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Sample records for boxes synthesis stability

  1. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes): synthesis, stability and chemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, W. L.; Pyne-Geithman, G. J.; Peat, I. R.; Clark, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) have been a subject of interest in neurosurgery because they are purported to be involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage induced cerebral vasospasm. There is a growing body of information concerning their putative role in vasospasm; however, there is a dearth of information concerning the chemical and biochemical characteristics of BOXes. A clearer understanding of the synthesis, stability and characteristics of BOXes will be important for a better understanding of the role of BOXes post subarachnoid hemorrhage. We used hydrogen peroxide to oxidize bilirubin and produce BOXes. BOXes were extracted and analyzed using conventional methods such as HPLC and mass spectrometry. Characterization of the stability BOXes demonstrates that light can photodegrade BOXes with a t1/2 of up to 10 h depending upon conditions. Mixed isomers of BOXes have an apparent extinction coefficient of ε = 6985, and a λmax of 310 nm. BOXes are produced by the oxidation of bilirubin, yielding a mixture of isomers: 4-methyl-5-oxo-3-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX A) and 3-methyl-5-oxo-4-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX B). The BOXes are photodegraded by ambient light and can be analyzed spectrophotometrically with their extinction coefficient as well as with HPLC or mass spectrometry. Their small molecular weight and photodegradation may have made them difficult to characterize in previous studies. PMID:18456996

  2. ESF SOUTH PORTAL BOX-CUT/HIGHWALL STABILITY ANALYSIS (SCPB:N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed Bonabian

    1996-03-28

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to design a Box-Cut at the ESF South Portal to accommodate the Tunnel Boring Machine's (TBM) exit at the conclusion of the ESF Main Loop construction. The stability of the Highwall and the sidewalls at the Box-Cut are assessed using analytical methods by numerical modeling techniques. A ground reinforcement system for the South Ramp Box-Cut slopes will be recommended. This report summarizes the results of the analyses and provides the details of the recommended ground reinforcement system for the Box-Cut slopes at the South Portal. The reinforcement design details are then incorporated into design output documents for implementation in the field. Method of excavation for the Box-Cut is also discussed and a recommendation is provided in this analysis.

  3. Conformational stability and DNA binding specificity of the cardiac T-box transcription factor Tbx20.

    PubMed

    Macindoe, Ingrid; Glockner, Laura; Vukasin, Paul; Stennard, Fiona A; Costa, Mauro W; Harvey, Richard P; Mackay, Joel P; Sunde, Margaret

    2009-06-12

    The transcription factor Tbx20 acts within a hierarchy of T-box factors in lineage specification and morphogenesis in the mammalian heart and is mutated in congenital heart disease. T-box family members share a approximately 20-kDa DNA-binding domain termed the T-box. The question of how highly homologous T-box proteins achieve differential transcriptional control in heart development, while apparently binding to the same DNA sequence, remains unresolved. Here we show that the optimal DNA recognition sequence for the T-box of Tbx20 corresponds to a T-half-site. Furthermore, we demonstrate using purified recombinant domains that distinct T-boxes show significant differences in the affinity and kinetics of binding and in conformational stability, with the T-box of Tbx20 displaying molten globule character. Our data highlight unique features of Tbx20 and suggest mechanistic ways in which cardiac T-box factors might interact synergistically and/or competitively within the cardiac regulatory network.

  4. Synthesis of partially stabilized leucite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloužková, Alexandra; Mrázová, Martina; Kohoutková, Martina

    2007-05-01

    Leucite is the dominating crystalline phase in most feldspathic dental porcelains used for ceramic-fused-to-metal restorations. The stable form of leucite at room temperature is a tetragonal one, which undergoes a phase transition to cubic form at 625 °C. This transformation is associated with 1.2% volume contraction that leads to the formation of microcracks in and around the crystals. The high amount of tetragonal leucite crystals may be the reason of developing large flaws within the glass matrix that would lead to a decrease of mechanical properties. Potentially, cesium-stabilized cubic leucite could be added to leucite porcelains to increase crystalline content without increasing flaw size and frequency. The aim of this work was to develop a suitable and reproducible technology for the preparation of cubic leucite. Previously, the hydrothermal synthesis of tetragonal leucite was described. This method was modified for the preparation of cubic leucite. It was found that the final products consist of both tetragonal and cubic leucite up to 9.52 mol% of Cs2O. Above this value fully stabilized leucite was observed. It was proved that the products of the hydrothermal syntheses are formed by spherolites having particle size of approximately 2 μm that consist of particles tens of nm in size.

  5. Box-Behnken study design for optimization of bicalutamide-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier: stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Kudarha, Ritu; Dhas, Namdev L; Pandey, Abhijeet; Belgamwar, Veena S; Ige, Pradum P

    2015-01-01

    Bicalutamide (BCM) is an anti-androgen drug used to treat prostate cancer. In this study, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were chosen as a carrier for delivery of BCM using Box-Behnken (BB) design for optimizing various quality attributes such as particle size and entrapment efficiency which is very critical for efficient drug delivery and high therapeutic efficacy. Stability of formulated NLCs was assessed with respect to storage stability, pH stability, hemolysis, protein stability, serum protein stability and accelerated stability. Hot high-pressure homogenizer was utilized for formulation of BCM-loaded NLCs. In BB response surface methodology, total lipid, % liquid lipid and % soya lecithin was selected as independent variable and particle size and %EE as dependent variables. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was done for morphological study of NLCs. Differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray diffraction study were used to study crystalline and amorphous behavior. Analysis of design space showed that process was robust with the particle size less than 200 nm and EE up to 78%. Results of stability studies showed stability of carrier in various storage conditions and in different pH condition. From all the above study, it can be concluded that NLCs may be suitable carrier for the delivery of BCM with respect to stability and quality attributes.

  6. Synthesis of Bis(1,2-Dimethylimidazole)Copper(I)Hexafluorophosphate: An Experiment Using a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niewahner, J. H.; Walters, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed description of the synthesis of bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate by using techniques in a glove box is presented. The results shows that the synthesis of the copper complex has a distinct color change indicating by-product oxidation by oxygen.

  7. Synthesis of Bis(1,2-Dimethylimidazole)Copper(I)Hexafluorophosphate: An Experiment Using a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niewahner, J. H.; Walters, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed description of the synthesis of bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate by using techniques in a glove box is presented. The results shows that the synthesis of the copper complex has a distinct color change indicating by-product oxidation by oxygen.

  8. Thermohaline Circulation Stability: A Box Model Study. Part II: Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Stone, Peter H.

    2005-02-01

    A thorough analysis of the stability of a coupled version of an interhemispheric three-box model of thermohaline circulation (THC) is presented. This study follows a similarly structured analysis of an uncoupled version of the same model presented in Part I of this paper. The model consists of a northern high-latitude box, a tropical box, and a southern high-latitude box, which can be thought of as corresponding to the northern, tropical, and southern Atlantic Ocean, respectively. This paper examines how the strength of THC changes when the system undergoes forcings representing global warming conditions.Since a coupled model is used, a direct representation of the radiative forcing is possible because the main atmospheric physical processes responsible for freshwater and heat fluxes are formulated separately. Each perturbation to the initial equilibrium is characterized by the total radiative forcing realized, by the rate of increase, and by the north-south asymmetry. Although only weakly asymmetric or symmetric radiative forcings are representative of physically reasonable conditions, general asymmetric forcings are considered in order to get a more complete picture of the mathematical properties of the system. The choice of suitably defined metrics makes it possible to determine the boundary dividing the set of radiative forcing scenarios that lead the system to equilibria characterized by a THC pattern similar to the present one, from those that drive the system to equilibria where the THC is reversed. This paper also considers different choices for the atmospheric transport parameterizations and for the ratio between the high-latitude and tropical radiative forcing. It is generally found that fast forcings are more effective than slow forcings in disrupting the present THC pattern, forcings that are stronger in the northern box are also more effective in destabilizing the system, and very slow forcings do not destabilize the system whatever their asymmetry

  9. Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 15 regulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    McDaneld, T G; Hannon, K; Moody, D E

    2006-06-01

    Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 15 (ASB15) is an Asb family member expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. We have previously reported that ASB15 mRNA abundance decreases after administration of beta-adrenergic receptor agonists. Because beta-adrenergic receptor agonists are known to stimulate muscle hypertrophy, the objective of this study was to determine whether ASB15 regulates cellular processes that contribute to muscle growth. Stable myoblast C2C12 cells expressing full-length ASB15 (ASB15-FL) and ASB15 lacking the ankyrin repeat (ASB15-Ank) or SOCS box (ASB15-SOCS) motifs were evaluated for changes in proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis, and protein degradation. Expression of ASB15-FL caused a delay in differentiation, followed by an increase in protein synthesis of approximately 34% (P<0.05). A consistent effect of ASB15 overexpression was observed in vivo, where ectopic expression of ASB15 increased skeletal muscle fiber area (P<0.0001) after 9 days. Expression of ASB15-SOCS altered differentiation of myoblasts, resulting in detachment of cells from culture plates. Expression of ASB15-Ank increased protein degradation by 84 h of differentiation (P<0.05), and in vivo ectopic expression of an ASB15 construct lacking both the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box motifs decreased skeletal muscle fiber area (P<0.0001). Together, these results suggest ASB15 participates in the regulation of protein turnover and muscle cell development by stimulating protein synthesis and regulating differentiation of muscle cells. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for an Asb family member in skeletal muscle growth.

  10. Box C/D sRNA stem ends act as stabilizing anchors for box C/D di-sRNPs

    PubMed Central

    Yip, W. S. Vincent; Shigematsu, Hideki; Taylor, David W.; Baserga, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) modifications are essential for ribosome function in all cellular organisms. Box C/D small (nucleolar) ribonucleoproteins [s(no)RNPs] catalyze 2′-O-methylation, one rRNA modification type in Eukarya and Archaea. Negatively stained electron microscopy (EM) models of archaeal box C/D sRNPs have demonstrated the dimeric sRNP (di-sRNP) architecture, which has been corroborated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Due to limitations of the structural techniques, the orientation of the box C/D sRNAs has remained unclear. Here, we have used cryo-EM to elucidate the sRNA orientation in a M. jannaschii box C/D di-sRNP. The cryo-EM reconstruction suggests a parallel orientation of the two sRNAs. Biochemical and structural analyses of sRNPs assembled with mutant sRNAs indicate a potential interaction between the sRNA stem ends. Our results suggest that the parallel arrangement of the sRNAs juxtaposes their stem ends into close proximity to allow for a stabilizing interaction that helps maintain the di-sRNP architecture. PMID:27342279

  11. The F-box protein ZEITLUPE controls stability and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of GIGANTEA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongsik; Geng, Ruishuang; Gallenstein, Richard A; Somers, David E

    2013-10-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of core clock components is essential for the proper operation of the circadian system. Previous work has shown that the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and clock element GIGANTEA (GI) heterodimerize in the cytosol, thereby stabilizing ZTL. Here, we report that ZTL post-translationally and reciprocally regulates protein levels and nucleocytoplasmic distribution of GI in Arabidopsis. We use ectopic expression of the N-terminus of ZTL, which contains the novel, light-absorbing region of ZTL (the LOV domain), transient expression assays and ztl mutants to establish that the levels of ZTL, a cytosolic protein, help govern the abundance and distribution of GI in the cytosol and nucleus. Ectopic expression of the ZTL N-terminus lengthens period, delays flowering time and alters hypocotyl length. We demonstrate that these phenotypes can be explained by the competitive interference of the LOV domain with endogenous GI-ZTL interactions. A complex of the ZTL N-terminus polypeptide with endogenous GI (LOV-GI) blocks normal GI function, causing degradation of endogenous ZTL and inhibition of other GI-related phenotypes. Increased cytosolic retention of GI by the LOV-GI complex additionally inhibits nuclear roles of GI, thereby lengthening flowering time. Hence, we conclude that under endogenous conditions, GI stabilization and cytoplasmic retention occurs naturally through a LOV domain-mediated GI-ZTL interaction, and that ZTL indirectly regulates GI nuclear pools by sequestering GI to the cytosol. As the absence of either GI or ZTL compromises clock function and diminishes the protein abundance of the other, our results highlight how their reciprocal co-stabilization is essential for robust circadian oscillations.

  12. The F-box protein ZEITLUPE controls stability and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of GIGANTEA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongsik; Geng, Ruishuang; Gallenstein, Richard A.; Somers, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of core clock components is essential for the proper operation of the circadian system. Previous work has shown that the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and clock element GIGANTEA (GI) heterodimerize in the cytosol, thereby stabilizing ZTL. Here, we report that ZTL post-translationally and reciprocally regulates protein levels and nucleocytoplasmic distribution of GI in Arabidopsis. We use ectopic expression of the N-terminus of ZTL, which contains the novel, light-absorbing region of ZTL (the LOV domain), transient expression assays and ztl mutants to establish that the levels of ZTL, a cytosolic protein, help govern the abundance and distribution of GI in the cytosol and nucleus. Ectopic expression of the ZTL N-terminus lengthens period, delays flowering time and alters hypocotyl length. We demonstrate that these phenotypes can be explained by the competitive interference of the LOV domain with endogenous GI-ZTL interactions. A complex of the ZTL N-terminus polypeptide with endogenous GI (LOV-GI) blocks normal GI function, causing degradation of endogenous ZTL and inhibition of other GI-related phenotypes. Increased cytosolic retention of GI by the LOV-GI complex additionally inhibits nuclear roles of GI, thereby lengthening flowering time. Hence, we conclude that under endogenous conditions, GI stabilization and cytoplasmic retention occurs naturally through a LOV domain-mediated GI-ZTL interaction, and that ZTL indirectly regulates GI nuclear pools by sequestering GI to the cytosol. As the absence of either GI or ZTL compromises clock function and diminishes the protein abundance of the other, our results highlight how their reciprocal co-stabilization is essential for robust circadian oscillations. PMID:24004949

  13. Synthesis of stabilized alpha-helical peptides.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Federico; Katz, Samuel G

    2014-01-01

    Stabilized alpha-helical (SAH) peptides are valuable laboratory tools to explore important protein-protein interactions. Whereas most peptides lose their secondary structure when isolated from the host protein, stapled peptides incorporate an all-hydrocarbon "staple" that reinforces their natural alpha-helical structure. Thus, stapled peptides retain their functional ability to bind their native protein targets and serve multiple experimental uses. First, they are useful for structural studies such as NMR or crystal structures that map and better define binding sites. Second, they can be used to identify small molecules that specifically target that interaction site. Third, stapled peptides can be used to test the importance of specific amino acid residues or posttranslational modifications to the binding. Fourth, they can serve as structurally competent bait to identify novel binding partners to specific alpha-helical motifs. In addition to markedly improved alpha-helicity, stapled peptides also display resistance to protease cleavage and enhanced cell permeability. Most importantly, they are useful for intracellular experiments that explore the functional consequences of blocking particular protein interactions. Because of their remarkable stability, stapled peptides can be applied to whole-animal, in vivo studies. Here we describe a protocol for the synthesis of a peptide that incorporates an all-hydrocarbon "staple" employing a ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction. With proper optimization, stapled peptides can be a fundamental, accurate laboratory tool in the modern chemical biologist's armory.

  14. Dosage delivery of sensitive reagents enables glove-box-free synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sather, Aaron C.; Lee, Hong Geun; Colombe, James R.; Zhang, Anni; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-08-01

    Contemporary organic chemists employ a broad range of catalytic and stoichiometric methods to construct molecules for applications in the material sciences, and as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and sensors. The utility of a synthetic method may be greatly reduced if it relies on a glove box to enable the use of air- and moisture-sensitive reagents or catalysts. Furthermore, many synthetic chemistry laboratories have numerous containers of partially used reagents that have been spoiled by exposure to the ambient atmosphere. This is exceptionally wasteful from both an environmental and a cost perspective. Here we report an encapsulation method for stabilizing and storing air- and moisture-sensitive compounds. We demonstrate this approach in three contexts, by describing single-use capsules that contain all of the reagents (catalysts, ligands, and bases) necessary for the glove-box-free palladium-catalysed carbon-fluorine, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. This strategy should reduce the number of error-prone, tedious and time-consuming weighing procedures required for such syntheses and should be applicable to a wide range of reagents, catalysts, and substrate combinations.

  15. Dosage delivery of sensitive reagents enables glove-box-free synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sather, Aaron C; Lee, Hong Geun; Colombe, James R; Zhang, Anni; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2015-08-13

    Contemporary organic chemists employ a broad range of catalytic and stoichiometric methods to construct molecules for applications in the material sciences, and as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and sensors. The utility of a synthetic method may be greatly reduced if it relies on a glove box to enable the use of air- and moisture-sensitive reagents or catalysts. Furthermore, many synthetic chemistry laboratories have numerous containers of partially used reagents that have been spoiled by exposure to the ambient atmosphere. This is exceptionally wasteful from both an environmental and a cost perspective. Here we report an encapsulation method for stabilizing and storing air- and moisture-sensitive compounds. We demonstrate this approach in three contexts, by describing single-use capsules that contain all of the reagents (catalysts, ligands, and bases) necessary for the glove-box-free palladium-catalysed carbon-fluorine, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. This strategy should reduce the number of error-prone, tedious and time-consuming weighing procedures required for such syntheses and should be applicable to a wide range of reagents, catalysts, and substrate combinations.

  16. COSAL: A black-box compressible stability analysis code for transition prediction in three-dimensional boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    A fast computer code COSAL for transition prediction in three dimensional boundary layers using compressible stability analysis is described. The compressible stability eigenvalue problem is solved using a finite difference method, and the code is a black box in the sense that no guess of the eigenvalue is required from the user. Several optimization procedures were incorporated into COSAL to calculate integrated growth rates (N factor) for transition correlation for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings using the well known e to the Nth power method. A user's guide to the program is provided.

  17. Expanding the amino acid repertoire of ribosomal polypeptide synthesis via the artificial division of codon boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwane, Yoshihiko; Hitomi, Azusa; Murakami, Hiroshi; Katoh, Takayuki; Goto, Yuki; Suga, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    In ribosomal polypeptide synthesis the library of amino acid building blocks is limited by the manner in which codons are used. Of the proteinogenic amino acids, 18 are coded for by multiple codons and therefore many of the 61 sense codons can be considered redundant. Here we report a method to reduce the redundancy of codons by artificially dividing codon boxes to create vacant codons that can then be reassigned to non-proteinogenic amino acids and thereby expand the library of genetically encoded amino acids. To achieve this, we reconstituted a cell-free translation system with 32 in vitro transcripts of transfer RNASNN (tRNASNN) (S = G or C), assigning the initiator and 20 elongator amino acids. Reassignment of three redundant codons was achieved by replacing redundant tRNASNNs with tRNASNNs pre-charged with non-proteinogenic amino acids. As a demonstration, we expressed a 32-mer linear peptide that consists of 20 proteinogenic and three non-proteinogenic amino acids, and a 14-mer macrocyclic peptide that contains more than four non-proteinogenic amino acids.

  18. T-box3 is a ciliary protein and regulates stability of the Gli3 transcription factor to control digit number

    PubMed Central

    Emechebe, Uchenna; Kumar P, Pavan; Rozenberg, Julian M; Moore, Bryn; Firment, Ashley; Mirshahi, Tooraj; Moon, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Crucial roles for T-box3 in development are evident by severe limb malformations and other birth defects caused by T-box3 mutations in humans. Mechanisms whereby T-box3 regulates limb development are poorly understood. We discovered requirements for T-box at multiple stages of mouse limb development and distinct molecular functions in different tissue compartments. Early loss of T-box3 disrupts limb initiation, causing limb defects that phenocopy Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) mutants. Later ablation of T-box3 in posterior limb mesenchyme causes digit loss. In contrast, loss of anterior T-box3 results in preaxial polydactyly, as seen with dysfunction of primary cilia or Gli3-repressor. Remarkably, T-box3 is present in primary cilia where it colocalizes with Gli3. T-box3 interacts with Kif7 and is required for normal stoichiometry and function of a Kif7/Sufu complex that regulates Gli3 stability and processing. Thus, T-box3 controls digit number upstream of Shh-dependent (posterior mesenchyme) and Shh-independent, cilium-based (anterior mesenchyme) Hedgehog pathway function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07897.001 PMID:27046536

  19. Big Box, Little Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This article presents activities for young children in child care settings using boxes of various sizes. Suggestions include making shape sorters and sensory boxes for infants and toddlers, and constructing personal collection boxes, book boxes, games, and playhouses for older children. (Author/KB)

  20. The Laser Synthesis of Linear Polyynes: The Particle in a Box Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bruce D.; Gordon, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, linear polyynes are synthesized and then the predictions of a one-dimensional, particle in a box are used to calculate the quantum mechanical box length for the polyynes. A solution of graphite in ethanol is irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and the resulting solution is filtered and analyzed. Data from gas…

  1. The Laser Synthesis of Linear Polyynes: The Particle in a Box Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Bruce D.; Gordon, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, linear polyynes are synthesized and then the predictions of a one-dimensional, particle in a box are used to calculate the quantum mechanical box length for the polyynes. A solution of graphite in ethanol is irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and the resulting solution is filtered and analyzed. Data from gas…

  2. The stability of the compression cover of box beams stiffened by posts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seide, Paul; Barrett, Paul F

    1951-01-01

    An investigation is made of the buckling of the compression cover of post-stiffened box beams subjected to end moments. Charts are presented for the determination of the minimum post axial stiffnesses and the corresponding compressive buckling loads required for the compression cover to buckle with nodes through the posts. Application of the charts to design and analysis and the limitations of their use are discussed.

  3. Synthesis of metallic nanoshells on porphyrin-stabilized emulsions

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Haorong; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2011-12-13

    Metal nanostructures formed by photocatalytic interfacial synthesis using a porphyrin-stabilized emulsion template and the method for making the nanostructures. Catalyst-seeded emulsion droplets are employed as templates for hollow-nanoshell growth. The hollow metal nanospheres may be formed with or without inclusions of other materials.

  4. Transcription reinitiation rate: a potential role for TATA box stabilization of the TFIID:TFIIA:DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Yean, D; Gralla, J D

    1999-02-01

    Potential pathways that could account for observed rapid rates of transcription reinitiation were explored. A nuclear extract system was established in which reinitiation rates were observed to be kinetically facilitated and in which the rate was sensitive to TATA box mutation. Kinetic facilitation of functional complex formation could be mimicked by pre-assembling activator and certain general transcription factors on the promoter and then adding nuclear extract. The minimal activated complex with this characteristic contained general factors TFIID and TFIIA. The ability of the TFIID:TFIIA complex to complete assembly rapidly was reduced by the same TATA box mutation that reduced reinitiation rate. Band shift experiments also showed that this same mutation lowered the stability of the TBP:TFIIA complex on the DNA. The results suggest that TATA-dependent variations in retention of the TFIID:TFIIA complex after release of the polymerase could be a primary determinant of reinitiation rate, allowing diversity in promoter strength to be related to diversity in TATA element sequences.

  5. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  6. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  7. HSP90 functions in the circadian clock through stabilization of the client F-box protein ZEITLUPE.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-sung; Kim, Woe Yeon; Fujiwara, Sumire; Kim, Jeongsik; Cha, Joon-Yung; Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol; Somers, David E

    2011-10-04

    The autoregulatory loops of the circadian clock consist of feedback regulation of transcription/translation circuits but also require finely coordinated cytoplasmic and nuclear proteostasis. Although protein degradation is important to establish steady-state levels, maturation into their active conformation also factors into protein homeostasis. HSP90 facilitates the maturation of a wide range of client proteins, and studies in metazoan clocks implicate HSP90 as an integrator of input or output. Here we show that the Arabidopsis circadian clock-associated F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is a unique client for cytoplasmic HSP90. The HSP90-specific inhibitor geldanamycin and RNAi-mediated depletion of cytoplasmic HSP90 reduces levels of ZTL and lengthens circadian period, consistent with ztl loss-of-function alleles. Transient transfection of artificial microRNA targeting cytoplasmic HSP90 genes similarly lengthens period. Proteolytic targets of SCF(ZTL), TOC1 and PRR5, are stabilized in geldanamycin-treated seedlings, whereas the levels of closely related clock proteins, PRR3 and PRR7, are unchanged. An in vitro holdase assay, typically used to demonstrate chaperone activity, shows that ZTL can be effectively bound, and aggregation prevented, by HSP90. GIGANTEA, a unique stabilizer of ZTL, may act in the same pathway as HSP90, possibly linking these two proteins to a similar mechanism. Our findings establish maturation of ZTL by HSP90 as essential for proper function of the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Unlike metazoan systems, HSP90 functions here within the core oscillator. Additionally, F-box proteins as clients may place HSP90 in a unique and more central role in proteostasis.

  8. Differential stability of TATA box binding proteins from archaea with different optimal growth temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopitz, Annette; Soppa, Jörg; Krejtschi, Carsten; Hauser, Karin

    2009-09-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is involved in promoter recognition, the first step of transcription initiation. TBP is universally conserved and essential in archaea and eukaryotes. In archaea, TBPs have to be stable and to function in species that cover an extremely wide range of optimal growth temperatures (OGTs), from below 0 °C to more than 100 °C. Thus, the archaeal TBP family is ideally suited to study the evolutionary adaptation of proteins to an extremely wide range of temperatures. We characterized the thermostability of one mesophilic and one thermophilic TBP by infrared spectroscopy. Transition temperatures ( Tms) of thermal unfolding have been determined using TBPs from Methanosarcina mazei (OGT 37 °C) and from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (OGT 65 °C). Furthermore, the influence of protein and salt concentration on thermostability has been characterized. Together with previous studies, our results reveal that the Tms of archaeal TBPs are closely correlated with the OGTs of the respective species. Noteworthy, this is also true for the TBP from M. mazei representing the first characterized TBP from a mesophilic archaeon. In contrast, the only characterized eukaryotic TBP of the mesophilic plant Arabidopsis thaliana has a Tm more than 40 °C above the OGT.

  9. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  10. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  11. The F box protein partner of paired regulates stability of Drosophila centromeric histone H3, CenH3(CID).

    PubMed

    Moreno-Moreno, Olga; Medina-Giró, Sònia; Torras-Llort, Mònica; Azorín, Fernando

    2011-09-13

    Centromere identity and function is determined by the specific localization of CenH3 (reviewed in [1-7]). Several mechanisms regulate centromeric CenH3 localization, including proteasome-mediated degradation that, both in budding yeast and Drosophila, regulates CenH3 levels and prevents promiscuous misincorporation throughout chromatin [8, 9]. CenH3(CENP-A) proteolysis has also been reported in senescent human cells [10] or upon infection with herpes simplex virus 1 [11]. Little is known, however, about the actual mechanisms that regulate CenH3 proteolysis. Recent work in budding yeast identified Psh1 as an E3-ubiquitin ligase that mediates degradation of CenH3(Cse4p) [12, 13], but E3-ligases regulating CenH3 stability in metazoans are unknown. Here, we report that the F box protein partner of paired (Ppa), which is a variable subunit of the main E3-ligase SCF [14-17], mediates CenH3(CID) stability in Drosophila. Our results show that Ppa depletion results in increased CenH3(CID) levels. Ppa physically interacts with CenH3(CID) through the CATD(CID) that, in the fly, mediates Ppa-dependent CenH3(CID) stability. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that, in Drosophila, SCF(Ppa) regulates CenH3(CID) proteolysis. Interestingly, most known SCF complexes are inactive when, at mitosis, de novo CenH3(CID) deposition takes place at centromeres, suggesting that, in Drosophila, CenH3(CID) deposition and proteolysis are synchronized events.

  12. SIRT7 and the DEAD-box helicase DDX21 cooperate to resolve genomic R loops and safeguard genome stability.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenlin; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Voit, Renate; Grummt, Ingrid

    2017-08-08

    R loops are three-stranded nucleic acid structures consisting of an RNA:DNA heteroduplex and a "looped-out" nontemplate strand. As aberrant formation and persistence of R loops block transcription elongation and cause DNA damage, mechanisms that resolve R loops are essential for genome stability. Here we show that the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box RNA helicase DDX21 efficiently unwinds R loops and that depletion of DDX21 leads to accumulation of cellular R loops and DNA damage. Significantly, the activity of DDX21 is regulated by acetylation. Acetylation by CBP inhibits DDX21 activity, while deacetylation by SIRT7 augments helicase activity and overcomes R-loop-mediated stalling of RNA polymerases. Knockdown of SIRT7 leads to the same phenotype as depletion of DDX21 (i.e., increased formation of R loops and DNA double-strand breaks), indicating that SIRT7 and DDX21 cooperate to prevent R-loop accumulation, thus safeguarding genome integrity. Moreover, DDX21 resolves estrogen-induced R loops on estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells, which prevents the blocking of transcription elongation on these genes. © 2017 Song et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Carbohydrate protease conjugates: Stabilized proteases for peptide synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wartchow, C.A.; Wang, Peng; Bednarski, M.D.; Callstrom, M.R. |

    1995-12-31

    The synthesis of oligopeptides using stable carbohydrate protease conjugates (CPCs) was examined in acetonitrile solvent systems. CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin] was used for the preparation of peptides containing histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan in the P{sub 1} position in 60-93% yield. The CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin]-catalyzed synthesis of octamer Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-OEt from Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-OMe was achieved in 71% yield demonstrating that synthesis peptides containing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic amino acids. The P{sub 2} specificity of papain for aromatic residues was utilized for the 2 + 3 coupling of Z-Tyr-Gly-OMe to H{sub 2}N-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH to generate the leucine enkephalin derivative in 79% yield. Although papain is nonspecific for the hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters in aqueous solution, the rates of synthesis for these derivitives with nucleophile leucine tert-butyl ester differed by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. CPC[thermolysin] was used to prepare the aspartame precursor Z-Asp-Phe-OMe in 90% yield. The increased stability of CPCs prepared from periodate-modified poly(2-methacryl- amido-2-deoxy-D-glucose), poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose), and poly(5-methacryl-amido-5-deoxy-D-ribose), carbohydrate materials designed to increase the aldehyde concentration in aqueous solution, suggests that the stability of CPCs is directly related to the aldehyde concentration of the carbohydrate material. Periodate oxidation of poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose) followed by covalent attachment to {alpha}-chymotrypsin gave a CPC with catalytic activity in potassium phosphate buffer at 90{degrees}C for 2 h. 1 fig., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  14. Fluorinated proteins: from design and synthesis to structure and stability.

    PubMed

    Marsh, E Neil G

    2014-10-21

    Fluorine is all but absent from biology; however, it has proved to be a remarkably useful element with which to modulate the activity of biological molecules and to study their mechanism of action. Our laboratory's interest in incorporating fluorine into proteins was stimulated by the unusual physicochemical properties exhibited by perfluorinated small molecules. These include extreme chemical inertness and thermal stability, properties that have made them valuable as nonstick coatings and fire retardants. Fluorocarbons also exhibit an unusual propensity to phase segregation. This phenomenon, which has been termed the "fluorous effect", has been effectively exploited in organic synthesis to purify compounds from reaction mixtures by extracting fluorocarbon-tagged molecules into fluorocarbon solvents. As biochemists, we were curious to explore whether the unusual physicochemical properties of perfluorocarbons could be engineered into proteins. To do this, we developed a synthesis of a highly fluorinated amino acid, hexafluoroleucine, and designed a model 4-helix bundle protein, α4H, in which the hydrophobic core was packed exclusively with leucine. We then investigated the effects of repacking the hydrophobic core of α4H with various combinations of leucine and hexafluoroleucine. These initial studies demonstrated that fluorination is a general and effective strategy for enhancing the stability of proteins against chemical and thermal denaturation and proteolytic degradation. We had originally envisaged that the "fluorous interactions", postulated from the self-segregating properties of fluorous solvents, might be used to mediate specific protein-protein interactions orthogonal to those of natural proteins. However, various lines of evidence indicate that no special, favorable fluorine-fluorine interactions occur in the core of the fluorinated α4 protein. This makes it unlikely that fluorinated amino acids can be used to direct protein-protein interactions. More

  15. Aqueous synthesis and processing of nanosized yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimel, Robert Allen

    The goal of this study is the production of bulk ceramics from well-dispersed nanosized aqueous ceramic suspensions via wet processing routes. In order to obtain this goal, yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) was used as a model system to develop an understanding of and ability to manipulate the solution chemistry parameters of solution pH, solid loading, zeta potential and complexation chemistry in order to accomplish synthesis and processing of nanosized doped metal oxide powders in an aqueous environment. The objective of the aqueous degradation study was to establish the mechanism(s) controlling degradation of 3Y-TZP powder in aqueous suspensions at room temperature and determine the effect of this degradation on the aqueous physical chemistry of 3Y-TZP. This objective was accomplished by performing experiments on commercially available 3Y-TZP powder placed in aqueous suspensions at 25°C. It was determined that the mechanism of aqueous degradation of 3Y-TZP at room temperature was yttrium leaching. Furthermore, it was determined that the addition of oxalic acid to the aqueous suspension of 3Y-TZP impeded the aqueous degradation by interaction with the 3Y-TZP powder surface. The objective of the synthesis study was to produce well-dispersed nanosized yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) powder in aqueous suspension. Once the nominally 7 to 8 nanometer hydrothermally prepared 1.7 Y-TZP powder was produced, experiments were begun to disperse, recover and concentrate by washing the powder via centrifugation. Centrifugation without irreversible aggregate formation was possible by taking advantage of a protective colloid formation. Protection was provided after synthesis by bicine, the synthesis complexation agent. The change in the surface chemistry of the 1.7Y-TZP powder as a function of washing was monitored by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and solution chemistry analysis for metal ions in solution

  16. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, Alessandra Cacciotti, Ilaria; Lombardi, Mariangela Montanaro, Laura

    2009-02-04

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O and (b) titration of Ca(OH){sub 2}. The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m{sup 2}/g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH){sub 2} were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH){sub 2}.

  17. Synthesis, Structure, Stability and Redispersion of Gold-based Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiruvalam, Ram Chandra

    Nanoscale gold has been shown to possess an intriguing combination of unexpected optical, photochemical and catalytic properties. The ability to control the size, shape, morphology, composition and dispersion of gold-based nanostructures is key to optimizing their performance for nanotechnology applications. The advanced electron microscopy studies described in this thesis analyze three important aspects of gold and gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles: namely, (i) the ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape in an aqueous medium; (ii) the colloidal preparation of designer gold-palladium alloys for selective oxidation catalysis; and (iii) the ability to disperse gold as finely and homogeneously as possible on a metal oxide or carbon support. The ability to exploit the nanoscale properties of gold for various engineering applications often depends on our ability to control size and shape of the nanoscale entity by careful manipulation of the synthesis parameters. We have explored an aqueous based synthesis route, using oleylamine as both a reductant and surfactant, for preparing gold nanostructures. By systematically varying synthesis parameters such as oleylamine concentration, reaction temperature, and aging time it is possible to identify processing regimens that generate Au nanostructures having either pseudo-spherical, faceted polyhedral, nanostar or wire shaped morphologies. Furthermore, by quenching the reaction partway through it is possible to create a class of metastable Au-containing structures such as nanocubes, nanoboxes and nanowires. Possible formation mechanisms for these gold based nano-objects are discussed. There is a growing interest in using supported bimetallic AuPd alloy nanoparticles for selective oxidation reactions. In this study, a systematic series of size controlled AuPd bimetallic particles have been prepared by colloidal synthesis methods. Particles having random alloy structures, as well as `designer

  18. Synthesis and stereospecificity of 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidinone ligands binding to T-box riboswitch RNA

    PubMed Central

    Orac, Crina M.; Zhou, Shu; Means, John A.; Boehm, David; Bergmeier, Stephen C.; Hines, Jennifer V.

    2012-01-01

    The enantiomers and the cis isomers of two previously studied 4,5-disubstituted oxazolidinones have been synthesized and their binding to the T-box riboswitch antiterminator model RNA investigated in detail. Characterization of ligand affinities and binding site localization indicate that there is little stereospecific discrimination for binding antiterminator RNA alone. This binding similarity between enantiomers is likely due to surface binding, which accommodates ligand conformations that result in comparable ligand-antiterminator contacts. These results have significant implications for T-box antiterminator-targeted drug discovery and, in general, for targeting other medicinally relevant RNA that do not present deep binding pockets. PMID:21812425

  19. Boxed In!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Early years practitioners know what parents are reminded of every Christmas Day--it does not matter how long families spend carefully selecting the presents, the children are likely to spend longer playing with the empty boxes! Children are fascinated with boxes and practitioners can capitalise on this and support early mathematical development…

  20. Bento Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  1. Bento Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  2. The 32nd CDC: Robust stabilizer synthesis for interval plants using Nevanlina-pick theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhattacharya, Saikat; Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1989-01-01

    The synthesis of robustly stabilizing compensators for interval plants, i.e., plants whose parameters vary within prescribed ranges is discussed. Well-known H(sup infinity) methods are used to establish robust stabilizability conditions for a family of plants and also to synthesize controllers that would stabilize the whole family. Though conservative, these methods give a very simple way to come up with a family of robust stabilizers for an interval plant.

  3. Biosurfactants as green stabilizers for the biological synthesis of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph; Manilal, Aseer; Sujith, S

    2011-12-01

    Taking into consideration the needs of greener bioprocesses and novel enhancers for synthesis using microbial processes, biosurfactants, and/or biosurfactant producing microbes are emerging as an alternate source for the rapid synthesis of nanoparticles. A microemulsion technique using an oil-water-surfactant mixture was shown to be a promising approach for nanoparticle synthesis. Biosurfactants are natural surfactants derived from microbial origin composed mostly of sugar and fatty acid moieties, they have higher biodegradability, lower toxicity, and excellent biological activities. The biosurfactant mediated process and microbial synthesis of nanoparticles are now emerging as clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable "green chemistry" procedures. The biosurfactant-mediated synthesis is superior to the methods of bacterial- or fungal-mediated nanoparticle synthesis, since biosurfactants reduce the formation of aggregates due to the electrostatic forces of attraction and facilitate a uniform morphology of the nanoparticles. In this review, we highlight the biosurfactant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles with relevant details including a greener bioprocess, sources of biosurfactants, and biological synthesized nanoparticles based on the available literature and laboratory findings.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Heteroatom-Doped and Hierarchical Egg-Box-Like Carbons Derived from Moringa oleifera Branches for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yijin; Luo, Ying; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Xiao; Liang, Yeru; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Sun, Luyi; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao

    2016-12-07

    In this paper, we demonstrate that Moringa oleifera branches, a renewable biomass waste with abundant protein content, can be employed as novel precursor to synthesize three-dimensional heteroatom-doped and hierarchical egg-box-like carbons (HEBLCs) by a facile room-temperature pretreatment and direct pyrolysis process. The as-prepared HEBLCs possess unique egg-box-like frameworks, high surface area, and interconnected porosity as well as the doping of heteroatoms (oxygen and nitrogen), endowing its excellent electrochemical performances (superior capacity, high rate capability, and outstanding cycling stability). Therefore, the resultant HEBLC manifests a maximum specific capacitance of 355 F g(-1) at current density of 0.5 A g(-1) and remarkable rate performance. Moreover, 95% of capacitance retention of HEBLCs can be also achieved after 20 000 charge-discharge cycles at an extremely high current density (20 A g(-1)), indicating a prominent cycling stability. Furthermore, the as-assembled HEBLC//HEBLC symmetric supercapacitor displays a superior energy density of 20 Wh kg(-1) in aqueous electrolyte and remarkable capacitance retention (95.6%) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. This work provides an environmentally friendly and reliable method to produce higher-valued carbon nanomaterials from renewable biomass wastes for energy storage applications.

  5. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  6. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Processable Polyimides with Enhanced Thermal Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1999-01-01

    The following is a summary report of the research carried out under NASA Grant NAG-1-448. The work was divided into four major areas: 1) Enhanced polyimide processing through the use of reactive plasticizers 2) Development of processable polyhenylquinoxalines 3) Synthesis and characterization of perfluorovinylether-terminated imide oligomers and 4) Fluorosilicones containing perfuorocyclobutane rings.

  8. ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles: chelator-controlled nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenlee, Lauren F.; Rentz, Nikki S.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we characterize iron nanoparticles synthesized in water in the presence of a phosphonate chelator, amino tris(methylene phosphonic acid) (ATMP) for a range of molar ratios of ATMP to iron. An increase in the molar ratio from 0.05 to 0.8 decreases nanoparticle size from approximately 150 nm to less than 10 nm. Zeta potential measurements were used to evaluate colloidal stability. Zeta potential values varied as a function of pH, and zeta potential values decreased with increasing pH. At lower molar ratios of ATMP to iron, the zeta potential varied between 15 and -40 mV, passing through an isoelectric point at pH 7.5. At higher ratios, the zeta potential was negative across the measured pH range of 2-12 and varied from -2 to -55 mV. Diffraction analysis indicates that ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles may have a nano-crystalline structure, potentially with regions of amorphous iron. Characterization results of ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles are compared to results obtained for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized iron nanoparticles. CMC stabilization caused similar peak broadening in diffraction spectra as for ATMP, suggesting similar nano-crystalline/amorphous structure; however, an increase in the molar ratio of CMC to iron did not cause the same reduction in nanoparticle size as was observed for ATMP-stabilized iron nanoparticles.

  9. Exploding Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney; Jan

    2011-01-01

    How do you teach the "same old, same old" in an interesting and inexpensive way? Art teachers are forever looking for new angles on the good-old elements and principles. And, as budgets tighten, they are trying to be as frugal as possible while still holding their students' attention. Enter exploding boxes! In conceptualizing the three types of…

  10. Exploding Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney; Jan

    2011-01-01

    How do you teach the "same old, same old" in an interesting and inexpensive way? Art teachers are forever looking for new angles on the good-old elements and principles. And, as budgets tighten, they are trying to be as frugal as possible while still holding their students' attention. Enter exploding boxes! In conceptualizing the three types of…

  11. One-pot synthesis of Pd@MOF composites without the addition of stabilizing agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyu; Chen, Huirong; Li, Yingwei

    2014-12-07

    In this work, the first example of a facile one-pot route for the synthesis of Pd@MOF composites without additional stabilizing agents is developed. The as-synthesized MOF composite shows high activity and chemoselectivity in the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde even under atmosphere pressure of H2 and at room temperature.

  12. High-temperature stabilization by air of a pyrophoric catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Krylova, A.V.; Ustimenko, G.A.

    1982-12-01

    The reaction of a catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia with air at 480 to 520/sup 0/C leads to the formation on the surface of a thin protective oxide structure that eliminates its pyrophoric character. High-temperature stabilization by air is a considerably faster process than passivation and leads to the production of catalysts with increased resistance to oxidation.

  13. Facile synthesis of Ag@Au core-sheath nanowires with greatly improved stability against oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miaoxin; Hood, Zachary D; Yang, Xuan; Chi, Miaofang; Xia, Younan

    2017-02-07

    We report a facile synthesis of Ag@Au core-sheath nanowires through the conformal deposition of Au atoms onto the surface of pre-synthesized Ag nanowires. The resulting Ag@Au nanowires showed morphology and optical properties almost identical to the pristine Ag nanowires, but with greatly improved stability under different corrosive environments.

  14. Long non-coding RNA stabilizes the Y-box-binding protein 1 and regulates the epidermal growth factor receptor to promote lung carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun-Chao; Wang, Gui-Zhen; Zhao, Xin-Chun; Pan, Hong-Li; Qu, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Xin; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor air pollution has been classified as group I carcinogen in humans, but the underlying tumorigenesis remains unclear. Here, we screened for abnormal long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in lung cancers from patients living in Xuanwei city which has the highest lung cancer incidence in China due to smoky coal combustion-generated air pollution. We reported that Xuanwei patients had much more dysregulated lncRNAs than patients from control regions where smoky coal was not used. The lncRNA CAR intergenic 10 (CAR10) was up-regulated in 39/62 (62.9%) of the Xuanwei patients, which was much higher than in patients from control regions (32/86, 37.2%; p=0.002). A multivariate regression analysis showed an association between CAR10 overexpression and air pollution, and a smoky coal combustion-generated carcinogen dibenz[a,h]anthracene up-regulated CAR10 by increasing transcription factor FoxF2 expression. CAR10 bound and stabilized transcription factor Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1), leading to up-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and proliferation of lung cancer cells. Knockdown of CAR10 inhibited cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. These results demonstrate the role of lncRNAs in environmental lung carcinogenesis, and CAR10-YB-1 represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27322209

  15. Formulation and optimization of doxorubicin loaded polymeric nanoparticles using Box-Behnken design: ex-vivo stability and in-vitro activity.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Muhammad Vaseem; Kala, Manika; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2017-03-30

    Biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) have gained tremendous interest for targeting chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumor environment. Inspite of several advances sufficient encapsulation along with the controlled release and desired size range have remained as considerable challenges. Hence, the present study examines the formulation optimization of doxorubicin loaded PLGA NPs (DOX-PLGA-NPs), prepared by single emulsion method for cancer targeting. Critical process parameters (CPP) were selected by initial screening. Later, Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used for analyzing the effect of the selected CPP on critical quality attributes (CQA) and to generate a design space. The optimized formulation was stabilized by lyophilization and was used for in-vitro drug release and in-vitro activity on A549 cell line. Moreover, colloidal stability of the NPs in the biological milieu was assessed. Amount of PLGA and PVA, oil:water ratio and sonication time were the selected independent factors for BBD. The statistical data showed that a quadratic model was fitted to the data obtained. Additionally, the lack of fit values for the models was not significant. The delivery system showed sustained release behavior over a period of 120h and was governed by Fickian diffusion. The multipoint analysis at 24, 48 and 72h showed gradual reduction in IC50 value of DOX-PLGA-NPs (p<0.05, Fig. 9). DOX-PLGA-NPs were found to be stable in the biological fluids indicating their in-vivo applicability. In conclusion, optimization of the DOX-PLGA-NPs by BBD yielded in a promising drug carrier for doxorubicin that could provide a novel treatment modality for cancer.

  16. Electron beam assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticle in chitosan stabilizer: Preparation, stability and inhibition of building fungi studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannoo, Kanokwan; Teerapatsakul, Churapa; Punyanut, Adisak; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in chitosan (CS) stabilizer were successfully synthesized using electron beam irradiation. The effects of irradiation dose, molecular weight (MW) of CS stabilizer, concentration of AgNO3 precursor and addition of tert-butanol on AgNPs production were studied. The stability of the AgNPs under different temperatures and storage times were also investigated. The AgNPs formation in CS was observed using UV-vis, FT-IR and XRD. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the obtained AgNPs was around 418 nm. The CS stabilizer and its MW, AgNO3 precursor and irradiation doses are important parameters for the synthesis of AgNPs. The optimum addition of 20% v/v tert-butanol could assist the formation of AgNPs. The AgNPs in CS stabilizer were stable over a period of one year when the samples were kept at 5 °C. The AgNPs observed from TEM images were spherical with an average particle size in the range of 5-20 nm depending on the irradiation doses. The AgNPs in CS solution effectively inhibited the growth of several fungi, i.e., Curvularia lunata, Trichoderma sp., Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus niger, which commonly found on the building surface.

  17. Synthesis of a combined system for precise stabilization of the Spektr-UF observatory: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, I. V.; Voronov, V. A.; Druzhinin, E. I.; Kozlov, R. I.; Ul'yanov, S. A.; Belyaev, B. B.; Telepnev, P. P.; Ul'yashin, A. I.

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents the second part of the results of search studies for the development of a combined system of high-precision stabilization of the optical telescope for the designed Spectr-UF international observatory [1]. A new modification of the strict method of the synthesis of nonlinear discrete-continuous stabilization systems with uncertainties is described, which is based on the minimization of the guaranteed accuracy estimate calculated using vector Lyapunov functions. Using this method, the synthesis of the feedback parameters in the mode of precise inertial stabilization of the optical telescope axis is performed taking the design nonrigidity, quantization of signals over time and level, and errors of orientation meters, as well as the errors and limitation of control moments of executive engine-flywheels into account. The results of numerical experiments that demonstrate the quality of the synthesized system are presented.

  18. Synthesis and thermal stability of carborane containing phosphazenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Basi, R. J.; Parker, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Carborane substituted polyphosphazenes were prepared by the thermal polymerization of phenyl-carboranyl penta chlorocyclotriphosphazene. Successive isothermal vacuum pyrolyses were conducted on the polymer and examined for structural changes by infrared spectroscopy. The degradation products were ascertained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis. It was found that the presence of the carborane group improves the thermal stability of the polymer by retarding the ring chain equilibrium processes of decomposition.

  19. Einstein's boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsen, Travis

    2005-02-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Albert Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the experiment was modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. This paper collects together several formulations of this thought experiment from the literature, analyzes and assesses it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem, and argues for "Einstein's Boxes" taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schrödinger's Cat.

  20. A melt route for the synthesis of activated carbon derived from carton box for high performance symmetric supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dewei; Fang, Guoli; Xue, Tong; Ma, Jinfu; Geng, Guihong

    2016-03-01

    Activated carbon materials have been playing a significant role in addressing the challenges posed with the ever-increasing demand for alternative clean and sustainable energy technologies. In the present study, a facile strategy is proposed for generating porosity in porous carbons by using carton box as the precursor and eutectic NaOH-KOH melt as the activating agent. The prepared carbon materials have a very high specific surface area up to 2731 m2 g-1 with large pore volume of 1.68 cm3 g-1, which is greater than that of only KOH was used at the same mass ratio. Electrochemical studies based on symmetric supercapacitor devices demonstrating that the NaOH-KOH melt activated porous carbon exhibits significantly improved rate capability in the range of 0.5-75 A g-1 despite of the similar specific capacitance with respect to KOH activated carbon at a low current density of 0.5 A g-1. The remarkable deviations in capacitive behavior at high current density for the NaOH-KOH melt activated porous carbon and KOH activated samples highlighting the specific surface area is not the only parameter that determines the capacitive performance especially at high charge-discharge rate.

  1. Homogeneous precipitation synthesis and electrical properties of scandia stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Zhang, Yawen; Liao, Chunsheng; Yan, Chunhua

    2001-12-01

    Homogeneous precipitation employing urea was utilized to prepare ultrafine and weakly-agglomerated 8 mol% scandia-stabilized zirconia (8ScSZ) powders. Their crystal structure, particle and electrical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetry and differential thermal analysis, BET surface area analysis, and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. 8ScSZ polycrystals in a pure cubic phase were obtained after sintering at a low temperature of 600 °C. Elevating sintering temperature can increase the oxide ion conductivity, especially the grain boundary conductivity.

  2. Gemini pyridinium amphiphiles for the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Alea-Reyes, María E; González, Asensio; Calpena, Ana C; Ramos-López, David; de Lapuente, Joaquín; Pérez-García, Lluïsa

    2017-09-15

    Gemini pyridinium-based amphiphiles can play a triple role as: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis facilitator, particle stabilizer and anion recognition centre. The so formed nanoparticles should be able to bind and release anionic drugs. We describe (a) Synthesis, by a phase transfer method, of both new organic media and water soluble AuNPs using gemini-type surfactants based on bis-pyridinium salts as ligands, acting as transfer agents into organic media and also as nanoparticle stabilizers, (b) Examination of their stability in solution, (c) Chemical and physical characterization of the nanoparticles, (d) Toxicity data concerning both the bis-pyridinium ligands and the bis-pyridinium coated nanoparticles, and (e) Study of their ability for delivering anionic pharmaceuticals such as ibuprofen and piroxicam. Pyridinium gemini-type surfactants show the ability to play multiple roles such as transfer agent and stabilizer, as well as ionophores: They are responsible for the preparation, stability, and delivery properties of these AuNPs, which gold core is stabilized by the anions present in the bis-pyridinium salts. The tetrahydropyridine resulting from the reduction of the bis-pyridinium salt is capable of reduce gold, due to its spontaneous oxidation to the corresponding pyridinium salt, leading to the formation of stable AuNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of human transferrin-stabilized gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guével, Xavier; Daum, Nicole; Schneider, Marc

    2011-07-01

    Human transferrin has been biolabelled with gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) using a simple, fast and non-toxic method. These nanocrystals (<2 nm) are stabilized in the protein via sulfur groups and have a high fluorescence emission in the near infrared region (QY = 4.3%; λem = 695 nm). Structural investigation and photophysical measurements show a high population of clusters formed of 22-33 gold atoms covalently bound to the transferrin. In solutions with pH ranging from 5 to 10 and in buffer solutions (PBS, HEPES), those biolabelled proteins exhibit a good stability. No significant quenching effect of the fluorescent transferrin has been detected after iron loading of iron-free transferrin (apoTf) and in the presence of a specific polyclonal antibody. Additionally, antibody-induced agglomeration demonstrates no alteration in the protein activity and the receptor target ability. MTT and Vialight® Plus tests show no cytotoxicity of these labelled proteins in cells (1 µg ml - 1-1 mg ml - 1). Cell line experiments (A549) indicate also an uptake of the iron loaded fluorescent proteins inside cells. These remarkable data highlight the potential of a new type of non-toxic fluorescent transferrin for imaging and targeting.

  4. Synthesis, optical properties, stability, and encapsulation of Cu-nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Ommer; Hussain, Shokit; AL-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Khan, Zaheer

    2015-04-05

    Starch-capped copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were prepared by a chemical reduction method using hydrazine, copper sulfate and starch as reducing, oxidizing and stabilizing agents, respectively, for the first time at room temperature. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction patterns (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The effect of [starch], [hydrazine] and [copper sulfate] on the optical properties of CuNPs were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometrically. The hydrazine concentrations have large impact on the surface Plasmon resonance absorbance, nature of the reaction time curves and reaction rates decreases with [hydrazine]. Starch concentrations have no effect on the path of the CuNPs formation. The hexahedral with some irregular shaped CuNPs were formed in presence of starch with diameter 900 nm. Starch acted as a stabilizing, shape-directing and capping agent during the growth processes. The KI-I2 reagent could not replace CuNps from the inner helical structure of starch.

