots. The second year's installment allowed us to complete two research papers concerning the interaction of solar wind discontinuities with the Earth's bow shock. In the first (published) paper, we reported that the discontinuities launch slow mode waves into the magnetosheath and the slow mode waves always propagate antisunward through the flank magnetosheath. Because the sunward/antisunward sense of the magnetosheath magnetic field reverses across local noon, so does the (north/south or east/west) sense of the velocity fluctuations associated with the waves. Wind, Geotail, and IMP-8 observations were used for this study. In the second study, we used Wind and Interball-1 observations to demonstrate that pressure pulses in the magnetosheath occur in pairs and that they bound pressure cavities and/or brief intervals of outward magnetopause motion. This paper is now in press. Funding from the third year's installment has been used to investigate the two aspects of the foreshock. Two manuscripts are now in preparation for submission to the Journal of Geophysical Research. The first reports that waves within the foreshock account for many instances of poor correlations between two solar wind monitors. Remaining cases of poor correlation occur during intervals of nearly constant IMF orientations and magnetic field strengths. While the former category pose a significant difficulty for space weather forecasts, the latter do not. The second study surveys IMP-8 observations of the foreshock. We find that diamagnetic cavities are common, particularly during periods of high solar wind velocity and low solar wind density. Plasma densities, temperatures, and magnetic field strengths fall during intervals of enhanced energetic particle fluxes. The cavities are bounded by regions of decelerated solar

  7. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

    2012-07-06

    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of salicylic acid, with the corresponding glycine and glucuronide conjugates in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Vree, T B; van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, E W; Verwey-van Wissen, C P; Hekster, Y A

    1994-02-11

    A gradient reversed-phase HPLC analysis for the direct measurement of salicylic acid (SA) with the corresponding glycine and glucuronide conjugates in plasma and urine of humans was developed. The glucuronides were isolated by preparative HPLC from human urine samples. The concentration of the glucuronides in the isolated fraction were determined after enzymatic hydrolysis. Salicylic acid acyl glucuronide (SAAG) was not present in plasma. No isoglucuronides were present in acidic and alkaline urine of the volunteer. The limits of quantitation in plasma are: SA 0.2 microgram/ml, salicyluric acid (SU) 0.1 microgram/ml, salicylic acid phenolic glucuronide (SAPG) 0.4 microgram/ml and salicyluric acid phenolic glucuronide (SUPG) 0.2 microgram/ml. The limit of quantitation in urine is for all compounds 5 micrograms/ml. Salicylic acid acyl glucuronide is stable in phosphate buffer pH 4.9 during 8 h at 37 degrees C; thereafter it declines to 80% after 24 h. The subject's urine was therefore acidified by the oral intake of 4 x 1.2 g of ammonium chloride/day. With acidic urine, hardly any salicylic acid is excreted unchanged (0.6%). It is predominantly excreted as salicyluric acid (68.7%).

  9. Transient asymmetry in the projections of the rostral thalamus to the visual hyperstriatum of the chicken, and reversal of its direction by light exposure.

    PubMed

    Rogers, L J; Sink, H S

    1988-01-01

    Asymmetry in the visual pathways from the rostral thalamus to the hyperstriatum of the chicken has been found after injecting the retrograde tracer, True Blue (TB), into either the left or right hyperstriatum on day 2 or 12, post-hatching. There are ipsilateral connections from the ventromedial region of the left dorsolateral thalamus, lateral part (DLL) to the left hyperstriatum, and contralateral connections from the left dorsolateral thalamus, rostrolateral part (DLAlr) and the dorsolateral thalamus, dorsal part (DLLd) to the right hyperstriatum. On the right side of the thalamus, the ipsilateral connections from DLL to the right hyperstriatum are present, but there are only very few contralateral connections to the left hyperstriatum. No asymmetry in these pathways is seen in animals injected with TB on day 21. By this age the contralateral connections from the right thalamus to the left hyperstriatum have developed. Thus, the structural asymmetry in these visual pathways is transient, a finding which explains a controversy between two papers published recently in this journal, and which adds considerably to our understanding of the behavioural asymmetries known to occur in the chicken's response to stimuli presented to either the left or right eye. The direction of the asymmetry in visual pathways depends on asymmetrical light input to the eyes of the embryo. Normally the head of the embryo is oriented such that the left eye is occluded. If the head is withdrawn from the egg so that the right eye can be occluded and the left eye exposed to light, the direction of asymmetry in the thalamo-hyperstriatal pathways is reversed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Theory of 2 omega(sub pe) radiation induced by the bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.; Vinas, A. F.-; Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    A new radiation emission mechanism is proposed to explain electomagnetic radiation observed at twice the electron plasma frequency, 2 omega(sub pe), in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock. This radiation had its origin at the electron foreshock boundary where energetic electron beams and intense narrow-band Langmiur waves are observed. The proposed emission mechanism results from the interaction of the electron beam and Langmuir waves that are backscattered off thermal ions. This interaction is described by a nonlinear dispersion equation which incorporates an effect owing to electron trajectory modulation by the backscattered Langmuir waves. Subsequent analysis of the dispersion equation reveals two important consequences. First, a long-wavelength electrostatic quasi-mode with frequency at 2 omega(sub pe) is excited, and second, the quasi-mode and the electomagnetic mode are nonlinearly coupled. The implication is that, when the excited 2 omega(sub pe) quasi-mode propagates in an inhomgeneous medium with slightly decreasing density, the quasi-mode can be converted directly into an electromagnetic mode. Hense the electomagnetic radiation at twice the plasma frequency is generated. Numerical solutions of the dispersion equation with the choice of parameters that describe physical characteristics of the electron foreshock are presented, which illustrates the viability of the new mechanism.

  11. The upper Bow Island (Blackleaf) Formation of southwestern Alberta: Geological aspects and exploration approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Putnam, P.E.; Christensen, S.L. )

    1991-06-01

    The upper parts of the Bow Island Formation (Albian) of southwestern Alberta are significant gas reservoirs. The main westernmost reservoir zone is part of a complex package of interbedded lenticular sandstones, mudstones, and localized chert pebble conglomerates. The depositional setting for these sediments comprised a wave-dominated shoreline with conglomerates found proximal to drowned river mouths. The coarse nature of the upper Bow Island is related to tectonic movements associated with Crowsnest (Vaughn) volcanism. Conglomerates form the most impressive Bow Island reservoirs because of their thickness (up to 25 m) and petrophysical properties (17% porosity, 24 d permeability). Diagenesis dominantly comprises compaction features within grain-supported conglomerates. Increasing quartz content is related to decreasing grain size and is associated with porosity occlusion by quartz overgrowths. Bow Island reservoirs in southwestern Alberta are cool (under 50C) and significantly underpressured (0.2 psi). The high permeabilities and low pressures at depths of 1,000 to 1,500 m suggest the potential for formation damage is high, and many wells in the region were targeted for deeper, high-pressure zones. In spite of the low pressures, however, many Bow Island wells are capable of excellent gas deliveries with individual well recoveries of up to 10 bcf. All significant Bow Island porosity in the deepest, undisturbed parts of southwestern Alberta is gas saturated with updip aquifers flanking the gas. Seismic definition of the thickest Bow Island targets is feasible but has been hampered, in part, by difficult surface conditions and a prior emphasis on deeper targets.