  5. Synthesis, optical properties, stability, and encapsulation of Cu-nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Ommer; Hussain, Shokit; AL-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Khan, Zaheer

    2015-04-01

    Starch-capped copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were prepared by a chemical reduction method using hydrazine, copper sulfate and starch as reducing, oxidizing and stabilizing agents, respectively, for the first time at room temperature. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction patterns (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The effect of [starch], [hydrazine] and [copper sulfate] on the optical properties of CuNPs were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometrically. The hydrazine concentrations have large impact on the surface Plasmon resonance absorbance, nature of the reaction time curves and reaction rates decreases with [hydrazine]. Starch concentrations have no effect on the path of the CuNPs formation. The hexahedral with some irregular shaped CuNPs were formed in presence of starch with diameter 900 nm. Starch acted as a stabilizing, shape-directing and capping agent during the growth processes. The KI-I2 reagent could not replace CuNps from the inner helical structure of starch.

  6. Sodium meta-autunite colloids: Synthesis, characterization,stability

    SciTech Connect

    zzuoping@lbl.gov

    2004-04-10

    Waste forms of U such as those in the United States Department of Energy's Hanford Site often contain high concentrations of Na and P. Low solubility sodium uranyl phosphates such as sodium meta-autunite have the potential to form mobile colloids that can facilitate transport of this radionuclide. In order to understand the geochemical behavior of uranyl phosphate colloids, we synthesized sodiummeta-autunite colloids, and characterized their morphology, chemical composition, structure, dehydration, and surface charge. The stability of these synthetic plate-shaped colloids was tested with respect to time and pH. The highest aggregation rate was observed at pH 3, and the rate decreases as pH increases, indicating that higher stability of colloid dispersion under neutral and alkaline pH conditions. The synthetic colloids are all negatively charged and no isoelectric points were found over a pH range of 3 to 9. The zeta-potentials of the colloids in the phosphate solution show a strong pH-dependence in the more acidic range over time, but are relatively constant in the neutral and alkaline pH range. The geochemical behavior of the synthetic colloids can be interpreted using DLVO theory. The results suggest that formation of mobile sodium meta-autunite colloids can enhance the transport of U in some contaminated sediments.

  7. Nepenthes khasiana mediated synthesis of stabilized gold nanoparticles: Characterization and biocompatibility studies.

    PubMed

    Dhamecha, Dinesh; Jalalpure, Sunil; Jadhav, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    The current study summarizes a unique green process for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by simple treatment of gold salts with aqueous extract of Nepenthes khasiana (NK)--a red listed medicinal plant and its characterization. Study on the effect of different process parameters like temperature, pH and stirring on surface and stability characteristics has been demonstrated. Formation of GNPs was visually observed by change in color from colorless to wine red and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, Zetasizer, X-RD, ICP-AES, SEM-EDAX, AFM and TEM. In vitro stability studies of gold colloidal dispersion in various blood components suggest that, NK mediated GNPs exhibit remarkable in vitro stability in 2% bovine serum albumin, 2% human serum albumin (HSA), 0.2M histidine, and 0.2M cysteine but unstable in 5% NaCl solution and acidic pH. Biocompatibility of NK stabilized GNPs against normal mouse fibroblasts (L929) cell lines revealed nontoxic nature of GNPs and thus provides exceptional opportunities for their uses as nanomedicine for diagnosis and drug therapy. The role of antioxidant phytochemicals (flavonoids and polyphenols) of NK extract in synthesis of biocompatible and stabilized GNPs was demonstrated by estimating total flavonoid content, total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of extract before and after formation of GNPs. Fast and easy synthesis of biocompatible GNPs possesses unique physical and chemical features which serve as an advantage for its use in various biomedical applications. The overall approach designated in the present research investigation for the synthesis of GNPs is based on all 12 principles of green chemistry, in which no man-made chemical other than the gold chloride was used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Steric stabilization of Pickering emulsions for the efficient synthesis of polymeric microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Salari, Joris W O; van Heck, Jeroen; Klumperman, Bert

    2010-09-21

    It is commonly known that Pickering emulsions are extremely stable against coalescence and are, therefore, potentially interesting for the synthesis of new materials, such as colloidosomes, microcapsules, composite particles, foams, and so on. However, for the efficient synthesis of such materials, one also has to consider the colloidal stability against aggregation, which is often neglected. In this study, it is demonstrated that steric stabilization is provided to Pickering emulsion droplets by the adsorption of poly(styrene-block-ethylene-co-propylene) (pS-b-EP) and that it is a requirement for the efficient synthesis of polymeric microcapsules. Monodisperse polystyrene particles of 648 nm are synthesized by soap-free emulsion polymerization. A model Pickering emulsion is then formed by the addition of sodium chloride at a critical concentration of 325 mM and mixing it with either heptane or decane. Subsequently, pS-b-EP is added to the Pickering emulsion to provide steric stabilization. Size exclusion chromatography is used to prove and quantify the adsorption of pS-b-EP onto the Pickering emulsion droplets. A maximum surface coverage of 1.3 mg/m(2) is obtained after 2 h, which is approximately one-third of the adsorption on a pure pS surface. We believe that the presence of polar sulfate groups on the particle, which initially stabilized the particle in water, reduces the adsorption of pS-b-EP. Microcapsules are formed by heating the Pickering emulsion above the glass-transition temperature of the particles. Significant aggregation is observed, if no pS-b-EP is used. The adsorption of pS-b-EP provides steric stabilization to the Pickering emulsion droplets, reduces aggregation significantly, and ultimately leads to the successful and efficient synthesis of pS microcapsules.

  9. Fire effects on soil aggregate stability: a review and synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerdà, A.; Arcenegui, V.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Fire can affect soil properties depending on a number of factors including fire severity and soil type. Aggregate stability (AS) refers to soil structure resilience in response to external mechanical forces. Many authors consider soil aggregation to be a parameter reflecting soil health, as it depends on chemical, physical and biological factors. The response of AS to forest fires is complex, since it depends on how fire has affected other related properties such as organic matter content, soil microbiology, water repellency and soil mineralogy. Opinions differ concerning the effect of fire on AS. Some authors have observed a decrease in AS in soils affected by intense wildfire or severe laboratory heating. However, others have reported increases. We provide an up to date review of the research on this topic and an analysis of the causes for the different effects observed. The implications for soil system functioning and for the hydrology of the affected areas are also discussed. Generally, low severity fires do not produce notable changes in AS, although in some cases an increase has been observed and attributed to increased water repellency. In contrast, high severity fires can induce important changes in this property, but with different effects depending on the type of soil affected. The patterns observed can vary from a disaggregation as a consequence of the organic matter destruction, to a strong aggregation if a recrystallization of some minerals such as Fe and Al oxyhydroxides occurs when they are present in sufficient quantities in the soil, after exposure to high temperatures. Because of the complexity of the different possible effects and reasons for the potential changes in the fire-affected soil aggregates, the inclusion of other parameters in the studies is necessary to understand the results. The suggested parameters to include in the examination of AS are: soil organic matter, microbial biomass, water repellency, texture, aggregate size distribution

  10. Synthesis and characterization of processable polyimides with enhanced thermal stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    1987-01-01

    Many of the emerging applications of polymers on space vehicles require materials with outstanding thermal stability. These polymers must also be readily processable in order to facilitate their use. The syntheses and polymerization of a cardo dianhydride were investigated. This monomer was prepared via the reaction of N-methyl 4-nitrophthalimide with a cardo diol. Polyimides containing oxyalkylene linkages were studied. The effects of two additional structural modifications on the polymers' properties were investigated. The effects of carrying out the preparation of poly(amic acid)s under non-equilibrium conditions were examined. Approaches that were investigated included the in-situ neutralization of the generated amic acid and its in-situ esterification.

  11. Synthesis and stability studies of Ga-67 labeled phosphonium salts.

    PubMed

    Kardashinsky, Mingyue; Lengkeek, Nigel; Rendina, Louis M

    2017-01-01

    Delocalized lipophilic cations such as tri- and tetra-arylphosphonium are able to diffuse across the mitochondrial membrane, which allows them to selectively accumulate in cells with a high transmembrane potential (ΔΨm ). The mitochondrial membrane potential of cancer cells and cardiomyocytes has been reported to be significantly higher than that of normal epithelial cells. This feature can be exploited for the selective accumulation of phosphonium derivatives for the purposes of molecular imaging using radionuclides. Four structurally related Ga(III)-phosphonium salts were synthesized and fully characterized and found to be modest in toxicity toward T98G human glioblastoma cells (IC50  > 4 mM). High-activity (100 MBq) analogs containing Ga-67 were also synthesized and their stabilities in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum were determined.

  12. Sterically stabilized water based magnetic fluids: Synthesis, structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Doina; Vékás, Ladislau; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Marinică, Oana; Socoliuc, Vlad; Bălăsoiu, Maria; Garamus, Vasil M.

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic fluids (MFs), prepared by chemical co-precipitation followed by double layer steric and electrostatic (combined) stabilization of magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in water, are presented. Several combinations of surfactants with different chain lengths (lauric acid (LA), myristic acid (MA), oleic acid (OA) and dodecyl-benzene-sulphonic acid (DBS)) were used, such as LA+LA, MA+MA, LA+DBS, MA+DBS, OA+DBS, OA+OA and DBS+DBS. Static light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, small angle neutron scattering, magnetic and magneto-rheological measurements revealed that MFs with MA+MA or LA+LA biocompatible double layer covered magnetite nanoparticles are the most stable colloidal systems among the investigated samples, and thus suitable for biomedical applications.

  13. Synthesis and stability of homoleptic metal(III) tetramethylaluminates.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Meermann, Christian; Dietrich, H Martin; Litlabø, Rannveig; Auras, Florian; Törnroos, Karl W; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia; Jensen, Vidar R; Anwander, Reiner

    2011-04-27

    Whereas a number of homoleptic metal(III) tetramethylaluminates M(AlMe(4))(3) of the rare earth metals have proven accessible, the stability of these compounds varies strongly among the metals, with some even escaping preparation altogether. The differences in stability may seem puzzling given that this class of metals usually is considered to be relatively uniform with respect to properties. On the basis of quantum chemically obtained relative energies and atomic and molecular descriptors of homoleptic tris(tetramethylaluminate) and related compounds of rare earth metals, transition metals, p-block metals, and actinides, multivariate modeling has identified the importance of ionic metal-methylaluminate bonding and small steric repulsion between the methylaluminate ligands for obtaining stable homoleptic compounds. Low electronegativity and a sufficiently large ionic radius are thus essential properties for the central metal atom. Whereas scandium and many transition metals are too small and too electronegative for this task, all lanthanides and actinides covered in this study are predicted to give homoleptic compounds stable toward loss of trimethylaluminum, the expected main decomposition reaction. Three of the predicted lanthanide-based compounds Ln(AlMe(4))(3) (Ln = Ce, Tm, Yb) have been prepared and fully characterized in the present work, in addition to Ln(OCH(2)tBu)(3)(AlMe(3))(3) (Ln = Sc, Nd) and [Eu(AlEt(4))(2)](n). At ambient temperature, donor-free hexane solutions of Ln(AlMe(4))(3) of the Ln(3+)/Ln(2+) redox-active metal centers display enhanced reduction to [Ln(AlMe(4))(2)](n) with decreasing negative redox potential, in the order Eu ≫ Yb ≫ Sm. Whereas Eu(AlMe(4))(3) could not be identified, Yb(AlMe(4))(3) turned out to be isolable in low yield. All attempts to prepare the putative Sc(AlMe(4))(3), featuring the smallest rare earth metal center, failed.

  14. Synthesis of BaSO nanoparticles by precipitation method using sodium hexa metaphosphate as a stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Asha; Singh, Preetam; Shivakumara, C.

    2010-03-01

    We describe the synthesis and structure of Barium sulfate nanoparticles by precipitation method in the presence of water soluble inorganic stabilizing agent, sodium hexametaphosphate, (NaPO 3) 6. The structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld refinement method using powder X-ray diffraction data. Barium sulfate nanoparticles were crystallized in the orthorhombic structure with space group Pbnm (No. 62) having the lattice parameters a=7.215(1) (Å), b=8.949(1) (Å) and c=5.501(1) (Å) respectively. Transmission electron microscopy study reveals that the nanoparticles are size range, 30-50 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed distinct absorption due to the SO 42- moiety at 1115 and 1084 cm -1 indicating formation of barium sulfate nanoparticles free from the phosphate group from the stabilizer used in the synthesis.

  15. Ligand Effects on Synthesis and Post-Synthetic Stability of PbSe Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Quanqin; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yingnan; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of ligands including oleic acid (OA), trioctylphosphine (TOP), and tributylphosphine (TBP) on the PbSe nanocrystal growth during synthesis, as well as the effect of OA ligands on the nanocrystal stability after synthesis. These ligands play important roles in the nucleation and growth mechanism of nanocrystals. We have discovered that the ligand effect on the growth of PbSe nanocrystals can differ from that on the mostly studied CdSe nanocrystals. Also, we present a method for producing relatively smaller and more monodisperse PbSe nanocrystals based on our new understanding that the use of TBP, instead of the generally reported TOP, can slow down the growth of PbSe nanocrystals. In addition, our postsynthetic investigation of OA ligand effects demonstrate the dominant desorption of OA-bonded Pb atoms, causing the shrinkage of PbSe nanocrystals. This provides some insight into stabilization strategies for labile PbSe nanocrystals.

  16. Synthesis and Stability of Iron Nanoparticles for Lunar Environment Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    Simulant of lunar dust is needed when researching the lunar environment. However, unlike the true lunar dust, today s simulants do not contain nanophase iron. Two different processes have been developed to fabricate nanophase iron to be used as part of the lunar dust simulant: (1) Sequentially treating a mixture of ferric chloride, fluorinated carbon, and soda lime glass beads at about 300 C in nitrogen, at room temperature in air, and then at 1050 C in nitrogen. The product includes glass beads that are grey in color, can be attracted by a magnet, and contain alpha-iron nanoparticles (which seem to slowly lose their lattice structure in ambient air during a period of 12 months). This product may have some similarity to the lunar glassy regolith that contains Fe(sup 0). (2) Heating a mixture of carbon black and a lunar simulant (a mixed metal oxide that includes iron oxide) at 1050 C in nitrogen. This process simulates lunar dust reaction to the carbon in a micrometeorite at the time of impact. The product contains a chemically modified simulant that can be attracted by a magnet and has a surface layer whose iron concentration increased during the reaction. The iron was found to be alpha-iron and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which appear to grow after the fabrication process, but stabilizes after 6 months of ambient air storage.

  17. Controlled synthesis and thermal stability of hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ruixue; Chen, Kezheng; Liao, Zhongmiao; Meng, Nan

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Hydroxyapatite hierarchical microstructures have been synthesized by a facile method. ► The morphology and size of the building units of 3D structures can be controlled. ► The hydroxyapatite with 3D structure is morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C. - Abstract: Hydroxyapatite (HAp) hierarchical microstructures with novel 3D morphology were prepared through a template- and surfactant-free hydrothermal homogeneous precipitation method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology and composition of the synthesized products. Interestingly, the obtained HAp with 3D structure is composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanorods or two-dimensional (2D) nanoribbons, and the length and morphology of these building blocks can be controlled through controlling the pH of the reaction. The building blocks are single crystalline and have different preferential orientation growth under different pH conditions. At low pH values, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) phase formed first and then transformed into HAp phase due to the increased pH value caused by the decomposition of urea. The investigation on the thermal stability reveals that the prepared HAp hierarchical microstructures are morphologically and structurally stable up to 800 °C.

  18. Synthesis, thermal stability, and photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline titanium carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Youjian; Zhang, Hong; Ma, DeKun; Ma, Jianhua; Ye, Hongnan; Qian, Gaojin; Ye, Yi

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} The synthesized temperature is lower than some conventional methods. {yields} These raw materials are safe; all manipulations are rather safe and convenient. {yields} The product exhibits photocatalytic activity in degradation of Rhodamine-B. -- Abstract: Titanium carbide (TiC) was prepared via one simple route by the reaction of metallic magnesium powders with titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and potassium acetate (CH{sub 3}COOK) in an autoclave at 600 {sup o}C and 8 h. Phase structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the product was cubic TiC, which consisted of particles with an average size of about 100 nm in diameter. The product was also studied by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and its photocatalysis. It had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 350 {sup o}C in air. In addition, we discovered that the cubic TiC powders exhibited photocatalytic activity in degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) under 500 W mercury lamp light irradiation.

  19. Investigation on Evolutionary Chaos Controller Synthesis for Hénon Map Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    This research deals with the synthesis of control law by means of Analytic Programming (AP) for the Hénon Map, which is discrete chaotic system. The tool for symbolic regression (AP) is used for the purpose of stabilization of stable state and higher periodic orbits, which represent oscillations between several values of chaotic system. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with AP and Differential Evolution (DE) as the second algorithm for meta-evolution were used.

  20. Plant-Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Stabilization by Wet Stirred Media Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baláž, Matej; Balážová, Ľudmila; Daneu, Nina; Dutková, Erika; Balážová, Miriama; Bujňáková, Zdenka; Shpotyuk, Yaroslav

    2017-02-01

    Within this study, a stable nanosuspension of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was prepared using a two-step synthesis and stabilization approach. The Ag NPs were synthesized from a silver nitrate solution using the Origanum vulgare L. plant extract as the reducing agent. The formation of nanoparticles was finished upon 15 min, and subsequently, stabilization by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using wet stirred media milling was applied. UV-Vis spectra have shown a maximum at 445 nm, corresponding to the formation of spherical Ag NPs. Infrared spectroscopy was used to examine the interaction between Ag NPs and the capping agents. TEM study has shown the formation of Ag NPs with two different average sizes (38 ± 10 nm and 7 ± 3 nm) after the plant-mediated synthesis, both randomly distributed within the organic matrix. During milling in PVP, the clusters of Ag NPs were destroyed, the Ag NPs were fractionized and embedded in PVP. The nanosuspensions of PVP-capped Ag NPs were stable for more than 26 weeks, whereas for the non-stabilized nanosuspensions, only short-term stability for about 1 week was documented.

  1. Shape-controlled synthesis of NIR absorbing branched gold nanoparticles and morphology stabilization with alkanethiols.

    PubMed

    Van de Broek, B; Frederix, F; Bonroy, K; Jans, H; Jans, K; Borghs, G; Maes, G

    2011-01-07

    Gold nanoparticles are ideal candidates for clinical applications if their plasmon absorption band is situated in the near infrared region (NIR) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Various parameters, including the nanoparticle shape, strongly influence the position of this absorption band. The aim of this study is to produce stabilized NIR absorbing branched gold nanoparticles with potential for biomedical applications. Hereto, the synthesis procedure for branched gold nanoparticles is optimized varying the different synthesis parameters. By subsequent electroless gold plating the plasmon absorption band is shifted to 747.2 nm. The intrinsic unstable nature of the nanoparticles' morphology can be clearly observed by a spectral shift and limits their use in real applications. However, in this article we show how the stabilization of the branched structure can be successfully achieved by exchanging the initial capping agent for different alkanethiols and disulfides. Furthermore, when using alkanethiols/disulfides with poly(ethylene oxide) units incorporated, an increased stability of the gold nanoparticles is achieved in high salt concentrations up to 1 M and in a cell culture medium. These achievements open a plethora of opportunities for these stabilized branched gold nanoparticles in nanomedicine.

  2. Synthesis, antibacterial and thermal studies of cellulose nanocrystal stabilized ZnO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Susan; Ahmad, Mansor Bin Hj; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2013-05-28

    Synthesis of ZnO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles was carried out by a precipitation method with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a stabilizer for antimicrobial and thermal studies. ZnO-Ag nanoparticles were obtained from various weight percentages of added AgNO₃ relative to Zn precursors for evaluating the best composition with enhanced functional properties. The ZnO-Ag/CNCs samples were characterized systematically by TEM, XRD, UV, TGA and DTG. From the TEM studies we observed that ZnO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles have spherical shapes with size diameters in a 9-35 nm range. The antibacterial activities of samples were assessed against the bacterial species Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The CNC-stabilized ZnO-Ag exhibited greater bactericidal activity compared to cellulose-free ZnO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles of the same particle size. The incorporation of ZnO-Ag hetreostructure nanoparticles significantly increased the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and application of enrofloxacin complexes as thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    el-Gamel, Nadia E A; Mohamed, Riham R; Zayed, M A

    2012-02-14

    Synthesis and characterization of both binary Co(II)- (1), Ni(II)- (2) complexes with enrofloxacin drug (HL(1)) and ternary Co(II)- (3), Ni(II)- (4) complexes in presence of DL-alanine (H(2)L(2)) are reported using physico-chemical techniques. The antimicrobial activity of these complexes has been screened against two gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria. Antifungal activity against two different fungi has been evaluated and compared with reference drug. All the binary and ternary complexes showed remarkable potential antimicrobial activity higher than the recommended standard agents. Ni(II)-complexes exhibited higher potency as compared to the parent drug against bacterial and fungal strain. In addition, it was of interest to investigate the reported complexes as thermal stabilizers and co-stabilizers for rigid PVC in air at 180 °C. Their high stabilizing efficiency is detected by their high induction period values (T(s)) compared with some of the common reference stabilizers used industrially, such as dibasic lead carbonate (DBLC) and calcium-zinc soap. Blending these complexes with some of the reference stabilizers in different ratios had a synergistic effect on both induction period as it gave better thermal stability and lower extent of discoloration. The stabilizing efficiency is attributed at least partially to the ability of the metal complex stabilizer to be incorporated in the polymeric chains, thus disrupting the chain degradation and replace the labile chlorine atoms on PVC chains by a relatively more s moiety of the inorganic stabilizer. Their amenability to use as a biomedical additives for PVC, has afforded them great potential for various medical applications.

  4. Synthesis and stabilization of supported metal catalysts by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junling; Elam, Jeffrey W; Stair, Peter C

    2013-08-20

    Supported metal nanoparticles are among the most important catalysts for many practical reactions, including petroleum refining, automobile exhaust treatment, and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the size, composition, and structure of the metal nanoparticles, as well as the underlying support. Scientists have used conventional synthesis methods including impregnation, ion exchange, and deposition-precipitation to control and tune these factors, to establish structure-performance relationships, and to develop better catalysts. Meanwhile, chemists have improved the stability of metal nanoparticles against sintering by the application of protective layers, such as polymers and oxides that encapsulate the metal particle. This often leads to decreased catalytic activity due to a lack of precise control over the thickness of the protective layer. A promising method of catalyst synthesis is atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is a variation on chemical vapor deposition in which metals, oxides, and other materials are deposited on surfaces by a sequence of self-limiting reactions. The self-limiting character of these reactions makes it possible to achieve uniform deposits on high-surface-area porous solids. Therefore, design and synthesis of advanced catalysts on the nanoscale becomes possible through precise control over the structure and composition of the underlying support, the catalytic active sites, and the protective layer. In this Account, we describe our advances in the synthesis and stabilization of supported metal catalysts by ALD. After a short introduction to the technique of ALD, we show several strategies for metal catalyst synthesis by ALD that take advantage of its self-limiting feature. Monometallic and bimetallic catalysts with precise control over the metal particle size, composition, and structure were achieved by combining ALD sequences, surface treatments, and deposition temperature control. Next, we describe

  5. TATA boxes in gene transcription and poly (A) tails in mRNA stability: New perspective on the effects of berberine

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-Yi; Lu, Xi; Lei, Fan; Chai, Yu-Shuang; Wang, Yu-Gang; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Feng, Tian-Shi; Wang, Xin-Pei; Yu, Xuan; Yan, Xiao-Jin; Xing, Dong-Ming; Du, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound with variable pharmacological effects and a broad panel of target genes. We investigated berberine’s pharmacological activities from the perspective of its nucleotide-binding ability and discovered that BBR directly regulates gene expression by targeting TATA boxes in transcriptional regulatory regions as well as the poly adenine (poly (A)) tail at the mRNA terminus. BBR inhibits gene transcription by binding the TATA boxes in the transcriptional regulatory region, but it promotes higher levels of expression by targeting the poly (A) tails of mRNAs. The present study demonstrates that TATA boxes and poly (A) tails are the first and second primary targets by which BBR regulates gene expression. The final outcome of gene regulation by BBR depends on the structure of the individual gene. This is the first study to reveal that TATA boxes and poly (A) tails are direct targets for BBR in its regulation of gene expression. Our findings provide a novel explanation for the complex activities of a small molecule compound in a biological system and a novel horizon for small molecule-compound pharmacological studies. PMID:26671652

  6. Green synthesis of Au nanoparticles using potato extract: stability and growth mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-López, D. N.; Pal, U.

    2014-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of spherical, well-dispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles of 17.5-23.5 nm average sizes in water using potato extract (PE) both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The effects of PE content and the pH value of the reaction mixture have been studied. Formation and growth dynamics of the Au nanoparticles in the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy techniques. While the reductor content and, hence, the nucleation and growth rates of the nanoparticles could be controlled by controlling the PE content in the reaction solution, the stability of the nanoparticles depended strongly on the pH of the reaction mixture. The mechanisms of Au ion reduction and stabilization of Au nanoparticles by potato starch have been discussed. The use of common natural solvent like water and biological reductor like PE in our synthesis process opens up the possibility of synthesizing Au nanoparticles in fully green (environmental friendly) way, and the Au nanoparticles produced in such way should have good biocompatibility.

  7. Novel LLM series high density energy materials: Synthesis, characterization, and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagoria, Philip; Zhang, Maoxi; Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    Novel high density energy materials must satisfy specific requirements, such as an increased performance, reliably high stability to external stimuli, cost-efficiency and ease of synthesis, be environmentally benign, and be safe for handling and transportation. During the last decade, the attention of researchers has drifted from widely used nitroester-, nitramine-, and nitroaromatic-based explosives to nitrogen-rich heterocyclic compounds. Good thermal stability, the low melting point, high density, and moderate sensitivity make heterocycle materials attractive candidates for use as oxidizers in rocket propellants and fuels, secondary explosives, and possibly as melt-castable ingredients of high explosive formulations. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and results of quantum-chemical DFT study of thermal stability of LLM-191, LLM-192 and LLM-200 high density energy materials are presented. Work performed under the auspices of the DOE by the LLNL (Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344). This research is supported in part by ONR (Grant N00014-12-1-0529) and NSF. We used NSF XSEDE (Grant DMR-130077) and DOE NERSC (Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231) resources.

  8. Synthesis and stability of arylsulfatase A and B in fibroblasts from multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Steckel, F; Hasilik, A; von Figura, K

    1985-08-15

    Fibroblasts from patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency were analyzed for activities of arylsulfatase A and B, iduronate 2-sulfatase and sulfamatase. A group of patients (group I) severely deficient in all sulfatases (residual activities less than or equal to 10% of control) were differentiated from patients (group II) with residual sulfatase activities of up to 90% of control. The synthesis and stability of arylsulfatase A and B were determined in pulse-chase labelling experiments. The apparent rate of synthesis of arylsulfatase A and B varied from 30% to normal in both fibroblasts from group I and II multiple sulfatase deficiency. In group I the molecular activity of the arylsulfatase A and B was more than 10-fold lower than in control fibroblasts. In group II the molecular activity of the arylsulfatase A was twofold to threefold lower and that of arylsulfatase B half of normal. In fibroblasts of both groups the stability of arylsulfatase A polypeptides was significantly diminished. For arylsulfatase B the instability was restricted to the mature 47000-Mr polypeptide and was variable within both groups. These results demonstrate that multiple sulfatase deficiency is a heterogeneous disorder, in which the primary defects can impair both the catalytic properties and the stability of sulfatases.

  9. Gelatin-stabilized copper nanoparticles: Synthesis, morphology, and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danhui; Yang, Houbo

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin-stabilized spherical-shaped copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple chemical reaction. The synthesis is performed by the reduction of copper (II) salt with hydrazine in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of gelatin as capping agent. Advantages of the synthetic method include its production of water dispersible copper nanoparticles at room temperature under no inert atmosphere and making the synthesis more environmental friendly. The synthesized copper nanoparticles are investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results demonstrate that the amount of gelatin is important for the formation of the copper nanoparticles. The resulting colloidal copper nanoparticles exhibit large surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals.

  10. Water-soluble Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters: synthesis, thermal stability, and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Jin, Rongchao

    2012-06-01

    This work was motivated by the unsatisfactory stability of Au25(SG)18 in solution under thermal conditions (e.g. 70-90 °C for DNA melting). Thus, we searched for a better, water-soluble thiol ligand. Herein, we report a one-pot synthesis and investigation of the stability and optical properties of captopril (abbreviated Capt)-protected Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters. The Au25(Capt)18 (anionic, counterion: Na+) nanoclusters were formed via size focusing under ambient conditions. Significantly, Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters exhibit largely improved thermal stability compared to the glutathione (HSG) capped Au25(SG)18. Both Au25(Capt)18 and Au25(SG)18 nanoclusters show fluorescence centered at ~700 nm. The chiral ligands (Capt, SG, as well as chirally modified phenylethanethiol (PET*)) give rise to distinct chiroptical features. The high thermal stability and distinct optical properties of Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters render this material quite promising for biological applications.This work was motivated by the unsatisfactory stability of Au25(SG)18 in solution under thermal conditions (e.g. 70-90 °C for DNA melting). Thus, we searched for a better, water-soluble thiol ligand. Herein, we report a one-pot synthesis and investigation of the stability and optical properties of captopril (abbreviated Capt)-protected Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters. The Au25(Capt)18 (anionic, counterion: Na+) nanoclusters were formed via size focusing under ambient conditions. Significantly, Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters exhibit largely improved thermal stability compared to the glutathione (HSG) capped Au25(SG)18. Both Au25(Capt)18 and Au25(SG)18 nanoclusters show fluorescence centered at ~700 nm. The chiral ligands (Capt, SG, as well as chirally modified phenylethanethiol (PET*)) give rise to distinct chiroptical features. The high thermal stability and distinct optical properties of Au25(Capt)18 nanoclusters render this material quite promising for biological applications. Electronic supplementary

  11. Design and Synthesis of a Cell-Permeable, Drug-Like Small Molecule Inhibitor Targeting the Polo-Box Domain of Polo-Like Kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Mija; Cheong, Chaejoon; Nam, Ky-Youb; Gunasekaran, Pethaiah; Hwang, Eunha; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Shin, Song Yub; Lee, Kyung S.; Ryu, Eunkyung; Bang, Jeong Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and the inhibition of Plk1 has been considered as a potential target for specific inhibitory drugs in anti-cancer therapy. Several research groups have identified peptide-based inhibitors that target the polo-box domain (PBD) of Plk1 and bind to the protein with high affinity in in vitro assays. However, inadequate proteolytic resistance and cell permeability of the peptides hinder the development of these peptide-based inhibitors into novel therapeutic compounds. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to overcome the shortcomings of peptide-based inhibitors, we designed and synthesized small molecule inhibitors. Among these molecules, bg-34 exhibited a high binding affinity for Plk1-PBD and it could cross the cell membrane in its unmodified form. Furthermore, bg-34-dependent inhibition of Plk1-PBD was sufficient for inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, modeling studies performed on Plk1-PBD in complex with bg-34 revealed that bg-34 can interact effectively with Plk1-PBD. Conclusion/Significance We demonstrated that the molecule bg-34 is a potential drug candidate that exhibits anti-Plk1-PBD activity and possesses the favorable characteristics of high cell permeability and stability. We also determined that bg-34 induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting Plk1-PBD in HeLa cells at the same concentration as PEGylated 4j peptide, which can inhibit Plk1-PBD activity 1000 times more effectively than bg-34 can in in vitro assays. This study may help to design and develop drug-like small molecule as Plk1-PBD inhibitor for better therapeutic activity. PMID:25211362

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in biopolymer stabilizer and their application as antibacterial efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faried, Miftah; Shameli, Kamyar; Ubaidillah, Miyake, Mikio; Hara, Hirofumi; Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) has been conducted on the biopolymer media which is sodium alginate (Na-Alg) via the green method. Different times of ultrasound irradiation was used to reduce Ag+ to be Ag seed (Ag0) and produce Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs was analyzed in their surface plasmon resonance (SPR), morphology, biomolecule responsible, and stability via UV-Vis, TEM, FTIR and Zeta potential, respectively. The application as antibacterial properties was studied against bacteria. Furthermore, this Ag-NPs could be synthesized using the green method and used as antibacterial efficacy for medical vehicles, would dressing, and so on.

  13. [18F]Galacto-RGD: synthesis, radiolabeling, metabolic stability, and radiation dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Haubner, Roland; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Mang, Christian; Weber, Wolfgang A; Kessler, Horst; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus

    2004-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in various murine tumor models that radiolabeled RGD-peptides can be used for noninvasive determination of alphavbeta3 integrin expression. Introduction of sugar moieties improved the pharmacokinetic properties of these peptides and led to tracer with good tumor-to-background ratios. Here we describe the synthesis, radiolabeling, and the metabolic stability of a glycosylated RGD-peptide ([18F]Galacto-RGD) and give first radiation dose estimates for this tracer. The peptide was assembled on a solid support using Fmoc-protocols and cyclized under high dilution conditions. It was conjugated with a sugar amino acid, which can be synthesized via a four-step synthesis starting from pentaacetyl-protected galactose. For radiolabeling of the glycopeptide, 4-nitrophenyl-2-[18F]fluoropropionate was used. This prosthetic group allowed synthesis of [18F]Galacto-RGD with a maximum decay-corrected radiochemical yield of up to 85% and radiochemical purity >98%. The overall radiochemical yield was 29 +/- 5% with a total reaction time including final HPLC preparation of 200 +/- 18 min. The metabolic stability of [18F]Galacto-RGD was determined in mouse blood and liver, kidney, and tumor homogenates 2 h after tracer injection. The average fraction of intact tracer in these organs was approximately 87%, 76%, 69%, and 87%, respectively, indicating high in vivo stability of the radiolabeled glycopeptide. The expected radiation dose to humans after injection of [18F]Galacto-RGD has been estimated on the basis of dynamic PET studies with New Zealand white rabbits. According to the residence times in these animals the effective dose was calculated using the MIRDOSE 3.0 program as 2.2 x 10(-2) mGy/MBq. In conclusion, [18F]Galacto-RGD can be synthesized in high radiochemical yields and radiochemical purity. Despite the time-consuming synthesis of the prosthetic group 185 MBq of [18F]Galacto-RGD, a sufficient dose for patient studies, can be produced starting with

  14. Improvement of the Process Stability of Arylmalonate Decarboxylase by Immobilization for Biocatalytic Profen Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aßmann, Miriam; Mügge, Carolin; Gaßmeyer, Sarah Katharina; Enoki, Junichi; Hilterhaus, Lutz; Kourist, Robert; Liese, Andreas; Kara, Selin

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) enables the selective synthesis of enantiopure (S)-arylpropinates in a simple single-step decarboxylation of dicarboxylic acid precursors. However, the poor enzyme stability with a half-life time of about 1.2 h under process conditions is a serious limitation of the productivity, which results in a need for high catalyst loads. By immobilization on an amino C2 acrylate carrier the operational stability of the (S)-selective AMDase variant G74C/M159L/C188G/V43I/A125P/V156L was increased to a half-life of about 8.6 days, which represents a 158-fold improvement. Further optimization was achieved by simple immobilization of the cell lysate to eliminate the cost- and time intensive enzyme purification step. PMID:28360905

  15. Pulsed sonoelectrochemical synthesis of size-controlled copper nanoparticles stabilized by poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone).

    PubMed

    Haas, Iris; Shanmugam, Sangaraju; Gedanken, Aharon

    2006-08-31

    A novel sonoelectrochemical method for the size-controlled synthesis of spherical copper nanoparticles in an aqueous phase was developed. In this study, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was used as the stabilizer for the copper clusters. The copper nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, UV-vis, IR, DLS, TEM, and HRTEM. The PVP was found to greatly promote the formation rate of copper particles and to significantly reduce the copper deposition rate, thereby making monodispersed copper nanoparticles. We could control the particle size by adjusting various parameters such as current density, deposition, temperature, and sonic power, and improve the homogeneity of the copper particles. The results also showed that the transfer rate of PVP-stabilized copper clusters from the cathodic vicinity to the bulk solution played an important role in the preparation of the monodispersed nanoparticles.

  16. Synthesis and stability of steroid sulfatase in fibroblasts from multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Conary, J T; Hasilik, A; von Figura, K

    1988-04-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency is a lysosomal storage disorder, which can be divided into group I with severe and group II with moderate deficiencies in sulfatases. Antibodies raised against steroid sulfatase purified from human placenta were used to follow the biosynthesis and stability of this enzyme in multiple sulfatase-deficiency fibroblasts. Fibroblasts from both groups synthesized steroid sulfatase of apparently normal size and stability, while the apparent rate of enzyme synthesis and catalytic properties of steroid sulfatase were affected to a variable extent. Cell lines were observed, that synthesized normal amounts of steroid-sulfatase polypeptides, which were catalytically inactive, as well as cell lines that synthesized diminished amounts of catalytically active steroid sulfatase.

  17. Synthesis, solubility, plasma stability, and pharmacological evaluation of novel sulfonylhydrazones designed as anti-diabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; da Costa Nunes, Isabelle Karine; Araujo, Josenildo Segundo Chaves; da Silva, Jaqueline Soares; Trachez, Margarete Manhães; da Silva, Tiago Fernandes; da Costa, Filipe P; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Lima, Lídia Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes that has a significant socioeconomic impact, since it frequently demands high levels of health care consumption and compromises labor productivity. Recently, LASSBio-1471 (3) was demonstrated to improve oral glucose tolerance, reduce blood glucose levels, and display an anti-neuropathy effect in a murine streptozotocin-induced diabetes model. In the present work, we describe the design, synthesis, solubility, plasma stability, and pharmacological evaluation of novel sulfonylhydrazone derivatives (referred to herein as compounds 4–9), which were designed by molecular modification based on the structure of the prototype LASSBio-1471 (3). Among the compounds tested, better plasma stability was observed with 4, 5, and 9 in comparison to compounds 6, 7, and 8. LASSBio-1773 (7), promoted not only hypoglycemic activity but also the reduction of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a murine model of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:27672310

  18. Organic-Stabilizer-Free Polyol Synthesis of Silver Nanowires for Electrode Applications.

    PubMed

    Sim, Hwansu; Bok, Shingyu; Kim, Bongsung; Kim, Minha; Lim, Guh-Hwan; Cho, Sung Min; Lim, Byungkwon

    2016-09-19

    The polyol reduction of a Ag precursor in the presence of an organic stabilizer, such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone), is a widely used method for the production of Ag nanowires (NWs). However, organic capping molecules introduce insulating layers around each NW. Herein we demonstrate that Ag NWs can be produced in high yield without any organic stabilizers simply by introducing trace amounts of NaCl and Fe(NO3 )3 during low-temperature polyol synthesis. The heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Ag NWs on initially formed AgCl particles, combined with oxidative etching of unwanted Ag nanoparticles, resulted in the selective formation of long NWs with an average length of about 40 μm in the absence of a capping or stabilizing effect provided by surface-adsorbing molecules. These organic-stabilizer-free Ag NWs were directly used for the fabrication of high-performance transparent or stretchable electrodes without a complicated process for the removal of capping molecules from the NW surface.

  19. Stability of the human polymerase δ holoenzyme and its implications in lagging strand DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hedglin, Mark; Pandey, Binod; Benkovic, Stephen J

    2016-03-29

    In eukaryotes, DNA polymerase δ (pol δ) is responsible for replicating the lagging strand template and anchors to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp to form a holoenzyme. The stability of this complex is integral to every aspect of lagging strand replication. Most of our understanding comes from Saccharomyces cerevisae where the extreme stability of the pol δ holoenzyme ensures that every nucleobase within an Okazaki fragment is faithfully duplicated before dissociation but also necessitates an active displacement mechanism for polymerase recycling and exchange. However, the stability of the human pol δ holoenzyme is unknown. We designed unique kinetic assays to analyze the processivity and stability of the pol δ holoenzyme. Surprisingly, the results indicate that human pol δ maintains a loose association with PCNA while replicating DNA. Such behavior has profound implications on Okazaki fragment synthesis in humans as it limits the processivity of pol δ on undamaged DNA and promotes the rapid dissociation of pol δ from PCNA on stalling at a DNA lesion.

  20. Stability of the human polymerase δ holoenzyme and its implications in lagging strand DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hedglin, Mark; Pandey, Binod; Benkovic, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, DNA polymerase δ (pol δ) is responsible for replicating the lagging strand template and anchors to the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp to form a holoenzyme. The stability of this complex is integral to every aspect of lagging strand replication. Most of our understanding comes from Saccharomyces cerevisae where the extreme stability of the pol δ holoenzyme ensures that every nucleobase within an Okazaki fragment is faithfully duplicated before dissociation but also necessitates an active displacement mechanism for polymerase recycling and exchange. However, the stability of the human pol δ holoenzyme is unknown. We designed unique kinetic assays to analyze the processivity and stability of the pol δ holoenzyme. Surprisingly, the results indicate that human pol δ maintains a loose association with PCNA while replicating DNA. Such behavior has profound implications on Okazaki fragment synthesis in humans as it limits the processivity of pol δ on undamaged DNA and promotes the rapid dissociation of pol δ from PCNA on stalling at a DNA lesion. PMID:26976599

  1. Synthesis of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Aerogels by a Non-Alkoxide Sol-Gel Route

    SciTech Connect

    Chervin, C N; Clapsaddle, B J; Chiu, H W; Gash, A E; Satcher, Jr., J H; Kauzlarich, S M

    2005-02-11

    Homogeneous, nanocrystalline powders of yttria-stabilized zirconia were prepared using a nonalkoxide sol-gel method. Monolithic gels, free of precipitation, were prepared by addition of propylene oxide to aqueous solutions of Zr{sup 4+} and Y{sup 3+} chlorides at room temperature. The gels were dried with supercritical CO{sub 2}(l), resulting in amorphous aerogels that crystallized into cubic stabilized ZrO{sub 2} following calcination at 500 C. The aerogels and resulting crystalline products were characterized using in-situ temperature profile X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. TEM and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption analysis of an aerogel indicated a porous network structure with a high surface area (409 m{sup 2}/g). The crystallized yttria-stabilized zirconia maintained high surface area (159 m{sup 2}/g) upon formation of homogeneous, nanoparticles ({approx}10 nm). Ionic conductivity at 1000 C of sintered YSZ (1500 C, 3 hours) prepared by this method, was 0.13 {+-} 0.02 {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Activation energies for the conduction processes from 1000-550 C and 550-400 C, were 0.95 {+-} 0.09 and 1.12 {+-} 0.05 eV, respectively. This is the first reported synthesis and characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia via an aerogel precursor.

  2. Rice Husk Ash-Derived Silica Nanofluids: Synthesis and Stability Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Wenxiu; Zheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Guangquan; Ji, Jianbing

    2016-12-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal suspensions consisting of base fluids and nanoparticles, are a new generation of engineering working fluids. Nanofluids have shown great potential in heat/mass transfer applications. However, their practical applications are limited by the high production cost and low stability. In this study, a low-cost agricultural waste, rice husk ash (RHA), was used as a silicon source to the synthesis of silica nanofluids. First, silica nanoparticles with an average size of 47 nm were synthesized. Next, by dispersing the silica nanoparticles in water with ultrasonic vibration, silica nanofluids were formed. The results indicated that the dispersibility and stability of nanofluids were highly dependent on sonication time and power, dispersant types and concentrations, as well as pH; an optimal experiment condition could result in the highest stability of silica nanofluid. After 7 days storage, the nanofluid showed no sedimentation, unchanged particle size, and zeta potential. The results of this study demonstrated that there is a great potential for the use of RHA as a low-cost renewable resource for the production of stable silica nanofluids. Graphical Abstract Rice husk ash was used as a low-cost renewable resource for production of silica nanofluids with high stability.

  3. Polyacrylamide-metal nanocomposites: one-pot synthesis, antibacterial properties, and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiyan; Cai, Yanling; Zhu, Yihua; Ma, Mingguo; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Jiefang

    2013-09-01

    The incorporation of inorganic nanoparticles into polymers is a hot research spot, since it endows the nanocomposites with new or improved properties by exploiting synergistic effects. Here we report a facile one-pot synthesis of polyacrylamide (PAM)-metal (M = Au, Ag, or Pd) nanocomposites in ethylene glycol (EG). The simultaneous polymerization of the acylamide (AM) monomer and formation of metal nanoparticles lead to a homogeneous distribution of metal nanoparticles in the PAM matrix. The sizes of Au, Ag, and Pd nanoparticles are 55.50 ± 10.6, 14.15 ± 2.57, and 7.74 ± 1.82 nm, respectively. The reaction system only includes EG, AM monomer, and corresponding metal salt. EG acts as both the solvent and the reducing reagent. Also, no initiator for AM polymerization and no surfactant for stabilization of metal nanoparticles are used. Furthermore, this simple synthetic route does not rely on any special or expensive equipment, thus can be exploited to the synthesis of similar polymer-inorganic nanocomposites. Compared to PAM, the PAM-metal nanocomposites showed enhanced thermal stability and antibacterial properties.

  4. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Gil Felicisimo S; Balbin, Michelle M; Eugenio, Paul John G; Zapanta, Charleo S; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2017-03-18

    The Turkevich method has been used for many years in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Lately, the use of plant extracts and amino acids has been reported, which is valuable in the field of biotechnology and biomedicine. The AuNPs was synthesized from the reduction of HAuCl4 3H2O by sodium glutamate and stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum concentrations for sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the synthesis process were determined. The characteristics of the synthesized AuNPs was analysed through UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The AuNPs have spherical shape with a mean diameter of approximately 21.62 ± 4.39 nm and is well dispersed. FTIR analysis of the AuNPs reflected that the sulfate head group of sodium dodecyl sulfate is adsorbed at the surface of the AuNPs. Thus, we report herein the synthesis of AuNPs using sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  5. One-pot green synthesis of biocompatible arginine-stabilized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongjun; Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2009-11-01

    A green one-step approach has been developed for the synthesis of amino-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles. The synthesis was accomplished by simply mixing FeCl2 with arginine under ambient conditions. It was found that the Fe2+/arginine molar ratio, reaction duration and temperature greatly influence the size, morphology and composition of magnetic nanoparticles. The arginine-stabilized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The results show that the prepared nanoparticles are spherically shaped with a nearly uniform size distribution and pure magnetite phase. The presence of arginine on the magnetic nanoparticle surface has been confirmed and the amount of surface arginine varies with the Fe2+/arginine molar ratio. The surface amine densities are calculated to be 5.60 and 7.84 µmol mg-1 for magnetic nanoparticles prepared at 1:1 and 1:2 Fe2+/arginine molar ratio, respectively. The as-synthesized nanoparticles show superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature and good solubility in water. In addition, using a similar synthesis procedure, we have been able to synthesize superparamagnetic manganese and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  6. HMGB Binding to DNA: Single and Double Box Motifs

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Micah J.; Zimmerman, Jeff; Maher, L. James; C.Williams, Mark

    2007-01-01

    High Mobility Group (HMG) proteins are nuclear proteins believed to significantly affect DNA interactions by altering nucleic acid flexibility. HMG group B proteins contain HMG box domains known to bind into the DNA minor groove without sequence specificity, slightly intercalating base pairs and inducing a strong bend in the DNA helix axis. A dual beam optical tweezers is used to extend double–stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the absence and presence of a single box derivative of human HMGB2 [HMGB2(box A)] and a double box derivative of rat HMGB1 [HMGB1(box A+B)]. The single box domain is observed to reduce the persistence length of the double helix, generating sharp DNA bends with an average bend angle of 99 ± 9°, and at very high concentrations also stabilizing dsDNA against denaturation. The double box protein contains two consecutive HMG box domains joined by a flexible tether. This protein also reduces the DNA persistence length, induces an average bending angle of 77 ± 7° and stabilizes dsDNA at significantly lower concentrations. These results suggest that the single and double box proteins increase DNA flexibility and stability, but both effects are achieved at much lower protein concentrations for the double box. In addition, at low concentrations the single box protein can alter DNA flexibility without stabilizing dsDNA, while stabilization at higher concentration is likely achieved through a cooperative binding mode. PMID:17964600

  7. Preparation of orthogonally protected (2S, 3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid (Pmab) as a phosphatase–stable phosphothreonine mimetic and its use in the synthesis of Polo–box domain–binding peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fa; Park, Jung-Eun; Lee, Kyung S.; Burke, Terrence R.

    2014-01-01

    Reported herein is the first stereoselective synthesis of (2S,3R)-4-[bis-(tert-butyloxy)phosphinyl]-2-[(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxy)carbonyl]amino-3-methylbutanoic acid [(N-Fmoc, O,O-(bis-(tert-butyl))-Pmab, 4] as a hydrolytically-stable phosphothreonine mimetic bearing orthogonal protection compatible with standard solid-phase protocols. The synthetic approach used employs Evans’ oxazolidinone for chiral induction. Also presented is the application of 4 in the solid-phase synthesis of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo box domain (PBD)-binding peptides. These Pmab-containing peptides retain PBD binding efficacy similar to a parent pThr containing peptide. Reagent 4 should be a highly useful reagent for the preparation of signal transduction-directed peptides. PMID:24954959

  8. Effect of the Polymeric Stabilizer in the Aqueous Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalyzed by Colloidal Cobalt Nanocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Jorge A.; Claver, Carmen; Castillón, Sergio; Curulla-Ferré, Daniel; Godard, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    A series of small and well defined cobalt nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical reduction of cobalt salts in water using NaBH4 as a reducing agent and using various polymeric stabilizers. The obtained nanocatalysts of similar mean diameters (ca. 2.6 nm) were fully characterized and tested in the aqueous phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (AFTS). Interestingly, the nature and structure of the stabilizers used during the synthesis of the CoNPs affected the reduction degree of cobalt and the B-doping of these NPs and consequently, influenced the performance of these nanocatalysts in AFTS. PMID:28336892

  9. Effect of the Polymeric Stabilizer in the Aqueous Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalyzed by Colloidal Cobalt Nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Jorge A; Claver, Carmen; Castillón, Sergio; Curulla-Ferré, Daniel; Godard, Cyril

    2017-03-06

    A series of small and well defined cobalt nanoparticles were synthesized by the chemical reduction of cobalt salts in water using NaBH4 as a reducing agent and using various polymeric stabilizers. The obtained nanocatalysts of similar mean diameters (ca. 2.6 nm) were fully characterized and tested in the aqueous phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (AFTS). Interestingly, the nature and structure of the stabilizers used during the synthesis of the CoNPs affected the reduction degree of cobalt and the B-doping of these NPs and consequently, influenced the performance of these nanocatalysts in AFTS.

  10. Epothilones as lead structures for the synthesis-based discovery of new chemotypes for microtubule stabilization.

    PubMed

    Feyen, Fabian; Cachoux, Frédéric; Gertsch, Jürg; Wartmann, Markus; Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    Epothilones are macrocyclic bacterial natural products with potent microtubule-stabilizing and antiproliferative activity. They have served as successful lead structures for the development of several clinical candidates for anticancer therapy. However, the structural diversity of this group of clinical compounds is rather limited, as their structures show little divergence from the original natural product leads. Our own research has explored the question of whether epothilones can serve as a basis for the development of new structural scaffolds, or chemotypes, for microtubule stabilization that might serve as a basis for the discovery of new generations of anticancer drugs. We have elaborated a series of epothilone-derived macrolactones whose overall structural features significantly deviate from those of the natural epothilone scaffold and thus define new structural families of microtubule-stabilizing agents. Key elements of our hypermodification strategy are the change of the natural epoxide geometry from cis to trans, the incorporation of a conformationally constrained side chain, the removal of the C3-hydroxyl group, and the replacement of C12 with nitrogen. So far, this approach has yielded analogs 30 and 40 that are the most advanced, the most rigorously modified, structures, both of which are potent antiproliferative agents with low nanomolar activity against several human cancer cell lines in vitro. The synthesis was achieved through a macrolactone-based strategy or a high-yielding RCM reaction. The 12-aza-epothilone ("azathilone" 40) may be considered a "non-natural" natural product that still retains most of the overall structural characteristics of a true natural product but is structurally unique, because it lies outside of the general scope of Nature's biosynthetic machinery for polyketide synthesis. Like natural epothilones, both 30 and 40 promote tubulin polymerization in vitro and at the cellular level induce cell cycle arrest in mitosis. These

  11. Synthesis of netlike gold nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent and its application

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.Z.; Zhou, J.F.; Song, Y.; Cheng, Z.P.; Xu, J.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Electrochemical deposition of netlike gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and preparation of netlike GNPs in aqueous solution using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent were proposed. The catalytic properties of netlike gold nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode for dopamine were demonstrated. The results indicate that the netlike gold nanoparticle modified electrode has an excellent repeatability and reproducibility. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Synthesis of netlike gold nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent. ► Excellent repeatability and reproducibility of netlike gold nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode. ► The catalytic properties of netlike gold nanoparticle for dopamine. -- Abstract: Electrochemical deposition of netlike gold nanoparticles on the surface of glassy carbon electrode and preparation of netlike GNPs in aqueous solution using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent were proposed. The netlike gold nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, infrared spectrometer, UV spectrophotometer, powder X-ray diffractometer and electrochemical analyzer. The catalysis of the netlike gold nanoparticles on the glassy carbon electrode for dopamine was demonstrated. The results indicate that the gold nanoparticle modified electrode has an excellent repeatability and reproducibility.

  12. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Effect of Dextran Molecular Weight Used as Stabilizing-Reducing Agent.

    PubMed

    Carré-Rangel, Luceldi; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an easy green chemistry method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were obtained through the use of an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3), with dextrans aqueous solutions of different molecular weights acting as stabilizing and reducing agent, employing the chemical reduction method. We made a comparative study to determine which molecular weight dextran was the best stabilizing and reducing agent, and it was found that the molecular size of the stabilizing agent is inversely proportional to the size of the nanoparticle synthesized. The formation of the AgNPs was demonstrated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM-EDS analysis shows the formation of particles with dendritic structure. TEM shows nanoparticles which are spherical in shape and 1-10 nm in size; also, the clear lattice fringes show highly crystalline AgNPs (FCC).

  13. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala J; Huang, Jing-Hong; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Liu, Ru-Shi; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Tsai, Din Ping; Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2011-09-30

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  14. Biocompatible transferrin-conjugated sodium hexametaphosphate-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Harshala J.; Huang, Jing-Hong; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Jan, Yi-Hua; Liu, Ru-Shi; Wang, Jui-Ling; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Hwu, Yeu-Kuang; Tsai, Din Ping; Chuang, Shih-Yi; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.

    2011-09-01

    The feasibility of using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for biomedical applications has led to considerable interest in the development of novel synthetic protocols and surface modification strategies for AuNPs to produce biocompatible molecular probes. This investigation is, to our knowledge, the first to elucidate the synthesis and characterization of sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP)-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au-HMP) in an aqueous medium. The role of HMP, a food additive, as a polymeric stabilizing and protecting agent for AuNPs is elucidated. The surface modification of Au-HMP nanoparticles was carried out using polyethylene glycol and transferrin to produce molecular probes for possible clinical applications. In vitro cell viability studies performed using as-synthesized Au-HMP nanoparticles and their surface-modified counterparts reveal the biocompatibility of the nanoparticles. The transferrin-conjugated nanoparticles have significantly higher cellular uptake in J5 cells (liver cancer cells) than control cells (oral mucosa fibroblast cells), as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This study demonstrates the possibility of using an inexpensive and non-toxic food additive, HMP, as a stabilizer in the large-scale generation of biocompatible and monodispersed AuNPs, which may have future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  15. Synthesis and exceptional thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic nanoparticles during hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Gopi; Negrea, Raluca F; Ghica, Corneliu; ten Brink, Gert H; Kooi, Bart J; Palasantzas, George

    2014-10-21

    Here we report the extraordinary thermal stability of Mg rich bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which is important for hydrogen storage technology. The enhanced NP stability is accomplished because of two critical improvements: (i) no void development within NPs (nanoscale Kirkendall effect) during their formation and (ii) suppressed Mg evaporation and NP hollowing during Mg hydrogenation at elevated temperature. The mechanism leading to the improved thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic NPs is shown to be due to MgH2 hydride formation before evaporation can take place. These findings were tested for various compositions of Mg with Ni, Cu, and Ti, which are interesting combinations of materials for hydrogen storage systems. To achieve this we first demonstrate the synthesis mechanism of Mg-Ni and Mg-Cu NPs, which is well controlled at the single particle level, in order to accomplish multi-shell, alloy and intermetallic structures of interest for hydrogen storage tests. Aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy was carried out to unravel the detailed atomic structure and composition of the bimetallic NPs after production, processing, and hydrogenation. Finally, a simple and effective methodology is proposed for tuning the composition of the Mg-based bimetallic NPs based on the temperature-dependent nucleation behavior of NPs in the gas-phase.

  16. Rice Husk Ash-Derived Silica Nanofluids: Synthesis and Stability Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiliang; He, Wenxiu; Zheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Guangquan; Ji, Jianbing

    2016-11-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal suspensions consisting of base fluids and nanoparticles, are a new generation of engineering working fluids. Nanofluids have shown great potential in heat/mass transfer applications. However, their practical applications are limited by the high production cost and low stability. In this study, a low-cost agricultural waste, rice husk ash (RHA), was used as a silicon source to the synthesis of silica nanofluids. First, silica nanoparticles with an average size of 47 nm were synthesized. Next, by dispersing the silica nanoparticles in water with ultrasonic vibration, silica nanofluids were formed. The results indicated that the dispersibility and stability of nanofluids were highly dependent on sonication time and power, dispersant types and concentrations, as well as pH; an optimal experiment condition could result in the highest stability of silica nanofluid. After 7 days storage, the nanofluid showed no sedimentation, unchanged particle size, and zeta potential. The results of this study demonstrated that there is a great potential for the use of RHA as a low-cost renewable resource for the production of stable silica nanofluids.

  17. Flavonoids, NodD1, NodD2, and nod-box NB15 modulate expression of the y4wEFG locus that is required for indole-3-acetic acid synthesis in Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234.

    PubMed

    Theunis, Mart; Kobayashi, Hajime; Broughton, William J; Prinsen, Els

    2004-10-01

    Flavonoids secreted by host plants activate, in conjunction with the transcriptional activator NodD, nod gene expression of rhizobia resulting in the synthesis of Nod factors, which trigger nodule organogenesis. Interestingly, addition of inducing flavonoids also stimulates the production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in several rhizobia. Here, the molecular basis of IAA synthesis in Rhizobium sp. NGR234 was investigated. Mass spectrometric analysis of culture supernatants indicated that NGR234 is capable of synthesizing IAA via three different pathways. The production of IAA is increased strongly by exposure of NGR234 to daidzein in a NodD1-, NodD2-, and SyrM2-dependent manner. This suggests that the y4wEFG locus that is downstream of nod-box NB15 encodes proteins involved in IAA synthesis. Knockout mutations in y4wE and y4wF abolished flavonoid-inducible IAA synthesis and a functional y4wF was required for constitutive IAA production. The promoter activity of NB15 and IAA production both were enhanced by introduction of a multicopy plasmid carrying nodD2 into NGR234. Surprisingly, the y4wE mutant still nodulated Vigna unguiculata and Tephrosia vogelii, although the nodules contained less IAA and IAA conjugates than those formed by the wild-type bacterium.

  18. Synthesis and exceptional thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic nanoparticles during hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Negrea, Raluca F.; Ghica, Corneliu; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George

    2014-09-01

    Here we report the extraordinary thermal stability of Mg rich bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which is important for hydrogen storage technology. The enhanced NP stability is accomplished because of two critical improvements: (i) no void development within NPs (nanoscale Kirkendall effect) during their formation and (ii) suppressed Mg evaporation and NP hollowing during Mg hydrogenation at elevated temperature. The mechanism leading to the improved thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic NPs is shown to be due to MgH2 hydride formation before evaporation can take place. These findings were tested for various compositions of Mg with Ni, Cu, and Ti, which are interesting combinations of materials for hydrogen storage systems. To achieve this we first demonstrate the synthesis mechanism of Mg-Ni and Mg-Cu NPs, which is well controlled at the single particle level, in order to accomplish multi-shell, alloy and intermetallic structures of interest for hydrogen storage tests. Aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy was carried out to unravel the detailed atomic structure and composition of the bimetallic NPs after production, processing, and hydrogenation. Finally, a simple and effective methodology is proposed for tuning the composition of the Mg-based bimetallic NPs based on the temperature-dependent nucleation behavior of NPs in the gas-phase.Here we report the extraordinary thermal stability of Mg rich bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which is important for hydrogen storage technology. The enhanced NP stability is accomplished because of two critical improvements: (i) no void development within NPs (nanoscale Kirkendall effect) during their formation and (ii) suppressed Mg evaporation and NP hollowing during Mg hydrogenation at elevated temperature. The mechanism leading to the improved thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic NPs is shown to be due to MgH2 hydride formation before evaporation can take place. These findings were tested for various

  19. The Beaufort Gyre intensification and stabilization: A model-observation synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinlun; Steele, Michael; Runciman, Kay; Dewey, Sarah; Morison, James; Lee, Craig; Rainville, Luc; Cole, Sylvia; Krishfield, Richard; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Toole, John

    2016-11-01

    A model-observation synthesis is conducted to investigate changes in the upper ocean circulation and stratification in the Canada Basin [CB] of the Arctic Ocean. Results show that the Beaufort Gyre [BG] has been generally intensifying during 1992-2015 in conjunction with changes in sea ice and the upper ocean including increasing sea surface height [SSH], sea ice and ocean speed, Ekman transport convergence and downwelling, and freshwater content, decreasing ice thickness and upper ocean salinity, shoaling summer halocline and mixed layer, and deepening winter halocline and mixed layer. Increasing Ekman transport convergence draws more water from surrounding areas into the CB, thus lowering SSH in those areas and raising SSH in the CB. The rate of change in the CB began to decrease in 2008 and the BG circulation appears to be stabilizing, if not relaxing slightly. This is reflected in the general plateauing of SSH, the intensity of the sea ice and ocean circulation, and various measures of the CB thermohaline stratification. The BG intensification and subsequent stabilization appear to have been strongly controlled by atmospheric changes in the CB characterized by generally increasing anticyclonic wind circulation and sea level pressure (SLP) before 2008 and falling wind strength and SLP to below-average levels in some years after 2008. Changes in SLP are highly correlated with changes in ocean surface stress curl and downwelling. Since 2008, the magnitude of the stress curl and downwelling in much of the CB has declined, contributing to BG stabilization. The general leveling-off of sea ice thickness also contributes to the stabilization by limiting melt water input to the CB that increases freshwater content. Temperatures in the Near Surface Temperature Maximum layer trended upward slightly over 1992-2015, which is closely correlated with decreasing sea ice thickness. Upper ocean heat content increased over the study period mainly due to strong temperature

  20. Affordable, Green, and Facile Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Stabilized by Environmentally Friendly Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolný, Kryštof; Ulbrich, Pavel; Švecová, Marie; Bartůněk, Vilém

    2015-12-01

    Simple and affordable green synthesis of copper nanoparticles was developed. Nanoparticles of various sizes were prepared using the solvothermal reduction method in glycerol, which acted as both a solvent and a reduction agent. The nanoparticles had average diameters of 38 to 50 nm and were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Affordable surfactants based on polyethylene glycols PEG200, PEG6000, and PEG20000 and Polysorbate 80 were used for stabilization of the nanoparticles. All precursors were nontoxic, environmentally friendly substances, and the method is usable even for preparation of large quantities of product. Therefore, it could be useful for various applications even on industrial scale and could provide useful alternatives to more expensive or environmentally dangerous methods.

  1. Functionalized platinum nanoparticles with surface charge trigged by pH: synthesis, characterization and stability studies

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Giovanna; Fontana, Laura; Venditti, Iole

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis and characterization of functionalized platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have been investigated. PtNPs were obtained by a wet redox procedure using 2-diethylaminoethanethiol hydrochloride (DEA) as capping agent. By varying the Pt/thiol molar ratio, monodispersed and stable particles with diameters in the range of 3–40 nm were isolated. The amino functionality allows neutral particles to be obtained in basic water solution and positive charged nanoparticles in neutral or acidic water solution (pH 7–2), as confirmed by DLS and ζ-potential measurements. FTIR spectroscopy, FE-SEM, DLS and ζ-potential measurements confirmed the size and showed long term water stability (up to three months) of the colloidal system. PMID:28144532

  2. Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rupali S.; Kokate, Mangesh R.; Kolekar, Sanjay S.

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. We herein reports bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic ecofriendly biological material namely Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. It acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ˜450 nm in the UV-visible spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to study excitation and emission. TEM and PSD by dynamic light scattering studies showed that size of silver nanoparticles to be in range 25-40 nm. Face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by SAED pattern. The charge on synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by zeta potential. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against three different strains of bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corney bacterium (gram positive), Bacillus substilus (spore forming).

  3. Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rupali S; Kokate, Mangesh R; Kolekar, Sanjay S

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. We herein reports bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic ecofriendly biological material namely Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. It acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼450 nm in the UV-visible spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to study excitation and emission. TEM and PSD by dynamic light scattering studies showed that size of silver nanoparticles to be in range 25-40 nm. Face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by SAED pattern. The charge on synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by zeta potential. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against three different strains of bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corney bacterium (gram positive), Bacillus substilus (spore forming).

  4. Poly(acrylic acid)-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles: synthesis and properties.

    PubMed

    Jans, Hilde; Jans, Karolien; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf; Maes, Guido; Huo, Qun

    2010-11-12

    Combining the intriguing optical properties of gold nanoparticles with the inherent physical and dynamic properties of polymers can give rise to interesting hybrid nanomaterials. In this study, we report the synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-capped gold nanoparticles. The polyelectrolyte-wrapped gold nanoparticles were fully characterized and studied via a combination of techniques, i.e. UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy, dark field optical microscopy, SEM imaging, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements. Although PAA-capped nanoparticles have been previously reported, this study revealed some interesting aspects of the colloidal stability and morphological change of the polymer coating on the nanoparticle surface in an electrolytic environment, at various pH values and at different temperatures.

  5. Optimized synthesis and crystalline stability of γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks for drug adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Li, Haiyan; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Xue; Lv, Nana; Singh, Vikramjeet; Stoddart, J Fraser; York, Peter; Xu, Xu; Gref, Ruxandra; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-11-30

    The biocompatible and renewable cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) have addressed a range of opportunities in molecular storage and separation sciences. The reported protocols for their synthesis, however, were carried out at room temperature over long time periods of time (24h), producing crystals of relatively poor uniformity. In this investigation, micron sized γ-CD-MOFs were synthesized by an optimized vapor diffusion method at elevated temperature (50°C) within 6h, after which the size control, crystalline stability and drug adsorption behavior were investigated in detail. In this manner, uniform cubic γ-CD-MOF crystals were obtained when the reaction temperature was raised to 50°C with pre-addition of the reaction solvent. The size of γ-CD-MOFs was adjusted efficiently by changing the reactant concentrations, temperatures, time, γ-CD ratios to KOH and surfactant concentrations, without influencing the porosity and crystallinity of the material markedly. Varing degrees of reduction in crystallinity and change in morphology were observed when the γ-CD-MOF crystals are treated under conditions of high temperature (100°C), high humidity (92.5%) and polar solvents (e.g., MeOH and DMF). In relation to drug adsorption by γ-CD-MOFs, most of the drug molecules containing carboxyl groups showed relatively high adsorption (>5%), while low adsorption (<5%) was found for drugs with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings. In addition, the adsorption kinetics of captopril to standard γ-CD-MOFs matched a pseudo-second-order model rather well, whilst captopril adsorption to the damaged γ-CD-MOFs only partially matched the pseudo-second-order model. In summary, based upon the optimized synthesis and size control of γ-CD-MOFs, the crystalline stability and drug adsorption characteristics of γ-CD-MOF crystals have been evaluated as a fundamental requirement of a potential vehicle for drug delivery.

  6. Optimized synthesis and crystalline stability of γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks for drug adsorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Li, Haiyan; Xu, Xiaonan; Li, Xue; Lv, Nana; Singh, Vikramjeet; Stoddart, J Fraser; York, Peter; Xu, Xu; Gref, Ruxandra; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-09-26

    The biocompatible and renewable cyclodextrin metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) have addressed a range of opportunities in molecular storage and separation sciences. The reported protocols for their synthesis, however, were carried out at room temperature over long time periods of time (24h), producing crystals of relatively poor uniformity. In this investigation, micron sized γ-CD-MOFs were synthesized by an optimized vapor diffusion method at elevated temperature (50°C) within 6h, after which the size control, crystalline stability and drug adsorption behavior were investigated in detail. In this manner, uniform cubic γ-CD-MOF crystals were obtained when the reaction temperature was raised to 50°C with pre-addition of the reaction solvent. The size of γ-CD-MOFs was adjusted efficiently by changing the reactant concentrations, temperatures, time, γ-CD ratios to KOH and surfactant concentrations, without influencing the porosity and crystallinity of the material markedly. Varing degrees of reduction in crystallinity and change in morphology were observed when the γ-CD-MOF crystals are treated under conditions of high temperature (100°C), high humidity (92.5%) and polar solvents (e.g., MeOH and DMF). In relation to drug adsorption by γ-CD-MOFs, most of the drug molecules containing carboxyl groups showed relatively high adsorption (>5%), while low adsorption (<5%) was found for drugs with nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings. In addition, the adsorption kinetics of captopril to standard γ-CD-MOFs matched a pseudo-second-order model rather well, whilst captopril adsorption to the damaged γ-CD-MOFs only partially matched the pseudo-second-order model. In summary, based upon the optimized synthesis and size control of γ-CD-MOFs, the crystalline stability and drug adsorption characteristics of γ-CD-MOF crystals have been evaluated as a fundamental requirement of a potential vehicle for drug delivery.

  7. Synthesis and long-term phase stability of Mn3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, Mira; Musić, Svetozar; Popović, Stanko; Dragčević, Đurđica; Marciuš, Marijan; Ivanda, Mile

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis and long-term phase stability of hausmannite (Mn3O4) nanoparticles were investigated. The experimental techniques used were XRD, FT-IR, Raman, UV/Vis/NIR and FE-SEM. Mn3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by (a) precipitation from Mn(NO3)2 and NH4OH solutions and ageing of suspensions obtained at 160 or 20 °C and (b) precipitation from MnCl2 solution with addition of H2O2 and NH4OH solutions and ageing of suspensions obtained at 90 or 20 °C. The order of adding H2O2 or NH4OH influenced the phase composition of the precipitate. A combination of XRD, Raman and FT-IR techniques was useful in investigating the long-term phase stability of Mn3O4 and changes in the nonstoichiometry of these particles. The IR bands recorded in the range 623-635 cm-1 can be assigned to the nonstoichiometry of these particles. It was shown that the IR bands at 1085, 1115 and 1150 cm-1 corresponding to OH- vibrations can be used in the interpretation of a very early stage of the phase transformation Mn3O4 → γ-MnOOH. The appearance of an IR band (shoulder) in FT-IR spectra in the range 594-599 cm-1 was discussed in terms of a possible presence of very fine γ-MnOOH particles in traces and restricted to the surface of Mn3O4 nanoparticles. The water (moisture) adsorbed on Mn3O4 particles plays a key role in the phase transformation Mn3O4 → γ-MnOOH. Other parameters related to the synthesis route also play a certain role in this phase transformation. UV/Vis spectra were briefly discussed.

  8. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Stevia rebaudiana leaf extracts: Characterization and their stability.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Babak; Mohammadzadeh, M; Babakhani, B

    2015-07-01

    Various methods invented and developed for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles that increases daily consumed. According to this method, including potential environmental pollution problems and the complexity of the synthesis, in this study, the feasibility of using the leaves extract of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) for the reduction of gold ions to nanoparticles form have been studied. Stevia leaves were used to prepare the aqueous extract for this study. Gold nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed and its size is from 5 to 20 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that gold nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (NH2), carbonyl group, OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of gold nanoparticles with size of 17 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) implies the right of forming gold nanoparticles. The results, confirm that gold nanoparticles have synthesized by the leaves extract of S. rebaudiana (SR).

  9. Gripe water as reducing and stabilizing agent for synthesis of size controlled gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kirubha, E; Palanisamy, P K

    2013-03-01

    Green synthesis techniques are emerging as more facile and eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles compared to chemical reduction methods. Herein we report a new approach to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using gripe water as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. Good control over the size of the nanoparticles from 3.2 nm to 25 nm has been achieved with this method by simply varying the experimental conditions. The Surface Plasmon Resonance bands of tunable gold nanospheres with high monodispersity and polydispersity have been obtained by this technique and monitored using UV-Visible spectrum. The morphology and the size of these AuNPs are determined using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the crystalline nature and the phase of the AuNPs. The as-synthesized AuNPs exhibit good optical nonlinearity. The nonlinear optical studies have been carried out by Z-scan technique to demonstrate its optical limiting property. The threshold limit of the AuNPs is obtained at a input intensity of 30 mW. The nonlinear refractive index of the nanoparticles is in the order of 10(-9) cm2/W and the third-order nonlinearity is estimated to be 7 x 10(-5) esu.

  10. Co-opting the Fanconi anemia genomic stability pathway enables herpesvirus DNA synthesis and productive growth.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Heidi; Savas, Jeffrey N; McKinney, Caleb; Chen, Yu-Hung; Yates, John R; Hukkanen, Veijo; Huang, Tony T; Mohr, Ian

    2014-07-03

    DNA damage associated with viral DNA synthesis can result in double-strand breaks that threaten genome integrity and must be repaired. Here, we establish that the cellular Fanconi anemia (FA) genomic stability pathway is exploited by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) to promote viral DNA synthesis and enable its productive growth. Potent FA pathway activation in HSV-1-infected cells resulted in monoubiquitination of FA effector proteins FANCI and FANCD2 (FANCI-D2) and required the viral DNA polymerase. FANCD2 relocalized to viral replication compartments, and FANCI-D2 interacted with a multisubunit complex containing the virus-encoded single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8. Significantly, whereas HSV-1 productive growth was impaired in monoubiquitination-defective FA cells, this restriction was partially surmounted by antagonizing the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a critical enzyme required for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). This identifies the FA-pathway as a cellular factor required for herpesvirus productive growth and suggests that FA-mediated suppression of NHEJ is a fundamental step in the viral life cycle.

  11. Co-opting the Fanconi Anemia Genomic Stability Pathway Enables Herpesvirus DNA Synthesis and Productive Growth

    PubMed Central

    Karttunen, Heidi; Savas, Jeffrey N.; McKinney, Caleb; Chen, Yu-Hung; Yates, John R.; Hukkanen, Veijo; Huang, Tony T.; Mohr, Ian

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY DNA damage associated with viral DNA synthesis can result in double strand breaks that threaten genome integrity and must be repaired. Here, we establish that the cellular Fanconi Anemia (FA) genomic stability pathway is exploited by HSV1 to promote viral DNA synthesis and enable its productive growth. Potent FA pathway activation in HSV1-infected cells resulted in monoubiquitination of FA effector proteins, FANCI and FANCD2 (FANCI-D2) and required the viral DNA polymerase. FANCD2 relocalized to viral replication compartments and FANCI-D2 interacted with a multi-subunit complex containing the virus-encoded single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8. Significantly, while HSV1 productive growth was impaired in monoubiquitination-defective FA patient cells, this restriction was partially surmounted by antagonizing the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a critical enzyme required for non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). This identifies the FA-pathway as a new cellular factor required for herpesvirus productive growth and suggests that FA-mediated suppression of NHEJ is a fundamental step in the viral lifecycle. PMID:24954902

  12. Dual template synthesis of a highly mesoporous SSZ-13 zeolite with improved stability in the methanol-to-olefins reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Leilei; Degirmenci, Volkan; Magusin, Pieter C M M; Szyja, Bartłomiej M; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2012-10-04

    The dual template synthesis of zeolite SSZ-13 by use of trimethyl-adamantanammonium hydroxide and a diquaternary-ammonium mesoporogen induces considerable mesoporosity without impeding zeolite microporosity. The strongly improved accessibility of Brønsted sites in mesoporous SSZ-13 increases its stability during application as an acid catalyst in the methanol-to-olefins reaction.

  13. Environmentally friendly synthesis of p-doped reduced graphene oxide with high dispersion stability by using red table wine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk-Joon; Lee, Jang Mi; Kumer, Roy Arup; Park, Sung Young; Kim, Sang Chun; In, Insik

    2015-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with high dispersion stability and p-type semiconducting property was synthesized by using environmentally friendly mussel-inspired chemistry with red table wine. (+)-Catechin and tannic acid, polyphenolic model compounds present in wine, were selected and successfully utilized for the synthesis of soluble polycatechol-functionalized rGO.

  14. EPA EcoBox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This tool box of ecological risk assessment (Eco-box) includes over 400+ links to tools, models, and databases found within EPA and our Government partners designed that can aid risk assessors with performing exposure assessments.

  15. Three-dimensional benchmark for variable-density flow and transport simulation: matching semi-analytic stability modes for steady unstable convection in an inclined porous box

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Simmons, Craig T.; Robinson, Neville I.

    2010-01-01

    This benchmark for three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulators of variable-density groundwater flow and solute or energy transport consists of matching simulation results with the semi-analytical solution for the transition from one steady-state convective mode to another in a porous box. Previous experimental and analytical studies of natural convective flow in an inclined porous layer have shown that there are a variety of convective modes possible depending on system parameters, geometry and inclination. In particular, there is a well-defined transition from the helicoidal mode consisting of downslope longitudinal rolls superimposed upon an upslope unicellular roll to a mode consisting of purely an upslope unicellular roll. Three-dimensional benchmarks for variable-density simulators are currently (2009) lacking and comparison of simulation results with this transition locus provides an unambiguous means to test the ability of such simulators to represent steady-state unstable 3D variable-density physics.

  16. Microwave technique applied to the hydrothermal synthesis and sintering of calcia stabilized zirconia nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Corradi, Anna; Leonelli, Cristina; Rosa, Roberto; Pielaszek, Roman; Lojkowski, Witold

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the synthesis of zirconia nanopowders stabilized by 6%mol calcia prepared under hydrothermal conditions using microwave technology. Sodium hydroxide-based hydrolysis of zirconyl chloride solution containing calcium nitrate followed by microwave irradiation at the temperature of 220 °C for 30 min was sufficient to obtain white powders of crystalline calcia stabilized zirconia. By means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that tetragonal zirconia nanocrystallites with a size of ca 7 nm and diameter/standard deviation ratio of 0.10 were formed. The effects of the [Ca2+] and [NaOH] as well as temperature and time of microwave irradiation on the density and specific surface area were evaluated. Sintering test of the tetragonal nanopowders at 1,300 °C in air was performed in a monomode microwave applicator. The sample was sintered to the density of 95% and the grain size, analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, was in the range from 90 to 170 nm.

  17. The chemical synthesis of α-conotoxins and structurally modified analogs with enhanced biological stability.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jayati; Gyanda, Reena; Chang, Yi-Pin; Armishaw, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    α-Conotoxins are peptide neurotoxins isolated from the venom ducts of carnivorous marine cone snails that exhibit exquisite pharmacological potency and selectivity for various nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. As such, they are important research tools and drug leads for treating various diseases of the central nervous system, including pain and tobacco addiction. Despite their therapeutic potential, the chemical synthesis of α-conotoxins for use in structure-activity relationship studies is complicated by the possibility of three disulfide bond isomers, where inefficient folding methods can lead to a poor recovery of the pharmacologically active isomer. In order to achieve higher yields of the native isomer, especially in high-throughput syntheses it is necessary to select appropriate oxidative folding conditions. Moreover, the poor biochemical stability exhibited by α-conotoxins limits their general therapeutic applicability in vivo. Numerous strategies to enhance their stability including the substitution of disulfide bond with diselenide bond and N-to-C cyclization via an oligopeptide spacer have successfully overcome these limitations. This chapter describes methods for performing both selective and nonselective disulfide bond oxidation strategies for controlling the yields and formation of α-conotoxin disulfide bond isomers, as well as methods for the production of highly stable diselenide-containing and N-to-C cyclized conotoxin analogs.

  18. Dihydrochelerythrine and its derivatives: Synthesis and their application as potential G-quadruplex DNA stabilizing agents.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajesh; Rarhi, Chhanda; Diveshkumar, K V; Barik, Rajib; D'cunha, Ruhee; Dhar, Pranab; Kundu, Mrinalkanti; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Roy, Subho; Basu, Sourav; Pradeepkumar, P I; Hajra, Saumen

    2016-07-01

    A convenient route was envisaged toward the synthesis of dihydrochelerythrine (DHCHL), 4 by intramolecular Suzuki coupling of 2-bromo-N-(2-bromobenzyl)-naphthalen-1-amine derivative 5 via in situ generated arylborane. This compound was converted to (±)-6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine (ADC), 3 which was then resolved by chiral prep-HPLC. Efficiency of DHCHL for the stabilization of promoter quadruplex DNA structures and a comparison study with the parent natural alkaloid chelerythrine (CHL), 1 was performed. A thorough investigation was carried out to assess the quadruplex binding affinity by using various biophysical and biochemical studies and the binding mode was explained by using molecular modeling and dynamics studies. Results clearly indicate that DHCHL is a strong G-quadruplex stabilizer with affinity similar to that of the parent alkaloid CHL. Compounds ADC and DHCHL were also screened against different human cancer cell lines. Among the cancer cells, (±)-ADC and its enantiomers showed varied (15-48%) inhibition against human colorectal cell line HCT116 and breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 albeit low enantio-specificity in the inhibitory effect; whereas DHCHL showed 30% inhibition against A431 cell line only, suggesting the compounds are indeed cancer tissue specific.

  19. Effect of nitric acid concentrations on synthesis and stability of maghemite nanoparticles suspension.

    PubMed

    Nurdin, Irwan; Johan, Mohd Rafie; Yaacob, Iskandar Idris; Ang, Bee Chin

    2014-01-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical coprecipitation method at different nitric acid concentrations as an oxidizing agent. Characterization of all samples performed by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential. The XRD patterns confirmed that the particles were maghemite. The crystallite size of all samples decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TEM observation showed that the particles have spherical morphology with narrow particle size distribution. The particles showed superparamagnetic behavior with decreased magnetization values at the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TGA measurement showed that the stability temperature decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. DLS measurement showed that the hydrodynamic particle sizes decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. Zeta potential values show a decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. The increasing concentration of nitric acid in synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles produced smaller size particles, lower magnetization, better thermal stability, and more stable maghemite nanoparticles suspension.

  20. High-temperature slurry reactors for synthesis gas reactions. 1: Liquid thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.W.; Marquez, M.A.; McCutchen, M.S.; Haney, C.A.; Shin, I.D.

    1997-10-01

    The use of slurry reactors has been limited to reactions that take place at temperatures below about 573 K because many of the liquids that have been used to suspend the solid catalyst are not stable above this temperature. The thermal stability of a number of organic liquids was evaluated at temperatures between 648 and 698 K and at H{sub 2} partial pressures of about 7 MPa. Certain saturated and partially-saturated, fused-ring compounds with no alkyl groups or bridges are quite stable at these conditions. Of the compounds tested, tetrahydronaphthalene, tetrahydroquinoline, and decahydronaphthalene were the most stable. Analysis of the liquids at the end of the thermal stability evaluation supports some speculation concerning possible degradation reactions. The motivation for this research was the desire to synthesize higher (C{sub 2}{minus}C{sub 6}) alcohols in a slurry reactor from a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}), so-called synthesis gas. Alcohols such as isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol could be a source of the branched olefins that are needed to produce octane enhancers such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME).

  1. Synthesis of phthalocyanine stabilized rhodium nanoparticles and their application in biosensing of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Lokesh, K S; Shivaraj, Y; Dayananda, B P; Chandra, Sudeshna

    2009-06-01

    A single step synthesis route is described for the preparation of rhodium nanoparticles using a cobalt aminophthalocyanine macrocyclic complex as a stabilizer. The results of nanoparticles characterization using electronic absorption, Raman and X-ray spectroscopes as well as transmission electron microscopy are reported. Rhodium nanoparticle modified electrode behavior as examined by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry is also provided. The nanoparticles were found to be well dispersed and stabilized throughout the macromolecular matrix. TEM studies showed that they have an average diameter of 3 to 5 nm with spherical shape. The colloidal rhodium was then used for electrochemical sensing of cytochrome c using glassy carbon electrode. The results showed that the colloidal rhodium nanoparticles enhanced the electron transfer process between cytochrome c and the electrode. Differential pulse voltammetric measurements of cytochrome c at the colloidal rhodium nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode showed a linear relationship with the oxidation peak currents in the concentration range of 100 nM to 3 microM of cytochrome c.

  2. Kaposi Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus vIRF-3 Protein Binds to F-box of Skp2 Protein and Acts as a Regulator of c-Myc Protein Function and Stability*

    PubMed Central

    Baresova, Petra; Pitha, Paula M.; Lubyova, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been linked to Kaposi sarcoma, body cavity-based lymphoma, and Castleman disease. vIRF-3 is a KSHV latent gene that is critical for proliferation of KSHV-positive lymphoid cells. Furthermore, vIRF-3 contributes to KSHV-associated pathogenesis by stimulating c-Myc transcription activity. Here we show that vIRF-3 can associate with Skp2, a key component of the SCFskp2 ubiquitin ligase complex. Skp2 is a transcriptional co-factor for c-Myc that was shown to regulate the stability of c-Myc protein as well as c-Myc-dependent transcription. In this study, we show that vIRF-3 binds to the F-box of Skp2 and recruits it to c-Myc-regulated promoters to activate c-Myc-dependent transcription. Additionally, cells overexpressing vIRF-3 exhibit higher levels of c-Myc ubiquitylation, suggesting that ubiquitylation is necessary for c-Myc-mediated transcription. Moreover, vIRF-3 can stabilize the c-Myc protein by increasing its half-life. Collectively, these results indicate that vIRF-3 can effectively manipulate c-Myc stability and function and thus contribute to c-Myc-induced KSHV-associated lymphomagenesis. PMID:22453922

  3. Synthesis of current knowledge on post-fire seeding for soil stabilization and invasive species control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyers, Jan L.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy

    2015-01-01

    The General Accounting Office has identified a need for better information on the effectiveness of post-fire emergency stabilization and rehabilitation methods used by the U.S. Forest Service and Department of Interior (DOI) agencies. Since reviews were published on treatment effectiveness in the early 2000s, treatment choices have changed and increased monitoring has been done. Greater use of native species has added substantially to burned area emergency response (BAER) treatment costs, for example, but quantitative data on this treatment were scarce in earlier reviews. We synthesized current information on the effectiveness of post-fire seeding for both soil stabilization and for prevention of the spread of invasive species in rangelands. We reviewed published literature (peer-reviewed and “gray”) and agency monitoring reports, as well as compiled and analyzed quantitative data in agency files. Products of this review include a web-accessible database of monitoring reports and published information, a scientific journal paper summarizing findings of scientific studies, an annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed papers, a summary report published as a General Technical Report that will be available online (in progress), and presentations to scientific meetings and BAER/ESR team training sessions and workshops. By combining results from studies done by Forest Service and DOI agency personnel with research studies published since the initial reviews, we presented a comprehensive synthesis of seeding effectiveness knowledge that complements the review of other hillslope treatments published by other researchers. This information will help federal land managers make more cost-effective decisions on post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments.

  4. Aqueous Synthesis of PEGylated Quantum Dots with Increased Colloidal Stability and Reduced Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Mehriban; Jonczyk, Rebecca; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Springer, Sergej; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Stahl, Frank; Green, Mark; Scheper, Thomas

    2016-02-17

    Ligands used on the surface of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) have a significant impact on physiochemical properties of NPs and their interaction in biological environments. In this study, we report a one-pot aqueous synthesis of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-functionalized CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) in the presence of thiol-terminated methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) molecules as a surface coordinating ligand. The resulting mPEG-Qdots were characterized by using ζ potential, FTIR, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and microscale thermophoresis (MST) studies. We investigated the effect of mPEG molecules and their grafting density on the Qdots photophysical properties, colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, and in vitro cellular toxicity. Moreover, cellular binding features of the resulting Qdots were examined by using three-dimensional (3D) tumor-like spheroids, and the results were discussed in detail. Promisingly, mPEG ligands were found to increase colloidal stability of Qdots, reduce adsorption of proteins to the Qdot surface, and mitigate Qdot-induced side effects to a great extent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies revealed that PEGylated Qdots exhibited distinctive cellular interactions with respect to their mPEG grafting density. As a result, mPEG molecules demonstrated a minimal effect on the ZnS shell deposition and the Qdot fluorescence efficiency at a low mPEG density, whereas they showed pronounced effect on Qdot colloidal stability, protein binding affinity, cytotoxicity, and nonspecific binding at a higher mPEG grafting amount.

  5. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  6. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  7. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  8. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  9. Multivariate optimization of process parameters in the synthesis of calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH for defluoridation using 3(3) factorial, central composite and Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Partha S; Gupta, Ashok K; Sulaiman, Ayoob

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for the first time in the optimization of the preparation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) for defluoridation. The influence of three vital process parameters (viz. pH, molar ratio and calcination temperature) in the synthesis of the adsorbent 'Calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH' was thoroughly examined to maximize its fluoride scavenging potential. The process parameters were optimized using the 3(3) factorial, face centered central composite and Box-Behnken designs and a comparative assessment of the methods was conducted. The maximum fluoride removal efficiency was achieved at a calcination temperature of approximately 500ºC; however, the efficiency decreased with increasing pH and molar ratio. The outcome of the comparative assessment clearly delineates the case specific nature of the models. A better predictability over the entire experimental domain was obtained with the 3(3) factorial method, whereas the Box-Behnken design was found to be the most efficient model with lesser number of experimental runs. The desirability function technique was performed for optimizing the response, wherein face centered central composite design exhibited a maximum desirability. The calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH, synthesized under the optimum conditions, demonstrated the removal efficiencies of 95% and 99% for the doses of 3 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1), respectively.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted butyl acetate synthesis catalyzed by Novozym 435: enhanced activity and operational stability.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa B; Schein, Mirela F; Friedrich, John L R; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Ayub, Marco A Z; Rodrigues, Rafael C

    2013-09-01

    The influence of low-frequency ultrasound (40 kHz) in the esterification reaction between acetic acid and butanol for flavor ester synthesis catalyzed by the commercial immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) was evaluated. A central composite design and the response surface methodology were used to analyze the effects of the reaction parameters (temperature, substrate molar ratio, enzyme content and added water) and their response (yields of conversion in 2.5 h of reaction). The reaction was carried out using n-hexane as solvent. The optimal conditions for ultrasound-assisted butyl acetate synthesis were found to be: temperature of 46 °C; substrate molar ratio of 3.6:1 butanol:acetic acid; enzyme content of 7%; added water of 0.25%, conditions that are slightly different from those found using mechanical mixing. Over 94% of conversion was obtained in 2.5h under these conditions. The optimal acid concentration for the reaction was determined to be 2.0 M, compared to 0.3 M without ultrasound treatment. Enzyme productivity was significantly improved to around 7.5-fold for each batch when comparing ultrasound and standard mechanical agitation. The biocatalyst could be directly reused for 14 reactions cycles keeping around 70% of its original activity, while activity was virtually zeroed in the third cycle using the standard mixing system. Thus, compared to the traditional mechanical agitation, ultrasound technology not only improves the process productivity, but also enhances enzyme recycling and stability in the presence of acetic acid, being a powerful tool to improve biocatalyst performance in this type of reaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Green Synthesis of AgNPs Stabilized with biowaste and their antimicrobial activities

    PubMed Central

    Jasuja, Nakuleshwar Dut; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Reza, Mohtashim; Joshi, Suresh C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, rapid reduction and stabilization of Ag+ ions with different NaOH molar concentration (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM) has been carried out in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate by the bio waste peel extract of P.granatum. Generally, chemical methods used for the synthesis of AgNPs are quite toxic, flammable and have adverse effect in medical application but green synthesis is a better option due to eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and safe for human. Stable AgNPs were synthesized by treating 90 mL aqueous solution of 2 mM AgNO3 with the 5 mL plant peels extract (0.4% w/v) at different NaOH concentration (5 mL). The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM. Further, antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were performed on Gram positive i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Gram negative i.e. E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The AgNPs synthesized at 1.5 mM NaOH concentration had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI) i.e. 49 ± 0.64 in E. coli, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilius had shown 40 ± 0.29 mm, 28 ± 0.13 and 42 ± 0.49 mm ZOI respectively. The MIC value of 30 μg/mL observed for E. coli Whereas, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had shown 45 μg/mL, 38 μg/mL, 35 μg/mL respectively. The study revealed that AgNPs had shown significant antimicrobial activity as compared to Streptomycin. PMID:25763037

  12. Hydroxypropylcellulose as a novel green reservoir for the synthesis, stabilization, and storage of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Shah, Abdullah; Jantan, Ibrahim; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Ahmad, Riaz; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides are attracting the vigil eye of researchers in order to design the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of diverse size, shape, and application. We report an environmentally friendly method to synthesize Ag NPs where no physical reaction conditions were employed. Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) was used as a template nanoreactor, stabilizer, and capping agent to obtain Ag NPs. Different concentrations of AgNO3 solutions (50 mmol, 75 mmol, and 100 mmol) were mixed with a concentrated aqueous solution of HPC and the progress of the reaction was monitored by noting color changes of the reaction mixture at different reaction times for up to 24 hours. Characteristic ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV/Vis) absorption bands of Ag NPs were observed in the range of 388–452 nm. The morphology of the Ag NPs was studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy. The TEM images confirmed that the size of the Ag NPs was in the range of 25–55 nm. Powder X-ray diffraction studies showed that the crystal phase of the Ag NPs was face-centered cubic. The as-prepared Ag NPs were found to be stable, and no changes in size and morphology were observed after storage in HPC thin films over 1 year, as indicated by UV/Vis spectra. So, the present work furnishes a green and economical strategy for the synthesis and storage of stable Ag NPs. As-synthesized Ag NPs showed significant antimicrobial activity against different bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal strains (Actinomycetes and Aspergillus niger). PMID:25844038

  13. An Improved Box Theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huster, Michael E.

    2011-09-01

    While designing an optics lab for a conceptual physics course, I came across a "box theater" activity. The box theater is a pinhole camera obscura made from a box that students put over their heads and shoulders. I use the activity as a capstone experience to explain optical systems. (Classroom demonstrations of the camera obscura have been described by others.2) First, the students build and experiment with a camera obscura made from a plastic cup and a convex lens with a focal length of 7.5 cm, and then "wear" the box theater. The difficulty with the box theater is the dimness of the image. A cloth drape has to be hung from the bottom of the box around the shoulders of the students to prevent light leakage, and the students have to wait a few minutes for their eyes to adjust to the darkness.

  14. GLOVE BOX ATTACHMENT

    DOEpatents

    Butts, H.L.

    1962-02-13

    This invention comprises a housing unit to be fitted between a glove box port and a glove so that a slidable plate within the housing seals off the glove box port for evacuation of the glove box without damage to the glove. The housing and the glove may be evacuated without damage to the glove since movement of the glove is restricted during evacuation by the slidable plate. (AEC)

  15. In situ green synthesis of biocompatible ginseng capped gold nanoparticles with remarkable stability.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Kwati; Ahmmad, Bashir; Okamura, Hiroaki; Kurawaki, Junichi

    2011-02-01

    We report herein an unprecedented one-step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (G-AuNps), using naturally occurring Korean red ginseng root (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) without any special reducing/capping agents. The AuNps generated through this ginseng-mediated process did not aggregate suggesting that the phytochemicals present in them serve as excellent coatings on the nanoparticles and thus, provide robust shielding from aggregations. The ginseng-generated AuNps exhibit remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including: cysteine, histidine, saline, sodium chloride and a host of pH ranges. Furthermore, the phytochemical coatings on the G-AuNps rendered them nontoxic as demonstrated through detailed cytotoxicity assays using WST-8 counting kit, performed on normal cervical cells lines. The present study opens up a new possibility of conveniently synthesizing AuNps using natural products which will be useful in optoelectronic and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of (-)-(R)-pyrrolam a and studies on its stability: a caveat on computational methods.

    PubMed

    Watson, Rhett T; Gore, Vinayak K; Chandupatla, Kishan R; Dieter, R Karl; Snyder, James P

    2004-09-03

    The asymmetric synthesis of (-)-(R)-pyrrolam A was achieved in three operations from N-Boc pyrrolidine via an alpha-(N-carbamoyl)alkylcuprate vinylation reaction followed by N-Boc deprotection and cyclization. One-pot deprotection-cyclization procedures led to mixtures of pyrrolam A and its double bond isomers. These isomerization events could be circumvented by use of a two-step procedure. To guide aspects of the experiments, a series of computational energy evaluations and chemical shift predictions were performed with molecular mechanics, semiempirical, ab initio, and density functional methods. The relative stabilities of the double bond isomers, as estimated by experiment, challenged a number of computational methods, and only the MP2 model with its moderate degree of electron correlation came close to matching the experimental data. The MP2 method was further applied to an unusual aspect of the double bond migration between pyrrolam A and its isomer 9. The reaction (1 to 9) on neat samples is irreversible without racemization, and the alumina-mediated equilibration is accompanied by complete loss of enantiomeric excess. The source of the irreversibility was traced to asymmetric charge distribution in the intermediate dienolate anion. The analysis ultimately led to a semiquantitative sketch of the pyrrolam energy surface.

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Nanocrystals with Controlled Yttria Content.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Horiguchi, Kazuya; Nishikawa, Taku; Yagishita, Sadahiro; Kuruma, Kazuo; Murakami, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroya

    2015-08-17

    In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the hydrothermal synthesis of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanocrystals with controlled yttria content (x = 3-12 mol %; xYSZ) with negligible aggregation from aqueous solution. The nanocrystals were grown via the hydrothermal treatment of basic Zr(IV) and Y(III) carbonate complex aqueous solutions in the presence of a cationic ligand, N(CH3)4(+). The nanocrystals were characterized in detail by dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential measurement, X-ray diffraction, specific surface area measurement based on the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Shorter reaction times and higher Y2O3 content produce aqueous solutions with higher transparencies containing nanocrystals with sizes of 10 nm or less. Nanocrystals with the target composition were obtained by hydrothermal reaction for longer than 3 h, regardless of the Y2O3 content. The main phase is tetragonal for (3-6)YSZ and cubic with disordered oxygen vacancies for (8-12)YSZ. The characteristics of the nanocrystalline material synthesized are consistent with those of bulk YSZ crystals, indicating the growth of high-quality nanocrystals.

  18. Laser synthesis and stability of one-dimensional polyynic carbon chains in liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunyan, Natalia R.; Fedotov, Pavel V.; Kononenko, Vitaly V.

    2016-03-01

    The results on femtosecond laser formation of polyynic linear carbon chains (LCCs) are reported. To reduce the oxidation and degradation of carbon chains, the synthesis of LCCs was performed in liquid media. The flakes of graphite were suspended in water or in hexane and ultrasonicated to obtain a suspension of micron-size graphite particles. This suspension was irradiated by pulses of Ti:sapphire laser. The spectral lines at 189, 199, 215, 225, 262, 276, 284, 299, 323, 342, and 368 nm in the optical absorption spectrum of the irradiated graphite suspension were clearly distinguished. They were attributed to the absorption of polyynic carbon chains CnH2, where n=2 to 20. The stability of the synthesized one-dimensional carbon chains suspended in water and hexane was defined based on the intensity of the optical absorption bands. Its half-life time was estimated to be 20 h at room temperature for water, and 7 and 25 days for hexane at 60°C and 5°C, respectively.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and stability of Cr(III) and Fe(III) hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Papassiopi, N; Vaxevanidou, K; Christou, C; Karagianni, E; Antipas, G S E

    2014-01-15

    Chromium is a common contaminant of soils and aquifers and constitutes a major environmental problem. In nature, chromium usually exists in the form of two oxidation states, trivalent, Cr(III), which is relatively innocuous for biota and for the aquatic environment, and hexavalent, Cr(VI) which is toxic, carcinogenic and very soluble. Accordingly, the majority of wastewater and groundwater treatment technologies, include a stage where Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III), in order to remove chromium from the aqueous phase and bind the element in the form of environmentally stable solid compounds. In the absence of iron the final product is typically of the form Cr(OH)3·xH2O whereas in the presence of iron the precipitate is a mixed Fe(1-x)Crx(OH)3 phase. In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterisation and stability of mixed (Fex,Cr1-x)(OH)3 hydroxides as compared to the stability of Cr(OH)3. We established that the plain Cr(III) hydroxide, abiding to the approximate molecular formula Cr(OH)3·3H2O, was crystalline, highly soluble, i.e. unstable, with a tendency to transform into the stable amorphous hydroxide Cr(OH)3(am) phase. Mixed Fe0.75Cr0.25(OH)3 hydroxides were found to be of the ferrihydrite structure, Fe(OH)3, and we correlated their solubility to that of a solid solution formed by plain ferrihydrite and the amorphous Cr(III) hydroxide. Both our experimental results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) hydroxides are more effective enhancers of groundwater quality, in comparison to the plain amorphous or crystalline Cr(III) hydroxides, the latter found to have a solubility typically higher than 50μg/l (maximum EU permitted Cr level in drinking water), while the amorphous Cr(OH)3(am) phase was within the drinking water threshold in the range 5.7stability in the 4.8

  20. Taking stress response out of the box: stability, discontinuity, and temperament effects on HPA and SNS across social stressors in mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as were associations with infant temperament. Primiparous mothers and their 18-month-old infants (n = 86 dyads) completed an attachment stressor--Strange Situation (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978)--at Session 1 and challenge stressors--cleanup task and emotion task battery--at Session 2. Mother and infant saliva samples collected to index pre-stress, stress, and post-stress response during each session were assayed for cortisol (HPA marker) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA; SNS marker). Multilevel modeling of cortisol/sAA trajectories across sessions revealed rank-order stability in mother/infant stress measures but discontinuity in absolute levels; cortisol trajectories were higher during attachment stress, and sAA trajectories were higher during challenge stress. Varying degrees of mother-infant attunement were found across sessions/systems. Infant surgency predicted higher stress measures, and negative affect and effortful control predicted lower stress measures, though associations depended on session/system. Findings are discussed in terms of advancing a multisystemic, contextual definition of developing stress responsiveness.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of the electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanzhi; Zhu, Anfeng; Song, Yang; Cheng, Zhipeng; Zhou, Jianfeng

    2013-06-01

    Electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles on the surface of glassy carbon electrode using ampicillin as a stabilizing reagent are prepared. The silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and infrared spectrometry. The electrochemical catalysis of AgNPs for sodium sulfide was demonstrated. The relationship between the molecular structure of ampicillin and the dispersion of GNPs on the surface of GCE as well as the catalysis of GNPs for sodium sulfide was discussed.

  2. Transcription activation by GC-boxes: evaluation of kinetic and equilibrium contributions.

    PubMed Central

    Yean, D; Gralla, J

    1996-01-01

    Basal and GC-box activated transcription were compared by various assays in order to learn the basis for an 8-fold difference observed under standard conditions. The time required for forming pre-initiation complexes and initiating and elongating RNA synthesis, and the extent of transcription reinitiation were found to be quite similar for basal and activated transcription, with complex formation being the slow step in both cases. The extent of activation was found to vary widely with the amount of template DNA used. Activated pre-initiation complexes were found to have a higher stability than basal complexes. The data are interpreted to indicate that GC-box elements do not stimulate the rate constants for critical steps in this system but rather increase the equilibrium constant for pre-initiation complex formation, probably by 10-30-fold. PMID:8759003

  3. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and molecular modeling of glycyrrhizin derivatives as potent high-mobility group box-1 inhibitors with anti-heart-failure activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Du, Dan; Yan, Jun; Ren, Jinhong; Lv, Haining; Li, Yong; Xu, Song; Wang, Yadan; Ma, Shuanggang; Qu, Jing; Tang, Weibin; Hu, Zhuowei; Yu, Shishan

    2013-01-10

    Novel glycyrrhizin (GL) derivatives were designed and synthesized by introducing various amine or amino acid residues into the carbohydrate chain and at C-30. Their inhibitory effects on high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were evaluated using a cell-based lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) release study. Compounds 10, 12, 18-20, 23, and 24, which had substituents introduced at C-30, demonstrated moderate HMGB1 inhibition with ED₅₀ values ranging from 337 to 141 μM, which are values comparable to that of the leading GL compound (1) (ED₅₀ = 70 μM). Compounds 23 and 24 emerged as novel and interesting HMGB1 inhibitors. These compounds were able to extend the survival of mice with chronic heart failure (CHF) and acute heart failure (AHF), respectively. In addition, molecular modeling studies were performed to support the biological data.

  4. Math in the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  5. Math in the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  6. Thinking outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe, Simon; Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan

    2010-01-01

    Britain is not only more diverse than ever before, but that diversity itself is growing more diverse. Britain's simplistic "tick-box" approach to identity is in danger of inhibiting the very equality it seeks to promote. To question the tick-box is not to accuse local authorities of "political correctness gone mad". The notion…

  7. Straw in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Richard; Schneider, Joel; Smallberg, Ralph; Wetzel, John

    2006-01-01

    A problem on a state's high school exit exam asked for the longest straw that would fit in a box. The examiners apparently wanted the length of a diagonal of the box, but the figure accompanying the question suggested otherwise--that the radius of the straw be considered. This article explores that more general problem.

  8. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.J. |; Weiler, T.J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables {open_quotes}boxes{close_quotes} because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that {ital CP} violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{ge}3 flavors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Thinking outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe, Simon; Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan

    2010-01-01

    Britain is not only more diverse than ever before, but that diversity itself is growing more diverse. Britain's simplistic "tick-box" approach to identity is in danger of inhibiting the very equality it seeks to promote. To question the tick-box is not to accuse local authorities of "political correctness gone mad". The notion…

  10. The Controller Synthesis of Metastable Oxides Utilizing Epitaxy and Epitaxial Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Schlom, Darrell

    2003-12-02

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) has achieved unparalleled control in the integration of semiconductors at the nanometer. These advances were made through the use of epitaxy, epitaxial stabilization, and a combination of composition-control techniques including adsorption-controlled growth and RHEED-based composition control that we have developed, understood, and utilized for the growth of oxides. Also key was extensive characterization (utilizing RHEED, four-circle x-ray diffraction, AFM, TEM, and electrical characterization techniques) in order to study growth modes, optimize growth conditions, and probe the structural, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of the materials grown. The materials that we have successfully engineered include titanates (PbTiO3, Bi4Ti3O12), tantalates (SrBi2Ta2O9), and niobates (SrBi2Nb2O9); layered combinations of these perovskite-related materials (Bi4Ti3O12-SrTiO3 and Bi4Ti3O12-PbTiO3 Aurivillius phases and metastable PbTiO3/SrTiO3 and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices), and new metastable phases (Srn+1TinO3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases). The films were grown by reactive MBE and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Many of these materials are either new or have been synthesized with the highest perfection ever reported. The controlled synthesis of such layered oxide heterostructures offers great potential for tailoring the superconducting, ferroelectric, and dielectric properties of these materials. These properties are important for energy technologies.

  11. Ammine-Stabilized Transition-Metal Borohydrides of Iron, Cobalt, and Chromium: Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Roedern, Elsa; Jensen, Torben R

    2015-11-02

    Iron and cobalt borohydrides stabilized by ammonia (NH3), [Fe(NH3)6](BH4)2 and [Co(NH3)6](BH4)2, were synthesized along with a solid solution, [Co(NH3)6](BH4)(2-x)Cl(x) (x ∼ 1), and a bimetallic compound, [Fe(NH3)6](Li2(BH4)4). The compounds were prepared by new low-temperature, solvent-based synthesis methods, using dimethyl sulfide or liquid NH3, which allow for the removal of inert metal halides. The crystal structures were determined from synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. [M(NH3)6](BH4)2 (M = Fe, Co) and [Co(NH3)6](BH4)(2-x)Cl(x) crystallize in the cubic crystal system, where the transition metals are octahedrally coordinated by NH3. Polymeric chains of lithium coordinated by four bridging BH4(-) anions are found in [Fe(NH3)6](Li2(BH4)4). The new compounds have high hydrogen densities of ∼14 wt % H2 and ∼140 g H2/L and release a mixture of hydrogen and NH3 gas at low temperatures, T < 80 °C. The decomposition mechanisms of the prepared compounds along with the composites [Fe(NH3)6](BH4)2·nNH3BH3 (n = 2, 4, 6) were studied by thermal analysis and in situ SR-PXD.