  12. A bow-shaped thermal structure traveling upstream of the zonal wind flow of Venus atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Makoto; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Imamura, Takeshi; Kouyama, Toru; Nakamura, Masato; Sato, Takao M.; Ueno, Munetaka; Suzuki, Makoto; Iwagami, Naomoto; Sato, Mitsuteru; Hashimoto, George L.; Takagi, Seiko; Akatsuki Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard the Japanese Venus orbiter Akatsuki acquires a snap shot of Venus in the middle infrared region, and provides a brightness temperature distribution at the cloud-top altitudes of about 65 km. Hundreds of images taken by LIR have been transferred to the ground since the successful Venus orbit insertion of Akatsuki on Dec. 7, 2015. Here we report that a bow shaped thermal structure extending from the northern high latitudes to the southern high latitudes was found in the brightness temperature map on Dec. 7, 2015, and that it lasted for four days at least surprisingly at almost same geographical position. The bow shape structure looks symmetrical with the equator, and consists of a high temperature region in east or upstream of the background strong westward wind or the super rotation of the Venus atmosphere followed by a low temperature region in west with an amplitude of 5 K. It appeared close to the evening terminator in the dayside, and seems not to have stayed in the same local time rather to have co-rotated with the slowly rotating ground where the western part of Aphrodite Continent was below the center of the bow shape. Meridionally aligned dark filaments similar to the bow shape structure in shape but in much smaller scale were also identified in the brightness temperature map on Dec. 7, and they propagated upstream of the zonal wind as well. The bow shape structure disappeared when LIR observed the same local time and longitude in the earliest opportunity on Jan. 16, 2016. Similar events, though their amplitudes were less than 1 K, were found on Apr. 15 and 26, 2016, but they appeared in different local times and longitudes. A simulation of a gravity wave generated in the lower atmosphere and propagating upward reproduces the observed bow shape structure. The bow shape structure could be a signature of transferring momentum from the ground to the upper atmosphere.

  13. Annual variations in the Martian bow shock location as observed by the Mars Express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, B. E. S.; Lester, M.; Sánchez-Cano, B.; Nichols, J. D.; Andrews, D. J.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Fränz, M.; Holmström, M.; Ramstad, R.; Witasse, O.; Cartacci, M.; Cicchetti, A.; Noschese, R.; Orosei, R.

    2016-11-01

    The Martian bow shock distance has previously been shown to be anticorrelated with solar wind dynamic pressure but correlated with solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Since both of these solar parameters reduce with the square of the distance from the Sun, and Mars' orbit about the Sun increases by ˜0.3 AU from perihelion to aphelion, it is not clear how the bow shock location will respond to variations in these solar parameters, if at all, throughout its orbit. In order to characterize such a response, we use more than 5 Martian years of Mars Express Analyser of Space Plasma and EneRgetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) Electron Spectrometer measurements to automatically identify 11,861 bow shock crossings. We have discovered that the bow shock distance as a function of solar longitude has a minimum of 2.39RM around aphelion and proceeds to a maximum of 2.65RM around perihelion, presenting an overall variation of ˜11% throughout the Martian orbit. We have verified previous findings that the bow shock in southern hemisphere is on average located farther away from Mars than in the northern hemisphere. However, this hemispherical asymmetry is small (total distance variation of ˜2.4%), and the same annual variations occur irrespective of the hemisphere. We have identified that the bow shock location is more sensitive to variations in the solar EUV irradiance than to solar wind dynamic pressure variations. We have proposed possible interaction mechanisms between the solar EUV flux and Martian plasma environment that could explain this annual variation in bow shock location.

  14. Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis)

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Julia; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Smuts, Barbara; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Animals utilize behavioral signals across a range of different contexts in order to communicate with others and produce probable behavioral outcomes. During play animals frequently adopt action patterns used in other contexts. Researchers have therefore hypothesized that play signals have evolved to clarify communicative intent. One highly stereotyped play signal is the canid play bow, but its function remains contested. In order to clarify how canid puppies use play bows, we used data on play bows in immature wolves (ages 2.7–7.8 months) and dogs (ages 2 to 5 months) to test hypotheses evaluated in a previous study of adult dogs. We found that young dogs used play bows similarly to adult dogs; play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play followed by complementary highly active play states. However, while the relative number of play bows and total observation time was similar between dog and wolf puppies, wolves did not follow this behavioral pattern, as play bows were unsuccessful in eliciting further play activity by the partner. While some similarities for the function of play bows in dog and wolf puppies were documented, it appears that play bows may function differently in wolf puppies in regards to re-initiating play. PMID:28033358

  15. Bow shock nebulae of hot massive stars in a magnetized medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; Mignone, A.; Kuiper, R.; Raga, A. C.; Kley, W.

    2017-01-01

    A significant fraction of OB-type, main-sequence massive stars are classified as runaway and move supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their strong stellar winds interact with their surroundings, where the typical strength of the local ISM magnetic field is about 3.5-7 μG, which can result in the formation of bow shock nebulae. We investigate the effects of such magnetic fields, aligned with the motion of the flow, on the formation and emission properties of these circumstellar structures. Our axisymmetric, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations with optically thin radiative cooling, heating and anisotropic thermal conduction show that the presence of the background ISM magnetic field affects the projected optical emission of our bow shocks at Hα and [O III] λ 5007 which become fainter by about 1-2 orders of magnitude, respectively. Radiative transfer calculations against dust opacity indicate that the magnetic field slightly diminishes their projected infrared emission and that our bow shocks emit brightly at 60 μm. This may explain why the bow shocks generated by ionizing runaway massive stars are often difficult to identify. Finally, we discuss our results in the context of the bow shock of ζ Ophiuchi and we support the interpretation of its imperfect morphology as an evidence of the presence of an ISM magnetic field not aligned with the motion of its driving star.

  16. Investigation into the behavior of symmetrically and asymmetrically activated face-bows.

    PubMed

    Nobel, P M; Waters, N E

    1992-04-01

    The distal and lateral forces and also the couples (in a transverse plane) delivered by the inner terminals of a face-bow have been derived analytically according to the complementary (strain) energy method for various face-bow configurations on the assumption that the terminals are rigidly held by the molar tubes and that the external forces acting are in the plane of the inner bow. The results of the theory have been checked experimentally with a specially designed apparatus in which two mild steel transducer pegs that carry three pairs of strain gauges were used to measure the force system delivered by the inner bow under a range of loading, both symmetrical and asymmetrical. Good agreement with the theory was obtained, confirming the validity of the theoretical analysis. It is concluded that force systems are dependent on bow geometry and that with increasing asymmetry of the external loading transference of the distal load to the power-arm side is accompanied by a shift of lateral force and couple to the opposite side.

  17. The Milky Way Project: A Citizen Science Catalog of Infrared Bow Shock Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Don; Jayasinghe, Tharindu; Povich, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results from the first citizen-science search for infrared stellar-wind bow shock candidates. This search uses the Milky Way project, hosted by the Zooniverse, an online platform with over 1 million volunteer citizen scientists. Milky Way Project volunteers examine 77,000 randomly-distributed Spitzer image cutouts at varying zoom levels. Volunteers mark the infrared arc of potential bow shock candidates as well as the star likely driving the nebula. We produce lists of candidates from bow shocks flagged by multiple volunteers, which after merging and final visual review form the basis for our catalog. Comparing our new catalog to a recently-published catalog of 709 infrared bow shock candidates identified by a small team of (primarily undergraduate) researchers will allow us to assess the effectiveness of citizen science for this type of search and should yield a more complete catalog. Planned studies using these large catalogs will improve constraints on the mass-loss rates for the massive stars that create these bow shock nebulae. Mass-loss rates are highly uncertain but are a critical component of evolutionary models for massive stars. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants CAREER-1454334, AST-1411851 (RUI) and AST-1412845.

  18. The dynamics of Bow-shock Pulsar Wind Nebula: Reconstruction of multi-bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Doosoo; Heinz, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    Bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) exhibit a characteristic cometary shape due to the supersonic motion of the pulsar interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM). One of the spectacular bow-shock is the Guitar Nebula, which is produced by the fast pulsar PSR B2224+65 (vpsr > 1000 km s-1 ), and consists of a bright head, a faint neck, a two larger bubbles. We present that the peculiar mophology arises from variations in the interstellar medium density. We perform 3-D hydrodynamic simulation to understand the evolution of the pulsar as its moves through the density discontinuity. We found that when the pulsar encounters the low-density medium, the pressure balance at the head of the bow shock begins to collapse, producing the second bubble. The expansion rate of the bubble is related to the properties of both the pulsar and the ambient medium. Assuming that the pulsar’s properties, including spin-down energy, are constant, we conclude that the ambient density around the second bubble should be 4.46 times larger than around the first bubble in the Guitar body. We further found that when the pulsar encounters the inclined density dicontinuity, it can produce the asymmetric shape of the bow shock observed in a subset of bow-shock PWNe including J2124-3358.

  19. Bow-tie antennas on a dielectric half-space - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Richard C.; Mcphedran, Ross C.; Popovic, Zorana; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Tong, Peter P.

    1987-01-01

    A new formulation is discussed for the rigous calculation of the radiation pattern of a bow-tie antenna of finite length and infinitesimal thickness, placed on a lossless dielectric substrate. The analysis is based on a representation of the current density on the metal surface of the antenna as a sum of an imposed (quasistatic) term and a set of current modes with unknown amplitudes. Free-space fields that are expressed in terms of continuous spectra of symmetrized plane waves are matched to the current modes using the method of moments. The resulting set of equations are solved for the unknown current amplitudes. The calculations show that for increasing bow length the antenna impedance spirals rapidly to a value predicted by transmission line theory. The theory also shows that the E-plane pattern of a two-wavelength, 60-deg bow-tie antenna is dominated by low-loss current modes propagating at the dielectric wavenumber. As the bow tie narrows, the loss of the modes increases, and the dominant wavenumber tends to the quasi-static value. Pattern measurements made at 94 GHz are shown to agree well with theoretical predictions. Measurements for a long-wire antenna, a linear array of bow-tie elements, and a log-periodic antenna are also presented.

  20. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L.; Ciardi, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G.; Hartigan, P.; Hansen, E.; Frank, A.

    2015-12-20

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.

  1. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Geramy, Allahyar; Mortezai, Omid; Esmaily, Masomeh; Darvishpour, Hojat

    2015-04-01

    Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treatment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of unilateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM). Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs), cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The models were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2 N force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated. A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown. Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in molars, which increase by increasing the expansion.

  2. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Mortezai, Omid; Esmaily, Masomeh; Darvishpour, Hojat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treatment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of unilateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM). Materials and Methods: Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs), cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The models were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2 N force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated. Results: A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown. Conclusion: Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in molars, which increase by increasing the expansion. PMID:26622282

  3. Discovering Massive Runaway Stars with Infrared Bow Shock Nebulae: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Julian E.; Povich, Matthew S.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Chick, William T.; Dale, Daniel A.; Munari, Stephan; Olivier, Grace M.; Schurhammer, Danielle; Sorber, Rebecca L.; Wernke, Heather N.

    2016-01-01

    We have searched the plane of the Milky Way for candidate 22 μm and 24 μm infrared bow shock nebulae using the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) All-Sky Data Release and Spitzer GLIMPSE mosaic images. Infrared bow shocks driven by massive, OB stars can provide new constraints on stellar mass-loss rates and reveal new runaway late O- and early B-type stars. Candidate infrared bow shocks identified in this search were chosen using the criteria of a mostly symmetric arc-like morphology with the arc being bright in only 22 or 24 μm along with an apparent driving star associated with the bow shock in line with its axis of symmetry. Preliminary visible spectroscopic observations of candidate bow shock driving stars obtained using the Longslit Spectrograph at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO) reveal that these visual inspections yield a 95% success rate of finding late O- or early B-type stars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1063146 (REU), AST-1411851 (RUI), and AST-1412845.

  4. REINTERPRETATION OF SLOWDOWN OF SOLAR WIND MEAN VELOCITY IN NONLINEAR STRUCTURES OBSERVED UPSTREAM OF EARTH'S BOW SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, G. K.; Lin, N.; Lee, E.; Hong, J.; Fu, S. Y.; McCarthy, M.; Cao, J. B.; Liu, Y.; Shi, J. K.; Goldstein, M. L.; Canu, P.; Dandouras, I.; Reme, H.