  12. Solvothermal synthesis of Ag hybrid BiPO4 heterostructures with enhanced photodegradation activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Wei; Wu, Mei-Yao; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2017-03-15

    In this study, Ag hybrid BiPO4 (Ag/BiPO4) heterostructures were synthesized using a solvothermal method. The morphologies and optical properties of the Ag/BiPO4 heterostructures were drastically different from those of BiPO4 and were highly dependent on the AgNO3:BiPO4 weight percent during the synthesis. The three formulated heterostructures were evaluated for their photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light illumination; the 0.5%Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure was observed to result in 99% degradation of MB within 60min, a remarkably higher level of photodegradation activity than the levels caused by TiO2 and BiPO4. Furthermore, even after use for five cycles of MB degradation, the 0.5%Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure showed no observable loss in photodegradation activity and no change in XRD patterns, demonstrating its chemical and structural stability. According to the results of a systematic experimental investigation, the enhanced photodegradation activity of this Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure could be ascribed to the high position of its valence band and the highly efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. Moreover, hydroxyl radicals and holes were found to be the major reactive species. Successful photodegradation of standard dye solutions, including acid blue 1, methyl orange, fast green, rhodamine B, rhodamine 6G, and MB, in real water samples was demonstrated with the 0.5%Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure, providing clear evidence of its utility for treating waste water containing organic dyes.

  13. Microwave synthesis and in vitro stability of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin conjugate for colon delivery.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amélia C F; Serra, Arménio C; Carvalho, Rui A; Gonsalves, Alexandra; Figueiras, Ana; Veiga, Francisco J; Basit, Abdul W; Rocha Gonsalves, António M d'A

    2013-04-02

    The aim of this work was to synthesize an ester prodrug of diclofenac and β-cyclodextrin suitable for colonic delivery. The synthesis of an ester linkage between diclofenac and β-cyclodextrin was conducted by the nucleophilic substitution of mono-6-tosyl-β-cyclodextrin under microwaves irradiation. After purification, the conjugate was characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry; infrared (IR) spectroscopy; proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy; and two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect (ROESY) spectroscopy. The purity was qualified by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess its potential for colonic delivery, the conjugate was evaluated for stability in simulated gastric and small intestinal fluids, and in fecal material from humans processed within a slurry under anaerobic conditions. The conjugate was successfully synthesized with a yield of 20% following purification. The mass spectra showed the parent peak m/z 1434 corresponding to [conjugate+Na] adduct. IR and NMR results confirmed that the carboxyl group of diclofenac is covalently bound to one of the hydroxyl groups of cyclodextrin by an ester linkage. Moreover, ROESY data indicated that the formation of the conjugate is not accompanied by the inclusion of diclofenac within the cyclodextrin. The conjugate was otherwise stable in simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions, but was also readily hydrolyzed liberating diclofenac in less than 2h within the human fecal slurry. This confirmed the potential for this new prodrug as a carrier for colonic delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness.

    PubMed

    Imran Din, Muhammad; Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summarizes the synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using different biological systems. This review also provides comparative overview of influence of chemical synthesis and green synthesis on structural properties of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles and their biological behavior. It concludes that green methods for synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles are better than chemical synthetic methods.

  15. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summarizes the synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles using different biological systems. This review also provides comparative overview of influence of chemical synthesis and green synthesis on structural properties of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles and their biological behavior. It concludes that green methods for synthesis of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles are better than chemical synthetic methods. PMID:27413375

  16. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Hoenes, Glenn R.

    1981-01-01

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  17. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    A shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user wthdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  18. Glove box shield

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    1981-02-17

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box. 2 figs.

  19. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe2O3 NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L-1 of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L-1 dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g-1.

  20. Roles of mutagenic translesion synthesis in mammalian genome stability, health and disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jacob G; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; de Wind, Niels

    2015-05-01

    Most spontaneous and DNA damage-induced nucleotide substitutions in eukaryotes depend on translesion synthesis polymerases Rev1 and Pol ζ, the latter consisting of the catalytic subunit Rev3 and the accessory protein Rev7. Here we review the regulation, and the biochemical and cellular functions, of Rev1/Pol ζ-dependent translesion synthesis. These are correlated with phenotypes of mouse models with defects in Rev1, Rev3 or Rev7. The data indicate that Rev1/Pol ζ-mediated translesion synthesis is important for adaptive immunity while playing paradoxical roles in oncogenesis. On the other hand, by enabling the replication of endogenously damaged templates, Rev1/Pol ζ -dependent translesion synthesis protects stem cells, thereby preventing features of ageing. In conclusion, Rev1/Pol ζ-dependent translesion synthesis at DNA helix-distorting nucleotide lesions orchestrates pleiotropic responses that determine organismal fitness and disease.

  1. Use of alginate, chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals as emulsion stabilizers in the synthesis of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rescignano, Nicoletta; Fortunati, Elena; Armentano, Ilaria; Hernandez, Rebeca; Mijangos, Carmen; Pasquino, Rossana; Kenny, José Maria

    2015-05-01

    Biopolymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on a biodegradable poly(DL-Lactide-co-Glycolide) PLGA copolymer matrix combined with alginate, chitosan and nanostructured cellulose crystals as three different natural emulsion stabilizers, were synthesized by a double emulsion (water/oil/water) method with subsequent solvent evaporation. The morphological, thermal, chemical and rheological properties of the novel designed NPs and the effect of the different emulsion stabilizers used during the synthesis were deeply investigated in order to optimize the synthesis procedure and the development of biodegradable nanoparticles coated with natural polymers. The morphological analysis of the produced nanoparticles showed that all the different formulations presented a spherical shape with smooth surface. Infrared spectroscopy investigations showed that the PLGA copolymer maintained its backbone structure and confirmed the presence of chitosan, alginate and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the nanoparticle surface. The obtained results suggest that PLGA nanoparticles with CNC as emulsion stabilizer might represent promising formulations opening new perspective in the field of self-assembly of biodegradable nanomaterials for medical and pharmaceutical applications.

  2. Stabilization of nickel-laden sludge by a high-temperature NiCr2O4 synthesis process.

    PubMed

    Li, Nien-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Hsin; Hu, Ching-Yao; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2011-12-30

    The feasibility of stabilizing nickel-laden sludge by a high-temperature NiCr(2)O(4) synthesis process was investigated with different sintering temperatures, salt contents, molar ratios, and reaction atmospheres. The crystalline phases of species were investigated by using an X-ray diffraction, and the surface characteristics of particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The leaching behavior of the stabilized sludge was evaluated by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. The results indicated that NiCr(2)O(4) was formed at around 800°C by transforming NiO and Cr(2)O(3) into a spinel structure. Leaching concentrations of both nickel and chromium decreased with an increase in the sintering temperature. The existence of salt in the sludge disturbed the formation of spinel, but a moderate salt content contributed to stabilization efficiency. A Cr/Ni molar ratio >2 also contributed to the stabilization efficiency of heavy metals after the thermal process. NiCr(2)O(4) was transformed from simulated sludge under both an N(2) and air atmosphere. The sintering strategy designed for nickel-laden sludge was proven to be beneficial in stabilizing nickel and chromium.

  3. Voice box (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  4. Climate in a Box

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Climate in a Box Project is exploring the utility of supercomputers in providing a complete, pre-packaged, ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products and on-demand access to a high-pe...

  5. Protein synthesis inhibitors enhance the expression of mRNAs for early inducible inflammatory genes via mRNA stabilization.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Soh; Takeshige, Koichiro

    2008-02-01

    Expression of inflammatory genes is regulated at multiple steps, including transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization. During an investigation into the requirement of de novo protein synthesis for the induction of inflammatory genes, it was revealed that protein synthesis inhibitors unexpectedly potentiated the induction of mRNAs for primary response genes, while the inhibitors suppressed the induction of secondary inducible genes as previously described. Stimulus-induced nuclear translocation and promoter recruitment of NF-kappaB, which is responsible for the transcriptional activation of many inflammatory genes, were largely unaffected by the inhibitors. Instead, these inhibitors prolonged the half-lives of all of the primary inducible mRNAs tested. Thus, these findings emphasize the important contribution of regulated mRNA longevity to gene expression induced by pro-inflammatory stimulation.

  6. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  7. Freedom to box.

    PubMed Central

    Warburton, N

    1998-01-01

    The british Medical Association wants to criminalise all boxing. This article examines the logic of the arguments it uses and finds them wanting. The move from medical evidence about the risk of brain damage to the conclusion that boxing should be banned is not warranted. The BMA's arguments are a combination of inconsistent paternalism and legal moralism. Consistent application of the principles implicit in the BMA's arguments would lead to absurd consequences and to severe limitations being put on individual freedom. PMID:9549684

  8. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  9. Infectious disease and boxing.

    PubMed

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  10. Room temperature synthesis of PbSe quantum dots in aqueous solution: Stabilization by interactions with ligands

    PubMed Central

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Arslan, Zikri; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    An aqueous route of synthesis is described for rapid synthesis of lead selenide quantum dots (PbSe QDs) at room temperature in an attempt to produce water-soluble and stable nanocrystals. Several thiol-ligands, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), thioglycerol (TGC), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 2-mercaptoethyleamine hydrochloride (MEA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA), and L-cysteine (L-cys), were used for capping/stabilization of PbSe QDs. The effects of the ligands on the stability of PbSe QDs were evaluated for a period of two months at room temperature under normal light conditions and at 4 °C in dark. The TGA- and MEA-capped QDs exhibited the highest stability prior to purification, almost two months when kept in dark at 4 °C. However, the stability of TGA-capped QDs was reduced substantially after purification to about 5 days under same conditions, while MEA-capped QDs did not show any significant instability. The stabilization energies of Pb-thiolate complexes determined by theoretical DFT simulations supported the experimental results. The PbSe QDs capped with TGA, MPA and MEA were successfully purified and re-dispersed in water, while those stabilized with TGC, MHA and L-cys aggregated during purification attempts. The purified PbSe QDs possess very susceptible surface resulting in poor stability for about 30 – 45 min after re-dispersion in water. In the presence of an excess of free ligand, the stability increased up to 5 days for TGA-capped QDs at pH 7.19, 9 –12 days for MPA-capped QDs at pH 7.3–7.5 and 45–47 days for MEA-capped QDs at pH 7.35. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that the QDs possess a cubic rock salt structure with the most intense peaks located at 2θ = 25.3° (200) and 2θ = 29.2° (100). TEM images showed that the size of the QDs ranges between 5 and 10 nm. ICP-MS results revealed that Pb:Se ratio was 1.26, 1.28, 3.85, 1.18, and 1.31 for the QDs capped with TGA, MPA, MEA, L-Cys, and TGC, respectively. The proposed method

  11. Room temperature synthesis of PbSe quantum dots in aqueous solution: stabilization by interactions with ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primera-Pedrozo, Oliva M.; Arslan, Zikri; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-02-01

    An aqueous route of synthesis is described for rapid synthesis of lead selenide quantum dots (PbSe QDs) at room temperature in an attempt to produce water-soluble and stable nanocrystals. Several thiol-ligands, including thioglycolic acid (TGA), thioglycerol (TGC), 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), 2-mercaptoethylamine hydrochloride (MEA), 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (MHA), and l-cysteine (l-cys), were used for capping/stabilization of PbSe QDs. The effects of the ligands on the stability of PbSe QDs were evaluated for a period of two months at room temperature under normal light conditions and at 4 °C in the dark. The TGA- and MEA-capped QDs exhibited the highest stability prior to purification, almost two months when kept in the dark at 4 °C. However, the stability of TGA-capped QDs was reduced substantially after purification to about 5 days under the same conditions, while MEA-capped QDs did not show any significant instability. The stabilization energies of Pb-thiolate complexes determined by theoretical DFT simulations supported the experimental results. The PbSe QDs capped with TGA, MPA and MEA were successfully purified and re-dispersed in water, while those stabilized with TGC, MHA and l-cys aggregated during purification attempts. The purified PbSe QDs possess very susceptible surface resulting in poor stability for about 30-45 min after re-dispersion in water. In the presence of an excess of free ligand, the stability increased up to 5 days for TGA-capped QDs at pH 7.19, 9-12 days for MPA-capped QDs at pH 7.3-7.5 and 45-47 days for MEA-capped QDs at pH 7.35. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the QDs possess a cubic rock salt structure with the most intense peaks located at 2θ = 25.3° (200) and 2θ = 29.2° (100). TEM images showed that the size of the QDs ranges between 5 and 10 nm. ICP-MS results revealed that Pb : Se ratios were 1.26, 1.28, 3.85, 1.18, and 1.31 for the QDs capped with TGA, MPA, MEA, l-cys, and TGC, respectively. The proposed

  12. Aspects of metal and silicon-based nanomaterials: Synthesis, stability and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elechiguerra Joven, Jose Luis

    Metal and Si-based nanostructures have drawn increasing interest due to their potential uses in catalysis, biological sensors, and nanoelectronics among others. Therefore, in the present work, several nanostructures were produced, characterized and tested. In particular, the conventional synthesis of noble-metal nanostructures through the polyol method was modified by replacing poly-vinyl pyrrolidone PVP with poly-diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride PDDA. As PDDA is a cationic polyelectrolyte, the initial strong electrostatic interaction between PDDA and the anionic metal precursors produce the formation of stable ion pairs, so the reactivity of the different species can be tailored and particles with different internal structure, i.e. crystallinity, can be produced. Additionally, metal nanostructures such as nanoparticles and nanowires have been proposed as building blocks for several applications in nanofabrication and nanoelectronics. However, even when atmospheric corrosion is common in metals, there is a lack of information about the stability of those nanostructures against such phenomenon. So, the atmospheric corrosion of silver nanowires and nanoparticles synthesized by the polyol method using PVP as capping agent was studied. Recently, five-fold twinned nanorods and nanowires of gold, copper and silver with pentagonal cross-sections have been synthesized by different techniques, including the polyol method. However, there is not a complete explanation of all the features presented in their electron diffraction patterns. Thus, a comprehensive study on the structure of these multi-twinned decahedral based nanorods and nanowires is presented. Another important application of noble-metal nanostructures is in the field of biology. In the present work, it has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles undergo a size dependent interaction with HIV-1 via preferential binding to the gp120 glycoprotein knobs. Due to this interaction, silver nanoparticles inhibit the

  13. A multiplexed electrospray process for single-step synthesis of stabilized polymer particles for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Almería, Begoña; Fahmy, Tarek M; Gomez, Alessandro

    2011-09-05

    While conventional methods for biodegradable particle production rely predominately on batch, emulsion preparation methods, an alternative process based on multiplexed electrospray (ES) can offer distinct advantages. These include enhanced encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents, scale-up potential, tight control over particle size and excellent particulate reproducibility. Here we developed a well-controlled ES process to synthesize coated biodegradable polymer particles. We demonstrate this process with the Poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) system encapsulating amphiphilic agents such as doxorubicin (DOX), Rhodamine B (RHO(B)) and Rhodamine B octadecyl ester perchlorate (RHO(BOEP)). We show that in a single-step flow process particles can be made encapsulating the agent with high efficiency and coated either with emulsifiers that stabilize them in solution or that may facilitate further functionalization for targeted drug delivery. The coating process allows for the surface modification of the particles without further changes in particle size or morphology, and with minimal loss of drug (>94% encapsulation efficiency). This synthesis technique is well suited for massive scale-up using microfabricated, multiplexed arrays consisting of multiple electrospray nozzles operating in parallel. A simple analytical model of the diffusion of the encapsulated agent within the polymer reveals two distinct phases in the cumulative release profile: a first phase in which the release is dominated by diffusion and a second phase with a slower release related to the erosion of the polymer matrix. The first, diffusion-driven stage is highly affected by particle agglomeration properties, whereas the second one shows a much less pronounced dependence on particle size. Modeling suggests that the size of the particles will substantially influence the initial burst in both the percentage of drug released and the rate at which it is released. It will also affect to

  14. Homo- and heteropolynuclear platinum complexes stabilized by dimethylpyrazolato and alkynyl bridging ligands: synthesis, structures, and luminescence.

    PubMed

    Forniés, Juan; Fuertes, Sara; Martín, Antonio; Sicilia, Violeta; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa

    2006-11-06

    This work describes the synthesis of cis-[Pt(C[triple bond]CPh)2(Hdmpz)2] (1) and its use as a precursor for the preparation of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes. Double deprotonation of compound 1 with readily available M(I) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) or M(II) (M = Pd, Pt) species affords the discrete hexanuclear clusters [{PtM2(mu-C[triple bond]CPh)2(mu-dmpz)(2)}(2)] [M = Cu (2), Ag (3), Au (4)], in which both "Pt(C[triple bond]CPh)2(dmpz)(2)" fragments are connected by four d(10) metal centers, and are stabilized by alkynyl and dimethylpyrazolate bridging ligands, or the trinuclear complexes [Pt(mu-C[triple bond]CPh)2(mu-dmpz)(2){M(C/\\P)}2] (M = Pd (5), Pt (6); C/\\P = CH(2)-C(6)H(4)-P(o-tolyl)2-kappaC,P), respectively. The X-ray structures of complexes 1-4 and 6 are reported. The X-ray structure of the platinum-copper derivative 2 shows that all copper centers exhibit similar local geometry being linearly coordinated to a nitrogen atom and eta(2) to one alkynyl fragment. However in the related platinum-silver (3) and platinum-gold (4) derivatives the silver and gold atoms present three different coordination environments. The complexes have been studied by absorption and emission spectroscopy. The hexanuclear complexes exhibit bright luminescence in the solid state and in fluid solution (except 4 in the solid state at 298 K). Dual long-lived emission is observed, being clearly resolved in low-temperature rigid media. The low-energy emission is ascribed to MLM'CT Pt(d)/pi(C[triple bond]CPh)-->Pt(p(z))/M'(sp)/pi*(C[triple bond]CPh) modified by metal-metal interactions whereas the high-energy emission is tentatively attributed to an emissive state derived from dimethylpyrazolate-to-metal (d(10)) LM'CT transitions pi(dmpz)-->M'(d(10)).

  15. Automatic box loader

    DOEpatents

    Eldridge, Harry H.; Jones, Robert A.; Lindner, Gordon M.; Hight, Paul H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for repetitively forming an assembly consisting of a single layer of tubes and a row of ferromagnetic armatures underlying the same, electromagnetically conveying the resulting assembly to a position overlying a storage box, and depositing the assembly in the box. The system includes means for simultaneously depositing a row of the armatures on the inclined surface of a tube retainer. Tubes then are rolled down the surface to form a single tube layer bridging the armatures. A magnet assembly carrying electromagnets respectively aligned with the armatures is advanced close to the tube layer, and in the course of this advance is angularly displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into parallelism with the tube layer. The magnets then are energized to pick up the assembly. The loaded magnet assembly is retracted to a position overlying the box, and during this retraction is again displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into a horizontal plane. Means are provided for inserting the loaded electromagnets in the box and then de-energizing the electromagnets to deposit the assembly therein. The system accomplishes the boxing of fragile tubes at relatively high rates. Because the tubes are boxed as separated uniform layers, subsequent unloading operations are facilitated.

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles using benzo-18-crown-6 as reducing and stabilizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Jolly; Deb, Manas Kanti; Deshmukh, Dhananjay Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Benzo-18-crown-6 is employed to work as both reducing and stabilizing reagent in the reaction for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles are analyzed using transmission electron microscope and UV-visible spectroscopic technique. The silver nanoparticles prepared in this way are uniform and stable, which can be stored at refrigerator for 5 months. Appearance of surface plasmon band at 420 nm indicated the formation of silver nanoparticles. Highly monodispersed stable silver nanoparticles were obtained within 3 min of microwave irradiation. Through transmission electron microscopy, silver nanoparticles were observed to be spherical.

  17. Synthesis of feedback control law for stabilization of chaotic system oscillations by means of analytic programming - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan; Davendra, Donald; Jasek, Roman

    2012-11-01

    This research deals with a synthesis of control law for selected discrete chaotic system - logistic equation by means of analytic programming. The novelty of the approach is that a tool for symbolic regression - analytic programming - is used for the purpose of stabilization of higher periodic orbits - oscillations between several values of chaotic system. The paper consists of the descriptions of analytic programming as well as used chaotic system and detailed proposal of cost function used in optimization process. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with analytic programming and Differential evolution (DE) as second algorithm for meta-evolution were used.

  18. Cable Tester Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  19. Aqueous synthesis of internally doped Cu:ZnSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals with good stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zhang, Haisheng; Yang, Jing; Xu, Qinying; Shao, Haibao; Li, Rongqing; Lei, Wei; Cui, Yiping

    2011-07-08

    To prepare biologically available Zn-based NCs in aqueous solution, we herein reported the synthesis of aqueous Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs with internally doped aqueous Cu:ZnSe NCs as the core template. Due to the dual protection of Cu impurities by the ZnSe core and ZnS shells, the as-prepared Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs show excellent stability in the open air, which overcomes the intrinsic instability of traditional aqueous Cu:ZnSe NCs. The as-prepared Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs possess extremely good stability, good biocompatibility and lower cytotoxicity, and thus can be used as a promising candidate for fluorescent NC-based biological applications.

  20. Mesquite Gum as a Novel Reducing and Stabilizing Agent for Modified Tollens Synthesis of Highly Concentrated Ag Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Trejo, Maira Berenice; Sánchez-Domínguez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis that is described in this study is for the preparation of silver nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm with a defined shape (globular), confirmed by UV-vis, SEM, STEM and DLS analysis. This simple and favorable one-step modified Tollens reaction does not require any special equipment or other stabilizing or reducing agent except for a solution of purified mesquite gum, and it produces aqueous colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles with a stability that exceeds three months, a relatively narrow size distribution, a low tendency to aggregate and a yield of at least 95% for all cases. Reaction times are between 15 min and 60 min to obtain silver nanoparticles in concentrations ranging from 0.1 g to 3 g of Ag per 100 g of reaction mixture. The proposed synthetic method presents a high potential for scale-up, since its production capacity is rather high and the methodology is simple. PMID:28773938

  1. Aqueous synthesis of internally doped Cu:ZnSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals with good stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zhang, Haisheng; Yang, Jing; Xu, Qinying; Shao, Haibao; Li, Rongqing; Lei, Wei; Cui, Yiping

    2011-07-01

    To prepare biologically available Zn-based NCs in aqueous solution, we herein reported the synthesis of aqueous Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs with internally doped aqueous Cu:ZnSe NCs as the core template. Due to the dual protection of Cu impurities by the ZnSe core and ZnS shells, the as-prepared Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs show excellent stability in the open air, which overcomes the intrinsic instability of traditional aqueous Cu:ZnSe NCs. The as-prepared Cu:ZnSe/ZnS NCs possess extremely good stability, good biocompatibility and lower cytotoxicity, and thus can be used as a promising candidate for fluorescent NC-based biological applications.

  2. Mesquite Gum as a Novel Reducing and Stabilizing Agent for Modified Tollens Synthesis of Highly Concentrated Ag Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Trejo, Maira Berenice; Sánchez-Domínguez, Margarita

    2016-10-04

    The synthesis that is described in this study is for the preparation of silver nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm with a defined shape (globular), confirmed by UV-vis, SEM, STEM and DLS analysis. This simple and favorable one-step modified Tollens reaction does not require any special equipment or other stabilizing or reducing agent except for a solution of purified mesquite gum, and it produces aqueous colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles with a stability thatexceeds three months, a relatively narrow size distribution, a low tendency to aggregate and a yield of at least 95% for all cases. Reaction times are between 15 min and 60 min to obtain silver nanoparticles in concentrations ranging from 0.1 g to 3 g of Ag per 100 g of reaction mixture. The proposed synthetic method presents a high potential for scale-up, since its production capacity is rather high and the methodology is simple.The synthesis that is described in this study is for the preparation of silver nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm with a defined shape (globular), confirmed by UV-vis, SEM, STEM and DLS analysis. This simple and favorable one-step modified Tollens reaction does not require any special equipment or other stabilizing or reducing agent except for a solution of purified mesquite gum, and it produces aqueous colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles with a stability thatexceeds three months, a relatively narrow size distribution, a low tendency to aggregate and a yield of at least 95% for all cases. Reaction times are between 15 min and 60 min to obtain silver nanoparticles in concentrations ranging from 0.1 g to 3 g of Ag per 100 g of reaction mixture. The proposed synthetic method presents a high potential for scale-up, since its production capacity is rather high and the methodology is simple.

  3. Synthesis of linear and cyclic peptide-PEG-lipids for stabilization and targeting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Kai K; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Majzoub, Ramsey N; Steffes, Victoria M; Wonder, Emily A; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-03-15

    Because nucleic acids (NAs) have immense potential value as therapeutics, the development of safe and effective synthetic NA vectors continues to attract much attention. In vivo applications of NA vectors require stabilized, nanometer-scale particles, but the commonly used approaches of steric stabilization with a polymer coat (e.g., PEGylation; PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)) interfere with attachment to cells, uptake, and endosomal escape. Conjugation of peptides to PEG-lipids can improve cell attachment and uptake for cationic liposome-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes. We present several synthetic approaches to peptide-PEG-lipids and discuss their merits and drawbacks. A lipid-PEG-amine building block served as the common key intermediate in all synthetic routes. Assembling the entire peptide-PEG-lipid by manual solid phase peptide synthesis (employing a lipid-PEG-carboxylic acid) allowed gram-scale synthesis but is mostly applicable to linear peptides connected via their N-terminus. Conjugation via thiol-maleimide or strain-promoted (copper-free) azide-alkyne cycloaddition chemistry is highly amenable to on-demand preparation of peptide-PEG-lipids, and the appropriate PEG-lipid precursors are available in a single chemical step from the lipid-PEG-amine building block. Azide-alkyne cycloaddition is especially suitable for disulfide-bridged peptides such as iRGD (cyclic CRGDKGPDC). Added at 10 mol% of a cationic/neutral lipid mixture, the peptide-PEG-lipids stabilize the size of CL-DNA complexes. They also affect cell attachment and uptake of nanoparticles in a peptide-dependent manner, thereby providing a platform for preparing stabilized, affinity-targeted CL-DNA nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unlocked nucleic acids with a pyrene-modified uracil: synthesis, hybridization studies, fluorescent properties and i-motif stability.

    PubMed

    Perlíková, Pavla; Karlsen, Kasper K; Pedersen, Erik B; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-03

    The synthesis of two new phosphoramidite building blocks for the incorporation of 5-(pyren-1-yl)uracilyl unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) monomers into oligonucleotides has been developed. Monomers containing a pyrene-modified nucleobase component were found to destabilize an i-motif structure at pH 5.2, both under molecular crowding and noncrowding conditions. The presence of the pyrene-modified UNA monomers in DNA strands led to decreases in the thermal stabilities of DNA*/DNA and DNA*/RNA duplexes, but these duplexes' thermal stabilities were better than those of duplexes containing unmodified UNA monomers. Pyrene-modified UNA monomers incorporated in bulges were able to stabilize DNA*/DNA duplexes due to intercalation of the pyrene moiety into the duplexes. Steady-state fluorescence emission studies of oligonucleotides containing pyrene-modified UNA monomers revealed decreases in fluorescence intensities upon hybridization to DNA or RNA. Efficient quenching of fluorescence of pyrene-modified UNA monomers was observed after formation of i-motif structures at pH 5.2. The stabilizing/destabilizing effect of pyrene-modified nucleic acids might be useful for designing antisense oligonucleotides and hybridization probes.

  5. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis and stabilization of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sushma, V; Patra, Sujata; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Sreedhar, Bojja; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-11-16

    The biological approach to synthesis of AuNPs is eco-friendly and an ideal method to develop environmentally sustainable nanoparticles alternative to existing methods. We have developed a simple, fast, clean, efficient, low-cost and eco-friendly single-step green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) using a water extract of Eclipta Alba leaves at room temperature. The AuNPs using Eclipta extract have been formed in very short time, even in less than 10 min. The as-synthesized AuNPs were thoroughly characterized by several physico-chemical techniques. The in vitro stability of as-synthesized AuNPs was studied in different buffer solutions. A plausible mechanism for the synthesis of AuNPs by Eclipta extract has been discussed. The biocompatibility of AuNPs was observed by in vitro cell culture assays. Finally, we have designed and developed a AuNPs-based drug delivery system (DDS) (Au-DOX) containing doxorubicin (DOX), a FDA approved anticancer drug. Administration of this DDS to breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) shows significant inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation compared to pristine doxorubicin. Therefore we strongly believe that the use of Eclipta Alba offers large-scale production of biocompatible AuNPs that can be used as a delivery vehicle for the treatment of cancer diseases.

  6. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis and stabilization of biocompatible gold nanoparticles and their potential applications in cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sushma, V.; Patra, Sujata; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Sreedhar, Bojja; Ranjan Patra, Chitta

    2012-11-01

    The biological approach to synthesis of AuNPs is eco-friendly and an ideal method to develop environmentally sustainable nanoparticles alternative to existing methods. We have developed a simple, fast, clean, efficient, low-cost and eco-friendly single-step green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) using a water extract of Eclipta Alba leaves at room temperature. The AuNPs using Eclipta extract have been formed in very short time, even in less than 10 min. The as-synthesized AuNPs were thoroughly characterized by several physico-chemical techniques. The in vitro stability of as-synthesized AuNPs was studied in different buffer solutions. A plausible mechanism for the synthesis of AuNPs by Eclipta extract has been discussed. The biocompatibility of AuNPs was observed by in vitro cell culture assays. Finally, we have designed and developed a AuNPs-based drug delivery system (DDS) (Au-DOX) containing doxorubicin (DOX), a FDA approved anticancer drug. Administration of this DDS to breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) shows significant inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation compared to pristine doxorubicin. Therefore we strongly believe that the use of Eclipta Alba offers large-scale production of biocompatible AuNPs that can be used as a delivery vehicle for the treatment of cancer diseases.

  7. CdTe quantum dots: aqueous phase synthesis, stability studies and protein conjugation for development of biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borse, Vivek; Sadawana, Mayur; Srivastava, Rohit

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous medium is advantageous as compared to the organic solvent mediated synthesis, as the aqueous synthesis is less toxic, reagent effective, easily reproducible and importantly, synthesized QDs have biological compatibility. The QDs should be aqueous in nature for use in cell imaging, drug labeling, tracking and delivery. Structural modifications are necessary to enable their use in biosensing application. In this work, mercaptopropionic acid capped cadmium telluride QDs (MPA-CdTe QDs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by various techniques. Water and various biochemical buffers were used to study the fluorescence intensity stability of the QDs at different physicochemical conditions. QDs stored in 4° C showed excellent stability of fluorescence intensity values as compared to the samples stored at room temperature. Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) was conjugated with the QDs (SPA-QDs) and characterized using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, zeta potential, HRTEM, FTIR, and AFM. Blue shift was observed in the fluorescence emission spectra that may be due to reduction in the surface charge as carboxyl groups on QDs were replaced by amino groups of SPA. This SPA conjugated to QDs enables binding of the C-terminal of antibodies on its surface allowing N-terminal binding site remain free to bind with antigenic biomarkers. Thus, the biosensor i.e. antibody bound on SPA-QDs would bind to the antigenic biomarkers in sample and the detection system could be developed. As QDs have better fluorescence properties than organic dyes, this biosensor will provide high sensitivity and quantitative capability in diagnostics.

  8. Synthesis of chiral networks for polymer stabilized cholesteric texture (PSCT) displays

    SciTech Connect

    Rego, J.A.; Cahill, P.A.

    1997-03-01

    New mono- and di-functional polymerizable twist agents for formation of polymer stabilized cholesteric texture liquid crystal displays have been synthesized. Degree of crosslinking has a pronounced effect on electrooptic response of the cell and the stability of oriented states.

  9. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: Crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, K.; Sithambaresan, M.; Aiswarya, N.; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2015-03-01

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ = 0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)sbnd I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the dx2-y2 ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined.

  10. A study on the stability and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) extract at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Gholamhoseinpoor, F.

    2015-01-01

    Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Mediated Synthesis by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The involved reducing agents include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of this plant and its ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Z.tenuior leaves were used to prepare the aqueous extract for this study. Silver nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed and its size is from 8 to 40 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that silver nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (sbnd NH2), carbonyl group, sbnd OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles with size of 38 nm. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here were view the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) implies the right of forming silver nanoparticles. The results of TEM, SEM, FT-IR, UV-VIS and XRD confirm that the leaves extract of Zt can synthesis silver nanoparticles.

  11. A study on the stability and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) extract at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Babak; Gholamhoseinpoor, F

    2015-01-05

    Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Mediated Synthesis by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The involved reducing agents include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of this plant and its ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Z.tenuior leaves were used to prepare the aqueous extract for this study. Silver nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed and its size is from 8 to 40 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that silver nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (NH₂), carbonyl group, -OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles with size of 38 nm. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here were view the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) implies the right of forming silver nanoparticles. The results of TEM, SEM, FT-IR, UV-VIS and XRD confirm that the leaves extract of Zt can synthesis silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. 6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES CONTAINED ALL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS AND WERE INTERCONNECTED BY CONVEYORS. (9/21/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  14. Synthesis of maltodextrin-grafted-cinnamic acid and evaluation on its ability to stabilize anthocyanins via microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Hou, Chang-Jun; Wu, Hui-Xiang; Fa, Huan-Bao; Li, Jun-Jie; Shen, Cai-Hong; Li, Dan; Huo, Dan-Qun

    2016-09-01

    In this work, maltodextrin-grafted-cinnamic acid (MD-g-CA) was synthesised and used as wall material to improve the stability of purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPa) via microencapsualtion. MD-g-CA was prepared through esterification in a two-step convenient synthesis procedure and characterised using infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. The IR data indicated the typical ester carbonyl stretching at around 1721 cm(-1). Moreover, MD-g-CA could give about 40% inhibition of DPPH radical and present excellent UV-absorption, which were notably better than that of native MD. Maltodextrin (MD) and MD-g-CA were used to prepare PSPa microcapsules by spray drying. The stability of PSPa was evaluated by UV-Vis analysis. The microcapsules produced by MD-g-CA showed a spheres-like appearance with some cracks. Storage tests revealed that the degradation rate of PSPa embedded by MD-g-CA was much lower than that of free PSPa under the same condition. Thus, MD-g-CA could be used as an effective wall material to improve stability of anthocyanins.

  15. Thinking "Inside" the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a test to determine whether they could incorporate a discovery box into a preschool setting was successful. It stimulated the students' natural inquiry processes while promoting understanding of healthy foods and allowing for practice of fine-motor skills. It was easily incorporated into the curriculum and classroom space.…

  16. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  17. EPA ExpoBox

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  18. Drawing inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ranella

    2007-01-01

    When working with very young children and/or students with special needs, it is beneficial for teachers to think "outside the box" in order to preserve and enhance a child's natural curiosity. In an effort to teach young children to control their drawing tools, they are often presented with coloring book-type pages and instructed to "stay inside…

  19. Mystery Box Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  20. Shoe Box Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2009-01-01

    Students' eyes grow wide with wonder as they get a motor to work or make a bulb light for the first time. As these daunting feats of electrical engineering remind us, teaching electricity is invariably rewarding and worthwhile. In this inquiry-based science project, elementary students work in pairs to design and wire a shoe box "room" that meets…

  1. The Idea Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Young Children, Washington, DC.

    Five pamphlets offer helpful ideas and instructions on teacher planning, learning environments, teaching with nature, a creative curriculum, and ideas for administrators in "The Idea Box," compiled by members of the Austin Association for the Education of Young Children. Each pamphlet contains useful information for working with young children.…

  2. Teaching with Box Tops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  3. Thinking "Inside" the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a test to determine whether they could incorporate a discovery box into a preschool setting was successful. It stimulated the students' natural inquiry processes while promoting understanding of healthy foods and allowing for practice of fine-motor skills. It was easily incorporated into the curriculum and classroom space.…

  4. Teaching with Box Tops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  5. Shoe Box Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2009-01-01

    Students' eyes grow wide with wonder as they get a motor to work or make a bulb light for the first time. As these daunting feats of electrical engineering remind us, teaching electricity is invariably rewarding and worthwhile. In this inquiry-based science project, elementary students work in pairs to design and wire a shoe box "room" that meets…

  6. Mystery Box Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  7. Drawing inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ranella

    2007-01-01

    When working with very young children and/or students with special needs, it is beneficial for teachers to think "outside the box" in order to preserve and enhance a child's natural curiosity. In an effort to teach young children to control their drawing tools, they are often presented with coloring book-type pages and instructed to "stay inside…

  8. Cereal Box Totems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  9. "Can" the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestingi, Francis S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Arcane (mysterious) Can" which is a "tin" can which is permanently sealed, both air- and water-tight, by means of a home canning device. The canning procedure permits the use of a large variety of materials which can not be utilized in the ordinary mystery box. This Can activity is valuable for…

  10. An Optimal Divisioning Technique to Stabilization Synthesis of T-S Fuzzy Delayed Systems.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaojie; Zhou, Hongying; Song, Yong-Duan

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of stability analysis and stabilization for Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy systems with time-varying delay. By using appropriately chosen Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, together with the reciprocally convex a new sufficient stability condition with the idea of delay partitioning approach is proposed for the delayed T-S fuzzy systems, which significantly reduces conservatism as compared with the existing results. On the basis of the obtained stability condition, the state-feedback fuzzy controller via parallel distributed compensation law is developed for the resulting fuzzy delayed systems. Furthermore, the parameters of the proposed fuzzy controller are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily obtained by the optimization techniques. Finally, three examples (one of them is the benchmark inverted pendulum) are used to verify and illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release of selenium nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan of different molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyue; Zhai, Xiaona; Zhao, Guanghua; Ren, Fazheng; Leng, Xiaojing

    2015-12-10

    Chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been reported, but there is no information on the effect of the chitosan molecular weight on the structure, stability, and selenium release properties of the SeNPs. Herein, we compared the uniform Se(0) spherical nanoparticles prepared through the reduction of seleninic acid with ascorbic acid in the presence of chitosan with different molecular weights (Mws). We found that both low and high molecular weight chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles exhibited core-shell microstructures with a size of about 103 nm after 30 days growing through the "bottom-up approach" and "top-down approach," respectively. Moreover, both chitosan SeNPs processed excellent stability towards pH and enzyme treatment. In contrast, selenium was easily released to different extents from these two chitosan SeNPs upon treatment with different free radicals. This makes these materials potentially useful as oral antioxidant supplements.

  12. Analysis and synthesis of HVDC controls for robust stability of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, S.; Khammash, M.H.; Vittal, V.

    1995-11-01

    High Voltage DC (HVDC) links have controllable characteristics with potential for affecting system stability. This paper follows the robustness methodology procedure to analyze the stability robustness of HVDC controls in power systems over a range of operating conditions. A novel method to design power system controllers using the robustness methodology is also proposed. Numerical results for a sample test-system are obtained and compared with those obtained by conventional techniques.

  13. Ocular complications of boxing.

    PubMed

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A S; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P F

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15-36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p< or =0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance.

  14. Ocular complications of boxing

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  15. Silicate Esters of Paclitaxel and Docetaxel: Synthesis, Hydrophobicity, Hydrolytic Stability, Cytotoxicity, and Prodrug Potential

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report here the synthesis and selected properties of various silicate ester derivatives (tetraalkoxysilanes) of the taxanes paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DTX) [i.e., PTX-OSi(OR)3 and DTX-OSi(OR)3]. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of these silicates can be (independently) controlled by choice of the alkyl group (R). The synthesis, structural characterization, hydrolytic reactivity, and in vitro cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line of most of these derivatives are described. We envision that the greater hydrophobicity of these silicates (vis-à-vis PTX or DTX itself) should be advantageous from the perspective of preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of amphiphilic block-copolymer-based nanoparticle formulations. PMID:24564494

  16. The synthesis of starch from carbon dioxide using isolubilized stabilized enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassham, J. A.; Bearden, L.; Wilke, C.; Carroad, P.; Mitra, G.; Ige, R.

    1972-01-01

    Systems for artificial manufacture of starch and for delineation of technological areas, and the rationale for studying them are considered. A discussion of the enzyme-catalyzed routes of synthesis available and a choice as to the most promising route are presented. A discussion of the enzymes involved, of enzyme insolubilization technology, and of possible engineering approaches, with examples in the form of model calculations for both reactors and separators, are also presented.

  17. Facile Synthesis of Phosphatidyl Saccharides for Preparation of Anionic Nanoliposomes with Enhanced Stability

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shuang; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Falkeborg, Mia; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong; Jensen, Henrik Max; Bertelsen, Kresten; Thorsen, Michael; Tan, Tianwei; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Physical stability during storage and against processing such as dehyration/rehydration are the cornerstone in designing delivery vehicles. In this work, mono-, di- and tri-saccharides were enzymatically conjugated to phosphatidyl group through a facile approach namely phospholipase D (PLD) mediated transphosphatidylation in a biphasic reaction system. The purified products were structurally identified and the connectivities of carbohydrate to phosphatidyl moiety precisely mapped by 1H, 31P, 13C NMR pulse sequences and LC-ESI-FTMS. The synthetic phosphatidyl saccharides were employed as the sole biomimetic component for preparation of nanoliposomes. It was found that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of phosphatidyl saccharides increases as more bulky sugar moiety (mono- to tri-) is introduced. Phosphatidyl di-saccharide had the largest membrane curvature. In comparison to the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine liposome, all phosphatidyl saccharides liposomes are anionic and demonstrated significantly enhanced stability during storage. According to the confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) analyses, the nanoliposomes formed by the synthetic phosphatidyl saccharides also show excellent stability against dehydration/rehydration process in which most of the liposomal structures remained intact. The abundance hydroxyl groups in the saccharide moieties might provide sufficient H-bondings for stabilization. This work demonstrated the synthesized phosphatidyl saccharides are capable of functioning as enzymatically liable materials which can form stable nanoliposomes without addition of stabilizing excipients. PMID:24069243

  18. Hermit Points on a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  19. Hermit Points on a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  20. Improving structural stability of water-dispersed MCM-41 silica nanoparticles through post-synthesis pH aging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varache, Mathieu; Bezverkhyy, Igor; Bouyer, Florence; Chassagnon, Rémi; Baras, Florence; Bouyer, Frédéric

    2015-09-01

    The colloidal and structural stabilities of MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are of great importance in order to prepare optimal nanovectors. In this paper, MSNs (approximatively 160 nm in diameter) were synthesized using n-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template and tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica source under high N2 flow (MSN/N2) to obtain stable dispersions in water. The degradation of the porous nanoparticles was investigated by immersion in water. The morphology and the porous structure were studied by TEM, XRD, N2 sorption, and 29Si MAS NMR and were compared to that of MSNs prepared in ambient air (MSN/air). The volumetric properties of the MSN/N2 after 1 day in water were drastically more decreased than MSN/air (a pore volume decrease of 85 % for MSN/N2 and 59 % for MSN/air) and the 2D-hexagonal porous structure was totally lost. Furthermore, synthesizing MSNs under a high N2 flow leads to a decrease in the synthesis yield (45 % MSN/N2 and 75 % for MSN/air). The lower structural stability of the MSN/N2 is explained by the lower polycondensation degree of the MSN/N2 observed by 29Si MAS NMR (Q4/Q3 = 0.86 for MSN/N2 and 1.61 for MSN/air) and the lower silica molar ratio in the nanomaterials (SiO2/CTA = 3.9 for MSN/N2 7.1 for MSN/air). This allows for enhanced solubilization of silica in water. Four strategies were hence evaluated in order to reinforce the porous structure of the MSNs. Among them, the most efficient route was based on a pH adjustment of the colloidal suspension (pH 7.5) after 2 h of synthesis without any purification and while keeping a N2 static atmosphere (called MSN/N2/7.5). After 1 day in water, the volumetric and structural properties of MSN/N2/7.5 were similar to that obtained for MSN/air. The improvement of the stability arose as a result of the increase in the silica condensation (Q4/Q3 = 1.58) and silica molar ratio in the nanomaterials (SiO2/CTA = 6.8). After the post-treatment, the silica framework

  1. Synthesis, phase stability and electrical conductivity of Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6-{delta}} anode

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero-Lopez, D. Pena-Martinez, J.; Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Perez-Coll, D.; Aranda, M.A.G.; Nunez, P.

    2008-08-04

    A freeze-drying precursor method has been used to prepare polycrystalline materials of the new SOFC anode, Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6-{delta}}. The optimal synthesis conditions were studied in order to avoid secondary phase segregations. These materials were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The as-synthesised polycrystalline powders showed homogeneous particle size distribution in the submicrometric range. The stability studies demonstrated that this phase is stable up to 1200 deg. C under 5% H{sub 2}-Ar. In addition, impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the conductivity of ceramic pellets prepared under oxidising and reducing atmosphere. Samples sintered in reducing atmosphere exhibit higher conductivity values than those prepared in air.

  2. Wet-chemical green synthesis of L-lysine amino acid stabilized biocompatible iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rahul; Titus, Elby; Krishna, Rohit; Bardhan, Neelkanth; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Gracio, José

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we report a novel method for the synthesis of L-Lysine (lys) amino acid coated maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The facile and cost effective method permitted preparation of the high-quality superparamagnetic gamma-Fe2O3 MNPs with hydrophilic and biocompatible nature. For this work, first we synthesized magnetite phase Fe3O4/lys by wet chemical method and oxidized to y-Fe2O3 in controlled oxidizing environment, as evidenced by XRD and VSM magnetometry. The crystallite size and magnetization of gamma-Fe2O3/lys MNPs was found to be 14.5 nm, 40.6 emu/gm respectively. The surface functionalization by L-lysine amino acid and metal-ligand bonding was also confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The hydrodynamic diameter, colloidal stability and surface charge on MNPs were characterized by DLS and zeta potential analyser.

  3. Synthesis of Ag and AgI quantum dots in AOT-stabilized water-in-CO2 microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juncheng; Raveendran, Poovathinthodiyil; Shervani, Zameer; Ikushima, Yutaka; Hakuta, Yukiya

    2005-03-04

    Silver and silver iodide nanocrystals have been synthesized in the water-in-CO(2) reverse microemulsions formed by the commonly used surfactant, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT), in the presence of 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-1-pentanol as cosurfactant. The nanometer-sized aqueous domains in the microemulsion cores not only act as nanoreactors, but the surfactant interfacial monolayer also helps the stabilization of the metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscopy results show that silver and silver iodide nanocrystals with average diameters of 6.0 nm (standard deviation, SD=1.3 nm) and 5.7 nm (SD=1.4 nm), respectively, were formed. The results indicate that the method can be utilized as a general and economically viable approach for the synthesis of metal and semiconductor quantum dots in environmentally benign supercritical carbon dioxide.

  4. New gas-hydrate phase: Synthesis and stability of clay methane hydrate intercalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenheim, Stephen; Koster van Groos, August F.

    2003-07-01

    Intercalated Na-rich montmorillonite methane hydrate was synthesized for the first time. The upper limit of stability for the intercalate in pressure and temperature is parallel to that of methane hydrate but at temperatures that are ˜0.5 1 °C lower than for methane hydrate. The low-temperature stability of the intercalate is at -11.5 ± 3 °C at ˜40 bar, where methane and some H2O are expelled from the region between the silicate layers (interlayer). In contrast, methane hydrates do not dissociate at these low temperatures. We conclude that at conditions similar to where methane hydrate is stable, smectite may intercalate with methane hydrate and provide additional sinks for methane. The limitation in the stability of smectite methane hydrate intercalate at low temperatures suggests that, if present in large quantities, it may release at decreasing temperatures sufficient methane to ameliorate a planetary cooling event.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of water-soluble gold colloids stabilized with aminoresorcinarene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ming; Chen, Wei-Feng; Sun, Yan; Yan, Chao-Guo

    2007-12-01

    An aminoresorcinarene (TOMR) with eight amino groups as a novel ligand was synthesized and the fabrication of gold hydrosol stabilized with TOMR was reported in this paper. The TOMR-capped gold nanoparticles were characterized and analyzed by the ultraviolet visible (UV vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transmission infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The experiment showed that nearly 10 times of the usual amount of hydrate hydrazine as a reducing agent needed to be used, and the obtained TOMR-stabilized gold hydrosol had a higher level of stability at room temperature, which might be related to the structure of TOMR molecule and the formation of hydrophilic double layer structure of TOMR on the surface of gold core.

  6. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  7. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  8. Multicultural and Nonsexist Prop Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how prop boxes enhance learning and are resources in multicultural and nonsexist primary education, focusing on play, experimentation, and cooperation. Examines integration of prop boxes into the curricula and activities, and presents examples of generic and specific multicultural prop boxes that incorporate art, music, foods,…

  9. Stability of barley aleurone transcripts: Dependence on protein synthesis, influence of the starchy endosperm and destabilization by GA3.

    PubMed

    Aalen, R. B.; Salehian, Z.; Steinum, T. M.

    2001-07-01

    We have studied the stability of Barley aleurone and embryo expressed (Balem) transcripts in aleurone layers. The Per1, Ole1 and Ole2 transcripts are abundant during desiccation and in dry resting seeds, while B12D and B22E transcripts are expressed mainly during seed maturation and germination. From 21 to 40 days post anthesis (DPA) incubation of aleurone layers resulted in a substantial, but differential reduction in the levels of these transcripts. In contrast, Balem transcript levels in aleurone layers of incubated embryoless grains were (except for B22E) similar to those of freshly dissected layers. Cycloheximide lowered transcript levels significantly. This indicates that a protein-synthesis-dependent mRNA-stabilizing mechanism is active in the aleurone cells when attached to the starchy endosperm. At the onset of seed desiccation (40 DPA), half-lives of transcripts to be stored in the dry seed were up to several days longer than the half-life of B22E, which decreases during seed maturation. While the Per1, Ole1 and Ole2 transcript levels decline rapidly in the aleurone layers of mature, germinating seeds, the genes are actively transcribed and their transcripts highly stable in the aleurone of incubated embryoless seeds. The expression of Ole1 and Ole2, as well as Per1, can be repressed 100-1 000-fold by gibberellic acid (GA3) in a dose-dependent manner. Abscisic acid can counteract the GA3 repression. Incubations with transcriptional and translational inhibitors indicate that GA3 inhibits the transcription of these genes and at the same time induces a protein-synthesis-dependent mechanism destabilizing their mRNA molecules present.

  10. Effect of irradiation on DNA synthesis, NBN gene expression and chromosomal stability in cells with NBN mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Jerzy; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Kałużna, Ewelina M.; Rembowska, Jolanta; Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Agnieszka; Zawada, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The NBN gene product is part of the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, which plays an essential role in genomic stability. In the study we try to answer the question what is the effect of irradiation on DNA synthesis, NBN gene expression and chromosomal stability in cells with homozygous c.657-661del, and heterozygous c.657-661del, p.I171V and p.R215W NBN gene mutations. Material and methods Immortalized B-lymphocytes with NBN gene mutations were X-ray irradiated at doses of 1, 2, 5 and 8 Gy/min. Radioresistant DNA synthesis rate and the percentage of cells in phase S was analyzed by 3H thymidine and BrdU incorporation assays. NBN gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR with TaqMan fluorescent probe. Results Increasing the irradiation dose resulted in gradual decrease of 3H thymidine incorporation in all cells, but significantly only in homo- and heterozygous c.657-661del cells (p-values < 0.0001). After irradiation the relative expression of NBN was significantly higher in homozygous c.657-661del and heterozygous p.R215W cells as compared to heterozygous c.657-661del, p.I171V and control cells (p < 0.01). All cells with NBN gene mutations showed significantly higher total number of chromosomal aberrations per metaphase as compared to control cells, with the highest number of aberrations in homozygous c.657-661del cells (p < 0.001). Conclusions The results obtained indicate that homozygous c.657-661del mutation affects cell sensitivity to irradiation. Moreover, homozygous variant is associated with disturbance in the activation of cell cycle checkpoints and with defects in DNA repair. In turn, heterozygous c.657-661del, p.R215W and p.I171V mutations do not substantially alter the radiosensitivity. PMID:28261280

  11. A versatile synthesis of highly bactericidal Myramistin® stabilized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vertelov, G. K.; Krutyakov, Yu A.; Efremenkova, O. V.; Olenin, A. Yu; Lisichkin, G. V.

    2008-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles stabilized by a well-known antibacterial surfactant benzyldimethyl[3-(myristoylamino)propyl]ammonium chloride (Myramistin®) were produced for the first time by borohydride reduction of silver chloride sol in water. Stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles without evident precipitation for several months could be obtained. In vitro bactericidal tests showed that Myramistin® capped silver NPs exhibited notable activity against six different microorganisms—gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The activity was up to 20 times higher (against E. coli) compared to Myramistin® at the same concentrations and on average 2 times higher if compared with citrate-stabilized NPs.

  12. Phase stability and rapid consolidation of hydroxyapatite-zirconia nano-coprecipitates made using continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Aqif A; Yan, Haixue; Viola, Giuseppe; Reece, Mike J; Knowles, Jonathan C; Gong, Kenan; Rehman, Ihtesham; Darr, Jawwad A

    2012-07-01

    A rapid and continuous hydrothermal route for the synthesis of nano-sized hydroxyapatite rods co-precipitated with calcium-doped zirconia nanoparticles using a superheated water flow at 450°C and 24.1 MPa as a crystallizing medium is described. Hydroxyapatite and calcium-doped zirconia phases in the powder mixtures could be clearly identified based on particle size and morphology under transmission electron microscopy. Retention of a nanostructure after sintering is crucial to load-bearing applications of hydroxyapatite-based ceramics. Therefore, rapid consolidation of the co-precipitates was investigated using a spark plasma sintering furnace under a range of processing conditions. Samples nominally containing 5 and 10 wt% calcium-doped zirconia and hydroxyapatite made with Ca:P solution molar ratio 2.5 showed excellent thermal stability (investigated using in situ variable temperature X-ray diffraction) and were sintered via spark plasma sintering to >96% sintered densities at 1000°C resulting in hydroxyapatite and calcium-doped zirconia as the only two phases. Mechanical tests of spark plasma sintering sintered samples (containing 10 wt% calcium-doped zirconia) revealed a three-pt flexural strength of 107.7 MPa and Weibull modulus of 9.9. The complementary nature of the spark plasma sintering technique and continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis (which results in retention of a nanostructure even after sintering at elevated temperatures) was hence showcased.