    2013-07-10

    Two of the many features associated with nonlinear upstream structures are (1) the solar wind (SW) mean flow slows down and deviates substantially and (2) the temperature of the plasma increases in the structure. In this Letter, we show that the SW beam can be present throughout the entire upstream event maintaining a nearly constant beam velocity and temperature. The decrease of the velocity is due to the appearance of new particles moving in the opposite direction that act against the SW beam and reduce the mean velocity as computed via moments. The new population, which occupies a larger velocity space, also contributes to the second moment, increasing the temperature. The new particles include the reflected SW beam at the bow shock and another population of lower energies, accelerated nearby at the shock or at the boundary of the nonlinear structures.

  5. Acceleration of solar wind ions to 1 MeV by electromagnetic structures upstream of the Earth's bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiewicz, K.; Markidis, S.; Eliasson, B.; Strumik, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    2013-05-01

    We present measurements from the ESA/NASA Cluster mission that show in situ acceleration of ions to energies of 1 MeV outside the bow shock. The observed heating can be associated with the presence of electromagnetic structures with strong spatial gradients of the electric field that lead to ion gyro-phase breaking and to the onset of chaos in ion trajectories. It results in rapid, stochastic acceleration of ions in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The electric potential of the structures can be compared to a field of moguls on a ski slope, capable of accelerating and ejecting the fast running skiers out of piste. This mechanism may represent the universal mechanism for perpendicular acceleration and heating of ions in the magnetosphere, the solar corona and in astrophysical plasmas. This is also a basic mechanism that can limit steepening of nonlinear electromagnetic structures at shocks and foreshocks in collisionless plasmas.

  6. Direct aqueous determination of glyphosate and related compounds by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange mixed-mode column.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chunyan; Morse, David; Morra, Franca; Zhao, Xiaoming; Yang, Paul; Nunn, Brian

    2011-08-19

    Analysis of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate and its related compounds is quite challenging. Tedious and time-consuming derivatization is often required for these substances due to their high polarity, high water solubility, low volatility and molecular structure which lacks either a chromophore or fluorophore. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) method has been developed for the determination of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glufosinate using a reversed-phase and weak anion-exchange mixed-mode Acclaim® WAX-1 column. Aqueous environmental samples are directly injected and analyzed in 12 min with no sample concentration or derivatization steps. Two multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) channels are monitored in the method for each target compound to achieve true positive identification, and ¹³C, ¹⁵N-glyphosate is used as an internal standard to carry out isotope dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) measurement for glyphosate. The instrument detection limits (IDLs) for glyphosate, AMPA and glufosinate are 1, 2 and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. Linearity of the detector response with a minimum coefficient of determination (R² value (R² > 0.995) was demonstrated in the range of ∼10 to 10³ μg/L for each analytes. Spiked drinking water, surface water and groundwater samples were analyzed using this method and the average recoveries of analytes in three matrices ranged from 77.0 to 102%, 62.1 to 101%, 66.1 to 93.7% while relative standard deviation ranged from 6.3 to 10.2%, 2.7 to 14.8%, 2.9 to 10.7%, respectively. Factors that may affect method performance, such as metal ions, sample preservation, and storage time, are also discussed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MHD simulations of Earth's bow shock at low Mach numbers: Standoff distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Lyon, J. G.

    1995-09-01

    Global, three-dimensional, ideal MHD simulations of Earth's bow shock are reported for low Alfven Mach numbers MA and quasi-perpendicular magnetic field orientations. The simulations use a hard, infinitely conducting magnetopause obstacle, with axisymmetric three-dimensional location given by a scaled standard model, to directly address previous gasdynamic (GD) and field-aligned MHD (FA-MHD) work. Tests of the simulated shocks' density jumps X for 1.4<~MA<~10 and the high MA shock location, and reproduction of the GD relation between magnetosheath thickness and X for quasi-gasdynamic MHD runs with MA>>MS, confirm that the MHD code is working correctly. The MHD simulations show the standoff distance as increasing monotonically with decreasing MA. Significantly larger as are found at low MA than predicted by GD and phenomenological MHD models and FA-MHD simulations, as required qualitatively by observations. The GD and FA-MHD predictions err qualitatively, predicting either constant or decreasing as with decreasing MA. This qualitative difference between quasiperpendicular MHD and FA-MHD simulations is direct evidence for as depending on the magnetic field orientation θ. The enhancement factor over the phenomenological MHD predictions at MA~2.4 agrees quantitatively with one observational estimate. A linear relationship is found between the magnetosheath thickness and X, modified both quantitatively and intrinsically by MHD effects from the GD result. The MHD and GD results agree in the high MA limit. An MHD theory is developed for as, restricted to sufficiently perpendicular θ and high sonic Mach numbers MS. It explains the simulation results with excellent accuracy. Observational and further simulation testing of this MHD theory, and of its predicted MA, θ, and MS effects, is desirable.

  8. A numerical study on bow shocks around the lightning return stroke channel

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Qiang Chen, Bin Yi, Yun; Chen, P. F.; Mao, Yunfei; Xiong, Run

    2015-03-15

    Bow shock structures are important to various hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) phenomena in geophysics and astrophysics. The formation and propagation of bow shocks around the lightning return stroke channel are investigated based on the self-similar motion theory and simulated with a two-dimensional Eulerian finite volume resistive radiation MHD code. In this framework, as verification of theoretical models, the evolving structures of many quantities, such as the plasma density, temperature, pressure, shock velocity, and magnetic field, can be obtained, which present all the characteristics of bow shocks in the lightning return stroke processes. The evolution characteristics and the configuration of the curved return stroke channels, e.g., the non-ideal effects and the scaling laws, are discussed in detail. The results may have applications for some observed features of the return stroke channels and other phenomena in the lightning discharge plasmas.

  9. Sedentism, social change, warfare, and the bow in the ancient Pueblo Southwest.

    PubMed

    Reed, Paul F; Geib, Phil R

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient American Southwest, use of the bow developed relatively rapidly among Pueblo people by the fifth century AD. This new technology replaced the millennia-old atlatl and dart weaponry system. Roughly 150 years later in the AD 600s, Pueblo socioeconomic organization began to evolve rapidly, as many groups adopted a much more sedentary life. Multiple factors converged to allow this sedentary pattern to emerge, but the role of the bow in this process has not been fully explored. In this paper, we trace the development of the bow and discuss its role as sedentism emerged and social changes occurred in ancient Puebloan society from the fifth through seventh centuries AD.