  13. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the surface of pyrolytic graphite using penicillin as a stabilizing reagent and the catalytic oxidation of α-naphthylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. Z.; Song, Y.; Cheng, Z. P.; Zhou, J. F.; Wei, C.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical synthesis of gold nanoparticles on the surface of pyrolytic graphite using penicillin as a stabilizing reagent was proposed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, IR spectra, UV spectra, and powder X-ray diffraction spectra. The electro-chemical catalysis of penicillin for α-naphthylamine was demonstrated.

  14. Synthesis and formulation studies of griseofulvin analogues with improved solubility and metabolic stability.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Asger B; Andersen, Nikolaj S; Konotop, Gleb; Hanafiah, Nur Hafzan Md; Raab, Marc S; Krämer, Alwin; Clausen, Mads H

    2017-04-21

    Griseofulvin (1) is an important antifungal agent that has recently received attention due to its antiproliferative activity in mammalian cancer cells. Comprehensive SAR studies have led to the identification of 2'-benzyloxy griseofulvin 2, a more potent analogue with low micromolar anticancer potency in vitro. Analogue 2 was also shown to retard tumor growth through inhibition of centrosomal clustering in murine xenograft models of colon cancer and multiple myeloma. However, similar to griseofulvin, compound 2 exhibited poor metabolic stability and aqueous solubility. In order to improve the poor pharmacokinetic properties, 11 griseofulvin analogues were synthesized and evaluated for biological activity and physiological stabilities including SGF, plasma, and metabolic stability. Finally, the most promising compounds were investigated in respect to thermodynamic solubility and formulation studies. The 2'-benzylamine analogue 10 proved to be the most promising compound with low μM in vitro anticancer potency, a 200-fold increase in PBS solubility over compound 2, and with improved metabolic stability. Furthermore, this analogue proved compatible with formulations suitable for both oral and intravenous administration. Finally, 2'-benzylamine analogue 10 was confirmed to induce G2/M cell cycle arrest in vitro.

  15. Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid OxideFuel Cell Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-11-20

    Nanoparticulate catalysts infiltrated into SOFC (Solid OxideFUel Cell) electrodes can significantly enhance the cell performance, butthe stability of these electrodes has been an open issue. An infiltrationprocedure is reported that leads to a stable scandia-stablized zirconia(SSZ) cathode electrode performance.

  16. Synthesis of multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia powders and their enhanced thermophysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Fengmei; Gao, Yanfeng; Chen, Hongfei; Liu, Xinling; Tang, Xiaoping; Luo, Hongjie

    2013-06-01

    Multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal-calcination process. The morphology, crystallinity, and microstructure of the products were characterized by SEM, XRD, TEM, and BET. A possible formation mechanism of the unique structure formed during hydrothermal processing was also investigated. The measured thermophysical results indicated that the prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.63–1.27 W m⁻¹ K⁻¹), good short-term high-temperature stability up to 1300 °C. The influence of the morphology and microstructure on their thermophysical properties was briefly discussed. The unique multi-hierarchical structure makes the prepared YSZ powders candidates for use in enhanced applications involving thermal barrier coatings. - Graphical abstract: There are many tiny pores and grain boundaries in the multi-hierarchical structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders,which greatly decrease the thermal conductivities of the YSZ powders. - Highlights: • Multi-hierarchical structured YSZ powders were successfully prepared. • The prepared YSZ powders had a low thermal conductivity (0.63–1.27 W m⁻¹ K⁻¹). • Improved high-temperature stability had been achieved for the prepared YSZ powders. • The influence of the morphology on their thermophysical properties was explored.

  17. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of gum arabic-stabilized selenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kong, Huiling; Yang, Jixin; Zhang, Yifeng; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2014-04-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were prepared by using gum arabic (GA) as the stabilizer in a facile synthetic approach. The size, morphology, stability and antioxidant activity in vitro of the gum arabic-selenium nanocomposites (GA-SeNPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis). SeNPs (particle size of ∼34.9 nm) can be stabilized in gum arabic aqueous solutions for approximately 30 days. FTIR results show that SeNPs were combined to the hydroxyl groups of GA. In the present work, the alkali-hydrolyzed GA (AHGA) was also prepared and its efficiency in stabilizing SeNPs was compared with GA. It was concluded that the branched structure of GA was a significant factor for the functionality. The hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and DPPH scavenging ability of GA-SeNPs were higher than those of AHGA-SeNPs and could reach 85.3±2.6%, 85.3±1.9% at a concentration of 4 mg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Electronic Battle Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  19. Learning with Box Kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-04-12

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, since the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given which dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization.

  20. Learning with box kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, because the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given that dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization.

  1. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Stability of Cubic Li7-xLa3Zr2-xBixO12.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Reinhard; Rettenwander, Daniel; Redhammer, Günther J; Tippelt, Gerold; Sabathi, Gebhard; Musso, Maurizio E; Stanje, Bernhard; Wilkening, Martin; Suard, Emmanuelle; Amthauer, Georg

    2016-12-05

    Li oxide garnets are among the most promising candidates for solid-state electrolytes in novel Li ion and Li metal based battery concepts. Cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 stabilized by a partial substitution of Zr(4+) by Bi(5+) has not been the focus of research yet, despite the fact that Bi(5+) would be a cost-effective alternative to other stabilizing cations such as Nb(5+) and Ta(5+). In this study, Li7-xLa3Zr2-xBixO12 (x = 0.10, 0.20, ..., 1.00) was prepared by a low-temperature solid-state synthesis route. The samples have been characterized by a rich portfolio of techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and (7)Li NMR spectroscopy. Pure-phase cubic garnet samples were obtained for x ≥ 0.20. The introduction of Bi(5+) leads to an increase in the unit-cell parameters. Samples are sensitive to air, which causes the formation of LiOH and Li2CO3 and the protonation of the garnet phase, leading to a further increase in the unit-cell parameters. The incorporation of Bi(5+) on the octahedral 16a site was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. (7)Li NMR spectroscopy shows that fast Li ion dynamics are only observed for samples with high Bi(5+) contents.

  2. Study of the synthesis of copper nanoparticles: the role of capping and kinetic towards control of particle size and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granata, Giuseppe; Yamaoka, Taishi; Pagnanelli, Francesca; Fuwa, Akio

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) by surfactant-assisted chemical reduction method was studied aiming to identify and quantify the role of kinetic and capping on particle size distribution. The use of a strong and a mild reducing agent (hydrazine, d-glucose) has been investigated as well as the use of three different capping agents: cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Experimental tests were arranged according to factorial designs. CuNPs were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Particle size distribution was determined by image analysis and significance of investigated factors was statistically assessed by analysis of variance. Under the investigated conditions, CTAB was found capable of preventing oxidation but it had a significant positive effect on nanoparticle size (about 40 and 30 nm); SDS determined a good size control but no stabilization, whilst PVP could provide both size control (significant negative effect of about 15 and 25 nm) and stability. Average size of CuNPs can be significantly reduced of about 50 nm by replacing d-glucose with hydrazine.

  3. Synthesis of graphene sheets with high electrical conductivity and good thermal stability by hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Ren, Wencai; Gao, Libo; Zhao, Jinping; Chen, Zongping; Liu, Bilu; Tang, Daiming; Yu, Bing; Jiang, Chuanbin; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2009-02-24

    We developed a hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation method for the synthesis of graphene sheets (GSs) with excellent electrical conductivity and good thermal stability from graphite oxide (GO), in combination with solution-phase dispersion and centrifugation techniques. It was found that efficient exfoliation and considerable deoxygenation of GO, and defect elimination and healing of exfoliated graphite can be simultaneously achieved during the hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation process. The GSs obtained by hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation exhibit a high electrical conductivity of approximately 2 x 10(3) S/cm and high thermal stability with oxidization resistance temperature of 601 degrees C, which are much better than those prepared by argon arc discharge exfoliation (approximately 2 x 10(2) S/cm, 525 degrees C) and by conventional thermal exfoliation (approximately 80 S/cm, 507 degrees C) with the same starting GO. These results demonstrate that this hydrogen arc discharge exfoliation method is a good approach for the preparation of GSs with a good quality.

  4. Synthesis of CdSe nanoparticles in the presence of aminodextran as stabilizing and capping agent.

    PubMed

    Sondi, Ivan; Siiman, Olavi; Matijević, Egon

    2004-07-15

    Water-dispersible Amdex-CdSe nanoparticle complexes with sufficient luminescence intensity were prepared at room temperature by rapidly mixing aqueous solutions of either sodium selenide or selenourea with those of cadmium chloride in the presence of amino-derivatized polysaccharides (Amdex) as stabilizing agent. It was shown that the size of CdSe crystallites decreased with increasing content of the polymer in the precipitation process. When present in a sufficient amount, Amdex was found to be an effective stabilizing and capping agent, producing CdSe nanocrystals of weak-to-medium luminescence intensity (maximum room temperature quantum yields of 15-16%). Furthermore, Amdex has proven to be an effective protective agent against photochemical degradation.

  5. Stability synthesis of control system in current fed inverter driven induction motor

    SciTech Connect

    Veda, R.; Irisa, T.; Ito, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Sonoda, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a new method of synthesizing a stabilizing control system in current fed inverter driven induction motor (CFIDIM). The method is focused on rotor dynamics and a concept of ''damping torque coefficient (DTC)'' is introduced concerning the electrical torque. At first the control system is synthesized on the assumption that an induction motor is driven by an ideally controllable current source. Then perturbed linearized technique indicates that the system can be stabilized if the stator current or frequency is controlled so as to make the DTC positive by feeding back a signal composed of rotor speed. Next, based on this fact, an approach of synthesizing the converter output voltage is presented under a fixed stator frequency. This result clarifies that the stable operation can be achieved by controlling the voltage in proportion to the acceleration of rotor speed or the deviation of electrical torque. These analytical results are verified with laboratory field tests.

  6. Synthesis and thermal stability of selenium-doped hydroxyapatite with different substitutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonghui; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Shengmin

    2015-12-01

    Selenium (Se) plays a specific role in human health, especially for its antitumor effect. Incorporation of selenium into biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HAP) may endow the materials with novel characteristics. In the current work, a series of seleniumdoped hydroxyapatite (Se-HAP) nanoparticles with different Se/P ratios were synthesized by a modified chemical precipitation. It was revealed that the powders with/without heattreatment were nano-sized needle-like HAP while the heat-treated samples have high crystallinity. The addition of selenium decreases the crystallinity of the synthesized apatite, and also takes a negative effect on the thermal stability of the as-prepared powders. The Se-HAP nanoparticles with Se/P molar ratio not more than 5% sintered at 900°C can achieve good crystallinity and thermal stability.

  7. The control of ribonucleic acid synthesis in bacteria. The synthesis and stability of ribonucleic acids in relaxed and stringent amino acid auxotrophs of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gray, W J; Midgley, J E

    1972-08-01

    The biosynthesis and stability of various RNA fractions was studied in RC(str) and RC(rel) multiple amino acid auxotrophs of Escherichia coli. In conditions of amino acid deprivation, RC(str) mutants were labelled with exogenous nucleotide bases at less than 1% of the rate found in cultures growing normally in supplemented media. Studies by DNA-RNA hybridization and by other methods showed that, during a period of amino acid withdrawal, not more than 60-70% of the labelled RNA formed in RC(str) mutants had the characteristics of mRNA. Evidence was obtained for some degradation of newly formed 16S and 23S rRNA species to heterogeneous material of lower molecular weight. This led to overestimations of the mRNA content of rapidly labelled RNA from such methods as simple examination of sucrose-density-gradient profiles. In RC(rel) strains the absolute and relative rates of synthesis of the various RNA fractions were not greatly affected. However, the stability of about half of the mRNA fraction was increased in RC(rel) strains during amino acid starvation, giving kinetics of mRNA labelling and turnover that were identical with those found in either RC(str) or RC(rel) strains inhibited by high concentrations of chloramphenicol. Coincidence hybridization techniques showed that the mRNA content of amino acid-starved RC(str) auxotrophs was unchanged from that found in normally growing cells. In contrast, RC(rel) strains deprived of amino acids increased their mRNA content about threefold. In such cultures the mRNA content of accumulating newly formed RNA was a constant 16% by wt.

  8. Stability engineering of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase and application for the synthesis of a polyamide 12 precursor.

    PubMed

    Kirmair, Ludwig; Seiler, Daniel Leonard; Skerra, Arne

    2015-12-01

    The thermostable NAD(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (BsADH) was exploited with regard to the biocatalytic synthesis of ω-oxo lauric acid methyl ester (OLAMe), a key intermediate for biobased polyamide 12 production, from the corresponding long-chain alcohol. Recombinant BsADH was produced in Escherichia coli as a homogeneous tetrameric enzyme and showed high activity towards the industrially relevant substrate ω-hydroxy lauric acid methyl ester (HLAMe) with K M = 86 μM and 44 U mg(-1). The equilibrium constant for HLAMe oxidation to the aldehyde (OLAMe) with NAD(+) was determined as 2.16 × 10(-3) from the kinetic parameters of the BsADH-catalyzed forward and reverse reactions. Since BsADH displayed limited stability under oxidizing conditions, the predominant oxidation-prone residue Cys257 was mutated to Leu based on sequence homology with related enzymes and computational simulation. This substitution resulted in an improved BsADH variant exhibiting prolonged stability and an elevated inactivation temperature. Semi-preparative biocatalysis at 60 °C using the stabilized enzyme, employing butyraldehyde for in situ cofactor regeneration with only catalytic amounts of NAD(+), yielded up to 23 % conversion of HLAMe to OLAMe after 30 min. In contrast to other oxidoreductases, no overoxidation to the dodecanoic diacid monomethyl ester was detected. Thus, the mutated BsADH offers a promising biocatalyst for the selective oxidation of fatty alcohols to yield intermediates for industrial polymer production.

  9. Synthesis, structures, and reactivity of the base-stabilized silanone molybdenum complexes.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Takako; Abe, Keisuke; Kimura, Haruhiko; Haga, Youhei; Ueno, Keiji; Sunada, Yusuke

    2014-11-28

    Base-stabilized silanone molybdenum complexes were synthesized by the oxygenation of the M=Si bond in the silyl(silylene)molybdenum complex with 1 eq. of PNO in the presence of Lewis base L. The PNO-coordinated silanone complex (L = PNO) was converted to cis-[Cp*(OC)2Mo{OSiMes2(OSiMe3)}(PMe3)] in the presence of excess PMe3.

  10. Stability and synthesis of superheavy elements: Fighting the battle against fission - example of 254No

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Martens, A.; Henning, G.; Khoo, T. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Alcorta, M.; Asai, M.; Back, B. B.; Bertone, P.; Boilley, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Gall, B.; Greenlees, P. T.; Gurdal, G.; Hauschild, K.; Heinz, A.; Hoffman, C. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Karpov, A. V.; Kay, B. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Lakshmi, S.; Lauristen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Nair, C.; Piot, J.; Potterveld, D.; Reiter, P.; Rowley, N.; Rogers, A. M.; Zhu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Superheavy nuclei exist solely due to quantum shell effects, which create a pocket in the potential-energy surface of the nucleus, thus providing a barrier against spontaneous fission. Determining the height of the fission barrier and its angular-momentum dependence is important to quantify the role that microscopic shell corrections play in enhancing and extending the limits of nuclear stability. In this talk, the first measurement of a fission barrier in the very heavy nucleus 254No will be presented.

  11. Synthesis of PVP-stabilized ruthenium colloids with low boiling point alcohols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqing; Yu, Jiulong; Niu, Haijun; Liu, Hanfan

    2007-09-15

    A route to the preparation of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP)-stabilized ruthenium colloids by refluxing ruthenium(III) chloride in low boiling point alcohols was developed. Deep purple colloids with shuttle-like ruthenium particles were also synthesized. XPS measurement verified the nanoparticles were in the metallic state. The morphology of metal nanoparticles was characterized by UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, TEM and XRD.

  12. Copper stabilization by zeolite synthesis in polluted soils treated with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Roberto Terzano; Matteo Spagnuolo; Luca Medici; Bart Vekemans; Laszlo Vincze; Koen Janssens; Pacifico Ruggiero

    2005-08-15

    This paper reports on the process of zeolite formation in an agricultural soil artificially polluted by high amounts of Cu (15 mg of Cu/g of soil dry weight) and treated with fused coal fly ash at 30 and 60 C and how this process affects the mobility and availability of the metal. As a consequence of the treatment, the amount of dissolved Cu, and thus its mobility, was strongly reduced, and the percentage of the metal stabilized in the solid phase increased over time, reaching values of 30% at 30{sup o}C and 40% at 60{sup o}C. The physicochemical phenomena responsible for Cu stabilization in the solid phase have been evaluated by EDTA sequential extractions and synchrotron radiation based X-ray microanalytical techniques. These techniques were used for the visualization of the spatial distribution and the speciation of Cu in and/or on the neo-formed zeolite particles. In particular, micro XRF (X-ray fluorescence) tomography showed direct evidence that Cu can be entrapped as clusters inside the porous zeolitic structures while -{mu}XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy determinations revealed Cu to be present mainly as Cu(II) hydroxide and Cu(II) oxide. The reported results could be useful as a basic knowledge for planning new technologies for the on-site physicochemical stabilization of heavy metals in heavily polluted soils. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Synthesis of Non-Toxic Silica Particles Stabilized by Molecular Complex Oleic-Acid/Sodium Oleate

    PubMed Central

    Spataru, Catalin Ilie; Ianchis, Raluca; Petcu, Cristian; Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Purcar, Violeta; Trica, Bogdan; Nitu, Sabina Georgiana; Somoghi, Raluca; Alexandrescu, Elvira; Oancea, Florin; Donescu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of biocompatible silica particles from sodium silicate, stabilized by a vesicular system containing oleic acid (OLA) and its alkaline salt (OLANa). Silica nanoparticles were generated by the partial neutralization of oleic acid (OLA), with the sodium cation present in the aqueous solutions of sodium silicate. At the molar ratio OLA/Na+ = 2:1, the molar ratio (OLA/OLANa = 1:1) required to form vesicles, in which the carboxyl and carboxylate groups have equal concentrations, was achieved. In order to obtain hydrophobically modified silica particles, octadecyltriethoxysilane (ODTES) was added in a sodium silicate sol–gel mixture at different molar ratios. The interactions between the octadecyl groups from the modified silica and the oleyl chains from the OLA/OLANa stabilizing system were investigated via simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (TG-DSC) analyses.A significant decrease in vaporization enthalpy and an increase in amount of ODTES were observed. Additionally, that the hydrophobic interaction between OLA and ODTES has a strong impact on the hybrids’ final morphology and on their textural characteristics was revealed. The highest hydrodynamic average diameter and the most negative ζ potential were recorded for the hybrid in which the ODTES/sodium silicate molar ratio was 1:5. The obtained mesoporous silica particles, stabilized by the OLA/OLANa vesicular system, may find application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive molecules. PMID:27869768

  14. Copper stabilization by zeolite synthesis in polluted soils treated with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Roberto; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Medici, Luca; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Janssens, Koen; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2005-08-15

    This study deals with the process of zeolite formation in an agricultural soil artificially polluted by high amounts of Cu (15 mg of Cu/g of soil dry weight) and treated with fused coal fly ash at 30 and 60 degrees C and how this process affects the mobility and availability of the metal. As a consequence of the treatment, the amount of dissolved Cu, and thus its mobility, was strongly reduced, and the percentage of the metal stabilized in the solid phase increased over time, reaching values of 30% at 30 degrees C and 40% at 60 degrees C. The physicochemical phenomena responsible for Cu stabilization in the solid phase have been evaluated by EDTA sequential extractions and synchrotron radiation based X-ray microanalytical techniques. These techniques were used for the visualization of the spatial distribution and the speciation of Cu in and/or on the neo-formed zeolite particles. In particular, micro XRF (X-ray fluorescence) tomography showed direct evidence that Cu can be entrapped as clusters inside the porous zeolitic structures while mu-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy determinations revealed Cu to be present mainly as Cu(ll) hydroxide and Cu(ll) oxide. The reported results could be useful as a basic knowledge for planning new technologies for the on site physicochemical stabilization of heavy metals in heavily polluted soils.

  15. Galactosyl prodrug of palmitoylethanolamide: synthesis, stability, cell permeation and cytoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Elvira; Russo, Roberto; Avagliano, Carmen; Santoro, Anna; Melisi, Daniela; Orefice, Nicola Salvatore; Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Meli, Rosaria; Magliocca, Salvatore; Nieddu, Maria; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Boatto, Gianpiero; Calignano, Antonio; Rimoli, Maria Grazia

    2014-10-01

    N-Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is emerging as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of neuropathic pain and neurodegenerative diseases. Unfortunately, PEA poorly reaches the central nervous system (CNS), after peripheral administration, since it is inactivated through intracellular hydrolysis by lipid amidases. Since prodrug approach is one of the most popular methods used to increase cell permeability, the aim of this paper consists in the synthesis of a new galactosyl prodrug of PEA, the palmitoylethanolamide-succinamyl-D-galactos-6'-yl ester (PEAGAL). Biological experiments both in neuroblastoma and in C6 glioma cells, together with quantitative analyses performed through a LC-MS-MS technique, demonstrate the better efficacy of PEAGAL compared to PEA and its higher cell permeation. Our results encourage further experiments in animal models of neuropathic pain and of neurological disorders and/or neurodegenerative diseases, in order to promote a more effective peripherally administrated derivative of PEA.

  16. Lewis Acid Zeolites for Biomass Conversion: Perspectives and Challenges on Reactivity, Synthesis, and Stability.

    PubMed

    Luo, Helen Y; Lewis, Jennifer D; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-06-07

    Zeolites containing Sn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, or Ta heteroatoms are versatile catalysts for the activation and conversion of oxygenated molecules owing to the unique Lewis acid character of their tetrahedral metal sites. Through fluoride-mediated synthesis, hydrophobic Lewis acid zeolites can behave as water-tolerant catalysts, which has resulted in a recent surge of experimental and computational studies in the field of biomass conversion. However, many open questions still surround these materials, especially relating to the nature of their active sites. This lack of fundamental understanding is exemplified by the many dissonant results that have been described in recent literature reports. In this review, we use a molecular-based approach to provide insight into the relationship between the structure of the metal center and its reactivity toward different substrates, with the ultimate goal of providing a robust framework to understand the properties that have the strongest influence on catalytic performance for the conversion of oxygenates.

  17. Controlled synthesis of silver nanostructures stabilized by fluorescent polyarylene ether nitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Kun; Shou, Hongguo; Wang, Pan; Zhou, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaobo

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the intrinsically fluorescent polyarylene ether nitrile (PEN) was explored to realize the controlled synthesis of fluorescent silver nanostructures with different morphology for the first time. Specifically, it was found that silver nitrate (AgNO3) can be effectively reduced to silver nanoparticles using PEN as both reducing and surface capping agents in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF). More interestingly, the morphology of obtained fluorescent silver nanostructures can be tuned from nanospheres to nanorods by simple variation of reaction time at 130 °C using a relative PEN:AgNO3 molar concentration ratio of 1:8. Meanwhile, the obtained Ag nanostructures exhibited both localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band and fluorescent emission around 420 nm, which would find potential applications in biochemical sensing and optical devices fields.

  18. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  19. Synthesis, Tribological and Hydrolysis Stability Study of Novel Benzotriazole Borate Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Liping, Xiong; Zhongyi, He; Liang, Qian; Lin, Mu; Aixi, Chen; Sheng, Han; Jianwei, Qiu; Xisheng, Fu

    2014-01-01

    Benzotriazole and borate derivatives have long been used as multifunctional additives to lubricants. A novel, environmentally friendly additive borate ester (NHB), which contains boron, ethanolamine, and benzotriazole groups in one molecule, was synthesized by a multi-step reaction, and its tribological properties in rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The hydrolysis stability of the additive was investigated by half-time and open observation methods, and the mechanism of hydrolysis stability was discussed through Gaussian calculation. The novel compound NHB showed excellent performance under extreme pressure, against wearing, and in reducing friction, and its hydrolysis time is more than 1,220 times, which is better than that of triethyl borate. The mass ratio of NHB is bigger than that of the mixed liquid of triethyl borate and ethanolamine. The lone electron of amino N atoms forms a coordination effect with the B atom to compensate for the shortage of electrons in the B atom and to improve the hydrolysis stability of NHB. The surface morphology and the traces of different elements in the tribofilms formed with 1.0 wt.% NHB in were detected with scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The results shown that the additive caused a tribochemical reaction with the steel ball surface during the lubricating process. A mixed boundary lubrication film that contains organic nitrogen and inorganic salts, such as BN, B2O3, FeOx, Fe–O–B, and FeB, was also formed, and the formation of the lubricating film improved the tribological properties of the base oil. PMID:24465382

  20. Chiral ionic liquid monolayer-stabilized gold nanoparticles: synthesis, self-assembly, and application to SERS.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiangtao; Li, Xinwei; Zheng, Liqiang

    2010-07-20

    Chiral ionic liquid monolayer-stabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized in a two-phase liquid-liquid system and found to self-assemble into ringlike structures at the air/water interface. Control experiments with long-chain ILs revealed that the molecular structure of the CIL significantly affects the formation of the gold nanoparticle ring structures. A possible mechanism based on Marangoni-Bénard convection in evaporating droplets was proposed. These gold nanoparticle structures were shown to yield a large SERS enhancement for Rhodamine 6G.

  1. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakić, Milorad; Glišić, Slobodan; Nikolić, Goran; Nikolić, Goran M.; Cakić, Katarina; Cvetinov, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs - DS) were synthesized from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and dextran sulphate sodium salt (DS). The characterization of AgNPs - DS was performed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antimicrobial activity. The formation of AgNPs - DS was monitored by colour changes of the reaction mixture from yellowish to brown and by measuring the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak in UV-VIS spectra at 420 nm. The SEM analysis was used for size and shape determination of AgNPs - DS. The presence of elemental silver and its crystalline structure in AgNPs - DS were confirmed by EDX and XRD analyses. The possible functional groups of DS responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were determinated by FTIR spectroscopy. The AgNPs - DS showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Bacillus luteus in haus strain, Bacillus subtilis ATTC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Escherichia coli ATTC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 700603, Proteus vulgaris ATTC 8427, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATTC 2091.

  3. Centrally truncated and stabilized porcine neuropeptide Y analogs: design, synthesis, and mouse brain receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Krstenansky, J L; Owen, T J; Buck, S H; Hagaman, K A; McLean, L R

    1989-01-01

    Porcine neuropeptide Y (pNPY) has been proposed to form an intramolecularly stabilized structure characterized by N- and C-terminal helical regions arranged antiparallel due to a central turn region. Analogs based on this structural model that have the central turn region and various amounts of the helical regions removed, yet retain the N and C termini in a similar spatial orientation were designed. The gap formed by removal of the central residues (residues 8-17 or 7-20) was spanned with a single 8-aminooctanoic acid residue (Aoc) and the structure was further stabilized by the introduction of a disulfide bridge. [D-Cys7,Aoc8-17,Cys20]pNPY and [Cys5,Aoc7-20,D-Cys24]pNPY were synthesized and found to have receptor binding affinities of 2.3 nM and 150 nM, respectively, in mouse brain membranes (pNPY affinity is 3.6 nM in this assay). It is proposed that the central region (residues 7-17) of pNPY serves a structural role in the peptide and is not involved in direct receptor interaction. PMID:2543973

  4. Gas-phase synthesis of solid state DNA nanoparticles stabilized by l-leucine.

    PubMed

    Raula, Janne; Hanzlíková, Martina; Rahikkala, Antti; Hautala, Juho; Kauppinen, Esko I; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2013-02-28

    Aerosol flow reactor is used to generate solid-state nanoparticles in a one-step process that is based on drying of aerosol droplets in continuous flow. We investigated the applicability of aerosol flow reactor method to prepare solid state DNA nanoparticles. Precursor solutions of plasmid DNA with or without complexing agent (polyethylenimine), coating material (l-leucine) and mannitol (bulking material) were dispersed to nanosized droplets and instantly dried in laminar heat flow. Particle morphology, integrity and stability were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The stability of DNA was studied by gel electrophoresis. Plasmid DNA as such degraded in the aerosol flow process. Complexing agent protected DNA from degradation and coating material enabled production of dispersed, non-aggregated, nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles were spherical and their mean diameter ranged from 65 to 125nm. The nanoparticles were structurally stable at room temperature and their DNA content was about 10%. We present herein the proof of principle for the production of dispersed solid state nanoparticles with relevant size and intact plasmid DNA.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of platinum-group-metal nanoparticles by using HEPES as a reductant and stabilizer.

    PubMed

    So, Man-Ho; Ho, Chi-Ming; Chen, Rong; Che, Chi-Ming

    2010-06-01

    Platinum-group-metal (Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd and Pt) nanoparticles are synthesized in an aqueous buffer solution of 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) (200 mM, pH 7.4) under hydrothermal conditions (180 degrees C). Monodispersed (monodispersity: 11-15%) metal nanoparticles were obtained with an average particle size of less than 5 nm (Ru: 1.8+/-0.2, Os: 1.6+/-0.2, Rh: 4.5+/-0.5, Ir: 2.0+/-0.3, Pd: 3.8+/-0.4, Pt: 1.9+/-0.2 nm). The size, monodispersity, and stability of the as-obtained metal nanoparticles were affected by the HEPES concentration, pH of the HEPES buffer solution, and reaction temperature. HEPES with two tertiary amines (piperazine groups) and terminal hydroxyl groups can act as a reductant and stabilizer. The HEPES molecules can bind to the surface of metal nanoparticles to prevent metal nanoparticles from aggregation. These platinum-group-metal nanoparticles could be deposited onto the surface of graphite, which catalyzed the aerobic oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes.

  6. Synthesis of length-controlled aerosol carbon nanotubes and their dispersion stability in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Kyun; Lee, Jaebeom; Lee, Jae Keun; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Soo H

    2009-02-03

    A one-step method combining spray pyrolysis and thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes was developed to grow hybrid carbon nanotube (CNT)-bimetallic composite particles. Nickel, aluminum, and acetylene were used as the catalytic site, noncatalytic matrix, and hydrocarbon source, respectively. The bimetallic particles (i.e., Al-Ni) were spray pyrolized and subsequently passed through thermal CVD. During the thermal CVD, the catalytic decomposition of acetylene occurred on the free-floating bimetallic particles so that sea urchin-like CNTs were radially grown. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed the CNTs to have a uniform diameter of approximately 10 +/- 2 nm. The length of the CNTs was controlled by varying the residence time of the bimetallic nanoparticles with a length of 200-1000 nm. After nitric acid treatment, the CNTs were released by melting the bimetallic particles. The resulting CNTs were then dispersed in an aqueous solution to examine the effect of the length of CNTs on their dispersion stability, which is a critical issue for the stability and repeatability of the heat transfer performance in nanofluids. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometer analysis showed that shorter CNTs were less stable than the longer CNTs due to the higher mobility-induced agglomeration of the shorter CNTs.

  7. C5-Alkynyl-Functionalized α-L-LNA: Synthesis, Thermal Denaturation Experiments and Enzymatic Stability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Major efforts are currently being devoted to improving the binding affinity, target specificity, and enzymatic stability of oligonucleotides used for nucleic acid targeting applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, and medicinal chemistry. One of the most popular strategies toward this end has been to introduce additional modifications to the sugar ring of affinity-inducing conformationally restricted nucleotide building blocks such as locked nucleic acid (LNA). In the preceding article in this issue, we introduced a different strategy toward this end, i.e., C5-functionalization of LNA uridines. In the present article, we extend this strategy to α-L-LNA: i.e., one of the most interesting diastereomers of LNA. α-L-LNA uridine monomers that are conjugated to small C5-alkynyl substituents induce significant improvements in target affinity, binding specificity, and enzymatic stability relative to conventional α-L-LNA. The results from the back-to-back articles therefore suggest that C5-functionalization of pyrimidines is a general and synthetically straightforward approach to modulate biophysical properties of oligonucleotides modified with LNA or other conformationally restricted monomers. PMID:24797769

  8. Vinyl monomers-induced synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol-stabilized selenium nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chetan P.; Singh, Krishan K.; Kumar, Manmohan; Bajaj, Parma N.

    2010-01-15

    A simple wet chemical method has been developed to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (size 100-200 nm), by reaction of sodium selenosulphate precursor with different vinyl monomers, such as acrylamide, N,N'-dimethylene bis acrylamide, methyl methacrylate, sodium acrylate, etc., in aqueous medium, under ambient conditions. Polyvinyl alcohol has been used to stabilize the selenium nanoparticles. Average size of the synthesized selenium nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting concentration of both the precursors and the stabilizer. Rate of the reaction as well as size of the resultant selenium nanoparticles have been correlated with the functional groups of the different monomers. UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-rays, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques have been employed to characterize the synthesized selenium nanoparticles. Gas chromatographic analysis of the reaction mixture established the non-catalytic role of the vinyl monomers, which were found to be consumed during the course of the reaction.

  9. Interaction of bilirubin with Ag and Au ions: green synthesis of bilirubin-stabilized nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Shashi P.; Roy, Mainak; Mukherjee, Poulomi; Tyagi, A. K.; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2012-07-01

    We report a simple green chemistry to synthesize and stabilize monodispersed silver and gold nanoparticles sols by reducing aqueous solution of the respective metal salts in the presence of bilirubin (BR). No additional capping agent was used in the process of stabilization of the nanoparticles. As a completely new finding, we have observed that BR known to be toxic at higher concentration in one hand and conversely an antioxidant at physiological concentration reduces these metal ions to form the respective metal nanoparticles. Moreover, BR and its oxidized products also serve as capping agents to the nanoparticles. The particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. BR and its oxidized products capped nanoparticles are stable for months. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the silver sol show the plasmon peak of symmetric spherical particles which was further reflected in the TEM images. The sizes of the silver particles were about 5 nm. These silver particles showed reasonably high antibacterial activity in Gram negative wild type E. coli. In the case of interaction of BR with gold ions, we could obtain cubic gold nanoparticles of average sizes 20-25 nm. Possible modes of anchorage of BR and/its oxidized products to silver nanoparticles were demonstrated by surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERS) that in turn demonstrated the feasibility of using these nanoparticles as SERS substrates.

  10. Human eosinophil activin A synthesis and mRNA stabilization are induced by the combination of IL-3 plus TNF

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Esnault, Stephane; Johnson, Sean H.; Liu, Lin Ying; Malter, James S.; Burnham, Mandy E.; Jarjour, Nizar N.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils contribute to immune regulation and wound healing/fibrosis in various diseases including asthma. Growing appreciation for the role of activin A in such processes led us to hypothesize that eosinophils are a source of this TGF-β superfamily member. TNFα (TNF) induces activin A by other cell types and is often present at the site of allergic inflammation along with the eosinophil activating common β (βc) chain-signaling cytokines (IL-5, IL-3, GM-CSF). Previously, we established that the combination of TNF plus a βc chain-signaling cytokine synergistically induces eosinophil synthesis of the remodeling enzyme MMP-9. Therefore, eosinophils were stimulated ex vivo by these cytokines and in vivo through an allergen-induced airway inflammatory response. In contrast to IL-5+TNF or GM-CSF+TNF, the combination of IL-3+TNF synergistically induced activin A synthesis and release by human blood eosinophils. IL-3+TNF enhanced activin A mRNA stability, which required sustained signaling of pathways downstream of p38 and ERK MAP kinases. In vivo, following segmental airway allergen challenge of subjects with mild allergic asthma, activin A mRNA was upregulated in airway eosinophils compared to circulating eosinophils, and ex vivo, circulating eosinophils tended to release activin A in response to IL-3+TNF. These data provide evidence that eosinophils release activin A and that this function is enhanced when eosinophils are present in an allergen-induced inflammatory environment. Moreover, these data provide the first evidence for post-transcriptional control of activin A mRNA. We propose that, an environment rich in IL-3+TNF will lead to eosinophil–derived activin A, which plays an important role in regulating inflammation and/or fibrosis. PMID:27001469

  11. One-step synthesis of carbon-supported Pd@Pt/C core-shell nanoparticles as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts and their enhanced activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yuntaek; Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Seung-Cheol; Choi, Junghun; Nahm, Kee Suk; Yoo, Sung Jong; Kim, Pil

    2014-04-21

    A close encounter with reality on core-shell catalysts for fuel cells: the outstanding significance of the work is (i) suggestion of a computational methodology to design a specific combination of core and shell materials in terms of both the activity and the durability, (ii) development of a novel facile synthesis of core-shell/C electrocatalysts, and (iii) experimental validation of the design and synthesis of the core-shell/C catalysts and their performance as well as long-term stability.

  12. Projection optics box

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  13. Synthesis and stability of hetaerolite, ZnMn2O4, at 25°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.; Roberson, C.E.; Lind, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    A precipitate of nearly pure hetaerolite, ZnMn2O4, a spinel-structured analog of hausmannite, Mn3O4, was prepared by an irreversible wprecipitation of zinc with manganese at 25°C. The synthesis technique entailed constant slow addition of a dilute solution of Mn2+ and Zn2+ chlorides having a Mn/Zn ratio of 2:1 to a reaction vessel that initially contained distilled deionized water, maintained at a pH of 8.50 by addition of dilute NaOH by an automated pH stat, with continuous bubbling of CO2-free air. The solid was identified by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and consisted of bipyramidal crystals generally less than 0.10 μm in diameter. Zn2+ ions are able to substitute extensively for Mn2+ ions that occupy tetrahedral sites in the hausmannite structure.Hetaerolite appears to be more stable than hausmannite with respect to spontaneous conversion to γMnOOH. The value of the standard free energy of formation of hetaerolite was estimated from the experimental data to be −289.4 ± 0.8 kcal per mole. Solids intermediate in composition between hetaerolite and hausmannite can be prepared by altering the Mn/Zn ratio in the feed solution.

  14. Morphological changes of gel-type functional polymers after intermatrix synthesis of polymer stabilized silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of intermatrix synthesis (IMS) of silver metal nanoparticles (Ag-MNPs) in Purolite C100E sulfonic ion exchange polymer of the gel-type structure. It has been shown that the surface morphology of the initial MNP-free polymer is absolutely smooth, but it dramatically changes after the kinetic loading of Ag on the polymer and then IMS of Ag-MNPs. These morphological changes can be explained by the interaction of Ag-NPs with the polymer chains, leading to a sort of additional cross-linking of the polymer. As a result, the modification of the gel-type matrix with Ag-MNPs leads to the increase of the matrix cross-linking, which results in the increase of its surface area and the appearance of nanoporosity in the polymer gel. Ag-MNPs are located near the polymer surface and do not form any visible agglomerations. All these features of the nanocomposites obtained are important for their practical applications in catalysis, sensor applications, and bactericide water treatment. PMID:23718235

  15. Synthesis and stability of phytochelatins induced by cadmium and lead in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Morelli, E; Scarano, G

    2001-10-01

    The synthesis of phytochelatins (PC), intracellular metal-binding polypeptides characterized by a repeating sequence of gamma-glutamic acid- cysteine (gamma-Glu-Cys) pairs, has been studied in laboratory cultures of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum exposed to Cd, Pb or Zn. Cd and Pb were able to induce PC of different degree of polymerization. The accumulation of the peptides follows a direct relationship with the metal exposure. No PC induction was observed in Zn-treated cultures, although the intracellular concentration of Zn increased during exposure. Both in short-term (7 h exposure, 10 microM Cd or Pb) and 3-day experiments (metal concentration less than 0.5 microM), the major fraction of total PC gamma-Glu-Cys subunits synthesized was polymerized as PC2 when cells were exposed to Pb, but as PC4 when cells were exposed to Cd. In short-term experiments about 50% of the gamma-Glu-Cys residues of the cellular pool of glutathione was quickly and almost quantitatively converted into PC. Recovery experiments, in which metal-stressed cells are suspended in a metal-free medium, showed a decrease of the PC pool and a concomitant increase of glutathione, suggesting a mechanism of degradation and release of metal-phytochelatin complexes.

  16. Morphological changes of gel-type functional polymers after intermatrix synthesis of polymer stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Maria; Ruiz, Patricia; Muraviev, Dmitri N

    2013-05-29

    This paper reports the results of intermatrix synthesis (IMS) of silver metal nanoparticles (Ag-MNPs) in Purolite C100E sulfonic ion exchange polymer of the gel-type structure. It has been shown that the surface morphology of the initial MNP-free polymer is absolutely smooth, but it dramatically changes after the kinetic loading of Ag on the polymer and then IMS of Ag-MNPs. These morphological changes can be explained by the interaction of Ag-NPs with the polymer chains, leading to a sort of additional cross-linking of the polymer. As a result, the modification of the gel-type matrix with Ag-MNPs leads to the increase of the matrix cross-linking, which results in the increase of its surface area and the appearance of nanoporosity in the polymer gel. Ag-MNPs are located near the polymer surface and do not form any visible agglomerations. All these features of the nanocomposites obtained are important for their practical applications in catalysis, sensor applications, and bactericide water treatment.

  17. Computational study of boron nitride nanotube synthesis: How catalyst morphology stabilizes the boron nitride bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riikonen, S.; Foster, A. S.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Nieminen, R. M.

    2009-10-01

    In an attempt to understand why catalytic methods for the growth of boron nitride nanotubes work much worse than for their carbon counterparts, we use first-principles calculations to study the energetics of elemental reactions forming N2 , B2 , and BN molecules on an iron catalyst. We observe that the local morphology of a step edge present in our nanoparticle model stabilizes the boron nitride molecule with respect to B2 due to the ability of the step edge to offer sites with different coordination simultaneously for nitrogen and boron. Our results emphasize the importance of atomic steps for a high yield chemical vapor deposition growth of BN nanotubes and may outline new directions for improving the efficiency of the method.

  18. Synthesis of biomacromolecule-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Danhui; Yang, Houbo

    2013-09-01

    In this work, water soluble silver nanoparticles stabilized by biomacromolecule, were produced through using an aqueous solution of silver nitrate with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) under different reducing agents (such as sodium borohydride, hydrazine, N, N-dimethyl formamide) at the room temperature, where BSA provided the main function to form monodispersed silver nanoparticles. UV-vis spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectra, TEM and HR-TEM are used to characterize the BSA-capped silver nanoparticles under different condition. The results show that the formed silver nanoparticles have different size and morphology under the three different reducing agents. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of BSA was drastically quenched in presence of Ag nanoparticles from the results of fluorescence spectra. Furthermore, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering effects of the formed silver nanoparticles were also displayed and we made a comparison under three different reducing agents.

  19. Synthesis and enhanced thermal stability of albumins@alumina: towards injectable sol-gel materials.

    PubMed

    Rutenberg, Avi; Vinogradov, Vladimir V; Avnir, David

    2013-06-25

    A major obstacle to the introduction of bioactively-doped sol-gel based materials for medical applications has been the fact that silica - the most widely studied sol-gel material - despite being a GRAS material, which is widely used as an additive in foods and drug formulations, is still not approved by regulatory agencies for intramuscular injections. Here we point to a potential solution to this problem by shifting the weight to alumina, which is approved for injections as the most common immunization adjuvant. Towards the achievement of this goal we describe the development of protein entrapment methods tailored to alumina, and show high thermal stability of protein-dopants, using a newly developed DSC methodology for this purpose.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and stability of chitosan and poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Carson, Laura; Hibbert, Kemar; Akindoju, Feyisayo; Johnson, Chevaun; Stewart, Melisa; Kelly-Brown, Cordella; Beharie, Gavannie; Fisher, Tavis; Stone, Julia; Stoddart, Dahlia; Oki, Aderemi; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Regisford, Gloria; Traisawatwong, Pasakorn; Zhou, Jianren; Luo, Zhiping

    2012-10-01

    The single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were effectively functionalized through grafting with chitosan (CTS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Prior to grafting reaction, the carboxylated SWNCTs (SWNCTs-COOH) were obtained by treating pristine CNTs with a mixture of 3:1 (v/v) H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3), and the successive treatment of SWNCTs-COOH with SOCl(2) yielded the acylated CNTs (CNTs-COCl). The functionalized derivatives of CNTs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Both CTS and PMMA grafted CNTs showed better dispersability in acetic acid and tetrahydrofuran, in addition to higher stability in solution.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and stability of chitosan and poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Laura; Hibbert, Kemar; Akindoju, Feyisayo; Johnson, Chevaun; Stewart, Melisa; Kelly-Brown, Cordella; Beharie, Gavannie; Fisher, Tavis; Stone, Julia; Stoddart, Dahlia; Oki, Aderemi; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Regisford, Gloria; Traisawatwong, Pasakorn; Zhou, Jianren; Luo, Zhiping

    2012-10-01

    The single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were effectively functionalized through grafting with chitosan (CTS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Prior to grafting reaction, the carboxylated SWNCTs (SWNCTs-COOH) were obtained by treating pristine CNTs with a mixture of 3:1 (v/v) H2SO4 and HNO3, and the successive treatment of SWNCTs-COOH with SOCl2 yielded the acylated CNTs (CNTs-COCl). The functionalized derivatives of CNTs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Both CTS and PMMA grafted CNTs showed better dispersability in acetic acid and tetrahydrofuran, in addition to higher stability in solution.

  2. Synthesis, structural studies and ligand influence on the stability of aryl-NHC stabilised trimethylaluminium complexes.

    PubMed

    M, Melissa Wu; Gill, Arran M; Yunpeng, Lu; Falivene, Laura; Yongxin, Li; Ganguly, Rakesh; Cavallo, Luigi; García, Felipe

    2015-09-14

    Treatment of a series of aromatic NHCs (IMes, SIMes, IPr and SIPr) with trimethylaluminium produced their corresponding Lewis acid-base adducts: IMes·AlMe3 (1), SIMes·AlMe3 (2), IPr·AlMe3 (3), and SIPr·AlMe3 (4). These complexes expand the few known examples of saturated NHC stabilised Group 13 complexes. Furthermore, compounds 1-4 show differential stability depending on the nature of the NHC ligand. Analyses of topographic steric maps and NHC %V(Bur) were used to explain these differences. All the compounds have been fully characterised by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR and single crystal X-ray analysis together with computational studies.

  3. Synthesis, structural properties and thermal stability of Mn-doped hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Pijocha, Dawid; Sitarz, Maciej; Bućko, Mirosław; Zima, Aneta; Chróścicka, Anna; Lewandowska-Szumieł, Małgorzata

    2010-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) - Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2 is a basic inorganic model component of hard biological tissues, such as bones and teeth. The significant property of HA is its ability to exchange Ca 2+ ions, which influences crystallinity, physico-chemical and biological properties of modified hydroxyapatite materials. In this work, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and EDS techniques were used to determine thermal stability, chemical and phase composition of Mn containing hydroxyapatite (MnHA). Described methods confirmed thermal decomposition and phase transformation of MnHA to αTCP, βTCP and formation of Mn 3O 4 depending on sintering temperature and manganese content. In vitro biological evaluation of Mn-modified HA ceramics was also performed using human osteoblast cells.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile acid synthesis defect type 2 congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2 Printable PDF Open All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 2 is a disorder characterized ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... bile acid synthesis defect type 1 congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 1 Printable PDF Open All ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital bile acid synthesis defect type 1 is a disorder characterized ...

  6. Synthesis and thermal stability of W-doped VO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, F.Y.; Li, M.; Pan, S.S.; Zhang, Y.X.; Li, G.H.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} The VO{sub 2} nanocrystals with a nearly spherical morphology with size ranging from 50 to 100 nm were synthesized by using V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and oxalic acid as precursors via a thermolysis method. {yields} The W dopant is in the W{sup 6+} form, and there is a small amount of V{sup 3+} in the VO{sub 2} nanocrystals. VO{sub 2} (R) nanocrystals with phase transition temperature at room temperature were obtained with 2.5 at% W-doing. {yields} A high stability upon heating-cooling cycles was observed with respect to MIT temperature, peak temperature and latent heat of the phase transition due to both the size effect and the existence of V{sup 3+} in the VO{sub 2} nanocrystals. -- Abstract: Pure and W-doped vanadium dioxide nanocrystals have been synthesized by using V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and oxalic acid as precursors via a thermolysis method. The VO{sub 2} nanocrystals have a nearly spherical morphology with size ranging from 50 to 100 nm. The metal-insulator transition (MIT) temperature of the nanocrystals decreases with increasing W-doping content. The successive heat-induced fatigue character of the MIT in W-doped VO{sub 2} nanocrystals was investigated by DSC analysis together with structural study, and a high stability upon heating-cooling cycles was found with respect to MIT temperature, peak temperature and latent heat of the phase transition.

  7. Synthesis and thermal stability of polycrystalline new divalent [beta][double prime]- and [beta]-ferrites prepared by ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Kalogirou, O. Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki )

    1993-02-01

    Using ion-exchange chemistry the divalent cations Ba[sup 2+], Sr[sup 2+], Ca[sup 2+], Mg[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+], Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+], Zn[sup 2+], Mn[sup 2+], Fe[sup 2+], and Sn[sup 2+] have been substituted for K[sup +] in polycrystalline CdO-stabilized K-[beta][double prime]-ferrite samples. Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, Pb, and Cd ion exchange led to the synthesis of new materials, the divalent M[sup 2+]-[beta][double prime]-ferrites (M = Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg) and M[sup 2+]-[beta]-ferrites (M = Cd, Pb), respectively. Co[sup 2+]-diffusion resulted in the formation of a spinel-type Co-ferrite. In the case of Zn, Mn, Fe, and Sn the samples decomposed to [alpha]-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]. The thermal stability of the new divalent [beta][double prime]- and [beta]-ferrites was studied either by high-temperature exchange reactions or by air annealing of the exchanged products. Ba- and Sr-[beta][double prime]-ferrites and Pb-[beta]-ferrite converted to M-type hexagonal ferrites with the magnetoplumbite structure, Mg-[beta][double prime]-ferrite decomposed to a spinel-type Mg-ferrite, and Ca-[beta][double prime]-ferrite and Cd-[beta]-ferrite decomposed to [alpha]-Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Composition, lattice parameters, SEM photographs, and magnetic properties of the ferrites formed are given. The magnetic susceptibilities of the divalent [beta][double prime]- or [beta]-ferrites have values between 0.63 and 1.14 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] emu/g[center dot]Oe at room temperature. 41 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  9. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  10. Homology model building of the HMG-1 box structural domain.

    PubMed Central

    Baxevanis, A D; Bryant, S H; Landsman, D

    1995-01-01

    Nucleoproteins belonging to the HMG-1/2 family possess homologous domains approximately 75 amino acids in length. These domains, termed HMG-1 boxes, are highly structured, compact, and mediate the interaction between HMG-1 box-containing proteins and DNA in a variety of biological contexts. Homology model building experiments on HMG-1 box sequences 'threaded' through the 1H-NMR structure of an HMG-1 box from rat indicate that the domain does not have rigid sequence requirements for its formation. Energy calculations indicate that the structure of all HMG-1 box domains is stabilized primarily through hydrophobic interactions. We have found structural relationships in the absence of statistically significant sequence similarity, identifying several candidate proteins which could possibly assume the same three-dimensional conformation as the rat HMG-1 box motif. The threading technique provides a method by which significant structural similarities in a diverse protein family can be efficiently detected, and the 'structural alignment' derived by this method provides a rational basis through which phylogenetic relationships and the precise sites of interaction between HMG-1 box proteins and DNA can be deduced. Images PMID:7731789

  11. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthesis from glutamate by rat intestinal mucosa. Subcellular localization and temperature stability.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Y; Henslee, J G; Jones, M E

    1983-03-25

    The demonstration of the ornithine biosynthesis from glutamate in cell-free homogenates of rat intestinal mucosa by Ross, G., Dunn, D., and Jones, M.E. (1978) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85, 140-147 suggested that this tissue might have the capacity to convert glutamate to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). We have shown in the preceding paper (Wakabayashi, Y., and Jones, M.E. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 3865-3872) that this is the case. The intracellular distribution of the P5C-synthesizing activity was investigated utilizing a newly developed procedure for subcellular fractionation of the rat intestinal mucosa. We found that the activity resided in the mitochondrial fraction as characterized by marker enzymes and an electron micrograph. The mitochondrial membrane fraction, freed of the soluble matrix and intermembrane space enzymes, retained all of the P5C-synthesizing activity. Addition of the soluble fraction to the membrane fraction did not affect the activity. P5C synthase, the name we have chosen for the protein(s) that catalyzes P5C synthesis from glutamate when ATP and NADPH are present, is susceptible to thermal inactivation in the presence of detergent. By lowering the incubation temperature to or below 20 degrees C, one can obtain a linear production of P5C with respect to time and protein concentration. Lower incubation temperatures are recommended for routine assay of this enzyme(s). Addition of 30% glycerol to the incubation mixture resulted in a linear formation of P5C with time at 30 degrees C; this and other data suggest that polyhydroxylic compounds may protect this protein against denaturation. Preliminary experiments suggest that P5C synthase can be extracted from a mitochondrial membrane in the presence of detergent, a high salt concentration, and glycerol. The possibility that the enzyme(s) is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane is discussed.