  10. Transport of Solar Wind H+ and He++ Ions across Earth’s Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Fu, S. Y.; Kim, H. E.; Ma, Y. Q.; Yang, Z. W.; Liu, Y.; Lin, N.; Hong, J.; Canu, P.; Dandouras, I.; Rème, H.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the dependence of mass, energy, and charge of solar wind (SW) transport across Earth’s bow shock. An examination of 111 crossings during quiet SW in both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shock regions shows that 64 crossings had various degrees of heating and thermalization of SW. We found 22 crossings where the SW speed was <400 km s-1. The shock potential of a typical supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock estimated from deceleration of the SW and cutoff energy of electron flat top distribution is ˜50 Volts. We find that the temperatures of H+ and He++ beams that penetrate the shock can sometimes be nearly the same in the upstream and downstream regions, indicating little or no heating had occurred crossing the bow shock. None of the models predict that the SW can cross the bow shock without heating. Our observations are important constraints for new models of collisionless shocks.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of metatropic dysplasia: beware of the pseudo-bowing sign.

    PubMed

    Garel, Catherine; Dhouib, Amira; Sileo, Chiara; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert

    2014-03-01

    Metatropic dysplasia is a very rare form of osteochondrodysplasia with only one case of prenatal diagnosis described in the literature. It is characterized by marked shortening of the long bones with severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-shape metaphyses. We report a case of metatropic dysplasia that was diagnosed prenatally and describe the findings on US and CT. The pregnancy was terminated and the post-mortem radiographs are shown. The woman had been referred for short and bowed long bones. Severe metaphyseal enlargement was a misleading finding because it had been misinterpreted as limb bowing. Thus when abnormal curvature of the long bones is observed at prenatal US, attention should be drawn not only to the diaphyses but also to the metaphyses because severe metaphyseal enlargement might be responsible for pseudo-bowing.

  12. Improved bow shock models for Herbig-Haro objects - Application to HH 2A-prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.; Hartmann, Lee; Hartigan, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    An improved version of the bow shock theory previously applied to Herbig-Haro objects is presented. The modifications provide a more accurate calculation of the ionization state of material entering the bow shock. The revised preionization does not drastically affect the emission-line predictions for a 200 km/s bow shock model, though the effects will be more severe for slower shock velocities. The line profiles of the new models resemble the observed profiles somewhat more closely, and the relative emission-line intensities typically differ by 30 percent from those predicted by the older models. The models agree well with new IUE spectra and existing optical data for HH 2A-prime.

  13. Research on bulbous bow optimization based on the improved PSO algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng-long; Zhang, Bao-ji; Tezdogan, Tahsin; Xu, Le-ping; Lai, Yu-yang

    2017-08-01

    In order to reduce the total resistance of a hull, an optimization framework for the bulbous bow optimization was presented. The total resistance in calm water was selected as the objective function, and the overset mesh technique was used for mesh generation. RANS method was used to calculate the total resistance of the hull. In order to improve the efficiency and smoothness of the geometric reconstruction, the arbitrary shape deformation (ASD) technique was introduced to change the shape of the bulbous bow. To improve the global search ability of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm was proposed to set up the optimization model. After a series of optimization analyses, the optimal hull form was found. It can be concluded that the simulation based design framework built in this paper is a promising method for bulbous bow optimization.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the SVS 13 Microjet and Bow Shock Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Carl L.; Jones, Jeremiah R.; Hodapp, Klaus W.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulations of the SVS 13 microjet and bow shock bubble are performed using the WENO method that reproduces the main features and dynamics of data from the Keck Telescope/OSIRIS velocity-resolved integral field spectrograph: an expanding, cooler bow shock bubble, with the bubble center moving at approximately 50 km s-1 with a radial expansion velocity of 11 km s-1, surrounding the fast, hotter jet, which is propagating at 156 km s-1. Contact and bow shock waves are visible in the simulations both from the initial short jet pulse that creates the nearly spherical bow shock bubble and from the fast microjet, while a terminal Mach disk shock is visible near the tip of the continuous microjet, which reduces the velocity of the jet gas down to the flow velocity of the contact discontinuity at the leading edge of the jet. At 21.1 years after the launch of the initial bubble pulse, the jet has caught up with and penetrated almost all the way across the bow shock bubble of the slower initial pulse. At times later than about 22 years, the jet has penetrated through the bubble and thereafter begins to subsume its spherical form. Emission maps from the simulations of the jet—traced by the emission of the shock-excited 1.644 μm [Fe ii] line—and the bow shock bubble—traced in the lower excitation 2.122 μm H2 1-0 S(1) line—projected onto the plane of the sky are presented, and are in good agreement with the Keck observations.

  15. The Evolution and Structure of the Bow Echo/microburst Events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wen-Chau

    The evolution and structure of several bow echo/microburst events are investigated in this study. Multiple Doppler radar analysis (three dimensional wind fields, pressure and buoyancy retrievals, vorticity budget and trajectory) is performed for the primary case of July 14, 1982 during the Joint Airport Weather Study (JAWS) experiment while single Doppler radar analysis is performed in 4 other bow echo/microburst events. The downdraft is initiated by precipitation loading at 4 km Above Ground Level (AGL) 7 min before the surface microburst. The precipitation particles within the reflectivity core contribute not only to the loading effect but also to the cooling effect via evaporation, melting and sublimation. The downdraft core initially coincides with the reflectivity core but shifts toward the weak echo region at the peak microburst time. A high perturbation pressure (maximum of 0.6 mb) builds up from the surface at the microburst center upon impact with the ground. At the surface, the microburst air is warmer than its environment. A maximum cooling of 3^circ C is located at 1.6 km at the reflectivity gradient region. The reflectivity core precedes the descent of the downdraft core, while the maximum w correlates well with the maximum negative buoyancy. The storm relative trajectories indicate that the source region of the microburst air is from 3-4 km level. A conceptual model of the single-cell type bow echo evolution is constructed based on the vorticity budget analysis. A bow echo is formed by the redistribution of hydrometeors by a vorticity couplet which is generated by the interaction between the downdraft and the vertical shear vector or the tilting effect. The rear inflow jet is induced by the vorticity couplet and its intensity should depend on the strength of the vorticity couplet. This model indicates that a bow echo may be produced by a weak downdraft as long as a proper vertical shear exists. However, strong downdrafts of microburst intensity will

  16. Thin sheets of energetic electrons upstream from the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.; Lin, R. P.; Martel, F.; Lin, C. S.; Parks, G. K.; Reme, H.

    1979-01-01

    ISEE spacecraft observations show that energetic (not less than 16 keV) electrons are injected into the region upstream from the earth's bow shock in a thin sheet which lies just behind the sheet of interplanetary magnetic field lines that are tangent to the shock surface. Lower energy electrons leave the shock over a much broader region. Although the energetic electron intensity varies, the sheet is nearly always present and may be a quasi-steady state feature of the bow shock. The electron velocity distribution in the thin sheet is strongly peaked and is responsible for excitation of electron plasma waves.

  17. THEMIS Observations of Unusual Bow Shock Motion, Attending a Transient Magnetospheric Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotova, Galina; Sibeck, David; Omidi, N.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multipoint case study of solar wind and magnetospheric observations during a transient magnetospheric compression at 2319 UT on October 15, 2008. We use high-time resolution magnetic field and plasma data from the THEMIS and GOES-11/12 spacecraft to show that this transient event corresponded to an abrupt rotation in the IMF orientation, a change in the location of the foreshock, and transient outward bow shock motion. We employ results from a global hybrid code model to reconcile the observations indicating transient inward magnetopause motion with the outward bow shock motion.

  18. Asymptotic Steady-state Solution to a Bow Shock with an Infinite Mach Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re'em

    2016-08-01

    The problem of a cold gas flowing past a stationary obstacle is considered. We study the bow shock that forms around the obstacle and show that at large distances from the obstacle the shock front forms a parabolic solid of revolution. The profiles of the hydrodynamic variables in the interior of the shock are obtained by solution of the hydrodynamic equations in parabolic coordinates. The results are verified with a hydrodynamic simulation. The drag force on the obstacle is also calculated. Finally, we use these results to model the bow shock around an isolated neutron star.

  19. An Evaluation Of The Effects Of The Low Energy Laser On Bowed Tendons In Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKibbin, L. S.

    1987-03-01

    Bowed tendons in the horse can greatly hinder it's racing career. A pulsed, 904 nm, infrared GaAs laser, peak power 2 watts, averaging .4 mW, 10 diodes per head, was used in reducing the area of the bowed tendon. This treatment proved to capacitate the horse for better race performance. Before application of the laser the wound area was shaved. A cast of playdoe was formed over the affected area. The cast was then removed and spread over a sheet of paper which consisted of a drawing of a grid in square centimeters. The squares were then counted.

  20. Simple Method for Converting Conventional Face-bow to Postural Face-bow for Recording the Relationship of Maxilla Relative to the Temporomandibular Joint

    PubMed Central

    Gooya, Ali; Zarakani, Houman; Memari, Yeganeh

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in prosthetic dentistry is that the axis-orbital plane will usually be parallel to the horizontal reference plane. Most articulator systems have incorporated this concept into their designs and use orbitale as the anterior reference point for transferring the vertical position of the maxilla to the articulator. Clinical observations of Cantonese patients suggest that in some individuals the Frankfort plane may not be horizontal, thus the orientation of the casts in the articulator is incorrect with respect to the horizontal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce a simple method for converting the conventional face-bow to postural face-bow to reproduce the orientation of the occlusal plane relative to the true horizontal plane with the patient in Natural Head Posture (NHP). PMID:26005456

  1. Direct method for determination of Sudan I in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and D&C Orange No. 4 by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Petigara, Bhakti R; Scher, Alan L

    2007-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine parts-per-million and higher levels of Sudan 1, 1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthalenol, in the disulfo monoazo color additive FD&C Yellow No. 6 and in a related monosulfo monoazo color additive, D&C Orange No. 4. Sudan I, the corresponding unsulfonated monoazo dye, is a known impurity in these color additives. The color additives are dissolved in water and methanol, and the filtered solutions are directly chromatographed, without extraction or concentration, by using gradient elution at 0.25 mL/min. Calibrations from peak areas at 485 nm were linear. At a 99% confidence level, the limits of determination were 0.008 microg Sudan I/mL (0.4 ppm) in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and 0.011 microg Sudan I/mL (0.00011%) in D&C Orange No. 4. The confidence intervals were 0.202 +/- 0.002 microg Sudan I/mL (10.1 +/- 0.1 ppm) near the specification level for Sudan I in FD&C Yellow No. 6 and 20.0 +/- 0.2 microg Sudan I/mL (0.200 +/- 0.002%) near the highest concentration of Sudan I found in D&C Orange No. 4. A survey was conducted to determine Sudan I in 28 samples of FD&C Yellow No. 6 from 17 international manufacturers over 3 years, and in a pharmacology-tested sample. These samples were found to contain undetected levels (16 samples), 0.5-9.7 ppm Sudan I (0.01-0.194 microg Sudan I/mL in analyzed solutions; 11 samples including the pharmacology sample), and > or =10 ppm Sudan I (> or = 0.2 microg Sudan I/mL; 2 samples). Analyses of 21 samples of D&C Orange No. 4 from 8 international manufacturers over 4 years found Sudan I at undetected levels (8 samples), 0.0005 to < 0.005% Sudan I (0.05 to < 0.5 microg Sudan I/mL in analyzed solutions; 3 samples, including a pharmacology batch), 0.005 to <0.05% Sudan I (0.5 to <5 microg Sudan I/mL; 9 samples), and 0.18% Sudan I (18 microg Sudan I/mL; 1 sample).

  2. MicroRNA-532 and microRNA-3064 inhibit cell proliferation and invasion by acting as direct regulators of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Luo-Ying; Bai, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) plays a crucial role in ovarian cancer (OC) progression. However, the mechanisms underlying hTERT upregulation in OC, and the specific microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the regulation of hTERT in OC cells, remains unclear. We performed a bioinformatics search to identify potential miRNAs that bind to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) region of the hTERT mRNA. We examined the expression levels of miR-532/miR-3064 in OC tissues and normal ovarian tissues, and analyzed the correlation between miRNA expression and OC patient outcomes. The impacts of miR-532/miR-3064 on hTERT expression were evaluated by western blot analysis and hTERT 3'-UTR reporter assays. We investigated the effects of miR-532/miR-3064 on proliferation and invasion in OC cells. We found that miR-532 and miR-3064 are down-regulated in OC specimens. We observed a significant association between reduced miR-532/miR-3064 expression and poorer survival of patients with OC. We confirmed that in OC cells, these two miRNAs downregulate hTERT levels by directly targeting its 3'-UTR region, and inhibited proliferation, EMT and invasion of OC cells. In addition, the overexpression of the hTERT cDNA lacking the 3'-UTR partially restored miR-532/miR-3064-inhibited OC cell proliferation and invasion. The silencing of hTERT by siRNA oligonucleotides abolished these malignant features, and phenocopied the effects of miR-532/miR-3064 overexpression. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-532/miR-3064 inhibits the growth of OC cells in vivo. Our findings demonstrate a miR-532/miR-3064-mediated mechanism responsible for hTERT upregulation in OC cells, and reveal a possibility of targeting miR-532/miR-3064 for future treatment of OC. PMID:28291810