  12. 2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 10 YARDS TO THE RIGHT AND DOWNSLOPE OF THE ADIT IN ID-31-F-1. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  13. Green synthesis of biogenic silver nanomaterials using Raphanus sativus extract, effects of stabilizers on the morphology, and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Naved; Khan, Tabrez Alam; Khan, Zaheer; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    The present study explores the reducing and capping potentials of aqueous Raphanus sativus root extract for the synthesis of silver nanomaterials for the first time in the absence and presence of two stabilizers, namely, water-soluble starch and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The surface properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) techniques. The mean size of AgNPs, ranging from 3.2 to 6.0 nm, could be facilely controlled by merely varying the initial [extract], [CTAB], [starch], and [Ag(+)] ions. The agglomeration number, average number of silver atoms per nanoparticle, and changes in the fermi potentials were calculated and discussed. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic organisms. The inhibition action was due to the structural changes in the protein cell wall.

  14. Substituted Diarylnorbornadienes and Quadricyclanes: Synthesis, Photochemical Properties, and Effect of Substituent on the Kinetic Stability of Quadricyclanes.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Kyle J; Walker, Jesse V; Sanford, Maria J; Rupert, Benjamin R; Ehle, Andrew R; Tocyloski, James M; Jahn, Aaron N; Shaak, Lyndsey M; Obianyo, Obiamaka; Usher, Karyn M; Goodson, Felix E

    2017-02-03

    In this Article, we present a new method for the synthesis of diarylnorbornadiene derivatives. Through the use of a two-step procedure consisting of a tandem alkene insertion-Suzuki coupling reaction followed by a DDQ dehydrogenation, we have been able to synthesize derivatives with a wide variety of substituents. We also present the results of UV-visible spectroscopy studies and kinetics experiments that show the effect of substituent on light absorption properties of the norbornadienes as well as the kinetic stability of the quadricyclanes that result from their photochemical conversion. While substitution on the aromatic rings had comparatively little effect on quadricyclane lability, substitution at a bridgehead position with a methyl group produced a quadricyclane that thermally reverted to the norbornadiene at a rate that was significantly slower than that for the quadricyclane without the methyl substituent. From the results of the kinetics experiments, we determined that the reversion of the quadricyclanes occurs via a free radical mechanism with very little contribution from polar effects. This observation led us to speculate as to whether our data may form the basis for a free radical substituent constant, σQ•, analogous to the traditional Hammett σ parameter.

  15. Xkid Is Degraded in a D-Box, KEN-Box, and A-Box-Independent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Anna; Vigneron, Suzanne; Bernis, Cyril; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    During mitosis, the Xenopus chromokinesin Kid (Xkid) provides the polar ejection forces needed at metaphase for chromosome congression, and its degradation is required at anaphase to induce chromosome segregation. Despite the fact that the degradation of Xkid at anaphase seems to be a key regulatory factor to induce chromosome movement to the poles, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this proteolysis. We investigated here the degradation pathway of Xkid. We demonstrate that Xkid is degraded both in vitro and in vivo by APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. We show that, despite the presence of five putative D-box motifs in its sequence, Xkid is proteolyzed in a D-box-independent manner. We identify a domain within the C terminus of this chromokinesin, with sequence GxEN, whose mutation completely stabilizes this protein by both APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. Moreover, we show that this degradation sequence acts as a transposable motif and induces the proteolysis of a GST-GXEN fusion protein. Finally, we demonstrate that both a D-box and a GXEN-containing peptides completely block APC-dependent degradation of cyclin B and Xkid, indicating that the GXEN domain might mediate the recognition and association of Xkid with the APC. PMID:12773557

  16. Xkid is degraded in a D-box, KEN-box, and A-box-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Castro, Anna; Vigneron, Suzanne; Bernis, Cyril; Labbé, Jean-Claude; Lorca, Thierry

    2003-06-01

    During mitosis, the Xenopus chromokinesin Kid (Xkid) provides the polar ejection forces needed at metaphase for chromosome congression, and its degradation is required at anaphase to induce chromosome segregation. Despite the fact that the degradation of Xkid at anaphase seems to be a key regulatory factor to induce chromosome movement to the poles, little is known about the mechanisms controlling this proteolysis. We investigated here the degradation pathway of Xkid. We demonstrate that Xkid is degraded both in vitro and in vivo by APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. We show that, despite the presence of five putative D-box motifs in its sequence, Xkid is proteolyzed in a D-box-independent manner. We identify a domain within the C terminus of this chromokinesin, with sequence GxEN, whose mutation completely stabilizes this protein by both APC/Cdc20 and APC/Cdh1. Moreover, we show that this degradation sequence acts as a transposable motif and induces the proteolysis of a GST-GXEN fusion protein. Finally, we demonstrate that both a D-box and a GXEN-containing peptides completely block APC-dependent degradation of cyclin B and Xkid, indicating that the GXEN domain might mediate the recognition and association of Xkid with the APC.

  17. Insights into Stabilization of the 99TcVO Core for Synthesis of 99TcVO Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Howell, Robertha C.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of technetium-99 (99Tc; t1/2: 2.1 105 years, max: 253 keV) materials is of importance in studies of the nuclear fuel cycle where Tc is a major fission product (6percent thermal yield from 235U and 239Pu), in understanding radioactive tank waste composition, and in identifying 99mTc compounds for nuclear medicine imaging. One of the most useful synthetic starting materials, (NBu4)TcOCl4, is susceptible to disproportionation in water to form TcO4 and TcIV species, especially TcO2 2H2O. This unwanted reaction is especially problematic when working with ligands bearing hard donor atoms, such as oxygen, where the stability with the soft TcV=O3+ core may be low. Polyoxometalates (POMs) are such ligands. They possess defect sites with four hard oxygen atoms and show low (ca. 108) stability constants with transition metals. Tc complexes of POMs are molecular-level models for Tc metal oxide solid-state materials and can provide information on coordination and redox environments of metal oxides that stabilize low-valent Tc. In order to synthesize pure Tc POM complexes [TcVO(1-P2W17O61)]7 (TcVO-1) and [TcVO(2-P2W17O61)]7 (TcVO-2) from (NBu4)TcOCl4, we have identified strategies that minimize formation of TcIV species and optimize the formation of pure TcV species. The parameters that we consider are the amount of ethylene glycol, which is employed as a transfer ligand to prevent hydrolysis of (NBu4)TcOCl4, and the precipitating agent. The TcIV species that contaminates the non-optimized syntheses is likely a TcIV -oxido-bridged dimer [TcIV-(-O)2-TcIV]. We also employ a novel procedure where the 2 ligand is photoactivated and reduced (in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor) to subsequently reduce TcVIIO4 to an isolatable TcVO-2 product that is remarkably free of TcIV.

  18. Mobility, Deposition and Remobilization of pre-Synthesis Stabilized Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron in Long Column Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, C. V.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive zero-valent iron is currently being used for remediation of contaminated groundwater. Permeable reactive barriers are the current state-of-the-practice method for using zero-valent iron. Instead of an excavated trench filled with granular zero-valent iron, a relatively new and promising method is the injection of a nano-scale zero-valent iron colloid suspension (nZVI) into the subsurface using injection wells. One goal of nZVI injection can be to deposit zero valent iron in the aquifer and form a reactive permeable zone which is no longer bound to limited depths and plume treatment, but can also be used directly at the source. It is very important to have a good understanding of the transport behavior of nZVI during injection as well as the fate of nZVI after injection due to changes in the flow regime or water chemistry changes. So far transport was mainly tested using commercially available nZVI, however these studies suggest that further work is required as commercial nZVI was prone to aggregation, resulting in low physical stability of the suspension and very short travel distances in the subsurface. In the presented work, nZVI is stabilized during synthesis to significantly increase the physical suspension stability. To improve our understanding of nZVI transport, the feasibility for injection into various porous media materials and controlled deposition, a suite of column experiments are conducted. The column experiments are performed using a long 1.5m column and a novel nZVI measuring technique. The measuring technique was developed to non-destructively determine the concentration of nano-scale iron during the injection. It records the magnetic susceptibility, which makes it possible to get transient nZVI retention profiles along the column. These transient nZVI retention profiles of long columns provide unique insights in the transport behavior of nZVI which cannot be obtained using short columns or effluent breakthrough curves.

  19. Facile synthesis of glucoamylase embedded metal-organic frameworks (glucoamylase-MOF) with enhanced stability.

    PubMed

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2017-02-01

    The self-assembled glucoamylase metal-organic framework (glucoamylase-MOF) was synthesized by facile one-step method within 20min by simply mixing aqueous solution of 2-methylimidazole (160mM), glucoamylase (5mg/mL) and zinc acetate (40mM) at room temperature (28±2°C). The prepared glucoamylase-MOF was characterized by using FT-IR, confocal scanning laser microscopy, XRD and SEM. The robustness and thermal stability of glucoamylase embedded MOF was evaluated in terms of half-life (in the range of 60-80°C) which showed 6 folds increment as against free form. Further, in Michaelis-Menten kinetics studies, glucoamylase entrapped MOF exhibited higher Km value and lower Vmax value as compared to native enzyme. Moreover, the immobilized glucoamylase exhibited up to 57% of residual activity after six consecutive cycles of reuse, whereas it retained 91% of residual activity till 25days of storage. Finally, the conformational changes occurred after the encapsulation of glucoamylase in the interior of MOF, which was analyzed by using FT-IR data analysis tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Green synthesis of pullulan stabilized gold nanoparticles for cancer targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ganeshkumar, Moorthy; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Raja, Modhugoor Devendiran; Subamekala, Muthaiya Kannappan; Suguna, Lonchin

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this study was to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles using liver specific biopolymer and to develop a liver cancer targeted drug delivery system with enhanced efficacy and minimal side effects. Pullulan stabilized gold nanoparticles (PAuNPs) were coupled with 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) and folic acid (Fa) which could be used as a tool for targeted drug delivery and imaging of cancer. The toxicity of 5-Fu, 5-Fu adsorbed gold nanoparticles (5-Fu@AuNPs), Fa-coupled 5-Fu adsorbed gold nanoparticles (5-Fu@AuNPs-Fa), was studied using zebrafish embryo as an in vivo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free 5-Fu, 5-Fu@AuNPs, 5-Fu@AuNPs-Fa against HepG2 cells was studied and found that the amount of 5-Fu required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (Ic50) was much lower in 5-Fu@AuNP-Fa than in free 5-Fu, 5-Fu@AuNPs. The in vivo biodistribution of PAuNPs showed that higher amount of gold had been accumulated in liver (54.42±5.96 μg) than in other organs.

  1. Metronidazole prodrugs: synthesis, physicochemical properties, stability, and ex vivo release studies.

    PubMed

    Mura, Carla; Valenti, Donatella; Floris, Costantino; Sanna, Roberta; De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Fadda, Anna Maria; Loy, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a colon targeted delivery system for metronidazole using polymeric prodrug formulation. Two chitosan amide conjugates of metronidazole were prepared by using two different spacers to covalently link the drug to the amino group of the chitosan glucosamine units. Glutaric and succinic hemiesters of metronidazole were thus prepared and then coupled to chitosan to obtain metronidazole-glutaryl- and metronidazole-succinyl-chitosan conjugates. Polymeric prodrugs were characterized by solid state NMR method, namely carbon 13 cross polarization magic angle spinning ((13)C NMR CPMAS). Prodrug stability study was carried out in acid (pH = 1.2) and in alkaline (pH = 7.4) buffers in a thermostatic bath at 37 °C. Drug release from the two prodrugs was studied by incubating each of them with 10% w/v cecal and colonic content of rats. Obtained results showed that both prodrugs were adequately stable in acid environment, while the succinyl conjugate was more stable than the glutaryl one in alkaline buffer. Both the prodrugs released the drug in cecal and colonic content, showing that the two systems could serve as colon specific delivery systems of metronidazole. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and chemical stability of silicon dichalcogenides, Si(SexS1-x)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiaotian; Krishna, Lakshmi; Kendrick, Chito; Shang, Shun-Li; Toberer, Eric; Liu, Zi-Kui; Tamboli, Adele; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-10-01

    Silicon dichalcogenides have an intriguing crystal structure consisting of long tetrahedral chains held together by van der Waals forces but the electronic and optical properties have been less explored. In the present work, bulk SiSe2, SiS2, and Si(SexS1-x)2 were synthesized by the congruent melt growth method and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction and UV/visible/IR transmission measurements supported by first-principles calculations. First-principles calculations reveal a nearly linear decrease of band gap energy in Si(SexS1-x)2 with increasing Se content, i.e., from SiS2 to SiSe2 which corresponds with a blue-shift in the transmission spectra from bulk SiSe2 to Si(Se0.6S0.4)2, and to SiS2. Air stability tests demonstrate the formation of toxic H2Se/H2S gas from sample oxidation at room temperature upon exposure to ambient air, and great care should be paid when handling these materials.

  3. Sequentially modified, polymer-stabilized gold nanoparticle libraries: convergent synthesis and aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Matthew I; Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2011-05-09

    This manuscript describes a versatile, yet experimentally facile, method for producing libraries of polymer-coated (core−shell type) gold nanoparticles. The synthetic principle relies on two, sequential postmodification reactions, which ensures homogeneity across each series. First, poly(pentafluorophenyl methacrylate) synthesized by RAFT polymerization is used here as a reactive precursor, which can be modified, postpolymerization, to create a library of functional polymers each bearing a ω-thiol end-group. In a second step, these well-defined polymers are then tethered by their ω-thiol group to the surface of prefabricated citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles to give a library of 75 unique, yet sequentially modified organic−inorganic hybrid particles. The optical properties of the gold core were exploited to create a high-throughput assay for investigating the role of nanoparticle size and surface coating on aggregation in various biologically relevant media. These experiments demonstrated the importance of the type of dissolved salts present and also the strong influence of serum proteins in cell-culture media and their interactions with nanoparticles surfaces, which in turn might affect their biological profiles. Therefore, this method presents a powerful, yet accessible tool for creating model nanoparticle libraries with intrinsic sensing properties.

  4. Shape-controlled synthesis of palladium and copper superlattice nanowires for high-stability hydrogen sensors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dachi; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Fonseca, Luis F.; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Hunter, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrogen sensors built with pure Pd nanowires, the instabilities causing baseline drifting and temperature-driven sensing behavior are limiting factors when working within a wide temperature range. To enhance the material stability, we have developed superlattice-structured palladium and copper nanowires (PdCu NWs) with random-gapped, screw-threaded, and spiral shapes achieved by wet-chemical approaches. The microstructure of the PdCu NWs reveals novel superlattices composed of lattice groups structured by four-atomic layers of alternating Pd and Cu. Sensors built with these modified NWs show significantly reduced baseline drifting and lower critical temperature (259.4 K and 261 K depending on the PdCu structure) for the reverse sensing behavior than those with pure Pd NWs (287 K). Moreover, the response and recovery times of the PdCu NWs sensor were of ~9 and ~7 times faster than for Pd NWs sensors, respectively. PMID:24440892

  5. Effects of Friedreich's ataxia (GAA)n*(TTC)n repeats on RNA synthesis and stability.

    PubMed

    Krasilnikova, Maria M; Kireeva, Maria L; Petrovic, Vladimir; Knijnikova, Nelli; Kashlev, Mikhail; Mirkin, Sergei M

    2007-01-01

    Expansions of (GAA)n repeats within the first intron of the frataxin gene reduce its expression, resulting in a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, Friedreich's ataxia. While it is generally believed that expanded (GAA)n repeats block transcription elongation, fine mechanisms responsible for gene repression are not fully understood. To follow the effects of (GAA)n*(TTC)n repeats on gene expression, we have chosen E. coli as a convenient model system. (GAA)n*(TTC)n repeats were cloned into bacterial plasmids in both orientations relative to a promoter, and their effects on transcription and RNA stability were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Expanded (GAA)n repeats in the sense strand for transcription caused a significant decrease in the mRNA levels in vitro and in vivo. This decrease was likely due to the tardiness of the RNA polymerase within expanded (GAA)n runs but was not accompanied by the enzyme's dissociation and premature transcription termination. Unexpectedly, positioning of normal- and carrier-size (TTC)n repeats into the sense strand for transcription led to the appearance of RNA transcripts that were truncated within those repetitive runs in vivo. We have determined that these RNA truncations are consistent with cleavage of the full-sized mRNAs at (UUC)n runs by the E. coli degradosome.

  6. Green synthesis of pullulan stabilized gold nanoparticles for cancer targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganeshkumar, Moorthy; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Raja, Modhugoor Devendiran; Subamekala, Muthaiya Kannappan; Suguna, Lonchin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize green chemistry based gold nanoparticles using liver specific biopolymer and to develop a liver cancer targeted drug delivery system with enhanced efficacy and minimal side effects. Pullulan stabilized gold nanoparticles (PAuNPs) were coupled with 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) and folic acid (Fa) which could be used as a tool for targeted drug delivery and imaging of cancer. The toxicity of 5-Fu, 5-Fu adsorbed gold nanoparticles (5-Fu@AuNPs), Fa-coupled 5-Fu adsorbed gold nanoparticles (5-Fu@AuNPs-Fa), was studied using zebrafish embryo as an in vivo model. The in vitro cytotoxicity of free 5-Fu, 5-Fu@AuNPs, 5-Fu@AuNPs-Fa against HepG2 cells was studied and found that the amount of 5-Fu required to achieve 50% of growth of inhibition (Ic50) was much lower in 5-Fu@AuNP-Fa than in free 5-Fu, 5-Fu@AuNPs. The in vivo biodistribution of PAuNPs showed that higher amount of gold had been accumulated in liver (54.42 ± 5.96 μg) than in other organs.

  7. Shape-controlled synthesis of palladium and copper superlattice nanowires for high-stability hydrogen sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dachi; Carpena-Núñez, Jennifer; Fonseca, Luis F; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin; Hunter, Gary W

    2014-01-20

    For hydrogen sensors built with pure Pd nanowires, the instabilities causing baseline drifting and temperature-driven sensing behavior are limiting factors when working within a wide temperature range. To enhance the material stability, we have developed superlattice-structured palladium and copper nanowires (PdCu NWs) with random-gapped, screw-threaded, and spiral shapes achieved by wet-chemical approaches. The microstructure of the PdCu NWs reveals novel superlattices composed of lattice groups structured by four-atomic layers of alternating Pd and Cu. Sensors built with these modified NWs show significantly reduced baseline drifting and lower critical temperature (259.4 K and 261 K depending on the PdCu structure) for the reverse sensing behavior than those with pure Pd NWs (287 K). Moreover, the response and recovery times of the PdCu NWs sensor were of ~9 and ~7 times faster than for Pd NWs sensors, respectively.

  8. Nonlinear optical materials: Synthesis, characterizations, thermal stability and electro-optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Fengxian . E-mail: fxqiuchem@163.com; Xu Hongliang; Cao Yonglin; Jiang Yan; Zhou Yuming; Liu Juzheng; Zhang Xuping

    2007-03-15

    Two series of thermal stable polyimides and polyimide/silica hybrid materials have been synthesized. The silica content in the hybrid materials was varied from 0 to 22.5 wt.% and SiO{sub 2} phase was well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The glass transition temperature (T {sub g}) and the decomposition temperature (T {sub d}) were in the range 226-382 deg. C and 345-499 deg. C, respectively, for materials. The polymer solutions could be spin coated on the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass or other substrates to form optical quality thin films. The electro-optic coefficients ({gamma} {sub 33}) at the wavelength of 832 nm for polymer thin films poled were in the range of 12-25 pm/V and the values remained well (retained > 85% for more than 100 h). The heat capacities of some materials were in the range of 0.9755-1.1821 J K{sup -1} g{sup -1} for the temperature 273 and 363 K. No thermal anomaly was found in this temperature range. Most of them showed high thermal stability.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of carboxymethyl dextrane stabilized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glišić, Slobodan; Cakić, Milorad; Nikolić, Goran; Danilović, Bojana

    2015-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-CMD) were synthesized from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and carboxymethyl dextrane (CMD) in mole ratio 1:1 and 1:2. The characterization of AgNPs-CMD was performed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and antimicrobial activity. The formation of AgNPs-CMD was screened by color changes of the reaction mixture to yellow, by measuring the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak in UV-VIS region at 420 nm. The GPC chromatography measurement confirmed the formation of AgNPs-CMD. The SEM microscopy was used for size and shape of AgNPs-CMD nanoparticles determination. The presence of elemental silver and crystalline structure of AgNPs-CMD were confirmed by XRD analyses. The possible functional group of CMD responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were determinated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The AgNPs-CMD showed strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus lutea, Bacillus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococus fecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and antifungal activity against Aspergillus spp., Penicillum spp., and Candida albicans.

  10. Synthesis and antioxidant properties of chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wanwen; Li, Yanfang; Yang, Shuo; Yue, Lin; Jiang, Qixing; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-11-05

    Monodispersible selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were synthesized by using chitosan (CS) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS) as the stabilizer and capping agent using a facile synthetic approach. The structure, size, morphology and antioxidant activity of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that the monodispersible SeNPs (mean particle size of about 50 nm) were ligated with CS and CCS to form nanocomposites in aqueous solution for at least 30 days, and for 120 days the nanoparticles increased to 180 nm or so in size. The DPPH scavenging ability of CS-SeNPs was higher than that of CCS-SeNPs, and could reach 93.5% at a concentration of 0.6 mmol/L. Moreover, SeNPs, CS-SeNPs and CCS-SeNPs exhibited a higher ABTS scavenging ability in comparison to Na2SeO3.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of fine stabilized superparamagnetic nanoparticles of Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahraei, Maryam; Monshi, Ahmad; Morales, Maria del Puerto; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Amirnasr, Mehdi; Behdadfar, Behshid

    2015-11-01

    Superparamagnetic Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0.3, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.45) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a direct, efficient and environmental friendly hydrothermal method. The synthesized NPs were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermo-gravimetry (TG) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The effects of various parameters such as the pH of reaction mixture, time and temperature of hydrothermal treatment and Zn substitution on the spinel phase formation, the magnetization, and the size of resulting NPs are discussed. The Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite NPs obtained from hydrothermal process crystallized mainly in the spinel phase. Nevertheless, without citrate ions, the hematite phase appeared in the product. The monophase Zn2+ substituted manganese ferrite NPs hydrothermally prepared in the presence of citric acid had mean particle size of 7 nm and a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the synthesized NPs can be used to prepare ferrofluids for biomedical applications due to their small size, good stability in aqueous medium (pH 7) and also high magnetization value.

  12. Synthesis of ferrite nanocrystals stabilized by ionic-liquid molecules through a thermal decomposition route.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Dapeng; Wang, Xiao; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2011-01-17

    A series of M(x) Fe(3-x) O(4) (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; 0≤x≤1) ferrite nanocrystals stabilized by ionic-liquid molecules have been successfully synthesized through a thermal decomposition route. Instead of the widely used long-chain lipid surfactants and high-boiling solvents, the ionic-liquid molecules not only played the role of surfactants, but also served as reaction and dispersion media simultaneously in the preparation of ferrite nanocrystals. Due to their good fluidity under magnetic fields and high ionic conductivity, the ionic-liquid molecules and M(x) Fe(3-x) O(4) ferrite nanocrystal-based conducting ferrofluids were successfully used as electrolytes in an AC circuit. The open or closed state of the circuit was directly controlled by moving a permanent magnet so as to tune the position of the ferrofluids, and consequently, resulted in the "off" or "on" state of the four indicative yellow-light-emitting diodes. These results demonstrate that the conducting ferrofluids successfully play the role of "magnetic switch".

  13. Synthesis of water soluble chitosan stabilized gold nanoparticles and determination of uric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanh Le, Thi; Khieu Dinh, Quang; Hoa Tran, Thai; Nguyen, Hai Phong; Le Hien Hoang, Thi; Hien Nguyen, Quoc

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been successfully synthesized by utilizing water soluble chitosan as reducing and stabilizing agent. The colloidal Au-NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the colloidal Au-NPs had a plasmon absorption band with maximum wavelength in the range of 520-526 nm and the diameters were about 8-15 nm. In addition, a new Au-NPs-modified electrode was fabricated by self-assembling Au-NPs to the surface of the L-cysteine-modified glassy carbon electrode (Au-NPs/L-Cys/GCE). The Au-NPs-modified electrode showed an excellent character for electro-catalytic oxidization of uric acid (UA) in 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.2). Using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DP-ASV), a high selectivity for determination of UA has been explored for the Au-NPs-modified electrode. DP-ASV peak currents of UA increased linearly with their concentration at the range of 2.0 × 10-6 to 4.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 with the detection limit of 2.7 × 10-6 mol L-1 for UA. The proposed method was applied for the detection of UA in human urine and serum samples with satisfactory results.

  14. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  15. ACYSYS in a box

    SciTech Connect

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  16. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2016-07-12

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  17. Impedance Measurement Box

    SciTech Connect

    Christophersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  18. Expression, stabilization and purification of membrane proteins via diverse protein synthesis systems and detergents involving cell-free associated with self-assembly peptide surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuan; Dong, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Jie; Li, Duanhua; Li, Feng; Luo, Zhongli

    2014-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in regulating most of physiological actions and metabolism in the bodies, which have become most frequently addressed therapeutic targets for various disorders and diseases. Purified GPCR-based drug discoveries have become routine that approaches to structural study, novel biophysical and biochemical function analyses. However, several bottlenecks that GPCR-directed drugs need to conquer the problems including overexpression, solubilization, and purification as well as stabilization. The breakthroughs are to obtain efficient protein yield and stabilize their functional conformation which are both urgently requiring of effective protein synthesis system methods and optimal surfactants. Cell-free protein synthesis system is superior to the high yields and post-translation modifications, and early signs of self-assembly peptide detergents also emerged to superiority in purification of membrane proteins. We herein focus several predominant protein synthesis systems and surfactants involving the novel peptide detergents, and uncover the advantages of cell-free protein synthesis system with self-assembling peptide detergents in purification of functional GPCRs. This review is useful to further study in membrane proteins as well as the new drug exploration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic effect of CysLTR2 polymorphisms on its mRNA synthesis and stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Chang, Hun Soo; Park, Se-Min; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo-Taek; Il Lim, Gune; Rhim, Taiyoun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Inseon S; Chung, Il Yup; Park, Byung Lae; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and haplotypes were associated with aspirin hypersensitivity in asthmatics. We investigated the genetic effects of the SNPs and haplotypes on the expression of the CysLTR2 gene. Methods We measured CysLTR2 protein and mRNA expression in EB virus-infected B cell lines from asthmatics having ht1+/+ and ht2+/+. A gel retardation assay was used to identify nuclear protein binding to the c.-819 promoter site. The function of promoter and 3'-UTR were assessed using pGL3 luciferase and pEGFP reporter system, respectively. Results We found that the expression of CysLTR2 protein was higher in B cell lines of asthmatics having ht2+/+ than in those having ht1+/+. PMA/ionomycin induced higher mRNA expression of CysLTR2 in B cell lines from ht2+/+ asthmatics than those from ht1+/+ asthmatics. A nuclear protein from the B cell lines showed stronger DNA binding affinity with a probe containing c.-819T than one containing c.-819G. The luciferase activity of the c.-819T type of CysLTR2 promoter was higher than that of the c.-819G type. EGFP expression was higher in the EGFP-c.2078T 3'-UTR fusion construct than in the c.2078C construct. Conclusion The sequence variants of CysLTR2 may affect its transcription and the stability of its mRNA, resulting in altered expression of CysLTR2 protein, which in turn causes some asthmatics to be susceptible to aspirin hypersensitivity. PMID:19840403

  20. Selenoquinones stabilized by ruthenium(II) arene complexes: synthesis, structure, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dubarle-Offner, Julien; Clavel, Catherine M; Gontard, Geoffrey; Dyson, Paul J; Amouri, Hani

    2014-05-05

    A new series of monoselenoquinone and diselenoquinone π complexes, [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 R4 SeE)] (R=H, E=Se (6); R=CH3 , E=Se (7); R=H, E=O (8)), as well as selenolate π complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(5) -C6 H3 R2 Se)][SbF6 ] (R=H (9); R=CH3 (10)), stabilized by arene ruthenium moieties were prepared in good yields through nucleophilic substitution reactions from dichlorinated-arene and hydroxymonochlorinated-arene ruthenium complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(C6 R4 XCl)][SbF6 ]2 (R=H, X=Cl (1); R=CH3 , X=Cl (2); R=H, X=OH (3)) as well as the monochlorinated π complexes [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(5) -C6 H3 R2 Cl)][SbF6 ]2 (R=H (4); R=CH3 (5)). The X-ray crystallographic structures of two of the compounds, [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 Me4 Se2 )] (7) and [(η(6) -p-cymene)Ru(η(4) -C6 H4 SeO)] (8), were determined. The structures confirm the identity of the target compounds and ascertain the coordination mode of these unprecedented ruthenium π complexes of selenoquinones. Furthermore, these new compounds display relevant cytotoxic properties towards human ovarian cancer cells.

  1. Synthesis of polycrystalline methane hydrate, and its phase stability and mechanical properties at elevated pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Test specimens of methane hydrate were grown under static conditions by combining cold, pressurized CH4 gas with H2O ice grains, then warming the system to promote the reaction CH4 (g) + 6H2O (s???l) ??? CH4??6H2O. Hydrate formation evidently occurs at the nascent ice/liquid water interface, and complete reaction was achieved by warming the system above 271.5 K and up to 289 K, at 25-30 MPa, for approximately 8 hours. The resulting material is pure methane hydrate with controlled grain size and random texture. Fabrication conditions placed the H2O ice well above its melting temperature before reaction completed, yet samples and run records showed no evidence for bulk melting of the ice grains. Control experiments using Ne, a non-hydrate-forming gas, verified that under otherwise identical conditions, the pressure reduction and latent heat associated with ice melting is easily detectable in our fabrication apparatus. These results suggest that under hydrate-forming conditions, H2O ice can persist metastably at temperatures well above its melting point. Methane hydrate samples were then tested in constant-strain-rate deformation experiments at T= 140-200 K, Pc= 50-100 MPa, and ????= 10-4-10-6 s-1. Measurements in both the brittle and ductile fields showed that methane hydrate has measurably different strength than H2O ice, and work hardens to a higher degree compared to other ices as well as to most metals and ceramics at high homologous temperatures. This work hardening may be related to a changing stoichiometry under pressure during plastic deformation; x-ray analyses showed that methane hydrate undergoes a process of solid-state disproportionation or exsolution during deformation at conditions well within its conventional stability field.

  2. Synthesis of Self-Assembled Multifunctional Nanocomposite Catalysts with Highly Stabilized Reactivity and Magnetic Recyclability

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xu; Cheng, Gong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a multifunctional Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite catalyst with highly stabilized reactivity and magnetic recyclability was synthesized by a self-assembled method. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a thin layer of the SiO2 to obtain a negatively charged surface. Then positively charged poly(ethyleneimine) polymer (PEI) was self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2 by electrostatic interaction. Next, negatively charged glutathione capped gold nanoparticles (GSH-AuNPs) were electrostatically self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI. After that, silver was grown on the surface of the nanocomposite due to the reduction of the dopamine in the alkaline solution. An about 5 nm thick layer of polydopamine (PDA) was observed to form the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was carefully characterized by the SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD and so on. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite shows a high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 48.9 emu/g, which allows it to be attracted rapidly to a magnet. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was used to catalyze the reduction of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) to p-aminophenol (4-AP) as a model system. The reaction kinetic constant k was measured to be about 0.56 min−1 (R2 = 0.974). Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for 8 times, which didn’t show much decrease of the catalytic capability. PMID:27147586

  3. Synthesis of Self-Assembled Multifunctional Nanocomposite Catalysts with Highly Stabilized Reactivity and Magnetic Recyclability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xu; Cheng, Gong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, a multifunctional Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite catalyst with highly stabilized reactivity and magnetic recyclability was synthesized by a self-assembled method. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a thin layer of the SiO2 to obtain a negatively charged surface. Then positively charged poly(ethyleneimine) polymer (PEI) was self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2 by electrostatic interaction. Next, negatively charged glutathione capped gold nanoparticles (GSH-AuNPs) were electrostatically self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI. After that, silver was grown on the surface of the nanocomposite due to the reduction of the dopamine in the alkaline solution. An about 5 nm thick layer of polydopamine (PDA) was observed to form the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was carefully characterized by the SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD and so on. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite shows a high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 48.9 emu/g, which allows it to be attracted rapidly to a magnet. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was used to catalyze the reduction of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) to p-aminophenol (4-AP) as a model system. The reaction kinetic constant k was measured to be about 0.56 min(-1) (R(2) = 0.974). Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for 8 times, which didn't show much decrease of the catalytic capability.

  4. Synthesis of Self-Assembled Multifunctional Nanocomposite Catalysts with Highly Stabilized Reactivity and Magnetic Recyclability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xu; Cheng, Gong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a multifunctional Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite catalyst with highly stabilized reactivity and magnetic recyclability was synthesized by a self-assembled method. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a thin layer of the SiO2 to obtain a negatively charged surface. Then positively charged poly(ethyleneimine) polymer (PEI) was self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2 by electrostatic interaction. Next, negatively charged glutathione capped gold nanoparticles (GSH-AuNPs) were electrostatically self-assembled onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI. After that, silver was grown on the surface of the nanocomposite due to the reduction of the dopamine in the alkaline solution. An about 5 nm thick layer of polydopamine (PDA) was observed to form the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was carefully characterized by the SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD and so on. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite shows a high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 48.9 emu/g, which allows it to be attracted rapidly to a magnet. The Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-Au/Ag@PDA nanocomposite was used to catalyze the reduction of p-nitrophenol (4-NP) to p-aminophenol (4-AP) as a model system. The reaction kinetic constant k was measured to be about 0.56 min‑1 (R2 = 0.974). Furthermore, the as-prepared catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for 8 times, which didn’t show much decrease of the catalytic capability.

  5. High-Temperature Stability of Cobalt Grafted on Low-Loading Incorporated Mo-MCM-41 Catalyst for Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    S Lee; C Zoican Loebick; L Pfefferle; G Haller

    2011-12-31

    Cobalt metal is a good catalyst for CO disproportionation to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) when particle size is stabilized on the nanometer scale. With reaction temperatures in the range of 973-1123 K, stabilization of nanometer Co particles against sintering requires a chemical bonding and/or occlusion of the Co particles. Catalysts with Co-grafted Mo-incorporated MCM-41 with different Mo loadings (<1 wt %) have been synthesized. Incorporation of Mo cations in the silica framework of MCM-41 provides different species as grafting sites. These grafting sites affect the strength of the metal-support interaction that controls sintering of active Co metal. The stability of Co at high temperature has been investigated by TPR and in situ/ex-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The reduced Co metal particle size, after hydrogen prereduction, is independent of Mo loading. However, the Co particle size after SWNT synthesis is greatly affected by Mo anchoring and varied with loading. The Co particle size of low-Mo-loading samples after SWNT synthesis is little changed (from 0.88 nm after prereduction to 0.85 nm after SWNT synthesis), but the Co particle size difference of high-Mo-loading samples is gradually increased as the Mo loading is increased.

  6. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  7. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  8. What Makes a Better Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  9. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  10. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  11. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  12. What Makes a Better Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  13. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  14. High-throughput 96-well solvent mediated sonic blending synthesis and on-plate solid/solution stability characterization of pharmaceutical cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Luu, Van; Jona, Janan; Stanton, Mary K; Peterson, Matthew L; Morrison, Henry G; Nagapudi, Karthik; Tan, Helming

    2013-01-30

    A 96-well high-throughput cocrystal screening workflow has been developed consisting of solvent-mediated sonic blending synthesis and on-plate solid/solution stability characterization by XRPD. A strategy of cocrystallization screening in selected blend solvents including water mixtures is proposed to not only manipulate solubility of the cocrystal components but also differentiate physical stability of the cocrystal products. Caffeine-oxalic acid and theophylline-oxalic acid cocrystals were prepared and evaluated in relation to saturation levels of the cocrystal components and stability of the cocrystal products in anhydrous and hydrous solvents. AMG 517 was screened with a number of coformers, and solid/solution stability of the resulting cocrystals on the 96-well plate was investigated. A stability trend was observed and confirmed that cocrystals comprised of lower aqueous solubility coformers tended to be more stable in water. Furthermore, cocrystals which could be isolated under hydrous solvent blending condition exhibited superior physical stability to those which could only be obtained under anhydrous condition. This integrated HTS workflow provides an efficient route in an API-sparing approach to screen and identify cocrystal candidates with proper solubility and solid/solution stability properties.

  15. Synthesis, properties and stability of end member boromuscovite, KAl2[BSi3O10](OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ingo; Schreyer, Werner

    2002-09-01

    End member boromuscovite, with nearly the ideal composition, was synthesized as a single phase from mixtures of its own composition, or with excess boron and water, at high pressures of between 15 and 30 kbar at 700 °C. The mica synthesized consists of a mixture of 2M1 and 1M polytypes with the cell dimensions of 2M1: a=5.071(4), b=8.786(4), c=19.830(89) Å, β=95.84(12)°, V=878.5(1.4) Å3; and 1M: a=5.059(5), b=8.819(6), c=10.025(17) Å, β=101.39(57)°, V=438.4(1.3) Å. The IR spectrum shows characteristic differences relative to that of muscovite. DTA registers an endothermic peak due to dehydration breakdown above 680 °C. Seeded experiments indicate that boromuscovite is a high-pressure phase requiring minimum pressures of 3 to 10 kbar at temperatures that concomitantly increase from 300 to 750 °C. At lower pressures, the anhydrous solid assemblage K-feldspar + Al-borate (probably Al4B2O9) coexists with a vapor rich in boric acid. The conversion of this assemblage to boromuscovite is connected with increases in the coordination number of B from [3] to [4], and of Al from [4] to [6]. Above 10 kbar, the boromuscovite stability field is limited along its high-temperature side by congruent (or incongruent?) melting of the mica, starting near 750 °C and 10 kbar and increasing to about 900 °C at 50 kbar, although, at such very high pressures a supercritical fluid may be present. Because, even in the presence of excess-boron fluid, the synthetic mica shows invariable X-ray properties, it is concluded that one B atom per formula unit represents the maximum, and - contrary to olenitic tourmalines - no further substitution of Si by B linked with addition of hydrogen takes place. In contrast to muscovite, KAl2[AlSi3O10](OH)2, end member boromuscovite is not stable under normal P-T conditions of the Continental Crust along a 30 °C/km geotherm, and especially not during the intrusion of acidic igneous rocks including their pegmatites, which may explain its scarcity

  16. Thinking Inside the Box

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, Charles T.; /SLAC

    2007-11-16

    In early 2007, SLAC was faced with a shortage of both electrical power and cooling in the main computer building, at the same time that the BaBar collaboration needed a new cluster of 250 batch machines installed. A number of different options were explored for the expansion. Provision of additional electrical power to the building was estimated to take one to two years, and cost several million dollars; additional cooling was even worse. Space in a Silicon Valley co-location facilities was reasonable on a one-year timescale, but broke even in costs by the end of three years, and were more expensive after that. There were also unresolved questions about the affects of additional latency from an offsite compute cluster to the onsite disk servers. The option of converting existing experimental hall space into computer space was estimated at one year, with uncertain availability. An option to aggressively replace several existing clusters with more power-efficient equipment was studied closely, but was disruptive to continued operations, expensive, and didn't provide any additional headroom. Finally, the installation of a Sun Project Blackbox (PBB) unit was selected as providing the capacity on a timescale of six months for a reasonable cost with minimal disruption to service. SLAC obtained and installed a beta unit and have been running it in production since September 2007. The experiences described are with the Early Access version of the PBB. The production version of the box has engineering changes based in part on our experiences.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and transistor response of semiconducting silole polymers with substantial hole mobility and air stability. Experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; Usta, Hakan; Risko, Chad; Wang, Lian; Facchetti, Antonio; Ratner, Mark A; Marks, Tobin J

    2008-06-18

    Realizing p-channel semiconducting polymers with good hole mobility, solution processibility, and air stability is an important step forward in the chemical manipulation of charge transport in polymeric solids and in the development of low-cost printed electronics. We report here the synthesis and full characterization of the dithienosilole- and dibenzosilole-based homopolymers, poly(4,4-di-n-hexyldithienosilole) (TS6) and poly(9,9-di-n-octyldibenzosilole) (BS8), and their mono- and bithiophene copolymers, poly(4,4-di-n-hexyldithienosilole-alt-(bi)thiophene) (TS6T1, TS6T2) and poly(9,9-di-n-octyldibenzosilole-alt-(bi)thiophene) (BS8T1, BS8T2), and examine in detail the consequences of introducing dithienosilole and dibenzosilole cores into a thiophene polymer backbone. We demonstrate air-stable thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated under ambient conditions having hole mobilities as large as 0.08 cm(2)/V x s, low turn-on voltages, and current on/off ratios > 10(6). Additionally, unencapsulated TFTs fabricated under ambient conditions are air-stable, an important advance over regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based devices. Density functional theory calculations provide detailed insight into the polymer physicochemical and charge transport characteristics. A direct correlation between the hole injection barrier and both TFT turn-on voltage and TFT polymer hole mobility is identified and discussed, in combination with thin-film morphological characteristics, to explain the observed OTFT performance trends.

  18. Flexible bulb large storage box hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1973-01-01

    The principal limitation on the accuracy of the hydrogen maser as a primary frequency standard has been the irreproducibility of the frequency shift caused by collisions of the radiating atoms with the walls of the vessel containing them. The flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser allows correction for this wall shift within a single device, sidestepping the reproducibility problem, and reducing the frequency error from the wall shift to the level imposed by the device's stability. The principles of the device are discussed including the flexible bulb technique and the complications caused by a multiple region storage bulb. The stability of the device is discussed including a comparison with an ordinary hydrogen maser. Data is presented from a working flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser demonstrating the feasibility of the device and showing some of its operating characteristics. The flexibility of the device is demonstrated by showing how the device's added degrees of freedom allow measurement of parameters unmeasurable in an ordinary hydrogen maser.

  19. Antioxidant therapeutics: Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has favored the utilization of dioxygen (O2) in the development of complex multicellular organisms. O2 is actually a toxic mutagenic gas that is highly oxidizing and combustible. It is thought that plants are largely to blame for polluting the earth's atmosphere with O2 owing to the development of photosynthesis by blue-green algae over 2 billion years ago. The rise of the plants and atmospheric O2 levels placed evolutionary stress on organisms to adapt or become extinct. This implies that all the surviving creatures on our planet are mutants that have adapted to the "abnormal biology" of O2. Much of the adaptation to the presence of O2 in biological systems comes from well-coordinated antioxidant and repair systems that focus on converting O2 to its most reduced form, water (H2O), and the repair and replacement of damaged cellular macromolecules. Biological systems have also harnessed O2's reactive properties for energy production, xenobiotic metabolism, and host defense and as a signaling messenger and redox modulator of a number of cell signaling pathways. Many of these systems involve electron transport systems and offer many different mechanisms by which antioxidant therapeutics can alternatively produce an antioxidant effect without directly scavenging oxygen-derived reactive species. It is likely that each agent will have a different set of mechanisms that may change depending on the model of oxidative stress, organ system, or disease state. An important point is that all biological processes of aerobes have coevolved with O2 and this creates a Pandora's box for trying to understand the mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants being developed as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Breaking out of Our Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, William

    2003-01-01

    Argues that educators must "think outside the box" to improve school performance. Suggests several areas for expanded thought, including school size, curriculum coverage, grading practices, use of time, organization of students, time management, and belief statement. (PKP)

  1. Breaking out of Our Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, William

    2003-01-01

    Argues that educators must "think outside the box" to improve school performance. Suggests several areas for expanded thought, including school size, curriculum coverage, grading practices, use of time, organization of students, time management, and belief statement. (PKP)

  2. Center Spot: Shoe Box Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jan

    1976-01-01

    This is the second "Center Spot" devoted to Jan Hoffman's "Shoe Box Science," a program that organizes manipulative materials so that children can identify, describe, order, construct, name and distinguish on their own.

  3. DExD/H-box RNA helicases in ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Roman; Straub, Annika U.; Doebele, Carmen; Bohnsack, Markus T.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis requires a multitude of cofactors, among them DExD/H-box RNA helicases. Bacterial RNA helicases involved in ribosome assembly are not essential, while eukaryotes strictly require multiple DExD/H-box proteins that are involved in the much more complex ribosome biogenesis pathway. Here, RNA helicases are thought to act in structural remodeling of the RNPs including the modulation of protein binding, and they are required for allowing access or the release of specific snoRNPs from pre-ribosomes. Interestingly, helicase action is modulated by specific cofactors that can regulate recruitment and enzymatic activity. This review summarizes the current knowledge and focuses on recent findings and open questions on RNA helicase function and regulation in ribosome synthesis. PMID:22922795

  4. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly…

  5. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly…

  6. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  7. Design Synthesis in a Virtual Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Conference Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, September 9-12, 2001 DETC2001/CIE21267 DESIGN SYNTHESIS IN A VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT Douglas Maxwell** Louisiana Tech...University PO Box 10348 Ruston, LA 71272 Keywords: virtual reality, design synthesis , immersive environments, CAD...which design synthesis is accomplished in a stereoscopic or immersive environment is called the Design Synthesis Virtual Environment or DSVE

  8. Easy parallel screening of reagent stability, quality control, and metrology in solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and peptide couplings for microarrays.

    PubMed

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Wheeler, David R

    2015-10-01

    Evaluating the stability of coupling reagents, quality control (QC), and surface functionalization metrology are all critical to the production of high quality peptide microarrays. We describe a broadly applicable screening technique for evaluating the fidelity of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), the stability of activation/coupling reagents, and a microarray surface metrology tool. This technique was used to assess the stability of the activation reagent 1-{[1-(Cyano-2-ethoxy-2-oxo-ethylidenaminooxy)dimethylamino-morpholinomethylene]}methaneaminiumHexafluorophosphate (COMU) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) by SPPS of Leu-Enkephalin (YGGFL) or the coupling of commercially synthesized YGGFL peptides to (3-aminopropyl)triethyoxysilane-modified glass surfaces. Coupling efficiency was quantitated by fluorescence signaling based on immunoreactivity of the YGGFL motif. It was concluded that COMU solutions should be prepared fresh and used within 5 h when stored at ~23 °C and not beyond 24 h if stored refrigerated, both in closed containers. Caveats to gauging COMU stability by absorption spectroscopy are discussed. Commercial YGGFL peptides needed independent QC, due to immunoreactivity variations for the same sequence synthesized by different vendors. This technique is useful in evaluating the stability of other activation/coupling reagents besides COMU and as a metrology tool for SPPS and peptide microarrays.

  9. Iron and nickel complexes with heterocyclic ligands: stability, synthesis, spectral characterization, antimicrobial activity, acute and subacute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bouchoucha, Afaf; Terbouche, Achour; Zaouani, Mohamed; Derridj, Fazia; Djebbar, Safia

    2013-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization by elemental analysis, emission atomic spectroscopy, TG measurements, magnetic measurements, FTIR, (1)H NMR, UV-visible spectra and conductivity of a series of iron (II) and nickel (II) complexes with two heterocyclic ligands (L(1)(SMX): sulfamethoxazole and L(2)(MIZ): metronidazole) used in pharmaceutical field and with a new ligand derived benzoxazole (L(3)(MPBO): 2-(5-methylpyridine-2-yl)benzoxazole), were reported. The formulae obtained for the complexes are: [M(L(1))2 Cl2]·nH2O, [M(L(2))2Cl2(H2O)2]·H2O and [M(L(3))2(OH)2]·nH2O. Stability constants of these complexes have been determined by potentiometric methods in water-ethanol (90:10, v/v) mixture at a 0.2 mol L(-1) ionic strength (NaCl) and at 25.0±0.1 °C. Sirko program was used to determine the protonation constants as well as the binding constants of three species [ML2H2](2+), [ML2] and [ML](2+). The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and complexes was evaluated in vitro against different human bacteria and fungi using agar diffusion method. Iron sulfamethoxazole complex showed a remarkable inhibition of bacteria growth especially on Staphylococcus aureus and P. aeruginosa. The iron metronidazole complex is active against yeasts especially on Candida tropicalis strain. Nickel complexes presented different antibacterial and antifungal behavior's against bacteria and fungal. The acute toxicity study revealed that the iron complexes are not toxic at 2000 mg/kg dose orally administrated. LD50 for nickel complexes was determined using graphical method. No significant differences in the body weights between the control and the treated groups of both rat sexes in subacute toxicity study using for iron complexes. Hematological and clinical blood chemistry analysis revealed no toxicity effects of the iron complexes. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed for these complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  10. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  11. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    DOEpatents

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  12. Synthesis of 3'-3'-linked oligonucleotides branched by a pentaerythritol linker and the thermal stabilities of the triplexes with single-stranded DNA or RNA.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshihito; Shibata, Aya; Matsuda, Akira; Kitade, Yukio

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis of 3'-3'-linked oligonucleotides branched by a pentaerythritol linker is described. The branched oligonucleotides were synthesized on a DNA/RNA synthesizer using a controlled pore glass (CPG) with a pentaerythritol linker carrying 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMTr) and levulinyl (Lev) groups. The stability of the triplexes between the branched oligonucleotides and the target single-stranded DNA or RNA was studied by thermal denaturation. The oligonucleotides with the pentaerythritol linker formed thermally stable triplexes with the single-stranded DNA and RNA. Furthermore, the branched oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-methylribonucleosides, especially the oligonucleotide composed of 2'-deoxyribonucleosides and 2'-O-methylribonucleosides, stabilized the triplexes with the single-stranded DNA or RNA. Thus, the branched oligonucleotide containing 2'-O-methylribonucleosides may be a candidate for a novel antisense molecule by the triplex formation.

  13. A commercial box for dog semen transport: What happens inside when the environmental temperature is increasing?

    PubMed

    Cunha, I C N; Henning, H; Urhausen, C; Beyerbach, M; Günzel-Apel, A R

    2014-06-10

    Environmental temperatures may influence the temperature inside commercial transport boxes during semen shipment and thereby storage conditions of diluted dog semen. To evaluate the temperature changes inside boxes and their influence on sperm quality, split semen samples (n=8) were placed in Neopor boxes(®) exposed for 48h to room temperature (RT) (Box 1), 40°C for 6h and then kept at RT (Box 2) or 40°C (Box 3). A fourth subsample was kept at 4-5°C in a refrigerator (control). Inside Box 1 temperature initially decreased to <3°C before it stabilized at 7-8°C, while in Box 2 no decrease occurred and temperature was at 7-8°C for 48 h. Temperature inside Box 3 was at 14-15°C for 24h and, thereafter, increased to 36.1°C. Analysis of sperm motility (CASA) and viability (PI and FITC-PNA) after 24 and 48 h revealed marked sensitivity of dog spermatozoa to temperature fluctuations (Box 1). A constant storage temperature of 7-8°C (Box 2) provided the most desirable semen quality in terms of motility, viability, as well as osmotic resistance when samples were stored for 48 h. Furthermore, results indicate that during 24h preservation a storage temperature of 14-16°C may provide optimum conditions for maintenance of sperm viability and function. An increase of the inside temperature to >30°C (Box 3) resulted in an almost complete loss in sperm integrity. In conclusion, results suggest a revision of current recommendations for storage temperature of diluted dog semen. Boxes for semen transport should be prepared depending on the expected environmental temperatures.

  14. Effects of Gold Salt Speciation and Structure of Human and Bovine Serum Albumin on the Synthesis and Stability of Gold Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Érica; Tofanello, Aryane; Brito, Adrianne; Lopes, David; Giacomelli, Fernando; Albuquerque, Lindomar; Costa, Fanny; Ferreira, Fabio; Araujo-Chaves, Juliana; de Castro, Carlos; Nantes, Iseli

    2016-03-01

    with the gold surface. Therefore, the cysteine side chain of albumins is important for the colloidal stabilization of GNPs rather than as the reducing agent for the synthesis. Despite the presence of more reactive gold species at more acidic pH values, i.e., below

  15. Oligonucleotides with "clickable" sugar residues: synthesis, duplex stability, and terminal versus central interstrand cross-linking of 2'-O-propargylated 2-aminoadenosine with a bifunctional azide.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Suresh S; Leonard, Peter; Seela, Frank

    2014-05-16

    Duplex DNA with terminal and internal sugar cross-links were synthesized by the CuAAC reaction from oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-propargyl-2-aminoadenosine as a clickable site and a bifunctional azide (4). Stepwise click chemistry was employed to introduce cross-links at internal and terminal positions. Copper turnings were used as catalyst, reducing the copper load of the reaction mixture and avoiding complexing agents. For oligonucleotide building block synthesis, a protecting group strategy was developed for 2'-O-propargyl-2-aminoadenosine owing to the rather different reactivities of the two amino groups. Phosphoramidites were synthesized bearing clickable 2'-O-propargyl residues (14 and 18) as well as a 2'-deoxyribofuranosyl residue (10). Hybridization experiments of non-cross-linked oligonucleotides with 2,6-diaminopurine as nucleobase showed no significant thermal stability changes over those containing adenine. Surprisingly, an isobutyryl group protecting the 2-amino function has no negative impact on the stability of DNA-DNA and DNA-RNA duplexes. Oligonucleotide duplexes with cross-linked 2'-O-propargylated 2-aminoadenosine (1) and 2'-O-propargylated adenosine (3) at terminal positions are significantly stabilized (ΔT(m) = +29 °C). The stability results from a molecularity change from duplex to hairpin melting and is influenced by the ligation position. Terminal ligation led to higher melting duplexes than corresponding hairpins, while duplexes with central ligation sites were less stable.

  16. The Ion Wakefield Inside a Glass Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mudi; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-10-01

    The formation of an ion wakefield downstream of dust particles in a complex plasma sheath has long been understood to have strong implications on their structure, stability and dynamics . The presence of the ion wake introduces interesting phenomena such as charge reduction on downstream particles and asymmetric interaction forces between upstream and downstream particles. Many of the self-ordered dust particle structures observed in complex plasma experiments are the result of the combination of the ion-wakefield and the external confinement; unfortunately, few experimental measurements isolating the effect of the wakefield have been conducted. In this experiment, 1-D dust particle structures (i.e., vertically aligned particle chains) are formed in a GEC RF reference cell within a glass box sitting on the powered lower electrode. A diode pumped, solid-state laser is used to perturb individual particles within the particle chain, allowing a map of the ion wakefield inside the glass box to be generated. The implications of these results will be discussed. NSF / DOE funding is gratefully acknowledged - PHY1414523 & PHY1262031.