  3. Analysis of "Teno-uchi" maneuver in releasing Japanese-style bows based on muscle activities and forces acting on the bow.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Satoshi; Byun, Keigo Ohyama; Okada, Morihiko

    2004-12-01

    Since a Japanese-style bow has a very complicated shape and structure, an archer has to apply the "Teno-uchi" maneuver including horizontally twisting torque, or "Nejiri", and sagittally down-pushing torque, or "Uwa-oshi", to the restoring bow in order to hit the target. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical relationship between the muscular activities of the left forearm and the operation of "Teno-uchi" maneuver. Surface EMG of left forearm muscles and the two kinds of torque acting on the bow around the time of release were recorded in 10 experienced subjects during arrow shooting. The "Biku", an involuntary resignation from release happening in the shooting, was also examined. Close analyses of the results revealed that activation of the extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum muscles together with inhibition of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle brought about "Nejiri", while activation of the extensor carpi ulnaris as well as flexor carpi ulnaris muscles and inhibition of the extensor carpi redialis longus and extensor digitorum muscles gave rise to "Uwa-oshi", thus causing activities of trade-off nature in the extensor digitorum and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles for the "Nejiri" and "Uwa-oshi. The trade-off activities were presumably actualized through time-sharing coordination between the muscles.

  4. Towards an MHD Theory for the Standoff Distance of Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carins, Iver H.; Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory is developed for the standoff distance a(s) of the bow shock and the thickness Delta(ms) of the magnetosheath, using the empirical Spreiter et al. relation Delta(ms) = kX and the MHD density ratio X across the shock. The theory includes as special cases the well-known gasdynamic theory and associated phenomenological MHD-like models for Delta(ms) and As. In general, however, MHD effects produce major differences from previous models, especially at low Alfev (Ma) and Sonic (Ms) Mach numbers. The magnetic field orientation Ma, Ms and the ratio of specific heats gamma are all important variables of the theory. In contrast, the fast mode Mach number need play no direct role. Three principle conclusions are reached. First the gasdynamic and phenomenological models miss important dependences of field orientation and Ms generally provide poor approximations to the MHD results. Second, changes in field orientation and Ms are predicted to cause factor of approximately 4 changes in Delta(ms) at low Ma. These effects should be important when predicting the shock's location or calculating gramma from observations. Third, using Spreiter et al.'s value for k in the MHD theory leads to maxima a(s) values at low Ma and nominal Ms that are much smaller than observations and MHD simulations require. Resolving this problem requires either the modified Spreiter-like relation and larger k found in recent MHD simulations and/or a breakdown in the Spreiter-like relation at very low Ma.

  5. Reversible dementias

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Manjari; Vibha, Deepti

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been given to the early diagnostic evaluation of patients with dementia which is essential to identify patients with cognitive symptoms who may have treatable conditions. Guidelines suggest that all patients presenting with dementia or cognitive symptoms should be evaluated with a range of laboratory tests, and with structural brain imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While many of the disorders reported as ‘reversible dementias’ are conditions that may well be associated with cognitive or behavioral symptoms, these symptoms are not always sufficiently severe to fulfill the clinical criteria for dementia. Thus, while the etiology of a condition may be treatable it should not be assumed that the associated dementia is fully reversible. Potentially reversible dementias should be identified and treatment considered, even if the symptoms are not sufficiently severe to meet the clinical criteria for dementia, and even if partial or full reversal of the cognitive symptoms cannot be guaranteed. In the literature, the most frequently observed potentially reversible conditions identified in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia are depression, adverse effects of drugs, drug or alcohol abuse, space-occupying lesions, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and metabolic conditions land endocrinal conditions like hypothyroidism and nutritional conditions like vitamin B-12 deficiency. Depression is by far the most common of the potentially reversible conditions. The review, hence addresses the common causes of reversible dementia and the studies published so far. PMID:21416018

  6. Columbia University: Direct Reversal of Glucocorticoid Resistance by AKT inhibition in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The goal of this project is to identify key druggable regulators of glucocorticoid resistance in T-ALL. To this end, a reverse-engineered T-ALL context-specific regulatory interaction network was created from a phenotypically diverse T-ALL gene expression dataset, and then this network was interrogated using master regulator analysis to find drivers of glucocorticoid resistance.

  7. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  8. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  9. Acceleration at the Earth's Bow Shock: Spatial Depencence of Acceleration Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasawa, Toshio; Saito, Y.; Mukai, T.

    2003-07-01

    < We present GEOTAIL observations of diffuse protons (˜40 keV) in the bow shock upstream region, covering from the nominal nose upstream region to > the predawn upstream region (Xgse ˜-70 Re). Our results give conclusive evidence for the earlier suggestion on the acceleration/transport process in the predawn region, which was based on the ISEE-3 observations in 1983.

  10. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  11. Sociopolitical effects of bow and arrow technology in prehistoric coastal California.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Douglas J; Lambert, Patricia M; Johnson, John R; Culleton, Brendan J

    2013-01-01

    Bow and arrow technology spread across California between ∼AD 250 and 1200, first appearing in the intermountain deserts of the Great Basin and later spreading to the coast. We critically evaluate the available data for the initial spread in bow and arrow technology and examine its societal effects on the well-studied Northern Channel Islands off the coast of Southern California. The introduction of this technology to these islands between AD 650 and 900 appears to predate the appearance of hereditary inequality between AD 900 and 1300. We conclude, based on the available data, that this technology did not immediately trigger intergroup warfare. We argue that the introduction of the bow and arrow contributed to sociopolitical instabilities that were on the rise within the context of increasing population levels and unstable climatic conditions, which stimulated intergroup conflict and favored the development of hereditary inequality. Population aggregation and economic intensification did occur with the introduction of the bow and arrow. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that social coercion via intra-group "law enforcement" contributed to changes in societal scale that ultimately resulted in larger groups that were favored in inter-group conflict. We argue that the interplay between intra-group "law enforcement" and inter-group warfare were both essential for the ultimate emergence of social inequality between AD 900 and 1300. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Historic range of variability for upland vegetation in the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Gregory K. Dillon; Dennis H. Knight; Carolyn B. Meyer

    2005-01-01

    An approach for synthesizing the results of ecological research pertinent to land management is the analysis of the historic range of variability (HRV) for key ecosystem variables that are affected by management activities. This report provides an HRV analysis for the upland vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. The variables include...

  13. Photo series for quantifying forest residues in managed lands of the Medicine Bow National Forest

    Treesearch

    John B. Popp; John E. Lundquist

    2006-01-01

    This photo series presents a visual representation of a range of fuel loading conditions specifically found on the Medicine Bow National Forest. The photos are grouped by forest type and past management practices. This field guide describes the distribution of different types of woody fuels and includes some vegetation data.

  14. A three-dimensional analysis of finger and bow string movements during the release in archery.

    PubMed

    Horsak, Brian; Heller, Mario

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine finger and bow string movements during archery by investigating a top Austrian athlete (FITA score = 1233) under laboratory conditions. Maximum lateral bow string deflection and angular displacements for index, third, and ring fingers between the full draw position and the end of the release were quantified using a motion tracking system. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether bow string deflection and finger movements are predictive for scoring. Joint ranges of motion during the shot itself were large in the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, and much smaller in the metacarpophalangeal joints. Contrary to our expectations, greater deflection leads to higher scores (R2 = .18, p < .001) and the distal interphalangeal joint of the third finger weakly predicts the deflection (R2 = .11, p < .014). More variability in the joint angles of the third finger was found in bad shots than in good shots. Findings in this study let presume that maximum lateral bow string deflection does not adversely affect the archer's performance.

  15. 10. VIEW TOWARD PORT BOW IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TOWARD PORT BOW IN THE FOC'S'LE OF THE EVELINA M. GOULART. OBJECT IN THE FOREGROUND IS A FOLDING MESS TABLE LOCATED BETWEEN THE TIERS OF BUNKS. - Auxiliary Fishing Schooner "Evelina M. Goulart", Essex Shipbuilding Museum, 66 Main Street, Essex, Essex County, MA

  16. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  17. Venusian bow shock as seen by the ASPERA-4 ion instrument on Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, I.; Guymer, G.; Grande, M.; Pintér, B.; Barabash, S.; Federov, A.; Mazelle, C.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Lundin, R.; Russell, C. T.; Futaana, Y.; Fränz, M.; Zhang, T. L.; Andersson, H.; Grigoriev, A.; Holmström, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Asamura, K.; Baumjohann, W.; Lammer, H.; Coates, A. J.; Kataria, D. O.; Linder, D. R.; Curtis, C. C.; Hsieh, K. C.; Koskinen, H. E. J.; Kallio, E.; Riihelä, P.; Schmidt, W.; Kozyra, J.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Thocaven, J. J.; Orsini, S.; Cerulli-Irelli, R.; Mura, A.; Milillo, M.; Maggi, M.; Roelof, E.; Brandt, P.; Frahm, R. A.; Sharber, J. R.; Wurz, P.; Bochsler, P.

    2010-09-01

    The Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-4) instrument on Venus Express is used to determine bow shock position at Venus using ion data alone, using data recorded during a solar minimum from the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA) which is part of the ASPERA-4 package. Previous models constructed from solar minimum data using Venus Express, Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Venera 9 and 10 are also compared to the current fit. An important feature of this new fit is a statistical accuracy introduced in the form of a probability weighting function for the data points, based on the time spent in particular locations. The bow shock curve is then compared to two-dimensional ion maps. These verify the accuracy of this and previous solar minimum fit curves based on PVO and Venus Express magnetic data. Comparing all bow shock models to the 2D ion maps shows that a combination of models produces the best fit. Since all the fitted curves show differences in position they are investigated relative to the solar conditions pertaining at the times when the individual data sets were measured. The sub solar point and terminator distance were thus found to vary linearly with sunspot number and hence with solar activity. This relationship, which was already known to exist between solar maximum and solar minimum, is now shown to exist between different solar minima and even within the same minimum. This indicates a need for the mechanisms for bow shock maintenance and variance to be more closely modeled.

  18. Prototype adaptive bow-tie filter based on spatial exposure time modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badal, Andreu

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the development of dynamic bow-tie filters that are able to provide patient-specific x-ray beam shaping. We introduce the first physical prototype of a new adaptive bow-tie filter design based on the concept of "spatial exposure time modulation." While most existing bow-tie filters operate by attenuating the radiation beam differently in different locations using partially attenuating objects, the presented filter shapes the radiation field using two movable completely radio-opaque collimators. The aperture and speed of the collimators is modulated in synchrony with the x-ray exposure to selectively block the radiation emitted to different parts of the object. This mode of operation does not allow the reproduction of every possible attenuation profile, but it can reproduce the profile of any object with an attenuation profile monotonically decreasing from the center to the periphery, such as an object with an elliptical cross section. Therefore, the new adaptive filter provides the same advantages as the currently existing static bow-tie filters, which are typically designed to work for a pre-determined cylindrical object at a fixed distance from the source, and provides the additional capability to adapt its performance at image acquisition time to better compensate for the actual diameter and location of the imaged object. A detailed description of the prototype filter, the implemented control methods, and a preliminary experimental validation of its performance are presented.

  19. Lunar Surface Potential Changes Possible Associated with Traversals of the Bow Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, M. R.; Stubbs, T. J.; Hills, H. K.

    2008-01-01

    We report an analysis of seven Apollo 14 Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) "resonance" events from January 1972 through January 1973. The events appear to be associated with traversals of the Moon through the terrestrial bow shock.

  20. Hybrid functional calculations on the band gap bowing parameters of In x Ga1-x N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Lin; Yixu, Xu; Jianhua, Zhang; Shunqing, Wu; Zizhong, Zhu

    2016-04-01

    The electronic band structures and band gap bowing parameters of In x Ga1-x N are studied by the first-principles method based on the density functional theory. Calculations by employing both the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerh of hybrid functional (HSE06) and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) one are performed. We found that the theoretical band gap bowing parameter is dependent significantly on the calculation method, especially on the exchange-correlation functional employed in the DFT calculations. The band gap of In x Ga1-x N alloy decreases considerably when the In constituent x increases. It is the interactions of s-s and p-p orbitals between anions and cations that play significant roles in formatting the band gaps bowing. In general, the HSE06 hybrid functional could provide a good alternative to the PBE functional in calculating the band gap bowing parameters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11204257, 21233004) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2012M511447).