  17. The lithium vapor box divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-01-13

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Our recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. Furthermore, at the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required in order to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  18. The lithium vapor box divertor

    DOE PAGES

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-01-13

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Our recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al asmore » well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. Furthermore, at the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required in order to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.« less

  19. ROSAT X-Ray Observation of the Second Error Box for SGR 1900+14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, P.; Hurley, K.; Vrba, F.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Kulkarni, S.; Frail, D.

    1997-01-01

    The positions of the two error boxes for the soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1900+14 were determined by the "network synthesis" method, which employs observations by the Ulysses gamma-ray burst and CGRO BATSE instruments. The location of the first error box has been observed at optical, infrared, and X-ray wavelengths, resulting in the discovery of a ROSAT X-ray point source and a curious double infrared source. We have recently used the ROSAT HRI to observe the second error box to complete the counterpart search. A total of six X-ray sources were identified within the field of view. None of them falls within the network synthesis error box, and a 3 sigma upper limit to any X-ray counterpart was estimated to be 6.35 x 10(exp -14) ergs/sq cm/s. The closest source is approximately 3 min. away, and has an estimated unabsorbed flux of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) ergs/sq cm/s. Unlike the first error box, there is no supernova remnant near the second error box. The closest one, G43.9+1.6, lies approximately 2.dg6 away. For these reasons, we believe that the first error box is more likely to be the correct one.

  20. Classical three-box 'paradox'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, K. A.

    2003-05-01

    A simple classical probabilistic system (a simple card game) classically exemplifies Aharonov and Vaidman's 'three-box 'paradox'' (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 2315), implying that the three-box example is neither quantal nor a paradox and leaving one with less difficulty to busy the interpreters of quantum mechanics. An ambiguity in the usual expression of the retrodiction formula is shown to have misled Albert et al (1985 Phys. Rev. Lett. 54 5) to a result not, in fact, 'curious'; the discussion illustrates how to avoid this ambiguity.

  1. Aminolysis of polyethylene terephthalate surface along with in situ synthesis and stabilizing ZnO nanoparticles using triethanolamine optimized with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Poortavasoly, Hajar; Montazer, Majid; Harifi, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This research concerned the simultaneous polyester surface modification and synthesis of zinc oxide nano-reactors to develop durable photo-bio-active fabric with variable hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity under sunlight. For this purpose, triethanolamine (TEA) was applied as a stabilizer and pH adjusting chemical for the aminolysis of polyester surface and enhancing the surface reactivity along with synthesis and deposition of ZnO nanoparticles on the fabric. Therefore, TEA played a crucial role in providing the alkaline condition for the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and acting as stabilizer controlling the size of the prepared nanoparticles. The stain-photodegradability regarded as self-cleaning efficiency, wettability and weight change under the process was optimized based on zinc acetate and TEA concentrations, using central composite design (CCD). Findings also suggested the potential of the prepared fabric in inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria growth with greater than 99.99% antibacterial efficiency. Besides, the proposed treatment had no detrimental effect on tensile strength and hand feeling of the polyester fabric.

  2. Synthesis of acid-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles and comparison for targeting atherosclerotic plaques: evaluation by MRI, quantitative MPS, and TEM alternative to ambiguous Prussian blue iron staining.

    PubMed

    Scharlach, Constantin; Kratz, Harald; Wiekhorst, Frank; Warmuth, Carsten; Schnorr, Jörg; Genter, Gesche; Ebert, Monika; Mueller, Susanne; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2015-07-01

    To further optimize citrate-stabilized VSOPs (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) for identification of atherosclerotic plaques, we modified their surface during synthesis using eight other acids for electrostatic stabilization. This approach preserves effective production for clinical application. Five particles were suitable to be investigated in targeting plaques of apoE(-/-) mice. Accumulation was evaluated by ex vivo MRI, TEM, and quantitatively by magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS). Citric- (VSOP), etidronic-, tartaric-, and malic-acid-coated particles accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques with highest accumulation for VSOP (0.2‰ of injected dose). Targets were phagolysosomes of macrophages and of altered endothelial cells. In vivo MRI with VSOP allowed for definite plaque identification. Prussian blue staining revealed abundant endogenous iron in plaques, indistinguishable from particle iron. In apoE(-/-) mice, VSOPs are still the best anionic iron oxide particles for imaging atherosclerotic plaques. MPS allows for quantification of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in such small specimens. The presence of vulnerable plaques in arteries is important for the prediction of acute coronary events. VSOP (very small iron oxide particles, developed for MR angiography) have been shown to be very sensitive in identifying atherosclerotic plaques. The authors studied here further modification to the surface of VSOP during synthesis and compared their efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Dopant Metal Variation and Material Synthesis Method on the Material Properties of Mixed Metal Ferrites in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production

    DOE PAGES

    Leonard, Jeffrey; Reyes, Nichole; Allen, Kyle M.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Mixed metal ferrites have shown much promise in two-step solar-thermochemical fuel production. Previous work has typically focused on evaluating a particular metal ferrite produced by a particular synthesis process, which makes comparisons between studies performed by independent researchers difficult. A comparative study was undertaken to explore the effects different synthesis methods have on the performance of a particular material during redox cycling using thermogravimetry. This study revealed that materials made via wet chemistry methods and extended periods of high temperature calcination yield better redox performance. Differences in redox performance between materials made via wet chemistry methods were minimal andmore » these demonstrated much better performance than those synthesized via the solid state method. Subsequently, various metal ferrite samples (NiFe 2 O 4 , MgFe 2 O 4 , CoFe 2 O 4 , and MnFe 2 O 4 ) in yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) were synthesized via coprecipitation and tested to determine the most promising metal ferrite combination. It was determined that 10 wt.% CoFe 2 O 4 in 8YSZ produced the highest and most consistent yields of O 2 and CO. By testing the effects of synthesis methods and dopants in a consistent fashion, those aspects of ferrite preparation which are most significant can be revealed. More importantly, these insights can guide future efforts in developing the next generation of thermochemical fuel production materials.« less

  4. Influence of stabilizing agent and synthesis temperature on the optical properties of silver nanoparticles as active materials in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudin, Lufsyi; Suharyadi, Edi; Utomo, Agung Bambang Setio; Abraha, Kamsul

    2016-04-01

    It has been successfully carried out the synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as metal precursors and trisodium citrate as the reducing agent. In the synthesis process, were varied the stabilizing agent of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and heating temperature. The formation of silver nanoparticles was observed visually with discoloration (yellowish). The formation and the structure of silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution were further examined through their optical properties by using a UV-Vis spectrometer. The wavelength absorption spectrum of colloidal silver nanoparticles shows that maximum surface plasmon absorption for the trisodium citrate-synthesized nanoparticles was at 429.43 nm for temperature of 90°C. The addition of the stabilizer sharpened spectrum curves and caused red shift in the maximum absorption peak of 429.01 nm and 427.09 nm for PVA and PVP respectively. Meanwhile, the addition of the synthesis temperature also sharpened the maximum surface plasmon absorption band and the red shift the maximum absorption peak of 428.79 nm and 428.58 nm for temperature of 110°C and 120°C respectively. Red shift of the maximum absorption peak indicates a smaller particle size. The maximum surface plasmon absorption band in the range of 427.09 nm to 429.43 nm indicates the presence of spherical or roughly spherical silver nanoparticles and TEM imaging confirmed this shape. TEM imaging results show that the diameter size of the silver nanoparticles range of 10 nm to 60 nm as well as the morphology (crystallites) of silver nanoparticles have spherical geometry with particle distribution which quite dispersive. The dispersibility of nanoparticles such as this could potentially be used as an active material of SPR biosensor.

  5. Methionine Biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus Is Tightly Controlled by a Hierarchical Network Involving an Initiator tRNA-Specific T-box Riboswitch

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfelder, Sonja M. K.; Marincola, Gabriella; Geiger, Tobias; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane; Ziebuhr, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    In line with the key role of methionine in protein biosynthesis initiation and many cellular processes most microorganisms have evolved mechanisms to synthesize methionine de novo. Here we demonstrate that, in the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, a rare combination of stringent response-controlled CodY activity, T-box riboswitch and mRNA decay mechanisms regulate the synthesis and stability of methionine biosynthesis metICFE-mdh mRNA. In contrast to other Bacillales which employ S-box riboswitches to control methionine biosynthesis, the S. aureus metICFE-mdh mRNA is preceded by a 5′-untranslated met leader RNA harboring a T-box riboswitch. Interestingly, this T-box riboswitch is revealed to specifically interact with uncharged initiator formylmethionyl-tRNA (tRNAi fMet) while binding of elongator tRNAMet proved to be weak, suggesting a putative additional function of the system in translation initiation control. met leader RNA/metICFE-mdh operon expression is under the control of the repressor CodY which binds upstream of the met leader RNA promoter. As part of the metabolic emergency circuit of the stringent response, methionine depletion activates RelA-dependent (p)ppGpp alarmone synthesis, releasing CodY from its binding site and thereby activating the met leader promoter. Our data further suggest that subsequent steps in metICFE-mdh transcription are tightly controlled by the 5′ met leader-associated T-box riboswitch which mediates premature transcription termination when methionine is present. If methionine supply is limited, and hence tRNAi fMet becomes uncharged, full-length met leader/metICFE-mdh mRNA is transcribed which is rapidly degraded by nucleases involving RNase J2. Together, the data demonstrate that staphylococci have evolved special mechanisms to prevent the accumulation of excess methionine. We hypothesize that this strict control might reflect the limited metabolic capacities of staphylococci to reuse methionine as, other than

  6. Methionine biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is tightly controlled by a hierarchical network involving an initiator tRNA-specific T-box riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Sonja M K; Marincola, Gabriella; Geiger, Tobias; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane; Ziebuhr, Wilma

    2013-09-01

    In line with the key role of methionine in protein biosynthesis initiation and many cellular processes most microorganisms have evolved mechanisms to synthesize methionine de novo. Here we demonstrate that, in the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, a rare combination of stringent response-controlled CodY activity, T-box riboswitch and mRNA decay mechanisms regulate the synthesis and stability of methionine biosynthesis metICFE-mdh mRNA. In contrast to other Bacillales which employ S-box riboswitches to control methionine biosynthesis, the S. aureus metICFE-mdh mRNA is preceded by a 5'-untranslated met leader RNA harboring a T-box riboswitch. Interestingly, this T-box riboswitch is revealed to specifically interact with uncharged initiator formylmethionyl-tRNA (tRNAi(fMet)) while binding of elongator tRNA(Met) proved to be weak, suggesting a putative additional function of the system in translation initiation control. met leader RNA/metICFE-mdh operon expression is under the control of the repressor CodY which binds upstream of the met leader RNA promoter. As part of the metabolic emergency circuit of the stringent response, methionine depletion activates RelA-dependent (p)ppGpp alarmone synthesis, releasing CodY from its binding site and thereby activating the met leader promoter. Our data further suggest that subsequent steps in metICFE-mdh transcription are tightly controlled by the 5' met leader-associated T-box riboswitch which mediates premature transcription termination when methionine is present. If methionine supply is limited, and hence tRNAi(fMet) becomes uncharged, full-length met leader/metICFE-mdh mRNA is transcribed which is rapidly degraded by nucleases involving RNase J2. Together, the data demonstrate that staphylococci have evolved special mechanisms to prevent the accumulation of excess methionine. We hypothesize that this strict control might reflect the limited metabolic capacities of staphylococci to reuse methionine as, other than

  7. NETL's JIC in a box

    ScienceCinema

    David Anna

    2016-07-12

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  8. The Bird Box Survey Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  9. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  10. Expo-Box Contact Us

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  11. Black Boxes in Workplace Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Wake, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    We ground Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) in studies of workplace practices from a mathematical point of view. We draw on multiple case study visits by college students and teacher-researchers to workplaces. By asking questions that "open boxes", we "outsiders and boundary-crossers" sought to expose contradictions between College and…

  12. NETL's JIC in a box

    SciTech Connect

    David Anna

    2009-06-03

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  13. Breaking Out of the Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spady, William G.

    2000-01-01

    Deplores inconsistencies between the realities of today's technologically driven, information-age world and the static, constraining boxes in which state-initiated, accountability- focused reforms hold American education. We must reconceptualize schooling, curriculum content, time, grade levels, and achievement to allow more informal,…

  14. The Bird Box Survey Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  15. Black Boxes in Workplace Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Wake, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    We ground Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) in studies of workplace practices from a mathematical point of view. We draw on multiple case study visits by college students and teacher-researchers to workplaces. By asking questions that "open boxes", we "outsiders and boundary-crossers" sought to expose contradictions between College and…

  16. Looking into the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellman, Amy

    2011-01-01

    In these remarks, the author shares some comments that not only encapsulate the individual research presentations but also help provide some context with regard to the theme for the session titled "Into the Black Box: Linking Process and Outcomes in Experiential Education," and what these papers collectively contribute to experiential education…

  17. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  18. EPA-Expo-Box Terminology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases,

  19. The Cereal Box Problem Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the cereal box problem using both an experimental and theoretical framework, and Monte Carlo methods. Using empirical data, students can discover patterns and relationships that help them understand the origin of the theoretical solution to the problem. Contains 17 references. (Author/ASK)

  20. Evaluation of bike boxes at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Dill, Jennifer; Monsere, Christopher M; McNeil, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a before-after study of bike boxes at 10 signalized intersections in Portland, Oregon. The bike boxes, also known as advanced stop lines or advanced stop boxes, were installed to increase visibility of cyclists and reduce conflicts between motor vehicles and cyclists, particularly in potential "right-hook" situations. Before and after video were analyzed for seven intersections with green bike boxes, three intersections with uncolored bike boxes, and two control intersections. User perceptions were measured through surveys of cyclists passing through five of the bike box intersections and of motorists working downtown, where the boxes were concentrated. Both the observations and survey of motorists found a high rate of compliance and understanding of the markings. Overall, 73% of the stopping motor vehicles did not encroach at all into the bike box. Both motor vehicle and bicycle encroachment in the pedestrian crosswalk fell significantly at the bike box locations compared to the control intersections. The bike boxes had mixed effects on the motorists' encroachment in the bicycle lane. The number of observed conflicts at the bike box locations decreased, while the total number of cyclists and motor vehicles turning right increased. Negative-binomial models based upon the data predict fewer conflicts with the boxes, particularly as right-turning motor vehicle volumes increase. Observations of yielding behavior at two bike box and one control intersection found an improvement in motorists yielding to cyclists at the bike box locations. Differences in the traffic volumes and location contexts make firm conclusions about the effects of green coloring of the boxes difficult. Higher shares of surveyed motorists felt that the bike boxes made driving safer rather than more dangerous, even when the sample was narrowed to respondents who were not also cyclists. Over three-quarters of the surveyed cyclists thought that the boxes made the intersection safer

  1. Sulfonated amphiphilic block copolymers : synthesis, self-assembly in water, and application as stabilizer in emulsion polymerization

    Treesearch

    Jiguang Zhang; Matthew R. Dubay; Carl J. Houtman; Steven J. Severtson

    2009-01-01

    Described is the synthesis of diblock copolymers generated via sequential atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) followed by chain augmentation with either sulfonated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) or poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) blocks. ATRP of PHEMA or PHEA from PnBA macroinitiator was conducted in acetone/...

  2. Effects of Gold Salt Speciation and Structure of Human and Bovine Serum Albumins on the Synthesis and Stability of Gold Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Érica G. A.; Tofanello, Aryane; Brito, Adrianne M. M.; Lopes, David M.; Albuquerque, Lindomar J. C.; de Castro, Carlos E.; Costa, Fanny N.; Giacomelli, Fernando C.; Ferreira, Fabio F.; Araújo-Chaves, Juliana C.; Nantes, Iseli L.

    2016-01-01

    the gold surface. Therefore, the cysteine side chain of albumins is important for the colloidal stabilization of GNPs rather than as the reducing agent for the synthesis. Despite the presence of more reactive gold species at more acidic pH values, i.e., below 6.0, in these conditions the loss of native albumin structure impaired GNP synthesis. Alkaline pH values (9–12) combined the unfavorable conditions of denaturated protein structure with less reactive gold species. Therefore, an optimal condition for the synthesis of GNPs using serum albumins involves more reactive gold salt species combined with a reducing and negatively charged form of the protein, all favored at pH 6–7. PMID:27066476

  3. Effects of Gold Salt Speciation and Structure of Human and Bovine Serum Albumins on the Synthesis and Stability of Gold Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Érica G A; Tofanello, Aryane; Brito, Adrianne M M; Lopes, David M; Albuquerque, Lindomar J C; de Castro, Carlos E; Costa, Fanny N; Giacomelli, Fernando C; Ferreira, Fabio F; Araújo-Chaves, Juliana C; Nantes, Iseli L

    2016-01-01

    gold surface. Therefore, the cysteine side chain of albumins is important for the colloidal stabilization of GNPs rather than as the reducing agent for the synthesis. Despite the presence of more reactive gold species at more acidic pH values, i.e., below 6.0, in these conditions the loss of native albumin structure impaired GNP synthesis. Alkaline pH values (9-12) combined the unfavorable conditions of denaturated protein structure with less reactive gold species. Therefore, an optimal condition for the synthesis of GNPs using serum albumins involves more reactive gold salt species combined with a reducing and negatively charged form of the protein, all favored at pH 6-7.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods in the presence of sodium citrate and its aqueous colloidal stability evaluation in neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoying; Zhuang, Jiangzhou; Zhang, Zhi; Guo, Huiling; Tan, Junjun

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, colloidal hydrophilic hydroxyapatite nanorods were synthesized in the presence of sodium citrate via thermal-decomplexing method. The influence of sodium citrate/Ca ions molar ratio (CT/CM) on the synthesis of HA nanorods was characterized in term of structure, size, morphology, and colloidal stability through TEM, XRD, Zeta potential, DLS and long-term standing test. The results show that increasing CT/CM would evidently facilitate high aspect ratio and enhance colloidal stability of nanorods. When the CT/CM is above 1/3, well crystallized HA nanorods with mean aspect ratio up to 5 would be obtained and kept colloidally stable for over two months in neutral pH (7.3-7.5). The origin responding to the results is that increasing CT/CM would enhance the inhibiting growth effect of sodium citrate and increasing absorption density of citrate ions on the particle surface. This work provides new insights into the role of citrate on both the crystallization and tailoring of colloidal stability. Moreover, the synthesized HA nanorods are promising materials for use as carriers for local targeted drug delivery systems as well as building blocks for the preparation of nanostructured scaffolds for cells in bone tissue engineering.

  5. Comparing three methods of simultaneous synthesis and stabilization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles: Changing physicochemical properties of products to improve kinetic and thermodynamic of dye adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhshaee, Roohan; Noorani, Yasaman

    2017-01-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles (FNPs) were synthesized by conventional heating (CH), co-precipitation (CP) and microwave heating (MH) methods in presence of pectin crosslinked by β-isopropylglutaric acid (-CP) to stabilize nanoparticles. The role of the cross-linked pectin and kinds of synthesis methods was appeared to increase the effective total surface of FNPs both simultaneously as the synergistic effects and separately. The effective role of the microwave irradiation to decrease FNPs mean size was seen, so that its size in FMH was smaller 21.5% and 38.2% than that of FCP and FCH, and in FMH-CP was smaller 27.2% and 58.9% than that of FCP-CP and FCH-CP, respectively. The various experiments were done on the structures, functional groups, and connection quantities of -CP to FNPs synthesized by CH, CP and MH methods. The different physical properties of the obtained composites containing magnetization, zeta potential and thermal analyses were determined. To study the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from the aqueous and alkali solution, the role Fe-O- groups of FNPs was evaluated more effective than the role of -COO- and -O- of -CP in the stabilized nanoparticles. Fe3O4 NPs stabilized by -CP using microwave heating showed the highest capacity of MB adsorption due to having the most suitable thermodynamic and kinetic parameters.

  6. Synthesis, morphological control, dispersion stabilization and in situ self-assembly of noble metal nanostructures using multidentate resorcinarene surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sangbum

    In this dissertation, a detailed investigation on the influence of various macrocyclic resorcinarene surfactants in determining the morphology, stabilization and self-assembly of mono- and bi- metallic nanoparticles was undertaken. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  7. Synthesis of solvent-stabilized colloidal nanoparticles of platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium by microwave-polyol process.

    PubMed

    He, Baolin; Chen, Yixian; Liu, Hanfan; Liu, Yuan

    2005-02-01

    Solvent-stabilized Pt, Rh, and Ru colloidal nanoparticles were synthesized by a microwave-polyol process. They were characterized by TEM and XPS, XRD, and UV-vis examination. These colloids have small particle sizes with narrow size distribution, and they were stable in glycol upon storage under ambient condition for months. Separation and XPS characterization of the intermediate colloids demonstrated the two-step mechanism for the formation of solvent-stabilized metal colloids via hydrolysis.

  8. [The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design.

  9. Total Radiosynthesis: Thinking outside "the box".

    PubMed

    Liang, Steven H; Vasdev, Neil

    2015-09-01

    The logic of total synthesis transformed a stagnant state of medicinal and synthetic organic chemistry when there was a paucity of methods and reagents to synthesize drug molecules and/or natural products. Molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) is now experiencing a renaissance in the way radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging are synthesized, however, a paradigm shift is desperately needed in the discovery pipeline to accelerate in vivo imaging studies. A significant challenge in radiochemistry is the limited choice of labeled reagents (or building blocks) available for the synthesis of novel radiopharmaceuticals with the most commonly used short-lived radionuclides carbon-11 ((11)C; half-life ~20 minutes) and fluorine-18 ((18)F; half-life ~2 hours). In fact, most drugs cannot be labeled with (11)C or (18)F due to a lack of efficient and diverse radiosynthetic methods. In general, routine radiopharmaceutical production relies on the incorporation of the isotope at the last or penultimate step of synthesis, ideally within one half-life of the radionuclide, to maximize radiochemical yields and specific activities thereby reducing losses due to radioactive decay. Reliance on radiochemistry conducted within the constraints of an automated synthesis unit ("box") has stifled the exploration of multi-step reactions with short-lived radionuclides. Radiopharmaceutical synthesis can be transformed by considering logic of total synthesis to develop novel approaches for (11)C- and (18)F-radiolabeling complex molecules via retrosynthetic analysis and multi-step reactions. As a result of such exploration, new methods, reagents and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo imaging studies are discovered. A new avenue to develop radiotracers that were previously unattainable due to the lack of efficient radiosynthetic methods is necessary to work towards our ultimate, albeit impossible goal - the concept we term total radiosynthesis - to radiolabel virtually any

  10. Glove box for water pit applications

    DOEpatents

    Mills, William C.; Rabe, Richard A.

    2005-01-18

    A glove box assembly that includes a glove box enclosure attached to a longitudinally extending hollow tube having an entranceway, wherein the portion of the tube is in a liquid environment. An elevator member is provided for raising an object that is introduced into the hollow tube from the liquid environment to a gas environment inside the glove box enclosure while maintaining total containment.

  11. The Guide to the Ecology Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    Cooperating with the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education has prepared boxes of experimental curriculum materials on the subject of ecology. This guide summarizes the design and contents of the boxes and provides instructions for those using the boxes--principals, teachers, parents, librarians, and…

  12. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  13. The Guide to the Ecology Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    Cooperating with the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education has prepared boxes of experimental curriculum materials on the subject of ecology. This guide summarizes the design and contents of the boxes and provides instructions for those using the boxes--principals, teachers, parents, librarians, and…

  14. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  15. One-step synthesis of Ag/AgCl/GO composite: A photocatalyst of extraordinary photoactivity and stability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Deng, Jiatao; Niu, Tongjun; Zheng, Gang; Zhang, Pei; Jin, Yong; Jiao, Zhifeng; Sun, Xiaosong

    2017-05-01

    Recently, the photocatalytic applications of silver chloride have been paid closed attention for the excellent ability to photodegrade organic pollutants. Comparing with other catalysts, the silver chloride presents outstanding photocatalytic activity. However, it also suffers from the poor photocatalytic stability. This very paper is focusing on the one-step wet chemical process of preparing Ag/AgCl/GO photocatalyst with high photocatalytic activity and stability. The detailed characterizations were particularly carried out in order to investigate the photo-catalytic activity and stability. Meanwhile the morphology, chemical composition as well as crystalline structure were investigated. It is found that the as-prepared Ag/AgCl/GO composite exhibited an ultrahigh photocatalytic activity and stability in the process of photodegrading RhB. The unique catalytic activity has been discussed based on the SPR effect in Ag nanoparticles on AgCl surface and the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs, the primary benefit of the stability owes a great deal to GO which can capture the photo-generated electrons in case they reduce Ag(+) ion or recombine the excited holes.

  16. Stabilizer effects on the synthesis of gold-containing microparticles. Application to the liquid phase oxidation of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Gil, Sonia; Jiménez-Borja, Carmen; Martin-Campo, J; Romero, Amaya; Valverde, José Luis; Sánchez-Silva, Luz

    2014-10-01

    Gold-containing poly(urea-formaldehyde) microparticles were prepared by the in situ polymerization method using a series of stabilization agents with different chemical nature. The effects of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC) on the morphology, the particle size of encapsulated gold, the gold particle size distribution and the encapsulation efficiency were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption analyses. The chemical nature of stabilizer had a marked influence on both the encapsulated gold particle size and the encapsulation efficiency. Both gold particle size and gold encapsulation efficiency increased when decreasing the stabilizer polarity number. All the microparticles here prepared were tested in the liquid phase selective oxidation of glycerol. The glycerol conversion increased and the glyceric acid selectivity decreased when decreasing gold particle sizes. Results showed that use of stabilizers with hydrophobic surfaces enhanced the selectivity to C3 products in the resulting catalysts. On the other hand, the use of stabilizers with hydrophilic surfaces increased the C-C bond cleavage products in the resulting catalysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of an effective bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate (ATMP-FA) and optimization by Box-Behnken model for biodiesel esterification synthesis of oleic acid over ATMP-FA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Qu, Rongjun

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production has become an intense research area because of rapidly depleting energy reserves and increasing petroleum prices together with environmental concerns. This paper focused on the optimization of the catalytic performance in the esterification reaction of oleic acid for biodiesel production over the bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate ATMP-FA. The reaction parameters including catalyst amount, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio and reaction temperature have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using the Box-Behnken model. It was found that the reaction temperature was the most significant factor, and the best conversion ratio of oleic acid could reach 93.17% under the reaction conditions with 9.53% of catalyst amount and 8.62:1 of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio at 91.0 °C. The research results show that two catalytic species could work cooperatively to promote the esterification reaction, and the bifunctional ATMP-FA is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production.

  18. Illumination box and camera system

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  19. MELFI-3 Cold Box inspection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-13

    ISS043e000724 (03/13/2015) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti, Expedition 43 flight engineer works daily on science and maintenance duties on board the International Space Station. She is inspecting the Minus Eighty-degree Laboratory Freezer called by the shorter title "MELFI-3 Cold Box inspection". Astronauts are trained for long periods at the Johnson Space Center and in Russia before their missions in space begin so that they are fully trained for these complex duties.

  20. DEAD-Box Helicase Proteins Disrupt RNA Tertiary Structure Through Helix Capture

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cynthia; Potratz, Jeffrey P.; Cannon, Brian; Simpson, Zachary B.; Ziehr, Jessica L.; Tijerina, Pilar; Russell, Rick

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box helicase proteins accelerate folding and rearrangements of highly structured RNAs and RNA–protein complexes (RNPs) in many essential cellular processes. Although DEAD-box proteins have been shown to use ATP to unwind short RNA helices, it is not known how they disrupt RNA tertiary structure. Here, we use single molecule fluorescence to show that the DEAD-box protein CYT-19 disrupts tertiary structure in a group I intron using a helix capture mechanism. CYT-19 binds to a helix within the structured RNA only after the helix spontaneously loses its tertiary contacts, and then CYT-19 uses ATP to unwind the helix, liberating the product strands. Ded1, a multifunctional yeast DEAD-box protein, gives analogous results with small but reproducible differences that may reflect its in vivo roles. The requirement for spontaneous dynamics likely targets DEAD-box proteins toward less stable RNA structures, which are likely to experience greater dynamic fluctuations, and provides a satisfying explanation for previous correlations between RNA stability and CYT-19 unfolding efficiency. Biologically, the ability to sense RNA stability probably biases DEAD-box proteins to act preferentially on less stable misfolded structures and thereby to promote native folding while minimizing spurious interactions with stable, natively folded RNAs. In addition, this straightforward mechanism for RNA remodeling does not require any specific structural environment of the helicase core and is likely to be relevant for DEAD-box proteins that promote RNA rearrangements of RNP complexes including the spliceosome and ribosome. PMID:25350280

  1. Synthesis, properties and formation of (RCp)Co- and (RCp)Rh-stabilized[4.8]3cyclacene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kornmayer, Stefan C; Hellbach, Björn; Rominger, Frank; Gleiter, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Metal-stabilized belts: A torus, 3, consisting of three four- and three eight-membered conjugated rings and stabilized by (RCp)Co- and (RCp)Rh- units, was generated by irradiation of [(RCp)Co(CO)(2)] and [(RCp)Rh(C(2)H(4))(2)], respectively, and 1.Eleven metal stabilized [4.8](3)cyclacene derivatives were synthesized. The substances were prepared in one-pot reactions by irradiation of a solution of 5,6,11,12-tetradehydro-dibenzo[a,e]cyclooctatetraene and the corresponding cobalt reagents or rhodium compounds. The resulting cyclacene derivatives reveal D(3h) symmetry in solution. In the solid state the hoop shaped systems crystallize in layers, which are intercalated with solvent layers. To unravel the mechanism of the one-pot reaction we isolated an intermediate, which shows almost planar cyclooctatetraene rings.

  2. Delay-dependent anti-windup synthesis for stability of constrained state delay systems using pole-constraints.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abrar; Rehan, Muhammad; Iqbal, Naeem

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes the design of anti-windup compensator gain for stability of actuator input constrained state delay systems using constrained pole-position of the closed-loop. Based on Delay-Dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and local sector conditions, a new LMI characterization is derived that ensures closed-loop asymptotic stability of constrained state delay systems while accounting upper bound fixed state delay and largest lower bound of the system's pole-position in the formulation of anti-windup gain. Besides, at saturation, the method significantly nullifies the inherent slow dynamics present in the system. It is shown in the comparative numerical examples that the LMI formulation draws stability with improved time-domain performance. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chiao holds an Electronic Box Assembly from the TVIS in the SM during Expedition 10

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-02-17

    ISS010-E-18164 (17 February 2005) --- Astronaut Leroy Chiao, Expedition 10 commander and NASA ISS science officer, holds an Electronic Box Assembly, and Violation Isolation and Stabilization (VIS) Controller Assembly, which is part of the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS). Also in view is a VIS/TM data cable and VIS/TM power cable. This box receives power and distributes it between the treadmill and the VIS subassemblies.

  4. Synthesis and controllable oxidation of monodisperse cobalt-doped wüstite nanoparticles and their core-shell stability and exchange-bias stabilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Kamali, Saeed; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2015-09-14

    Cobalt-doped wüstite (CWT), Co0.33Fe0.67O, nanoparticles were prepared via the thermal decomposition of CoFe2-oleate complexes in organic solvents. A controllable oxidation process was then performed to obtain Co0.33Fe0.67O/CoFe2O4 core-shell structures with different core-to-shell volume ratios and exchange bias properties. The oxidized core-shell samples with a ∼4 nm CoFe2O4 shell showed good resistance to oxygen transmission. Thus, it is inferred that the cobalt ferrite shell provides a better oxidation barrier performance than magnetite in the un-doped case. The hysteresis loops of the oxidized 19 nm samples exhibited a high exchange bias field (H(E)), an enhanced coercivity field (H(C)), and a pronounced vertical shift, thus indicating the presence of a strong exchange bias coupling effect. More importantly, the onset temperature of H(E) was found to be higher than 200 K, which suggests that cobalt doping increases the Néel temperature (T(N)) of the CWT core. In general, the results show that the homogeneous dispersion of Co in iron precursors improves the stability of the final CWT nanoparticles. Moreover, the CoFe2O4 shells formed following oxidation increase the oxidation resistance of the CWT cores and enhance their anisotropy energy.

  5. Synthesis and studies on the effect of 2-thiouridine and 4-thiouridine on sugar conformation and RNA duplex stability.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R K; Davis, D R

    1997-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of 2-thiouridine (s2U) substitution on RNA structure and the potential for stabilization of tRNA codon-anticodon interactions through s2U-34 modification, a pentamer RNA sequence, Gs2UUUC, was synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The single strand contains the UUU anticodon sequence of tRNALys with flanking GCs to increase duplex stability. Regiochemical effects of uridine thiolation were determined by comparing the structure and stability of the 2-thiouridine containing oligonucleotide with an identical sequence containing 4-thiouridine (s4U) and also the normal uridine nucleoside. Circular dichroism spectrum indicated an A-form helical conformation for Gs2UUUC which was further confirmed by 2D ROESY NMR experiments. The duplex stability of the three pentamers complexed with a 2'-O-methyl-ribonucleotide complementary strand, GmAmAmAmCm, was determined by UV thermal melting studies and by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The duplex containing s2U has a T m of 30.7 degrees C compared to 19. 0 degrees C for the unmodified control and 14.5 degrees C for the s4U containing duplex. The results from UV experiments were corroborated by imino proton NMR studies that show proton exchange rates, chemical shift differences, and NH proton linewidths indicative of the stability order s2U >U >s4U. The magnitude of the effect of s2U in our model system is comparable to the 20 degrees C stabilization observed by Grosjean and co-workers for 2-thiolation in a codon-anticodon model system composed of two tRNAs with complementary anticodon sequences [Houssier, C., Degee, P., Nicoghosian, K. and Grosjean, H. (1988) J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn., 5, 1259-1266]. PMID:9092639

  6. Citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The role of citrate moieties anchored to the Q-CdSe surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingole, Pravin P.; Bhat, Mohsin A.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we try to explore a new dimension/role for citrate molecules in the bound state, i.e. anchored to the surface of cadmium selenide quantum dots (Q-CdSe), in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). Being labile, the citrate molecule is considered a good candidate for the stabilization of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as Q-CdSe that can be used for further functionalization/modification of the surface properties of the QDs. In its free/ionic form (i.e. not bound to the surface), it is well known for its role as a reducing as well as a capping agent in the synthesis of silver and gold MNPs. A simple strategy for the preparation of silver MNPs following the chemical reduction of silver ions that is mediated by citrate-stabilized Q-CdSe seeds without addition of an external reducing agent is presented. The citrate moieties anchored to the surface of Q-CdSe are found to play an important role in the chemical reduction of silver ions. The obtained product was analysed by spectroscopic, microscopic and structural characterization techniques such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The characteristic redox behaviour observed in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) also supports the formation of Ag MNPs in the samples. Further, the impact of the reaction solution pH on the feasibility of silver ion reduction by Q-CdSe seeds resulting into the formation of Ag MNPs is also briefly discussed.

  7. Poly(ethylene glycol)- and carboxylate-functionalized gold nanoparticles using polymer linkages: single-step synthesis, high stability, and plasmonic detection of proteins.

    PubMed

    Park, Garam; Seo, Daeha; Chung, Im Sik; Song, Hyunjoon

    2013-11-05

    Gold nanoparticles with suitable surface functionalities have been widely used as a versatile nanobioplatform. However, functionalized gold nanoparticles using thiol-terminated ligands have a tendency to aggregate, particularly in many enzymatic reaction buffers containing biological thiols, because of ligand exchange reactions. In the present study, we developed a one-step synthesis of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated gold nanoparticles using poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) in PEG as a polyol solvent. Because of the chelate effect of polymeric functionalities on the gold surface, the resulting PEGylated gold nanoparticles (Au@P-PEG) are very stable under the extreme conditions at which the thiol-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles are easily coagulated. Using the solvent mixture of PEG and ethylene glycol (EG) and subsequent hydrolysis, gold nanoparticles bearing mixed functionalities of PEG and carboxylate are generated. The resulting particles exhibit selective adsorption of positively charged chymotrypsin (ChT) without nonselective adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The present nanoparticle system has many advantages, including high stability, simple one-step synthesis, biocompatibility, and excellent binding specificity; thus, this system can be used as a versatile platform for potential bio-related applications, such as separation, sensing, imaging, and assays.

  8. Development of ultrafine multichannel microfluidic mixer for synthesis of bimetallic nanoclusters: catalytic application of highly monodisperse AuPd nanoclusters stabilized by poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Naoto; Sakai, Yuka; Tsunoyama, Hironori; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-09-02

    On account of their novel properties, bimetallic nanoparticles and nanoclusters (NCs) are strong potential candidates for optical, magnetic, and catalytic functional materials. These properties depend on the chemical composition and size (number of constituent atoms) of the NCs. Control of size, structure, and composition is particularly important for fabricating highly functional materials based on bimetallic NCs. Size- and structure-controlled synthesis of two-element alloys can reveal their intrinsic electronic synergistic effects. However, because synergistic enhancement of activity is strongly affected by composition as well as by size and structure, controlled synthesis is a challenging task, particularly in catalytic applications. To investigate catalytic synergistic effects, we have synthesized highly monodisperse, sub-2 nm, solid-solution AuPd NCs stabilized with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (AuPd:PVP) using a newly developed ultrafine microfluidic mixing device with 15 μm wide multiple lamination channels. The synergistic enhancement for catalytic aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol exhibited a volcano-shaped trend, with a maximum at 20-65 at. % Pd. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements, we confirmed that the enhanced activity originates from the enhanced electron density at the Au sites, donated by Pd sites.

  9. Plasticity of archaeal C/D box sRNA biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Vanessa; Martin, Roman; Orell, Alvaro; Alkhnbashi, Omer S; Backofen, Rolf; Randau, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Archaeal and eukaryotic organisms contain sets of C/D box s(no)RNAs with guide sequences that determine ribose 2'-O-methylation sites of target RNAs. The composition of these C/D box sRNA sets is highly variable between organisms and results in varying RNA modification patterns which are important for ribosomal RNA folding and stability. Little is known about the genomic organization of C/D box sRNA genes in archaea. Here, we aimed to obtain first insights into the biogenesis of these archaeal C/D box sRNAs and analyzed the genetic context of more than 300 archaeal sRNA genes. We found that the majority of these genes do not possess independent promoters but are rather located at positions that allow for co-transcription with neighboring genes and their start or stop codons were frequently incorporated into the conserved boxC and D motifs. The biogenesis of plasmid-encoded C/D box sRNA variants was analyzed in vivo in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. It was found that C/D box sRNA maturation occurs independent of their genetic context and relies solely on the presence of intact RNA kink-turn structures. The observed plasticity of C/D box sRNA biogenesis is suggested to enable their accelerated evolution and, consequently, allow for adjustments of the RNA modification landscape.

  10. Invariant box-parameterization of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, Thomas J.; Wagner, DJ

    1998-10-19

    The model-independent 'box' parameterization of neutrino oscillations is examined. The invariant boxes are the classical amplitudes of the individual oscillating terms. Being observables, the boxes are independent of the choice of parameterization of the mixing matrix. Emphasis is placed on the relations among the box parameters due to mixing-matrix unitarity, and on the reduction of the number of boxes to the minimum basis set. Using the box algebra, we show that CP-violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. General analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{>=}3 flavors can readily determine the boxes, which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements.

  11. Thermal stability of amorphous tungsten/tungsten nitride synthesis using HFCVD as a diffusion barrier for copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgary, Somayeh; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Boochani, Arash

    2016-05-01

    The amorphous W/WN bi-layer with excellent thermal stability was successfully prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method on SiO2/Si substrate. It was found that the W/WN bi-layer is technological importance because of its low resistivity and good diffusion barrier properties between Cu and Si up to 700 °C for 30 min. The thermal stability was evaluated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope. The XRD results show that the Cu3Si phase was formed by Cu diffusion through W/WN barrier for the 800 °C annealed sample. The formation of the Cu-Si compounds denotes the failure of the W/WN diffusion barrier with rapid increase in sheet resistance of the film. The microstructure of the interface between W/WN and Cu reflects the stability and breakdown of the barriers. The failure of this amorphous barrier occurs with heat treatment when the deposited amorphous barrier material crystallizes. The major part of Cu diffusion in polycrystalline structure with disordered grain boundaries is controlled by grain boundaries. AFM results indicated a rapid increase in surface roughness at the diffusion barrier failure temperature. It was found that the grain size plays an important factor to control the thermally stability of the W/WN bi-layer.

  12. Synthesis, characterization, solubility and stability studies of hydrate cocrystal of antitubercular Isoniazid with antioxidant and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashhadi, Syed Muddassir Ali; Yunus, Uzma; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Ahmed, Imtiaz; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Isoniazid is an important component used in "triple therapy" to combat tuberculosis. It has reduced Tabletting formulations stability. Anti-oxidants are obligatory to counter oxidative stress, pulmonary inflammation, and free radical burst from macrophages caused in tuberculosis and other diseases. In the present study a hydrate cocrystal of Isoniazid with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) in 1:1 is reported. This Cocrystal may have improved tabletting stability and anti-oxidant properties. Cocrystal structure analysis confirmed the existence of pyridine-carboxylic acid synthon in the Cocrystal. Other synthons of different graph sets involving Nsbnd H···O and Osbnd H···N bonds are formed between hydrazide group of isoniazid and coformer. Solubility studies revealed that cocrystal is less soluble as compared to isoniazid in buffer at pH 7.4 at 22 °C while stability studies at 80 °C for 24 h period disclosed the fact that cocrystal has higher stability than that of isoniazid.

  13. Versatile synthesis of PHMB-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their significant stimulating effect on fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Gusev, Alexander А; Kudrinsky, Alexey A; Zakharova, Olga V; Klimov, Alexey I; Zherebin, Pavel M; Lisichkin, George V; Vasyukova, Inna A; Denisov, Albert N; Krutyakov, Yurii A

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known bactericidal agents. However, information about the influence of AgNPs on the morphometric parameters and biochemical status of most important agricultural crops is limited. The present study reports the influence of AgNPs stabilized with cationic polymer polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) on growth, development, and biochemical status of fodder beet Beta vulgaris L. under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. PHMB-stabilized AgNPs were obtained via sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate in an aqueous solution. The average diameter of thus prepared AgNPs was 10 nm. It appears that the results of experiments with laboratory-grown beets in the nanosilver-containing medium, where germination of seeds and growth of roots were suppressed, do not correlate with the results of greenhouse experiments. The observed growth-stimulating action of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs can be explained by the change of activity of oxidases and, consequently, by the change of auxins amount in plant tissues. In beets grown in the presence of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs no negative deviations of biological parameters from normal values were registered. Furthermore, the SEM/EDS examination revealed no presence of silver in the tissues of the studied plants.

  14. A facile synthesis of aliphatic thiol surfactant with tunable length as a stabilizer of gold nanoparticles in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; El Khoury, Jouliana M; Qu, Liangti; Dai, Liming; Li, Quan

    2007-04-15

    Three new aliphatic thiol surfactants were synthesized by reacting alkyl bromide with hexamethyldisilathiane under a mild condition. This approach provides an easy access for the direct synthesis of various different length thiol surfactants which play a crucial role in tuning the properties of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles encapsulated with one of our synthetic thiols were prepared and well characterized by H NMR, UV-vis, FT-IR, and TEM. The hybrid nanoparticles are very stable in both organic solvents and the solid state.

  15. TtsI regulates symbiotic genes in Rhizobium species NGR234 by binding to tts boxes.

    PubMed

    Wassem, Roseli; Kobayashi, Hajime; Kambara, Kumiko; Le Quéré, Antoine; Walker, Graham C; Broughton, William J; Deakin, William J

    2008-05-01

    Infection of legumes by Rhizobium sp. NGR234 and subsequent development of nitrogen-fixing nodules are dependent on the coordinated actions of Nod factors, proteins secreted by a type III secretion system (T3SS) and modifications to surface polysaccharides. The production of these signal molecules is dependent on plant flavonoids which trigger a regulatory cascade controlled by the transcriptional activators NodD1, NodD2, SyrM2 and TtsI. TtsI is known to control the genes responsible for T3SS function and synthesis of a symbiotically important rhamnose-rich lipo-polysaccharide, most probably by binding to cis elements termed tts boxes. Eleven tts boxes were identified in the promoter regions of target genes on the symbiotic plasmid of NGR234. Expression profiles of lacZ fusions to these tts boxes showed that they are part of a TtsI-dependent regulon induced by plant-derived flavonoids. TtsI was purified and demonstrated to bind directly to two of these tts boxes. DNase I footprinting revealed that TtsI occupied not only the tts box consensus sequence, but also upstream and downstream regions in a concentration-dependent manner. Highly conserved bases of the consensus tts box were mutated and, although TtsI binding was still observed in vitro, gfp fusions were no longer transcribed in vivo. Random mutagenesis of a tts box-containing promoter revealed more nucleotides critical for transcriptional activity outside of the consensus.

  16. A comparative study of the effect of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a green chemistry method.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Nuñez, Gabriel Alonso; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the effect of different types of cyclodextrins (CDs) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) with α-, β-, or γ-CDs (aqueous solutions) as stabilizing agents, employing the chemical reduction method with citric acid as a reducing agent. A comparative study was done to determine which cyclodextrin (CD) was the best stabilizing agent, and we found out that β-CD was the best due to the number of glucopyranose units in its structure. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM-EDS showed the formation of a cluster with a significant amount of silver, for β-CD-Ag-NPs, spherical agglomerates can be observed. However, for α-, γ-CD, the agglomerates do not have a specific form, but their appearance is porous. TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ~0.5 to 7 nm. The clear lattice fringes in TEM images and the typical selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, showed that the Ag-NPs obtained were highly crystalline with a face cubic center structure (FCC).

  17. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Stability of Cubic Li7–xLa3Zr2–xBixO12

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Li oxide garnets are among the most promising candidates for solid-state electrolytes in novel Li ion and Li metal based battery concepts. Cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 stabilized by a partial substitution of Zr4+ by Bi5+ has not been the focus of research yet, despite the fact that Bi5+ would be a cost-effective alternative to other stabilizing cations such as Nb5+ and Ta5+. In this study, Li7–xLa3Zr2–xBixO12 (x = 0.10, 0.20, ..., 1.00) was prepared by a low-temperature solid-state synthesis route. The samples have been characterized by a rich portfolio of techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and 7Li NMR spectroscopy. Pure-phase cubic garnet samples were obtained for x ≥ 0.20. The introduction of Bi5+ leads to an increase in the unit-cell parameters. Samples are sensitive to air, which causes the formation of LiOH and Li2CO3 and the protonation of the garnet phase, leading to a further increase in the unit-cell parameters. The incorporation of Bi5+ on the octahedral 16a site was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. 7Li NMR spectroscopy shows that fast Li ion dynamics are only observed for samples with high Bi5+ contents. PMID:27934443

  18. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Stabilized with 3-Mercapto-1-Propansulfonate and 1-Thioglucose Mixed Thiols for Antibacterial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Porcaro, Francesco; Carlini, Laura; Ugolini, Andrea; Visaggio, Daniela; Visca, Paolo; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Venditti, Iole; Meneghini, Carlo; Simonelli, Laura; Marini, Carlo; Olszewski, Wojciech; Ramanan, Nitya; Luisetto, Igor; Battocchio, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization and assessment of the antibacterial properties of hydrophilic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated with the aim to probe their suitability for innovative applications in the field of nanobiotechnology. First, silver nanoparticles were synthetized and functionalized with two capping agents, namely 3-mercapto-1-propansulfonate (3MPS) and 1-β-thio-d-glucose (TG). The investigation of the structural and electronic properties of the nano-systems was carried out by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). XPS data provided information about the system stability and the interactions between the metallic surface and the organic ligands. In addition, XPS data allowed us to achieve a deep understanding of the influence of the thiols stoichiometric ratio on the electronic properties and stability of AgNPs. In order to shed light on the structural and electronic local properties at Ag atoms sites, XAS at Ag K-Edge was successfully applied; furthermore, the combination of Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and XAS results allowed determining AgNPs sizes, ranging between 3 and 13 nm. Finally, preliminary studies on the antibacterial properties of AgNPs showed promising results on four of six multidrug-resistant bacteria belonging to the ESKAPE group (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter sp.). PMID:28774148

  19. Posttranscriptional regulation of hsp70 expression in human cells: effects of heat shock, inhibition of protein synthesis, and adenovirus infection on translation and mRNA stability.

    PubMed Central

    Theodorakis, N G; Morimoto, R I

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the posttranscriptional regulation of hsp70 gene expression in two human cell lines, HeLa and 293 cells, which constitutively express high levels of HSP70. HSP70 mRNA translates with high efficiency in both control and heat-shocked cells. Therefore, heat shock is not required for the efficient translation of HSP70 mRNA. Rather, the main effect of heat shock on translation is to suppress the translatability of non-heat shock mRNAs. Heat shock, however, has a marked effect on the stability of HSP70 mRNA; in non-heat-shocked cells the half-life of HSP70 mRNA is approximately 50 min, and its stability increases at least 10-fold upon heat shock. Moreover, HSP70 mRNA is more stable in cells treated with protein synthesis inhibitors, suggesting that a heat shock-sensitive labile protein regulates its turnover. An additional effect on posttranscriptional regulation of hsp70 expression can be found in adenovirus-infected cells, in which HSP70 mRNA levels decline precipititously late during infection although hsp70 transcription continues unabated. Images PMID:3437893

  20. Effect of electronic and steric properties of 8-substituted quinolines in gold(III) complexes: Synthesis, electrochemistry, stability, interactions and antiproliferative studies.

    PubMed

    Casado-Sánchez, Antonio; Martín-Santos, Cecilia; Padrón, José M; Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; Navarro-Ranninger, Carmen; Alemán, José; Cabrera, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    In this work the synthesis and characterization of new gold(III) complexes with quinoline ligands are described. These complexes contain different steric and electronic properties of the donor atom at 8-position of the quinoline in order to modulate their stability and their biological activity. Their redox potential, stability in organic and aqueous solvents, and their biological activity in a panel of six different human tumor cell lines are also presented. In addition, interaction studies of the complexes with model biological molecules (pBR322 and L-acetyl-N-cysteine) were carried out, suggesting that their main target are proteins. From these studies, we have found that the gold(III) complex with an N-tosyl-8-aminoquinoline ligand is the most active complex in all the tumor cell lines, including the cisplatin resistant T-47D and WiDr cell lines. Moreover, this complex showed to be the most stable compound in DMSO and saline solution, even after several hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structured superparamagnetic nanoparticles for high performance mediator of magnetic fluid hyperthermia: synthesis, colloidal stability and biocompatibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thorat, N D; Otari, S V; Bohara, R A; Yadav, H M; Khot, V M; Salunkhe, A B; Phadatare, M R; Prasad, A I; Ningthoujam, R S; Pawar, S H

    2014-09-01

    Core-shell structures with magnetic core and metal/polymer shell provide a new opportunity for constructing highly efficient mediator for magnetic fluid hyperthermia. Herein, a facile method is described for the synthesis of superparamagnetic LSMO@Pluronic F127 core-shell nanoparticles. Initially, the surface of the LSMO nanoparticles is functionalized with oleic acid and the polymeric shell formation is achieved through hydrophobic interactions with oleic acid. Each step is optimized to get good dispersion and less aggregation. This methodology results into core-shell formation, of average diameter less than 40 nm, which was stable under physiological conditions. After making a core-shell formulation, a significant increase of specific absorption rate (up to 300%) has been achieved with variation of the magnetization (<20%). Furthermore, this high heating capacity can be maintained in various simulated physiological conditions. The observed specific absorption rate is almost higher than Fe3O4. MTT assay is used to evaluate the toxicity of bare and core-shell MNPs. The mechanism of cell death by necrosis and apoptosis is studied with sequential staining of acridine orange and ethidium bromide using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. The present work reports a facile method for the synthesis of core-shell structure which significantly improves SAR and biocompatibility of bare LSMO MNPs, indicating potential application for hyperthermia.

  2. Synthesis, anti-HIV activity, and metabolic stability of new alkenyldiarylmethane HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo-Liang; Hartman, Tracy L; Buckheit, Robert W; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Fanwick, Phillip E; Cushman, Mark

    2005-09-22

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs) are part of the combination therapy currently used to treat HIV infection. Based on analogy with known HIV-1 NNRT inhibitors, 18 novel alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) containing 5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl, 3-cyanophenyl, or 3-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylphenyl groups were synthesized and evaluated as HIV inhibitors. Their stabilities in rat plasma have also been investigated. Although introducing 5-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl or 3-fluoro-5-trifluoromethylphenyl groups into alkenyldiarylmethanes does not maintain the antiviral potency, the structural modification of alkenyldiarylmethanes with a 3-cyanophenyl substituent can be made without a large decrease in activity. The oxazolidinonyl group was introduced into the alkenyldiarylmethane framework and found to confer enhanced metabolic stability in rat plasma.

  3. Facile synthesis of NHC-stabilized Ni nanoparticles and their catalytic application in the Z-selective hydrogenation of alkynes.

    PubMed

    de Los Bernardos, Miriam Díaz; Pérez-Rodríguez, Sara; Gual, Aitor; Claver, Carmen; Godard, Cyril

    2017-07-11

    Well defined Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) stabilized with N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) have been synthesized through a new methodology involving the decarboxylation of a zwitterionic CO2 adduct. Their catalytic performance was tested in the partial hydrogenation of alkynes into (Z)-alkenes under very mild reaction conditions (50 °C and 5 bar H2 pressure), providing excellent activities and selectivities.

  4. Synthesis and Phase Stability of Scandia, Gadolinia, and Ytterbia Co-doped Zirconia for Thermal Barrier Coating Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi-Lian; Cui, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Shu-Qing; Yang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Chun; Cao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Scandia, gadolinia, and ytterbia co-doped zirconia (SGYZ) ceramic powder was synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and calcination processes for application in thermal barrier coatings to promote the durability of gas turbines. The ceramic powder was agglomerated and sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h, and the powder exhibited good flowability and apparent density to be suitable for plasma spraying process. The microstructure, morphology and phase stability of the powder and plasma-sprayed SGYZ coatings were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction. Thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed SGYZ coatings was measured. The results indicated that the SGYZ ceramic powder and the coating exhibit excellent stability to retain single non-transformable tetragonal zirconia even after high temperature (1400 °C) exposure for 500 h and do not undergo a tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transition upon cooling. Furthermore, the plasma-sprayed SGYZ coating also exhibits lower thermal conductivity than yttria stabilized zirconia coating currently used in gas turbine engine industry. SGYZ can be explored as a candidate material of ultra-high temperature thermal barrier coating for advanced gas turbine engines.

  5. An in silico analysis of T-box regulated genes and T-box evolution in prokaryotes, with emphasis on prediction of substrate specificity of transporters

    PubMed Central

    Wels, Michiel; Kormelink, Tom Groot; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Siezen, Roland J; Francke, Christof

    2008-01-01

    Background T-box anti-termination is an elegant and sensitive mechanism by which many bacteria maintain constant levels of amino acid-charged tRNAs. The amino acid specificity of the regulatory element is related to a so-called specifier codon and can in principle be used to guide the functional annotation of the genes controlled via the T-box anti-termination mechanism. Results Hidden Markov Models were defined to search the T-box regulatory element and were applied to all completed prokaryotic genomes. The vast majority of the genes found downstream of the retrieved elements encoded functionalities related to transport and synthesis of amino acids and the charging of tRNA. This is completely in line with findings reported in literature and with the proposed biological role of the regulatory element. For several species, the functional annotation of a large number of genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid transport could be improved significantly on basis of the amino acid specificity of the identified T-boxes. In addition, these annotations could be extrapolated to a larger number of orthologous systems in other species. Analysis of T-box distribution confirmed that the element is restricted predominantly to species of the phylum Firmicutes. Furthermore, it appeared that the distribution was highly species specific and that in the case of amino acid transport some boxes seemed to "pop-up" only recently. Conclusion We have demonstrated that the identification of the molecular specificity of a regulatory element can be of great help in solving notoriously difficult annotation issues, e.g. by defining the substrate specificity of genes encoding amino acid transporters on basis of the amino acid specificity of the regulatory T-box. Furthermore, our analysis of the species-dependency of the occurrence of specific T-boxes indicated that these regulatory elements propagate in a semi-independent way from the genes that they control. PMID:18625071

  6. New hot box solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiping; Hou Shuqin; Sha Yongling; Liu Zude

    1992-12-31

    At present, over 100,000 solar cookers are in service in China. Most of these are concentrating cookers, making use of reflectors to concentrate sunlight at the cooking area. These cookers offer higher efficiency, more power and shorter cooking times. Since 1975 the authors have researched solar energy applications and, specifically, solar cookers. The major work has been the development of design calculations, selection of structure and materials, and performance testing. This paper describes the testing of several collection surface structures and box structures.

  7. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  8. Thermohaline circulation and its box models simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyura, Kateryna; Polonsky, Alexander; Sannikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    cases of using linear and nonlinear seawater state equation. In the frame of four-box model it is shown that: 1) The occurrence of the thermohaline catastrophe, which is likely happened at Younger Dryas period or developed as Heinrich events in the past, is improbable in modern climate epoch. 2) Choice of nonlinear seawater equitation of state leads to stabilization of warm mode of THC, which corresponds to modern climate state. 3) Typical white noise in heat and freshwater fluxes leads to generation of multidecadal oscillations of volume transport. Time-scale of these oscillations coincides with Atlantic Multidecadal oscillation periodicity. So, it is shown that that recent climate is characterized by quasi-periodical stable multidecadal THC warm regime. Stocker, T. F., 2000: Past and future reorganisations in the climate system. Quat. Sci.Rev, Vol. 19, P.301-319. Clark U., 2002: The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change. Nature. Vol. 415, P.863-869. Rahmstorf S., 2002: Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120000 years. Nature. Vol. 419, P.207-214. Alley, R. B. & Clark, P. U., 1999: The deglaciation of the Northern Hemisphere: a global perspective. Annu.Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Vol. 27, P.149-182. Griffies S.M., Tziperman E., 1995: A linear thermohaline oscillator driven by stochastic atmospheric forcing. Journal of Climate. Vol. 8. P. 2440-2453.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of alkenyldiarylmethane HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that possess increased hydrolytic stability.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Matthew D; Deng, Bo-Liang; Hartman, Tracy L; Watson, Karen M; Buckheit, Robert W; Pannecouque, Christophe; Clercq, Erik De; Cushman, Mark

    2007-10-04

    Non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs), albeit not the mainstays of HIV/AIDS treatment, have become increasingly important in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to their unique mechanism of action. Several years ago our group identified the alkenyldiarylmethanes (ADAMs) as a potent and novel class of NNRTIs; however, the most active compounds were found to be metabolically unstable. Subsequent work has led to the synthesis of 33 analogues, with improved metabolic profiles, through the replacement of labile esters with various heterocycles, nitriles, and thioesters. As a result, a number of hydrolytically stable NNRTIs were identified with anti-HIV activity in the nanomolar concentration range. Furthermore, an improved pharmacophore model has been developed based on the new ADAM series, in which a salicylic acid-derived aryl ring is oriented cis to the side chain and the aryl ring that is trans to the side chain contains a hydrogen bond acceptor site within the plane of the ring.

  10. MicroRNA regulation of F-box proteins and its role in cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhao-Hui; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs, which play critical roles in cancer development by suppressing gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In general, oncogenic miRNAs are upregulated in cancer, while miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors are downregulated, leading to decreased expression of tumor suppressors and upregulated oncogene expression, respectively. F-box proteins function as the substrate-recognition components of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF)-ubiquitin ligase complex for the degradation of their protein targets by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Therefore F-box proteins and miRNAs both negatively regulate target gene expression post-transcriptionally. Since each miRNA is capable of fine-tuning the expression of multiple target genes, multiple F-box proteins may be suppressed by the same miRNA. Meanwhile, one F-box proteins could be regulated by several miRNAs in different cancer types. In this review, we will focus on miRNA-mediated downregulation of various F-box proteins, the resulting stabilization of F-box protein substrates and the impact of these processes on human malignancies. We provide insight into how the miRNA: F-box protein axis may regulate cancer progression and metastasis. We also consider the broader role of F-box proteins in the regulation of pathways that are independent of the ubiquitin ligase complex and how that impacts on oncogenesis. The area of miRNAs and the F-box proteins that they regulate in cancer is an emerging field and will inform new strategies in cancer treatment.

  11. Synthesis and Stability of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Using Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Tailored Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Gamot, Tanesh D; Bhattacharyya, Arup Ranjan; Sridhar, Tam; Beach, Fiona; Tabor, Rico F; Majumder, Mainak

    2017-10-03

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely known as an amphiphile having hydrophilic oxygen functionality and unoxidized graphitic patches as the hydrophobic domains. Exploiting this amphiphilicity, GO serves as a surfactant to stabilize oil-water interfaces. While there are numerous reports on GO as a surfactant, most of these reports concern oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, and there are very few on the formation of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. We prepared W/O emulsions using partially reduced graphene oxide (prGO) as a surfactant. The partial reduction introduces a subtle hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), which favors the formation of the W/O emulsion. The morphological features and rheological characteristics of the W/O emulsion with 75:25 water-to-oil ratio were investigated and analyzed in detail. The W/O emulsion was found to have polydispersity with wide range of droplet sizes varying between 2 to 500 μm. Using confocal microscopy, the role of parameters such as extent of reduction, continuous phase volume fraction and the concentration of GO on the stability, microstructure and variation of droplet size distribution of the W/O emulsion were carefully monitored. With prGO concentration as large as 0.05% (w/w), highly concentrated emulsion will form, and are stable up to 20 days from formation; destabilization occurred from sedimentation and subsequent coalescence as the partially reduced GO was limited by its dispersion ability in the oil-phase studied here. Understanding the mechanisms behind the transient stability will enable the development of novel emulsion compositions containing GO as a multifunctional additive.

  12. Towards Monodisperse Star-Shaped Ladder-Type Conjugated Systems: Design, Synthesis, Stabilized Blue Electroluminescence, and Amplified Spontaneous Emission.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Fang, Mei; Chang, Si-Ju; Huang, Jin-Jin; Chu, Shuang-Quan; Hu, Shan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-14

    A novel series of monodisperse star-shaped ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene)s, named as TrL-n (n=1-3), have been explored. Their thermal and electrochemical properties, fluorescence transients, photoluminescence quantum yields, density functional theory calculations, electroluminescence (EL) and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties have been systematically investigated to unravel the molecular design on optoelectronic properties. The resulting materials showed excellent structural perfection, free of chemical defects, and exhibited great thermal stability (Td : 404-418 °C and Tg : 147-184 °C) and amorphous glassy morphologies. Compared with their corresponding linear counterparts FL-m (m=1-3), TrL-n showed only little bathochromic shifts (5-12 nm) for the absorption maxima λmax in both solution and films. The star-shaped ladder-type compounds exhibited enhanced optical stability and suppressed low-energy emission. Their EL spectra exhibited excellent stability with increasing the driving voltage from 6 to 12 V. Moreover, superior low ASE thresholds were recorded for TrL-n compared with FL-m. Rather low ASE threshold (29 nJ per pulse or 1.60 μJ cm(-2) ) was recorded for TrL-3, demonstrating their promising potential as excellent gain media. This study provides a novel design concept to develop monodisperse star-shaped ladder-type materials with excellent structural perfection, which are vital for shedding light on exploring robust organic emitters for optoelectronic applications.

  13. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Deformity in the "Boxing Boys".

    PubMed

    Ferrence, Susan; Bendersky, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    The late Bronze Age wall painting the Boxing Boys (c. 17th-16th century BCE) was excavated in the ancient town of Akrotiri on the Greek island of Thera. This article considers a medical interpretation for the spinal-pelvic anomaly in the anatomy of one of the boys. The artist has depicted a combination of structural anatomical adjustments diagnostic of spondylolisthesis, a forward slippage of one of the lumbar vertebrae. The accurate portrayal of the surface appearance of this condition suggests that the artist painted directly from a live subject. Thus, the Boxing Boys mural may be the earliest visual record of a sports-induced injury. Although the meaning of the wall paintings is unclear, the wild goats (agrimia) on the adjoining walls simulate swayback as a reflection of the boy's torso deformity and share other features with the boxers, adding to the unifying characteristics of the room. The abnormal morphology appears to be the earliest achievement of transforming disease into aesthetic charm on a monumental scale.

  15. Stability of Fe,Al-bearing bridgmanite in the lower mantle and synthesis of pure Fe-bridgmanite.

    PubMed

    Ismailova, Leyla; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Cerantola, Valerio; McCammon, Catherine; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Bobrov, Andrei; Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Kupenko, Ilya; Hanfland, Michael; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali; Svitlyk, Volodymyr; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of Earth's mantle, as well as its dynamics and evolution, heavily depend on the phase composition of the region. On the basis of experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we demonstrate that Fe,Al-bearing bridgmanite (magnesium silicate perovskite) is stable to pressures over 120 GPa and temperatures above 3000 K. Ferric iron stabilizes Fe-rich bridgmanite such that we were able to synthesize pure iron bridgmanite at pressures between ~45 and 110 GPa. The compressibility of ferric iron-bearing bridgmanite is significantly different from any known bridgmanite, which has direct implications for the interpretation of seismic tomography data.

  16. Stability of Fe,Al-bearing bridgmanite in the lower mantle and synthesis of pure Fe-bridgmanite

    PubMed Central

    Ismailova, Leyla; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Cerantola, Valerio; McCammon, Catherine; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana; Bobrov, Andrei; Sinmyo, Ryosuke; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Glazyrin, Konstantin; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Kupenko, Ilya; Hanfland, Michael; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali; Svitlyk, Volodymyr; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    The physical and chemical properties of Earth’s mantle, as well as its dynamics and evolution, heavily depend on the phase composition of the region. On the basis of experiments in laser-heated diamond anvil cells, we demonstrate that Fe,Al-bearing bridgmanite (magnesium silicate perovskite) is stable to pressures over 120 GPa and temperatures above 3000 K. Ferric iron stabilizes Fe-rich bridgmanite such that we were able to synthesize pure iron bridgmanite at pressures between ~45 and 110 GPa. The compressibility of ferric iron–bearing bridgmanite is significantly different from any known bridgmanite, which has direct implications for the interpretation of seismic tomography data. PMID:27453945

  17. Photochemical green synthesis of calcium-alginate-stabilized Ag and Au nanoparticles and their catalytic application to 4-nitrophenol reduction.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sandip; Pal, Anjali; Kundu, Subrata; Basu, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2010-02-16

    Silver and gold nanoparticles have been grown on calcium alginate gel beads using a green photochemical approach. The gel served as both a reductant and a stabilizer. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses. The particles are spherical, crystalline, and the size ranges for both Ag and Au nanoparticles are <10 nm. It is noticed from the sorption experiment that the loading of gold on calcium alginate beads is much more compared to that of Ag. The effectiveness of the as-prepared dried alginate-stabilized Ag and Au nanoparticles as a solid phase heterogeneous catalyst has been evaluated, for the first time, on the well-known 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) reduction to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess borohydride. The reduction was very efficient and followed zero-order kinetics for both Ag and Au nanocomposites. The effects of borohydride, initial 4-NP concentration, and catalyst dose were evaluated. The catalyst efficiency was examined on the basis of turnover frequency (TOF) and recyclability. The catalytic efficiency of alginate-based Ag catalyst was much more compared to that of the Au catalyst. The as-prepared new solid-phase biopolymer-based catalysts are very efficient, stable, easy to prepare, eco-friendly, and cost-effective, and they have the potential for industrial applications.

  18. Enzymatic Synthesis of l-Ascorbyl Fatty Acid Esters Under Ultrasonic Irradiation and Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activity and Stability.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chen; Lu, Yuyun; Li, Zhuo; Li, Cunzhi; Yan, Rian

    2016-06-01

    A series of novel l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters were synthesized by catalization of Novozym(®) 435 under ultrasonic irradiation and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Their properties especially antioxidant activity and stability were investigated. The results showed that the reducing power, the scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical were decreased with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in fatty acid. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were better than that of tert-butylhydroquinone. The induction period in lipid oxidation of l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters and tert-butylhydroquinone were longer than that of l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters and l-ascorbic acid both in soybean oil and lard. Besides, the l-ascorbyl fatty acid esters showed different stabilities in different conditions by comparing with l-ascorbic acid, and the l-ascorbyl saturated fatty acid esters were more stable than l-ascorbyl unsaturated fatty acid esters in ethanol solution. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Synthesis and initial in vitro evaluations of novel antioxidant aroylhydrazone iron chelators with increased stability against plasma hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hruskova, Katerina; Kovarikova, Petra; Bendova, Petra; Haskova, Pavlina; Mackova, Eliska; Stariat, Jan; Vavrova, Anna; Vavrova, Katerina; Simunek, Tomas

    2011-03-21

    Oxidative stress is known to contribute to a number of cardiovascular pathologies. Free intracellular iron ions participate in the Fenton reaction and therefore substantially contribute to the formation of highly toxic hydroxyl radicals and cellular injury. Earlier work on the intracellular iron chelator salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) has demonstrated its considerable promise as an agent to protect the heart against oxidative injury both in vitro and in vivo. However, the major limitation of SIH is represented by its labile hydrazone bond that makes it prone to plasma hydrolysis. Hence, in order to improve the hydrazone bond stability, nine compounds were prepared by a substitution of salicylaldehyde by the respective methyl- and ethylketone with various electron donors or acceptors in the phenyl ring. All the synthesized aroylhydrazones displayed significant iron-chelating activities and eight chelators showed significantly higher stability in rabbit plasma than SIH. Furthermore, some of these chelators were observed to possess higher cytoprotective activities against oxidative injury and/or lower toxicity as compared to SIH. The results of the present study therefore indicate the possible applicability of several of these novel agents in the prevention and/or treatment of cardiovascular disorders with a known (or presumed) role of oxidative stress. In particular, the methylketone HAPI and nitro group-containing NHAPI merit further in vivo investigations.

  20. A Sr2+-metal-organic framework with high chemical stability: synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence property.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Wen-He; Zhang, Li-Zhu; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Bu, Xian-He

    2017-01-13

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are typically built by assembly of metal centres and organic linkers, and have emerged as promising crystalline materials in a variety of fields. However, the stability of MOFs is a key limitation for their practical applications. Herein, we report a novel Sr 2+: -MOF [Sr4(Tdada)2(H2O)3(DMF)2] (denoted as NKU- 105: , NKU = Nankai University; H4Tdada = 5,5'-((thiophene-2,5-dicar bonyl)bis(azanediyl))diisophthalic acid; DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) featuring an open square channel of about 6 Å along the c-axis. Notably, NKU- 105: exhibits much outstanding chemical stability against common organic solvents, boiling water, acids and bases, relative to most MOF materials. Furthermore, NKU- 105: is an environment-friendly luminescent material with a bright cyan emission.This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  1. Tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane salt of ramipril: synthesis, structural characterization from X-ray powder diffraction and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Abir; Chattopadhyay, Basab; Chakraborty, Santu; Roy, Bhairab N; Singh, Girij P; Godbole, Himangshu M; Rananaware, Umesh B; Mukherjee, Alok K

    2012-11-01

    Tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (tris) salt of API ramipril was synthesized, and characterized by FTIR, TG-DSC and ab initio X-ray powder structure analysis. The compound, ramipril-tris (II), crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1) with a=24.3341(15), b=6.4645(5), c=9.5357(7) Å, β=96.917(3)° and V=1489.1(3) Å(3). The crystal structure has been determined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data using direct space global optimization strategy (simulated annealing) followed by the Rietveld refinement. A network of intermolecular OH…O, CH…N and CH…O hydrogen bonds between the ramipril-ramipril, tris-tris and ramipril-tris components in the compound generates a two-dimensional molecular assembly in (110) plane. A comparative study of solid-state stabilities of ramipril-tris (II) with that of ramipril (I) and ramipril-erbumine (III) indicates that ramipril-tris (II) is the most stable one among the three, and the conversion to impurity D after 72 h at 80 °C is only 1.5%. The solution phase analysis at different pH values also reveals a greater stability of ramipril-tris (II) over ramipril (I). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The telomerase essential N-terminal domain promotes DNA synthesis by stabilizing short RNA–DNA hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Parks, Joseph W.; Stone, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repetitive DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes and consists of two main subunits: the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein and an associated telomerase RNA (TER). The telomerase essential N-terminal (TEN) domain is a conserved region of TERT proposed to mediate DNA substrate interactions. Here, we have employed single molecule telomerase binding assays to investigate the function of the TEN domain. Our results reveal telomeric DNA substrates bound to telomerase exhibit a dynamic equilibrium between two states: a docked conformation and an alternative conformation. The relative stabilities of the docked and alternative states correlate with the number of basepairs that can be formed between the DNA substrate and the RNA template, with more basepairing favoring the docked state. The docked state is further buttressed by the TEN domain and mutations within the TEN domain substantially alter the DNA substrate structural equilibrium. We propose a model in which the TEN domain stabilizes short RNA–DNA duplexes in the active site of the enzyme, promoting the docked state to augment telomerase processivity. PMID:25940626

  3. Template-Assisted Synthesis of Nickel Sulfide Nanowires: Tuning the Compositions for Supercapacitors with Improved Electrochemical Stability.

    PubMed

    Zang, Xiaoxian; Dai, Ziyang; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yizhou; Huang, Wei; Dong, Xiaochen

    2016-09-21

    Ni nanowires were first synthesized via a chemical method without surfactants or a magnetic field. A series of nickel sulfide nanowires (Ni3S2-Ni, Ni3S2-NiS-Ni, and Ni3S2-NiS) have been successfully prepared by a controlled sacrificial template route based on the conductive Ni nanowire template. Electrochemical characterizations indicate that Ni3S2-NiS nanowires present superior redox reactivity with a high specific capacitance of 1077.3 F g(-1) at 5 A g(-1). Besides, its specific capacitance can remain about 76.3% after 10 000 cycles at 20 A g(-1). On the contrary, the nickel-preserving sulfide nanowires (Ni3S2-Ni and Ni3S2-NiS-Ni) deliver enhanced cycling stability as 100% of the initial specific capacitance of Ni3S2-Ni is retained after 10 000 cycles. The outstanding electrochemical stability can be attributed to the interaction between nickel sulfides and the conductive nickel nanowires.

  4. Synthesis of silicon doped SrMO3 (M = Mn, Co): stabilization of the cubic perovskite and enhancement in conductivity.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Cathryn A; Slater, Peter R

    2011-05-28

    In this paper we report the successful incorporation of silicon into SrMO(3) (M = Co, Mn) leading to a structural change from a hexagonal to a cubic perovskite. For M = Co, the cubic phase was observed for low doping levels (3%), and these doped phases showed very high conductivities (up to ≈350 Scm(-1) at room temperature). However, annealing studies at intermediate temperatures (700-800 °C), indicated that the cubic phase was metastable with a gradual transformation to a hexagonal cell on annealing. Further work showed that co-doping with Fe resulted in improved stability of the cubic phase; a composition SrCo(0.85)Fe(0.1)Si(0.05)O(3-y) displayed good stability at intermediate temperatures and a high conductivity (≈150 Scm(-1) at room temperature). For M = Mn, the work showed that higher substitution levels were required to form the cubic perovskite (≈15% Si doping), although in these cases the phases were shown to be stable to annealing at intermediate temperatures. Conductivity measurements again showed an enhancement in the conductivity on Si doping, although the conductivities were lower (≈0.3-14 Scm(-1) in the range 20-800 °C) than the cobalt containing systems. The conductivities of both systems suggest potential for use as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with ionic liquids as stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiao-Di Chen, Hao; Liu, Shan-Shan; Ye, Li-Qun; Li, Yin-Ping

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with good dispersity have been synthesized via hydrothermal method. • Ionic liquid [C{sub 16}mim]Cl acts as stabilizer for the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have a saturation magnetization of 67.69 emu/g at 300 K. - Abstract: Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized under hydrothermal condition with the assistant of ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C{sub 16}mim]Cl). The structure and morphology of the sample have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and the results indicate that the as-synthesized inverse spinel Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have an average diameter of about 10 nm and exhibit relatively good dispersity. More importantly, it is found that [C{sub 16}mim]Cl acts as stabilizer for the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles by adsorbing on the particles surfaces to prevent the agglomeration. In addition, the obtained superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have a saturation magnetization of 67.69 emu/g at 300 K.

  6. Facile synthesis of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue nanocomposites for selective cesium removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Jang, Jiseon; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-09-01

    This work focused on the development of pectin-stabilized magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue (PSMGPB) nanocomposites for removal of cesium from wastewater. The PSMGPB nanocomposite showed an improved adsorption capacity of 1.609mmol/g for cesium, compared with magnetic graphene oxide Prussian blue, magnetic pectin Prussian blue, and magnetic Prussian blue nanocomposites, which exhibited adsorption capacities of 1.230, 0.901, and 0.330mmol/g, respectively. Increased adsorption capacity of PSMGPB nanocomposites was attributed to the pectin-stabilized separation of graphene oxide sheets and enhanced distribution of magnetites on the graphene oxide surface. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the effective separation of graphene oxide sheets due to the incorporation of pectin. The optimum temperature and pH for adsorption were 30°C and 7.0, respectively. A thermodynamic study indicated the spontaneous and the exothermic nature of cesium adsorption. Based on non-linear regression, the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experimental data better than the Freundlich and Tempkin models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide under microwave irradiation with starch as an ideal reductant and stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yujie; Luo, Zhimin; Yuwen, Lihui; Tian, Jing; Zhu, Xingrong; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-02-01

    A facile aqueous solution procedure has been developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) (RGO/Ag NPs) with starch as an ideal reductant and stabilizer in one pot under microwave irradiation. Graphene oxide and Ag(NH3)2+ were reduced simultaneously by starch in the process of forming Ag NPs. The size of Ag NPs decorated on the RGO sheets is about 20-50 nm and the average size of Ag NPs on RGO is 34 nm calculated by X-ray diffraction. RGO and RGO/Ag NPs prepared with starch show good stability in aqueous solution. With the decoration of Ag NPs on RGO, Raman intensity of RGO increased evidently. Antimicrobial activity of RGO/Ag NPs was investigated against the gram negative bacteria Pseudomonous aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of RGO/Ag NPs is 0.2 wt%. The antimicrobial activity of RGO/Ag NPs is stronger than Ag NPs because of the synergic effect of RGO and Ag NPs.

  8. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  9. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-09

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project.

  10. Duplex unwinding with DEAD-box proteins.

    PubMed

    Jankowsky, Eckhard; Putnam, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins, which comprise the largest helicase family, are involved in virtually all aspects of RNA metabolism. DEAD-box proteins catalyze diverse ATP-driven functions including the unwinding of RNA secondary structures. In contrast to many well-studied DNA and viral RNA helicases, DEAD-box proteins do not rely on translocation on one of the nucleic acid strands for duplex unwinding, but directly load onto helical regions and then locally pry the strands apart in an ATP-dependent fashion. In this chapter, we outline substrate design and unwinding protocols for DEAD-box proteins and focus on the quantitative evaluation of their unwinding activity.

  11. Subnanometer Control of Mean Core Size during Mesofluidic Synthesis of Small (D(core) < 10 nm) Water-Soluble, Ligand-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Edward W; Haben, Patrick M; Hutchison, James E

    2015-11-03

    A convenient, single-step synthesis is reported that produces ligand-stabilized, water-soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with subnanometer-level precision of the mean core diameter over a range of 2-9 nm for a series of desired surface chemistries. The synthesis involves the reduction of a Au(III) species with sodium borohydride in the presence of a functionalized alkyl thiosulfate (Bunte salt) to yield thiolate-protected AuNPs. A key advantage of this synthesis is that simply adjusting the pH of the gold salt solution leads to control over the AuNP core size. The speciation of Au(III), and therefore the kinetics for its reduction and the core size produced, depends upon pH. The use of pH as the sole variable to control core size is a more reliable and convenient method than traditional approaches that rely on adjusting the concentrations and ratios of ligand, metal salt, and reducing agent. The average core size increased as the pH was raised for each ligand studied. Because the influence of pH was different for each of the ligands, working curves were plotted for each ligand to identify conditions to synthesize particles with specific, targeted core diameters. Using this approach, reaction conditions can be rapidly optimized using a combination of a mesofluidic reactor and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) size analysis. The use of the mesofluidic reactor was needed to ensure fast mixing given the rapid kinetics for core formation. Using the reactor, it is possible to obtain reproducible sizes across multiple syntheses (<1-2% core size variation) and subnanometer control of the mean core dimensions. The synthetic method demonstrated here provides an attractive alternative to two-step syntheses involving ligand exchange because it is more efficient and eliminates the possibility of nanoparticle core size changes during exchange steps. This approach enables the development of "size ladders" of particles with the same surface chemistry for investigations of

  12. Synthesis and thermal stability studies of a series of metastable Dion-Jacobson double-layered neodymium-niobate perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josepha, Elisha A.; Farooq, Sara; Mitchell, Cinnamon M.; Wiley, John B.

    2014-08-01

    The Dion-Jacobson double-layered perovskite, RbNdNb2O7, is used as a precursor to synthesize the series ANdNb2O7 (A=H, Li, Na, K, NH4, Ag), and (MCl)NdNb2O7 (M=Mn, Fe, Cu) through ion-exchange reactions ≤400 °C. Thermal stability studies indicated that most of these compounds are metastable. A combination of X-ray powder diffraction and differential thermal analysis were used to determine various low temperature decomposition pathways; these pathways were very dependent on the interlayer species. Overall the ANdNb2O7 series was found to be less stable than the corresponding lanthanides, ALaNb2O7.

  13. Synthesis of boron-doped g-C3N4 with enhanced electro-catalytic activity and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suyun; Gao, Lina; Fan, Dongliang; Lv, Xiaomeng; Li, Yuan; Yan, Zaoxue

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we rationally designed 3D carbon nitride hierarchical architecture with an interconnected network of graphene-analogue nanosheets and doped with boron through co-condensation strategy. XPS spectra confirmed the incorporation of boron atoms in the polymeric g-C3N4, while X-ray diffraction and IR indicated the characteristic structural properties of pristine g-C3N4 and boron-doped g-C3N4 (Bx-GCN). The Bx-GCN shows promising electrocatalytic activity and stability in the reduction of p-nitrophenol according to cyclic voltammograms analysis. Additionally, the use of this metal-free, organic, semiconducting polymer as an electrocatalyst would open wide application of hybrid carbon nitride materials from both point view of economy and environment.

  14. Synthesis of a base-stabilized silanone-coordinated complex by oxygenation of a (silyl)(silylene)tungsten complex.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Takako; Abe, Keisuke; Haga, Youhei; Nakamura, Tomoko; Ueno, Keiji

    2011-10-05

    Base-stabilized silanone complex Cp*(OC)(2)W(SiMe(3)){O═SiMes(2)(DMAP)} (2) was synthesized by the reaction of (silyl)(silylene)tungsten complex Cp*(OC)(2)W(SiMe(3))(═SiMes(2)) (1) with 1 equiv of pyridine-N-oxide (PNO) in the presence of 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP). Further oxygenation of 2 with 3 equiv of PNO at 80 °C resulted in the formation of a W-O-Si-O-Si framework to give disiloxanoxy complex Cp*(O)(2)W{OSiMes(2)(OSiMe(3))} (3). Complex 3 was also obtained by the direct reaction of complex 1 with 4 equiv of PNO at 80 °C.

  15. Synthesis, thermal stability and reactivity towards 9-aminoellipticine of double-stranded oligonucleotides containing a true abasic site.

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J R; Vasseur, J J; Rayner, B; Imbach, J L; Paoletti, J; Paoletti, C; Malvy, C

    1989-01-01

    A 13 mers abasic oligonucleotide was synthetized. It was therefore possible to compare thermal stability and reactivity of duplex oligonucleotides either with an apurinic/apyrimidinic site or without any lesion. An important decrease in the melting temperature appeared for duplexes with an abasic site. The chemical reaction of these modified oligonucleotides with the intercalating agent 9-aminoellipticine was studied by gel electrophoresis and by fluorescence. The formation of a Schiff base between 9-aminoellipticine and abasic sites was rapid and complete with duplexes at 11 degrees C. Schiff base related fluorescence and beta-elimination cleavage were more important with the apyrimidinic sites than with the apurinic ones. When compared to previous results obtained with the model d(TprpT) some unexpected behaviours appeared with longer and duplex oligonucleotides. For instance only partial beta-elimination cleavage was observed. It is likely that stacking parameters in the double helix play a great role in the studied reaction. Images PMID:2602153

  16. 1,2-Hydroxypyridonate/Terephthalamide Complexes of Gadolinium(III): Synthesis, Stability, Relaxivity, and Water Exchange Properties

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Eric J.; Kozhukh, Julia; Botta, Mauro; Moore, Evan G.; Avedano, Stefano; Aime, Silvio; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Four new Gd(III) complexes based on the 1,2-hydroxypyridinone chelator have been synthesized and evaluated as potential MRI contrast agents. Previously reported work examining Gd-TREN-1,2-HOPO (3) suggests that the 1,2-HOPO unit binds strongly and selectively to Gd(III), encouraging further study of the stability and relaxivity properties of this class of compounds. Among the new complexes presented in this paper are the homopodal Gd-Ser-TREN-1,2-HOPO (Gd-5) and three heteropodal bis-1,2-HOPO-TAM complexes (Gd-6, Gd-7, and Gd-8). Conditional stability constants were determined and all pGd values are in the range of 18.5 − 19.7, comparable to other analogous HOPO complexes and currently used commercial contrast agents. Relaxivities for all complexes are about twice those of commercial agents, ranging from 7.8 − 10.5 mM−1s−1 (20 MHz; 25 °C), and suggest two inner-sphere water molecules in fast exchange. Luminescent measurements were used to verify the number of coordinated waters for Gd-5, and VT 17O NMR experiments were employed for the highly soluble Gd-TREN-bis-1,2-HOPO-TAM-N3 (Gd-8) complex to measure a fast water exchange rate, 298kex = 1/τM, of 5.1(±0.4) × 108 s−1 (298τM ∼ 2 ns). PMID:19032045

  17. Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase regulates its own synthesis by acting as a chaperone to stabilize GlnR-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Susan H; Wray, Lewis V

    2008-01-22

    The Bacillus subtilis GlnR repressor controls gene expression in response to nitrogen availability. Because all GlnR-regulated genes are expressed constitutively in mutants lacking glutamine synthetase (GS), GS is required for repression by GlnR. Feedback-inhibited GS (FBI-GS) was shown to activate GlnR DNA binding with an in vitro electophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The activation of GlnR DNA binding by GS in these experiments depended on the feedback inhibitor glutamine and did not occur with mutant GS proteins defective in regulating GlnR activity in vivo. Although stable GS-GlnR-DNA ternary complexes were not observed in the EMSA experiments, cross-linking experiments showed that a protein-protein interaction occurs between GlnR and FBI-GS. This interaction was reduced in the absence of the feedback inhibitor glutamine and with mutant GS proteins. Because FBI-GS significantly reduced the dissociation rate of the GlnR-DNA complexes, the stability of these complexes is enhanced by FBI-GS. These results argue that FBI-GS acts as a chaperone that activates GlnR DNA binding through a transient protein-protein interaction that stabilizes GlnR-DNA complexes. GS was shown to control the activity of the B. subtilis nitrogen transcription factor TnrA by forming a stable complex between FBI-GS and TnrA that inhibits TnrA DNA binding. Thus, B. subtilis GS is an enzyme with dual catalytic and regulatory functions that uses distinct mechanisms to control the activity of two different transcription factors.

  18. Structural Basis of Thermal Stability of the Tungsten Cofactor Synthesis Protein MoaB from Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Havarushka, Nastassia; Fischer-Schrader, Katrin; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Schwarz, Guenter

    2014-01-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten cofactors share a similar pterin-based scaffold, which hosts an ene-dithiolate function being essential for the coordination of either molybdenum or tungsten. The biosynthesis of both cofactors involves a multistep pathway, which ends with the activation of the metal binding pterin (MPT) by adenylylation before the respective metal is incorporated. In the hyperthermophilic organism Pyrococcus furiosus, the hexameric protein MoaB (PfuMoaB) has been shown to catalyse MPT-adenylylation. Here we determined the crystal structure of PfuMoaB at 2.5 Å resolution and identified key residues of α3-helix mediating hexamer formation. Given that PfuMoaB homologues from mesophilic organisms form trimers, we investigated the impact on PfuMoaB hexamerization on thermal stability and activity. Using structure-guided mutagenesis, we successfully disrupted the hexamer interface in PfuMoaB. The resulting PfuMoaB-H3 variant formed monomers, dimers and trimers as determined by size exclusion chromatography. Circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry confirmed a wild-type-like fold of the protomers as well as inter-subunits contacts. The melting temperature of PfuMoaB-H3 was found to be reduced by more than 15°C as determined by differential scanning calorimetry, thus demonstrating hexamerization as key determinant for PfuMoaB thermal stability. Remarkably, while a loss of activity at temperatures higher than 50°C was observed in the PfuMoaB-H3 variant, at lower temperatures, we determined a significantly increased catalytic activity. The latter suggests a gain in conformational flexibility caused by the disruption of the hexamerization interface. PMID:24465852

  19. Synthesis of the first chiral bidendate bis(trifluoromethyl)phosphane ligand through stabilization of the bis(trifluoromethyl)phosphanide anion in the presence of acetone.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Berthold; Thösen, Christoph; Pantenburg, Ingo

    2006-12-04

    Lewis acid/Lewis base adduct formation of the P(CF3)2- ion and acetone leads to a reduced negative hyperconjugation and, therefore, limits the C--F bond activation. The resulting increased thermal stability of the P(CF3)2- ion in the presence of acetone allows selective substitutions and enables the synthesis of the first example of a chiral, bidentate bis(trifluoromethyl)phosphane ligand: a DIOP derivative, [(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4,5-diyl)bis(methylene)]bis(diphenylphosphane), in which the phenyl groups at the phosphorus atoms are replaced by strong electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups. The resulting high electron-acceptor strength of the synthesized bidentate (CF3)2P ligand is demonstrated by a structural and vibrational study of the corresponding tetracarbonyl-molybdenum complex. The stabilization of the P(CF3)2- ion in the presence of acetone is based on the formation of a dynamic Lewis acid/Lewis base couple, (CF3)2PC(CH3)2O-. Although there is no spectroscopic evidence for the formation of the formulated alcoholate ion, the intermediate formation of (CF3)2PC(CH3)2O- could be proved through the reaction with (CF3)2PP(CF3)2, which yields the novel phosphane-phosphinite ligand (CF3)2PC(CH3)2OP(CF3)2. This ligand readily forms square-planar Pt(II) complexes upon treatment with solid PtCl2.

  20. Induction of human spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1) is regulated at the levels of new mRNA synthesis, mRNA stabilization and newly synthesized protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlin; Hacker, Amy; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Fleischer, Jennifer G; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2005-03-15

    The oxidation of polyamines induced by antitumour polyamine analogues has been associated with tumour response to specific agents. The human spermine oxidase, SMO(PAOh1), is one enzyme that may play a direct role in the cellular response to the antitumour polyamine analogues. In the present study, the induction of SMO(PAOh1) enzyme activity by CPENSpm [N1-ethyl-N11-(cyclopropyl)methyl-4,8,diazaundecane] is demonstrated to be a result of newly synthesized mRNA and protein. Inhibition of new RNA synthesis by actinomycin D inhibits both the appearance of SMO(PAOh1) mRNA and enzyme activity. Similarly, inhibition of newly synthesized protein with cycloheximide prevents analogue-induced enzyme activity. Half-life determinations indicate that stabilization of SMO(PAOh1) protein does not play a significant role in analogue-induced activity. However, half-life experiments using actinomycin D indicate that CPENSpm treatment not only increases mRNA expression, but also leads to a significant increase in mRNA half-life (17.1 and 8.8 h for CPENSpm-treated cells and control respectively). Using reporter constructs encompassing the SMO(PAOh1) promoter region, a 30-90% increase in transcription is observed after exposure to CPENSpm. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that analogue-induced expression of SMO(PAOh1) is a result of increased transcription and stabilization of SMO(PAOh1) mRNA, leading to increased protein production and enzyme activity. These data indicate that the major level of control of SMO(PAOh1) expression in response to polyamine analogues exposure is at the level of mRNA.

  1. Boxing and chronic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Stiller, J W; Weinberger, D R

    1985-06-01

    A chronic, and at times, progressive neurologic syndrome associated with boxing has been recognized for some time by boxing fans and people involved with the sport. Since Martland's first description of the syndrome in 1929, there has been only one randomly selected study of ex-boxers, that of Roberts, which showed a 17 per cent prevalence of this syndrome among boxers who fought between 1929 and 1955. This syndrome can be progressive but often is not. Furthermore, the extent of occupational exposure is probably a significant risk factor. Because of this, it would be expected that the prevalance of the syndrome in the modern boxer, as well as the amateur, would be significantly less than during the first half of the century, and, indeed, several studies appear to support this. Recent studies provide evidence that brain damage does exist in modern boxers and suggests that "subclinical" brain damage is likely to be more prevalent than obvious clinical dysfunction. There is clearly a discrepancy between subclinical evidence of neurologic involvement (for example, an abnormal CT scan) and signs of clinical neurologic dysfunction (for example, clinical exam and neuropsychological testing). The latter tend to show less frequent and consistent evidence of brain damage in boxers than does the CT scan. Although it is tempting to assume that an abnormal CT scan presages the development of neurologic dysfunction, it is not clear that this is the case. The prevalence of the syndrome, risk for progression to functional deficit, warning signs, and the natural history cannot be defined at this time. The only way to better define these parameters would be a controlled prospective study, which has yet to be undertaken.

  2. Myc-Max heterodimers activate a DEAD box gene and interact with multiple E box-related sites in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Grandori, C; Mac, J; Siëbelt, F; Ayer, D E; Eisenman, R N

    1996-01-01

    The c-Myc protein is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis though heterodimerization with Max to form a transcriptionally active sequence-specific DNA binding complex. By means of sequential immunoprecipitation of chromatin using anti-Max and anti-Myc antibodies, we have identified a Myc-regulated gene and genomic sites occupied by Myc-Max in vivo. Four of 27 sites recovered by this procedure corresponded to the highest affinity 'canonical' CACGTG sequence. However, the most common in vivo binding sites belonged to the group of 'non-canonical' E box-related binding sites previously identified by in vitro selection. Several of the genomic fragments isolated contained transcribed sequences, including one, MrDb, encoding an evolutionarily conserved RNA helicase of the DEAD box family. The corresponding mRNA was induced following activation of a Myc-estrogen receptor fusion protein (Myc-ER) in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor, consistent with this helicase gene being a direct target of Myc-Max. In addition, as for c-Myc, the expression of MrDb is induced upon proliferative stimulation of primary human fibroblasts as well as B cells and down-regulated during terminal differentiation of HL60 leukemia cells. Our results indicate that Myc-Max heterodimers interact in vivo with a specific set of E box-related DNA sequences and that Myc is likely to activate multiple target genes including a highly conserved DEAD box protein. Therefore, Myc may exert its effects on cell behavior through proteins that affect RNA structure and metabolism. Images PMID:8861962

  3. Metallogel templated synthesis and stabilization of silver-particles and its application in catalytic reduction of nitro-arene.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Sarma, Plaban Jyoti; Goswami, Manash Jyoti; Bania, Kusum K

    2017-03-15

    Metallogel of iron-carboxylates was obtained from trans-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid in dimethylformamide (DMF) at basic condition. Spectroscopic and SEM morphology study of the iron-metallogel revealed that the iron complex with dicarboxylic acid was linked together via carboxylates and led to a supramolecular helical like architecture. The synthesized metallogel served as an excellent template for in-situ reduction of silver ion to silver particles micro to nano scale range. Variation of AgNO3 concentration shepherd to change the morphology of the Ag-particles. AgNO3 concentration was found to affect the shape and size of silver particles. On going from lower to higher concentration shape of silver particles changed from spherical to large agglomerated particles. Cubic shape Ag-particles were found on treatment of 0.05M AgNO3 solution with metallogel. Cubical shape silver particles were found to be effective catalyst for nitro-arene reduction in presence of NaBH4. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to rationalize the role of Ag-particles in catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Based on DFT study, we proposed that catalytic reduction occurred via Ag-hydride complex formation. Since metallogels as well as the 4-aminophenol are finding large application in pharmaceuticals industries therefore the current work can provide an alternatives path in production of 4-aminophenols. In addition to this, the synthesis of Ag-nanomaterials using metallogel as template can pave a new direction in the development of nanotechnology and might find wide applications in catalytic industrial processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. H3PW12O40 Encapsulation by Nanoporous Metal Organic Framework HKUST-1: Synthesis, Characterization, Activity and Stability.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Nobakht, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite material was obtained through encapsulation of H3PW12O40 (PW) into HKUST-1 (Cu3(BTC)2, BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid), in molar composition of 5 Cu(NO3)2 · 3H2O/2.8 BTC/0.3 PW/0.6 CTAB by adding solutions of PW and copper salts to mixture of BTC and surfactant. The catalyst was characterized by various techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), laser particle size analyzer, Brunauer Emmett-Teller (BET). The acidity of the catalyst was measured by a potentiometric titration with n-butylamine and PW/HKUST-1 presented very strong acidic sites with Ei > 100 mV. This nano catalyst was successfully used for the synthesis of various β-keto enol ethers at 45 °C with 51-98% yield after 5-75 min. The catalyst was easily recycled and reused at least four times without significant loss of its activity (94% yield after forth run). The presence of the PW in PW/HKUST-1 and reused PW/HKUST-1 structure, eliminating any doubt about collapse of the HKUST-1 after catalytic reaction and can be followed by FT-IR, XRD and SEM techniques. Brönsted and Lewis acidity of the PW/HKUST-1 catalyst was distinguished by studying the FT-IR and determined by chemisorption of pyridine. The strength and dispersion of the protons on PW/HKUST-1 was considerably high and active surface protons became more available for reactant.

  5. Nonequilibrium Catalyst Materials Stabilized by the Aerogel Effect: Solvent Free and Continuous Synthesis of Gamma-Alumina with Hierarchical Porosity.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Kay; Bahnmüller, Ulrich; Schachtschneider, Andreas; Frei, Maren; Li, Wenyu; Schmedt Auf der Günne, Jörn; Polarz, Sebastian

    2017-04-05

    Heterogeneous catalysis can be understood as a phenomenon which strongly relies on the occurrence of thermodynamically less favorable surface motifs like defects or high-energy planes. Because it is very difficult to control such parameters, an interesting approach is to explore metastable polymorphs of the respective solids. The latter is not an easy task as well because the emergence of polymorphs is dictated by kinetic control and materials with high surface area are required. Further, an inherent problem is that high temperatures required for many catalytic reactions can also induce the transformation to the thermodynamically stable modification. Alumina (Al2O3) was selected for the current study as it exists not only in the stable α-form but also as the metastable γ-polymorph. Kinetic control was realized by combining an aerosol-based synthesis approach and a highly reactive, volatile precursor (AlMe3). Monolithic flakes of Al2O3 with a highly porous, hierarchical structure (micro-, meso-, and macropores connected to each other) resemble so-called aerogels, which are normally known only from wet sol-gel routes. Monolothic aerogel flakes can be separated from the gas phase without supercritical drying, which in principle allows for a continuous preparation of the materials. Process parameters can be adjusted so the material is composed exclusively of the desired γ-modification. The γ-Al2O3 aerogels were much more stable than they should be, and even after extended (80 h) high-temperature (1200 °C) treatment only an insignificant part has converted to the thermodynamically stable α-phase. The latter phenomenon was assigned to the extraordinary thermal insulation properties of aerogels. Finally, the material was tested concerning the catalytic dehydration of 1-hexanol. Comparison to other Al2O3 materials with the same surface area demonstrates that the γ-Al2O3 are superior in activity and selectivity regarding the formation of the desired product 1-hexene.

  6. High surface area synthesis, electrochemical activity, and stability of tungsten carbide supported Pt during oxygen reduction in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhina, H.; Campbell, S.; Kesler, O.

    The oxidation of carbon catalyst supports to carbon dioxide gas leads to degradation in catalyst performance over time in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The electrochemical stability of Pt supported on tungsten carbide has been evaluated on a carbon-based gas diffusion layer (GDL) at 80 °C and compared to that of HiSpec 4000™ Pt/Vulcan XC-72R in 0.5 M H 2SO 4. Due to other electrochemical processes occurring on the GDL, detailed studies were also performed on a gold mesh substrate. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was measured both before and after accelerated oxidation cycles between +0.6 V and +1.8 V vs. RHE. Tafel plots show that the ORR activity remained high even after accelerated oxidation tests for Pt/tungsten carbide, while the ORR activity was extremely poor after accelerated oxidation tests for HiSpec 4000™. In order to make high surface area tungsten carbide, three synthesis routes were investigated. Magnetron sputtering of tungsten on carbon was found to be the most promising route, but needs further optimization.

  7. pH-regulative synthesis of Na3(VPO4)2F3 nanoflowers and their improved Na cycling stability

    DOE PAGES

    Qi, Yuruo; Mu, Linqin; Zhao, Junmei; ...

    2016-04-08

    Na-ion batteries are becoming increasingly attractive as a low cost energy storage device. Sodium vanadium fluorophosphates have been studied extensively recently due to their high storage capacity and high discharge voltage. Shape and size often have a crucial influence over the properties. The controlling synthesis of nanoparticles with special microstructures is significant, which becomes a challenging issue and has drawn considerable attention. In this study, Na3(VPO4)2F3 nanoflowers have been synthesized via a pH-regulative low-temperature (120 °C) hydro-thermal route. In particular, it is a green route without any organic compounds involved. The hydro-thermal reaction time for the formation of Na3(VPO4)2F3 nanoflowersmore » has also been investigated. A weak acid environment (pH = 2.60) with the possible presence of hydrogen fluoride molecules is necessary for the formation of the desired nanoflower microstructures. Moreover, compared to the nanoparticles obtained by Na2HPO4·12H2O, the as-synthesized Na3(VPO4)2F3 nanoflowers showed an excellent Na-storage performance in terms of superior cycle stability, even without any further carbon coating or high-temperature treatment.« less

  8. New synthesis of a high molecular weight ligand derived from dota; thermodynamic stability of the MRI contrast agent formed with gadolinium.

    PubMed

    Pierrard, Jean-Claude; Rimbault, Jean; Aplincourt, Michel; Le Greneur, Soizic; Port, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The new total synthesis in four steps of the compound P1041 is reported. This compound is a high molecular mass ligand (MW 6.32 kDa) derived from dota in which the four substituents are hydroxylated and contain amidic groups. The attribution of the nine protonation constants of P1041 is based on the comparison with the behaviour of the precursor ligands dota and tced, a tetracarboxylated derivative of dota. From these results, the studies of the systems P1041/Na(+) and P1041/Gd(3+) lead to the determination of the stability constants corresponding to the three species Na(P1041)H(h) (h = 0, 2 or 4) and to the five complexes Gd(P1041)H(h) (h = 0, 2, 3, 4 or 5). The complexing ability of P1041 towards Gd(3+) is compared with those of dota and tced. At physiological pH = 7.4, the very stable species Gd(P1041)H(4) (-) (currently named P792 in the literature) of this rapid clearance blood pool agent is predominant. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Facile synthesis of near infrared fluorescent trypsin-stabilized Ag nanoclusters with tunable emission for 1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and ethanol sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyu; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Zhen; Liu, Hongguang

    2015-07-30

    A facile chemical synthetic route was developed to prepare near-infrared fluorescent trypsin-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (Try-Ag NCs). The fluorescence emission wavelength of the produced Try-Ag NCs is tunable by simple adjusting pH value of the synthesis system, and the Try-Ag NCs offer a symmetric fluorescent excitation and emission peak. The fluorescence of Try-Ag NCs remains constant in the presence of various ions and molecules, and it can be effectively quenched by 1,4-dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) instead of its oxidized forms nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). This property enables the Try-Ag NCs to be a novel analytical platform to monitor biological reaction involved with NADH. In this work, the Try-Ag NCs was also applied to analyze ethanol based on the generation of NADH which was the product of NAD(+) and ethanol in the catalysis of alcohol dehydrogenase. And the proposed platform allowed ethanol to be determined in the range from 10 to 300 μmol/L with 5 μmol/L detection limit.

  10. Enhanced oxidation stability of quasi core-shell alloyed CdSeS quantum dots prepared through aqueous microwave synthesis technique.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Hong-Ju; Zhou, Pei-Jiang; Ma, Rong; Liu, Xi-Jing; He, Yu-Ning; Zhou, Chuan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Quasi core shell alloyed CdSeS quantum dots (QDs) have been prepared through a facile aqueous-phase route employing microwave irradiation technique. The optical spectroscopy and structure characterization evidenced the quasi core shell alloyed structures of CdSeS QDs. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained CdSeS QDs displayed peak positions very close to those of bulk cubic CdS crystal structures and the result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data re-confirmed the thick CdS shell on the CdSe core. The TEM images and HRTEM images of the CdSeS QDs ascertained the well-defined spherical particles and a relatively narrow size distribution. On the basis, the stability of the obtained QDs in an oxidative environment was also discussed using etching reaction by H2O2. The experiments result showed the as-prepared QDs present high tolerance towards H2O2, obviously superior to the commonly used CdTe QDs and core-shell CdTe/CdS QDs, which was attributed to the unique quasi core-shell CdSeS crystal structure and the small lattice mismatch between CdSe and CdS semiconductor materials. This assay provided insight to obtain high stable crystal structured semiconductor nanocrystals in the design and synthesis process.

  11. Toward new organometallic architectures: synthesis of carbene-centered rhodium and palladium bisphosphine complexes. stability and reactivity of [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] pincers.

    PubMed

    Plikhta, Andriy; Pöthig, Alexander; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Rieger, Bernhard

    2015-10-05

    In this article, we report the synthesis of a tridentate carbene-centered bisphosphine ligand precursor and its complexes. The developed four-step synthetic strategy of a new PC(BIm)P pincer ligand represents the derivatization of benzimidazole in the first and third positions by (diphenylphosphoryl)methylene synthone, followed by phosphine deprotection and subsequent insertion of a noncoordinating anion. The obtained ligand precursor undergoes complexation, with PdCl2 and [μ-OCH3Rh(COD)]2 smoothly forming the target organometallics [PC(BIm)PPdCl][PF6] and [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] under mild hydrogenation conditions. A more detailed study of the rhodium complexes [PC(BIm)PRh(L)][PF6] reveals significant thermal stability of the PC(BIm)PRh moiety in the solid state as well as in solution. The chemical behavior of 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphinomethylene)benzimidazol-2-ylrhodium acetonitrile hexafluorophosphate has been screened under decarbonylation, hydrogenation, and hydroboration reaction conditions. Thus, the PC(BIm)PRh(I) complex is a sufficiently stable compound, with the potential to be applied in catalysis.

  12. PINE Discovery Box, 101 Stimulating Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual is intended for use with the PINE (Projects in Imaginative Nature Education) discovery box in elementary school conservation education. The box contains 21 natural specimens which can serve as the starting point for simple student investigations. Specimens and activities are keyed for grade level. For each item, background information…

  13. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…

  14. BLS: Box-fitting Least Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.; Zucker, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2016-07-01

    BLS (Box-fitting Least Squares) is a box-fitting algorithm that analyzes stellar photometric time series to search for periodic transits of extrasolar planets. It searches for signals characterized by a periodic alternation between two discrete levels, with much less time spent at the lower level.

  15. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the...

  16. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the...

  17. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  18. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the...

  19. Magnetorotational dynamo action in the shearing box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disc plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale non-zero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. In agreement with this picture, the cases when the dynamo is efficient are characterized by a strong intermittency of the local azimuthal magnetic fluxes.

  20. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…